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Sample records for salvaje poecilia reticulata

  1. Toxicological Response of Poecilia reticulata, Hyla species and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    response of Poecilia reticulata, Hyla and Culex species was investigated using acute and chronic toxicity tests. ... responses over a 28 day period. .... sample. A control with only de-chlorinated tap water ..... landfills using luminescent bacteria.

  2. Food and Feeding Habits of the Guppy, Poecilia reticulata , from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The food and feeding habits of the Guppy, Poecilia reticulata, from drainage canal systems in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria, was investigated over a period of 24 months. Fish samples were collected monthly from 15 study sites. A total of 2400 fish stomachs were analyzed using the numerical and frequency of occurrence ...

  3. Influence of GAMMA radiation on morphological changes of Poecilia reticulata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, K.; Cigankova, V.; Dvorak, P.; Hromada, R.

    2006-01-01

    In our experiment were followed histological changes after gamma-irradiation with dose of 30 Gy in Poecilia reticulata. After radiation shyness and lethargy were observed. The most prominent clinical symptoms observed were emaciation, hampered breathing, ex ophthalmia and hemorrhages. The histological picture found were adequate to these symptoms. The enteritic villi compared with controls were relatively low. Enterocytes taking part on resorption processes were damaged and desquamated on some sites, and the number of microvilli was reduced on their surface. As our earlier findings on rats revealed, the decrease in number of microvilli designates malfunctioning intestinal resorption, which can lead to emaciation. (authors)

  4. Experience-Dependent Color Constancy in Guppies (Poecilia reticulata

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    I. E. Intskirveli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the ability to recognize the color of surfaces in fish (Poecilia reticulata, bred from birth in conditions of artificial light with constant spectral content. The capacity for color constancy significantly deteriorated when compared that to the control group. Further alteration of lighting conditions and transfer into natural daylight conditions restored the suppressed function to its normal level. We suggest that the color constancy function belongs in the visual system-response functions, the full development of which requires the accumulation of individual visual experience.

  5. Nitrite toxicity assessment in Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata

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    Petra Doleželová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrite is a natural component of the nitrogen cycle in the environment. Although it usually occurs in low concentrations, elevated concentrations caused by effluents or affected nitrification process can lead to serious health deterioration of fish. Two aquarium fish zebrafish (Danio rerio and guppy (Poecilia reticulata are recommended to use as model organisms in toxicity tests. However, their sensitivity to nitrite can differ. The aim of this study was to define acute toxicity of nitrite by the semistatic method according to OECD No. 203 (Fish, Acute toxicity test. The series of 4 acute toxicity tests was performed, with 10 fish of both species used for each concentration and for the control. The 96hLC50 NO2- value for D. rerio and P. reticulata was 242.55 ± 15.79 mg·l-1 and 30.2 ± 8.74 mg·l-1, respectively. We have proved significant difference (p D. rerio and P. reticulata. The results showed different sensitivities to nitrites in tested fish species, which could be related to species-specific branchial chloride uptake mechanism. This is the first study on this fish species.

  6. Sequencing and characterization of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata transcriptome

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    Rodd F Helen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next-generation sequencing is providing researchers with a relatively fast and affordable option for developing genomic resources for organisms that are not among the traditional genetic models. Here we present a de novo assembly of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata transcriptome using 454 sequence reads, and we evaluate potential uses of this transcriptome, including detection of sex-specific transcripts and deployment as a reference for gene expression analysis in guppies and a related species. Guppies have been model organisms in ecology, evolutionary biology, and animal behaviour for over 100 years. An annotated transcriptome and other genomic tools will facilitate understanding the genetic and molecular bases of adaptation and variation in a vertebrate species with a uniquely well known natural history. Results We generated approximately 336 Mbp of mRNA sequence data from male brain, male body, female brain, and female body. The resulting 1,162,670 reads assembled into 54,921 contigs, creating a reference transcriptome for the guppy with an average read depth of 28×. We annotated nearly 40% of this reference transcriptome by searching protein and gene ontology databases. Using this annotated transcriptome database, we identified candidate genes of interest to the guppy research community, putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and male-specific expressed genes. We also showed that our reference transcriptome can be used for RNA-sequencing-based analysis of differential gene expression. We identified transcripts that, in juveniles, are regulated differently in the presence and absence of an important predator, Rivulus hartii, including two genes implicated in stress response. For each sample in the RNA-seq study, >50% of high-quality reads mapped to unique sequences in the reference database with high confidence. In addition, we evaluated the use of the guppy reference transcriptome for gene expression analyses in

  7. HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN POECILIA RETICULATA AFTER INTERACTION OF IONIZING RADIATION AND ZINC SULFID

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    Michaela Špalková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In our experiment we have studied interaction of ionizing radiation and zinc at Poecilia reticulata. Fish were irradiated with a 20 Gy of gamma-rays. Zinc sulphate in concentration 25 mg.l-1 was added to water in aquarium. Food intake, clinicl symptoms and histological changes were followed after gamma-irradiation and zinc sulfid in guppy Poecilia reticulata. In the first days timidity and lethargy were observed. The most prominent clinical symptoms observed were emaciation, hampered breathing and haemorrhages. Histological findings corresponded with these symptoms.doi:10.5219/228

  8. USE OF THE JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES) AND GUPPY (POECILIA RETICULATA) IN CARCINOGENESIS TESTING UNDER NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM PROTOCOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    that are economical, sensitive, and scientifically acceptable. Among small fish models, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is preeminent for investigating effects of carcinogenic and/or toxic waterborne hazards to humans. The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), although less widely u...

  9. Acute toxicity of trichlorofon on four viviparous fish: Poecilia latipinna, Poecilia reticulata, Gambusia holbrooki and Xiphophorus helleri (Cyprinodontiformes: Poecilidae

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    Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine toxicity and safety margins of trichlorofon in different species as trichlorofon toxicity has a large variation in the susceptibility of different species. Methods: In this research, four viviparous aquarium fish were exposed to trichlorofon for 96 h. LC50 of 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h were attained by probit analysis software SPSS Version 16. Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of trichlorofon (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/L for 96 h and mortality were recorded, separately. Results: The 96 h LC50 of Poecilia latipinna, Poecilia reticulata, Gambusia holbrooki and Xiphophorus helleri were 9.80, 9.80, 9.95 and 7.99 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: According to the results of this research, LC50 values indicated Xiphophorus helleri was the most resistant and Gambusia holbrooki, with a few differences, was the most sensitive species compared with the fishes examined.

  10. Pengaruh ukuran tubuh ikan Poecilia reticulata pada daya pemangsaannya terhadap larva Culex quinquefasciatus

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    Noer Moehammadi

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to know the influence of poecilia reticulata body size, in the feeding capacity on Culex quinquifasciatus larvae. The research was experimental method with Complete Random Design., each treatment with 5 replications. The taken body size of Poecilia reticulata were; 1,50 cm; 2.50 cm; and 3.50 cm. the size of fish €™s body was measured from the tip of snout up to the end of fin (cm. The feeding capacity was determined by subtracting the first amount of larvae which was given the rest of larvae after 24 hours. The result showed that the difference of size of Poecilia reticulate body was significantly different in the feeding capacity on Culex quinquifasciatus larvae. The fish whose body size was 1.50 cm had the lowest feeding capacity by eating 77.2 larvae for average, and the highest one was the fist which body size was 2.50 cm by eating 113.6 larvae for average, subsequently the feeding capacity decrease to the fish which body size was 3.50 cm because of eating 100,6 larvae for 24 hours.

  11. Effect of Temperature on Reproduction and Sex Ratio of Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters)

    OpenAIRE

    H. Arfah; S. Mariam; . Alimuddin

    2007-01-01

    Water temperature could affect the reproduction of broodstock and sex ratio of progeny.  In this study, broodstock of guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters) was reared in different temperature to determine its effect on reproduction of broodstock and sex ratio of their progeny. The result of study show that broodstock reared at 27°C produced more fry (16 males mean) than that of 30°C (10 males), while broodstock reared at 33°C produced no progeny.  Percentage of male fish produced by broodstock r...

  12. Effect of Temperature on Reproduction and Sex Ratio of Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters

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    H. Arfah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Water temperature could affect the reproduction of broodstock and sex ratio of progeny.  In this study, broodstock of guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters was reared in different temperature to determine its effect on reproduction of broodstock and sex ratio of their progeny. The result of study show that broodstock reared at 27°C produced more fry (16 males mean than that of 30°C (10 males, while broodstock reared at 33°C produced no progeny.  Percentage of male fish produced by broodstock reared at 30°C is higher than that of 27°C.  Incubation time of embryo before birth is sorter in broodstock reared at 30°C (4-12 days compared with 27°C (18-22 days.  However, several progeny of broodstock reared at 30°C had abnormal vertebrae. Keywords: guppy, Poecilia reticulata, sex reversal, reproduction, monosex   ABSTRAK Suhu air inkubasi diduga dapat mempengaruhi reproduksi induk ikan dan nisbah kelamin keturunannya.  Pada penelitian ini, induk ikan gapi (Poecilia reticulata Peters dipelihara pada suhu 27°C, 30°C dan suhu 33°C untuk mengetahui pengaruhnya terhadap reproduksi dan rasio kelamin keturunannya.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa induk ikan gapi yang dipelihara pada suhu 27°C menghasilkan anak lebih banyak (rata-rata 16 ekor daripada di suhu 30°C (10 ekor, sementara induk gagal melahirkan pada suhu pemeliharaan 33°C. Proporsi anak jantan yang dihasilkan oleh induk yang dipelihara pada suhu 30°C lebih banyak dibandingkan pada suhu 27°C.  Waktu inkubasi embrio sebelum dilahirkan oleh induk yang dipelihara pada suhu 30°C lebih singkat, yaitu 4-12 hari, dibandingkan pada  suhu 27°C, 18-22 hari.  Namun demikian beberapa anak ikan yang lahir dari induk yang dipelihara pada suhu suhu 30°C mengalami abnormalitas pada bagian tulang belakangnya.  Kata kunci: ikan gapi, Poecilia reticulata, sex reversal, reproduksi, monoseks

  13. Experimental study to evaluate the pathogenicity of Streptococcus iniae in Guppy (Poecilia reticulata

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    Milad Adel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae has emerged as an important fish pathogen over the last decade in farmed rainbow trout in Iran. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenicity of S. iniae in Poecilia reticulata. Atotal of 60 apparently healthy P. reticulata were obtained from ornamental fish pet store and injected intraperitoneally with 1.5×106 cfu of bacteria. For 14 days after challenge, the rate of mortality and clinical signs were recorded. The first clinical signs was observed in challenged fish 48 hrs after injection of S. iniae and first mortality was observed 72 hrs after injection. No significant differences in mortality and clinical signs between both sexes were observed. Streptococcus iniae was collected from internal organs of fishes challenged, and was confirmed using the conventional biochemical tests and PCR. It is concluded that, P. reticulata is susceptible to streptococcosis and can play an important role in transmission of the disease to other ornamental fish species and also cultured fish.

  14. Accumulation of dieldrin in an alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), Daphnia magna, and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Robert E.

    1972-01-01

    Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Poecilia reticulata accumulated dieldrin directly from water; average concentration factors (concentration in organism, dry weight, divided by concentration in water) were 1282 for the alga, 13,954 for D. magna, and 49,307 (estimated) for the guppy. The amount accumulated by each species at equilibrium (after about 1.5, 3-4, and 18 days, respectively) was directly proportional to the concentration of dieldrin in the water. Daphnia magna and guppies accumulated more dieldrin from water than from food that had been exposed to similar concentrations in water. When guppies were fed equal daily rations of D. magna containing different concentrations of insecticide, the amounts of dieldrin accumulated by the fish were directly proportional to the concentration in D. magna; when two lots of guppies were fed different quantities of D. magna (10 and 20 organisms per day) containing identical concentrations of dieldrin, however, the amounts accumulated did not differ substantially.

  15. The acute toxicity of clove oil to fish Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata

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    Petra Doleželová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clove oil (active substance eugenol is an anaesthetic used in aquaculture for stress prevention and prevention of mechanical damage during veterinary procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of clove oil in two aquarium fish species - zebrafish (Danio rerio and guppy (Poecilia reticulata, which are considered the most commonly used model organisms in toxicity testing. The semi-static method according to OECD no. 203 (Fish, Acute toxicity test was used for testing the toxicity of clove oil for juvenile fish. A series of 5 acute toxicity tests was performed, with 10 fish of both species used for each concentration and for the control. The results obtained (number of dead individuals at particular test concentrations were subjected to a probit analysis using the EKO-TOX 5.2 program in order to determine 96hLC50 clove oil values. The significance of the difference between 96hLC50 values in D. rerio and P. reticulata was tested using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test. The 96hLC50 mean value for clove oil was 18.2 ± 5.52 mg·l–1 in juvenile D. rerio and 21.7 ± 0.8 mg·l–1 in P. reticulata. In spite of variability in clove oil composition, acute toxicity values of clove oil for juvenile stages of both fish species were comparable. The results did not show different sensitivities to clove oil in tested fish species. This is the first similar study in these fish species.

  16. Sexual characteristics of male guppies Poecilia reticulata serve as effect biomarkers of estrogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Fei; Gao, Su; Ru, Shaoguo

    2017-10-01

    Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are considered a candidate model species for the identification and testing of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Male guppies may be used to address the challenge of making potential linkages between alterations of biomarkers, both at the cellular and organ level, and adverse outcomes. In the present study, a predictive relationship between sex characteristics and reproductive output was observed in male guppies that underwent a long-term toxicity test with 0.5 μg/L 17β-estradiol administered during the juvenile period. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that 17β-estradiol exposure caused a significant increase in testicular 17β-estradiol levels as well as the induction of exposure biomarkers, namely hepatic vitellogenin. Exposure to 17β-estradiol also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently reduced the gonadosomatic index, sperm counts, and the coloration index. These changes of male sexual characteristics further translated into adverse influences on reproduction, as measured by a decrease in off spring production and survival rate. Our results suggest that the above-mentioned sexual characteristics of male guppies may be considered potential in vivo biomarkers of estrogen effects on reproduction.

  17. IDENTIFICATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF POTENTIAL PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM POECILIA RETICULATA (GUPPY

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    Aparna Balakrishna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic activities against candidate indicator strains, adhesion to mucus and biofilm formation of potential probiotic strains isolated from Poecilia reticulata were evaluated. Four isolated strains (MBTU_PB1, MBTU_PB2, MBTU_PB3 and MBTU_PB4 showed moderate to strong antagonistic activities against the tested five indicator strains (Aeromonas hydrophila1739, Vibrio cholera 3906, Flavobacterium 2495, Acinetobacter 1271 and Alcaligenes 1424 and these isolates were further identified using biochemical tests and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Except the whole cell product, the other three cellular components, namely, heat-killed whole cell product, intracellular product and extracellular product of all the four selected isolates were equally effective, as revealed by the zone of inhibitions to the tested indicator strains. The in vitro adhesion property or the ability of colonization is often considered as a selection criteria for probiotics. All the selected four strains had higher adhesion abilities than the indicator strains. Further, these four strains had the ability to form biofilms on polystyrene surfaces. The in vitro characterization of these four strains suggests possibility of using the isolates, as individual strain or in combination, for probiotic therapy in aquaculture.

  18. Intraspecific ecomorphological variations in Poecilia reticulata (Actinopterygii, Cyprinodontiformes: comparing populations of distinct environments

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    Fábio T. Mise

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Morphological variations, according to the principles of ecomorphology, can be related to different aspects of the organism way of life, such as occupation of habitats and feeding behavior. The present study sought to examine the intraspecific variation in two populations of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859, that occur in two types of environments, a lotic (Maringá Stream and a lentic (Jaboti Lake. Due to a marked sexual dimorphism, males and females were analyzed separately. Thus, the proposed hypotheses were that the populations that occur in distinct environments present morphological differences. The morphological variables were obtained using morphometric measurements and the ecomorphological indexes. The data were summarized in a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (Manova was made to verify significant differences in morphology between the populations. Males and females showed similar ecomorphological patterns according to the environment they occur. In general the population from Maringá Stream had fins with major areas, and the Jaboti Lake population eyes located more dorsally. Additionally, others morphological differences such as wider mouth of the males from Maringá Stream, wider heads on Jaboti Lake females and more protractible mouths on males from Jaboti Lake suggest a set of environmental variables that can possibly influence the ecomorphological patterns of the populations, as the water current, availability of food resources and predation. In summary, the initial hypotheses could be confirmed, evidencing the occurrence of distinct ecomorphotypes in the same species according to the environment type.

  19. Clinical Symptoms and Histological Changes in Poecilia reticulata following Gamma-Ray Irradiation

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    K. Beňová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lethality, food intake, clinical symptoms and terminal histological changes were followed after gamma-irradiation with doses of 10, 20, 30, 35 and 40 Gy in guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Clinical symptoms, food intake and longevity were also monitored in the progeny of fish irradiated with a dose of 10 Gy. In the first days after irradiation timidity and lethargy were observed. After doses of 30, 35 and 40 Gy, these symptoms were accompanied with anorexia. The most prominent clinical symptoms observed were emaciation, hampered breathing, exophthalmia and haemorrhages. Histological findings corresponded with these symptoms. In the fish irradiated with 10 or 20 Gy the progeny survived, after a dose of 30 Gy the progeny died within 24 hours after birth and after doses of 35 and 40 Gy dead progeny was born. The survival data provide an estimate of LD50/30 equal to 29 Gy. Higher relative mortality and more severe clinical symptoms were observed in females. The progeny of irradiated parent fish grew and survived for 3 months maximum.

  20. Cultivo de Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poecilidae en cuerpos de agua tropicales,Veracruz,México

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    Patricia Devezé Murillo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los peces ornamentales cultivados se han popularizado como mascotas,generando una demanda local que no se ha podido cubrir con la producción de México y por lo tanto deben importarse.Poecilia reticulata "guppy ",es un pez muy popular en el ámbito acuarístico,hoy en día se ha logrado desarrollar una gran cantidad de variedades según su coloración,tipo y forma de cola.Son peces vivíparos que toleran un ámbito extremo de temperatura,siendo la más adecuada entre 25ºC y 28ºC.El tiempo que tardan las hembras en expulsar a las crías una vez que quedan preñadas,oscila entre los 25 y 30 días dependiendo de la temperatura.En esta investigación,el ciclo reproductivo completo se desarrolló en jaulas flotantes,en una laguna tropical situada en la Llanura Costera del Golfo Sur, Veracruz, México.Se diseñó la infraestructura necesaria para producir guppys (P.reticulata incluyendo el manejo de reproductores,crianza,engorda,alimentación y comercialización,evaluando su factibilidad técnica y financiera.Se realizó un estudio de mercado,a través de una encuesta aplicada a los propietarios de los 22 acuarios existentes en la Ciudad de Veracruz,México.Se analizaron las frecuencias de oferta y demanda de cada especie con respecto a la temporada del año,lugar de origen y resistencia al manejo.Las características hidrobiológicas presentaron valores medios de temperatura (31.4ºC,oxígeno disuelto (4.5 mgl-1y pH (6.8.Con los datos obtenidos en campo se realizó un modelo para producción de P.reticulata ,obteniendo una relación beneficio/costo=1.16,correspondiente al ingreso mínimo potencial con una ganancia bruta de US$257.67, proporcionando empleo a dos personas El aprovechamiento de cuerpos de agua en regiones tropicales a través de la producción de peces de ornato representa una alternativa para disminuir la presión sobre las poblaciones silvestres y las tierras de cultivo,proporcionar fuentes de empleo e incrementar los ingresos para

  1. Reasons for the invasive success of a guppy (Poecilia reticulata population in Trinidad.

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    Caya Sievers

    Full Text Available The introduction of non-native species into new habitats poses a major threat to native populations. Of particular interest, though often overlooked, are introductions of populations that are not fully reproductively isolated from native individuals and can hybridize with them. To address this important topic we used different approaches in a multi-pronged study, combining the effects of mate choice, shoaling behaviour and genetics. Here we present evidence that behavioural traits such as shoaling and mate choice can promote population mixing if individuals do not distinguish between native and foreign conspecifics. We examined this in the context of two guppy (Poecilia reticulata populations that have been subject to an introduction and subsequent population mixing event in Trinidad. The introduction of Guanapo River guppies into the Turure River more than 50 years ago led to a marked reduction of the original genotype. In our experiments, female guppies did not distinguish between shoaling partners when given the choice between native and foreign individuals. Introduced fish are therefore likely to benefit from the protection of a shoal and will improve their survival chances as a result. The additional finding that male guppies do not discriminate between females on the basis of origin will further increase the process of population mixing, especially if males encounter mixed shoals. In a mesocosm experiment, in which the native and foreign populations were allowed to mate freely, we found, as expected on the basis of these behavioural interactions, that the distribution of offspring genotypes could be predicted from the proportions of the two types of founding fish. This result suggests that stochastic and environmental processes have reinforced the biological ones to bring about the genetic dominance of the invading population in the Turure River. Re-sampling the Turure for genetic analysis using SNP markers confirmed the population mixing

  2. Spatial discounting of food and social rewards in guppies (Poecilia reticulata

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    Nelly eMühlhoff

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In temporal discounting, animals trade off the time to obtain a reward against the quality of a reward, choosing between a smaller reward available sooner versus a larger reward available later. Similar discounting can apply over space, when animals choose between smaller and closer versus larger and more distant rewards. Most studies of temporal and spatial discounting in nonhuman animals use food as the reward, and it is not established whether animals trade off other preferred stimuli in similar ways. Here, we offered female guppies (Poecilia reticulata a spatial discounting task in which we measured preferences for a larger reward as the distance to it increased relative to a closer but smaller reward. We tested whether the fish discounted reward types differently by offering subjects either food items or same-sex conspecifics as rewards. Before beginning the discounting tasks, we conducted validation tests to ensure that subjects equally valued the food and social stimuli in the quantities provided. In the discounting task, subjects switched their preferences from the larger to the smaller reward as the distance to the larger reward increased (spatial discounting, but the pattern and magnitude of discounting did not differ across the two reward types. These findings indicate that guppies show similar patterns of discounting food and social rewards in a spatial task. In an analysis of travel times, however, the fish swam faster to food rewards than to shoaling partners. This difference in travel times implies that fish temporally discounted social rewards less steeply than food rewards. Thus, reward type influences temporal discounting, suggesting a dissociation between temporal and spatial discounting. Our results illustrate how animals adjust choices and travel times depending on both the type of cost (time, distance and benefits (food, social partners.

  3. Efficacy of garlic based treatments against monogenean parasites infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata (Peters)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, S; Sinai, T; Zilberg, D

    2014-06-16

    Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a well-known spice which also possesses anti-microbial and anti-parasitical properties. The current work aimed to test the efficacy of garlic-based treatments against infection with monogenean sp. in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Clipped sections of tail fins of guppies heavily infected with Gyrodactylus turnbulli were exposed to aqueous garlic extract (7.5 to 30 mL L(-1)) and visually observed under a dissecting microscope. Results revealed that exposure to garlic caused detachment of parasite and cessation of movement indicating death. A positive correlation was seen between garlic concentration and time to detachment and death of parasites, which, at the highest concentration of 30 mL L(-1), occurred at 4.1 and 8.6 min, respectively. Bathing in aqueous garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) was tested in guppies infected with G. turnbulli. Prior acute toxicity tests revealed the maximum tolerance levels of guppies to garlic extract to be 12.5 mL L(-1) for 1h. Bathing of infected fish in garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) significantly (pgarlic powder-supplemented diet were tested on guppies infected with G. turnbulli and Dactylogyrus sp. Fish were fed with food containing 10% and 20% dry garlic powder for 14 days. Groups fed with garlic supplemented diets showed significantly reduced (pgarlic did not appear to affect palatability. Fresh crushed garlic was added at a level of 1 gL(-1) and applied as an indefinite bath for 14 days. This treatment was seen to significantly reduce (pgarlic-fed group, as compared to control. These findings demonstrate the potential of garlic as a natural alternative to currently used chemical treatments for monogenean sp. infection in the guppy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutritional Evaluation of Raw Materials Entering the Structure to Mixed Fodder for the Specie Poecilia reticulata (Guppy

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    Adrian Gruber

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the ornamental pisciculture is a especial emphasis on the exterior shape and color to the fishes, issues that are dependent directly to the structure of compound feeds in relation to the nutritional characteristics of the raw materials.Own research or focused on analyzing the crude chemical composition with Weende scheme (water content and dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, SEN of raw materials can be used in the structure of a compound feeds for the Poecilia reticulata (guppy species, for most of these materials there are no current data in the literature.These materials were analyzed: gelatin, wheat flour, sunflower meal, soybean meal, meal Spirulina platensis, carrot (Daucus carota, Pangasius fillet, Daphnia pulex, grount dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, grount nettle (Urtica dioica and yeast.

  5. CONTROL DEMONSTRATION OF THE RICEFIELD BREEDING MOSQUITO ANOPHELES ACONITUS DONITZ IN CENTRAL JAVA, USING POECILIA RETICULATA THROUGH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION : 3. FIELD TRIAL AND EVALUATION

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    Sustriayu Nalim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Suatu penelitian dilakukan untuk menjajagi kemungkinan menggunakan minapadi sebagai cara pemberantasan nyamuk Anopheles aconitus. Minapadi dilakukan dengan ikan Cyprinus carpio. Dengan tersedianya air di sawah untuk ikan, ikan pemakan jentik Poecilia Reticulata yang ditebarkan dapat hidup pula. Penebaran dilakukan oleh masyarakat. Hasil Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa melalui minapadi yaitu dengan penebaran, ikan P. reticulata pada kepadatan 2 ekor /m2, populasi An. aconitus selama 5 tahun dapat diturunkan sebanyak 99,7% dan S.P.R. malaria sebanyak 98.8%. [1] Regency Health Service, Banjarnegara Regency, Central Java.

  6. CONTROL DEMONSTRATION OF THE RICEFIELD BREEDING MOSQUITO ANOPHELES ACONITUS DONITZ IN CENTRAL JAVA, USING; POECILIA RETICULATA THROUGH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION : 1. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND CONCEPT

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    Sustriayu Nalim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian dilakukan untuk menjajagi cara memberantas vektor malaria Anopheles aconitus di sawah dengan ikan pemakan jentik Poecilia reticulata. Dalam penelitian ini terlihat bahwa dalam pelaksanaan program pemberantasan ini, partisipasi petani untuk mina padi dapat digalakkan melalui rapat kelompok tani. Program mina padi menye­diakan tempat hidup bagi ikan pemakan jentik. Rencana pelaksanaan program ini serta cara penggalakan   petani dibicarakan dalam makalah ini.

  7. The utility of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) in evaluation of chemicals for carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, Grace E; Bernheim, Naomi J; Hawkins, William E; Wolfe, Marilyn J; Jokinen, Micheal P; Smith, Cynthia S; Herbert, Ronald A; Boorman, Gary A

    2006-07-01

    There has been considerable interest in the use of small fish models for detecting potential environmental carcinogens. In this study, both guppies (Poecilia reticulata) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed in the aquaria water to three known rodent carcinogens for up to 16 months. Nitromethane, which caused mammary gland tumors by inhalation exposure in female rats, harderian gland and lung tumors in male and female mice, and liver tumors in female mice by inhalation, failed to increase tumors in either guppies or medaka. Propanediol, which when given in the feed was a multisite carcinogen in both sexes of rats and mice, caused increased liver tumors in male guppies and male medaka. There was reduced survival in female guppies and no increased tumors in female medaka. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane, which when administered by oral gavage was a multisite carcinogen in both sexes of rats and mice, caused an increased incidence of tumors in the liver of both male and female guppies and medaka and in the gallbladder of male and female medaka. The results of this study demonstrate that for these three chemicals, under these specific exposure conditions, the fish appear less sensitive and have a narrower spectrum of tissues affected than rodents. These results suggest that fish models are of limited utility in screening unknown chemicals for potential carcinogenicity.

  8. Effects of Gamma-Irradiation on Microbial Contamination and on Histological Changes of Muscle in Poecilia reticulata

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    Katarína Beňová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the effect of gamma-irradiation on the microbial skin and organ contamination and on the histological changes of fish skeletal musculature. The aquarium fish Poecilia reticulata were exposed to the radiation effect of 60Co at the doses of 20 and 30 Gy (11.36 Gy/min. Frequent intravital haemorrhages were observed from day 8 after the exposure. A general long-term body fading appeared from day 10 to day 30 of the experiment. Microbiological and histological examinations were done on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. Individual muscle cells were bound together into fascicles surrounded by connective tissue. No significant morphological changes were observed on skeletal muscle cells, except for more watery connective tissue. The presence of Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila was proved in the body surface samples and in aquarium water based on the microbiological test. A moderate increase of the number of E. coli and A. hydrophila was observed in the intestines in both exposed groups (20 and 30 Gy depending on the time that elapsed from the exposure (from 1 × 101 to 6 × 103 CFU. However, the heart, liver and musculature remained sterile. No microbial contamination of musculature was found for the intravital ionizing radiation dose of 30 Gy even for the single specimen killed on day 28 from the exposure.

  9. Effects of waterborne zinc on reproduction, survival and morphometrics of Gyrodactylus turnbulli (Monogenea) on guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, Cristina; Cable, Joanne; Marcogliese, David J; Scott, Marilyn E

    2007-03-01

    Recent reviews indicate that pollutants in the surrounding macroenvironment directly influence the population dynamics, distribution and dispersal of fish ectoparasites, often leading to increased parasitism. The aim of the current study was to explore the effects of sublethal concentrations of waterborne zinc (up to 240 microg Zn/L) on survival, reproduction and morphometrics of Gyrodactylus turnbulli, a viviparous monogenean infecting the skin and fins of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Parasite survival and reproduction on the fish were recorded daily for individual parasites maintained in isolated containers. Both survival and reproduction were reduced in 30 and 120 microg Zn/L, compared with 0, 15, and 60 microg Zn/L indicating direct toxic effects of Zn on the parasite. However, as generation time was unaffected by Zn, we attribute the reduced reproduction to the shorter lifespan. Parasite survival off the fish was monitored hourly. Average lifespan of the detached parasites decreased linearly from 19.5 h in 0 microg Zn/L to 17.3h in 240 microg Zn/L, further supporting the direct toxic effect of Zn to the parasite. In addition, temporal dynamics of parasite morphometrics were monitored from mini-epidemics sampled after 1, 5, 10, and 15 days exposure to various Zn concentrations. All morphological parameters decreased significantly in response both to concentration and duration of exposure to waterborne Zn. Together these data clearly indicate that concentrations as low as 120 microg Zn/L are directly toxic to G. turnbulli.

  10. The agricultural contaminant 17β-trenbolone disrupts male-male competition in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Patrick; Saaristo, Minna; Bertram, Michael G; Tomkins, Raymond B; Allinson, Mayumi; Wong, Bob B M

    2017-11-01

    Despite a growing literature highlighting the potential impact of human-induced environmental change on mechanisms of sexual selection, relatively little is known about the effects of chemical pollutants on male-male competition. One class of environmental pollutant likely to impact male competitive interactions is the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), a large and heterogeneous group of chemical contaminants with the potential to influence morphology, physiology and behaviour at minute concentrations. One EDC of increasing concern is the synthetic, androgenic steroid 17β-trenbolone, which is used globally to promote growth in beef cattle. Although 17β-trenbolone has been found to cause severe morphological and behavioural abnormalities in fish, its potential impact on male-male competition has yet to be investigated. To address this, we exposed wild male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to an environmentally realistic concentration of 17β-trenbolone (average measured concentration: 8 ng/L) for 21 days using a flow-through system. We found that, in the presence of a competitor, 17β-trenbolone-exposed males carried out more frequent aggressive behaviours towards rival males than did unexposed males, as well as performing less courting behaviour and more sneak (i.e., coercive) mating attempts towards females. Considering that, by influencing mating outcomes, male-male competition has important consequences for population dynamics and broader evolutionary processes, this study highlights the need for greater understanding of the potential impact of EDCs on the mechanisms of sexual selection. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Distribution of guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1860 and Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868 along a polluted stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil

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    FG. Araújo

    Full Text Available Cyprinodontiformes fishes (guppies are widely distributed in Neotropical regions and use deteriorated microhabitats in rivers where few species can occur. This study was carried out in a stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River in bracketing a large urban-industrial complex. The aim was to assess eventual effects that the industrial complex could have on distribution of two closely related fish species of guppies, Phalloceros caudimaculatus and Poecilia reticulata. The area was divided into three zones: Z1, 40 km upriver of the major urban-industrial complex of Volta Redonda; Z2, just down river of the complex; and Z3, 30 km down river of the complex. Six sites (two in each zone were sampled monthly between November 1998 and October 1999, using a standardized fishing effort with cast net throws, trays lifts and seine hauls, covering different microhabitats, that is, riffles, pools and the proximity of the river's margins. Poecilia reticulata was widely distributed, peaking at Z2, the most polluted area, while P. caudimaculatus showed the highest abundance at Z3, being almost absent in Z1. Both species occurred in high numbers throughout the year but they were scarce between April and June. Females outnumbered males for both species in most size classes and at all sites. Juveniles were more abundant than adults, with non-pregnant females outnumbering pregnant ones. Condition factor was always higher in males than females but only males P. reticulata showed significant difference among the three zones, with the highest values at Z2. The higher number of females confirms the expectation that these species can use very polluted areas and that availability of food provided by organic loads allowed their distribution all over the area. Although these two species have shown indication of spatial separation in the study area, their similar seasonal patterns of occurrence suggest that they respond in a similar way to changes in environmental conditions.

  12. CONTROL DEMONSTRATION OF THE RICEFIELD BREEDING MOSQUITO ANOPHELES ACONITUS DONITZ IN CENTRAL JAVA, USING POECILIA RETICULATA THROUGH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION: 2. CULTURING, DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF FISH IN THE FIELD

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    Sustriayu Nalim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Suatu percobaan pemberantasan vektor malaria Anopheles aconitus dengan penyebaran ikan pema­kan jentik Poecilia reticulata di sawah telah dilakukan. Untuk memacu peran serta petani, penyebaran ikan P. reticulata dilakukan bersamaan dengan minapadi di mana ikan Cyprinus carpio dipelihara di sawah. Beberapa aspek yang diteliti dalam percobaan ini adalah (1 biologi jentik An. aconitus dan ikan dan (2 cara-cara berkembangbiaknya ikan. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penyebaran An. aconitus di sawah pada umumnya 1/2 — 1 meter dari tepi pematang sawah, daya makan ikan P. reticulata rata rata adalah 119,4 jentik/hari, daya reproduksi rata-rata ikan P. reticulata adalah 109,3 ikan/bulan, daya produksi ikan C. carpio berkisar antara 5000 — 10.000 telur/3 bulan tergantung pada umur ikan betina. Kepadatan ikan P. reticulata 2 ikan/m2 dapat menanggulangi populasi jentik di sawah.

  13. Evaluation of guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters) immunization against Tetrahymena sp. by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Galit; Nath, Pulak R; Isakov, Noah; Zilberg, Dina

    2014-09-15

    Analysis of the effectiveness of guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters) immunization based on measurements of antibody (Ab) titers suffers from a shortage of reagents that can detect guppy antibodies (Abs). To overcome this problem, we immunized mice with different preparations of guppy immunoglobulins (Igs) and used the mouse antisera to develop a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The most efficient immunogen for mouse immunization was guppy Igs adsorbed on protein A/G beads. Antisera from mice boosted with this immunoglobulin (Ig) preparation were highly specific and contained high Ab titers. They immunoreacted in a Western blot with Ig heavy and light chains from guppy serum, and Ig heavy chain from guppy whole-body homogenate. The mouse anti-guppy Ig was applied in an ELISA aimed at comparing the efficiency of different routes of guppy immunization against Tetrahymena: (i) anal intubation with sonicated Tetrahymena (40,000 Tetrahymena/fish in a total volume of 10 μL) mixed with domperidon, deoxycholic acid and free amino acids (valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and tryptophan), or (ii) intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of sonicated Tetrahymena in complete Freund's adjuvant (15,000 Tetrahymena/fish in total a volume of 20 μL). Negative control fish were anally intubated with the intubation mixture without Tetrahymena, or untreated. ELISA measurement of anti-Tetrahymena Ab titer revealed a significantly higher level of Abs in i.p.-immunized guppies, compared to the anally intubated and control fish. In addition, the efficiency of immunization was tested by monitoring guppy mortality following (i) i.p. challenge with Tetrahymena (900 Tetrahymena/fish) or (ii) cold stress followed by immersion in water containing 10,000 Tetrahymena/mL. Fish mortality on day 14 post-Tetrahymena infection by i.p. injection exceeded 50% in the control and anally intubated fish, compared to 31% in i.p.-immunized fish. Immunization did not protect from

  14. Acute and subacute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO(4)5.H(2)O) in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keehae; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2009-03-01

    Chemicals are used for treatment of aquatic diseases, but there is little data available about copper sulfate in small ornamental fish. The aim of the present study was to determine the TLm(24h) and evaluate the toxicity of copper sulfate in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). The fish were subjected to an acute toxicity test for 24 hr, and the results showed a TLm(24h) value of 1.17 ppm. Severe hyperplasia and exfoliation of the epithelial cells of gill lamellae and obstruction of the internal cavities of renal tubules with necrotized renal epithelial cells sloughed from the basement membrane were observed. However, no significant changes, except for mild curling of gill lamellae, were found in a subacute toxicity test in which fish were exposed to 1/10 of the TLm(24h) value for 1 week. Therefore, use of less than 0.12 ppm of copper sulfate may be recommended as a therapeutic level.

  15. Reproductive performance of the guppy fish Poecilia reticulata [Peters, 1859] fed with live Artemia franciscana [Kellog, 1906] cultured with inert and live diets

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    M. García-Ulloa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El comportamiento reproductivo del guppy Poecilia reticulata —evaluado como número de crías, longitud estándar, peso húmedo y seco de las crías y su proporción sexual— fue estudiado usando varias dietas para los reproductores. Los tratamientos consistieron en adultos vivos de Artemia franciscana cultivada con microalgas vivas (Tetraselmis suecica y Chaetoceros calcitrans, harina de Spirulina, harina de soya, harina de trigo, una mezcla 50%/50% de dichas harinas y una dieta comercial como grupo control. Después de 45 días bajo condiciones experimentales de laboratorio, no se encontraron diferencias significativas (P > 0.05 en el número de crías producidas por hembra y en la longitud estándar individual de las crías entre los tratamientos. Las crías producidas por el grupo control fueron más pesadas que las del resto de los tratamientos (4.14 y 1.06 mg de peso húmedo y seco, respectivamente. En promedio, el grupo de reproductores alimentado con Spirulina produjo mayor cantidad de machos. Los resultados destacan el uso de la dieta comercial para cubrir con los requerimientos reproductivos de P. reticulata.

  16. Cell phone-generated radio frequency electromagnetic field effects on the locomotor behaviors of the fishes Poecilia reticulata and Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David; Lee, Joshua; Lee, Imshik

    2015-01-01

    The locomotor behavior of small fish was characterized under a cell phone-generated radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF). The trajectory of movement of 10 pairs of guppy (Poecilia reticulate) and 15 pairs of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a fish tank was recorded and tracked under the presence of a cell phone-generated RF EMF. The measures were based on spatial and temporal distributions. A time-series trajectory was utilized to emphasize the dynamic nature of locomotor behavior. Fish movement was recorded in real-time. Their spatial, velocity, turning angle and sinuosity distribution were analyzed in terms of F(v,x), P[n(x,t)], P(v), F (θ) and F(s), respectively. In addition, potential temperature elevation caused by a cellular phone was also examined. We demonstrated that a cellular phone-induced temperature elevation was not relevant, and that our measurements reflected RF EMF-induced effects on the locomotor behavior of Poecilia reticulata and Danio rerio. Fish locomotion was observed under normal conditions, in the visual presence of a cell phone, after feeding, and under starvation. Fish locomotor behavior was random both in normal conditions and in the presence of an off-signaled cell phone. However, there were significant changes in the locomotion of the fish after feeding under the RF EMF. The locomotion of the fed fish was affected in terms of changes in population and velocity distributions under the presence of the RF EMF emitted by the cell phone. There was, however, no significant difference in angular distribution.

  17. Disruptions in aromatase expression in the brain, reproductive behavior, and secondary sexual characteristics in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) induced by tributyltin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Wu, Peng; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2015-05-01

    Although bioaccumulation of tributyltin (TBT) in fish has been confirmed, information on possible effects of TBT on reproductive system of fish is still relatively scarce, particularly at environmentally relevant levels. To evaluate the adverse effects and intrinsic toxicological properties of TBT in male fish, we studied aromatase gene expression in the brain, sex steroid contents, primary and secondary sexual characteristics, and reproductive behavior in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to tributyltin chloride at the nominal concentrations of 5, 50, and 500 ng/L for 28 days in a semi-static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay demonstrated that treatment with 50 ng/L TBT caused an increase in systemic levels of testosterone of male guppies. Gonopodial index, which showed a positive correlation with testosterone levels, was elevated in the 5 ng/L and 50 ng/L TBT treated groups. Real-time PCR revealed that TBT exposure had inhibiting effects on expression of two isoforms of guppy aromatase in the brain, and these changes at the molecular levels were associated with a disturbance of reproductive behavior of the individuals, as measured by decreases in frequencies of posturing, sigmoid display, and chase activities when males were paired with females. This study provides the first evidence that TBT can cause abnormalities of secondary sexual characteristics in teleosts and that suppression of reproductive behavior in teleosts by TBT is due to its endocrine-disrupting action as an aromatase inhibitor targeting the nervous system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

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    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo, E-mail: rusg@ouc.edu.cn

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine‐disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi‐static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long‐term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β‐estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine‐disrupting action. -- Highlights: ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17β‐estradiol levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male

  19. Biosynthesis, mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Toddalia asiatica-synthesized silver nanoparticles: do they impact predation of guppy Poecilia reticulata against the filariasis mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Venus, Joseph Selvaraj Eugine; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Bedini, Stefano; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Furthermore, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgN) were biosynthesized a cheap aqueous extract of T. asiatica leaves as reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of nanoparticle was confirmed by surface Plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometer. AgN were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. AgN were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and their mean size was 25-30 nm. T. asiatica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgN showed excellent larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the filariasis vector Culex quinqufasciatus, both in laboratory and field experiments. AgN LC50 ranged from 16.48 (I instar larvae) to 31.83 ppm (pupae). T. asiatica-synthesized were also highly effective in inhibiting growth of Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. Lastly, we evaluated if sublethal doses of nanoparticles affect predation rates of fishes, Poecilia reticulata, against C. quinquefasciatus. In AgN-contaminated environment, predation of guppies against mosquito larvae was slightly higher over normal laboratory conditions. Overall, this study highlighted that T. asiatica-synthesized AgN are easy to produce, stable over time, and may be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of filariasis vectors, without detrimental effects on predation rates of mosquito natural enemies.

  20. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo

    2012-01-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine‐disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi‐static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long‐term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β‐estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine‐disrupting action. -- Highlights: ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17β‐estradiol levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male

  1. Crecimiento, Abundancia Y Biomasa De Poecilia reticulata En El Lago Urbano Del Parque Tezozomoc De La Ciudad De México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Elías-Fernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los lagos urbanos tienen importancia estética, recreativa, cultural y biológica por albergar organismos generalmente alóctonos, como aves, reptiles, insectos y peces, en particular poecilidos, los cuales son muy tolerantes y se reproducen con facilidad. Por lo anterior, el objetivo de este trabajo fue: determinar la variación en la abundancia y biomasa de Poecilia reticulata en el lago del parque Tezozomoc, así como obtener la ecuación de crecimiento. Se realizaron muestreos mensuales de julio del año 2000 a junio del 2001. Se establecieron tres estaciones donde se registraron las siguientes variables físicas y químicas; transparencia, alcalinidad, dureza, pH, conductividad, temperatura y turbiedad por métodos convencionales. Los peces se capturaron con una red de cuchara de marco rectangular de 100 x 50 cm (área barrida de 0.5 m2, con luz de malla de 0.5 cm. Los organismos se fijaron con formalina al 10 %. Se registraron las siguientes variables morfométricas de los organismos; peso (gr y longitud patrón (mm. Se calculó la abundancia y biomasa, así como la ecuación de crecimiento de acuerdo al modelo de Von Bertalanffy. Se encontró que el agua del sistema es templada, turbia, alcalina, dura y somera. La mayor abundancia (6,148 organismos y biomasa (677.28 g se presentó en la estación I, caracterizada por la mayor presencia de visitantes al lago que arroja desperdicios alimenticios al sistema. Los meses con mayor abundancia fueron julio (1,483 org y agosto (1,252 org y los de mayor biomasa agosto (145.12 gr y marzo (138.63 gr. La longitud máxima obtenida de 61.55 mm y la tasa de crecimiento de 0.2987 son valores similares a los obtenidos en sistemas naturales.

  2. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jon C.; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; Ucrit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (Usus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in Usus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (Uopt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg−1. Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between Ucrit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced Ucrit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between Usus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between Usus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high Usus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between Usus and Uopt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming economy and

  3. Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil

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    ML Martins

    Full Text Available In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35, "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31, "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20, "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6, "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2 and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1. After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed.

  4. Los detectives salvajes: figuras, cesuras, retornos

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    Eugenio Santangelo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se propone una lectura de Los detectives salvajes de Roberto Bolaño (1998 a partir del análisis de algunos procesos de intempestividad y espectralidad que atraviesan, fisuran y cada vez interrumpen la multiplicidad de relatos de la novela. Concentramos la atención en un gesto, el de la poeta Cesárea Tinajero, uno de los personajes clave del libro, para ver cómo se desprende, de manera genealógica, la investigación bolañiana sobre los márgenes de la historia y sus fantasmas. Cesárea deja el Distrito Federal, deja a los estridentistas y a la Revolución mexicana y vuelve al desierto de Sonora. Nos importan los diferenciales de tiempo: los de un gesto pasado que sigue irrumpiendo en un presente que lo narra. Finalmente, se intenta pensar este retorno dialéctico y anacrónico, así como ese desierto, como pre-figuración del lugar donde Bolaño, en su última, póstuma novela (2666 hizo refluir el horror de un siglo entero: santa Teresa, re-inscripción de Ciudad Juárez y de su feminicidio imparable.

  5. Roberto Bolaño, vaganz, stilnovista, caballero salvaje

    OpenAIRE

    Perea Esparragoza, Mónica Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Roberto Bolaño, vaganz, stilnovista, caballero salvaje, es un trabajo que tiene entre sus hipótesis sustentar algunas de las influencias medievales que se perciben en la producción de este autor, las cuales se pueden rastrear no solo en la literatura que produjo sino en la vida goliarda que llevó. Esta investigación persiguió hacer un análisis de sus novelas, principalmente, antes de 1998 y de Los detectives salvajes, para notar en esta última la actualización de modelos medievales explicados...

  6. Los pasiegos. La analogía salvaje y lo salvaje de la analogía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME DE LA CALLE VALVERDE

    2007-01-01

    -entendiendo salvaje como un pensamiento humano prístino-: por un lado en sus relaciones con el racionalismo (¿emerge la analogía desde el racionalismo?, ¿qué relación guarda con éste?, ¿su nacimiento es resultado de una función «natural»? y por otro sobre la naturaleza social de lo salvaje a partir de las bases sociales que lo producen. Es decir, se rastrea lo que de salvaje tiene la analogía, si la analogía es o no una función ahistórica y asocial del intelecto humano. No se examina todo el complejo analógico de los pasiegos, únicamente aquél que establece relaciones homólogas entre las vacas y el entorno.

  7. NTP carcinogenesis studies of 2,2-bis(bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol, nitromethane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (cas nos. 3296-90-0, 75-52-5, and 96-18-4) in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) (Waterborne Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The NTP chose to initiate studies in fish as an exploration of alternate or additional models for examining chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity. The use of small fish species in carcinogenicity testing offered potential advantages as a bioassay test system, including significant savings in cost and time over rodent studies. Large numbers of small fish could be easily maintained in a limited area. The two species chosen for study were guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and medaka (Oryzias latipes), both of which are hardy, easily maintained, and have a low occurrence of background lesions. The three chemicals chosen for study in fish had already been studied by the NTP in rodents, permitting a comparison of results between the two models. Two of the chemicals used (2,2-bis(bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol and 1,2,3-trichloropropane) were mutagenic and multisite carcinogens in rats and mice. The third chemical, nitromethane, was nonmutagenic with a more modest carcinogenic response in rodents. Male and female guppies and medaka were exposed to 2,2-bis(bromomethyl)- 1,3-propanediol (greater than 99% pure), nitromethane, (greater than 99% pure), or 1,2,3-trichloropropane (99% pure) in aquaria water for up to 16 months. OVERALL STUDY DESIGN: Groups of approximately 220 guppies (two replicates of 110) were maintained in aquaria water containing nominal concentrations of 0, 24, 60, or 150 mg/L 2,2-bis(bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol; 0, 10, 30, or 70 mg/L nitromethane; or 0, 4.5, 9.0, or 18.0 mg/L 1,2,3-trichloropropane. Groups of approximately 340 medaka (two replicates of 170) were maintained in aquaria water containing 0, 24, 60, or 150 mg/L 2,2-bis(bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol; 0, 10, 20, or 40 mg/L nitromethane; or 0, 4.5, 9.0, or 18.0 mg/L 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The overall study durations were 16 months for all guppy studies, 14 months for 2,2-bis(bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol-exposed medaka, and 13 months for nitromethane- and 1,2,3-trichloropropane-exposed medaka. Ten

  8. El canon literario mexicano en Los detectives salvajes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen de Mora

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se examina el canon personal de Bolaño en Los detectives salvajes acerca de la literatura mexicana, a partir de la intertextualidad entendida como un rasgo característico de la narrativa postmoderna del autor. Para ello se han tenido en cuenta tanto las citas explícitas que aparecen en la novela como algunas citas implícitas fundamentales. A través del análisis de las mismas se pretende demostrar que para entender el alcance de esta obra es preciso enfrentarse a su escritura en palimpsesto.

  9. El canon literario mexicano en "Los detectives salvajes"

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Valcárcel, Carmen de

    2015-01-01

    En el presente artículo se examina el canon personal de Bolaño en Los detectives salvajes acerca de la literatura mexicana, a partir de la intertextualidad entendida como un rasgo característico de la narrativa postmoderna del autor. Para ello se han tenido en cuenta tanto las citas explícitas que aparecen en la novela como algunas citas implícitas fundamentales. A través del análisis de las mismas se pretende demostrar que para entender el alcance de esta obra es preciso enfrentarse a su esc...

  10. Poecilia picta, a Close Relative to the Guppy, Exhibits Red Male Coloration Polymorphism: A System for Phylogenetic Comparisons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K Lindholm

    Full Text Available Studies on the evolution of female preference and male color polymorphism frequently focus on single species since traits and preferences are thought to co-evolve. The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, has long been a premier model for such studies because female preferences and orange coloration are well known to covary, especially in upstream/downstream pairs of populations. However, focused single species studies lack the explanatory power of the comparative method, which requires detailed knowledge of multiple species with known evolutionary relationships. Here we describe a red color polymorphism in Poecilia picta, a close relative to guppies. We show that this polymorphism is restricted to males and is maintained in natural populations of mainland South America. Using tests of female preference we show female P. picta are not more attracted to red males, despite preferences for red/orange in closely related species, such as P. reticulata and P. parae. Male color patterns in these closely related species are different from P. picta in that they occur in discrete patches and are frequently Y chromosome-linked. P. reticulata have an almost infinite number of male patterns, while P. parae males occur in discrete morphs. We show the red male polymorphism in P. picta extends continuously throughout the body and is not a Y-linked trait despite the theoretical prediction that sexually-selected characters should often be linked to the heterogametic sex chromosome. The presence/absence of red male coloration of P. picta described here makes this an ideal system for phylogenetic comparisons that could reveal the evolutionary forces maintaining mate choice and color polymorphisms in this speciose group.

  11. Steroidogenesis in ovarian tissue of a viviparous teleost, the guppy Poecilia reticulata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, J.G.D.; Pot, M.G.E.

    1975-01-01

    1. 1. Homogenates of ovaries of 3- and 12-month-old guppies were incubated with pregnenolone-7α-3H and progesterone-4-14C, and with androstenedione-1,2-3H, respectively. 2. 2. From the double-labeled experiment, 17α-hydroxypregnenolone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone,

  12. Early environment and the development of social behaviours in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leris, I.

    2016-01-01

    One of the many advantages of group living is the swift transfer of information between group members. Social learning – learning from others – offers a quick and economical way to acquire information about the local environment and is considered adaptive under a wide range of circumstances.

  13. Toxicity of Diazinon 60 EC for Cyprinus carpio and Poecilia reticulata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Máchová, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Svobodová, Z.; Žlábek, V.; Peňáz, Milan; Baruš, Vlastimil

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 3-4 (2007), s. 267-276 ISSN 0967-6120. [New Challenges in Pond Aquaculture. České Budějovice, 26.04.2005-28.04.2005] R&D Projects: GA MZe QF3029 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : acute toxicity * chemical insecticide * Daphnia magna * embryonic toxicity test * larval toxicity test * organophosphate * pond fishery Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 0.828, year: 2007

  14. Colorful invasion in permissive Neotropical ecosystems: establishment of ornamental non-native poeciliids of the genera Poecilia/Xiphophorus (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae and management alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lincoln Barroso Magalhães

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Headwater creeks are environments susceptible to invasion by non-native fishes. We evaluated the reproduction of 22 populations of the non-native livebearers guppy Poecilia reticulata, black molly Poecilia sphenops, Yucatan molly Poecilia velifera, green swordtail Xiphophorus hellerii, southern platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus, and variable platyfish Xiphophorus variatus during an annual cycle in five headwater creeks located in the largest South American ornamental aquaculture center, Paraíba do Sul River basin, southeastern Brazil. With few exceptions, females of most species were found reproducing (stages 2, 3, 4 all year round in the creeks and gravid females of all species showed small sizes indicating stunting. Juveniles were frequent in all sites. The fecundity of the six poeciliids was always low in all periods. The sex ratio was biased for females in most species, both bimonthly as for the whole period. Water temperature, water level and rainfall were not significantly correlated with reproduction in any species. Therefore, most populations appeared well established. The pertinence of different management actions, such as devices to prevent fish escape, eradication with rotenone and research about negative effects on native species, is discussed in the light of current aquaculture practices in the region.

  15. A new species of Poecilia from Honduras (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeser, F.N.

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Poecilia from the Atlantic slopes of Honduras is described and assigned to the subgenus Mollienesia. Poecilia hondurensis, new species, differs from all congeners in the combination of having tricuspid teeth on the inner of both jaws and lacking a prominent spine or hook on the

  16. Biochemical studies in Ulva reticulata Forsskal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    Major metabolites like proteins, carbohydrates and lipids in the alga Ulva reticulata were estimated. Carbohydrate was found to decrease after December which may perhaps be due to the spore formation and extensive growth of the thallus. Protein...

  17. Mito y vanguardia en Los detectives salvajes de Roberto Bolaño

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to address the disappearance and the specific closure of myth as metaphysical background in Los Detectives Salvajes by Roberto Bolaño; this closure is represented in the novel by the avant-garde poet Cesárea Tinajero, a character that emerges as a concrete life, lost in history, with more courage against systemic or ethical strength, than magical properties that connect with spiritual or religious statements.

  18. Mito y vanguardia en Los detectives salvajes de Roberto Bolaño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Espinosa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to address the disappearance and the specific closure of myth as metaphysical background in Los Detectives Salvajes by Roberto Bolaño; this closure is represented in the novel by the avant-garde poet Cesárea Tinajero, a character that emerges as a concrete life, lost in history, with more courage against systemic or ethical strength, than magical properties that connect with spiritual or religious statements.

  19. En torno a Los detectives salvajes de Roberto Bolaño

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Carmen de

    2011-01-01

    En el presente artículo se examinan algunas cuestiones fundamentales de la obra de Bolaño en general y de Los detectives salvajes, en particular: el lugar que ocupa el escritor en la narrativa hispanoamericana de los últimos años; la estructura tripartita de la novela con las peculiaridades espaciales y las alteraciones cronológicas que presenta; la proyección autobiográfica y el mito de la vida artística; y el género policial como «architexto» de la novela. Por último, se profundiza en aspec...

  20. Microsatellites for the gynogenetic Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of high value for studies on the clonal variability and ori- gin of triploid .... Microsatellites in Poecilia species. Table 1. (contd). Amplification in. Diagnostic for. Locus. P. formosa. P. mexicana. P. latipinna. Species. Ploidy levels. MSD25 m m m n n .... be used to easily determine the species origin of individu- als and ploidy ...

  1. Microsatellites for the gynogenetic Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 85; Issue 1. Microsatellites for the gynogenetic Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa: useful tools for detection of mutation rate, ploidy determination and overall genetic diversity. Kathrin P. Lampert Dunja K. Lamatsch Susanne Schories Armin Hopf Francisco J. García De León ...

  2. Differential effects of developmental thermal plasticity across three generations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata): canalization and anticipatory matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, Amélie; Loughland, Isabella; Seebacher, Frank

    2017-06-28

    Developmental plasticity can match offspring phenotypes to environmental conditions experienced by parents. Such epigenetic modifications are advantageous when parental conditions anticipate offspring environments. Here we show firstly, that developmental plasticity manifests differently in males and females. Secondly, that under stable conditions, phenotypic responses (metabolism and locomotion) accumulate across several generations. Metabolic scope in males was greater at warmer test temperatures (26-36 °C) in offspring bred at warm temperatures (29-30 °C) compared to those bred at cooler temperatures (22-23 °C), lending support to the predictive adaptive hypothesis. However, this transgenerational matching was not established until the second (F2) generation. For other responses, e.g. swimming performance in females, phenotypes of offspring bred in different thermal environments were different in the first (F1) generation, but became more similar across three generations, implying canalization. Thirdly, when environments changed across generations, the grandparental environment affected offspring phenotypes. In females, the mode of the swimming thermal performance curve shifted to coincide with the grandparental rather than the parental or offspring developmental environments, and this lag in response may represent a cost of plasticity. These findings show that the effects of developmental plasticity differ between traits, and may be modulated by the different life histories of males and females.

  3. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for the toxicity and bioconcentration factor of nitrobenzene derivatives towards the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deneer, J.W.; Sinnige, T.L.; Seinen, W.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    The acute toxicity and bioconcentration factor of a series of nitrobenzene derivatives was determined for the guppy. Toxicity is found to be determined by both hydrophobicity (expressed by the octanol/water partition coefficient) and rate of reduction of the nitro group (expressed by either

  4. Efficacy of ginger-based treatments against infection with Gyrodactylus turnbulli in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata (Peters)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, G; Zilberg, D; Paladini, G; Fridman, S

    2015-04-30

    Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses and existing chemical therapeutants, often stressful to the fish, pose associated risks. As part of a recent trend to move towards the use of alternative, plant-based remedies for commonly occurring aquaculture-related diseases, the efficiency of ginger (Zingiber officinale) was investigated against the monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli in the guppy. In vitro trials revealed the clear anti-parasitic effects of ginger. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts, prepared from freeze dried ginger, were tested. An increase in extract concentration was associated with reduced time to parasite immobilisation, with ethanolic extract being more efficient; at 75 and 200ppt aqueous ginger extract parasites died at 65.6±2.8 and 1.8±0.2min, respectively, whereas at 5 and 40ppt ethanolic extract parasites died at 26.1±0.7 and 4.9±0.3min, respectively. Bathing G. turnbulli-infected fish in ethanolic ginger extract (i.e. 5 and 7.5ppt for 90 and 30min, respectively) significantly reduced infection prevalence and intensity when compared to the water and ethanol controls. The higher concentration (i.e. 7.5ppt) proved as equally effective as Praziquantel, the conventionally used chemical treatment for gyrodactylosis, with the fish appearing to be completely cleared of the infection in both cases. Oral treatments of G. turnbulli-infected guppies with diets supplemented with 10 and 20% ginger powder proved to be ineffective in decreasing parasite load. These findings demonstrate that immersion in ginger extract offers an effective, alternative treatment against monogenean infection in fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ecological studies of Ulva reticulata Forsskal in Chapora bay (Goa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The patchy occurrence of Ulva reticulata Forskal along the west coast of India lead to its ecological studies. The total annual yield of . reticulata calculated for 3800 sq. m. area of the bay amounts to 6.74 tonnes wet weight and 0.932 tonnes dry...

  6. Assessment of Annona reticulata Linn. leaves fractions for invitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since from long time the plant, Annona reticulata Linn. is known for its beneficial effects. Leaves of A. reticulata were screened for phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The shade dried leaves were extracted with methanol and aqueous methanolic extract was partitioned successively ...

  7. Los Laparocerus Schoenherr, 1834 de las Canarias orientales, islas Salvajes y Marruecos (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado, A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution to the knowledge of the genus Laparocerus Schoenherr, 1834 in Macaronesia concerns species from the Eastern Canaries, Salvage Islands and Morocco. Laparocerus rasus Wollaston, 1864 is redescribed and two new subspecies localised in Fuerteventura are ascribed to it: L. rasus betancor n. spp. and L. rasus jandiensis n. ssp. Several new species are described from that same island: L. maxorata n. sp., L. colonnellii n. sp., L. calvus n. sp., L. xericola n. sp., L. fraterculus n. sp., and L. longipennis n. sp.; from the island of Lanzarote L. curvipes famara n. ssp., and from the Selvage Islands L. garretai albosquamosus n. spp. The only confirmed species form Morocco, Laparocerus susicus (Escalera, 1914, is redescribed and L. susicus montanus n. spp., from the interior, and L. susicus inexpectatus nov. nom., from the coastal region of Tiznit are assigned to it. A retro-colonization from the Canary Islands to the continent is hypothesized for this Moroccan species. Doubtful records and unresolved species are commented on, and keys in Spanish and English for identifying all Laparocerus inhabiting this geographical context are provided.Esta contribución al conocimiento del género Laparocerus Schoenherr, 1834 está dedicada a las Canarias orientales, islas Salvajes y Marruecos. Se redescribe Laparocerus rasus Wollaston, 1864 y se le asignan dos nuevas subespecies localizadas en Fuerteventura: L. rasus betancor n. spp. y L. rasus jandiensis n. ssp. De esta misma isla se describen varias especies nuevas: L. maxorata n. sp., L. colonnellii n. sp., L. calvus, n. sp., L. xericola n. sp., L. fraterculus n. sp. y L. longipennis n. sp.; de la isla de Lanzarote L. curvipes famara n. ssp., y de las islas Salvajes L. garretai albosquamosus n. spp. Se redescribe la única especie confirmada de Marruecos, Laparocerus susicus (Escalera, 1914, a la que se adscriben L. susicus montanus n. spp., del interior, y L. susicus inexpectatus nom. nov., de

  8. Desde los márgenes: Los detectives salvajes, novela transnacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Zavaleta Balarezo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Es el objetivo de este ensayo interpretar y analizar las propuestas literarias, artísticas y estéticas que el desaparecido escritor chileno Roberto Bolaño (1953 - 2003 plantea en su novela Los detectives salvajes. Se trata esta, de la obra que lo dio a conocer internacionalmente y que reveló a un escritor amante del nomadismo y los desplazamientos no tradicionales, no siempre guiado por la comodidad sino más bien por las condiciones críticas que obligaban a tales tránsitos. En plena época de globalización, en un mundo influenciado por la ideología neoliberal, en que el mercado es visto como un tótem, que todo lo define, Bolaño se nos aparece como un escritor capaz de enfrentar precisamente este panorama frío y calculador al que nos ha conducido la etapa más avanzada del capitalismo que intenta quebrar cualquier barrera.

  9. Bolaño en el camino: El viaje como búsqueda de identidad en Los detectives salvajes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Pierre Herrera López

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available What are looking for the main characters of Los detectives salvajes by Roberto Bolaño in the desert? The following essay proposes a reading of travels in Bolaño’s work, as journeys on which there are a research of identity denied by the ruling culture; the journey to the desert are presented as the transition moment between the modern condition of the characters and the postmodern condition, and the traveler like the person who reads his life like a fiction.

  10. Hacia una cartografía de la errancia en Los detectives salvajes de Roberto Bolaño

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Ortiz, Angélica Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    En esta tesis se indaga la hipótesis de que en Los detectives salvajes de Roberto Bolaño es posible trazar un sistema de trazas narrativas que revele tanto una poética de la errancia, poética que emerge en los protocolos de una escritura articulada en desplazamientos y dislocamientos genéricos, como una cartografía del territorio que se funda. Desde la escritura del diario de García Madero, que empieza por inscribir las huellas de estos itiner...

  11. Genetic diversity, population structure, and traditional culture of Camellia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tong; Huang, Weijuan; De Riek, Jan; Zhang, Shuang; Ahmed, Selena; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; Long, Chunlin

    2017-11-01

    Camellia reticulata is an arbor tree that has been cultivated in southwestern China by various sociolinguistic groups for esthetic purposes as well as to derive an edible seed oil. This study examined the influence of management, socio-economic factors, and religion on the genetic diversity patterns of Camellia reticulata utilizing a combination of ethnobotanical and molecular genetic approaches. Semi-structured interviews and key informant interviews were carried out with local communities in China's Yunnan Province. We collected plant material ( n  = 190 individuals) from five populations at study sites using single-dose AFLP markers in order to access the genetic diversity within and between populations. A total of 387 DNA fragments were produced by four AFLP primer sets. All DNA fragments were found to be polymorphic (100%). A relatively high level of genetic diversity was revealed in C. reticulata samples at both the species ( H sp  = 0.3397, I sp  = 0.5236) and population (percentage of polymorphic loci = 85.63%, H pop  = 0.2937, I pop  = 0.4421) levels. Findings further revealed a relatively high degree of genetic diversity within C. reticulata populations (Analysis of Molecular Variance = 96.31%). The higher genetic diversity within populations than among populations of C. reticulata from different geographies is likely due to the cultural and social influences associated with its long cultivation history for esthetic and culinary purposes by diverse sociolinguistic groups. This study highlights the influence of human management, socio-economic factors, and other cultural variables on the genetic and morphological diversity of C. reticulata at a regional level. Findings emphasize the important role of traditional culture on the conservation and utilization of plant genetic diversity.

  12. Ressignificação da detective fiction em Los detectives salvajes, de Roberto Bolaño

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Tella Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A síntese deste trabalho é a ressignificação da detective fiction em Los detectives salvajes, de Roberto Bolaño. O ponto de partida são os vários textos do autor que têm a figura do detetive na intitulação, sendo esse apenas um dos vários aspectos que recorre na obra bolañiana. Entendendo que a enorme rede de relações que existe em seus textos é sugestiva de seu projeto literário, coerentemente será assumida uma visão transtextual para a análise da narrativa: através de textos crítico...

  13. Antimicrobial activity of Ulva reticulata and its endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, K. I.; Swati, V. I.; Vanka, Kanth Swaroop; Osborne, W. J.

    2016-04-01

    Seaweeds are known to exhibit various antimicrobial properties, since it harbours an enormous range of indigenous bioactive compounds. The emergence of drug resistant strains has directed to the identification of prospective metabolites from seaweed and its endophytes, thereby exploiting the properties in resisting bacterial diseases. The current study was aimed to assess the antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from Ulva reticulate, for which metabolites of Ulva reticulata and its endophytes were extracted and assessed against human pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis. It was observed that the hexane extract of isolate VITDSJ2 was effective against all the tested pathogens but a significant inhibition was observed for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Further, Gas chromatography coupled with Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed the existence of phenol, 3, 5-bis (1, 1-dimethylethyl) in the crude hexane extract which is well-known to possess antibacterial activity. The effective isolate VITDSJ2 was identified to be the closest neighbour of Pseudomonas stutzeri by phenotypic and genotypic methods. The crude extracts of the seaweed Ulva reticulata was also screened for antibacterial activity and the hexane extract was effective in showing inhibition against all the tested pathogens. The compound in the crude extract of Ulva reticulata was identified as hentriacontane using GC-MS. The extracts obtained from dichloromethane did not show significant activity in comparison with the hexane extracts. Hence the metabolites of Ulva reticulata and the bacterial secondary metabolites of the endophytes could be used in the treatment of bacterial infections.

  14. Sexual characteristics are altered by 4-tert-octylphenol and 17beta-estradiol in the adult male guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, G; Baatrup, E

    2001-01-01

    of sperm cells in the ejaculates, reduced the area and color intensity of the sexually attractive orange spots, and inhibited testis growth. In the case of E2, the effects on sperm count and coloration were still evident after 3 months of recovery in clean water. Preliminary results on male reproductive...

  15. Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Banet, Amanda I.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2013-01-01

    by the total body mass. Results showed that the metabolic rate increased curvilinearly with swimming speed. The slope of the relationship was used as an index of swimming cost. There was no evidence that reproductive traits correlated with swimming cost, MO2std or Ucrit. In contrast, data revealed strong...... swimming and pectoral fin movement over a wide speed range, presumably to support swimming stability and control, is an inefficient swimming behaviour. Finally, transition to burst-assisted swimming was associated with an increase in aerobic metabolic rate. Our study highlights factors other than swimming...

  16. Influence of Tribulus terrestris on testicular enzyme in fresh water ornamental fish Poecilia latipinna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, P; Subramanian, P

    2011-12-01

    The influence of Tribulus terrestris on the activities of testicular enzyme in Poecilia latipinna was assessed in lieu of reproductive manipulation. Different concentrations of (100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg) Tribulus terrestris extract and of a control were tested for testicular activity of enzymes in Poecilia latipinna for 2 months. The testis and liver were homogenized separately in 0.1 mol/l potassium phosphate buffer (0.1 mol/l, pH 7.2). The crude homogenate was centrifuged, and supernatant obtained was used as an enzyme extract for determination of activities. The activities of testicular functional enzyme ALP, ACP, SDH, LDH, and G6PDH levels were changed to different extent in treated groups compared with that of the control. The total body weight and testis weight were increased with the Tribulus terrestris-treated fish (Poecilia latipinna). These results suggest that Tribulus terrestris induced the testicular enzyme activity that may aid in the male reproductive functions. It is discernible from the present study that Tribulus terrestris has the inducing effect on reproductive system of Poecilia latipinna.

  17. Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae); Constituintes quimicos do caule de Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rogerio Nunes dos; Silva, Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mgvsilva@ufc.br; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais

    2008-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae) yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes {alpha} and {beta}-amirin, the steroids {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants. (author)

  18. Biosistematik species Annona muricata Annona squamosa dan Annona reticulata dengan pendekatan alkaloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidah Hamidah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to explore kinship Annona muricata, Annona squamosa and Annona reticulata on the basis alkaloid content. Study phenotype Annona muricata, Annona squamosa and Annona reticulata based alkaloid content. Data alkaloid obtained are thenprocessed by a computer program SPSS version 14. The results of this study indicate that the presence of variations in the characterof the three types of Annona of species alkaloid. From the data analysis it can be seen that there are differences in the variations that occur in Annona muricata, Annona squamosa and Annona reticulata by different habitats and is a variation of phenotypic variation.Dendrogram grouping results suggest that Annona squamosa and Annona reticulata fenetic ties closer, so clumped into one large group while Annona muricata split away from the other groups.

  19. Crystal structure of a bioactive sesquiterpene isolated from Artemisia reticulata

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    A. K. Bauri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H24O2 {systematic name: 1-[6-hydroxy-7-(propan-2-yl-4-methylidene-2,3,3a,4,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-inden-1-yl]ethanone} was isolated from A. reticulata by column chromatography over silica gel by gradient solvent elution. The molecule comprises a bicyclo[4.3.0]nonane ring bearing acetoxy, hydroxy and isopropyl substituents, and an exocyclic double bond on the cyclohexane ring. In the bicyclic skeleton, the cyclohexane ring adopts a chair conformation ring and the cyclopentane ring is in an envelope conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [010]. These chains are cross-linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  20. Viscous polysaccharide and starch synthesis in Rhodella reticulata (Porphyridiales, Rhodophyta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroen, W.K.; Ramus, J.

    1990-01-01

    Rhodella reticulata Deason, Butler and Rhyne produces copious amounts of a viscous polysaccharide (VP) during growth in batch cultures. The VPs accumulated on the cell surface and in the culture medium once cells ceased growth; starch concurrently accumulated within the cells. Light-saturated 14 C-uptake declined steadily as the cells aged. Net synthesis rates for starch and mucilage were two- and four-fold lower, respectively, in non-growing cells than in growing cells, while the relative partitioning of newly-fixed carbon into these materials was not different. These data suggest that total photosynthetic loading, rather than partitioning into one specific pool, controls cellular synthesis rates. No preferential synthesis of VPs occurred during the stationary phase. The findings have important implications for the commercial production of VPs

  1. Viscous polysaccharide and starch synthesis in Rhodella reticulata (Porphyridiales, Rhodophyta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroen, W.K.; Ramus, J. (Duke Univ., Beaufort, NC (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Rhodella reticulata Deason, Butler and Rhyne produces copious amounts of a viscous polysaccharide (VP) during growth in batch cultures. The VPs accumulated on the cell surface and in the culture medium once cells ceased growth; starch concurrently accumulated within the cells. Light-saturated {sup 14}C-uptake declined steadily as the cells aged. Net synthesis rates for starch and mucilage were two- and four-fold lower, respectively, in non-growing cells than in growing cells, while the relative partitioning of newly-fixed carbon into these materials was not different. These data suggest that total photosynthetic loading, rather than partitioning into one specific pool, controls cellular synthesis rates. No preferential synthesis of VPs occurred during the stationary phase. The findings have important implications for the commercial production of VPs.

  2. Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight & Arn. (Jivanti): Botanical, Agronomical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological, and Biotechnological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sudipta Kumar; Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Anuradha, Maniyam

    2017-06-19

    Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight & Arn. (Apocynaceae), is a traditional medicinal plant species widely used to treat various ailments such as tuberculosis, hematopoiesis, emaciation, cough, dyspnea, fever, burning sensation, night blindness, cancer, and dysentery. In Ayurveda, it is known for its revitalizing, rejuvenating, and lactogenic properties. This plant is one of the major ingredients in many commercial herbal formulations, including Speman, Envirocare, Calshakti, Antisept, and Chyawanprash. The therapeutic potential of this herb is because of the presence of diverse bioactive compounds such as α-amyrin, β-amyrin, ferulic acid, luteolin, diosmetin, rutin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, hentricontanol, a triterpene alcohol simiarenol, apigenin, reticulin, deniculatin, and leptaculatin. However, most biological studies on L. reticulata are restricted to crude extracts, and many biologically active compounds are yet to be identified in order to base the traditional uses of L. reticulata on evidence-based data. At present, L. reticulata is a threatened endangered plant because of overexploitation, unscientific harvesting, and habitat loss. The increased demand from pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and veterinary industries has prompted its large-scale propagation. However, its commercial cultivation is hampered because of the non-availability of genuine planting material and the lack of knowledge about its agronomical practices. In this regard, micropropagation techniques will be useful to obtain true-to-type L. reticulata planting materials from an elite germplasm to meet the current demand. Adopting other biotechnological approaches such as synthetic seed technology, cryopreservation, cell culture, and genetic transformation can help conservation as well as increased metabolite production from L. reticulata. The present review summarizes scientific information on the botanical, agronomical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and biotechnological aspects of L

  3. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart: Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad G. Jamkhande

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. (牛心果 niú xīn guǒ; Bullock's heart is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far.

  4. Tras las huellas de los Ñanaigua: de tapii, tapiete y otros salvajes en el Chaco boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les noms de peuples et d’ethnies qui pullulent dans les chroniques coloniales, ceux de Tapii et Tapiete ont mis beaucoup d’auteurs à l’épreuve et ont été qualifiés de véritable “énigme ethnografique”. Ils ont donné lieu, en particulier, à de nombreuses confusions dans la littérature postérieure, faute de prêter attention à leur sens original et générique : “esclaves”, ou “vrais esclaves”. Ainsi, les étiquettes de Tapii et Tapiete ont pu désigner différentes ethnies selon les lieux et les époques. L’article tente d’éclaircir le panorama dans le cas du Chaco bolivien, tout en introduisant un troisième terme générique qui est celui de Ñanaigua ou “sauvages”, et en présentant des données historiques inédites sur les différentes ethnies ainsi appelées au XIXe siècle. Entre los nombres de etnias y pueblos que pululan en las crónicas coloniales, los de tapii y tapiete han puesto a prueba muchos autores y fueron calificados de verdadero “enigma etnográfico”. Han dado lugar, en particular, a muchas confusiones en la literatura posterior, principalmente por no prestar atención a su sentido original y genérico: “esclavos” o “verdaderos esclavos”. Así, las etiquetas de tapii y tapiete han podido designar a diferentes etnias según los lugares y las épocas. El artículo intenta aclarar el panorama en el caso del Chaco boliviano, introduciendo un tercer término genérico que es el de ñanaigua o “salvaje”, y aportando datos históricos inéditos sobre las diferentes etnias así designadas en el siglo XIX. Among the many ethnonyms that proliferate throughout the colonial records, those of tapii and tapiete have challenged a number of scholars, and have even been deemed an “ethnographic enigma.” Largely due to ignorance of their original and generic meaning -“slaves” and “true slaves”- both have given rise to several confusions in subsequent literature. In fact, the labels tapii and tapiete

  5. The effect of social environment on alternative mating tactics in male Endler’s guppy, Poecilia wingei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řežucha, Radomil; Reichard, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 2 (2014), s. 195-202 ISSN 0003-3472 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : alternative mating tactics * courtship * experience * Poecilia wingei * sneaking * social environment Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.137, year: 2014

  6. Nonrandom variation in Poecilia marcellinoi n. sp. and P. salvatoris Regan, 1907 in El Salvador (Pisces, Poeciliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeser, Frederick N.

    1995-01-01

    A new species of the genus Poecilia Bloch & Schneider, 1801 is recorded from El Salvador. Morphological and meristic data of P. marcellinoi n. sp. and of the sympatric P. salvatoris Regan, 1907 are analysed. Intra- and interspecific variation are compared and correlated with environmental and

  7. Intrinsic and integrative properties of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fu-Ming; Lee, Christian R.

    2011-01-01

    The GABA projection neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) are output neurons for the basal ganglia and thus critical for movement control. Their most striking neurophysiological feature is sustained, spontaneous high frequency spike firing. A fundamental question is: what are the key ion channels supporting the remarkable firing capability in these neurons? Recent studies indicate that these neurons express tonically active TRPC3 channels that conduct a Na-dependent inward current even at hyperpolarized membrane potentials. When the membrane potential reaches −60 mV, a voltage-gated persistent sodium current (INaP) starts to activate, further depolarizing the membrane potential. At or slightly below −50 mV, the large transient voltage-activated sodium current (INaT) starts to activate and eventually triggers the rapid rising phase of action potentials. SNr GABA neurons have a higher density of (INaT), contributing to the faster rise and larger amplitude of action potentials, compared with the slow-spiking dopamine neurons. INaT also recovers from inactivation more quickly in SNr GABA neurons than in nigral dopamine neurons. In SNr GABA neurons, the rising phase of the action potential triggers the activation of high-threshold, inactivation-resistant Kv3-like channels that can rapidly repolarize the membrane. These intrinsic ion channels provide SNr GABA neurons with the ability to fire spontaneous and sustained high frequency spikes. Additionally, robust GABA inputs from direct pathway medium spiny neurons in the striatum and GABA neurons in the globus pallidus may inhibit and silence SNr GABA neurons, whereas glutamate synaptic input from the subthalamic nucleus may induce burst firing in SNr GABA neurons. Thus, afferent GABA and glutamate synaptic inputs sculpt the tonic high frequency firing of SNr GABA neurons and the consequent inhibition of their targets into an integrated motor control signal that is further fine-tuned by neuromodulators

  8. Occurrence of Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida in Immatures of Kempnyia reticulata (Enderlein (Insecta: Plecoptera: Perlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Avelino-Capistrano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available First register of Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida in immature of Kempnyia reticulata (Enderlein (Plecoptera: Perlidae. The insects were collected in rivers of Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia, Santa Teresa, Espirito Santo, Brazil.

  9. Reptilia, Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae, Arthrosaura reticulata (O'Shaughnessy, 1881: Distribution extension and new state record.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mott, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthrosaura reticulata (O´Shaugnessy, 1881 is reported from two localities in Mato Grosso, Brazil. It representsthe first state record for the species, extending its known distribution in 830 km southeastern of the southernmost recordin the state of Amazonas and 470 km eastern of the state of Rondônia, the southernmost record of the species.

  10. Vindplaatsen van Distelbremraap [Orobanche reticulata subsp. pallidiflora (Wimm. & Grab.) Hayek] in verstoorde duinen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Londo, Ger; Mounk, Joop

    2001-01-01

    About 30 years ago Orobanche reticulata was recorded on two sites in the dunes. The records were not accepted because the plants did not show the typical dark based glandular hairs. The rediscovery, after 28 years, of this rare species on one of those earlier dune localities led to the notion that

  11. Amazon Molly, Poecilia formosa, as a model for studies of the effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.; Hart, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that the viviparous teleost, Poecilia formosa, (Amazon molly) may have wide potential use for aquatic radiation studies. The Amazon molly is a naturally occurring gynogenetic species, in which the eggs are activated after mating with the males of closely related species, without the subsequent genetic contribution from the male. The offspring of a single original female constitute a clone, having identical genotypes. Clones of the genetically homogeneous Amazon molly may prove to be equally as valuable to aquatic radiobiologists as the inbred rodent lines have been to mammalian studies. In many other respects the Amazon molly is a satisfactory laboratory animal. It is robust, easy to rear, and has large broods of young when fully grown. Maintenance costs are low. Details are given of the conditions under which colonies reproduce

  12. Biomarkers of waterborne copper exposure in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to salt water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Anderson Abel de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Oceanografia Biológica, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Hoff, Mariana Leivas Müller [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Klein, Roberta Daniele [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Cardozo, Janaina Goulart [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Giacomin, Marina Mussoi [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Pinho, Grasiela Lopes Leães [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Oceanografia, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); and others

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •Acute effects of waterborne copper were evaluated in the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara. •Fishes were acutely exposed to waterborne copper in salt water. •Waterborne copper affects the response of several biochemical and genetic endpoints. •Catalase, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation are responsive to copper exposure. •Copper exposure induces DNA damages in fish erythrocytes. -- Abstract: The responses of a large suite of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues (liver, gills, muscle and erythrocytes) of the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara exposed to waterborne copper in salt water (salinity 24 ppt). Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), metallothionein-like protein concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in liver, gills, and muscle. Comet assay score and nuclear abnormalities and micronucleated cell frequency were analyzed in peripheral erythrocytes. The responses of these parameters were evaluated in fish exposed (96 h) to environmentally relevant copper concentrations (5, 9 and 20 μg L{sup −1}). In control and copper-exposed fish, no mortality was observed over the experimental period. Almost all biochemical and genetic parameters proved to be affected by waterborne copper exposure. However, the response of catalase activity in liver, ROS, ACAP and LPO in muscle, gills and liver, and DNA damages in erythrocytes clearly showed to be dependent on copper concentration in salt water. Therefore, the use of these parameters could be of relevance in the scope of biomonitoring programs in salt water environments contaminated with copper.

  13. Constituintes químicos do caule de Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae: Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Nunes dos Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes a and b-amirin, the steroids b-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants.

  14. Antibacterial activity of Ulva reticulata from southwest coast of Kanyakumari, India

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    Sundaram Ravikumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Ulva reticulata species collected from the Kanyakumari coast of India to determine their potential for bioactivity. Methods: The algal extract was prepared using n-butanol for evaluating the antibacterial activity of Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. Results: It was observed that the n-butanolic extract of the seaweed powder of Ulva reticulata (25–100 mg/mL exerted notable antibacterial activity against tested bacterial strains. The maximum antibacterial activity was exhibited against Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus in all concentrations. Conclusions: The results obtained in the present investigation supported the traditional use of the seaweeds against various infections. However, further investigation has been carried out to elucidate the exact mechanism and isolation of active principle.

  15. UJI DAYA HAMBAT PERASAN BUAH JERUK SIAM BANJAR (Citrus reticulata TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Shigella dysenteriae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Kumalasari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Siam orange (Citrus reticulata is kind of orange which a lot in Sout Borneo and a national top variety called banjar siam orange. Orange contains secondary metabolites flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids which cause damage bacteria cell wall permeability. Objective of this study is to find out inhibition siam orange fruit squeeze to Shigella dysenteriae growth. This study is an experimental research laboratory. Inhibition test of siam banjar orange (Citrus reticulata fruit squeeze to Shigella dysenteriae growthwas conducted with diffusion methodwhich performed at Bacteriology Laboratory of Banjarbaru Center Veterinary. Result of phytochemicals screening showedthat banjar siam orange fruit squeeze contain alkaloids, saponins, and flavonoids. Result of the study showed banjar siam orange fruit squeeze has the ability to inhibite Shigella dysenteriae growth with 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% concentrations. The higher concentration of banjar siam orange squeeze, the greater diameter of inhibition zone result.

  16. Structure, conformation in aqueous solution and antimicrobial activity of ulvan extracted from green seaweed Ulva reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Thanh Van; Truong, Hai Bang; Tran, Nguyen Ha Vy; Quach, Thi Minh Thu; Nguyen, Thi Nu; Bui, Minh Ly; Yuguchi, Yoshiaki; Thanh, Thi Thu Thuy

    2017-12-04

    The aim of this study is to elucidate the structure and investigate the antimicrobial activity of an ulvan obtained by water extraction from green seaweed Ulva reticulata collected at Nha Trang sea of Vietnam by using IR, NMR, SEC-MALLS and SAXS methods. The ulvan is composed of rhamnose, galactose, xylose, manose and glucose (mole ratio Rha: Gal: Xyl: Man: Glu = 1:0.12:0.1:0.06:0.03), uronic acid (22.5%) and sulphate groups (17.6%). Chemically structural determination showed that the ulvan mainly composed of disaccharide [→4)β-D-GlcA(1→4)α-L-Rha3S-(1→]. The results from SAXS indicated that ulvan under study has a rod-like bulky chain conformation. Ulvan from U. reticulata showed high antimicrobial activity, with inhibition zone diameter of 20 mm against Enterobacter cloace and 18 mm against Escherichia coli.

  17. DETAILED COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN. AND ANNONA RETICULATA LINN. LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Jani Switu; Harisha C.R.; Mohaddesi Behzad

    2012-01-01

    Annona squamosa Linn. and Annona reticulata Linn. are locally known as Sitaphala and Ramphala respectively both belongs to family Annonaceae. Leaves of both are used in various diseases like suppurant, toothache, anthelmintic commonly. Individually A. squamosa is used in anti diabetic, antispasmodic, dandruff and A. reticulate is used in flatulence and toothache. Till date there is no scientific comparative study has been reported. Pharmacognostical study of A. squamosa shows lysogenous cav...

  18. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of citrus jambhiri lush and citrus reticulata blanco essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaf, S.; Shahid, M.; Iqbal, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time interval in which we can get maximum concentration of essential oil from the peels of Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus reticulata Blanco, to determine the composition of peel oils and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracted oils. It was observed that in case of Citrus jambhiri Lush maximum oil yield (I %) was obtained when fruits were immature (during October). As the fruit samples got matured, the oil yield decreased. In December the oil yield decreased to 0.2 %. In case of Citrus reticulata Blanco maximum oil yield (0.189 %) was obtained during the last week of January. Chemical analysis of essential oils showed that limonene was the most abundant compound (86 %-93 %) followed by alpha terpinene (2 %-4.5 %), beta-pinene(1 0/0-2 %) and nerol (0.5 %-1.5 %). The radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oils were determined by DPPH and linoleic acid test. The essential oil of Citrus jambhiri Lush inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid by 54.98 % and that of Citrus reticulata Blanco inhibited by 49.98 %. Moreover, the essential oils also showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms. (author)

  19. Quantifying the threat of extinction from Muller's ratchet in the diploid Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loewe Laurence

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa is a small unisexual fish that has been suspected of being threatened by extinction from the stochastic accumulation of slightly deleterious mutations that is caused by Muller's ratchet in non-recombining populations. However, no detailed quantification of the extent of this threat is available. Results Here we quantify genomic decay in this fish by using a simple model of Muller's ratchet with the most realistic parameter combinations available employing the evolution@home global computing system. We also describe simple extensions of the standard model of Muller's ratchet that allow us to deal with selfing diploids, triploids and mitotic recombination. We show that Muller's ratchet creates a threat of extinction for the Amazon molly for many biologically realistic parameter combinations. In most cases, extinction is expected to occur within a time frame that is less than previous estimates of the age of the species, leading to a genomic decay paradox. Conclusion How then does the Amazon molly survive? Several biological processes could individually or in combination solve this genomic decay paradox, including paternal leakage of undamaged DNA from sexual sister species, compensatory mutations and many others. More research is needed to quantify the contribution of these potential solutions towards the survival of the Amazon molly and other (ancient asexual species.

  20. Microhabitat use, population densities, and size distributions of sulfur cave-dwelling Poecilia mexicana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan, Jonas; Bierbach, David; Riesch, Rüdiger; Schießl, Angela; Wigh, Adriana; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Klaus, Sebastian; Zimmer, Claudia; Plath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Cueva del Azufre in Tabasco, Mexico, is a nutrient-rich cave and its inhabitants need to cope with high levels of dissolved hydrogen sulfide and extreme hypoxia. One of the successful colonizers of this cave is the poeciliid fish Poecilia mexicana, which has received considerable attention as a model organism to examine evolutionary adaptations to extreme environmental conditions. Nonetheless, basic ecological data on the endemic cave molly population are still missing; here we aim to provide data on population densities, size class compositions and use of different microhabitats. We found high overall densities in the cave and highest densities at the middle part of the cave with more than 200 individuals per square meter. These sites have lower H2S concentrations compared to the inner parts where most large sulfide sources are located, but they are annually exposed to a religious harvesting ceremony of local Zoque people called La Pesca. We found a marked shift in size/age compositions towards an overabundance of smaller, juvenile fish at those sites. We discuss these findings in relation to several environmental gradients within the cave (i.e., differences in toxicity and lighting conditions), but we also tentatively argue that the annual fish harvest during a religious ceremony (La Pesca) locally diminishes competition (and possibly, cannibalism by large adults), which is followed by a phase of overcompensation of fish densities.

  1. Hepatic lesions in mollies (Poecilia latipinna) collected from Bayou Trepagnier, Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajah, A.

    1993-01-01

    Mollies, Poecilia latipinna, are small fish species belonging to the Family Poeciliidae. Mollies are surface feeders and are commonly found in Louisiana waters. Bayou Trepagnier is located in the Lake Pontchatrain Basin, in St. Charles Parish of Louisiana, which receives treated wastewater and stormwater from an oil refinery and manufacturing complex. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of refinery discharges on mollies from Bayou Trepagnier. Fish were caught by beach seine, examined for gross lesions and then fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathological analysis. Paraffin-embedded fish were cut at 6 μm and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Lesions observed in mollies were grouped into (1) neoplasms, (2) preneoplastic lesions, and (3) cytotoxic lesions. Hepatocellular carcinoma was the only neoplasm found in these fish. The preneoplastic lesions include basophilic foci, eosinophilic foci, and clear-cell foci. Cytotoxic lesions observed were fatty change, focal necrosis, hyaline degeneration of hepatocytes, and fatty change in pancreatic acinar cells. These preliminary results suggest the presence of carcinogens in Bayou Trepagnier

  2. Histopathological changes in Poecilia latipinna male gonad due to Tribulus terrestris administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, P; Ramesh, R; Subramanian, P

    2012-05-01

    Tribulus terrestris is a traditionally known non-toxic aphrodisiac herb for maleness. It was experimented recently to understand the effect and mechanism on mono sex production in Poecilia latipinna. It would help to develop a new eco-friendly way to masculinize P. latipinna, since males have higher commercial value than females. The different concentration (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mg/L) of T. terrestris extract and a control were tested for their effect on sex transformation/reversal in P. latipinna by immersing the newly born young ones in the respective concentrations for 2 mo. The obtained results indicate that a dose dependant masculinization is obtained due to T. terrestris administration, which improved the male proportion. Histological results revealed that the testes of fish treated with T. terrestris extract contained all stages of spermatogenesis, clearly demonstrating that the administration of T. terrestris extract to P. latipinna stimulated spermatogenesis. Thus, it is discernible that 0-d-old hatchlings of P. latipinna exposed to T. terrestris extract orient/reverse their sex more towards maleness besides yielding better growth and spermatogenesis which is a mandate for fancy fish industry.

  3. Characterization and spatial relationships of the hepatic vascular-biliary tracts, and their associated pancreocytes and macrophages, in the model fish guppy (Poecilia reticulata): A study of serial sections by light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sisandra; Rocha, Maria J; Rocha, Eduardo

    2018-02-01

    The guppy is a tropical fish that has been used as an experimental model organism in science. It is a species well adapted to the natural environment and that can support adverse environmental conditions, and so, at occasions, its presence can be indicative of environmental disturbances. Moreover, as the liver is very important when studying fish diseases, the knowledge of normal microanatomy is essential to assess histological changes, e.g., related to environmental change or toxic pollutants. The target organ of this histological study is the liver. The main objective is to contribute to the identification of anatomical and structural variations of this organ in different teleost species. We studied the distribution and spatial organization of the different types of blood vessels and biliary ducts and the relationships between them are established. For this, each liver was totally sectioned and the serial sections inspected in detail. The guppy liver presented intra-hepatic pancreatic tissue and so reported its association with the vascular and biliary elements. We observed that the input of afferent vessels (i.e., bringing blood into the liver) occur not only in the hilum but pierce and enter the organ at various points. Within the liver, venous vessels and bile ducts are seen, isolated or associated as venous-arteriolar tracts (VAT), and venous-biliary- arteriolar tracts (VBAT). Sometimes, pancreocytes appear within the liver surrounding isolated veins, forming venous tract with pancreatic acini (VT-P), or dual associations with afferent vessels, forming venous-arteriolar tracts with pancreatic acini (VAT-P). Intrahepatic pancreatic ducts were tiny and rare, putting in question the functional role of the acini. Contrary to other fish species, we did not spot isolated arterioles and associations between these and biliary ducts (BAT).We found aggregates of macrophages, namely associated with afferent and efferent (i.e., draining blood out) venous vessels; the latter fact not commonly reported in other fish species. There was a reduced arterialization of the organ (as arterioles were extremely rare), contrasting with an over predominance of a random distribution of the venous vascularization. The guppy differs to some extent from other previously studied models, highlighting the importance of making this kind of study to offer specific frameworks that can explain specific physiological processes or avoid misinterpretations; for instance about gene expression, as the whole liver specific expression will reflect the presence of hepatocytes and pancreocytes as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Utilization of chemically modified citrus reticulata peels for biosorptive removal of acid yellow-73 dye from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, R.; Salman, M.; Mahmud, T.; Kanwal, F.; Zaman, W.

    2013-01-01

    Textile effluents contain several varieties of natural and synthetic dyes, which are non-biodegradable. Acid Yellow-73 is one of them. In this research work, adsorptive removal of this dye was investigated using chemically modified Citrus reticulata peels, in batch mode. It was noted that adsorption of dye on Citrus reticulata peels increased by increasing contact time and decreased in basic pH conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal models were followed by equilibrium data, but the first isotherm fitted the data better, showing that chemisorption occurred more as compared to physiosorption, showing maximum adsorption capacity 96.46 mg.g-1.L-1. The thermodynamic study showed that adsorption of Acid Yellow-73 on chemically modified Citrus reticulata peels was favorable in nature, following pseudo-second order kinetics. (author)

  5. In vitro and in vivo antimalarial potential of oleoresin obtained from Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Fabaceae) in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Giovana A G; da Silva, Nazaré C; de Souza, Juarez; de Oliveira, Karen R M; da Fonseca, Amanda L; Baratto, Leopoldo C; de Oliveira, Elaine C P; Varotti, Fernando de Pilla; Moraes, Waldiney P

    2017-01-15

    In view of the wide variety of the flora of the Amazon region, many plants have been studied in the search for new antimalarial agents. Copaifera reticulata is a tree distributed throughout the Amazon region which contains an oleoresin rich in sesquiterpenes and diterpenes with β-caryophyllene as the major compound. The oleoresin has demonstrated antiparasitic activity against Leishmania amazonensis. Because of this previously reported activity, this oleoresin would be expected to also have antimalarial activity. In this study we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antimalarial potential of C. reticulata oleoresin. In vitro assays were done using P. falciparum W2 and 3D7 strains and the human fibroblast cell line 26VA Wi-4. For in vivo analysis, BALB/c mice were infected with approximately 10 6 erythrocytes parasitized by P. berghei and their parasitemia levels were observed over 7 days of treatment with C. reticulata; hematological and biochemical parameters were analyzed at the end of experiment. The oleoresin of C. reticulata containing the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene (41.7%) and β-bisabolene (18.6%) was active against the P. falciparum W2 and 3D7 strains (IC 50  = 1.66 and 2.54 µg/ml, respectively) and showed low cytotoxicity against the 26VA Wi-4 cell line (IC 50  > 100 µg/ml). The C. reticulata oleoresin reduced the parasitemia levels of infected animals and doses of 200 and 100 mg/kg/day reached a rate of parasitemia elimination resembling that obtained with artemisinin 100 mg/kg/day. In addition, treatment with oleoresin improved the hypoglycemic, hematologic, hepatic and renal parameters of the infected animals. The oleoresin of C. reticulata has antimalarial properties and future investigations are necessary to elucidate its mechanism of action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Estudo quÃmico e farmacolÃgico de Senna reticulata

    OpenAIRE

    RogÃrio Nunes dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    Este trabalho descreve a investigaÃÃo fitoquÃmica de Senna reticulata Willd., (Leguminoseae), popularmente conhecida no Cearà como mangerioba grande, que tem uso na medicina popular no tratamento de doenÃas do fÃgado, reumatismo e cÃlicas menstruais. Os gÃneros Senna, Chamaecrista e Cassia foram investigados a partir de seus compostos antraquinÃnicos relatados na literatura atà os dias atuais, no interesse de se traÃar um perfil, que contribuÃsse com distinÃÃo quÃmica dos mesmos que atà algun...

  7. Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Rogerio Nunes dos; Silva, Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos; Braz Filho, Raimundo

    2008-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae) yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes α and β-amirin, the steroids β-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants. (author)

  8. Adverse pregnancy outcome in rats following exposure to a Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae root extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnasooriya W.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome of Wistar rats (250-260 g when administered orally (10 g/kg during early (days 1-7 and mid- (days 7-14 pregnancy. The root extract significantly (P<0.05 enhanced post-implantation losses (control vs treatment: early pregnancy, 4.7 ± 2.4 vs 49.3 ± 13%; mid-pregnancy, 4.7 ± 2.4 vs 41.7 ± 16.1%. Gestational length was unaltered but the pups born had a low birth weight (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 6.8 ± 0.1 vs 5.3 ± 0.1 g; mid-pregnancy, 6.8 ± 0.1 vs 5.0 ± 0.1 g and low birth index (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 50.7 ± 12.9%; mid-pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 58.3 ± 16.1%, fetal survival ratio (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 50.7 ± 12.9; mid-pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 58.3 ± 16.1, and viability index (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 94.9 ± 2.6 vs 49.5 ± 12.5%; mid-pregnancy, 94.9 ± 2.6 vs 57.1 ± 16.1%. However, the root extract was non-teratogenic. We conclude that the S. reticulata root extract can be hazardous to successful pregnancy in women and should not be used in pregnancy complicated by diabetes.

  9. Adverse pregnancy outcome in rats following exposure to a Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasooriya, W D; Jayakody, J R A C; Premakumara, G A S

    2003-07-01

    The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae) is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome of Wistar rats (250-260 g) when administered orally (10 g/kg) during early (days 1-7) and mid- (days 7-14) pregnancy. The root extract significantly (P<0.05) enhanced post-implantation losses (control vs treatment: early pregnancy, 4.7 2.4 vs 49.3 13%; mid-pregnancy, 4.7 2.4 vs 41.7 16.1%). Gestational length was unaltered but the pups born had a low birth weight (P<0.05) (early pregnancy, 6.8 0.1 vs 5.3 0.1 g; mid-pregnancy, 6.8 0.1 vs 5.0 0.1 g) and low birth index (P<0.05) (early pregnancy, 95.2 2.4 vs 50.7 12.9%; mid-pregnancy, 95.2 2.4 vs 58.3 16.1%), fetal survival ratio (P<0.05) (early pregnancy, 95.2 2.4 vs 50.7 12.9; mid-pregnancy, 95.2 2.4 vs 58.3 16.1), and viability index (P<0.05) (early pregnancy, 94.9 2.6 vs 49.5 12.5%; mid-pregnancy, 94.9 2.6 vs 57.1 16.1%). However, the root extract was non-teratogenic. We conclude that the S. reticulata root extract can be hazardous to successful pregnancy in women and should not be used in pregnancy complicated by diabetes.

  10. Effects of extreme habitat conditions on otolith morphology: a case study on extremophile live bearing fishes (Poecilia mexicana, P. sulphuraria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Riesch, Rüdiger; García de León, Francisco J; Plath, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Our study was designed to evaluate if, and to what extent, restrictive environmental conditions affect otolith morphology. As a model, we chose two extremophile livebearing fishes: (i) Poecilia mexicana, a widespread species in various Mexican freshwater habitats, with locally adapted populations thriving in habitats characterized by the presence of one (or both) of the natural stressors hydrogen sulphide and darkness, and (ii) the closely related Poecilia sulphuraria living in a highly sulphidic habitat (Baños del Azufre). All three otolith types (lapilli, sagittae, and asterisci) of P. mexicana showed a decrease in size ranging from the non-sulphidic cave habitat (Cueva Luna Azufre), to non-sulphidic surface habitats, to the sulphidic cave (Cueva del Azufre), to sulphidic surface habitats (El Azufre), to P. sulphuraria. Although we found a distinct differentiation between ecotypes with respect to their otolith morphology, no clear-cut pattern of trait evolution along the two ecological gradients was discernible. Otoliths from extremophiles captured in the wild revealed only slight similarities to aberrant otoliths found in captive-bred fish. We therefore hypothesize that extremophile fishes have developed coping mechanisms enabling them to avoid aberrant otolith growth - an otherwise common phenomenon in fishes reared under stressful conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Fetotoxicity, and Teratogenicity of Plathymenia reticulata Benth Barks Aqueous Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia de Barros Leite Albuquerque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific assessment of harmful interactions of chemicals over the entire reproductive cycle are divided into three segments based on the period: from premating and mating to implantation (I, from implantation to major organogenesis (II, and late pregnancy and postnatal development (III. We combined the segments I and II to assess Plathymenia reticulata aqueous extract safety. In order to investigate reproductive toxicity (segment I, pregnant rats received orally 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg of extract, daily, during 18 days. These concentrations were determined by a preliminary in vitro LD50 test in CHO-k1 cells. A control group received deionized water. The offspring was removed at the 19th day, by caesarean, and a teratology study (segment II was carried out. The corpora lutea, implants, resorptions, live, and dead fetuses were then counted. Placenta and fetuses were weighted. External and visceral morphology were provided by the fixation of fetuses in Bouin, whereas skeletal analysis was carried out on the diaphanizated ones. The increase in the weights of placenta and fetuses was the only abnormality observed. Since there was no sign of alteration on reproduction parameters at our experimental conditions, we conclude that P. reticulata aqueous extract is safe at 0.5 to 1.0 g/kg and is not considered teratogenic.

  12. Leaf Litterfall and Decomposition of Polylepis reticulata in the Treeline of the Ecuadorian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pinos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaf litterfall contributes significantly to carbon fluxes in forests. A crucial open question for the sustainability of mountain forests is how climate change will affect this and other carbon fluxes (eg photosynthesis and respiration. Leaf litterfall and decomposition of Polylepis reticulata, an endemic species of the Andes, were analyzed during a period of 1 year at 6 experimental plots located in the Andean páramo between 3700 and 3900 m above sea level in Cajas National Park, Ecuador. Litterfall was collected in each plot using 5 randomly distributed traps. Every trap had a 40-cm diameter (0.125 m2 and was suspended 0.8 to 1.0 m above the ground. The decomposition rate of the leaf litter was analyzed using litter bags. Eighteen bags with approximately 20 g of dry litter were placed in the litter layer in each experimental plot and collected 30, 60, 90, 150, 210, 300, and 365 days after they were installed. The mean annual litterfall recorded was 3.77 Mg ha−1, representing 51% of the leaf biomass present in the canopy, so the leaf life span of P. reticulata in Cajas National Park is 1.98 years. Litterfall occurred all year, with no significant seasonal pattern. The mean decomposition rate (k obtained for this study period was 0.38 year−1. This study contributes to the information gap on litterfall and decomposition in natural forests located at the highest elevations in the world.

  13. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA RETICULATA FORSSKAL.

    OpenAIRE

    Ganapathy Selvam G.; Balamurugan M.; Thinakaran T.; Sivakumar K

    2013-01-01

    The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva reticulata on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.

  14. Effects of sodium fluoride in gill epithelium of Guppy fish (Poecilia vivipara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Breseghelo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O flúor é muito utilizado pelo homem e facilmente encontrado na natureza. Por isso, vários estudos foram realizados visando a toxicidade e o seu efeito cumulativo nos tecidos animais. É descrito que o fluoreto de sódio pode ser empregado no controle do hospedeiro da esquistossomose (Biomphalaria glabrata. Visando a preservação do meio aquático, propõe-se a verificação do efeito do fluoreto de sódio em peixes (Poecilia vivipara. Dez peixes foram submetidos à água declorinada (GC e o restante foi submetido à água contendo fluoreto de sódio na concentração de 5 ppm (GE, por vinte e um dias. Após esse período, os animais foram sacrificados e suas brânquias foram retiradas. As brânquias foram fixadas, pós-fixadas e desidratadas de acordo com o protocolo das técnicas de histoquímica e análise ultra-estrutural, respectivamente. As peças foram diafanizadas em xilol. Para observação histológica das células mucosas e células do cloro, foi utilizada a técnica de coloração de Hematoxilina + eosina. E para a detecção histoquímica de glicoconjugados utilizou-se as técnicas de P.A.S., P.A.S + amilase salivar, P.A.S. + acetilação, P.A.S. + acetilação reversível, alcian Blue (AB pH 2,5 + metilação, AB pH 2,5 + metilação reversível, AB pH 2,5 e AB pH 0,5. Observou-se aumento na secreção de muco e na quantidade de células mucosas do epitélio branquial, além de diferenças na reatividade histoquímica das células mucosas do GE comparados ao GC, sugerindo uma resposta adaptativa desses animais ao novo ambiente.

  15. Genome-scale data reveal that endemic Poecilia populations from small sulphidic springs display no evidence of inbreeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anthony P; Greenway, Ryan; Morgan, Samuel; Quackenbush, Corey R; Giordani, Luca; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Tobler, Michael; Kelley, Joanna L

    2017-10-01

    Populations with limited ranges can be highly vulnerable to changes in their environment and are, thus, of high conservation concern. Populations that experience human-induced range reductions are often highly inbred and lack genetic diversity, but it is unknown whether this is also the case for populations with naturally small ranges. The fishes Poecilia sulphuraria (listed as critically endangered) and Poecilia thermalis, which are endemic to small hydrogen sulphide-rich springs in southern Mexico, are examples of such populations with inherently small habitats. We used geometric morphometrics and population genetics to quantify phenotypic and genetic variation within and among two populations of P. sulphuraria and one population of P. thermalis. Principal component analyses revealed phenotypic and genetic differences among the populations. Evidence for inbreeding was low compared to populations that have undergone habitat reduction. The genetic data were also used to infer the demographic history of these populations to obtain estimates for effective population sizes and migration rates. Effective population sizes were large given the small habitats of these populations. Our results imply that these three endemic extremophile populations should each be considered separately for conservation purposes. Additionally, this study suggests that populations in naturally small habitats may have lower rates of inbreeding and higher genetic diversity than expected, and therefore may be better equipped to handle environmental perturbations than anticipated. We caution, however, that the inferred lack of inbreeding and the large effective population sizes could potentially be a result of colonization by genetically diverse ancestors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effects of the 2,4-D herbicide on gills epithelia and liver of the fish Poecilia vivipara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana F. Vigário

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, usually named 2,4-D is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Acute toxicity of 2,4-D herbicide was investigated through its effects on guppies (Poecilia vivipara Bloch et Schneider 1801. Fish were exposed to the herbicide at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40µl per liter of water for 24 hours to determine its effects on gills and liver epithelia. The estimated LC50 was 34.64µl of 2,4-D per liter of water. Histochemical analyses and Feulgen's reaction were conducted to detect glycoconjugates and DNA, respectively, in gills and liver epithelia. Histochemistry revealed qualitative variations of glycoconjugates present on mucous cells and granules. The four types of mucous cells contained neutral granules, acids, or both. Increasing amounts of syalomucins were observed from the control group to the group exposed to the highest concentration of 2,4-D, suggesting increased mucous viscosity and the formation of plaques that could inhibit gas exchange and osmoregulation. Lamellar fusion observed in the group exposed to 40µl of 2,4-D suggests a defense mechanism. Hepatocytes showed vacuolization in the 10 and 20µl/L groups. The 40 µl/L group showed normal hepatocytes as well as changed ones, many Ito cells, micronuclei, and nuclear swelling. These effects may be associated with toxicity or adaptative processes to cellular stress. The data from this study indicates the importance of assessing similar risks to aquatic species and suggests that Poecilia vivipara is an adequate biological model for analysis of environmental contamination.

  17. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Gao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (PCR essential oil obtained using an improved Clevenger type apparatus were studied. Among the five different PCRs examined the highest yield of essential oil was found in Chachi 2004 (harvested and stored in 2004 and the lowest in Chachi 2008 (harvested and stored in 2008. Fifty three different volatile compounds were determined, including terpenic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters. D-limonene, one of terpenes, was the major constituent in PCR. The antioxidant capacity of PCR essential oil varied considerably with the duration of storage time, and the oil from Chachi 1994 has the strongest ferric-reducing antioxidant power. In addition, the essential oil possessed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, except Streptococcus faecalis, while had no effect on Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae.

  18. camelopardalis reticulata)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    giraffes (ages nine and three years) was maintained at the. Buffalo Zoological ... the neck to an almost horizontal position, look at the floor, and place each ofthe ... reaching the ground, they frequently emitted a deep, long sigh, which was the ...

  19. The development of hyaline-cell cartilage in the head of the black molly, Poecilia sphenops. Evidence for secondary cartilage in a teleost.

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin, M

    1989-01-01

    The development of hyaline-cell cartilage attached to membrane (dentary, maxilla, nasal, lacrimal and cleithrum) and cartilage (basioccipital) bones has been studied in the viviparous black molly, Poecilia sphenops. Intramembranous ossification commences before the first appearance of hyaline cells. As hyaline-cell cartilage is densely cellular and as that attached to the dentary, maxilla and cleithrum develops from the periosteum of these membrane bones, it must be regarded as secondary cart...

  20. Immunoenzymatic visualization of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in Cephalothrix species (Nemertea: Anopla: Palaeonemertea: Cephalotrichidae) and Planocera reticulata (Platyhelminthes: Turbellaria: Polycladida: Planoceridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanu, Mohosena Begum; Mahmud, Yahia; Arakawa, Osamu; Takatani, Tomohiro; Kajihara, Hiroshi; Kawatsu, Kentaro; Hamano, Yonekazu; Asakawa, Manabu; Miyazawa, Keisuke; Noguchi, Tamao

    2004-10-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was localized as brown color in different tissues of an undescribed species of the nemertean genus Cephalothrix (phylum Nemertea) and a turbellarian Planocera reticulata (phylum Platyhelminthes) on light microscopy by means of a monoclonal anti-TTX antibody. In the Cephalothrix sp., TTX was recognized in the vesicles apically arranged in the bacillary cells in the epidermis, basal lamina, the granular cells in the proboscis epithelium, rhynchocoel epithelium, and the vesicles in the basal portion of the intestinal wall near the blood vessels and rhynchocoel. The excretory system and the ovum also showed positive reaction of TTX antigen-antibody. On the other hand, the hermaphrodite flatworm P. reticulata exhibited TTX antigen-antibody complex only in their ovum. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental effort on micro-distribution of TTX in invertebrates.

  1. Induction of Mitochondria Mediated Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells (T-47D) by Annona reticulata L. Leaves Methanolic Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roham, Pratiksha H; Kharat, Kiran R; Mungde, Priyanka; Jadhav, Mahadev A; Makhija, Surinder J

    2016-01-01

    Annona reticulata Linn. (Common name: Bullock's-heart) (Annonaceae family) is a semi-evergreen and small deciduous tree. The extracts of various parts of Annona reticulata L. have been reported as cytotoxic to many cancer cells. Annona reticulata L. leaves' methanolic extract (ARME) was prepared and used against the breast cancer cells. The breast cancer cells (T-47D) viability and IC50 were evaluated by Vybrant® MTT Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Detection of phosphatidylserine on membranes of apoptotic cells was done by Attune flow cytometer. RNA transcripts were quantified in ARME treated and untreated cells. Finally, the Vybrant® FAM Poly Caspases assay kit was used for analysis of polycaspases activity in T-47D cells. The IC50 (5 ± 0.5 µg/mL) of the ARME was found against breast cancer cells (T-47D). The Paclitaxel was used as a control standard drug for the study. The downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax and Bak, and caspases activation suggested induction of apoptosis in T-47D cells by ARME through mitochondrial pathway. The cell cycle halted at G2/M phase in the ARME treated cells. The ARME was found to be effective against Breast cancer cells (T-47D).

  2. Preference, tolerance and resistance responses of Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes, 1846 (Pisces: Poeciliidae to thermal fluctuations Respuesta de preferencia, tolerancia y resistencia de Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes, 1846 (Pisces: Poeciliidae a fluctuaciones térmicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Hernández-Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Poecilia sphenops was acclimated to two thermal fluctuations, each following a symmetrical and asymmetrical cycle. The critical maximum temperatures of the fish were significantly different (P Poecilia sphenops fue aclimatada a dos fluctuaciones térmicas cada una con un ciclo simétrico y asimétrico. La temperatura crítica maxima de los peces fue significativamente diferente (P < 0.001 entre las fluctuaciones y se observó a 40°C en el ciclo 20-29°C; para el ciclo 25-35°C fue mayor a 42°C. Los peces aclimatados a la fluctuación 20-29°C fueron más resistentes al frío con una temperatura crítica mínima de 10°C, en contraste a los 11.7°C del régimen 26-35°C. En ambos ciclos la temperatura letal incipiente superior tuvo un intervalo de 38.8 a 39.5°C y la temperatura letal incipiente inferior fue de 10.8 a 11.8°C. La temperatura preferida de las hembras fue de 30 a 31°C, con excepción del ciclo simétrico 26-35°C. La temperatura preferida de los machos aclimatados al ciclo simétrico fue de 23.8 a 24.2°C y de 27.4 a 29.4°C en el ciclo asimétrico. Las temperaturas de evitación de los machos y las hembras aclimatados a la fluctuación 20-29°C tienen un intervalo de 14 a 16°C comparado con el intervalo de 8.4 all .4°C del tratamiento 26-35°C. Los resultados indican que P. sphenops está perfectamente adaptado a las marcadas estaciones de lluvia y sequía de su habitat.

  3. Comparative transcriptional survey between self-incompatibility and self-compatibility in Citrus reticulata Blanco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuewen; Li, Qiulei; Hu, Guibing; Qin, Yonghua

    2017-04-20

    Seedlessness is an excellent economical trait, and self-incompatibility (SI) is one of important factors resulting in seedless fruit in Citrus. However, SI molecular mechanism in Citrus is still unclear. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was used to identify differentially expressed genes related to SI reaction of 'Wuzishatangju' (Citrus reticulata Blanco). A total of 35.67GB raw RNA-Seq data was generated and was de novo assembled into 50,364 unigenes with an average length of 897bp and N50 value of 1549. Twenty-three candidate unigenes related to SI were analyzed using qPCR at different tissues and stages after self- and cross-pollination. Seven pollen S genes (Unigene0050323, Unigene0001060, Unigene0004230, Unigene0004222, Unigene0012037, Unigene0048889 and Unigene0004272), three pistil S genes (Unigene0019191, Unigene0040115, Unigene0036542) and three genes (Unigene0038751, Unigene0031435 and Unigene0029897) associated with the pathway of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis were identified. Unigene0031435, Unigene0038751 and Unigene0029897 are probably involved in SI reaction of 'Wuzishatangju' based on expression analyses. The present study provides a new insight into the molecular mechanism of SI in Citrus at the transcriptional level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Preventive Effects of Salacia reticulata on Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in TSOD Mice

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    Tomoko Akase

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracts of Salacia reticulata (Salacia extract, a plant that has been used for the treatment of early diabetes, rheumatism and gonorrhea in Ayurveda, have been shown to have an anti-obesity effect and suppress hyperglycemia. In this study, the effects of Salacia extract on various symptoms of metabolic disorder were investigated and compared using these TSOD mice and non-obese TSNO mice. Body weight, food intake, plasma biochemistry, visceral and subcutaneous fat (X-ray and CT, glucose tolerance, blood pressure and pain tolerance were measured, and histopathological examination of the liver was carried out. A significant dose-dependent decline in the gain in body weight, accumulation of visceral and subcutaneous fat and an improvement of abnormal glucose tolerance, hypertension and peripheral neuropathy were noticed in TSOD mice. In addition, hepatocellular swelling, fatty degeneration of hepatocytes, inflammatory cell infiltration and single-cell necrosis were observed on histopathological examination of the liver in TSOD mice. Salacia extract markedly improved these symptoms upon treatment. Based on the above results, it is concluded that Salacia extract has remarkable potential to prevent obesity and associated metabolic disorders including the development of metabolic syndrome.

  5. Controlling absence seizures by deep brain stimulus applied on substantia nigra pars reticulata and cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Bing; Wang, Qingyun

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a typical neural disease in nervous system, and the control of seizures is very important for treating the epilepsy. It is well known that the drug treatment is the main strategy for controlling the epilepsy. However, there are about 10–15 percent of patients, whose seizures cannot be effectively controlled by means of the drug. Alternatively, the deep brain stimulus (DBS) technology is a feasible method to control the serious seizures. However, theoretical explorations of DBS are still absent, and need to be further made. Presently, we will explore to control the absence seizures by introducing the DBS to a basal ganglia thalamocortical network model. In particular, we apply DBS onto substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and the cortex to explore its effects on controlling absence seizures, respectively. We can find that the absence seizure can be well controlled within suitable parameter ranges by tuning the period and duration of current stimulation as DBS is implemented in the SNr. And also, as the DBS is applied onto the cortex, it is shown that for the ranges of present parameters, only adjusting the duration of current stimulation is an effective control method for the absence seizures. The obtained results can have better understanding for the mechanism of DBS in the medical treatment.

  6. Toxic hydrogen sulfide and dark caves: phenotypic and genetic divergence across two abiotic environmental gradients in Poecilia mexicana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Michael; Dewitt, Thomas J; Schlupp, Ingo; García de León, Francisco J; Herrmann, Roger; Feulner, Philine G D; Tiedemann, Ralph; Plath, Martin

    2008-10-01

    Divergent natural selection drives evolutionary diversification. It creates phenotypic diversity by favoring developmental plasticity within populations or genetic differentiation and local adaptation among populations. We investigated phenotypic and genetic divergence in the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana along two abiotic environmental gradients. These fish typically inhabit nonsulfidic surface rivers, but also colonized sulfidic and cave habitats. We assessed phenotypic variation among a factorial combination of habitat types using geometric and traditional morphometrics, and genetic divergence using quantitative and molecular genetic analyses. Fish in caves (sulfidic or not) exhibited reduced eyes and slender bodies. Fish from sulfidic habitats (surface or cave) exhibited larger heads and longer gill filaments. Common-garden rearing suggested that these morphological differences are partly heritable. Population genetic analyses using microsatellites as well as cytochrome b gene sequences indicate high population differentiation over small spatial scale and very low rates of gene flow, especially among different habitat types. This suggests that divergent environmental conditions constitute barriers to gene flow. Strong molecular divergence over short distances as well as phenotypic and quantitative genetic divergence across habitats in directions classic to fish ecomorphology suggest that divergent selection is structuring phenotypic variation in this system.

  7. Otolith morphology and hearing abilities in cave- and surface-dwelling ecotypes of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Ladich, Friedrich; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Cave fish have rarely been investigated with regard to their inner ear morphology, hearing abilities, and acoustic communication. Based on a previous study that revealed morphological differences in the saccular otolith between a cave and two surface populations of Poecilia mexicana, we checked for additional differences in utricular and lagenar otoliths and tested whether different populations have similar hearing sensitivities. We found pronounced differences in the shape of all three otoliths. Otoliths of the saccule and lagena from cave fish differed from those of surface fish in the features of the face oriented towards the sensory epithelium. In addition, otoliths of the utricle and lagena were significantly heavier in cave fish. Auditory sensitivities were measured between 100 and 1500 Hz, utilizing the auditory evoked potential recording technique. We found similar hearing abilities in cave and surface fish, with greatest sensitivity between 200 and 300 Hz. An acoustic survey revealed that neither ecotype produced species-specific sounds. Our data indicate that cave dwelling altered the otolith morphology in Atlantic mollies, probably due to metabolic differences. Different otolith morphology, however, did not affect general auditory sensitivity or acoustic behavior. PMID:20430090

  8. Female Choice Undermines the Emergence of Strong Sexual Isolation between Locally Adapted Populations of Atlantic Mollies (Poecilia mexicana

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    Claudia Zimmer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Divergent selection between ecologically dissimilar habitats promotes local adaptation, which can lead to reproductive isolation (RI. Populations in the Poecilia mexicana species complex have independently adapted to toxic hydrogen sulfide and show varying degrees of RI. Here, we examined the variation in the mate choice component of prezygotic RI. Mate choice tests across drainages (with stimulus males from another drainage suggest that specific features of the males coupled with a general female preference for yellow color patterns explain the observed variation. Analyses of male body coloration identified the intensity of yellow fin coloration as a strong candidate to explain this pattern, and common-garden rearing suggested heritable population differences. Male sexual ornamentation apparently evolved differently across sulfide-adapted populations, for example because of differences in natural counterselection via predation. The ubiquitous preference for yellow color ornaments in poeciliid females likely undermines the emergence of strong RI, as female discrimination in favor of own males becomes weaker when yellow fin coloration in the respective sulfide ecotype increases. Our study illustrates the complexity of the (partly non-parallel pathways to divergence among replicated ecological gradients. We suggest that future work should identify the genomic loci involved in the pattern reported here, making use of the increasing genomic and transcriptomic datasets available for our study system.

  9. Sex-specific local life-history adaptation in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, Rüdiger; Reznick, David N; Plath, Martin; Schlupp, Ingo

    2016-03-10

    Cavefishes have long been used as model organisms showcasing adaptive diversification, but does adaptation to caves also facilitate the evolution of reproductive isolation from surface ancestors? We raised offspring of wild-caught surface- and cave-dwelling ecotypes of the neotropical fish Poecilia mexicana to sexual maturity in a 12-month common garden experiment. Fish were raised under one of two food regimes (high vs. low), and this was crossed with differences in lighting conditions (permanent darkness vs. 12:12 h light:dark cycle) in a 2 × 2 factorial design, allowing us to elucidate potential patterns of local adaptation in life histories. Our results reveal a pattern of sex-specific local life-history adaptation: Surface molly females had the highest fitness in the treatment best resembling their habitat of origin (high food and a light:dark cycle), and suffered from almost complete reproductive failure in darkness, while cave molly females were not similarly affected in any treatment. Males of both ecotypes, on the other hand, showed only weak evidence for local adaptation. Nonetheless, local life-history adaptation in females likely contributes to ecological diversification in this system and other cave animals, further supporting the role of local adaptation due to strong divergent selection as a major force in ecological speciation.

  10. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  11. Identification of chemical compounds present in different fractions of Annona reticulata L. leaf by using GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Soumya P; Kar, Durga M

    2014-01-01

    GC-MS analysis of fractions prepared from hydro-alcoholic extract of Annona reticulata Linn (Family Annonaceae) leaf revealed the presence of 9,10-dimethyltricyclo[4.2.1.1(2,5)]decane-9,10-diol; 4-(1,5-dihydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-enyl)but-3-en-2-one; 3,7-dimethyl-6-nonen-1-ol acetate; 9-octadecenamide,(Z)-; glycerine; D-glucose,6-O-α-D-galactopyranosyl-; desulphosinigrin and α-methyl-D-mannopyranoside as few of the major compounds in different fractions. The presence of these compounds in the plant has been identified for the first time.

  12. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activities of Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata, and Citrus grandis Against Pathogenic Bacteria

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    Sholeh Saeb

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microorganisms resistant to most antibiotics are rapidly spreading, and there is an urgent and continuous need for novel antimicrobial compounds. The genus Citrus belongs to the family Rutaceae has many biologically active secondary metabolites. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial activity of essential oil and extract of Lemon (Citrus limon, Mandarin (Citrus reticulata and Pummelo (Citrus grandis against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi. Materials and Methods: The fresh Citrus leaves were shade-dried and powdered. Antimicrobial metabolites were extracted from them by 80% methanol for extract and using a Clevenger-type apparatus for essential oil. Eight different concentrations of the each leaf extract and essential oil were prepared. The antimicrobial susceptibility assay of Citrus leaves metabolites were subjected against four bacterial strains by agar disc diffusion and E-test method. Results: In this study, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of different Citrus leaf extracts were determined against all four food-borne pathogens. The C. grandis leaf essential oil had potent antimicrobial activity against all four pathogens, and the C. limon leaf essential oil was effective on Gram-positive bacteria. S. typhi was resistant against two leaves essential oils. Conclusions: The results showed that there was no antimicrobial activity effect in all extracts on tested bacteria. In this study, the antibacterial effect of essential oil of Citrus leaves on four strains of pathogenic microorganisms was confirmed. The C. grandis leaf essential oil had the most powerful antimicrobial properties, suggesting its potential application as natural preservative in foods or an effective medicine against different pathogenic microbes. Key words: Antibacterial activity, E-test, Citr

  13. Schistosomicidal Effects of the Essential Oils of Citrus limonia and Citrus reticulata Against Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Moara H G; Fracarolli, Letícia; Vieira, Tatiana M; Dias, Herbert J; Cruz, Michele G; Deus, Cássia C H; Nicolella, Heloiza D; Stefani, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Tavares, Denise C; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Crotti, Antônio E M

    2017-01-01

    We report the in vitro schistosomicidal effects of the essential oil obtained from Citrus limonia leaves (CL-EO) and C. reticulata fruit peels (CR-EO), cultivated in Brazil, against Schistosoma mansoni worms. Limonene (29.9%), β-pinene (12.0%), sabinene (9.0%), citronellal (9.0%), and citronellol (5.8%) are the major constituents of CL-EO; limonene (26.5%), γ-terpinene (17.2%), linalool (11.1%), octanal (8.0%), myrcene (6.2%), and capraldehyde (3.9%) predominate in CR-EO. CL-EO displayed moderate lethal concentration 50% (LC 50 ) of 81.7 and 38.9 μg/ml against male and female worms at 24 and 72 h, respectively. At concentrations of 25 and 100 μg/ml, CL-EO separated between 50 and 75% of the coupled worm pairs during the evaluated period. CR-EO presented moderate LC 50 of 81.7 μg/ml against male and female worms at 24 and 72 h. However, this oil separated coupled worm pairs more effectively than CL-EO and displayed lower cytotoxicity to GM07492-A cells (IC 50 = 987.7 ± 88.9 μg/ml) as compared to CL-EO (IC 50 = 187.8 ± 2.9 μg/ml). The enantiomers (+)-(R)-limonene and (-)-(S)-limonene did not affect S. mansoni adult worm pairs significantly. Taken together, these data indicate that CL-EO and CR-EO exhibit moderate in vitro schistosomicidal activity against adult S. mansoni worms. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  14. Body size and allometric shape variation in the molly Poecilia vivipara along a gradient of salinity and predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Márcio S; Perez, S Ivan; Magazoni, Maria Julia C; Petry, Ana C

    2014-12-04

    Phenotypic diversity among populations may result from divergent natural selection acting directly on traits or via correlated responses to changes in other traits. One of the most frequent patterns of correlated response is the proportional change in the dimensions of anatomical traits associated with changes in growth or absolute size, known as allometry. Livebearing fishes subject to predation gradients have been shown to repeatedly evolve larger caudal peduncles and smaller cranial regions under high predation regimes. Poecilia vivipara is a livebearing fish commonly found in coastal lagoons in the north of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Similar to what is observed in other predation gradients, lagoons inhabited by P. vivipara vary in the presence of piscivorous fishes; contrary to other poeciliid systems, populations of P. vivipara vary greatly in body size, which opens the possibility of strong allometric effects on shape variation. Here we investigated body shape diversification among six populations of P. vivipara along a predation gradient and its relationship with allometric trajectories within and among populations. We found substantial body size variation and correlated shape changes among populations. Multivariate regression analysis showed that size variation among populations accounted for 66% of shape variation in females and 38% in males, suggesting that size is the most important dimension underlying shape variation among populations of P. vivipara in this system. Changes in the relative sizes of the caudal peduncle and cranial regions were only partly in line with predictions from divergent natural selection associated with predation regime. Our results suggest the possibility that adaptive shape variation among populations has been partly constrained by allometry in P. vivipara. Processes governing body size changes are therefore important in the diversification of this species. We conclude that in species characterized by substantial

  15. Local adaptation and pronounced genetic differentiation in an extremophile fish, Poecilia mexicana, inhabiting a Mexican cave with toxic hydrogen sulphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, M; Hauswaldt, J S; Moll, K; Tobler, M; García De León, F J; Schlupp, I; Tiedemann, R

    2007-03-01

    We investigated genetic differentiation and migration patterns in a small livebearing fish, Poecilia mexicana, inhabiting a sulfidic Mexican limestone cave (Cueva del Azufre). We examined fish from three different cave chambers, the sulfidic surface creek draining the cave (El Azufre) and a nearby surface creek without the toxic hydrogen sulphide (Arroyo Cristal). Using microsatellite analysis of 10 unlinked loci, we found pronounced genetic differentiation among the three major habitats: Arroyo Cristal, El Azufre and the cave. Genetic differentiation was also found within the cave between different pools. An estimation of first-generation migrants suggests that (i) migration is unidirectional, out of the cave, and (ii) migration among different cave chambers occurs to some extent. We investigated if the pattern of genetic differentiation is also reflected in a morphological trait, eye size. Relatively large eyes were found in surface habitats, small eyes in the anterior cave chambers, and the smallest eyes were detected in the innermost cave chamber (XIII). This pattern shows some congruence with a previously proposed morphocline in eye size. However, our data do not support the proposed mechanism for this morphocline, namely that it would be maintained by migration from both directions into the middle cave chambers. This would have led to an increased variance in eye size in the middle cave chambers, which we did not find. Restricted gene flow between the cave and the surface can be explained by local adaptations to extreme environmental conditions, namely H2S and absence of light. Within the cave system, habitat properties are patchy, and genetic differentiation between cave chambers despite migration could indicate local adaptation at an even smaller scale.

  16. Allele-specific expression at the androgen receptor alpha gene in a hybrid unisexual fish, the Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjun Zhu

    Full Text Available The all-female Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa is the result of a hybridization of the Atlantic molly (P. mexicana and the sailfin molly (P. latipinna approximately 120,000 years ago. As a gynogenetic species, P. formosa needs to copulate with heterospecific males including males from one of its bisexual ancestral species. However, the sperm only triggers embryogenesis of the diploid eggs. The genetic information of the sperm donor typically will not contribute to the next generation of P. formosa. Hence, P. formosa possesses generally one allele from each of its ancestral species at any genetic locus. This raises the question whether both ancestral alleles are equally expressed in P. formosa. Allele-specific expression (ASE has been previously assessed in various organisms, e.g., human and fish, and ASE was found to be important in the context of phenotypic variability and disease. In this study, we utilized Real-Time PCR techniques to estimate ASE of the androgen receptor alpha (arα gene in several distinct tissues of Amazon mollies. We found an allelic bias favoring the maternal ancestor (P. mexicana allele in ovarian tissue. This allelic bias was not observed in the gill or the brain tissue. Sequencing of the promoter regions of both alleles revealed an association between an Indel in a known CpG island and differential expression. Future studies may reveal whether our observed cis-regulatory divergence is caused by an ovary-specific trans-regulatory element, preferentially activating the allele of the maternal ancestor.

  17. Development of seedless fruits mutants in citrus including tangerine (C. reticulata) and pummelo (C. grandis) through induced mutations and biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somsri, S. [Horticulture Research Institute, Department of Agriculture (DOA), Chatuchak, Bangkok (Thailand); Jompook, P. [Department of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok (Thailand); Kanhom, P. [Phare Horticultural Research Center, Muang, Phare (Thailand); Thayamanont, P.; Meecharoen, S. [Pichit Horticultural Research Center, Muang, Pichit (Thailand); Kumcha, U. [Srisaket Horticultural Research Center, Muang, Srisaket (Thailand)

    2009-05-15

    The development of seedless fruit mutants in citrus, including Tangerine (C. reticulata) and Pummelo (C. grandis), through induced mutation and biotechnology was studied at the Gamma Irradiation Service and Nuclear Technology Center, Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center for 4 years (August 2000 to September 2004). The results showed successful induction of mutants with gamma irradiation using both chronic and acute procedures for pot plants, scions and in vitro plantlets of tangerine (Citrus reticulata var. Shogun and Sai Nam Puaeng) and pummelo (Citrus grandis viz. Kao Thong Dee). MS medium with 2 mgL{sup -1} of BA was found to be the most suitable medium for shoot proliferation. The seedlings were sub-cultured at least 4 times, and then they were treated with acute and chronic irradiation. Shoot induction from M{sub 1}V{sub 0} to M{sub 1}V{sub 4} generation was performed in basic MS medium with 2 mgL{sup -1} added BA. Rooting was induced in the M{sub 1}V{sub 4} in halfstrength MS enriched with BA 2 mgL{sup -1}. Later, the shoots were excised and grafted on mature plants or the plantlets directly transferred in the field and later the fruits from mature trees were evaluated for seedlessness in M{sub 1}V{sub 4} at Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center. (author)

  18. Ovarian structure and oogenesis of the extremophile viviparous teleost Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae) from an active sulfur spring cave in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Martínez, Aarón; Hernández-Franyutti, Arlette; Uribe, Mari Carmen; Contreras-Sánchez, Wilfrido Miguel

    2017-12-01

    The structure of the ovary and oogenesis of Poecilia mexicana from an active sulfur spring cave is documented. Poecilia mexicana is the only poeciliid adapted to a subterranean environment with high hydrogen sulfide levels and extreme hypoxic conditions. Twenty females were captured throughout one year at Cueva del Azufre, located in the State of Tabasco in Southern Mexico. Ovaries were processed with histological techniques. P. mexicana has a single, ovoid ovary with ovigerous lamella that project to the ovarian lumen. The ovarian wall presents abundant loose connective tissue, numerous melanomacrophage centers and large blood vessels, possibly associated with hypoxic conditions. The germinal epithelium bordering the ovarian lumen contains somatic and germ cells forming cell nests projecting into the stroma. P. mexicana stores sperm in ovarian folds associated with follicles at different developmental phases. Oogenesis in P. mexicana consisted of the following stages: (i) oogonial proliferation, (ii) chromatin nucleolus, (iii) primary growth, subdivided into: (a) one nucleolus, (b) multiple nucleoli, (c) droplet oils-cortical alveoli steps; (iv) secondary growth, subdivided in: (a) early secondary growth, (b) late secondary growth, and (c) full grown. Follicular atresia was present in all stages of follicular development; it was characterized by oocyte degeneration, where follicle cells hypertrophy and differentiate in phagocytes. The ovary and oogenesis are similar to these seen in other poeciliids, but we found frequent atretic follicles, melanomacrophage centers, reduced fecundity and increased of offspring size. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (Chenpi): Botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Sun, Shuang; Guo, Yuyan; Liu, Yan; Yang, Dayu; Li, Guoyu; Lü, Shaowa

    2018-06-28

    Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (Rutaceae, CRP), commonly called as Chenpi () in Chinese, is most frequently used as a qi-regulating drug in thousands of Chinese medicine prescriptions. CRP is found mainly in major citrus-producing areas such as the Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Fujian, and Zhejiang Provinces of China. Since thousands of years in China, CRP has been used widely in clinical practice to treat nausea, vomiting, indigestion, anepithymia, diarrhea, cough, expectoration, and so on. Currently, CRP is listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. The present paper reviews the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control, and toxicology of CRP. Information on CRP was gathered from various sources including the books on traditional Chinese herbal medicine; scientific databases including Elsevier, PubMed, and ScienceDirect; Baidu Scholar; CNKI; and others and from different professional websites. Approximately 140 chemical compounds have been isolated and identified from CRP. Among them, volatile oils and flavonoids are generally considered as the main bioactive and characteristic ingredients. CRP possesses wide pharmacological effects such as having a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular, digestive, and respiratory systems, antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties; and a protective effect on the liver and nerve. Moreover, hesperidin is chosen as an indicator in the quantitative determination of CRP, and the quantity of aflatoxin in CRP must not exceed the standard limit mentioned in the pharmacopoeia. In brief, CRP has a warming nature, and hence, it can be used in harmony with a lot of medicines. CRP not only exhibits its effects individually but also aids other medicines exhibit a better effect. CRP can be consumed with tea, food, alcohol, and medicine. Irrespective of the form it is being consumed, CRP not only shows a synergistic effect but also has strengths on its own. Modern pharmacological

  20. Genotyping by sequencing reveals the interspecific C. maxima / C. reticulata admixture along the genomes of modern citrus varieties of mandarins, tangors, tangelos, orangelos and grapefruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueslati, Amel; Salhi-Hannachi, Amel; Luro, François; Vignes, Hélène; Mournet, Pierre; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The mandarin horticultural group is an important component of world citrus production for the fresh fruit market. This group formerly classified as C. reticulata is highly polymorphic and recent molecular studies have suggested that numerous cultivated mandarins were introgressed by C. maxima (the pummelos). C. maxima and C. reticulata are also the ancestors of sweet and sour oranges, grapefruit, and therefore of all the "small citrus" modern varieties (mandarins, tangors, tangelos) derived from sexual hybridization between these horticultural groups. Recently, NGS technologies have greatly modified how plant evolution and genomic structure are analyzed, moving from phylogenetics to phylogenomics. The objective of this work was to develop a workflow for phylogenomic inference from Genotyping By Sequencing (GBS) data and to analyze the interspecific admixture along the nine citrus chromosomes for horticultural groups and recent varieties resulting from the combination of the C. reticulata and C. maxima gene pools. A GBS library was established from 55 citrus varieties, using the ApekI restriction enzyme and selective PCR to improve the read depth. Diagnostic polymorphisms (DPs) of C. reticulata/C. maxima differentiation were identified and used to decipher the phylogenomic structure of the 55 varieties. The GBS approach was powerful and revealed 30,289 SNPs and 8,794 Indels with 12.6% of missing data. 11,133 DPs were selected covering the nine chromosomes with a higher density in genic regions. GBS combined with the detection of DPs was powerful for deciphering the "phylogenomic karyotypes" of cultivars derived from admixture of the two ancestral species after a limited number of interspecific recombinations. All the mandarins, mandarin hybrids, tangelos and tangors analyzed displayed introgression of C. maxima in different parts of the genome. C. reticulata/C. maxima admixture should be a major component of the high phenotypic variability of this germplasm opening

  1. The inhibitory potential of the condensed-tannin-rich fraction of Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Fabaceae) against Bothrops atrox envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Valéria Mourão; da Silva, Wania Cristina Rodrigues; Raposo, Juliana D A; Freitas-de-Sousa, Luciana A; Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina; de Oliveira, Ricardo Bezerra; Veras Mourão, Rosa Helena

    2016-05-13

    Ethnobotanical studies have shown that Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Fabaceae) has been widely used in cases of snake envenomation, particularly in Northern Brazil. In light of this, the aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of the condensed-tannin-rich fraction obtained from the bark of P. reticulata against the main biological activities induced by Bothrops atrox venom (BaV). The chemical composition of the aqueous extract of P. reticulata (AEPr) was first investigated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and the extract was then fractionated by column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20. This yielded five main fractions (Pr1, Pr2, Pr3, Pr4 and Pr5), which were analyzed by colorimetry to determine their concentrations of total phenolics, total tannins and condensed tannins and to assess their potential for blocking the phospholipase activity of BaV. The Pr5 fraction was defined as the fraction rich in condensed tannins (CTPr), and its inhibitory potential against the activities of the venom was evaluated. CTPr was evaluated in different in vivo and in vitro experimental protocols. The in vivo protocols consisted of (1) pre-incubation (venom:CTPr, w/w), (2) pre-treatment (orally administered) and (3) post-treatment (orally administered) to evaluate the effect on the hemorrhagic and edematogenic activities of BaV; in the in vitro protocol the effect on phospholipase and coagulant activity using pre-incubation in both tests was evaluated. There was statistically significant inhibition (p<0.05) of hemorrhagic activity by CTPr when the pre-incubation protocol was used [55% (1:5, w/w) and 74% (1:10, w/w)] and when pre-treatment with doses of 50 and 100mg/kg was used (19% and 13%, respectively). However, for the concentrations tested, there was no statistically significant inhibition in the group subjected to post-treatment administered orally. CTPr blocked 100% of phospholipase activity and 63.3% (1:10, w/w) of coagulant activity when it was pre

  2. Citrus Essential Oil of Nigeria Part IV: Volatile Constituents of Leaf Oils of Mandarins (Citrus Reticulata Blanco From Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke A. Kasali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of hydrodistilled oils obtained from the leaves of six Citrus reticulata Blanco (mandarin cultivars grown in Nigeria were examined by GC and GC/MS, the result of their chemical composition were further submitted to cluster analysis. Fifty seven constituents were characterized accounting for 88.2 - 96.7% of the total oils. Sabinene, g -terpinene, P-cymene, d -3-carene and (E- b -ocimene were observed in great variability in all the oils. Other constituents include linalool, myrcene, terpinen-4-ol and cis-sabinenehydrate. In addition, limonene, terpinolene, b -pinene, and a -pinene were also detected in appreciable concentrations. b -sinensal and a -sinensal were isolated by preparative GC and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques.

  3. PEMBUATAN KARBON AKTIF DARI KULIT JERUK KEPROK (Citrus reticulata UNTUK ADSORBSI PEWARNA REMAZOL BRILLIANT BLUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asriningtyas Ajeng Erprihana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Limbah kulit jeruk keprok (Citrus reticulata sering dijumpai di industri pembuatan berbagai macam minuman seperti jus, sirup, dan sari buah. Limbah kulit jeruk ini hanya akan dibuang begitu saja dengan jumlah banyak, dan pada akhirnya limbah ini akan mencemari lingkungan. Salah satu upaya peningkatan nilai ekonomis limbah kulit jeruk dapat dilakukan dengan mengolahnya menjadi karbon aktif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan karbon aktif dari kulit jeruk keprok dengan aktivasi kimia, luas permukaan, serta mengetahui kemampuannya dalam mengadsorpsi zat warna Remazol Brilliant Blue. Kulit jeruk yang telah dibersihkan dari kotoran, dikeringkan menggunakan oven pada suhu 120oC selama 3 jam. Aktivator yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah H3PO4 dengan rasio massa aktivator : massa karbon 1:1. Aktivasi dilakukan pada temperatur 600oC selama 1 jam, kulit jeruk kemudian dicuci dengan aquades dan dikeringkan menggunakan oven pada suhu 150oC selama 6 jam. Setelah itu, dilakukan uji bilangan iodin terhadap sampel hasil penelitian. Adsorpsi zat warna Remazol Brilliant Blue oleh karbon aktif kulit jeruk dilakukan dengan variasi waktu kontak dan massa karbon aktif untuk mencari kondisi adsorpsi optimum. Kondisi optimum adsorpsi zat warna Remazol Brilliant Blue oleh karbon aktif pada kulit jeruk keprok pada waktu kontak 30 menit dengan massa karbon aktif 1 gram. Karbon aktif dari kulit jeruk keprok memiliki luas permukaan karbon aktif sebesar 529,17 mg/g berdasarkan daya serapnya terhadap larutan iodin. Orange peel (Citrus reticulate waste is often found in industrial manufacturing various kinds of beverages such as juice, syrup, fruit juice. Orange peel waste is just be thrown away with the lot number, and in the end of this waste will pollute the environment. One of the efforts to increase the economic value of orange peel waste by using the process which convert waste into activated carbon. This research aims are to produce activated carbon

  4. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective extraction of hesperetin from the dried pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan-Dan; Gao, Die; Xu, Wan-Jun; Li, Fan; Yin, Man-Ni; Fu, Qi-Feng; Xia, Zhi-Ning

    2018-07-01

    In present study, novel magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for hesperetin were successfully prepared by surface molecular imprinting method using functionalized Fe 3 O 4 particles as the magnetic cores. Hesperetin as the template, N-Isopropylacrylamide as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethyl acrylate as the crosslinker, 2,2-azobisisobutyonnitrile as initiator and acetonitrile-methanol (3:1, v/v) as the porogen were applied in the preparation process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, x-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry were applied to characterize the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers. The adsorption experiments indicated that the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers performed high selective recognition property to hesperetin. The selectivity experiment indicated that the adsorption capacity and selectivity of polymers to hesperetin was higher than that of luteolin, baicalein and ombuin. Furthermore, the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were employed as adsorbents for extraction and enrichment of hesperetin from the dried pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco. The recoveries of hesperetin in the dried pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco ranged from 90.5% to 96.9%. The linear range of 0.15-110.72 µg/mL was obtained with correlation coefficient of greater than 0.9991. The limit of detection and quantification of the proposed method was 0.06 µg/mL and 0.15 µg/mL, respectively. Based on three replicate measurements, intra-day RSD was 0.71% and inter-day RSD was 2.31%. These results demonstrated that the prepared magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were proven to be an effective material for the selective adsorption and enrichment of hesperetin from natural medicines, fruits and et al. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Development and Characterization of Somatic Hybrids of Ulva reticulata Forsskål (× Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.Doty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal eGupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulvophycean species with diverse trait characteristics provide an opportunity to create novel allelic recombinant variants. The present study reports the development of seaweed variants with improved agronomic traits through protoplast fusion between Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz. Doty and Ulva reticulata Forsskål. A total of 12 putative hybrids were screened based on the variations in morphology and total DNA content over the fusion partners. DNA-fingerprinting by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis confirmed genomic introgression in the hybrids. The DNA fingerprint revealed sharing of parental alleles in regenerated hybrids and a few alleles that were unique to hybrids. The epigenetic variations in hybrids estimated in terms of DNA methylation polymorphism also revealed sharing of methylation loci with both the fusion partners. The functional trait analysis for growth showed a hybrid with heterotic trait (DGR%= 36.7±1.55% over the fusion partners U. reticulata (33.2±2.6% and M. oxyspermum (17.8±1.77%, while others were superior to the mid-parental value (25.2±2.2% (p<0.05. The fatty acid (FA analysis of hybrids showed notable variations over fusion partners. Most hybrids showed increased polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs compared to saturated FAs (SFAs and mainly includes the nutritionally important linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, oleic acid, stearidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. The other differences observed include superior cellulose content and antioxidative potential in hybrids over fusion partners. The hybrid varieties with superior traits developed in this study unequivocally demonstrate the significance of protoplast fusion technique in developing improved varients of macroalgae.

  6. Development and Characterization of Somatic Hybrids of Ulva reticulata Forsskål (×) Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.)Doty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Kumari, Puja; Reddy, CRK

    2015-01-01

    Ulvophycean species with diverse trait characteristics provide an opportunity to create novel allelic recombinant variants. The present study reports the development of seaweed variants with improved agronomic traits through protoplast fusion between Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.) Doty and Ulva reticulata Forsskål. A total of 12 putative hybrids were screened based on the variations in morphology and total DNA content over the fusion partners. DNA-fingerprinting by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis confirmed genomic introgression in the hybrids. The DNA fingerprint revealed sharing of parental alleles in regenerated hybrids and a few alleles that were unique to hybrids. The epigenetic variations in hybrids estimated in terms of DNA methylation polymorphism also revealed sharing of methylation loci with both the fusion partners. The functional trait analysis for growth showed a hybrid with heterotic trait (DGR% = 36.7 ± 1.55%) over the fusion partners U. reticulata (33.2 ± 2.6%) and M. oxyspermum (17.8 ± 1.77%), while others were superior to the mid-parental value (25.2 ± 2.2%) (p < 0.05). The fatty acid (FA) analysis of hybrids showed notable variations over fusion partners. Most hybrids showed increased polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) compared to saturated FAs (SFAs) and mainly includes the nutritionally important linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, oleic acid, stearidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. The other differences observed include superior cellulose content and antioxidative potential in hybrids over fusion partners. The hybrid varieties with superior traits developed in this study unequivocally demonstrate the significance of protoplast fusion technique in developing improved varients of macroalgae. PMID:25688248

  7. Control of the subthalamic innervation of substantia nigra pars reticulata by D1 and D2 dopamine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Hernández, Adán; Florán, Benjamin; Galarraga, Elvira; Tapia, Dagoberto; Valdiosera, Rene; Erlij, David; Aceves, Jorge; Bargas, José

    2006-03-01

    The effects of activating dopaminergic D1 and D2 class receptors of the subthalamic projections that innervate the pars reticulata of the subtantia nigra (SNr) were explored in slices of the rat brain using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) that could be blocked by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxalene-2,3-dione and D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid were evoked onto reticulata GABAergic projection neurons by local field stimulation inside the subthalamic nucleus in the presence of bicuculline. Bath application of (RS)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride (SKF-38393), a dopaminergic D1-class receptor agonist, increased evoked EPSCs by approximately 30% whereas the D2-class receptor agonist, trans-(-)-4aR-4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a,9-octahydro-5-propyl-1H-pyrazolo(3,4-g)quinoline (quinpirole), reduced EPSCs by approximately 25%. These apparently opposing actions were blocked by the specific D1- and D2-class receptor antagonists: R-(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-1H-3-benzazepinehydrochloride (SCH 23390) and S-(-)-5-amino-sulfonyl-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-methyl]-2-methoxybenzamide (sulpiride), respectively. Both effects were accompanied by changes in the paired-pulse ratio, indicative of a presynaptic site of action. The presynaptic location of dopamine receptors at the subthalamonigral projections was confirmed by mean-variance analysis. The effects of both SKF-38393 and quinpirole could be observed on terminals contacting the same postsynaptic neuron. Sulpiride and SCH 23390 enhanced and reduced the evoked EPSC, respectively, suggesting a constitutive receptor activation probably arising from endogenous dopamine. These data suggest that dopamine presynaptically modulates the subthalamic projection that targets GABAergic neurons of the SNr. Implications of this modulation for basal ganglia function are discussed.

  8. Proanthocyanidin Characterization, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Three Plants Commonly Used in Traditional Medicine in Costa Rica: Petiveria alliaceae L., Phyllanthus niruri L. and Senna reticulata Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtha Navarro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic composition of aerial parts from Petiveria alliaceae L., Phyllanthus niruri L. and Senna reticulata Willd., species commonly used in Costa Rica as traditional medicines, was studied using UPLC-ESI-TQ-MS on enriched-phenolic extracts. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content (TPC, as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, were observed for P. niruri extracts (328.8 gallic acid equivalents/g than for S. reticulata (79.30 gallic acid equivalents/g whereas P. alliaceae extract showed the lowest value (13.45 gallic acid equivalents/g. A total of 20 phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins were identified in the extracts, including hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, gallic, prochatechuic, salicylic, syringic and vanillic acids; hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids; and flavan-3-ols monomers [(+-catechin and (−-epicatechin]. Regarding proanthocyanidin oligomers, five procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, and B5 and one trimer (T2 are reported for the first time in P. niruri, as well as two propelargonidin dimers in S. reticulata. Additionally, P. niruri showed the highest antioxidant DPPH and ORAC values (IC50 of 6.4 μg/mL and 6.5 mmol TE/g respectively, followed by S. reticulata (IC50 of 72.9 μg/mL and 2.68 mmol TE/g respectively and P. alliaceae extract (IC50 >1000 μg/mL and 1.32 mmol TE/g respectively. Finally, cytotoxicity and selectivity on gastric AGS and colon SW20 adenocarcinoma cell lines were evaluated and the best values were also found for P. niruri (SI = 2.8, followed by S. reticulata (SI = 2.5. Therefore, these results suggest that extracts containing higher proanthocyanidin content also show higher bioactivities. Significant positive correlation was found between TPC and ORAC (R2 = 0.996 as well as between phenolic content as measured by UPLC-DAD and ORAC (R2 = 0.990. These findings show evidence for the first time of the diversity of phenolic acids in P. alliaceae and S

  9. Proanthocyanidin Characterization, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Three Plants Commonly Used in Traditional Medicine in Costa Rica: Petiveria alliaceae L., Phyllanthus niruri L. and Senna reticulata Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Mirtha; Moreira, Ileana; Arnaez, Elizabeth; Quesada, Silvia; Azofeifa, Gabriela; Alvarado, Diego; Monagas, Maria J.

    2017-01-01

    The phenolic composition of aerial parts from Petiveria alliaceae L., Phyllanthus niruri L. and Senna reticulata Willd., species commonly used in Costa Rica as traditional medicines, was studied using UPLC-ESI-TQ-MS on enriched-phenolic extracts. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content (TPC), as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, were observed for P. niruri extracts (328.8 gallic acid equivalents/g) than for S. reticulata (79.30 gallic acid equivalents/g) whereas P. alliaceae extract showed the lowest value (13.45 gallic acid equivalents/g). A total of 20 phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins were identified in the extracts, including hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, gallic, prochatechuic, salicylic, syringic and vanillic acids); hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids); and flavan-3-ols monomers [(+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin)]. Regarding proanthocyanidin oligomers, five procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, and B5) and one trimer (T2) are reported for the first time in P. niruri, as well as two propelargonidin dimers in S. reticulata. Additionally, P. niruri showed the highest antioxidant DPPH and ORAC values (IC50 of 6.4 μg/mL and 6.5 mmol TE/g respectively), followed by S. reticulata (IC50 of 72.9 μg/mL and 2.68 mmol TE/g respectively) and P. alliaceae extract (IC50 >1000 μg/mL and 1.32 mmol TE/g respectively). Finally, cytotoxicity and selectivity on gastric AGS and colon SW20 adenocarcinoma cell lines were evaluated and the best values were also found for P. niruri (SI = 2.8), followed by S. reticulata (SI = 2.5). Therefore, these results suggest that extracts containing higher proanthocyanidin content also show higher bioactivities. Significant positive correlation was found between TPC and ORAC (R2 = 0.996) as well as between phenolic content as measured by UPLC-DAD and ORAC (R2 = 0.990). These findings show evidence for the first time of the diversity of phenolic acids in P. alliaceae and S

  10. Inner Ear Morphology in the Atlantic Molly Poecilia mexicana—First Detailed Microanatomical Study of the Inner Ear of a Cyprinodontiform Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Heß, Martin; Plath, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background Fishes show an amazing diversity in hearing abilities, inner ear structures, and otolith morphology. Inner ear morphology, however, has not yet been investigated in detail in any member of the diverse order Cyprinodontiformes. We, therefore, studied the inner ear of the cyprinodontiform freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana by analyzing the position of otoliths in situ, investigating the 3D structure of sensory epithelia, and examining the orientation patterns of ciliary bundles of the sensory hair cells, while combining μ-CT analyses, scanning electron microscopy, and immunocytochemical methods. P. mexicana occurs in different ecotypes, enabling us to study the intra-specific variability (on a qualitative basis) of fish from regular surface streams, and the Cueva del Azufre, a sulfidic cave in southern Mexico. Results The inner ear of Poecilia mexicana displays a combination of several remarkable features. The utricle is connected rostrally instead of dorso-rostrally to the saccule, and the macula sacculi, therefore, is very close to the utricle. Moreover, the macula sacculi possesses dorsal and ventral bulges. The two studied ecotypes of P. mexicana showed variation mainly in the shape and curvature of the macula lagenae, in the curvature of the macula sacculi, and in the thickness of the otolithic membrane. Conclusions Our study for the first time provides detailed insights into the auditory periphery of a cyprinodontiform inner ear and thus serves a basis—especially with regard to the application of 3D techniques—for further research on structure-function relationships of inner ears within the species-rich order Cyprinodontiformes. We suggest that other poeciliid taxa, or even other non-poeciliid cyprinodontiforms, may display similar inner ear morphologies as described here. PMID:22110746

  11. Inner ear morphology in the Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana--first detailed microanatomical study of the inner ear of a cyprinodontiform species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Hess, Martin; Plath, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Fishes show an amazing diversity in hearing abilities, inner ear structures, and otolith morphology. Inner ear morphology, however, has not yet been investigated in detail in any member of the diverse order Cyprinodontiformes. We, therefore, studied the inner ear of the cyprinodontiform freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana by analyzing the position of otoliths in situ, investigating the 3D structure of sensory epithelia, and examining the orientation patterns of ciliary bundles of the sensory hair cells, while combining μ-CT analyses, scanning electron microscopy, and immunocytochemical methods. P. mexicana occurs in different ecotypes, enabling us to study the intra-specific variability (on a qualitative basis) of fish from regular surface streams, and the Cueva del Azufre, a sulfidic cave in southern Mexico. The inner ear of Poecilia mexicana displays a combination of several remarkable features. The utricle is connected rostrally instead of dorso-rostrally to the saccule, and the macula sacculi, therefore, is very close to the utricle. Moreover, the macula sacculi possesses dorsal and ventral bulges. The two studied ecotypes of P. mexicana showed variation mainly in the shape and curvature of the macula lagenae, in the curvature of the macula sacculi, and in the thickness of the otolithic membrane. Our study for the first time provides detailed insights into the auditory periphery of a cyprinodontiform inner ear and thus serves a basis--especially with regard to the application of 3D techniques--for further research on structure-function relationships of inner ears within the species-rich order Cyprinodontiformes. We suggest that other poeciliid taxa, or even other non-poeciliid cyprinodontiforms, may display similar inner ear morphologies as described here.

  12. in guppies (Poecilia reticuillta)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    male colour patterns were positively related to mating success. This substantiates ... sexually selective processes are occurring in a particular pop- ulation (Moller ..... of multiple orna- ments may be improved by considering the possibility of a ... cal and empirical attention. 51 ... Melanin pigmenl as a visual signal amplifier in.

  13. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove) and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit)

    OpenAIRE

    OO Johnson; GA Ayoola; T Adenipekun

    2013-01-01

    The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum) and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata) were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity....

  14. Quantum chemistry based quantitative structure-activity relationships for modeling the (sub)acute toxicity of substituted mononitrobenzenes in aquatic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvinavashe, E.; Murk, A.J.; Vervoort, J.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Freidig, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen experimental literature data sets on the acute toxicity of substituted nitrobenzenes to algae (Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C. vulgaris), daphnids (Daphnia magna, D. carinata), fish (Cyprinus carpio, Poecilia reticulata), protozoa (Tetrahymena pyriformis), bacteria

  15. Identification of protoplast-isolation responsive microRNAs in Citrus reticulata Blanco by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyong; Xu, Xiaoling; Zhou, Yipeng; Zeng, Shaohua; Kong, Weiwen

    2017-01-01

    Protoplast isolation is a stress-inducing process, during which a variety of physiological and molecular alterations take place. Such stress response affects the expression of totipotency of cultured protoplasts. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. However, the underlying mechanism of miRNAs involved in the protoplast totipotency remains unclear. In this study, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to sequence two populations of small RNA from calli and callus-derived protoplasts in Citrus reticulata Blanco. A total of 67 known miRNAs from 35 families and 277 novel miRNAs were identified. Among these miRNAs, 18 known miRNAs and 64 novel miRNAs were identified by differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) analysis. The expression patterns of the eight DEMs were verified by qRT-PCR. Target prediction showed most targets of the miRNAs were transcription factors. The expression levels of half targets showed a negative correlation to those of the miRNAs. Furthermore, the physiological analysis showed high levels of antioxidant activities in isolated protoplasts. In short, our results indicated that miRNAs may play important roles in protoplast-isolation response.

  16. Effects of Combined Heat and Preservative Treatment on Storability of Ponkan Fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan during Postharvest Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment and preservative application have been widely used during postharvest storage of many fresh products, but the effect of their combination on citrus storage has rarely been investigated. In this study, the optimal heat treatment (HT conditions and HT combined with preservative treatment were investigated for Ponkan fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan storage. Results indicated that HT at 55°C for 20 s can significantly reduce the decay rate of Ponkan fruit, and a combination of HT and 25% of the preservative dosage used in production of iminoctadine tris (albesilate, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and imazalil significantly reduced the decay rate without affecting fruit quality. In addition, the increased fiber contents in fruit receiving the HT combined with preservative treatments may be a response preventing fungus infection and enhancing fruit storability and resistance. The above results suggested that the combination of HT and 25% of the preservative production dosage was optimal for controlling Ponkan fruit decay during storage.

  17. Change of mitotic behavior and ultra structure of 'Fuju' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) stem-apex clones after space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Rujian; Huang Jinghao; Wen Shouxing; Cai Zijian; Luo Tuyan; Chen Liangfeng; Wang Zhouwen

    2011-01-01

    By using conventional squash stain technique and ultrathin sectioning technique, the effects of space flight on mitotic behavior and ultrastructure were studied in the shoot apical meristem of 'Fuju' (Citrus reticulata Blanco), which had been carried by China's seed-breeding satellite, Shijian-8. The results showed that space flight had effect on the mutagenesis of stem-apical meristem. Abnormal mitosis with various degrees had been detected in 13 mutant clones, of which mitotic aberrations in clone '08004' were significantly higher than the others. The aberration rate of numerical abnormalities of chromosomes at metaphase, lagging chromosome, micronucleus, C-spindle, S-spindle and polyarch spindle in the clone '08004' was 0.34%, 0.669%, 0.86%, 0.17%, 1.20% and 1.03%, respectively. The ultrastructure of mesophyll cell in most clones was unchanged, but nucleus chromatin agglutination, chloroplast thylakoid disintegrated, autophagosome appeared, cell vacuolated, plasmolysis and the formation of apoptotic body were found in the clone '08004', suggesting that programmed cell death (PCD) Nevertheless, no change in the mitochondrial structure was observed until terminal phase of PCD. (authors)

  18. Histopathological alterations observed in the liver of Poecilia vivipara (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae as a tool for the environmental quality assessment of the Cachoeira River, BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DV Paulo

    Full Text Available Histopathological alterations in liver have been widely used as a tool in studies for monitoring environmental quality. To evaluate the environmental quality in the Cachoeira river, five spots were monitored between the municipal districts of Itapé and Ilhéus, using liver histological analysis. The species chosen for analysis was Poecilia vivipara due to the fact that it is one of the most abundant in the sampling. The routine technique of inclusion and impregnation in paraffin was used, and the cuts were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H & E. Histopathological alterations in the liver were evaluated semi-quantitatively and based on the severity of the lesions. The results of the histopathological alteration frequency together with the average taken from the Histopathological Alteration Index from points 1 (Vila de Itapé and 2 (Fazenda Santa Amélia showed that in this area the environment is more threatened because of some stressor agent, possibly contaminants that seem to be acting in the environment and endangering the health of fish. The statistic results demonstrated that there were no significant differences among points 1, 2 and 4, which means they are very similar to one another, and are ecologically endangered.

  19. The development of hyaline-cell cartilage in the head of the black molly, Poecilia sphenops. Evidence for secondary cartilage in a teleost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, M

    1989-01-01

    The development of hyaline-cell cartilage attached to membrane (dentary, maxilla, nasal, lacrimal and cleithrum) and cartilage (basioccipital) bones has been studied in the viviparous black molly, Poecilia sphenops. Intramembranous ossification commences before the first appearance of hyaline cells. As hyaline-cell cartilage is densely cellular and as that attached to the dentary, maxilla and cleithrum develops from the periosteum of these membrane bones, it must be regarded as secondary cartilage according to current concepts. It is also argued that the hyaline-cell cartilage attached to the perichondral bone of the basioccipital (a cartilage bone), could also be viewed as secondary. The status of the cartilage on the nasal and lacrimal bones is less clear, for it develops, at least in part, from mucochondroid (mucous connective) tissue. This is the first definitive report of secondary cartilage in any lower vertebrate. The tissue is therefore not restricted to birds and mammals as hitherto believed, and a multipotential periosteum must have arisen early in vertebrate evolution. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:2481666

  20. Abnormal chloride homeostasis in the substancia nigra pars reticulata contributes to locomotor deficiency in a model of acute liver injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ling Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Altered chloride homeostasis has been thought to be a risk factor for several brain disorders, while less attention has been paid to its role in liver disease. We aimed to analyze the involvement and possible mechanisms of altered chloride homeostasis of GABAergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr in the motor deficit observed in a model of encephalopathy caused by acute liver failure, by using glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 - green fluorescent protein knock-in transgenic mice. METHODS: Alterations in intracellular chloride concentration in GABAergic neurons within the SNr and changes in the expression of two dominant chloride homeostasis-regulating genes, KCC2 and NKCC1, were evaluated in mice with hypolocomotion due to hepatic encephalopathy (HE. The effects of pharmacological blockade and/or activation of KCC2 and NKCC1 functions with their specific inhibitors and/or activators on the motor activity were assessed. RESULTS: In our mouse model of acute liver injury, chloride imaging indicated an increase in local intracellular chloride concentration in SNr GABAergic neurons. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of KCC2 were reduced, particularly on neuronal cell membranes; in contrast, NKCC1 expression remained unaffected. Furthermore, blockage of KCC2 reduced motor activity in the normal mice and led to a further deteriorated hypolocomotion in HE mice. Blockade of NKCC1 was not able to normalize motor activity in mice with liver failure. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that altered chloride homeostasis is likely involved in the pathophysiology of hypolocomotion following HE. Drugs aimed at restoring normal chloride homeostasis would be a potential treatment for hepatic failure.

  1. Effects of Neem (Azadirachta indic and Custard Apple (Annona reticulata Diets on Sterility of House Rat (Rattus rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Nidhi Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three different plant products diets – i neem (Azadirachta indic A. Juss oil mixed diet (neem oil mixed @ 80 ml/kg of normal diet, ii neem seed powder mixed diet (neem seed powder mixed @ 80 g/kg of normal diet and iii custard apple (Annona reticulata L. seed powder mixed diet (custard apple seed powder mixed @ 80 g/kg of normal diet were separately fed to mature rats (Rattus rattus with single dose feeding of 80 g per pair in a day on 13th week-age during the experimenting years, 2012/013 and 2013/014. In control group only normal diet without neem and custard apple constituents were fed. Sterility test of rat was conducted up to 38 and 28 weeks-age in first and second year, respectively. The test rats were fed normal diet during whole experimenting periods except the one day when they were fed only the neem or custard apple mixed diet on the age of 13th week. Efficacy of the mixed diets on rat-sterility was determined based on pregnancy and parturition by the rats. The two years' results confirmed that all the tested three mixed diets – neem oil mixed diet, neem seed powder mixed diet, and custard apple seed powder mixed diet were effective to stop pregnancy and parturition in rats during whole experimenting periods up to 38 and 28 weeks-age with single dose feeding of 80 g per pair (40 gm/rat in a day on 13th week-age of the rats; whereas the pregnancy and parturition were observed in the rats that were fed only the normal diet. It is expected, neem and custard apple mixed diets can be utilized in reducing the economically important rodent populations in rice-wheat cropping system in future.

  2. Metabolism regulates the spontaneous firing of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons via KATP and nonselective cation channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutas, Andrew; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Yellen, Gary

    2014-12-03

    Neurons use glucose to fuel glycolysis and provide substrates for mitochondrial respiration, but neurons can also use alternative fuels that bypass glycolysis and feed directly into mitochondria. To determine whether neuronal pacemaking depends on active glucose metabolism, we switched the metabolic fuel from glucose to alternative fuels, lactate or β-hydroxybutyrate, while monitoring the spontaneous firing of GABAergic neurons in mouse substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) brain slices. We found that alternative fuels, in the absence of glucose, sustained SNr spontaneous firing at basal rates, but glycolysis may still be supported by glycogen in the absence of glucose. To prevent any glycogen-fueled glycolysis, we directly inhibited glycolysis using either 2-deoxyglucose or iodoacetic acid. Inhibiting glycolysis in the presence of alternative fuels lowered SNr firing to a slower sustained firing rate. Surprisingly, we found that the decrease in SNr firing was not mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel activity, but if we lowered the perfusion flow rate or omitted the alternative fuel, KATP channels were activated and could silence SNr firing. The KATP-independent slowing of SNr firing that occurred with glycolytic inhibition in the presence of alternative fuels was consistent with a decrease in a nonselective cationic conductance. Although mitochondrial metabolism alone can prevent severe energy deprivation and KATP channel activation in SNr neurons, active glucose metabolism appears important for keeping open a class of ion channels that is crucial for the high spontaneous firing rate of SNr neurons. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416336-12$15.00/0.

  3. Neuroprotective effect of seaweeds inhabiting South Indian coastal area (Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve): Cholinesterase inhibitory effect of Hypnea valentiae and Ulva reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganthy, N; Karutha Pandian, S; Pandima Devi, K

    2010-01-14

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, which is one of the four leading causes of death in developed nations. Until date the only symptomatic treatment for this disease is based on the "cholinergic hypothesis" where the drugs enhance acetylcholine levels in the brain by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In the course for screening cholinesterase inhibitors about eight seaweeds, with wide pharmaceutical applications, were collected from Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar, Marine Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu, India. Inhibitory effect of methanol extract of the seaweeds was studied in vitro by incubating various concentration of the extract with AChE or butyryl cholinesterase (BuChE) and assessing their activities by Ellman's colorimetric method. Kinetic parameters like IC(50), K(i) and V(max) were also analyzed. The results showed that of the eight seaweeds screened Hypnea valentiae, Padina gymnospora, Ulva reticulata and Gracilaria edulis exhibited inhibitory activity to AChE with IC(50) value of 2.6, 3.5, 10 and 3mg/ml respectively, while H. valentiae, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Dictyota dichotoma and U. reticulata showed 50% inhibition to BuChE at concentration 3.9, 7, 6.5 and 10mg/ml respectively. The inhibitory activities of the seaweed extracts were comparable to the standard drug donepezil. Enzyme kinetic analysis showed that algal extracts exhibited mixed type inhibition (partial noncompetitive inhibition). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Activity determination of Na+ K+ - ATPase and Mg++ - ATPase enzymes in the gill of Poecilia vivipara (Osteichthyes, Cyprinodontiformes in different salinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo da Cunha Amaral

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to know the tolerance mechanisms through the salinity variation by Na+ K+ - ATPase and Mg++ - ATPase and enzymes encountered in the gills of Poecilia vivipara. In field, the presence of this species was observed in salinities of 0 and 28‰. In laboratory, these fish were maintained in aquarium with mean salinity of 30‰ and positive responses were obtained. Some adult specimens, collected in a lagoon of the Coqueiros Beach, were utilized as matrixes. In the experiments the specimens used were those born in the test aquarium. For each salinity studied three replicates were made with three specimens for each one. The alevins were maintained in salinities of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35‰ during a month for adaptation. Gills were extracted in appropriate buffer for isolation of plasma membrane and used for specific dosage of the total enzymatic activity of Na+ K+ - ATPase and Mg++ - ATPase. The relation of alevins to their adaptation towards the salinity variation was also studied. The activity of the two enzymes showed a different result. The major expression of Na+ K+ - ATPase was observed in 20‰ (35 µmoles Pi.mg protein.h-1, the best salinity to cultivate P. vivipara.Este trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer os mecanismos de tolerância às variações de salinidade, pelas enzimas Mg++ - ATPase e Na+ K+ - ATPase, encontrada nas brânquias de Poecilia vivipara. No campo, foi observada a presença desta espécie em salinidades entre 0 e 28‰. No laboratório, os indivíduos foram mantidos em salinidade de 30‰ e responderam positivamente. Os indivíduos adultos, coletados em uma lagoa na praia dos Coqueiros, foram utilizados como matrizes. Nos experimentos foram usados alevinos que nasceram nos aquários testes. Para cada salinidade estudada foram feitas três réplicas com três espécimens em cada uma. Os alevinos foram mantidos em salinidades de 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 e 35‰, durante um mês para total adaptação. As br

  5. Assessing species boundaries using multilocus species delimitation in a morphologically conserved group of neotropical freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex (Poeciliidae.

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    Justin C Bagley

    Full Text Available Accurately delimiting species is fundamentally important for understanding species diversity and distributions and devising effective strategies to conserve biodiversity. However, species delimitation is problematic in many taxa, including 'non-adaptive radiations' containing morphologically cryptic lineages. Fortunately, coalescent-based species delimitation methods hold promise for objectively estimating species limits in such radiations, using multilocus genetic data. Using coalescent-based approaches, we delimit species and infer evolutionary relationships in a morphologically conserved group of Central American freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple genetic markers (sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes and five nuclear loci from 10/15 species and genetic lineages recognized in the group support the P. sphenops species complex as monophyletic with respect to outgroups, with eight mitochondrial 'major-lineages' diverged by ≥2% pairwise genetic distances. From general mixed Yule-coalescent models, we discovered (conservatively 10 species within our concatenated mitochondrial DNA dataset, 9 of which were strongly supported by subsequent multilocus Bayesian species delimitation and species tree analyses. Results suggested species-level diversity is underestimated or overestimated by at least ~15% in different lineages in the complex. Nonparametric statistics and coalescent simulations indicate genealogical discordance among our gene tree results has mainly derived from interspecific hybridization in the nuclear genome. However, mitochondrial DNA show little evidence for introgression, and our species delimitation results appear robust to effects of this process. Overall, our findings support the utility of combining multiple lines of genetic evidence and broad phylogeographical sampling to discover and validate species using coalescent-based methods. Our study also highlights the

  6. Frozen F1's amidst a masterpiece of nature: new insights into the rare hybrid origin of gynogenesis in the Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S M; Vamosi, S M

    2010-12-01

    All-female 'species' of fish have been shown to be great models in ecological and evolutionary studies because of the insights they can provide into the origin and evolution of asexuality, the ecology of hybrids, associations between genotype and environment, and the maintenance of sex. Gynogenetic organisms that evolved from sexual ancestors, and combine the disadvantageous traits from sexuality and asexuality, have long baffled evolutionary biologists trying to understand their origin and persistence with their sympatric sexual counterparts. In this issue, a new study using an integrated molecular phylogenetic and classical genetic approach has uncovered compelling evidence regarding the obscure asexual origin of the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa. By performing an extensive phylogeographic analysis, Stöck et al. (2010) provide evidence that the Amazon molly arose only once within its history, with monophyly being strongly supported by mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite analyses. This result, combined with an elaborate failed attempt to resynthesize the lineage, suggests that vertebrate gynogens such as the Amazon molly are not rare because they are at a disadvantage to their sexual counterparts, but because the genomic conditions under which they arise are rare. Organisms that apparently combine the disadvantages of both sexuality and asexuality remain difficult to understand from both an ecological and an evolutionary perspective, and Stöck et al. (2010) highlight several outstanding important questions. Nonetheless, given that we now have a better knowledge of the origin and history of this unique 'species', this should allow researchers to better understand how these frozen F1's can persist amidst the masterpiece of nature. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Insights into the Social Behavior of Surface and Cave-Dwelling Fish (Poecilia mexicana in Light and Darkness through the Use of a Biomimetic Robot

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    David Bierbach

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic robots (BRs are becoming more common in behavioral research and, if they are accepted as conspecifics, allow for new forms of experimental manipulations of social interactions. Nevertheless, it is often not clear which cues emanating from a BR are actually used as communicative signals and how species or populations with different sensory makeups react to specific types of BRs. We herein present results from experiments using two populations of livebearing fishes that differ in their sensory capabilities. In the South of Mexico, surface-dwelling mollies (Poecilia mexicana successfully invaded caves and adapted to dark conditions. While almost without pigment, these cave mollies possess smaller but still functional eyes. Although previous studies found cave mollies to show reduced shoaling preferences with conspecifics in light compared to surface mollies, it is assumed that they possess specialized adaptations to maintain some kind of sociality also in their dark habitats. By testing surface- and cave-dwelling mollies with RoboFish, a BR made for use in laboratory experiments with guppies and sticklebacks, we asked to what extent visual and non-visual cues play a role in their social behavior. Both cave- and surface-dwelling mollies followed the BR as well as a live companion when tested in light. However, when tested in darkness, only surface-dwelling fish were attracted by a live conspecific, whereas cave-dwelling fish were not. Neither cave- nor surface-dwelling mollies were attracted to RoboFish in darkness. This is the first study to use BRs for the investigation of social behavior in mollies and to compare responses to BRs both in light and darkness. As our RoboFish is accepted as conspecific by both used populations of the Atlantic molly only under light conditions but not in darkness, we argue that our replica is providing mostly visual cues.

  8. Estrutura populacional de Poecilia vivípara Bloch & Schneider, 1801 (Atheriniformes, Poeciliidae do rio Ceará-Mirim - Rio Grande do Norte Populational structure of Poecilia vivipara Block & Schneider, 1801 (Atheriniformes, Poeciliidae of Ceará-Mirim river, State of Rio Grande do Norte

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    Renata Swany Soares Nascimento

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o propósito de elucidar aspectos da estrutura populacional de Poecilia vivipara do rio Ceará-Mirim, município de Poço Branco, Rio Grande do Norte, foram capturados 3.390 exemplares em coletas mensais, no período de junho de 1995 a maio de 1997, utilizando-se tarrafas e peneiras. A partir dos resultados obtidos, constatou-se que as fêmeas, em relação aos machos, predominaram na proporção de 8:1, considerando-se as análises total e sazonal. No que se refere à distribuição por classes de comprimento para os sexos separados, observou-se uma maior amplitude de comprimento das fêmeas em relação aos machos e ainda uma ausência de diferenças entre as estações chuvosa e seca. De acordo com os valores obtidos para o &Teta; (3,86, verificou-se, para a espécie, um crescimento do tipo alométrico positivo. Quanto à influência dos fatores abióticos, fotoperíodo, pluviosidade, temperatura e nível do rio, relacionados aos aspectos da estrutura populacional, não foram verificados resultados significativos que a confirmassemWith the aim of clarifying aspects of the populational structure of Poecilia vivipara in the Ceará-Mirim river, State of Rio Grande do Norte, a total of 3,390 specimens were captured in monthly collections June 1995 trough May 1997, using nets and sieves. Results showed that females, prevailed in the proportion of 8:1, in the whole period as well as seasonaly. The total length classes distribution for separate sexes indicated that females reaches greatest lengths than males with no difference between dry and rainy seasons. The species growth is of the alometric positive type as suggested by the &Teta; value (3,86. No correlation between abiotic factors (photoperiod duration, rainfall, temperature and river water level and the population structure was found

  9. Identification of Three Kinds of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium Based on Deoxyribonucleic Acid Barcoding and High-performance Liquid Chromatography-diode Array Detection-electrospray Ionization/Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry Combined with Chemometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Yafeng; Wang, Dongmei; Jiang, Lin; Xu, Xinjun

    2018-01-01

    Background: Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium is the dried mature pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco which can be divided into “Chenpi” and “Guangchenpi.” “Guangchenpi” is the genuine Chinese medicinal material in Xinhui, Guangdong province; based on the greatest quality and least amount, it is most expensive among others. Hesperidin is used as the marker to identify Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010. However, both “Chenpi” and “Guangchenpi” contain hesperidin so that it is impossible to differentiate them by measuring hesperidin. Objective: Our study aims to develop an efficient and accurate method to separate and identify “Guangchenpi” from other Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium. Materials and Methods: The genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of all the materials was extracted and then the internal transcribed spacer 2 was amplified, sequenced, aligned, and analyzed. The secondary structures were created in terms of the database and website established by Jörg Schultz et al. High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray Ionization/mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS)/MS coupled with chemometric analysis was applied to compare the differences in chemical profiles of the three kinds of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium. Results: A total of 22 samples were classified into three groups. The results of DNA barcoding were in accordance with principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Eight compounds were deduced from HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. Conclusions: This method is a reliable and effective tool to differentiate the three Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium. SUMMARY The internal transcribed spacer 2 regions and the secondary structure among three kinds of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium varied considerablyAll the 22 samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to obtain the chemical profilesPrincipal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis

  10. Tending Transformation Technology of Low-yielding Camellia reticulata in Tengchong%腾冲红花油茶低产林抚育改造技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨开保; 黄佳聪; 辛成莲; 万晓军

    2012-01-01

    Tending transformation test was conducted on 28hm 39 year old direct seeding forestation and long-term management absent low yielding Camellia reticulata in Tengchong. Through years of experimental research, we have come up with the forest garden governance, density adjustment, treelike adjustment; strengthen soil and water management and pest control tending transformation technologies. Four years after the transformation, the forest quality has greatly improved, tree vigor has recovered, substantial increases have been seen in harvests, and preharvest fruit drops have been contained. The average ripening rate has grown from 19. 93% to 41. 07% ; crude oil yield has risen up to 220. 5kg/hm2, equivalent to 9. 19 times the amount of 24kg/hm2 produced before, and 1. 77 times the amount of 124. 5kg/hm2 for pests and diseases control test. The test results have contributed technical support to the low-yielding Camellia reticulata transformation in Tengchong, the sustainable development of the industry in the old-production area and the improvement of Camellia reticulata yield and quality.%对面积28 hm2、树龄39 a、直播造林且长期失管的腾冲红花油荼低产林开展抚育改造试验.通过多年的试验研究,摸索出林相林园治理、密度调整、树型调整、加强土肥水管理及病虫害防治等抚育改造综合技术.改造后第四年的林分质量明显改善,树势恢复,大幅增产,采前落果得到根本遏制;植株平均结实率由19.93%增加到41.07%,粗油产量达220.5 kg/hm2,为改造前24 kg/hm2的9.19倍,为病虫害试验对照产量124.5 kg/hm2的1.77倍.试验结果为腾冲红花油荼低产林抚育改造,老产区巩固产业持续发展,提高油茶产量和品质提供了技术支特.

  11. Polymethoxylated flavones, flavanone glycosides, carotenoids, and antioxidants in different cultivation types of tangerines ( Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng) from Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuetz, Wolfgang; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Hongsibsong, Surat; Biesalski, Hans-Konrad

    2010-05-26

    Polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) and flavanone glycosides (FGs) were analyzed in hand-pressed juice and the peeled fruit of 'Sainampueng' tangerines ( Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng) grown in northern Thailand. The tangerines were collected from a citrus cluster of small orchard farmers and were cultivated as either agrochemical-based (AB), agrochemical-safe (AS), or organic grown fruits. Juice samples were also measured on contents of carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and tocopherols. The peel-deriving PMFs tangeretin, nobiletin, and sinensetin were found with high concentrations in juice as a result of simple squeezing, whereas amounts of those PMFs were negligibly low in peeled tangerine fruit. In contrast, the mean concentrations of the FGs narirutin, hesperidin, and didymin were several fold higher in peeled fruit than in tangerine juice and significantly higher in organic than AS and AB tangerines. Narirutin and hesperidin in juice from organic produces as well as narirutin in juice from AS produces were significantly higher than respective mean concentrations in juice from AB produces. beta-Cryptroxanthin was the predominant carotenoid beside zeaxanthin, lutein, lycopene, and beta-carotene in tangerine juice. Ascorbic acid concentrations were not predicted by the type of cultivation, whereas alpha-tocopherol was significantly higher in juice from organic than AS produces. In summary, hand-pressed juice of C. reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng serves as a rich source of PMFs, FGs, carotenoids, and antioxidants: 4-5 tangerine fruits ( approximately 80 g of each fruit) giving one glass of 200 mL hand-pressed juice would provide more than 5 mg of nobiletin and tangeretin and 36 mg of hesperidin, narirutin, and didymin, as well as 30 mg of ascorbic acid, >1 mg of provitamin A active beta-cryptoxanthin, and 200 microg of alpha-tocopherol.

  12. Citrus reticulata Blanco.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RACHEL

    In Sylhet region of Bangladesh it is locally known as Zara lemon and available in the local. *Corresponding ... While the lemon or orange are peeled to consume their pulpy and juicy segments, the citron's pulp is ... Then washing of the explant took place with distilled water for. 3 to 4 times. Before inoculation soaking of the ...

  13. mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARL4

    between 'Shatangju' and 'Wuzishatangju' based on establishing an optimization of ..... plant species (Han et al., 2008; Zhang et al., 2010). In this study, 153 pairs of SRAP .... Wang XP, Wang YJ, Zhang JX, Xu Y, Yang KQ (2003). Randomly.

  14. Efeito de poluentes químicos cumulativos e mutagênicos durante o desenvolvimento ontogenético de Poecilia vivípara (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae Effect of cumulative chemical and mutagenic pollutants during ontogenic development of Poecilia vivipara (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Maria Teixeira de Sabóia-Morais

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Viver em sociedade é uma característica do Homo sapiens, e esta vantagem permitiu-lhe ocupar tantos biomas. Aumento populacional e desenvolvimento tecnológico trouxeram paralelamente acréscimo ao volume de dejetos eliminados nos mananciais de água. Conhecer modelos biológicos que permitam averiguar níveis de contaminação destes mananciais é o propósito desta pesquisa. Células do epitélio branquial do guaru (Poecilia vivípara modificam o seu comportamento em face de variações ambientais, mantendo a homeostasia em condições adversas. Nosso propósito foi conhecer a origem e diferenciação dos tipos celulares no desenvolvimento das brânquias, procurando detectar variações do epitélio branquial em embriões de fêmeas prenhes expostas ao chumbo (poluente cumulativo e mutagênico. Formaram-se dois grupos, o controle e o experimental, que foi exposto à solução de acetato de chumbo a 1 ppm. Observaram-se os embriões nos estágios 24, 30 e 36 (Vernier, 1969, analisados sob microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Foram quantificados e mensurados os embriões por fêmea. Notou-se a formação dos arcos, filamentos, rastelo e lamelas branquiais. No epitélio, células do cloro se diferenciam primeiro, e no estágio 36 surgem as células mucosas no rastelo branquial. Não houve diferenças morfológicas de células epiteliais das br��nquias entre os grupos. A viviparidade pode ser o fato de explicaçãoLiving in society is a feature of Homo sapiens and this fact gives him the advantage of occupying many biomes. Population increase and technological development brought a growth in the volume of dejects thrown into water sources. Knowledge of biological models that evaluates contamination levels of these sources is the aim of this research. Cells of the branchial epithelium of Poecilia vivipara, popularly known as guaru, modify their behavior in the presence of environmental variations and keep the homeostasis in adverse

  15. Índice mitótico em células epiteliais da brânquia de Guaru (Poecilia vivipara tratados com frações da casca do caule e da folha de pequi (Caryocar brasiliensis

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    M. D. S. Motter

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Many wild plants of the Cerrado bioma are used as medicinal plants. The pequi (Caryocar brasiliensis is representative of those equipped with molluscicidal action against schistosomiasis. This paper sets out to verify the toxic action of pequi fractions in other aquatic animals before they are used in rivers or lakes. Analysis were made of the alterations to the mitotic index of epithelia cells in the gills of guppy (Poecilia vivipara exposed to ethyl-acetate fraction of leaf pequi and bark. Animals exposed to ethyl-acetate fraction (leaf, no significant change was observed in the mitotic index when compared with the control group, whereas in fish exposed to ethyl-acetate fraction (bark we detected an increase in mitotic index of the epithelia cells in two regions of the branchial filaments. Thus, ethyl-acetate fractions (leaf could be used against schistosomiasis, given their high efficacy and low action as piscicide.

  16. Larvicidal activity of oil-resin fractions from the Brazilian medicinal plant Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae Atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina da planta medicinal brasileira Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae sobre o Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Helena Garcia da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil-resin fractions from Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae were evaluated for larvicidal activity on third larval instars of Aedes aegypti, in searching for alternative control methods for this mosquito. The bioactive fractions were chemically monitored by thin-layer chromatography, ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Bioassays were performed using five repetitions, at a temperature of 28 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 80 ± 5% and light and dark cycles of 12h. Mortality was indicated by darkening of the cephalic capsule after 24h of exposure of the larvae to the solutions. The most active fractions were CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenes and CRM5-7 (labdane diterpenes, which showed LC50 values of 0.2 and 0.8ppm, respectively.A atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae foi avaliada em larvas de 3º estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de camada delgada, analisada por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio (¹H e 13C e espectrometria de massas. Os bioensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 28±1°C, 80±5% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 12h, com cinco repetições. A mortalidade foi determinada através do escurecimento da cápsula cefálica, após 24h de exposição das larvas às soluções. As frações mais ativas foram CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenos e CRM5-7 (diterpeno labdano, que mostraram os valores de CL50 de 0,2 e 0,8ppm, respectivamente.

  17. Surfactant assisted disperser pretreatment on the liquefaction of Ulva reticulata and evaluation of biodegradability for energy efficient biofuel production through nonlinear regression modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M Dinesh; Tamilarasan, K; Kaliappan, S; Banu, J Rajesh; Rajkumar, M; Kim, Sang Hyoun

    2018-05-01

    The present study aimed to increase the disintegration potential of marine macroalgae, (Ulva reticulata) through chemo mechanical pretreatment (CMP) in an energy efficient manner. By combining surfactant with disperser, the specific energy input was considerably reduced from 437.1 kJ/kg TS to 264.9 kJ/kg TS to achieve 10.7% liquefaction. A disperser rpm (10,000), pretreatment time (30 min) and tween 80 dosage (21.6 mg/L) were considered as an optimum for effective liquefaction of algal biomass. CMP was designated as an appropriate pretreatment resulting in a higher soluble organic release 1250 mg/L, respectively. Anaerobic fermentation results revealed that the volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration was doubled (782 mg/L) in CMP when compared to mechanical pretreatment (MP) (345 mg/L). CMP pretreated algal biomass was considered as the suitable for biohydrogen production with highest H 2 yield of about 63 mL H 2 /g COD than (MP) (45 mL H 2 /g COD) and control (10 mL H 2 /g COD). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. RNA-Seq analysis of Citrus reticulata in the early stages of Xylella fastidiosa infection reveals auxin-related genes as a defense response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carolina M; de Souza, Alessandra A; Takita, Marco A; Kishi, Luciano T; Machado, Marcos A

    2013-10-03

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), caused by Xylella fastidiosa, is one the most important citrus diseases, and affects all varieties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb). On the other hand, among the Citrus genus there are different sources of resistance against X. fastidiosa. For these species identifying these defense genes could be an important step towards obtaining sweet orange resistant varieties through breeding or genetic engineering. To assess these genes we made use of mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco) that is known to be resistant to CVC and shares agronomical characteristics with sweet orange. Thus, we investigated the gene expression in Ponkan mandarin at one day after infection with X. fastidiosa, using RNA-seq. A set of genes considered key elements in the resistance was used to confirm its regulation in mandarin compared with the susceptible sweet orange. Gene expression analysis of mock inoculated and infected tissues of Ponkan mandarin identified 667 transcripts repressed and 724 significantly induced in the later. Among the induced transcripts, we identified genes encoding proteins similar to Pattern Recognition Receptors. Furthermore, many genes involved in secondary metabolism, biosynthesis and cell wall modification were upregulated as well as in synthesis of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and auxin. This work demonstrated that the defense response to the perception of bacteria involves cell wall modification and activation of hormone pathways, which probably lead to the induction of other defense-related genes. We also hypothesized the induction of auxin-related genes indicates that resistant plants initially recognize X. fastidiosa as a necrotrophic pathogen.

  19. CrWSKP1, an SKP1-like Gene, Is Involved in the Self-Incompatibility Reaction of "Wuzishatangju" (Citrus reticulata Blanco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Miao, Hongxia; Ma, Yuewen; Wang, Lu; Hu, Guibing; Ye, Zixing; Zhao, Jietang; Qin, Yonghua

    2015-09-09

    Plant S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1) genes play crucial roles in plant development and differentiation. However, the role of SKP1 in citrus is unclear. Herein, we described a novel SKP1-like gene, designated as CrWSKP1, from "Wuzishatangju" (Citrus reticulata Blanco). The cDNA sequence of CrWSKP1 is 779 base pairs (bp) and contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 477 bp. The genomic sequence of the CrWSKP1 gene is 1296 bp with two exons and one intron. CrWSKP1 has high identity with SKP1-like genes from other plant species within two conserved regions. Approximately 85% of pollen tubes of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transgenic tobaccos became twisted at four days after self-pollination. Pollen tube numbers of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transformants entering into ovules were significantly fewer than that of the control. Seed number of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transformants was significantly reduced. These results suggested that the CrWSKP1 is involved in the self-incompatibility (SI) reaction of "Wuzishatangju".

  20. Heat shock transcription factors expression during fruit development and under hot air stress in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiong; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-04-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play a role in plant responses to stress. Citrus is an economically important fruit whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed characterization of the Hsf gene family is available for citrus. A genome-wide analysis was carried out in Citrus clementina to identify Hsf genes, named CcHsfs. Eighteen CcHsfs were identified and classified into three main clades (clades A, B and C) according to the structural characteristics and the phylogenetic comparison with Arabidopsis and tomato. MEME motif analysis highlighted the conserved DBD and HR-A/B domains, which were similar to Hsf protein structures in other species. Gene expression analysis in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit identified 14 Hsf genes, named CrHsf, as important candidates for a role in fruit development and ripening, and showed seven genes to be expressed in response to hot air stress. CrHsfB2a and CrHsfB5 were considered to be important regulators of citrate content and showed variation in both developmentally-related and hot air-triggered citrate degradation processes. In summary, the data obtained from this investigation provides the basis for further study to dissect Hsf function during fruit development as well as in response to heat stress and also emphasizes the potential importance of CrHsfs in regulation of citrate metabolism in citrus fruit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Multi-criteria optimization for ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidants from Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae using response surface methodology, an activity-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shanshan; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Lei; Qu, Haibin; Gong, Xingchu

    2013-06-01

    An activity-based approach to optimize the ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidants from Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (Chenpi in Chinese) was developed. Response surface optimization based on a quantitative composition-activity relationship model showed the relationships among product chemical composition, antioxidant activity of extract, and parameters of extraction process. Three parameters of ultrasonic-assisted extraction, including the ethanol/water ratio, Chenpi amount, and alkaline amount, were investigated to give optimum extraction conditions for antioxidants of Chenpi: ethanol/water 70:30 v/v, Chenpi amount of 10 g, and alkaline amount of 28 mg. The experimental antioxidant yield under the optimum conditions was found to be 196.5 mg/g Chenpi, and the antioxidant activity was 2023.8 μmol Trolox equivalents/g of the Chenpi powder. The results agreed well with the second-order polynomial regression model. This presented approach promised great application potentials in both food and pharmaceutical industries. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Motor stimulant effects of ethanol injected into the substantia nigra pars reticulata: importance of catalase-mediated metabolism and the role of acetaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizzi-LaFrance, Maria N; Correa, Mercè; Aragon, Carlos M G; Salamone, John D

    2006-05-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the locomotor effects of local injections of ethanol and the ethanol metabolite, acetaldehyde, into substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Infusions of ethanol into SNr resulted in a dose-related increase in locomotor activity, with maximal effects at a dose of 1.4 micromol. Ethanol injected into a control site dorsal to substantia nigra failed to stimulate locomotion, and another inactive site was identified in brainstem areas posterior to substantia nigra. The locomotor effects of intranigral ethanol (1.4 micromol) were reduced by coadministration of 10 mg/kg sodium azide, a catalase inhibitor that acts to reduce the metabolism of ethanol into acetaldehyde in the brain. SNr infusions of acetaldehyde, which is the first metabolite of ethanol, also increased locomotion. Taken together, these results indicate that SNr is one of the sites at which ethanol and acetaldehyde may be acting to induce locomotor activity. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that acetaldehyde is a centrally active metabolite of ethanol, and provide further support for the idea that catalase activity is a critical step in the regulation of ethanol-induced motor activity. These studies have implications for understanding the brain mechanisms involved in mediating the ascending limb of the biphasic dose-response curve for the effect of ethanol on locomotor activity.

  3. Ecobiophysical Aspects on Nanosilver Biogenerated from Citrus reticulata Peels, as Potential Biopesticide for Controlling Pathogens and Wetland Plants in Aquatic Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Elisabeta Barbinta-Patrascu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a considerable interest was paid to ecological strategies in management of plant diseases and plant growth. Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs gained considerable interest as alternative to pesticides due to their interesting properties. Green synthesis of MNPs using plant extracts is very advantageous taking into account the fact that plants are easily available and eco-friendly and possess many phytocompounds that help in bioreduction of metal ions. In this research work, we phytosynthesized AgNPs from aqueous extract of Citrus reticulata peels, with high antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal potential. These “green” AgNPs were characterized by modern biophysical methods (absorption and FTIR spectroscopy, AFM, and zeta potential measurements. The nanobioimpact of Citrus-based AgNPs on four invasive wetland plants, Cattail (Typha latifolia, Flowering-rush (Butomus umbellatus, Duckweed (Lemna minor, and Water-pepper (Polygonum hydropiper, was studied by absorption spectroscopy, by monitoring the spectral signature of chlorophyll. The invasive plants exhibited different behavior under AgNP stress. Deep insights were obtained from experiments conducted on biomimetic membranes marked with chlorophyll a. Our results pointed out the potential use of Citrus-based AgNPs as alternative in controlling pathogens in aqueous media and in management of aquatic weeds growth.

  4. Characterization of Chemical Composition of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Volatile Oil by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography with High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunming Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (Chenpi in Chinese has been widely used as an herbal medicine in Korea, China, and Japan. Chenpi extracts are used to treat indigestion and inflammatory syndromes of the respiratory tract such as bronchitis and asthma. This thesis will analyze chemical compositions of Chenpi volatile oil, which was performed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-HR-TOFMS. One hundred and sixty-seven components were tentatively identified, and terpene compounds are the main components of Chenpi volatile oil, a significant larger number than in previous studies. The majority of the eluted compounds, which were identified, were well separated as a result of high-resolution capability of the GC × GC method, which significantly reduces, the coelution. β-Elemene is tentatively qualified by means of GC × GC in tandem with high-resolution TOFMS detection, which plays an important role in enhancing the effects of many anticancer drugs and in reducing the side effects of chemotherapy. This study suggests that GC × GC-HR-TOFMS is suitable for routine characterization of chemical composition of volatile oil in herbal medicines.

  5. Uma investigação do ser-aí do menino selvagem à luz do pensamento heideggeriano Una investigación del ser-ahí del niño salvaje a luz del pensamiento heideggeriano An investigation of the Dasein of the wild boy through Heidegger's thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Lopez Calvo de Feijoo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho busca, na história de Victor de Aveyron, elementos para discutir o modo pelo qual a existência humana se constitui. Por não ter convivido em ambiente humano, Victor foi motivo de intensas discussões no meio científico, especialmente entre os empiristas e os racionalistas. Nesta pesquisa assumimos uma postura fenomenológica, trazendo a história do menino selvagem à discussão por meio da fenomenologia hermenêutica de Heidegger, apontando, assim, para o caráter de indeterminação, o "ter de ser", e de singularidade da existência, sempre em jogo na constituição do modo de ser do homem.Este trabajo busca en la historia de Víctor de Aveyron elementos para discutir el modo por el cual la existencia humana se constituye. Por no haber convivido en ambiente humano, Víctor ha sido motivo de intensas discusiones en el medio científico, especialmente entre los empiristas y los racionalistas. En esta investigación asumimos una postura fenomenológica, trayendo la historia do menino salvaje a discusión por medio de la fenomenología hermenéutica de Heidegger, apuntando, así, para el carácter de indeterminación, o "tener de ser", e de singularidad de la existencia, siempre en juego en la constitución del modo de ser del hombre.This work aims to find, in the story of Victor of Aveyron, elements to discuss the way in which human existence is constituted. For not having lived in the human environment, Victor was the subject of intense discussions within the scientific community, especially among empiricists and rationalists. In this research we take a phenomenological approach, bringing the story of the wild boy into the discussion through the Heidegger's phenomenology hermeneutic, pointing to the character of indeterminacy, mineness; and the singularity of the existence, always presented in the constitution of man's way of being.

  6. Histamine H3 receptor activation selectively inhibits dopamine D1 receptor-dependent [3H]GABA release from depolarization-stimulated slices of rat substantia nigra pars reticulata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aceves, J.; Young, J.M.; Arias-Montano, J.A.; Floran, B.; Garcia, M.

    1997-01-01

    The release of [ 3 H]GABA from slices of rat substantia nigra pars reticulata induced by increasing extracellular K + from 6 to 15 mM in the presence of 10 μM sulpiride was inhibited by 73±3% by 1 μM SCH 23390, consistent with a large component of release dependent upon D 1 receptor activation. The histamine H 3 receptor-selective agonist immepip (1 μM) and the non-selective agonist histamine (100 μM) inhibited [ 3 H]GABA release by 78±2 and 80±2%, respectively. The inhibition by both agonists was reversed by the H 3 receptor antagonist thioperamide (1 μM). However, in the presence of 1 μM SCH 23390 depolarization-induced release of [ 3 H]GABA was not significantly decreased by 1 μM immepip. In rats depleted of dopamine by pretreatment with reserpine, immepip no longer inhibited control release of [ 3 H]GABA, but in the presence of 1 μM SKF 38393, which produced a 7±1-fold stimulation of release, immepip reduced the release to a level not statistically different from that in the presence of immepip alone. Immepip (1 μM) also inhibited the depolarization-induced release of [ 3 H]dopamine from substantia nigra pars reticulata slices, by 38±3%.The evidence is consistent with the proposition that activation of histamine H 3 receptors leads to the selective inhibition of the component of depolarization-induced [ 3 H]GABA release in substantia nigra pars reticulata slices which is dependent upon D 1 receptor activation. This appears to be largely an action at the terminals of the striatonigral GABA projection neurons, which may be enhanced by a partial inhibition of dendritic [ 3 H]dopamine release. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Flavonoides extraídos de la cascara de naranja tangelo (Citrus reticulata x Citrus paradisi) y su aplicación como antioxidante natural en el aceite vegetal sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis)

    OpenAIRE

    Matilde Tenorio Domínguez

    2016-01-01

    La investigación tuvo como objetivo obtener extractos de flavonoides de la cáscara de naranja tangelo (Citrus reticulata x Citrus paradisi) y aplicarlos como, antioxidante natural en el aceite vegetal Sacha inchi(Plukenetia volubilis).La información se obtuvo de las pruebas experimentales, que se realizó en siete etapas: caracterización física y química de la naranja tangelo y delaceite vegetal sacha inchi, obtención de los extractos de flavonoides por soxh...

  8. Avaliação da toxicidade aguda e potencial neurotóxico do óleo-resina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camile Giaretta Sachetti

    Full Text Available O óleo-resina de copaíba obtido do gênero Copaifera L., Fabaceae, é largamente utilizado na medicina popular como antiinflamatório, antimicrobiano e antitumoral. Porém, informações sobre seu potencial tóxico são escassos na literatura. O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer a toxicidade oral aguda e os possíveis efeitos neurotóxicos relacionados à ingestão do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, em ratas Wistar. O estudo foi conduzido com quinze ratas nulíparas distribuídas nos grupos de doses 300 e 2000 mg/kg pc de óleo-resina administrado por gavagem. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que nestas doses não houve sinais clínicos de toxicidade ou neurotoxicidade, alteração no consumo de ração ou alteração no peso corpóreo. A dose letal aguda foi estimada como maior que 2000 mg/kg pc e classificada como categoria 5, segundo o Guia OECD 423. Estes resultados indicam que existe uma relativa margem de segurança para o uso do óleo-resina de copaíba como agente terapêutico, embora estudos toxicológicos adicionais sejam ainda necessários, principalmente com a administração repetida de baixas doses.

  9. Simultaneous Quantification of Seven Bioactive Flavonoids in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium by Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lian-Hua; Zhao, Hong-Zheng; Zhao, Xue; Kong, Wei-Jun; Hu, Yi-Chen; Yang, Shi-Hai; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (CRP) is a commonly-used traditional Chinese medicine with flavonoids as the major bioactive components. Nevertheless, the contents of the flavonoids in CRP of different sources may significantly vary affecting their therapeutic effects. Thus, the setting up of a reliable and comprehensive quality assessment method for flavonoids in CRP is necessary. To set up a rapid and sensitive ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantification of seven bioactive flavonoids in CRP. A UFLC-MS/MS method coupled to ultrasound-assisted extraction was developed for simultaneous separation and quantification of seven flavonoids including hesperidin, neohesperidin, naringin, narirutin, tangeretin, nobiletin and sinensetin in 16 batches of CRP samples from different sources in China. The established method showed good linearity for all analytes with correlation coefficient (R) over 0.9980, together with satisfactory accuracy, precision and reproducibility. Furthermore, the recoveries at the three spiked levels were higher than 89.71% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 5.19%. The results indicated that the contents of seven bioactive flavonoids in CRP varied significantly among different sources. Among the samples under study, hesperidin showed the highest contents in 16 samples ranged from 27.50 to 86.30 mg/g, the contents of hesperidin in CRP-15 and CRP-9 were 27.50 and 86.30 mg/g, respectively, while, the amount of narirutin was too low to be measured in some samples. This study revealed that the developed UFLC-MS/MS method was simple, sensitive and reliable for simultaneous quantification of multi-components in CRP with potential perspective for quality control of complex matrices. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Regulation of Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata GABAergic Neuron Activity by H2O2 via Flufenamic Acid-Sensitive Channels and KATP Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christian R.; Witkovsky, Paul; Rice, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) GABAergic neurons are key output neurons of the basal ganglia. Given the role of these neurons in motor control, it is important to understand factors that regulate their firing rate and pattern. One potential regulator is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen species that is increasingly recognized as a neuromodulator. We used whole-cell current clamp recordings of SNr GABAergic neurons in guinea-pig midbrain slices to determine how H2O2 affects the activity of these neurons and to explore the classes of ion channels underlying those effects. Elevation of H2O2 levels caused an increase in the spontaneous firing rate of SNr GABAergic neurons, whether by application of exogenous H2O2 or amplification of endogenous H2O2 through inhibition of glutathione peroxidase with mercaptosuccinate. This effect was reversed by flufenamic acid (FFA), implicating transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Conversely, depletion of endogenous H2O2 by catalase, a peroxidase enzyme, decreased spontaneous firing rate and firing precision of SNr neurons, demonstrating tonic control of firing rate by H2O2. Elevation of H2O2 in the presence of FFA revealed an inhibition of tonic firing that was prevented by blockade of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels with glibenclamide. In contrast to guinea-pig SNr neurons, the dominant effect of H2O2 elevation in mouse SNr GABAergic neurons was hyperpolarization, indicating a species difference in H2O2-dependent regulation. Thus, H2O2 is an endogenous modulator of SNr GABAergic neurons, acting primarily through presumed TRP channels in guinea-pig SNr, with additional modulation via KATP channels to regulate SNr output. PMID:21503158

  11. The GABA uptake inhibitor beta-alanine reduces pilocarpine-induced tremor and increases extracellular GABA in substantia nigra pars reticulata as measured by microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwari, Keita; Mingote, Susana; Correa, Merce; Trevitt, Jennifer T; Carlson, Brian B; Salamone, John D

    2004-12-30

    Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia that receives GABAergic projections from neostriatum and globus pallidus. Previous research has shown that local pharmacological manipulations of GABA in SNr can influence tremulous jaw movements in rats. Tremulous jaw movements are defined as rapid vertical deflections of the lower jaw that resemble chewing but are not directed at a particular stimulus, and evidence indicates that these movements share many characteristics with parkinsonian tremor in humans. In order to investigate the role of GABA in motor functions related to tremor, the present study tested the GABA uptake blocker beta-alanine for its ability to reduce pilocarpine-induced tremulous jaw movements. In a parallel experiment, the effect of an active dose of beta-alanine on dialysate levels of GABA in SNr was assessed using microdialysis methods. GABA levels in dialysis samples were measured using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. beta-Alanine (250-500 mg/kg) significantly reduced tremulous jaw movements induced by pilocarpine (4.0 mg/kg). Moreover, systemic administration of beta-alanine at a dose that reduced tremulous jaw movements (500 mg/kg) resulted in a substantial increase in extracellular levels of GABA in SNr compared to the pre-injection baseline. Thus, the present results are consistent with the hypothesis that GABAergic tone in SNr plays a role in the regulation of tremulous jaw movements. This research may lead to a better understanding of how parkinsonian symptoms are modulated by SNr GABA mechanisms.

  12. Aplicação de ácido giberélico (GA3 em précolheita de tangerina ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata blanco = Application of Gibberelic acid (GA3 on preharvest of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnior Cesar Modesto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado em pomar comercial de tangerineira ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata Blanco, enxertadas sobre tangerineira ‘Cleópatra’ (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., em Pratânia, Estado de S��o Paulo, Brasil. Adotouse o delineamento experimental em blocoscasualizados com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos empregados foram: 0 (controle, 5, 10, 15 e 20 mg L1 de ácido giberélico (GA3. A aplicação dos tratamentos foi realizada com atomizador tratorizado. Na mudança de coloração dos frutos, utilizaramse 5,9 litros de solução por planta, com adição de 0,03% de surfatante não iônico com 25% de Alquil fenol poliglicoléter. As análises da qualidade dos frutos foram realizadas aos 13, 45, 75 e 111 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. Não se verificou influência da aplicação de GA3 na massa fresca dos frutos, no conteúdo de sólidos solúveis totais, na acidez total titulável e “ratio”. No entanto foi observado atraso na colheita de frutos, induzido pelo efeito fisiológico do ácido giberélico. The experiment was carried out in a commercial orchard of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco, grafted on ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., in Pratânia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The utilized experimental design was composed of randomized blocks of four replications. The treatments consisted of: 0 (control,5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L1 of Gibberellic acid (GA3. Atomizer equipment was utilized for the application of the treatments. Each plant received 5.9 liters of solution, in which 0.03% of nonionic surfactant with 25% of alkylphenol ethoxylate was added, in order to change fruit coloration. The analyses of fruit quality were developed on the 13th, 45th, 75th and 111th days after the application of the treatments (DAT. Results showed that the application of GA3 did not affect fruit fresh mass, total soluble solids content, total titulable acidity and ratio. However, a delay in fruit

  13. Humanos salvajes y monos altruistas. Reflexiones sobre Darwin

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    Jorge Martinez Contreras

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN   Darwin propuso en 1871 que preferiría descender de un mono que de los “salvajes”. El mono es un babuino hamadryas que, en un relato de Brehm, salva a un infante de una jauría. Los “salvajes” son los fueguinos a los que visitó en los años 1830. ¿Por qué Darwin fue tan buen observador del comportamiento animal y por qué no dudo discernir en qué consistía la sociedad de cazadores-recolectores de los cuatro grupos de Tierra del Fuego?. Esto es lo que tratamos de dilucidar en este trabajo.   Palabras clave: Darwin, fueguinos, hamadryas, altruismo, egoísmo.

  14. Bridas al Corazón Salvaje - Epistolario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Branda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available El epistolario que se presenta es una continuación del que mantuvieron dos académicos, el Dr. Alberto Golding (bueno como el oro, pero potencialmente maleable y la Dra. Manman Touchstone (comprueba si algo o alguien es genuino (Branda, 2015. El título se inspira en la primera novela de Clarice Lispector, Perto do coração selvagem donde las relaciones humanas se examinan a través de los sentimientos de una mujer y donde la protagonista dice “No entanto como seria bom construir alguma coisa pura, liberta do falso amor sublimizado, liberta do medo de não amar... Medo de não amar, pior do que o medo de não ser amado...” (Lispector, 1995: 108. Los correspondientes en este epistolario intercalan sus sentimientos y reflexiones siendo el tema dominante el análisis de la naturaleza de las relaciones amorosas, incluyendo la de los padres a su progenie y la separación o el escoger un nuevo camino; “Não fugir, mas ir” (Lispector, 1995: 208

  15. España: La doma del negocio salvaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jones

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor se cuestiona ¿Cómo nace y evoluciona la industria del video doméstico? Los datos demuestran el impacto de este sobre el cine y la televisión. Después del auge de la video-piratería las transnacionales anglosajonas del video recapturan casi todo el mercado español. Aunque no hay datos parecería que América Latina sucede un proceso análogo de expansión y concentración. Trata además sobre la producción de videos de sexo y violencia, los conflictos entre las industrias audiovisuales, los imperios (industria cinematográfica contraatacan, Videoindustria y Estado, Japón, USA, UK.

  16. Los detectives salvajes y el ocaso de las vanguardias

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Alberto Julián

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo estudia cómo Bolaño asoció en esta novela la poesía mexicana de las vanguardias históricas del 20, con las neovanguardias de los 60 y los 70 en México. La obsesión de los personajes de esta novela con la poesía se vuelve la razón última de su búsqueda, que es también la búsqueda por el alma de la poesía como modo último de trascendencia en el mundo de la literatura. This article studies how Bolaño related in this novel the poetry of the Mexican Avant-Garde of the 20’s with th...

  17. Using cytogenetic analysis RAPD in determination of genetic variations among four species of ornamental fishes of family: Poecilidae (Order: Cyprinodontiform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Almaaty A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyological and molecular analysis of four fresh water fish species of Family: Poecilidae and their genetic relationships have been studied. Xiphophorus maculates and Xiphophorus hellerii have the same diploid chromosome number 2n=48, but they were different in their karyotypes. Poecilia sphenops and Poecilia reticulata have the same diploid chromosome number 2n=46 and the same fundamental number FN=46, also the same karyotype one group of acrocentric chromosomes. Nine RAPD primers, showed monomorphic bands, were used for the construction of the dendrogram and a similarity matrix. A total of 65 bands were obtained; 39 of them were monomorphic bands. Similarity values among the studied samples ranged from 21% to 38%. High similarity value was obtained between Xiphophorus maculates and Xiphophorus hellerii. (38% and the low similarity values were obtained between Xiphophorus hellerii and Poecilia reticulata (21%. The cluster analysis clearly differentiated Xiphophorus maculates and Xiphophorus hellerii from Poecilia sphenops and Poecilia reticulata. RAPD analysis confirmed that the four species under study are genetically different from each other. These cytogenetic data obtained can be applied for further studies in cytotaxonomy and evolutionary relationships of fishes.

  18. Biodiversity and ecosystem risks arising from using guppies to control mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana W. El-Sabaawi; Therese C. Frauendorf; Piata S. Marques; Richard A. Mackenzie; Luisa R. Manna; Rosana Mazzoni; Dawn A. T. Phillip; Misha L. Warbanski; Eugenia Zandon

    2016-01-01

    Deploying mosquito predators such as the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) into bodies of water where mosquitoes breed is a common strategy for limiting the spread of disease-carrying mosquitoes. Here, we draw on studies from epidemiology, conservation, ecology and evolution to show that the evidence for the effectiveness of guppies in controlling...

  19. Status and role of radiobiology in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, K.

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation history of radiobiology in University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Kosice from 1949 is presented. Scientific and pedagogic programs, role of veterinary physician as well as concept of radiobiology and cooperation are reviewed. Changes in Poecilia reticulata and Artemia franciscana after gamma radiation are presented.

  20. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of refined petroleum products against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Static and static-renewal evaluation of the acute toxicity of three refined petroleum products — petrol, kerosene and diesel — against two freshwater animals, the mollusc Pila ovata and the fish Poecilia reticulata, was conducted in the laboratory. Petrol, kerosene and diesel were found to be moderately toxic to the test ...

  1. The relative toxicity of pesticides, Cypermetrin and Diazol against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation of the toxicity of the two pesticide products, cypermetrin and diazol against hermit crab Clibanarius africanus and fish Poecilia reticulata was conducted in the laboratory. The test pesticides were found to be differentially toxic to the test organisms. Cypermetrin was found to be more toxic than diazol, the 96h ...

  2. Short Communications: First record of freshwater fish on the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a non-exhaustive survey of freshwater bodies on five islands of the archipelago, the first presence of a freshwater fish was recorded. Using barcoding sequences, the species was identified as the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a highly invasive species alien to the Cape Verdean Islands. Key words: Cape Verde, guppy, ...

  3. Chemicalome and metabolome profiling of polymethoxylated flavonoids in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium based on an integrated strategy combining background subtraction and modified mass defect filter in a Microsoft Excel Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Su-Ling; Duan, Li; Chen, Bai-Zhong; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2017-07-28

    Detection of metabolites in complex biological matrixes is a great challenge because of the background noise and endogenous components. Herein, we proposed an integrated strategy that combined background subtraction program and modified mass defect filter (MMDF) data mining in a Microsoft Excel platform for chemicalome and metabolome profiling of the polymethoxylated flavonoids (PMFs) in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (CRP). The exogenously-sourced ions were firstly filtered out by the developed Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) program incorporated in the Microsoft Office. The novel MMDF strategy was proposed for detecting both target and untarget constituents and metabolites based on narrow, well-defined mass defect ranges. The approach was validated to be powerful, and potentially useful for the metabolite identification of both single compound and homologous compound mixture. We successfully identified 30 and 31 metabolites from rat biosamples after oral administration of nobiletin and tangeretin, respectively. A total of 56 PMFs compounds were chemically characterized and 125 metabolites were captured. This work demonstrated the feasibility of the integrated approach for reliable characterization of the constituents and metabolites in herbal medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Panicolytic-like effects caused by substantia nigra pars reticulata pretreatment with low doses of endomorphin-1 and high doses of CTOP or the NOP receptors antagonist JTC-801 in male Rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Juliana Almeida; Biagioni, Audrey Franceschi; Almada, Rafael Carvalho; de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2017-10-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) are connected to the deep layers of the superior colliculus (dlSC). The dlSC, in turn, connect with the SNpr through opioid projections. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (N/OFQ) is a natural ligand of a Gi protein-coupled nociceptin receptor (ORL1; NOP) that is also found in the SNpr. Our hypothesis is that tectonigral opioid pathways and intranigral orphanin-mediated mechanisms modulate GABAergic nigrotectal connections. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the role of opioid and NOP receptors in the SNpr during the modulation of defence reactions organised by the dlSC. The SNpr was pretreated with either opioid or NOP receptor agonists and antagonists, followed by dlSC treatment with bicuculline. Blockade of GABA A receptors in the dlSC elicited fear-related defensive behaviour. Pretreatment of the SNpr with naloxone benzoylhydrazone (NalBzoH), a μ-, δ-, and κ 1 -opioid receptor antagonist as well as a NOP receptor antagonist, decreased the aversive effect of bicuculline treatment on the dlSC. Either μ-opioid receptor activation or blockade by SNpr microinjection of endomorphin-1 (EM-1) and CTOP promoted pro-aversive and anti-aversive actions, respectively, that modulated the defensive responses elicited by bicuculline injection into the dlSC. Pretreatment of the SNpr with the selective NOP receptor antagonist JTC801 decreased the aversive effect of bicuculline, and microinjections of the selective NOP receptor agonist NNC 63-0532 promoted the opposite effect. These results demonstrate that opioid pathways and orphanin-mediated mechanisms have a critical role in modulating the activity of nigrotectal GABAergic pathways during the organisation of defensive behaviours.

  5. Flavonoides extraídos de la cascara de naranja tangelo (Citrus reticulata x Citrus paradisi y su aplicación como antioxidante natural en el aceite vegetal sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Tenorio Domínguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como objetivo obtener extractos de flavonoides de la cáscara de naranja tangelo (Citrus reticulata x Citrus paradisi y aplicarlos como, antioxidante natural en el aceite vegetal Sacha inchi(Plukenetia volubilis.La información se obtuvo de las pruebas experimentales, que se realizó en siete etapas: caracterización física y química de la naranja tangelo y delaceite vegetal sacha inchi, obtención de los extractos de flavonoides por soxhlet , detección de los flavonoides de cada extracto por cromatografía de capa fina y cromatografía de papel, identificación y cuantificación de los flavonoides por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC, determinación de la capacidad antioxidante de cada extracto de flavonoide y finalmente se evaluó la actividad antioxidante en el aceite sacha inchi, del extracto que tuvo la mayor capacidad antioxidante, para lo cual se utilizó un diseño multifactorial con dos factores : extractos de flavonoides y concentración con tres niveles: 0,05%; 0,1% y 0,15% y 16 bloques que son los tiempos. Los resultados mostraron que en el extracto acuoso se encontró la mayor cantidad de flavonoides: 100,3724 mg/g, siendo la naringina con 81,1727 mg/g el flavonoide que se encontró en mayor proporción. A la concentración del 0,1% el extracto de flavonoide presentó el menor índice de peróxido a las 384 horas. Se concluye quelos flavonoides presentes en la cascara de naranja tangelo pueden ser utilizados como extractos crudos sin necesidad de purificaciones parciales o totales, para conseguir aumentar la vida útil del aceite sacha inchi.

  6. Alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de Aedes aegypti submetidas ao diterpeno labdano, isolado de Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae, e à uma fração rica em taninos de Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyde Ferreira Barreto Valotto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera reticulata, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-β-acetoxylabdan-8(17-13-dien-15-óico e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3% e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio.

  7. Combined effects of gamma radiation and potassium dichromate on morphological changes in guppy kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, K.; Almasiova, V.; Dvorak, P.; Halan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Our experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation and potassium dichromate on morphological changes in the kidneys of Poecilia reticulata. Fish were irradiated with gamma rays at a dose of 20 Gy and exposed to potassium dichromate in concentration of 50 mg · dm -3 . The combined effects resulted in marked morphological changes in urinary tubules. The brush border on the apical part of the cells was discontinuous, cytoplasm showed vacuolisation and the integrity of vessels was disturbed. (authors)

  8. Insetos Sugadores (Sternorrhyncha em Cultivo Orgânico de Tangerina cv. Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco: Diversidade, Constância, Freqüência e Flutuação Populacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Costa Rodrigues

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a diversidade, constância, freqüência e a flutuação populacional de insetos sugadores da subordem Sternorrhyncha associados à tangerina cv. Poncã sob o sistema de cultivo orgânico. Os levantamentos foram realizados entre outubro de 2002 e outubro de 2003. Dentre os aleirodídeos, Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell destacou-se dos demais, com média populacional igual a 74,06%. Aleurotrachelus cruzi Cassino obteve média de 52,6%. Entre as cochonilhas destacaram-se Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan (23,96% e Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Signoret (19,38%. O psilídeo Diaphorina citri Kuwayama obteve média de 52,6%, sendo a segunda espécie com maior média. Os pulgões Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy e Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer, somente ocorreram em período de brotação e floração, com média populacional de 7,6% e 6,25%, respectivamente. Quanto à diversidade das espécies o período com maior diversidade, ocorreu na 1ª quinzena de setembro de 2003 (H’= 0,964, coincidindo com a menor dominância (D= 0,200, e menor diversidade na 1º quinzena de maio de 2003 (H’= 0,657 e maior dominância (D= 0,522. As espécies constantes foram: A. floccosus (100%, A. cruzi (96%, Coccus viridis (Green (100%, P. aspidistrae (100% e D. citri (100%. As espécies mais freqüentes foram: A. floccosus (30,79% e D. citri (21,87%. Os resultados sugerem que as espécies verificadas possuem a dinâmica populacional em parte influenciada pela competição interespecífica, pois quando há um aumento populacional dos aleirodídeos, há um decréscimo da população das cochonilhas e vice-versa, além dos fatores ambientais, a predação e o parasitismo.Sucker Insects (Sternorrhyncha in Organic Cropping of Tangerine cv. Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco: Diversity, Constancy, Frequency and Populational FluctuationAbstract. The aim of this work was to study the diversity, constancy, frequency and the population fluctuation of the sucker

  9. La dimensión indígena del salvaje europeo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Benítez Trinidad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican anthropologist Roger Bartra in his works makes an analysis of the evolution of the myth of European savage, rooted in the classical antiquity to evolve and adapt to the mentality of the people who were populating Europe until its expansion to the world in the late s. XV, extrapolating that mythology to the construction around the inhabitants of the New World. This mythological dimension merges with the role that the indian was acquired during the consolidation of European hegemony around the idea of modernity and capitalism, in the first as otherness and in the second as an inhabitant of the exploited periphery. Both dimension, studied and criticized by contemporary Latin American thought. This paper puts aim to reflect on the complexity of the discursive formation around the image of the Indian using these three keystones. What role did mythology and European fantasy in conjunction with aspects more typically associated with the European rationalism, as are capitalism and Modernity, in creating the Indian? Explore, then, the meeting between European savage and Modernity.

  10. La dimensión indígena del salvaje europeo.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Benítez Trinidad

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican anthropologist Roger Bartra in his works makes an analysis of the evolution of the myth of European savage, rooted in the classical antiquity to evolve and adapt to the mentality of the people who were populating Europe until its expansion to the world in the late s. XV, extrapolating that mythology to the construction around the inhabitants of the New World. This mythological dimension merges with the role that the indian was acquired during the consolidation...

  11. Competência de peixes como predadores de larvas de Aedes aegypti, em condições de laboratório Efficacy of fish as predators of Aedes aegypti larvae, under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a competência de peixes na predação de larvas de Aedes aegypti, em condições de laboratório. MÉTODOS: Foram testados machos e fêmeas de cinco espécies de peixe. Os testes de predação duravam cinco semanas para cada espécie. Cada ensaio compreendia quatro caixas testes e quatro caixas controles. Das caixas controle, duas tinham somente um peixe e as outras duas, apenas larvas. Cada caixa teste continha um peixe e larvas. Na primeira semana foram expostas 100 larvas em cada caixa, e a cada semana acrescentavam-se 100 larvas por caixa/dia, até se obter um máximo de 500 larvas/dia. Comprimento e peso dos peixes foram medidos semanalmente. RESULTADOS: Foram utilizadas 369.000 larvas no total. O Trichogaster trichopteros foi a única espécie em que ambos os sexos predaram 100% das larvas oferecidas. O Betta splendens deixou de predar apenas 15 larvas. Machos do Poecilia reticulata apresentaram baixa capacidade larvófaga quando comparados às fêmeas da mesma espécie. Em relação ao peso e tamanho o Betta splendens mostrou-se capaz de predar 523 larvas/grama/dia. CONCLUSÕES: Fêmeas e machos de Trichogaster trichopteros e de Astyanax fasciatus, e fêmeas de Betta splendens e de Poecillia sphenops foram os peixes que apresentaram maior competência para predar as larvas. Embora com competência menor, machos de Poecillia sphenops e fêmeas de Poecilia reticulata foram capazes de eliminar o número de larvas de Aedes aegypti que possam emergir durante 24 horas num criadouro, em condições naturais. Machos de Poecilia reticulata não foram predadores eficazes.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of fish as predators of the Aedes aegypti larvae in laboratory conditions. METHODS: The male and female of five different fish were included in the experiment. The tests to measure their consumption ability lasted five weeks for each species. Each trial involved four test tanks and four control tanks. Two control tanks

  12. Population structure of fishes from an urban stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara Zanatta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the population structure of the ichthyofauna in an urban stream within an environmental protection area in southern Brazil. Quarterly samplings were conducted between October 2009 and August 2010. Poecilia reticulata was the most abundant species, followed by Hypostomus ancistroides and Rhamdia quelen. It was found a higher proportion of adults instead of juveniles from P. reticulata and R. quelen populations, while the opposite was recorded for H. ancistroides. Sex ratio of 1:1 was found for H. ancistroides, but differed significantly for P. reticulata and R. quelen. Females of P. reticulata and R. quelen reached higher length than males in the smaller and higher length-classes, while H. ancistroides females were only longer in initial length-classes. It was recorded higher occurrence of mature and maturing individuals. Mature individuals of H. ancistroides were sampled in October, and P. reticulata and R. quelen throughout the sampling period. Despite adverse environmental conditions, the occurrence of juveniles indicates reproductive activity for these species. Population structure studies in degraded systems are urgent, since life-history features of species may suffer changes due to anthropic impacts. Providing such information contributes to decision making and management of degraded systems.

  13. Topographic and functional neuroanatomical study of GABAergic disinhibitory striatum-nigral inputs and inhibitory nigrocollicular pathways: neural hodology recruiting the substantia nigra, pars reticulata, for the modulation of the neural activity in the inferior colliculus involved with panic-like emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellan-Baldan, Lissandra; da Costa Kawasaki, Mateus; Ribeiro, Sandro José; Calvo, Fabrício; Corrêa, Vani Maria Alves; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2006-08-01

    Considering the influence of the substantia nigra on mesencephalic neurons involved with fear-induced reactions organized in rostral aspects of the dorsal midbrain, the present work investigated the topographical and functional neuroanatomy of similar influence on caudal division of the corpora quadrigemina, addressing: (a) the neural hodology connecting the neostriatum, the substantia nigra, periaqueductal gray matter and inferior colliculus (IC) neural networks; (b) the influence of the inhibitory neostriatonigral-nigrocollicular GABAergic links on the control of the defensive behavior organized in the IC. The effects of the increase or decrease of activity of nigrocollicular inputs on defensive responses elicited by either electrical or chemical stimulation of the IC were also determined. Electrolytic or chemical lesions of the substantia nigra, pars reticulata (SNpr), decreased the freezing and escape behaviors thresholds elicited by electrical stimulation of the IC, and increased the behavioral responses evoked by the GABAA blockade in the same sites of the mesencephalic tectum (MT) electrically stimulated. These findings were corroborated by similar effects caused by microinjections of the GABAA-receptor agonist muscimol in the SNpr, followed by electrical and chemical stimulations of the IC. The GABAA blockade in the SNpr caused a significant increase in the defensive behavior thresholds elicited by electrical stimulation of the IC and a decrease in the mean incidence of panic-like responses induced by microinjections of bicuculline in the mesencephalic tectum (inferior colliculus). These findings suggest that the substantia nigra receives GABAergic inputs that modulate local and also inhibitory GABAergic outputs toward the IC. In fact, neurotracing experiments with fast blue and iontophoretic microinjections of biotinylated dextran amine either into the inferior colliculus or in the reticular division of the substantia nigra demonstrated a neural link

  14. The early-stage diagnosis of albinic embryos by applying optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bor-Wen; Wang, Shih-Yuan; Wang, Yu-Yen; Cai, Jyun-Jhang; Chang, Chung-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Albinism is a kind of congenital disease of abnormal metabolism. Poecilia reticulata (guppy fish) is chosen as the model to study the development of albinic embryos as it is albinic, ovoviviparous and with short life period. This study proposed an imaging method for penetrative embryo investigation using optical coherence tomography. By imaging through guppy mother’s reproduction purse, we found the embryo’s eyes were the early-developed albinism features. As human’s ocular albinism typically appear at about four weeks old, it is the time to determine if an embryo will grow into an albino.

  15. Partitioning the metabolic scope: the importance of anaerobic metabolism and implications for the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejbye-Ernst, Rasmus; Michaelsen, Thomas Y.; Tirsgaard, B.

    2016-01-01

    , the methodology rarely accounts for anaerobic metabolism within the MS. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), this study tested for trade-offs (i) between aerobic and anaerobic components of locomotor performance; and (ii) between the corresponding components...... of the MS. Data collection involved measuring oxygen consumption rate at increasing swimming speeds, using the gait transition from steady to unsteady (burst-assisted) swimming to detect the onset of anaerobic metabolism. Results provided evidence of the locomotor performance trade-off, but only in S...

  16. Assessment of Annona reticulata Linn. leaves fractions for invitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prasad G. Jamkhande

    2015-01-31

    Jan 31, 2015 ... This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license .... The bac- terial plates were incubated at 37 °C for 24 h and fungal plates .... In search of effective antimicrobial agent, current research is focusing over plants ...

  17. Development of sparse-seeded mutant kinnow (Citrus reticulata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... crops like citrus, induced mutation for seedlessness in Kinnow with gamma irradiation of dormant bud which was attempted at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad. Dormant bud irradiation-cum-grafting technique was employed, using the Citrus jambhiri rootstock for propagation of the scion.

  18. Crystal structure of a photobiologically active furanocoumarin from Artemisia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Bauri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The title furanocoumarin, C14H12O4 [systematic name: 9-hydroxy-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl-2,3-dihydro-7H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-7-one], crystallizes with two independent molecules (A and B in the asymmetric unit. The two molecules differ essentially in the orientation of the propenyl group with respect to the mean plane of the furanocoumarin moiety; the O—C(H—C=C torsion angle is 122.2 (7° in molecule A and −10.8 (11° in molecule B. In the crystal, the A and B molecules are linked via O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag –A–B–A–B– chains propagating along [001]. The chains are reinforced by bifurcated C—H...(O,O hydrogen bonds, forming ribbons which are linked via C—H...π and π–π interactions [intercentroid distance = 3.602 (2 Å], forming a three-dimensional structure.

  19. Cryptosporidium muris in a Reticulated Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodádková, A.; Kváč, M.; Ditrich, Oleg; Sak, Bohumil; Xiao, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 1 (2010), s. 211-212 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/0992; GA ČR GP523/07/P117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cryptosporidium muris * Reticulated giraffe * natural infection Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2010

  20. Los «Niños salvajes» y la medicalización de la deficiencia mental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huertas, Rafael

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the scientific and philosophical debates in postrevolutionary France on the role played by the process of socialization in human intellectual development. In addition, he discusses the way in which the controversy on wild children —specifically on the case of Víctor de l'Aveyron—, constituted a sort of "foundation myth" for such disciplines as paedopsychiatry or psychopedagogy. The case was used as justification of the "origins" of these disciplines in the attempts to institutionalize them.El presente trabajo analiza los debates científicos y filosóficos suscitados en la Francia postrevolucionaria sobre el papel jugado, en el desarrollo intelectual del ser humano, por el proceso de socialización. Asimismo, se estudia de qué manera el debate sobre los niños selváticos y, concretamente, el caso de Víctor de l'Aveyron, constituyó una especie de "mito fundacional" de disciplinas como la paidopsiquiatría o la psicopedagogía, al ser utilizado como justificación de los "orígenes" en los intentos de institucionalización de las mismas.

  1. Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae as an intermediate host of Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae in Brazil Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae como hospedeiro intermediário de Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Alves Pinto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pleurolophocercous cercariae emerged from naturally infected Melanoides tuberculata from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were used to perform experimental infection of laboratory-reared Poecilia reticulata. Mature metacercariae were obtained from the gills of fishes and force-fed to Mus musculus. The adult parasites which recovered from small intestines of mice were identified as Centrocestus formosanus. This is the first report of M. tuberculata as intermediate host of this heterophyid in Brazil.Cercárias do tipo pleurolofocerca emergidas de Melanoides tuberculata naturalmente infectados coletados na represa da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, foram utilizadas para a infecção experimental de Poecilia reticulata criados em laboratório. Metacercárias maduras foram obtidas nas brânquias dos peixes e administradas por via oral a Mus musculus. Parasitos adultos recuperados no intestino delgado dos camundongos foram identificados como Centrocestus formosanus. Este é o primeiro relato de M. tuberculata como hospedeiro intermediário deste parasito no Brasil.

  2. Eficacia del control de larvas de vectores de la malaria con peces larvívoros nativos en San Martín, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmer Rojas P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la eficacia del control larvario de vectores de la malaria con peces larvívoros nativos en San Martín, Perú. Material y métodos: Estudio experimental que se llevó a cabo en las localidades de Yumbatos, Alianza y San Juan de Shanusi con ocho criaderos cada uno, identificándose las especies nativas Rivulus urophtalmus "chuina" y Pyrrulina brevis "achualillo" comparados con la eficacia ejercida por Poecilia reticulata "guppy". Se midieron variables como temperatura, pH, concentración de electrolitos en el agua, densidad de los peces y presencia de otros depredadores. Resultados: Los peces nativos alcanzaron una eficacia de 98% en el control de larvas de Anopheles, cuando se mantuvieron en densidades entre 10 y 15 peces/m²; estos peces alcanzan longitudes hasta de 8 cm, y tienen similar o mayor voracidad que Poecilia reticulata. Asimismo, se evidenció la existencia de peces depredadores, Hoplias malabaricus "fasaco" y Simbranchus marmoratus "atinga", los que se alimentan de estos peces pequeños. Conclusiones: Los peces nativos son eficaces para el control de larvas de Anopheles; asimismo, se deben tener en cuenta la existencia de otras especies depredadoras, así como la limpieza de la maleza de los criaderos para incrementar la eficacia del control.

  3. Comparative efficacy of two poeciliid fish in indoor cement tanks against chikungunya vector Aedes aegypti in villages in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojha Vijay P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, severe outbreaks of Aedes aegypti-transmitted chikungunya occurred in villages in Karnataka, South India. We evaluated the effectiveness of combined information, education and communication (IEC campaigns using two potential poeciliid larvivorous fish guppy (Poecilia reticulata and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis, in indoor cement tanks for Aedes larval control. Methods Trials were conducted in two villages (Domatmari and Srinivaspura in Tumkur District from March to May 2006 for Poecilia and one village (Balmanda in Kolar District from July to October 2006 for Gambusia. A survey on knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP on chikungunya was initially conducted and IEC campaigns were performed before and after fish release in Domatmari (IEC alone, followed by IEC + Poecilia and Balmanda (IEC + Gambusia. In Srinivaspura, IEC was not conducted. Larval surveys were conducted at the baseline followed by one-week and one-month post-intervention periods. The impact of fish on Aedes larvae and disease was assessed based on baseline and post-intervention observations. Results Only 18% of respondents knew of the role of mosquitoes in fever outbreaks, while almost all (n = 50 each gained new knowledge from the IEC campaigns. In Domatmari, IEC alone was not effective (OR 0.54; p = 0.067. Indoor cement tanks were the most preferred Ae. aegypti breeding habitat (86.9%, and had a significant impact on Aedes breeding (Breteau Index in all villages in the one-week period (p p p = 0.063 and Balmanda (OR 0.51, p = 0.067. After fish introductions, chikungunya cases were reduced by 99.87% in Domatmari, 65.48% in Srinivaspura and 68.51% in Balmanda. Conclusions Poecilia exhibited greater survival rates than Gambusia (86.04 vs.16.03% in cement tanks. Neither IEC nor Poecilia alone was effective against Aedes (p > 0.05. We conclude that Poecilia + IEC is an effective intervention strategy. The operational cost was 0.50 (US$ 0.011, 1 US$= 47

  4. The effects of sodium perchlorate on the liver of Molly Fish ( Poecilia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adult male molly fishes were reared up to ten days in control water or in water containing sodium perchlorate at concentrations of 1, 5, 25 and 125 ppm. Remarkable steatosis, fibrosis, hyperemia and necrosis were distinguished in parallel with increasing sodium perchlorate concentrations. The striking cellular damages ...

  5. Laboratory evaluation of methanolic extract of Atlantia monophylla (Family: Rutaceae against immature stages of mosquitoes and non-target organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sivagnaname

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extracts of the leaves of Atlantia monophylla (Rutaceae were evaluated for mosquitocidal activity against immature stages of three mosquito species, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti in the laboratory.Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and pupae of An. stephensi were found more susceptible, with LC50 values of 0.14 mg/l and 0.05 mg/l, respectively. Insect growth regulating activity of this extract was more pronounced against Ae. aegypti, with EI50 value 0.002 mg/l. The extract was found safe to aquatic mosquito predators Gambusia affinis, Poecilia reticulata, and Diplonychus indicus, with the respective LC50 values of 23.4, 21.3, and 5.7 mg/l. The results indicate that the mosquitocidal effects of the extract of this plant were comparable to neem extract and certain synthetic chemical larvicides like fenthion, methoprene, etc.

  6. Social preferences based on sexual attractiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Josefine Bohr; Croft, Darren P.; Thompson, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    influencing the decision-making of males to their advantage. We tested this hypothesis in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species with high levels of male sexual harassment. First, we confirmed that non-receptive females were harassed less when they were paired with a more sexually attractive...... with females that are more sexually attractive than themselves and that they perform active partner choices based on this relative attractiveness. We propose that this strategy is likely to represent an important pathway by which females can construct social niches that influence the decision-making of others......Male sexual harassment of females is common across sexually reproducing species and can result in fitness costs to females. We hypothesized that females can reduce unwanted male attention by constructing a social niche where their female associates are more sexually attractive than themselves, thus...

  7. Use of 65 Zn as radioactive tracer in the bioaccumulation study of zinc by aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagrino, W.

    1992-01-01

    The present work has as main objective to emphasize the importance of using radioactive tracers as well as to establish a methodology for the utilization of 65 Zn in the bioaccumulation study of zinc by Poecilia reticulata. The exposure time varied from 5 days (short term experiments) to 30 days (long term experiments). The bioaccumulation of zinc from the water as well as the elimination of the metal previously absorbed were determined by measuring the activity of 65 Zn which was added to the water in the beginning of the experiments. The technique chosen is suitable to study the behaviour of the stable zinc since the radionuclide used is an isotope of the same element and therefore presents the same chemical properties. (author)

  8. De un boom a otro: sobre realismos mágicos y gastronomías salvajes en Latinoamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Hevia-Garrido-Lecca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomando la lectura de Alejo Carpentier sobre lo real maravilloso en la narrativa latinoamericana y las apreciaciones que J. Goytisolo nos alcanza de la ensayística interdisciplinaria francesa, el artículo pone a prueba los alcances y limitaciones de la actual resonancia que tiene la gastronomía peruana. Ciertas prácticas orales cotidianas, como el comer y el beber, son consideradas en función de los diferentes capitales culturales que las envuelven. Entre tanto, caracteres etnográfi cos, tópicos microsociales y apelaciones literarias contribuyen a desmontar la colonización con que una mirada primermundista permea el marketing mediático en este orden de cosas.

  9. Belano alter ego de Bolaño. Sobre la creación de una identidad literaria en Los detectives salvajes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the construction of a literary identity in Roberto Bolaño's novel The Savage Detectives (1998. Starting with the hypothesis that his narrative elaborates a revalorization of the poetic, this work investigates the procedures and models of the mentioned construction. Designed from both autobiographical hints and literary types, the profile of Belano, Bolaño's alter ego, unites the author's life experiences with others that have been legendarized by literature or literary history. The article discusses not only the literary construction of Bolaño's characters, but the transformation of Bolano himself in a literary figure.

  10. Arendt y la «historia salvaje». Reflexiones sobre la política y la historia que no se pueden fabricar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Merino, María José

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper present Hannah Arendt’s peculiar criticism of the modern idea of History, following the itinerary that goes from the original sense of «politics» to its replacement with the idea of «art of governing », as well as the apparition of the modern idea of History as a unitary and universal process. Finally, we will outline some elements of that other idea of history that is formulated from the notion of «historical crystallization», barely sketched by the author. The route we suggest presumes that Arendt, while intending to fight the oblivion and substitutions suffered by the political sphere, denouncing its poietic foundation, wants to formulate not only a new idea of politics but also a new idea of history.

    En el artículo que sigue, presentaremos la peculiar crítica a la idea de historia moderna que realiza Hannah Arendt, siguiendo el itinerario que va desde el sentido original de «política» hasta su sustitución por la idea de «arte de gobernar» y la aparición de la moderna idea de Historia como proceso unitario y universal. Esbozaremos, finalmente, algunos elementos de esa otra idea de historia que queda delineada a partir de la noción de «cristalización histórica», que la autora apenas esboza. El recorrido que proponemos supone que Arendt, al mismo tiempo que pretende combatir los olvidos y sustituciones que ha sufrido lo político denunciando su fundamento poiético, busca formular no sólo una nueva idea de política, sino también, una nueva idea de historia.

  11. Autopistas salvajes: propuesta de WWF España para una Red Estratégica de Corredores Ecológicos entre espacios Red Natura 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Cáceres, Gema; Mateo Sánchez, María Cruz; Fuente Martín, Begoña; Gastón González, Aitor; Saura Martínez, Santiago; Gurrutxaga San Vicente, Mikel

    2018-01-01

    La propuesta de corredores realizada en este documento se basa en los resultados del siguiente estudio encargado por WWF España: Estudio para la identificación de redes de conectividad entre espacios forestales de la Red Natura 2000 en España. ETSI Montes, Forestal y del Medio Natural. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. 2016. Autores: María Cruz Mateo Sánchez, Begoña de la Fuente Martín, Aitor Gastón González y Santiago Saura Martínez de Toda. [ES] Un territorio donde los espacios de valor...

  12. Biología reproductiva del lenguado Paralichthys orbignyanus: Maduración y potencial reproductivo en ejemplares cultivados y salvajes

    OpenAIRE

    Radonic, M.

    2011-01-01

    Intensive culture of teleost fish introduces changes over the environmental conditions found in their spawning grounds, leading to reproductive dysfunctions. The manipulation of these parameters (photoperiod, temperature) represents a common technique to alter the reproductive rhythms and enhance the spawnings in terms of quality and quantity. Nevertheless, for each species some modifications or adjustments have to be done according to their reproductive strategies. The advantages of manipula...

  13. Study on attachment of agrobacterium tumefanciens with citrus reticulata var. tankan hayata embryogenic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shengbin; Yu Rangcai; Zou Weiquan; Huang Ziran

    2002-01-01

    32 P-NaH 2 PO 4 in LB medium had no negative effect on the growth of Agrobacterium tumefanciens when below the concentration of 1.169 x 10 5 Bq/ml, indicating that Agrobacterium tumefanciens could be radiolabeled with 32 P-NaH 2 PO 4 . The kinetic experiment showed that attachment of agrobacterium tumefanciens to citrus embryogenic cells was a dynamic binding. The number of bacteria attached to embryogenic cells was correlated with bacterial population and was not affected by Aceto-syringone (As) or Tween-20 in the co-cultivation medium

  14. Antimicrobial effect of essential oil of Citrus reticulata on Fusobacterium nucleatum associated with periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Giohanna Pardo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine as a treatment of periodontal disease has achieved bactericidal effects over periodontopathogens and oral biofilm. Its use generates adverse effects; therefore natural alternatives are presented with a similar antimicrobial effect. Essential oils have proved effective in controlling dental plaque without the adverse effects of chlorhexidine. The aim of this study was to determine the bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect of essential oil of tangerine against Fusobacterium nucleatum. The extraction of the essential oil was performed by expression of tangerine peels (Arrayana and Oneco varieties. Concentrations at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of the essential oil diluted in 0,02% Tween were evaluated. The bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect was determined by antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disk diffusion. As a positive control 0,2% chlorhexidine and water as negative control were used. Inhibition zone (mm was measured and presence or absence of bacterial growth was determined from colony forming units.  To compare proportions of bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity, Fisher and T student test (95% CI p = 0,05 were performed. The 100% concentration zone of inhibition showed a similar behavior as chlorhexidine (p 0,05. The use of essential oils of tangerine could be a complementary alternative to treatment of periodontal disease.

  15. Differentiation between Flavors of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis) and Mandarin (Citrus reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi; Suh, Joon Hyuk; Gmitter, Frederick G; Wang, Yu

    2018-01-10

    Pioneering investigations referring to citrus flavor have been intensively conducted. However, the characteristic flavor difference between sweet orange and mandarin has not been defined. In this study, sensory analysis illustrated the crucial role of aroma in the differentiation between orange flavor and mandarin flavor. To study aroma, Valencia orange and LB8-9 mandarin were used. Their most aroma-active compounds were preliminarily identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Quantitation of key volatiles followed by calculation of odor activity values (OAVs) further detected potent components (OAV ≥ 1) impacting the overall aromatic profile of orange/mandarin. Follow-up aroma profile analysis revealed that ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, octanal, decanal, and acetaldehyde were essential for orange-like aroma, whereas linalool, octanal, α-pinene, limonene, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were considered key components for mandarin-like aroma. Furthermore, an unreleased mandarin hybrid producing fruit with orange-like flavor was used to validate the identification of characteristic volatiles in orange-like aroma.

  16. Study of biosorptive potential in the peel of Citrus reticulata, Punica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of cell structure, cell wall, micropores and macropores describe the potential of adsorbent. Batch laboratory time dependency, pH profile and concentration parameter were performed to determine the binding ability of biosorbents for cations and anions. Time dependency indicated that the first three samples ...

  17. Microfouling inhibitors from the Indian gorgonian Subergorgia reticulata (Ellis and Solander, 1786)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LimnaMol, V.P.; Abhilash, K.R.; Raveendran, T.V.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    Antifouling research currently focuses on greener ways of biofouling control in view of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) imposed regulations on toxic biocides Microfouling, the initial phase of fouling, is an important target to prevent...

  18. Calamenenes - aromatic bicyclic sesquiterpenes - from the Indian gorgonian Subergorgia reticulata (Ellis and Solander, 1786)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LimnaMol, V.P.; Raveendran, T.V.; Naik, B.G.; Kunnath, R.J.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    exhibiting 100% activity at 50µg/mL, indicative of possible cytotoxicity (Carballo, Hernandez-Inda, Perez, & Garcia-Gravalos, 2002). This concentration is comparable to the cytotoxic activity (14-30µg/mL) of Argentinean essential oils (Oliva, Gallucci....L., Hernandez-Inda, Z.L., Perez, P., & Garcia-Gravalos, M.D. (2002). A comparison between two brine shrimp assays to detect in vitro cytotoxicity in marine natural products. BMC Biotechnology, 2, 17. Kashman, Y. (1979). 8-Methoxy and 5-Hydroxy-8-methoxy...

  19. Conservation and Multiplication of Endangered Plants :1. Leptophonia Reticulata (Retz.) Wight. & Arn

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Jitendra K.; Kasera, Pawan K.; Chawan, D.D.

    2001-01-01

    The present communication deals with the vegetative propagation through air layering technique in L. reticluata, know as Jivanti in Ayurvedic medicinal plant, The results reveal tat ceradik treated twigs produced profuse and earl rooting with higher survival percentage

  20. Die invloed van drie kruisbestuiwers op die saadinhoud van Minneola tangelo (Citrus parodist x C reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Esterhuizen

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Die invloed van verskillende kruisbestuiwers (Clementine, Empress en Valencia op die gemiddelde saadinhoud van Minneo­la tangelo is ondersoek. Clementine en Empress as kruisbestuiwers het die grootste invloed op die gemiddelde saadinhoud van die vrugte gehad, terwyl dié van Valencia nie noemenswaardig was nie. Die gemiddelde saadinhoud van die vrugte het afgeneem met toename in afstand vanaf die kruisbestuiwer. Indien ’n beperking op die afstand tussen kultivar en kruisbestuiwer geplaas word, sal ’n groter persentasie vrugte aan uitvoerstandaarde ten opsigte van saadinhoud voldoen.

  1. Studies on preparation of ready to serve mandarin (citrus reticulata) diet drink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.; Chatha, Z.A.; Ahmad, A.; Dilshad, S.M.R.

    2008-01-01

    Citrus fruits are considered to be the rich source of ascorbic acid, pectin, carotenes, citric acid, and minerals like calcium and phosphorous. Consumption of high sugar drinks lead to various diseases such as diabetes, obesity and dental caries. This study aimed at formulation of diet beverage with various combinations of intense sweeteners and was compared with control beverage containing sucrose. Physiochemical changes in beverage were also investigated at various storage intervals. A gradual increase in reducing sugar level was observed in all treated samples with the passage of time, while non-reducing sugars decreased gradually during storage studies. The declining trend in ascorbic acid contents of mandarin drink was increased as a function of storage. Sensory results showed that there was declining trend in the scores obtained for color. The overall results showed that combination of different sweeteners gave best results for taste than without combinations. (author)

  2. Diversidade das assembléias de peixes nas quatro unidades geográficas do rio Paraíba do Sul Diversity of fish assemblages in the four geographic units of the Paraíba do Sul river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana P. Teixeira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Padrões na diversidade de peixes ao longo de quatro unidades geográficas (superior, médio-superior, médio-inferior e inferior no rio Paraíba do Sul foram estudados com a finalidade de avaliar tendências de variações espaciais (unidades geográficas e temporais (períodos de cheia e seca. Vinte e cinco locais foram amostrados entre Dezembro de 2002 e Março de 2003 (verão/cheia e, entre Agosto e Novembro de 2003 (inverno/seca. Os peixes foram capturados com um esforço padronizado, utilizando redes de espera, tarrafas e peneiras. Um total de 81 espécies foram registradas compreendendo 9 ordens, 29 famílias e 55 gêneros. Characiformes apresentaram maior número de espécies (28 seguido de Siluriformes (23. Perciformes, principalmente Tilapia rendalli e Geophagus brasiliensis, e Cyprinodontiformes com destaque para Poecilia vivipara e Poecilia reticulata, foram os grupos numericamente mais abundantes, enquanto Siluriformes, principalmente Hypostomus luetkeni, e Perciformes com Geophagus brasiliensis apresentaram maior contribuição em biomassa. Poecilia vivipara foi encontrada apenas no período de seca. Espacialmente, Hoplosternum littorale predominou no trecho médio-superior, Pimelodus fur, Hypostomus luetkeni, Glanidium albescens no trecho médio-inferior, e Loricariichtys spixii e Prochilodus lineatus no trecho inferior. O número de espécies e a riqueza de Margalef apresentaram um aumento do trecho superior para o inferior, principalmente durante o período de cheia. Espécies que apresentaram ampla distribuição ao longo do rio (G. brasiliensis, Oligosarcus hepsetus e P. reticulata são consideradas oportunistas por se aproveitarem dos recursos disponíveis em ambientes pobres, refletindo o estado de alterações do rio. Diferenciações na fisiografia ao longo da extensão longitudinal da bacia não coincidiram com mudanças nas assembléias de peixes, sugerindo que fatores associados a alterações de hábitats poderiam

  3. Invasion risks posed by ornamental freshwater fish trade to southeastern Brazilian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lincoln Barroso de Magalhães

    Full Text Available A model was developed to assess the risk of invasion of ornamental non-native fishes to six rivers in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, with focus on species popularity. Thirty-nine aquarium shops, in six cities, were visited monthly from January to December 2007. In each city, fish species were identified, and their biology and invasion history information was obtained from the literature. We calculated the annual frequency of occurrence and average number of specimens monthly available in stores. Quarterly water temperature and dissolved oxygen data from 1997 to 2007 were obtained for the Velhas, Muriaé, Uberabinha, Sapucaí-Mirim, Doce and Todos os Santos Rivers from public databases. The invasion risk of each species was assessed through a model comprising nine parameters grouped in four variables: (i Invasiveness (thermal and dissolved oxygen ranges, diet, parental care or fecundity, (ii History of invasions (establishment, (iii Propagule pressure (commercial success, comprising annual frequency of occurrence and number of specimens available monthly at stores, and (iv Invasibility (water temperature and dissolved oxygen in the target river compatible with the species ranges. Of the 345 ornamental fish species for sale, 332 are non-native to either Minas Gerais (n = 151 or Brazil (n = 194. Based on the proposed cutting values, in particular the compatibility between species and recipient thermal ranges, five ornamental non-native species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, Xiphophorus hellerii, Poecilia reticulata, and P. latipinna can potentially invade the Velhas and Muriaé Rivers, four species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, X. helleri, and P. reticulata the Uberabinha River, four species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, X. maculatus, and P. reticulata the Sapucaí-Mirim River, three species (Carassius auratus, X. hellerii, and P. reticulata the Doce River, and three species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus

  4. The association between personality traits, morphological traits and alternative mating behaviour in male Endler’s guppies, Poecilia wingei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řežucha, Radomil; Reichard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 6 (2016), s. 456-467 ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : alternative mating tactic * animal personality * boldness * experience * sexual selection * social environment Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.398, year: 2016

  5. An annotated distributional checklist of exotic freshwater fishes from the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico Lista comentada sobre la distribución de peces dulceacuícolas exóticos de la península de Baja California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgonio Ruiz-Campos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We documented the distributional status of 27 exotic fish species in the inland waters of the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico, based on voucher specimens collected from 122 sites between 1977 and 2010, and on published records. The species reported here are representatives of genera from the Atlantic drainages of North America (Ictalurus, Ameiurus, Pylodictis, Morone, Lepomis, Pomoxis, Dorosoma, Cyprinella, and Micropterus, Middle America (Poecilia, Gambusia, and Xiphophorus, Eurasia (Cyprinus and Carassius, and Africa (Tilapia and Oreochromis. The family containing the highest number of species is Centrarchidae (7 species followed by Ictaluridae and Poeciliidae (6 species each. Four species were determined to be invasive due to their wide distribution and fast dispersal through the Peninsula (Gambusia affinis, Poecilia reticulata, Lepomis cyanellus, and Tilapia sp. cf. zillii. We analyze the impacts of exotic species on the native populations of 3 species with problems of conservation: Cyprinodon macularius (endangered, Fundulus lima (endangered, and Gasterosteus aculeatus (vulnerable. Alien fishes have been introduced for a variety of reasons in Mexico: ornament, sport, aquaculture, biological control, and by accident. In some cases fish introductions were carried out for more than one reason.El estatus de la distribución de peces exóticos es documentado para 27 especies en las aguas continentales de la península de Baja California, México, basado en registros de ejemplares recolectados en 122 localidades durante el período de 1977 a 2010, así como registros referidos en la literatura. Las especies aquí reportadas son representativas de géneros que proceden de la vertiente Atlántica de Norteamérica (Ictalurus, Ameiurus, Pylodictis, Morone, Lepomis, Pomoxis, Dorosoma, Cyprinella y Micropterus, Mesoamérica (Poecilia, Gambusia y Xiphophorus, Eurasia (Cyprinus y Carassius y África (Tilapia y Oreochromis. La familia con mayor n

  6. Influência da urbanização sobre as assembléias de peixes em três córregos de Maringá, Paraná Influence of urbanization upon fish assemblages in three streams of Maringá, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir M. Cunico

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar padrões espaciais na composição, estrutura e distribuição das assembléias de peixes e suas relações com características abióticas em três córregos urbanos da cidade de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. Peixes foram coletados ao longo de um gradiente longitudinal utilizando pesca elétrica nos meses de maio e novembro de 2004. Temperatura, nitrogênio, pH, oxigênio e fósforo foram as variáveis que mais influenciaram a análise de componentes principais (CPA. Riqueza, eqüitabilidade, índice de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener e o primeiro eixo da análise de correspondência com remoção do efeito do arco (DCA foram diretamente correlacionados com características ligadas ao impacto químico urbano. Adição de espécies prevaleceu nas estações de amostragem do córrego Miosótis e entre a cabeceira e porção intermediária nos córregos Nazaré e Mandacaru. Substituição ocorreu entre as porções intermediárias e foz desses córregos. A dominância da espécie tolerante Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 indicou a influência do impacto do meio urbano sobre as assembléias de peixes.The aim of the present study was to evaluate spatial patterns in composition, structure and distribution of fish assemblages and their relationships with abiotic characteristics in three urban streams of Maringá city, Paraná, Brazil. Fish were collected along the longitudinal gradient by electrofishing in May and November 2004. Temperature, nitrogen, pH, oxygen and phosphorous influenced at most the principal components analysis (PCA. Richness, evenness, Shannon-Wiener index and the first axis of detrended correspondence analysis (DCA were directly correlated with abiotic characteristics related to chemical urban impact. Species addition prevailed in Miosotis stream sampling stations, and between headwater and intermediary reaches in Nazaré and Mandacarú streams. Replacement occurred between intermediary and

  7. Diet seasonality and food overlap in fishes of the upper Orituco stream, northern Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ortaz

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The diets of four diurnal fish species (Creagrutus bolivari, Knodus deuterodonoides, Knodus sp. and Poecilia reticulata were examined during a year in the Orituco stream at northern Venezuela. The fishes were sampled monthly from February 1991 to March 1992 (except October 1991 and February 1992 in the stream main channel with a beach seine and a cast net. Diet is reported as frequency of ocurrence and numeric proportion because variation in prey sizes was small. Non-parametric statistical tests were applied. A total of 18 distinct prey items were found in stomachs. The diet of these fishes consisted of aquatic insects (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Odonata, Plecoptera and Trichoptera, allochthonous plant matter (fragments of leaves and seeds, microalgae (Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyceae and terrestrial arthropods (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Arachnida. The low percentage of empty guts and the high fullness percentage of guts suggest that food was always abundant. Aquatic insects were more important in the dry season (November - April while plant matter and terrestrial arthropods increased in the wet season (May - October. The Proportional Similarity Measure (PS was high between characid species and low between characids and P. reticulata in the dry season. PS decreased during the wet season because of a reduction in aquatic insect consumption. The seasonal diet shift indicated the greater importance of allochthonous food only in the wet season.Se analizó la dieta de cuatro especies de peces (Creagrutus bolivari, Knodus deuterodonoides, Knodus sp. y Poecilia reticulata que habitan el río Orituco al norte de Venezuela. Los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente entre febrero de 1991 y marzo de 1992 (excepto octubre/91 y febrero/92. Los peces se recolectaron con chinchorro y atarraya en el canal principal del río. La dieta se expresó como frecuencia numérica y de ocurrencia y se analizó con pruebas estadísticas no param

  8. The expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexually selected traits reflects levels of dietary stress in guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Moshiur Rahman

    Full Text Available Environmental and ecological conditions can shape the evolution of life history traits in many animals. Among such factors, food or nutrition availability can play an important evolutionary role in moderating an animal's life history traits, particularly sexually selected traits. Here, we test whether diet quantity and/or composition in the form of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (here termed 'n3LC' influence the expression of pre- and postcopulatory traits in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing poeciliid fish. We assigned males haphazardly to one of two experimental diets supplemented with n3LC, and each of these diet treatments was further divided into two diet 'quantity' treatments. Our experimental design therefore explored the main and interacting effects of two factors (n3LC content and diet quantity on the expression of precopulatory (sexual behaviour and sexual ornamentation, including the size, number and spectral properties of colour spots and postcopulatory (the velocity, viability, number and length of sperm sexually selected traits. Our study revealed that diet quantity had significant effects on most of the pre- and postcopulatory traits, while n3LC manipulation had a significant effect on sperm traits and in particular on sperm viability. Our analyses also revealed interacting effects of diet quantity and n3LC levels on courtship displays, and the area of orange and iridescent colour spots in the males' colour patterns. We also confirmed that our dietary manipulations of n3LC resulted in the differential uptake of n3LC in body and testes tissues in the different n3LC groups. This study reveals the effects of diet quantity and n3LC on behavioural, ornamental and ejaculate traits in P. reticulata and underscores the likely role that diet plays in maintaining the high variability in these condition-dependent sexual traits.

  9. Wet and Wild: A Multidisciplinary Marine Education Teacher Guide, Grades K-6. Unit III. Research: Innerspace Explorers = Humedo y Salvaje. Tercera Unidad. La Investigacion Cientifica: Exploradores del Espacio Interior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Richard C.

    Topics and activities related to oceanographic research (innerspace exploration) are the focus of this multidisciplinary, marine education teaching guide for students in kindergarten through grade 6. The guide is divided into six sections (labeled A through F). The first five sections consist of various kinds of activities, with the appropriate…

  10. Wild Bulls, Discarded Foreigners, and Brash Champions: US Empire and the Cultural Constructions of Argentine Boxers Toros salvajes, extranjeros descartados y campeones insolentes: Estados Unidos y la construcción cultural de los boxeadores argentinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Shenin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    With the exception of Hollywood films, there has been no more intense point of cultural contact between Argentina and the United States than boxing. This article considers two intertwined topics. The first is the construction of the imagery of Argentine boxers in the United States and the varieties of Argentine boxers’ immigrant experience in North America. Second, this article will argue that the presence of Argentine boxers in the United States forged a sense in Argentina that the former were leading actors on the American boxing scene. This, in turn, shaped Argentine boxing cultures and self images.

    Con excepción de las películas de Hollywood, no ha habido un punto de contacto cultural entre Argentina y Estados Unidos más intenso que el boxeo. El artículo considera dos temas entrelazados. El primero es la construcción del imaginario sobre los boxeadores argentinos en Estados Unidos y la variedad de las experiencias inmigratorias de esos púgiles. En segundo lugar, este artículo sostiene que la presencia de boxeadores argentinos en Estados Unidos forjó la sensación en Argentina de que éstos eran protagonistas en la escena pugilística norteamericana. Esto, a su vez, dio forma a la cultura del boxeo argentino y a la imagen que éste se hacía de sí mismo.

  11. ¿Salvajes opuestos al progreso?: aproximaciones históricas y antropológicas a las movilizaciones indígenas en la Amazonía peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Espinosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide some clues for understanding indigenous mobilizations occurred in recent years in the Peruvian Amazon, especially for the tragic events that took place in the vicinity of  the city of Bagua in June 2009. The first part depicts the historical construction of some of the images and prejudices that Peruvian society has had about the Amazonian indigenous people. This section gives special attention to two of these images: that of the «savage» indian (and its most extreme form: the cannibal as well as the image of the indian as «naive» and «ignorant». The second part briefly reviews the long history of indigenous struggle for the defense of their territories and culture, as well as the changes in the way they organized this struggle during the last decades.A final step is to analyze what is at stake and lies behind the demands and mobilizations of recent years.

  12. The use of random amplified polymorphic DNA to evaluate the genetic variability of Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coletta Filho Helvécio Della

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available RAPD analysis of 19 Ponkan mandarin accessions was performed using 25 random primers. Of 112 amplification products selected, only 32 were polymorphic across five accessions. The absence of genetic variability among the other 14 accessions suggested that they were either clonal propagations with different local names, or that they had undetectable genetic variability, such as point mutations which cannot be detected by RAPD.

  13. Green Synthesis and Biological Activities of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Citrus reticulata, Citrus aurantium, Citrus sinensis and Citrus grandis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, N. U.; Shahid, M.; Ahsan, F.; Khan, I.; Shah, M. R.; Khan, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared at boiling temperature (90-95 degree C) by treating gold ions with Citrus fruit extracts. The effect of mixing ratios of the reactants and concentration of gold hydrochloride was studied. In the standardization process, 10/sup -3/ M solution of HAuCl/sub 4/.3H/sub 2/O was reacted with fruit extracts for half an hour at 90-95 degree C in different ratios. GNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their stability was evaluated against varying pH solutions and volumes of sodium chloride along with metals and antibiotics sensing ability. The gold nanoparticles were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities against various pathogenic strains. The UV-Vis spectra of gold nanoparticles gave surface plasmon resonance at about 540 nm while the AFM images revealed the particle size within the range of 70-100 nm. GNPs showed remarkable stability in varying pH solutions and salt volumes as well as high detection ability towards cobalt, copper, ceftriaxone and penicillin. Moreover, the GNPs possessed moderate antibacterial and good antifungal activity. These results concluded that the Citrus fruit extracts can be utilized for large scale synthesis of cost-effective nanoparticles which may have compatibility for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. (author)

  14. Assessment of the effectiveness of orange (Citrus reticulata) peel in the recovery of nickel from electroplating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Rim A

    2014-12-01

    Wastewater discharged from electroplating industry contains different concentrations of heavy metals, which when released into the environment pose a health hazard to human beings. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of orange peel as an adsorbent in the recovery of Nickel (Ni) from electroplating wastewater. The effectiveness of orange peel as an adsorbent was assessed by determining the optimum conditions of adsorption (adsorbent dose, pH, and contact time), calculating the recovery percentage, and characterizing the orange peel sludge resulting from adsorption/desorption process as being hazardous or not. Under optimum conditions for adsorption, orange peel was found to be an effective adsorbent of Ni from electroplating wastewater. It achieved 59.28% removal of the metal from a solution containing 528 mg/l, at a dose of 60 g/l, at pH 7, and for 1-h contact time. The nickel uptake capacity of orange peel was calculated to be 5.2 mg/g. Using HCl for desorption of adsorbed Ni, a recovery of 44.46% of Ni discharged in the wastewater could be reached. Orange peel resulting from the adsorption/desorption process was characterized as being nonhazardous. Orange peel was found to be effective in the recovery of nearly half of the amount of Ni discharged in electroplating wastewater. Further studies are required to determine (a) the impact of the recovered NiCl2 solution on the quality of the plated product, (b) the effect of activation of orange peel on the adsorption process, and (c) the number of cycles during which orange peel can be reused as an effective adsorbent.

  15. Effect of micronutrients (zn, cu and b) on photosynthetic and fruit yield attributes of citrus reticulata blanco var. kinnow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyas, A.; Hussain, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, influence of foliar application of micronutrients (Zn, Cu and B) was studied on the improvement in photosynthetic and fruit yield attributes of citrus (Kinnow) plants. Experiments were conducted in two districts of Punjab (Sargodha and Toba Tek Singh), Pakistan varying in soil properties and agro-climatic conditions. Plants at both sites were subjected to foliar spray of three different levels (i.e. 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%) of each Zn, Cu and B at three different fruit developmental stages while macronutrients (NPK) were applied at recommended rates as soil amendment. Micronutrients (Zn, Cu and B) application caused a significant improvement in net photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), Chlorophyll a, b, total, and caroteniods in both the citrus orchards. However, effect of micronutrients i.e. Zn, Cu and B was more pronounced at the levels of 0.3, 0.1 and 0.2%, respectively. These levels of nutrients were also effective in improving fruit yield with better fruit quality. (author)

  16. Relative male and female contributions to the supercooling point of their offspring in Microvelia reticulata (Heteroptera: Vellidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ditrich, Tomáš; Boukal S., David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2016), s. 222-227 ISSN 1343-8786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/0096 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : animal model * cold hardiness * GLMM Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.262, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ens.12196/abstract

  17. Cellular effects of tributyltin (TBT) on the penis epithelium cells of prosobranchs ( Hinia reticulata and Ocinebrina aciculata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, M.; Deutsch, U.; Fioroni, P.

    1996-09-01

    Cytopathological effects on organelles of penis epithelium cells were investigated in prosobranchs that had been exposed for two weeks to three months to high TBT-concentrations in artificial seawater. TBT exposure damaged cell organelles, such as mitochondria, Golgi dictyosomes, endoplasmatic reticulum, and injured the cell membranes. In addition, atypical intercellular spaces were observed between the cells of the epithelial layer. Further cell alterations included the increase of residual bodies within the cells as well as structural changes of the basal lamina. The ultrastructural changes were compared with cell alterations of specimens which had been collected in a polluted environment on the coast of Brittany (France).

  18. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of minimally processed 'Champagne' oranges (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis in different packgings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Agostini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the level of minimal processing and modified atmosphere on the quality of 'Champagne' orange stored under refrigeration. The fruits were subjected to the following processing: a whole fruit without flavedo; b whole fruit without flavedo and albedo; and c segmented into wedges and packed as follows: uncoated packaging (control; polyethylene film; PVC film; gelatin-based edible films (3%; and polyesthyrene translucent plastic container with a lid. The minimally processed oranges were stored at 5 ± 1°C for 8 days and were subjected to physicochemical and microbiological analyses every two days. Greater weight loss occurred in fruits without flavedo and segmented, uncoated, and coated with the edible gelatin film During storage, there was a slight increase in Total Soluble Solids (TSS for the treatments with greater weight loss and reduction in acidity and ascorbic acid, regardless of the packaging type. The microbial counts did not exceed the acceptable limits in the treatments; however, higher counts were observed at the end of storage. The minimally processed fruit packed in lidded polystyrene containers and polyethylene and PVC films kept their overall fresh visual appearance with a few physicochemical and microbiological changes up to the 8th day of storage.

  19. Natural and sexual selection giveth and taketh away reproductive barriers: models of population divergence in guppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonne, Jacques; Hendry, Andrew P

    2010-07-01

    The standard predictions of ecological speciation might be nuanced by the interaction between natural and sexual selection. We investigated this hypothesis with an individual-based model tailored to the biology of guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We specifically modeled the situation where a high-predation population below a waterfall colonizes a low-predation population above a waterfall. Focusing on the evolution of male color, we confirm that divergent selection causes the appreciable evolution of male color within 20 generations. The rate and magnitude of this divergence were reduced when dispersal rates were high and when female choice did not differ between environments. Adaptive divergence was always coupled to the evolution of two reproductive barriers: viability selection against immigrants and hybrids. Different types of sexual selection, however, led to contrasting results for another potential reproductive barrier: mating success of immigrants. In some cases, the effects of natural and sexual selection offset each other, leading to no overall reproductive isolation despite strong adaptive divergence. Sexual selection acting through female choice can thus strongly modify the effects of divergent natural selection and thereby alter the standard predictions of ecological speciation. We also found that under no circumstances did divergent selection cause appreciable divergence in neutral genetic markers.

  20. Imprinting can cause a maladaptive preference for infectious conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Jessica F; Reynolds, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Recognizing and associating with specific individuals, such as conspecifics or kin, brings many benefits. One mechanism underlying such recognition is imprinting: the long-term memory of cues encountered during development. Typically, juveniles imprint on cues of nearby individuals and may later associate with phenotypes matching their 'recognition template'. However, phenotype matching could lead to maladaptive social decisions if, for instance, individuals imprint on the cues of conspecifics infected with directly transmitted diseases. To investigate the role of imprinting in the sensory ecology of disease transmission, we exposed juvenile guppies,Poecilia reticulata, to the cues of healthy conspecifics, or to those experiencing disease caused by the directly transmitted parasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli In a dichotomous choice test, adult 'disease-imprinted' guppies preferred to associate with the chemical cues of G. turnbulli-infected conspecifics, whereas 'healthy-imprinted' guppies preferred to associate with cues of uninfected conspecifics. These responses were only observed when stimulus fish were in late infection, suggesting imprinted fish responded to cues of disease, but not of infection alone. We discuss how maladaptive imprinting may promote disease transmission in natural populations of a social host. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. High-predation habitats affect the social dynamics of collective exploration in a shoaling fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Christos C; Ramnarine, Indar W; Torney, Colin J

    2017-05-01

    Collective decisions play a major role in the benefits that animals gain from living in groups. Although the mechanisms of how groups collectively make decisions have been extensively researched, the response of within-group dynamics to ecological conditions is virtually unknown, despite adaptation to the environment being a cornerstone in biology. We investigate how within-group interactions during exploration of a novel environment are shaped by predation, a major influence on the behavior of prey species. We tested guppies ( Poecilia reticulata ) from rivers varying in predation risk under controlled laboratory conditions and find the first evidence of differences in group interactions between animals adapted to different levels of predation. Fish from high-predation habitats showed the strongest negative relationship between initiating movements and following others, which resulted in less variability in the total number of movements made between individuals. This relationship between initiating movements and following others was associated with differentiation into initiators and followers, which was only observed in fish from high-predation rivers. The differentiation occurred rapidly, as trials lasted 5 min, and was related to shoal cohesion, where more diverse groups from high-predation habitats were more cohesive. Our results show that even within a single species over a small geographical range, decision-making in a social context can vary with local ecological factors.

  2. Artificial selection on relative brain size in the guppy reveals costs and benefits of evolving a larger brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Rogell, Björn; Bundsen, Andreas; Svensson, Beatrice; Zajitschek, Susanne; Brännström, Ioana; Immler, Simone; Maklakov, Alexei A; Kolm, Niclas

    2013-01-21

    The large variation in brain size that exists in the animal kingdom has been suggested to have evolved through the balance between selective advantages of greater cognitive ability and the prohibitively high energy demands of a larger brain (the "expensive-tissue hypothesis"). Despite over a century of research on the evolution of brain size, empirical support for the trade-off between cognitive ability and energetic costs is based exclusively on correlative evidence, and the theory remains controversial. Here we provide experimental evidence for costs and benefits of increased brain size. We used artificial selection for large and small brain size relative to body size in a live-bearing fish, the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), and found that relative brain size evolved rapidly in response to divergent selection in both sexes. Large-brained females outperformed small-brained females in a numerical learning assay designed to test cognitive ability. Moreover, large-brained lines, especially males, developed smaller guts, as predicted by the expensive-tissue hypothesis, and produced fewer offspring. We propose that the evolution of brain size is mediated by a functional trade-off between increased cognitive ability and reproductive performance and discuss the implications of these findings for vertebrate brain evolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: a comparison of six species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadda, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment. PMID:26483719

  4. How reproductive ecology contributes to the spread of a globally invasive fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Deacon

    Full Text Available Invasive freshwater fish represent a major threat to biodiversity. Here, we first demonstrate the dramatic, human-mediated range expansion of the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata, an invasive fish with a reputation for negatively impacting native freshwater communities. Next, we explore possible mechanisms that might explain successful global establishment of this species. Guppies, along with some other notable invasive fish species such as mosquitofish (Gambusia spp., have reproductive adaptations to ephemeral habitats that may enable introductions of very small numbers of founders to succeed. The remarkable ability of single pregnant guppies to routinely establish viable populations is demonstrated using a replicated mesocosm set up. In 86% of cases, these populations persisted for two years (the duration of the experiment. Establishment success was independent of founder origin (high and low predation habitats, and there was no loss of behavioural performance amongst mesocosm juveniles. Behavioural "signatures" of the founding locality were, however, evident in mesocosm fish. Our results demonstrate that introductions consisting of a single individual can lead to thriving populations of this invasive fish and suggest that particular caution should be exercised when introducing this species, or other livebearers, to natural water bodies.

  5. Developmental plasticity in vision and behavior may help guppies overcome increased turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlman, Sean M; Sandkam, Benjamin A; Breden, Felix; Sih, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Increasing turbidity in streams and rivers near human activity is cause for environmental concern, as the ability of aquatic organisms to use visual information declines. To investigate how some organisms might be able to developmentally compensate for increasing turbidity, we reared guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in either clear or turbid water. We assessed the effects of developmental treatments on adult behavior and aspects of the visual system by testing fish from both developmental treatments in turbid and clear water. We found a strong interactive effect of rearing and assay conditions: fish reared in clear water tended to decrease activity in turbid water, whereas fish reared in turbid water tended to increase activity in turbid water. Guppies from all treatments decreased activity when exposed to a predator. To measure plasticity in the visual system, we quantified treatment differences in opsin gene expression of individuals. We detected a shift from mid-wave-sensitive opsins to long wave-sensitive opsins for guppies reared in turbid water. Since long-wavelength sensitivity is important in motion detection, this shift likely allows guppies to salvage motion-detecting abilities when visual information is obscured in turbid water. Our results demonstrate the importance of developmental plasticity in responses of organisms to rapidly changing environments.

  6. Do humans (Homo sapiens) and fish (Pterophyllum scalare) make similar numerosity judgments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Agrillo, Christian; Izard, Véronique; Bisazza, Angelo

    2016-11-01

    Numerous studies have shown that many animal species can be trained to discriminate between stimuli differing in numerosity. However, in the absence of generalization tests with untrained numerosities, what decision criterion was used by subjects remains unclear: the subjects may succeed by selecting a specific number of items (a criterion over absolute numerosities), or by applying a more general relative numerosity rule, for example, selecting the larger/smaller quantity of items. The latter case may require more powerful representations, supporting judgments of order ("more/less") beyond simple "same/different" judgments, but a relative numerosity rule may also be more adaptive. In previous research, we showed that guppies (Poecilia reticulata) spontaneously prefer relative numerosity rules. To date it is unclear whether this preference is shared by other fish and, more broadly, other species. Here we compared the performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) with that of human adults (Homo sapiens) in a task in which subjects were initially trained to select arrays containing 10 dots (either in 5 vs. 10 or 10 vs. 20 comparisons). Subsequently they were tested with the previously trained numerosity and a novel numerosity (respectively, 20 or 5). In the absence of explicit instructions, both species spontaneously favored a relative rule, selecting the novel numerosity. These similarities demonstrate that, beyond shared representations for numerical quantities, vertebrate species may also share a system for taking decisions about quantities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Chronic nitrate enrichment decreases severity and induces protection against an infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, Willow; Cable, Jo; Maceda-Veiga, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Excessive fertilisation is one of the most pernicious forms of global change resulting in eutrophication. It has major implications for disease control and the conservation of biodiversity. Yet, the direct link between nutrient enrichment and disease remains largely unexplored. Here, we present the first experimental evidence that chronic nitrate enrichment decreases severity and induces protection against an infectious disease. Specifically, this study shows that nitrate concentrations ranging between 50 and 250mgNO3(-)/l reduce Gyrodactylus turnbulli infection intensity in two populations of Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata, and that the highest nitrate concentration can even clean the parasites from the fish. This added to the fact that host nitrate pre-exposure altered the fish epidermal structure and reduced parasite intensity, suggests that nitrate protected the host against the disease. Nitrate treatments also caused fish mortality. As we used ecologically-relevant nitrate concentrations, and guppies are top-consumers widely used for mosquito bio-control in tropical and often nutrient-enriched waters, our results can have major ecological and social implications. In conclusion, this study advocates reducing nitrate level including the legislative threshold to protect the aquatic biota, even though this may control an ectoparasitic disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ecologia da ictiofauna de um córrego de cabeceira da bacia do alto rio Paraná, Brasil Ecology of the ichthyofauna of a headwater stream of the upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Mara Lemes

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecological studies were conducted in the ichthyofauna of Cedro, a small headwater stream located in a degraded area of State of São Paulo, Brazil, situated in the upper Paraná River basin. These are the results of two non-consecutive years observations and collections in two biotopes of that stream: a pool and a rapid. The ecological characteristics studied change in space and time. The present richness of species is high (21 species, nine of which are constant, six accessory and six accidental. The diversity is low (0.69 to 2.38, and the numeric predominance, from one to three species, occurred in both biotopes. The most frequent species are Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1859 (28.1%, Corydoras cf. aeneus (Gill, 1858 (20.3% and Hypostomus cf. ancistroides (Ihering, 1911 (19.8%. The density ranges from 0.7 to 19.8 specimens/m³. The similarity index indicates high similarity between the ichthyofauna (45.0% to 95.0% inside the same or contiguous biotopes. The evenness (0.46 to 1.0 is comparable to those found in similar studies carried out in other streams.

  9. A model for optimal offspring size in fish, including live-bearing and parental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Auer, Sonya K; Reznick, David N

    2011-05-01

    Since Smith and Fretwell's seminal article in 1974 on the optimal offspring size, most theory has assumed a trade-off between offspring number and offspring fitness, where larger offspring have better survival or fitness, but with diminishing returns. In this article, we use two ubiquitous biological mechanisms to derive the shape of this trade-off: the offspring's growth rate combined with its size-dependent mortality (predation). For a large parameter region, we obtain the same sigmoid relationship between offspring size and offspring survival as Smith and Fretwell, but we also identify parameter regions where the optimal offspring size is as small or as large as possible. With increasing growth rate, the optimal offspring size is smaller. We then integrate our model with strategies of parental care. Egg guarding that reduces egg mortality favors smaller or larger offspring, depending on how mortality scales with size. For live-bearers, the survival of offspring to birth is a function of maternal survival; if the mother's survival increases with her size, then the model predicts that larger mothers should produce larger offspring. When using parameters for Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata, differences in both growth and size-dependent predation are required to predict observed differences in offspring size between wild populations from high- and low-predation environments.

  10. Using Hidden Markov Models to characterise intermittent social behaviour in fish shoals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Nikolai W. F.; Seitz, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    The movement of animals in groups is widespread in nature. Understanding this phenomenon presents an important problem in ecology with many applications that range from conservation to robotics. Underlying all group movements are interactions between individual animals and it is therefore crucial to understand the mechanisms of this social behaviour. To date, despite promising methodological developments, there are few applications to data of practical statistical techniques that inferentially investigate the extent and nature of social interactions in group movement. We address this gap by demonstrating the usefulness of a Hidden Markov Model approach to characterise individual-level social movement in published trajectory data on three-spined stickleback shoals ( Gasterosteus aculeatus) and novel data on guppy shoals ( Poecilia reticulata). With these models, we formally test for speed-mediated social interactions and verify that they are present. We further characterise this inferred social behaviour and find that despite the substantial shoal-level differences in movement dynamics between species, it is qualitatively similar in guppies and sticklebacks. It is intermittent, occurring in varying numbers of individuals at different time points. The speeds of interacting fish follow a bimodal distribution, indicating that they are either stationary or move at a preferred mean speed, and social fish with more social neighbours move at higher speeds, on average. Our findings and methodology present steps towards characterising social behaviour in animal groups.

  11. Distribution of Fish in the Upper Citarum River: an Adaptive Response to Physico-Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNARDI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of fish in river is controlled by physico-chemical properties of the water which is affected by land-use complexity and intensity of human intervention. A study on fish distribution was carried out in the upper Citarum River to map the effects of physio-chemical properties on habitat use. A survey was conducted to collect fish and to measure the water quality both on dry and rainy season. The result showed that distribution of the fish, in general, represented their adaptive response to physico-chemical properties. The river environment could be grouped into two categories: (i clean and relatively unpolluted sites, which associated with high DO and water current, and (ii polluted sites characterized by low DO, high COD, BOD, water temperature, NO3, PO4, H2S, NH3, and surfactant. Fish inhabiting the first sites were Xiphophorus helleri, Punctius binotatus, Xiphophorus maculatus, and Oreochromis mossambicus. Meanwhile, the latter sites were inhabited by Liposarcus pardalis, Trichogaster trichopterus, and Poecilia reticulata. Knowledge about fish distribution in association with the pysico-chemical properties of water is crucial especially for the river management.

  12. Iron and iron oxide nanoparticles are highly toxic to Culex quinquefasciatus with little non-target effects on larvivorous fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Nataraj, Devaraj; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Amuthavalli, Pandiyan; Madhavan, Jagannathan; Rajasekar, Aruliah; Rajan, Mariappan; Thiruppathi, Kulandhaivel Palani; Kumar, Suresh; Higuchi, Akon; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2018-04-01

    The control of filariasis vectors has been enhanced in several areas, but there are main challenges, including increasing resistance to insecticides and lack of cheap and eco-friendly products. The toxicity of iron (Fe 0 ) and iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles has been scarcely investigated yet. We studied the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Fe 0 and Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles against Culex quinquefasciatus. Fe 0 and Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles produced by green (using a Ficus natalensis aqueous extract) and chemical nanosynthesis, respectively, were analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FT-IR spectroscopy, XRD analysis, SEM, and EDX assays. In larvicidal and pupicidal experiments on Cx. quinquefasciatus, LC 50 of Fe 0 nanoparticles ranged from 20.9 (I instar larvae) to 43.7 ppm (pupae) and from 4.5 (I) to 22.1 ppm (pupae) for Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles synthesized chemically. Furthermore, the predation efficiency of the guppy fish, Poecilia reticulata, after a single treatment with sub-lethal doses of Fe 0 and Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles was magnified. Overall, this work provides new insights about the toxicity of Fe 0 and Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles against mosquito vectors; we suggested that green and chemical fabricated nano-iron may be considered to develop novel and effective pesticides.

  13. The effects of perceived mating opportunities on patterns of reproductive investment by male guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke T Barrett

    Full Text Available Males pay considerable reproductive costs in acquiring mates (precopulatory sexual selection and in producing ejaculates that are effective at fertilising eggs in the presence of competing ejaculates (postcopulatory sexual selection. Given these costs, males must balance their reproductive investment in a given mating to optimise their future reproductive potential. Males are therefore expected to invest in reproduction prudently according to the likelihood of obtaining future matings. In this study we tested this prediction by determining whether male reproductive investment varies with expected future mating opportunities, which were experimentally manipulated by visually exposing male guppies (Poecilia reticulata to high or low numbers of females in the absence of competing males. Our experiment did not reveal consistent effects of perceived future mating opportunity on either precopulatory (male mate choice and mating behaviour or postcopulatory (sperm quality and quantity investment. However, we did find that male size and female availability interacted to influence mating behaviour; large males visually deprived of females during the treatment phase became more choosy and showed greater interest in their preferred female than those given continuous visual access to females. Overall, our results suggest males tailor pre- rather than postcopulatory traits according to local female availability, but critically, these effects depend on male size.

  14. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: A comparison of six species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eDadda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki, when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of 6 poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, Gambusia holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii and Xiphophorus mayae that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females’ social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment.

  15. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: a comparison of six species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadda, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment.

  16. Cross-generational effects of sexual harassment on female fitness in the guppy.

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    Gasparini, Clelia; Devigili, Alessandro; Pilastro, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    Sexual harassment is a common outcome of sexual conflict over mating rate. A large number of studies have identified several direct costs to females of sexual harassment including energy expenditure and reduced foraging ability. However, the fitness consequences of sexual harassment for descendants have rarely been investigated. Here, we manipulated the level of sexual harassment and mating rate in two groups of female guppies, Poecilia reticulata, a live-bearing fish in which sexual conflict over mating rate is particularly pronounced. Each female was allowed to interact with three males for one day (low sexual harassment, LSH) or for eight days (high sexual harassment, HSH) during each breeding cycle throughout their life. Female lifetime fecundity did not differ between the groups, but we found a strong effect on offspring fitness. HSH females produced (1) daughters with smaller bodies and (2) sons with shorter gonopodia, which were less attractive to females and less successful in coercive matings than their LSH counterparts. Although these results may be influenced by the indirect effects of sex ratio differences between treatments, they suggest that sexual harassment and elevated mating rate can have negative cross-generational fitness effects and more profound evolutionary consequences than currently thought. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

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    Jonathan P Evans

    Full Text Available In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated, most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness. Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies.

  18. Social implications of the battle of the sexes: sexual harassment disrupts female sociality and social recognition.

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    Darden, Safi K; James, Richard; Ramnarine, Indar W; Croft, Darren P

    2009-07-22

    Across sexually reproducing species, males and females are in conflict over the control of reproduction. At the heart of this conflict in a number of taxa is male harassment of females for mating opportunities and female strategies to avoid this harassment. One neglected consequence that may result from sexual harassment is the disruption of important social associations. Here, we experimentally manipulate the degree of sexual harassment that wild female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) experience by establishing replicated, semi-natural pools with different population sex ratios. We quantify the effects of sexual harassment on female social structure and the development of social recognition among females. When exposed to sexual harassment, we found that females had more disparate social networks with limited repeated interactions when compared to females that did not experience male harassment. Furthermore, females that did not experience harassment developed social recognition with familiar individuals over an 8-day period, whereas females that experienced harassment did not, an effect we suggest is due to disruption of association patterns. These results show that social network structure and social recognition can be affected by sexual harassment, an effect that will be relevant across taxonomic groups and that we predict will have fitness consequences for females.

  19. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

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    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  20. Costs of colour change in fish: food intake and behavioural decisions.

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    Rodgers, Gwendolen M; Gladman, Nicholas W; Corless, Hannah F; Morrell, Lesley J

    2013-07-15

    Many animals, particularly reptiles, amphibians, fish and cephalopods, have the ability to change their body colour, for functions including thermoregulation, signalling and predator avoidance. Many fish plastically darken their body colouration in response to dark visual backgrounds, and this functions to reduce predation risk. Here, we tested the hypotheses that colour change in fish (1) carries with it an energetic cost and (2) affects subsequent shoal and habitat choice decisions. We demonstrate that guppies (Poecilia reticulata) change colour in response to dark and light visual backgrounds, and that doing so carries an energetic cost in terms of food consumption. By increasing food intake, however, guppies are able to maintain growth rates and meet the energetic costs of changing colour. Following colour change, fish preferentially choose habitats and shoals that match their own body colouration, and maximise crypsis, thus avoiding the need for further colour change but also potentially paying an opportunity cost associated with restriction to particular habitats and social associates. Thus, colour change to match the background is complemented by behavioural strategies, which should act to maximise fitness in variable environments.

  1. Evolution of brain region volumes during artificial selection for relative brain size.

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    Kotrschal, Alexander; Zeng, Hong-Li; van der Bijl, Wouter; Öhman-Mägi, Caroline; Kotrschal, Kurt; Pelckmans, Kristiaan; Kolm, Niclas

    2017-12-01

    The vertebrate brain shows an extremely conserved layout across taxa. Still, the relative sizes of separate brain regions vary markedly between species. One interesting pattern is that larger brains seem associated with increased relative sizes only of certain brain regions, for instance telencephalon and cerebellum. Till now, the evolutionary association between separate brain regions and overall brain size is based on comparative evidence and remains experimentally untested. Here, we test the evolutionary response of brain regions to directional selection on brain size in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) selected for large and small relative brain size. In these animals, artificial selection led to a fast response in relative brain size, while body size remained unchanged. We use microcomputer tomography to investigate how the volumes of 11 main brain regions respond to selection for larger versus smaller brains. We found no differences in relative brain region volumes between large- and small-brained animals and only minor sex-specific variation. Also, selection did not change allometric scaling between brain and brain region sizes. Our results suggest that brain regions respond similarly to strong directional selection on relative brain size, which indicates that brain anatomy variation in contemporary species most likely stem from direct selection on key regions. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Parasite transmission in social interacting hosts: Monogenean epidemics in guppies

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    Johnson, Mirelle B.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; van Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Background Infection incidence increases with the average number of contacts between susceptible and infected individuals. Contact rates are normally assumed to increase linearly with host density. However, social species seek out each other at low density and saturate their contact rates at high densities. Although predicting epidemic behaviour requires knowing how contact rates scale with host density, few empirical studies have investigated the effect of host density. Also, most theory assumes each host has an equal probability of transmitting parasites, even though individual parasite load and infection duration can vary. To our knowledge, the relative importance of characteristics of the primary infected host vs. the susceptible population has never been tested experimentally. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we examine epidemics using a common ectoparasite, Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting its guppy host (Poecilia reticulata). Hosts were maintained at different densities (3, 6, 12 and 24 fish in 40 L aquaria), and we monitored gyrodactylids both at a population and individual host level. Although parasite population size increased with host density, the probability of an epidemic did not. Epidemics were more likely when the primary infected fish had a high mean intensity and duration of infection. Epidemics only occurred if the primary infected host experienced more than 23 worm days. Female guppies contracted infections sooner than males, probably because females have a higher propensity for shoaling. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that in social hosts like guppies, the frequency of social contact largely governs disease epidemics independent of host density.

  3. Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies

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    Kelley, Jennifer L.; Phillips, Samuel C.; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2013-10-01

    While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed ‘personality’). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success.

  4. Fear of predation drives stable and differentiated social relationships in guppies.

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    Heathcote, Robert J P; Darden, Safi K; Franks, Daniel W; Ramnarine, Indar W; Croft, Darren P

    2017-02-02

    Social relationships can have important consequences for fitness in animals. Whilst numerous studies have shown that individuals often join larger groups in response to perceived predation risk (i.e. fear of predation), the importance of predation risk in driving the formation and stability of social relationships within groups has been relatively ignored. We experimentally tested how predation threat influenced fine-scale social network structure using Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). When perceived predation risk was high, individuals developed stable and more differentiated social ties compared to when perceived risk was low. Intriguingly, social differentiation coincided with shoals being somewhat smaller under high-perceived risk, suggesting a possible conflict between forming stable social relationships and larger social groups. Individuals most at risk of predation (large and bold individuals) showed the most exaggerated responses in several social measures. Taken together, we provide the first experimental evidence that proximate risk of predation can increase the intensity of social relationships and fine-scale social structure in animal populations.

  5. Toxicidad en peces de herbicidas formulados con glifosato Toxicity in fishes of herbicides formulated with glyphosate

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    Maria Alvarez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available En nuestro país existe una gran extensión de hectáreas cultivadas con soja transgénica, la misma ha sido modificada genéticamente para soportar la acción de un herbicida denominado glifosato. Debido a la gran cantidad de formulaciones comerciales que incluyen glifosato es de importancia analizar el impacto ambiental producido por éstas. La evaluacion de la toxicidad aguda de dos herbicidas comerciales formulados con glifosato y de una solución del mismo; frente a peces de la especie Poecilia reticulata "lebistes" acusa que una de las soluciones produce mortalidad del 100 % de los especimenes a 100 μl/l (equivalente a 48 mg/l de principio activo; la otra a 50 μl/l (equivalente a 24 mg/l de principio activo y la solución formulada con glifosato puro no produce mortalidad aún a concentraciones de 400 mg/l. Utilizando dosis sub letales en función de los datos obtenidos en el ensayo de toxicidad aguda se determinó que a largo plazo especimenes de Cyprinus carpio haematopterus "carpa koi", manifestaron severas alteraciones hematológicas principalmente frente a una de las formulaciones evaluadas.Nowadays, transgenic soya, modified in order to withstand the impact of the herbicide glyphosate, in one of the main crops grown in Argentina. Due to the large number of commercial formulations that include this drug, is important to analyze both, the acute and chronic environmental impact that they cause. Here the acute toxicity of two commercial herbicides glyphosatebased toward the fish Poecilia reticulate "guppy" was evaluated and compared with pure glyphosate solutions. Interestingly, while commercial herbicides formulations induce a 100% of mortality at concentration ranged between 50 and 100 μl/l, the pure glyphosathe does not present mortality even at doses higher than 400 mg/l. When some long term effects toward Cyprinus carpio haematopterus "koi" were determined by using the sub-lethal doses already calculated it was demonstrated that

  6. Guppies Show Behavioural but Not Cognitive Sex Differences in a Novel Object Recognition Test.

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    Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato

    Full Text Available The novel object recognition (NOR test is a widely-used paradigm to study learning and memory in rodents. NOR performance is typically measured as the preference to interact with a novel object over a familiar object based on spontaneous exploratory behaviour. In rats and mice, females usually have greater NOR ability than males. The NOR test is now available for a large number of species, including fish, but sex differences have not been properly tested outside of rodents. We compared male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata in a NOR test to study whether sex differences exist also for fish. We focused on sex differences in both performance and behaviour of guppies during the test. In our experiment, adult guppies expressed a preference for the novel object as most rodents and other species do. When we looked at sex differences, we found the two sexes showed a similar preference for the novel object over the familiar object, suggesting that male and female guppies have similar NOR performances. Analysis of behaviour revealed that males were more inclined to swim in the proximity of the two objects than females. Further, males explored the novel object at the beginning of the experiment while females did so afterwards. These two behavioural differences are possibly due to sex differences in exploration. Even though NOR performance is not different between male and female guppies, the behavioural sex differences we found could affect the results of the experiments and should be carefully considered when assessing fish memory with the NOR test.

  7. An experimental test of alternative population augmentation scenarios.

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    Kronenberger, John A; Gerberich, Jill C; Fitzpatrick, Sarah W; Broder, E Dale; Angeloni, Lisa M; Funk, W Chris

    2018-01-19

    Human land use is fragmenting habitats worldwide and inhibiting dispersal among previously connected populations of organisms, often leading to inbreeding depression and reduced evolutionary potential in the face of rapid environmental change. To combat this augmentation of isolated populations with immigrants is sometimes used to facilitate demographic and genetic rescue. Augmentation with immigrants that are genetically and adaptively similar to the target population effectively increases population fitness, but if immigrants are very genetically or adaptively divergent, augmentation can lead to outbreeding depression. Despite well-cited guidelines for the best practice selection of immigrant sources, often only highly divergent populations remain, and experimental tests of these riskier augmentation scenarios are essentially nonexistent. We conducted a mesocosm experiment with Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to test the multigenerational demographic and genetic effects of augmenting 2 target populations with 3 types of divergent immigrants. We found no evidence of demographic rescue, but we did observe genetic rescue in one population. Divergent immigrant treatments tended to maintain greater genetic diversity, abundance, and hybrid fitness than controls that received immigrants from the source used to seed the mesocosms. In the second population, divergent immigrants had a slightly negative effect in one treatment, and the benefits of augmentation were less apparent overall, likely because this population started with higher genetic diversity and a lower reproductive rate that limited genetic admixture. Our results add to a growing consensus that gene flow can increase population fitness even when immigrants are more highly divergent and may help reduce uncertainty about the use of augmentation in conservation. © 2018 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Food-resource partitioning among fish species from a first-order stream in northwestern Paraná, Brazil

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    Jislaine Cristina da Silva

    Full Text Available This study addressed the feeding ecology of fish fauna from a first-order stream located in a rural area. The purposes were to evaluate the influence of interspecific, seasonal and spatial factors on the diet, examine the dietary overlap, and determine the predominant food sources. Sampling was conducted in December 2007, September 2008, and March 2009, in three 50-m stretches of Itiz stream (upstream, intermediate, and downstream, through electrofishing. A total of 1,102 stomach contents were analyzed from 14 species, by the volumetric method. In general, allochthonous resources were predominant in the diets. Astyanax aff. fasciatus, Astyanax aff. paranae, Astyanax bockmanni, and Bryconamericus aff. iheringi consumed a higher proportion of plant remains, and Bryconamericus stramineus consumed predominantly Hymenoptera. The diets of Cetopsorhamdia iheringi, Characidium aff. zebra, Imparfinis schubarti, and Trichomycterus sp. consisted of aquatic insects, especially immature forms of Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Diptera. Hypostomus ancistroides, Hisonotus sp., Poecilia reticulata, and Rineloricaria aff. pentamaculata exploited mainly detritus, while Rhamdia quelen used a variety of items, predominantly terrestrial insects. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA showed a clear distinction among the species, with different morphology and feeding tactics. The Multi-Response Permutation Procedure (MRPP supported this differentiation, and also indicated significant spatial and temporal variations in the dietary composition; the Indicator Value Method (IndVal indicated the main items that contributed to these differences. The diet overlap among species was low (< 0.4 to around 78% of pairs, and the mean value did not vary significantly among the sites or between hydrological periods within each site. According to the null model of Pianka’s index, the values for dietary overlap were significantly higher than expected at random, showing

  9. The influence of dietary and whole-body nutrient content on the excretion of a vertebrate consumer.

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    Christopher M Dalton

    Full Text Available In many contexts, nutrient excretion by consumers can impact ecosystems by altering the availability of limiting nutrients. Variation in nutrient excretion can be predicted by mass balance models, most of which are premised on two key ideas: (1 consumers maintain fixed whole-body nutrient content (i.e., %N and %P, so-called fixed homeostasis; (2 if dietary nutrients are not matched to whole-body nutrients, excesses of any nutrient are released as excretion to maintain fixed homeostasis. Mass balance models thus predict that consumer excretion should be positively correlated with diet nutrients and negatively correlated with whole-body nutrients. Recent meta-analyses and field studies, however, have often failed to find these expected patterns, potentially because of a confounding influence-flexibility in whole-body nutrient content with diet quality (flexible homeostasis. Here, we explore the impact of flexible homeostasis on nutrient excretion by comparing the N and P excretion of four genetically diverged Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata populations when reared on diets of variable P content. As predicted by mass balance, P excretion increased on the high-P diet, but, contrary to the notion of fixed homeostasis, guppy whole-body %P also increased on the high-P diet. While there was no overall correlation between excretion nutrients and whole-body nutrients, when the effect of diet on both whole-body and excretion nutrients was included, we detected the expected negative correlation between whole-body N:P and excretion N:P. This last result suggests that mass balance can predict excretion rates within species, but only if dietary effects on whole-body nutrient content are controlled. Flexible homeostasis can obscure patterns predicted by mass balance, creating an imperative to accurately capture an organism's diet quality in predicting its excretion rate.

  10. The thermal regime and species composition of fish and invertebrates in Kelly Warm Spring, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming

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    Harper, David; Farag, Aida

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the thermal regime and relative abundance of native and nonnative fish and invertebrates within Kelly Warm Spring and Savage Ditch, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Water temperatures within the system remained relatively warm year-round with mean temperatures >20 °C near the spring source and >5 °C approximately 2 km downstream of the source. A total of 7 nonnative species were collected: Convict/Zebra Cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum), Green Swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii), Tadpole Madtom (Noturus gyrinus), Guppy (Poecilia reticulata), Goldfish (Carassius auratus), red-rimmed melania snail (Melanoides tuberculata), and American bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus). Nonnative fish (Zebra Cichlids and Green Swordtails), red-rimmed melania snails, and bullfrog tadpoles dominated the upper 2 km of the system. Abundance estimates of the Zebra Cichlid exceeded 12,000 fish/km immediately downstream of the spring source. Relative abundance of native species increased movingdownstream as water temperatures attenuated with distance from the thermally warmed spring source; however, nonnative species were captured 4 km downstream from the spring. Fish diseases were prevalent in both native and nonnative fish from the Kelly Warm Spring pond. Clinostomum marginatum, a trematode parasite, was found in native species samples, and the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum was present in samples from nonnative species. Diphyllobothrium dendriticum is rare in Wyoming. Salmonella spp. were also found in some samples of nonnative species. These bacteria are associated with aquarium fish and aquaculture and are generally not found in the wild.

  11. [Spatial and temporal variation in diet composition of invertivore fishes in a tropical stream, Venezuela].

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    Ortaz, Mario; Martín, Ricardo; López-Ordaz, Adriana

    2011-09-01

    Invertivores fishes are an important component of neotropical streams and they represent a link between aquatic invertebrates and piscivorous species. This study evaluated the breadth diet and interspecific food overlap of nine invertivores fish species during three consecutive hydrological phases: falling (December/07, January/08, February/08 and March/08), low (April/08) and rising waters (June/08), in two sections of a Venezuelan neotropical stream, which were located at different elevation, high watershed (HW) and low watershed (LW). The fishes were collected with a beach seine (5mm mesh) between 8:00 and 11:00 hours. The diet of each species was evaluated using an index of relative importance (IRI), which includes as variables the number, weight and occurrence frequency of food items consumed. The Levin' index (B ) and Morisita (IM) were used to estimate the breadth diet and interspecific food overlap, respectively. All estimations were made using the numeric proportion of preys. Nine fish species were captured, eight Characiformes, of which three were captured in HW (Knodus deuteronoides, Creagrutus bolivari and C. melasma) and five in LW (Thoracocharax stellatus, Moenkhausia lepidura, Cheirodon pulcher, Ctenobrycon spilurus and Aphyocharax alburnus), and one Cyprinodontiformes (Poecilia reticulata), which was also found in HW. In HW aquatic insects were the main resource consumed by fishes while plant material and terrestrial arthropods were secondary resources. In LW the fishes ingested all of these items in addition to zooplankton (Copepoda, Cladocera and larval stages of Decapoda). However, there was a temporal replacement with a predominance of zooplankton in falling and low water. In general, the breadth diet decreased during the falling water in both sections and increased in rising water. However, the average breadth diet was higher in HW. The interspecific food overlap was high in HW while low values were more frequent in LW and its temporal

  12. Large number discrimination in newborn fish.

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    Laura Piffer

    Full Text Available Quantitative abilities have been reported in a wide range of species, including fish. Recent studies have shown that adult guppies (Poecilia reticulata can spontaneously select the larger number of conspecifics. In particular the evidence collected in literature suggest the existence of two distinct systems of number representation: a precise system up to 4 units, and an approximate system for larger numbers. Spontaneous numerical abilities, however, seem to be limited to 4 units at birth and it is currently unclear whether or not the large number system is absent during the first days of life. In the present study, we investigated whether newborn guppies can be trained to discriminate between large quantities. Subjects were required to discriminate between groups of dots with a 0.50 ratio (e.g., 7 vs. 14 in order to obtain a food reward. To dissociate the roles of number and continuous quantities that co-vary with numerical information (such as cumulative surface area, space and density, three different experiments were set up: in Exp. 1 number and continuous quantities were simultaneously available. In Exp. 2 we controlled for continuous quantities and only numerical information was available; in Exp. 3 numerical information was made irrelevant and only continuous quantities were available. Subjects successfully solved the tasks in Exp. 1 and 2, providing the first evidence of large number discrimination in newborn fish. No discrimination was found in experiment 3, meaning that number acuity is better than spatial acuity. A comparison with the onset of numerical abilities observed in shoal-choice tests suggests that training procedures can promote the development of numerical abilities in guppies.

  13. Fasting or fear: disentangling the roles of predation risk and food deprivation in the nitrogen metabolism of consumers.

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    Dalton, Christopher M; Tracy, Karen E; Hairston, Nelson G; Flecker, Alexander S

    2018-03-01

    Predators can alter nutrient cycles simply by inducing stress in prey. This stress accelerates prey's protein catabolism, nitrogen waste production, and nitrogen cycling. Yet predators also reduce the feeding rates of their prey, inducing food deprivation that is expected to slow protein catabolism and nitrogen cycling. The physiology of prey under predation risk thus balances the influences of predation risk and food deprivation, and this balance is central to understanding the role of predators in nutrient cycles. We explored the separate and combined effects of predation risk and food deprivation on prey physiology and nutrient cycling by exposing guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to predation risk and food deprivation in a 2 × 2 design. We simulated predation risk using chemical cues from a natural predator of guppies, and we created food deprivation by rationing food availability. We measured guppy response as food consumption, growth, tissue energy density, tissue carbon:nitrogen, and nitrogen (N) excretion and assimilation. We found that N-linked physiological processes (N consumption, assimilation, excretion) were strongly affected by predation risk, independent of food consumption. Guppies excreted substantially less under predation risk than they did under food deprivation or control conditions. These results suggest that predation risk, per se, triggers physiological changes in guppies that increase N retention and decrease N excretion. We suggest that slower N metabolism under predation risk is an adaptive response that minimizes protein loss in the face of predictable, predator-induced food restriction. Notably, N metabolism shares common hormonal control with food seeking behavior, and we speculate that increased N retention is a direct and immediate result of reduced food seeking under predation risk. Contrary to predation-stress-based hypotheses for how predators affect nutrient cycling by prey, our result indicates that even short-term exposure to

  14. Ovarian fluid mediates the temporal decline in sperm viability in a fish with sperm storage.

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    Clelia Gasparini

    Full Text Available A loss of sperm viability and functionality during sperm transfer and storage within the female reproductive tract can have important fitness implications by disrupting fertilization and impairing offspring development and survival. Consequently, mechanisms that mitigate the temporal decline in sperm function are likely to be important targets of selection. In many species, ovarian fluid is known to regulate and maintain sperm quality. In this paper, we use the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a highly polyandrous freshwater fish exhibiting internal fertilization and sperm storage, to determine whether ovarian fluid (OF influences the decline in sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm in the ejaculate over time and whether any observed effects depend on male sexual ornamentation. To address these questions we used a paired experimental design in which ejaculates from individual males were tested in vitro both in presence and absence of OF. Our results revealed that the temporal decline in sperm viability was significantly reduced in the presence of OF compared to a saline control. This finding raises the intriguing possibility that OF may play a role in mediating the decline in sperm quality due to the deleterious effects of sperm ageing, although other possible explanations for this observation are discussed. Interestingly, we also show that the age-related decline in sperm viability was contingent on male sexual ornamentation; males with relatively high levels of iridescence (indicating higher sexual attractiveness exhibited a more pronounced decline in sperm viability over time than their less ornamented counterparts. This latter finding offers possible insights into the functional basis for the previously observed trade-off between these key components of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection.

  15. Balancing the dilution and oddity effects: decisions depend on body size.

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    Gwendolen M Rodgers

    Full Text Available Grouping behaviour, common across the animal kingdom, is known to reduce an individual's risk of predation; particularly through dilution of individual risk and predator confusion (predator inability to single out an individual for attack. Theory predicts greater risk of predation to individuals more conspicuous to predators by difference in appearance from the group (the 'oddity' effect. Thus, animals should choose group mates close in appearance to themselves (eg. similar size, whilst also choosing a large group.We used the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata, a well known model species of group-living freshwater fish, in a series of binary choice trials investigating the outcome of conflict between preferences for large and phenotypically matched groups along a predation risk gradient. We found body-size dependent differences in the resultant social decisions. Large fish preferred shoaling with size-matched individuals, while small fish demonstrated no preference. There was a trend towards reduced preferences for the matched shoal under increased predation risk. Small fish were more active than large fish, moving between shoals more frequently. Activity levels increased as predation risk decreased. We found no effect of unmatched shoal size on preferences or activity.Our results suggest that predation risk and individual body size act together to influence shoaling decisions. Oddity was more important for large than small fish, reducing in importance at higher predation risks. Dilution was potentially of limited importance at these shoal sizes. Activity levels may relate to how much sampling of each shoal was needed by the test fish during decision making. Predation pressure may select for better decision makers to survive to larger size, or that older, larger fish have learned to make shoaling decisions more efficiently, and this, combined with their size relative to shoal-mates, and attractiveness as prey items influences shoaling

  16. Evolutionary and immediate effects of crude-oil pollution: depression of exploratory behaviour across populations of Trinidadian guppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquin, L; Dybwad, C; Rolshausen, G; Hendry, A P; Reader, S M

    2017-01-01

    Human-induced perturbations such as crude-oil pollution can pose serious threats to aquatic ecosystems. To understand these threats fully it is important to establish both the immediate and evolutionary effects of pollutants on behaviour and cognition. Addressing such questions requires comparative and experimental study of populations that have evolved under different levels of pollution. Here, we compared the exploratory, activity and social behaviour of four populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) raised in common garden conditions for up to three generations. Two of these populations originated from tributaries with a long history of human-induced chronic crude-oil pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons due to oil exploitation in Trinidad, the two others originating from non-polluted control sites. Laboratory-raised guppies from the oil-polluted sites were less exploratory in an experimental maze than guppies from the non-polluted sites and in a similar manner for the two independent rivers. We then compared the plastic behavioural responses of the different populations after an acute short-term experimental exposure to crude oil and found a decrease in exploration (but not in activity or shoaling) in the oil-exposed fish compared to the control subjects over all four populations. Taken together, these results suggest that both an evolutionary history with oil and an acute exposure to oil depressed guppy exploratory behaviour. We discuss whether the behavioural divergence observed represents adaptation to human-induced pollutants, the implications for conservation and the possible knock-on effects for information discovery and population persistence in fish groups.

  17. Diplomonad flagellates of some ornamental fish cultured in Thailand

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    Boonkob Viriyapongsutee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study on diplomonad flagellates infection in some ornamental fishes in the family cichlidae i.e., angelfish(Pterophyllum scalare, oscar (Astronotus ocellatus, blue mbuna (Labeotropheus fuelleborni and the family osphronemidaei.e., Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens revealed that this parasite infected three out of four ornamental fish species,angelfish, oscar and blue mbuna. The highest infection was recorded in angelfish (90% followed by oscar (75.4% and bluembuna (61%, respectively. Identification of diplomonad flagellates from angelfish by means of morphological studies underlight and electron microscopes indicated that the parasite was Spironucleus vortens. The 14–days LD50 of S. vortens inangelfish was 2.99x103 cells. Histopathological changes of infected angelfish revealed granulomatous liver, numerousnumbers of melanomacrophage in the spleen and inflammation of the intestine. Susceptibility study of S. vortens to goldfish(Carassius auratus, guppy (Poecilia reticulata and platy (Xiphophorus maculatus indicated that they were resistant toartificial infection. In vitro examination of the growth inhibition assay of S. vortens indicated that dimetridazole and metronidazolewere effective in inhibiting parasite growth after 48 hrs exposure at concentrations of >4.0 μg/ml and >6.0 μg/ml,respectively. Magnesium sulfate at a concentration of >60 mg/ml inhibited the parasite growth after 72 hrs exposure. In vivoexamination of the dimetridazole efficiency on S. vortens infection indicated that dimetridazole at 4.0 μg/ml provided thehighest efficiency which could be used for treatment of spironucleosis in angelfish.

  18. Micropropagation of nucellar embryos and their histological comparative study for regeneration ability with other explants of kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazmi, S.K.; Khan, S.; Kabir, N.

    2018-01-01

    Polyembryony is the most beneficial and distinct character in citrus seeds. This characteristic can be beneficial in citrus improvement programs. Nucellar embryos developed from nucellar wall in citrus seeds along with zygotic embryo are found to have high plants regeneration ability in comparison to zygotic embryos. Under In vitro culture conditions, nucellar embryos were detected and multiplied on MT media with 0.5ml of coconut water along with 50g/L sucrose. These nucellar embryonic tissues were also regenerated on MT media upplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L kinetin. Many shoots were regenerated from nucellar embryonic tissue; these shoots were rooted on MT media supplemented with IBA 0.5mg/L and NAA 0.1 mg/L in addition to activated charcoal 0.5gm/L. The resulting plantlets were acclimatized in the green house. After micropropagation, histological studies of nucellar embryonic tissues were carried out under fluorescence microscope to examine their high regeneration ability in comparison with usual plant parts, like seeds, shoots as well as with tissue culture stages including embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus. It was found that nucellar embryos have more regeneration ability as compared to usual plant parts and other tissue culture stages. (author)

  19. Electrical stimulation of the substantia nigra reticulata : Detection of neuronal extracellular GABA in the ventromedial thalamus and its regulatory mechanism using microdialysis in awake rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, W; Westerink, B.H.C.

    A combination of electrical stimulation and microdialysis was used to study the nigrothalamic gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system and its regulatory mechanisms in awake rats. Extracellular GABA levels in the ventromedial nucleus of the thalamus were detected in S-min fractions collected

  20. UTILIZACIÓN DE IMÁGENES DIGITALES PARA MEDICIÓN DEL DIÁMETRO DE FRUTOS DE MANDARINA (Citrus reticulata EN CRECIMIENTO

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    Carlos Alberto Padrón-Pereira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue usar imágenes digitales para medir el diámetro ecuatorial de frutos de mandarina durante el crecimiento en el árbol para construir curvas de crecimiento. El experimento se realizó en una parcela (9 m x 5 m, ubicada en Valencia (Venezuela y cultivada con árboles frutales (Acerola, limón, mandarina, palmeras creciendo naturalmente. Se seleccionaron dos frutos de la parte inferior de la copa (altura del suelo 2.5 m en crecimiento, de idéntico diámetro ecuatorial (39 mm y en la cercanía se colocó una referencia fija de medida. Se utilizó una computadora portátil, una cámara digital calibrada y un software de diseño gráfico. El ensayo se llevó a cabo durante 105 días y cada 4 a 5 días se fotografiaron los frutos. Las imágenes captadas se descargaron en la computadora y procesaron con el software CorelDRAW® X3. La medición de los frutos en las imágenes se realizó con una regla graduada virtual creada con el software y con los datos obtenidos se elaboraron curvas de crecimiento. Los dos frutos se comportaron de similar manera durante el crecimiento, con coincidencias en las mediciones los días 58 y 84 (44.25 y 50.50 mm, respectivamente, en este último día, aproximadamente se inició la fase 3, coincidiendo en ambos frutos. Los diámetros ecuatoriales alcanzados a los 105 días fueron 48.50 y 50.75 mm para el fruto 1 y 2, respectivamente. Fueron factibles las mediciones mediante el procedimiento utilizado.

  1. GABA Pathway Rate-Limit Citrate Degradation in Postharvest Citrus Fruit Evidence from HB Pumelo (Citrus grandis) × Fairchild (Citrus reticulata) Hybrid Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ling; Shen, Dandan; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Mingfei; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin; Cheng, Yunjiang

    2017-03-01

    Organic acids are a major index of fresh fruit marketing properties. However, the genetic effects on the organic acid level in postharvest citrus fruit still remain unknown. Here, we used the fruits of about 40 lines in a hybrid population (high-acid "HB Pumelo" × low-acid "Fairchild") to analyze the organic acid metabolism of postharvest citrus fruit. A transgressive content of titratable acid (TA) was observed, which was attributed to citrate accumulation. High- and low-acid fruits (No. 130, 168 and No. 080, 181, respectively) were chosen for further study. Gene expression analysis on citrate metabolism showed that the high accumulation of citrate could be attributed to the low activity of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, and was partially due to the block of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle by low mitochondrial aconitase (m-ACO) expression. TA level was significantly negatively correlated with weight loss in fruits during postharvest storage, implying a close relationship between organic acid and water metabolism.

  2. Pre-Harvest Dropped Kinnow ( Citrus reticulata Blanco) Waste Management through the Extraction of Naringin and Pectin from their Peels using Indigenous Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxmi Deepak Bhatlu, M.; Katiyar, Prashant; Singh, Satya Vir; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2016-09-01

    About 10-20 % kinnow fruits are dropped in preharvest stage which are waste and are problem to farmer as these create nuisance by rotting and insect rearing ground. The peels of these dropped fruits as well as peels from kinnow processing may be good source of naringin and pectin. Naringin is used in pharmaseutics while pectin is used in food industry. For recovery of naringin and pectn, peels of preharvest dropped kinnow fruits were boiled in water. The extract was passed through macroporus polymeric adsorbent resin Indion PA 800, naringin was adsorbed on it. The adsorbed naringin was desorbed with ethanol. This solution was passed through membrane filter and filtrate was evaporated to obtain naringin. The extract remaining after adsorption of naringin was used to recover pectin using acid extraction method. The recovery of naringin and pectin was about 52 and 58 % respectively. The naringin finally obtained had 91-93 % purity.

  3. Spatial and temporal distribution of root activity of Ramphal (Annona reticulata) seedlings and their grafts with 'Arka Sahan' scion determined using isotopic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    In both seedlings and grafts of Ramphal, early rainy season showed the highest intensity of root activity followed by late rainy season and winter. During early rainy season, the active roots were predominantly surface oriented and clustered towards the trunk in both seedlings and grafts. During later seasons, however, the roots migrated from 20cm to 40cm depth and from 40cm to 80 and 120cm radial distance that resulted in a uniform distribution of active roots throughout the rooting volume. The grafts of 'Arka Sahan' scion on Ramphal rootstocks showed deeper root activity which had nearly one-half of active roots close to the trunk at 40cm distance, that may be more drought tolerant than the seedlings. (author)

  4. "De bárbaros y salvajes". La Guerra de Castas de los mayas yucatecos según la prensa de la ciudad de México. 1877-1880 "Of barbarians and savages". The Caste War of the Yucateco Maya according to the press of Mexico City. 1877-1880

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Guzmán Urióstegui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Decididos a proteger sus tierras y su forma de vida, en 1847 los mayas yucatecos se levantaron en armas contra la llamada población blanca del estado. La prensa de la capital nacional no tardó mucho en enterarse del caso y darlo a conocer, asumiendo desde un principio una postura crítica en contra de los rebeldes, al considerarlos como enemigos del orden y el progreso, y por ende carentes de todo derecho social y político, incluido el de su propia existencia como raza. Para algunos, no había más que exterminarlos mediante la violencia; para otros, la mejor opción era la de su integración por medio de la educación y el trabajo. Durante el largo enfrentamiento, esta última postura tomó auge sobre todo a partir de 1877, tras la asunción de Porfirio Díaz al poder, quien buscó implantar la paz como el fundamento para llevar al país al selecto grupo de las naciones civilizadas del mundo. El indígena como tal estorbaba para ello, pues se le creía perezoso, indolente y bárbaro. Por lo mismo, adujeron diversos periodistas, no había otra solución que integrarlo a la sociedad mexicana por el camino de su transformación radical, convirtiéndolo no tanto en un ciudadano de primera, sino en un ente dispuesto a las labores productivas; es decir, convirtiéndolo en mano de obra disponible, supuestamente libre.With a deep commitment to defend its lands and way of living, in 1847 the Mayas from Yucatán decided to take up arms against the white population in the State. The media from the capital spread the news criticizing the rebel group attitudes and cataloged them as enemies of order and progress, lacking of any political or social rights, even the right to exist as a specific race. The public opinion was divided. Some people thought that the solution was an ethnic cleansing; on the other side, the solution was to integrate them through education and work. While the confrontation was taking place the last opinion got stronger, especially in 1877 when Porfirio Díaz came to power and looked for a peaceful solution as a mean to be admitted on the group of the civilized countries of the world. The indigenous community was a hindrance for achieving this goal because of the common thought of the native as lazy, indolent and barbarous. Considering this status, as many journalist pointed out, the only solution was to integrate them to Mexican society with a drastic change, not turning them into a first class citizen but a productive being, meaning a kind of workforce available in any time, supposedly free.

  5. Estudio fitoquímico y evaluación de la capacidad antioxidante de hojas de Senna reticulata obtenidas en la región andina colombiana - Phytochemical study and evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of Senna reticulata leaves obtained in the Colombian Andean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Andres Matulevich -Pelaez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue contribuir al estudio fitoquímico de las hojas de esta especie y evaluar su capacidad antioxidante. Para tal fin, a partir del material vegetal colectado en el municipio de Honda (Tolima e identificado en el Herbario Nacional Colombiano bajo el número de colección COL 573012, se obtuvo el extracto etanólico (131.18 g del cual a través de separaciones por cromatografías en columna (CC, cromatografía en capa delgada (CCD y cromatografía en capa delgada preparativa (CCDP, se logró obtener una mezcla conformada por eritritol, acetato de isoamilo y ácido L-piroglutámico y el aislamiento de quercetina, hiperósido y camferol. Estos últimos reportados por primera vez para esta especie en nuestro país. La elucidación estructural de los compuestos aislados se llevó a cabo mediante las técnicas de Cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (CG-EM y resonancia magnética nuclear de carbono (RMN 13C. La capacidad antioxidante fue evaluada por el método de DPPH, donde se estableció que el extracto etanólico, las fracciones de diclorometano y acetato de etilo y el compuesto identificado como camferol, exhibieron un porcentaje de inhibición superior al 40% tomando como referencia la captación antioxidante del ácido gálico del radical libre DPPH.

  6. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of minimally processed 'Champagne' oranges (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis in different packgings Características físico-químicas e microbiológicas de laranjas 'Champagne' (Citrus reticulata x Citrus sinensis minimamente processadas em diferentes embala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Agostini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the level of minimal processing and modified atmosphere on the quality of 'Champagne' orange stored under refrigeration. The fruits were subjected to the following processing: a whole fruit without flavedo; b whole fruit without flavedo and albedo; and c segmented into wedges and packed as follows: uncoated packaging (control; polyethylene film; PVC film; gelatin-based edible films (3%; and polyesthyrene translucent plastic container with a lid. The minimally processed oranges were stored at 5 ± 1°C for 8 days and were subjected to physicochemical and microbiological analyses every two days. Greater weight loss occurred in fruits without flavedo and segmented, uncoated, and coated with the edible gelatin film During storage, there was a slight increase in Total Soluble Solids (TSS for the treatments with greater weight loss and reduction in acidity and ascorbic acid, regardless of the packaging type. The microbial counts did not exceed the acceptable limits in the treatments; however, higher counts were observed at the end of storage. The minimally processed fruit packed in lidded polystyrene containers and polyethylene and PVC films kept their overall fresh visual appearance with a few physicochemical and microbiological changes up to the 8th day of storage.Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar a influência do nível de processamento mínimo e atmosfera modificada na qualidade de laranja 'Champagne' minimamente processada armazenada sob refrigeração. Laranjas submetidas aos seguintes processos: a remoção do albedo; b remoção do albedo e flavedo; c segmentada em gomos, foram acondicionadas em embalagem sem revestimento (controle, com filme de polietileno, com filme de PVC, com revestimento comestível de gelatina a 3% e em pote plástico com tampa de poliestireno. O armazenamento dos frutos foi realizado a 5 ± 1 °C por oito dias, sendo submetidos a análises físico-químicas e microbiológicas a cada dois dias. A maior perda de massa ocorreu em frutos sem flavedo e segmentados, sem revestimento e com película de gelatina. À medida que avançou o período de armazenamento, observou-se ligeira elevação no teor de SST para os tratamentos com maior perda de massa e redução da acidez e ácido ascórbico, sem efeito da embalagem. As contagens microbianas não ultrapassaram os limites preconizados em nenhum tratamento, entretanto, maiores contagens foram verificadas no final do armazenamento. As frutas minimamente processadas embaladas em potes de poliestireno com tampa, filmes de polietileno e PVC mantiveram boa aparência com poucas modificações nas características físico-químicas e microbiológicas até o 8° dia de armazenamento.

  7. Variación espacial y temporal en la composición de la dieta de peces invertívoros en un río neotropical, Venezuela

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    Mario Ortaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La ictiofauna invertívora es un componente importante en los ríos neotropicales y representa un enlace entre los invertebrados acuáticos y los piscívoros. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la amplitud y sobreposición interespecífica de dieta de nueve especies de peces invertívoros durante tres fases hidrológicas consecutivas: descenso (diciembre/07, enero/08, febrero/08, marzo/08, aguas bajas (abril/08 y ascenso de aguas (junio/08 en dos secciones de un río venezolano ubicadas a distinta altitud (subcuenca alta, SA y subcuenca baja, SB. Los peces se recolectaron con una red de cerco (0.5cm entrenudos entre las 8:00 y 11:00 horas. La dieta de cada especie se evaluó usando un índice de importancia relativa (IIR que incluyó el número, peso y frecuencia de ocurrencia de los items consumidos. Para estimar la amplitud y sobreposición interespecífica de dieta se emplearon los índices de Levín (Bi y Morisita (IM, respectivamente. Todas las estimaciones se realizaron con la frecuencia numérica de las presas consumidas. Se capturaron nueve especies, ocho Characiformes, tres en SA (Knodus deuteronoides, Creagrutus bolivari y C. melasma y cinco en SB (Thoracocharax stellatus, Moenkhausia lepidura, Cheirodon pulcher, Ctenobrycon spilurus y Aphyocharax alburnus y un Cyprinodontiformes (Poecilia reticulata, capturada en SA. En SA el principal recurso consumido fueron insectos acuáticos mientras que el material vegetal y los artrópodos terrestres fueron recursos secundarios. En SB, las especies consumieron estos items además de zooplancton (Copepoda, Cladocera y estadios larvales de crustáceos Decapoda, pero hubo una sustitución temporal con un predominio de zooplancton en descenso y aguas bajas. En general, la amplitud de la dieta disminuyó en descenso de aguas en ambas secciones e incrementó en ascenso de aguas. Sin embargo, la amplitud promedio fue mayor en SA. La sobreposición interespecífica de dieta fue alta en SA mientras que

  8. Evaluating the piscicide rotenone as an option for eradication of invasive Mozambique tilapia in a Hawaiian brackish-water wetland complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo; Englund, Ronald A.; Jelks, Howard L.

    2015-01-01

    Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus were recently discovered in ‘Aimakapā Fishpond, a 12-hectare brackish-water wetland complex in Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park, on the Island of Hawai’i. As a possible eradication method, we evaluated rotenone, a natural piscicide used in fish management and the active ingredient in plants traditionally used by indigenous Hawaiians for capturing fish. To assess rotenone’s efficacy in killing tilapia and effects on non-target species, laboratory toxicity tests involved exposing organisms to various concentrations of liquid CFT Legumine (5% rotenone) in static trials of 48-h to 72-h duration. Test organisms included: Mozambique tilapia, non-native guppy Poecilia reticulata, the non-native odonate Rambur’s forktail Ischnura ramburii, native feeble shrimp Palaemon debilis, and native ‘ōpae’ula shrimp Halocaridina rubra. All organisms and water used in tests were obtained from ‘Aimakapā (12.6–12.7 ppt salinity), or, for H. rubra, an anchialine pool (15.0–15.2 ppt salinity). Survival analyses indicated CFT Legumine concentrations >3 ppm (>0.15 mg/L rotenone) achieved 100% mortality of tilapia and 93% of guppies within 24 h, with most tilapia killed by 6 h and most guppies by 2 h. Little or no mortality was observed among invertebrate exposed to 1 to 5 mg/L CFT Legumine: 0% mortality for ‘ōpae’ula shrimp, 4% for feeble shrimp; and 16% for odonate larvae. The 48 h LC50 values for Mozambique tilapia and guppy were 0.06 and 0.11 mg/L rotenone, respectively. Results demonstrate rotenone’s potential for non-native fish eradication in brackish-water habitats, with benefit of low mortality to certain macro-invertebrates. High rotenone tolerance displayed by ‘ōpae’ula shrimp is noteworthy. Invasive fish are common in anchialine pools, threatening existence of shrimp and other invertebrate fauna. Although rotenone’s effects on freshwater organisms have been well studied, our research

  9. Post-embryonic development of Camallanus cotti (Nematoda: Camallanidae), with emphasis on growth of some taxonomically important somatic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levsen, Arne; Berland, Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the quantitative post-embryonic development of the Asian freshwater fish nematode Camallanus cotti Fujita, 1927, is described. Larval and adult morphometrics were obtained by following the parasite's life cycle experimentally using copepods Macrocyclops albidus (Jurine) as intermediate host and guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters), southern platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther) and paradise fish Macropodus opercularis (L.) as definitive host. Additionally, adult worms were obtained from heavily infected paradise fish imported from Singapore. It is suggested that the gradual change in proportions of the worm's somatic body parts reflects the specific ecological role of each developmental stage. The free-living infective first-stage larva seems to be adapted for transmission, as indicated by its relatively long tail, designed to generate host-attracting movements, and its non-functional intestine. The second- and third-stage larvae from the copepod intermediate host seem mainly to invest in trophic functionality, i.e., the development of the buccal capsule and the oesophagus, which are crucial structures for the worm's successful establishment in the definitive fish host. Once in the fish intestine, the larvae enter a period of considerable growth. After the fourth (i.e., last) moult, a 72% increase in average female body length occurs. This is accompanied by doubling the average vulva-tail tip distance and the average tail length. The length of the female hind body expands in an accelerating allometric fashion, and seems to be closely linked to the posterior-wards expansion of the uterus. In the males however, growth seems to cease after the final moult. We conclude that female post-maturational body size, but especially the length of the hind body and the tail, are closely related to reproductive state, i.e., the developmental stage of the offspring in the uterus, and, probably, the worms' age. Any future taxonomical studies of camallanids in

  10. Is Fish Response related to Velocity and Turbulence Magnitudes? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. A.; Hockley, F. A.; Cable, J.

    2013-12-01

    Riverine fish are subject to heterogeneous velocities and turbulence, and may use this to their advantage by selecting regions which balance energy expenditure for station holding whilst maximising energy gain through feeding opportunities. This study investigated microhabitat selection by guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in terms of the three-dimensional velocity structure generated by idealised boulders in an experimental flume. Velocity and turbulence influenced intra-species variation in swimming behaviour with respect to size, sex and parasite intensity. With increasing body length, fish swam further and more frequently between boulder regions. Larger guppies spent more time in the high velocity and low turbulence region, whereas smaller guppies preferred the low velocity and high shear stress region directly behind the boulders. Male guppies selected the region of low velocity, indicating a possible reduced swimming ability due to hydrodynamic drag imposed by their fins. With increasing parasite (Gyrodactylus turnbulli) burden, fish preferentially selected the region of moderate velocity which had the lowest bulk measure of turbulence of all regions and was also the most spatially homogeneous velocity and turbulence region. Overall the least amount of time was spent in the recirculation zone which had the highest magnitude of shear stresses and mean vertical turbulent length scale to fish length ratio. Shear stresses were a factor of two greater than in the most frequented moderate velocity region, while mean vertical turbulent length scale to fish length ratio were six times greater. Indeed the mean longitudinal turbulent scale was 2-6 times greater than the fish length in all regions. While it is impossible to discriminate between these two turbulence parameters (shear stress and turbulent length to fish length ratio) in influencing the fish preference, our study infers that there is a bias towards fish spending more time in a region where both the bulk

  11. Darkness, Silence and Emptiness

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    A general interpretation is proposed of Los detectives salvajes, by Roberto Bolaño, beginning with the analysis of its structure. Other aspects studied include games, the opposition between loyalty and betrayal, and verosimilitude based on repetitions in the interviews. Mention is also made of other works by Roberto Bolaño, such as Amuleto, Estrella distante y 2666.  Se ofrece una interpretación general de Los detectives salvajes, de Roberto Bolaño, a partir del análisis de su estructura. ...

  12. Ulises y Rimbaud en Roberto Bolaño, “Los detectives salvajes”

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Balada Campo

    2014-01-01

    En el presente artículo se analiza la presencia y la función de dos figuras fundamentales en la tradición literaria, Ulises y Rimbaud, en os detectives salvajes. En base a los presupuestos filosóficos de Adorno y Horkheimer y al análisis del mito de Blumenberg, se expone la oposición entre las concepciones de la subjetividad simbolizadas por ambas figuras, de tal modo que se puede considerar Los detectives salvajes una relectura de la Odisea en la que la subjetividad rimbauldiana substituye a...

  13. Ulises y Rimbaud en Roberto Bolaño, “Los detectives salvajes”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Balada Campo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se analiza la presencia y la función de dos figuras fundamentales en la tradición literaria, Ulises y Rimbaud, en os detectives salvajes. En base a los presupuestos filosóficos de Adorno y Horkheimer y al análisis del mito de Blumenberg, se expone la oposición entre las concepciones de la subjetividad simbolizadas por ambas figuras, de tal modo que se puede considerar Los detectives salvajes una relectura de la Odisea en la que la subjetividad rimbauldiana substituye a la subjetividad del héroe homérico.

  14. Interação entre Formigas e Aleirodídeos (Sternorrhyncha, Aleyrodidae em Cultivo Orgânico de Tangerina cv. Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rodrigues

    2011-11-01

    Abstract. The whiteflies are tending by ants, which give protection and dispersion make the control of those suckers more difficult. The interaction ant-Sternorrhyncha occurs, mainly due to the production of a sugared material named honeydew. The aim of the study as realized sampling, diversity study, frequency, constancy and dominance of the ant’s whiteflies tending species in night and day period. The sampling were conducted from October 2002 to October 2003. The species of whiteflies detected were Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell, Aleurotrachelus cruzi Cassino, Singhiella citrifolii (Morgan and Paraleyrodes bondari Peracchi. The study concluded that 12 species of ants were associated with A. floccossus, 4 species with A. cruzi and 3 species with P. bondari. Associations between ants and S. citrifolli where not observed. Among the species of ants associated with whiteflies, those ones associated with A. floccosus presented the major diversity (0.743 and the minor dominance (0.3194 and equitability J (0.6882. Brachymyrmex sp. was the most frequent species (31.94% and also the most constant. P. bondari showed a diversity of 0.477, the dominance of 0.3333 and the equitability J 1. To A. cruzi, the diversity was of 0.422, dominance of 0.6098 e equitability J of 0.7013. This species of whiteflies show a dominance of the species Crematogaster sp. 1, with the frequency of 60.98% although it was secondary. The close relationship between A. floccosus and 12 ants demonstrates a preference for the excrements (honeydew of the whiteflies, for the quantity as well as for the quality of the honeydew.

  15. Variación espacial y temporal en la composición de la dieta de peces invertívoros en un río neotropical, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ortaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La ictiofauna invertívora es un componente importante en los ríos neotropicales y representa un enlace entre los invertebrados acuáticos y los piscívoros. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la amplitud y sobreposición interespecífica de dieta de nueve especies de peces invertívoros durante tres fases hidrológicas consecutivas: descenso (diciembre/07, enero/08, febrero/08, marzo/08, aguas bajas (abril/08 y ascenso de aguas (junio/08 en dos secciones de un río venezolano ubicadas a distinta altitud (subcuenca alta, SA y subcuenca baja, SB. Los peces se recolectaron con una red de cerco (0.5cm entrenudos entre las 8:00 y 11:00 horas. La dieta de cada especie se evaluó usando un índice de importancia relativa (IIR que incluyó el número, peso y frecuencia de ocurrencia de los items consumidos. Para estimar la amplitud y sobreposición interespecífica de dieta se emplearon los índices de Levín (Bi y Morisita (IM, respectivamente. Todas las estimaciones se realizaron con la frecuencia numérica de las presas consumidas. Se capturaron nueve especies, ocho Characiformes, tres en SA (Knodus deuteronoides, Creagrutus bolivari y C. melasma y cinco en SB (Thoracocharax stellatus, Moenkhausia lepidura, Cheirodon pulcher, Ctenobrycon spilurus y Aphyocharax alburnus y un Cyprinodontiformes (Poecilia reticulata, capturada en SA. En SA el principal recurso consumido fueron insectos acuáticos mientras que el material vegetal y los artrópodos terrestres fueron recursos secundarios. En SB, las especies consumieron estos items además de zooplancton (Copepoda, Cladocera y estadios larvales de crustáceos Decapoda, pero hubo una sustitución temporal con un predominio de zooplancton en descenso y aguas bajas. En general, la amplitud de la dieta disminuyó en descenso de aguas en ambas secciones e incrementó en ascenso de aguas. Sin embargo, la amplitud promedio fue mayor en SA. La sobreposición interespecífica de dieta fue alta en SA mientras que

  16. Food-resource partitioning among fish species from a first-order stream in northwestern Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jislaine Cristina da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed the feeding ecology of fish fauna from a first-order stream located in a rural area. The purposes were to evaluate the influence of interspecific, seasonal and spatial factors on the diet, examine the dietary overlap, and determine the predominant food sources. Sampling was conducted in December 2007, September 2008, and March 2009, in three 50-m stretches of Itiz stream (upstream, intermediate, and downstream, through electrofishing. A total of 1,102 stomach contents were analyzed from 14 species, by the volumetric method. In general, allochthonous resources were predominant in the diets. Astyanax aff. fasciatus, Astyanax aff. paranae, Astyanax bockmanni, and Bryconamericus aff. iheringi consumed a higher proportion of plant remains, and Bryconamericus stramineus consumed predominantly Hymenoptera. The diets of Cetopsorhamdia iheringi, Characidium aff. zebra, Imparfinis schubarti, and Trichomycterus sp. consisted of aquatic insects, especially immature forms of Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Diptera. Hypostomus ancistroides, Hisonotus sp., Poecilia reticulata, and Rineloricaria aff. pentamaculata exploited mainly detritus, while Rhamdia quelen used a variety of items, predominantly terrestrial insects. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA showed a clear distinction among the species, with different morphology and feeding tactics. The Multi-Response Permutation Procedure (MRPP supported this differentiation, and also indicated significant spatial and temporal variations in the dietary composition; the Indicator Value Method (IndVal indicated the main items that contributed to these differences. The diet overlap among species was low (Este estudo abordou a ecologia alimentar da ictiofauna de um riacho de primeira ordem situado em área rural. Os objetivos foram verificar a influência dos fatores interespecíficos, sazonais e espaciais sobre a dieta, avaliar a sobreposição alimentar, além de determinar os

  17. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... jambhiri Lemon, Rough Mediterranean. Citrus latifolia Lime, Persian Oriental. Citrus limon Lemon..., Oriental. Citrus reticulata x C. sinensis = Citrus nobilis Orange, king Mediterranean, Melon, Oriental...

  18. Darkness, Silence and Emptiness

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Rojas

    2017-01-01

    A general interpretation is proposed of Los detectives salvajes, by Roberto Bolaño, beginning with the analysis of its structure. Other aspects studied include games, the opposition between loyalty and betrayal, and verosimilitude based on repetitions in the interviews. Mention is also made of other works by Roberto Bolaño, such as Amuleto, Estrella distante y 2666.

  19. El patrimonio natural e histórico-monumental español. Algunos problemas actuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Bosque Maurel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los diversos impactos de la urbanización incontrolada o «salvaje» en el patrimonio natual e histórico español. Asimismo se identifican los principales problemas y amenazas territoriales derivados del estallido de la «burbuja inmobiliaria».

  20. Darkness, Silence and Emptiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Rojas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A general interpretation is proposed of Los detectives salvajes, by Roberto Bolaño, beginning with the analysis of its structure. Other aspects studied include games, the opposition between loyalty and betrayal, and verosimilitude based on repetitions in the interviews. Mention is also made of other works by Roberto Bolaño, such as Amuleto, Estrella distante y 2666.

  1. De purgas, purgantes y purgatorios, o viaje al fondo de la noche del yagé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rodríguez Morales

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Chamanismo, colonialismo y el hombre salvaje. Un estudio sobre el terror y la curación. Michael Taussig (traducción de Hernando Valencia. Grupo Editorial Norma, Bogotá, 2002, 628 págs., il.

  2. Rootstock effects on fruit quality among 'Ray Ruby' grapefruit trees grown in the Indian River district of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to compare fruit quality parameters of ‘Ray Ruby’ grapefruit grown on seven rootstocks. Four recent releases from the USDA rootstock breeding program, US-852, US-897, US-942 and US-812 (all Citrus reticulata x P. trifoliata hybrids), X639 (C. reticulata x P. tri...

  3. Avaliação do processo de coagulação-floculação de lixiviado de aterro sanitário pré-tratado biologicamente utilizando quitosana e sulfato de alumínio como coagulantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inara Do Carmo Oliveira Nascimento

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Os lixiviados de aterros sanitários apresentam elevadas concentrações de nitrogênio amoniacal, matéria orgânica biodegradável e compostos recalcitrantes, que não permitem seu descarte no meio ambiente sem tratamento prévio. Como alternativa complementar ao tratamento biológico desse efluente, diferentes processos físico-químicos têm sido desenvolvidos para reduzir as concentrações de matéria orgânica recalcitrante presentes nos lixiviados de aterro sanitário. Para tanto, a presente pesquisa buscou avaliar a eficiência do processo de coagulação-floculação quanto à remoção dessa matéria orgânica presente em lixiviado pré-tratado biologicamente utilizando quitosana e sulfato de alumínio como coagulantes. Durante a realização dos ensaios, o efluente coletado de um sistema de lodo ativado operado em bateladas seqüenciais em escala piloto, instalado na área do Aterro Sanitário Integrado Camaçari e Dias D’avila, foi submetido ao tratamento físico-químico com os coagulantes quitosana e sulfato de alumínio (Al2(SO43.14 H2O em equipamento de testes de jarros. Para avaliar a eficiência do processo físico-químico, foi aplicada a metodologia estatística de planejamento experimental, a fim de obter as melhores condições de processo que fornecessem eficiências de remoção significativas da matéria orgânica recalcitrante por meio dos parâmetros cor verdadeira e turbidez. Posteriormente, foram realizados alguns ensaios de toxicidade aguda com Lemna minor e Poecilia reticulata. Os resultados mostraram que, nas faixas testadas, apenas as variáveis de controle concentração de coagulante (C e o valor do pH de dosagem foram significativas para o processo, uma vez que as condições de mistura (Gmr, Gf, Tmr e Tf não influenciaram nas variáveis respostas. Utilizando a quitosana como coagulante, alcançou-se valores médios de eficiência de remoção de cor verdadeira e turbidez iguais a 73% e 94

  4. Wild carnivore and wild bird deposits in an agro-pastoral community during the Bronze Age: Can Roqueta II (northeast Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albizuru, S., Maroto, J., Nadal, J., Majó, T., Sánchez Marco, A., Carlús, X., Rodríguez, A., Palomo, A.

    2015-01-01

    En este caso la identificación taxonómica indica la importancia de los animales domésticos seguramente debido a su papel en la economía, así como su uso en ofrendas alimentarias y también en ofrendas simbólicas que manifiestan el estatus de los muertos. Por el contrario, el estudio tafonómico indica la escasez de animales salvajes depositados intencionalmente –seis aves y dos carnívoros– y muestra el uso diferencial de estas especies respecto a las domésticas, ya que mientras los animales importantes en la alimentación humana fueron normalmente dispuestos como ofrendas de comida para los difuntos, los animales salvajes parecen estar más estrechamente relacionados con símbolos de la vida o totémicos.

  5. Drug: D10235 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 571] ... Same as: E00338 ... Rutaceae (rue family) Citrus unshiu, Citrus reticulata immature fruit and fruit peel; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs ... PubChem: 163312266 ...

  6. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 10, No 12 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Sargassum swartzii ... and Ulva reticulata Forsskal (Chlorophyta) in experiment animal models ... Metabolic flux distribution and mathematical models for dynamic simulation of carbon ...

  7. Antimycobacterial potency and cytotoxicity study of three medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Valere Tsouh Fokou

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results achieved from this preliminary antimycobacterial drug discovery study supported the traditional claims of C. patens, A. reticulata, and G. suaveolens in the treatment of mycobacterial infections. Meanwhile, further fractionation is required to characterize the active ingredients.

  8. Inhibition of the development of pathogenic fungi by extracts of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The different marine algae belonged to Chlorophyta (Enteromorpha prolifera and Ulva reticulata), Phaeophyta (Cystoseira myrica, Padina pavonica, Sargassum portieriatum and Turbinaria triquetra) and Rhodophyta (Gracilaria multipartita). Algal extraction was achieved successively by using petroleum ether, diethyl ether, ...

  9. The influence of low dose irradiation on volatile constituents of Imperial and Ellendale mandarins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.F.; Mitchell, G.E.; McLauchlan, R.L.; Hammerton, K.

    1992-01-01

    Volatile compounds were collected from Imperial (Citrus reticulata) and Ellendale (Citrus reticulata/Citrus sinensis hybrid) mandarins, green and degreened, irradiated at 0, 75, and 300 Gy. Thirty-three individual volatile components were isolated, limonene being the major volatile. Irradiation caused only minor changes in the concentrations of some volatiles and the changes were of no value as indicators of irradiation treatment. 18 refs., 3 tabs. 2 figs

  10. (10R,13R-17-(6-Hydroxy-5-methylheptan-2-yl-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-ol hemihydrate: a bioactive steroid isolated from the Indian herb Artemisia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Bauri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The title tetracyclic steroidal compound, C27H46O2·0.5H2O, crystallized as a monohydrate with two independent molecules (1 and 2 in the asymmetric unit. In both molecules, the conformations of the three cyclohexane rings (A, B and C are chair, half-chair and chair, respectively. The fourth ring, D, has a twisted conformation on the bond linking the D and C rings. The crystal structure is stabilized by hydrogen bonding with the two independent molecules being linked through the solvent water molecule via various O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (-101.

  11. Nekton communities in Hawaiian coastal wetlands: The distribution and abundance of introduced fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Ames MacKenzie; Gregory L. Bruland

    2012-01-01

    Nekton communities were sampled from 38 Hawaiian coastal wetlands from 2007 to 2009 using lift nets, seines, and throw nets in an attempt to increase our understanding of the nekton assemblages that utilize these poorly studied ecosystems. Nekton were dominated by exotic species, primarily poeciliids (Gambusia affinis, Poecilia...

  12. Strategic exploitation of fluctuating asymmetry in male Endler’s guppy courtship displays is modulated by social environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řežucha, Radomil; Reichard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2015), s. 356-367 ISSN 1010-061X R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : behavioural laterality * experience * Poecilia wingei * sidedness * sigmoid display * social environment Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.747, year: 2015

  13. Jugar al detective: el desafío de Roberto Bolaño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Hartwig

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La novela Los detectives salvajes  (1998, de Roberto Bolaño, galardonada con el premio “Rómulo Gallegos”, juega con los elementos tradicionales de la novella detectivesca. El enigma y el juego son la base constitutiva de la obra, que invita al lector no tanto a buscar un sentido (una solución sino a entrar en el juego. El artículo presenta los distintos niveles lúdicos a través de los dibujos brindados por Bolaño para apreciar la complejidad de esta novela de formación del siglo XXI.

  14. Infección por Dipylidium caninum en un preescolar: Presentación del caso y revisión de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Neira O, Patricia; Jofré M, Leonor; Muñoz S, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    La dipilidiasis es una zoonosis parasitaria provocada por Dipylidium caninum, teniasis que afecta a cánidos, félidos y, en forma accidental, al hombre. En Chile, al igual que en otros países, es una infección poco frecuente. Se presenta el caso de un preescolar con una infección por D. caninum, residente en la comuna de Casablanca, Región de Valparaíso. Se revisan las manifestaciones producidas por este agente, la epidemiología en animales domésticos y salvajes, los casos publicados en la lit...

  15. Determinación de anticuerpos contra patógenos virales y bacterianos seleccionados en la población de cerdos silvestres (Sus scrofa) de la Reserva Natural Bahía Samborombón, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    B. Carpinetti; G. Castresana; P. Rojas; J. Grant; A. Marcos; M. Monterubbianesi; H. R. Sanguinetti; M. S. Serena; M. G. Echeverría; M. Garciarena; A. Aleksa

    2017-01-01

    Los cerdos silvestres (Sus scrofa) descienden de cruzamientos entre cerdos domésticos liberados durante la colonización con jabalíes salvajes euroasiáticos, liberados con propósitos cinegéticos. Son invasivos y su coexistencia con especies domésticas implica riesgos sanitarios. Argentina es considerada libre de fiebre aftosa (FA), peste porcina clásica (PPC) y africana (PPA) y síndrome reproductivo y respiratorio porcino (PRRS). La enfermedad de Aujeszky (EA) y la leptospirosis son endémic...

  16. Lysogeny and mechanisms fagorresistencia native lactic bacteria present in wild and commercial

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel, Natalia Elisabet; Maciel, Natalia Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis fue ampliar el conocimiento sobre la interacción entre bacterias lácticas (BAL) constituyentes de fermentos lácticos con sus fagos específicos. Se estudió la difusión de la fagorresistencia de cepas autóctonas de Streptococcus thermophilus y Lactococcus lactis frente a fagos autóctonos. Además se verificaron los mecanismos de fagorresistencia dominantes para cada especie. Las cepas salvajes de Streptococcus thermophilus estudiadas, en su mayoría, mostraron una elevad...

  17. Gendering fibulae: animals and gender roles in Iberian Iron Age societies

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Consuelo; Bonet, Helena; Collado Mataix, Eva; Fuentes Albero, Mercedes; Izquierdo Peraile, Isabel; Moreno Martín, Andrea; Prados Torreira, Lourdes; Quesada Sanz, Fernando; Quixal Santos, David; Ripollès Alegre, Pere Pau; Sanchis Serra, Pere Alfred; Soria Combadiera, Lucía; Tormo Cuñat, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Desde la Antigüedad, los animales domésticos y salvajes han sido parte integrante de la vida del ser humano como alimento para su supervivencia, como transporte y también como iconos en la construcción del imaginario cultural. En la cultura ibérica las representaciones figuradas en diversos soportes (cerámica, escultura en piedra, terracotas, metales y monedas), “lo imaginario”, y los restos faunísticos de poblados, necrópolis y lugares culturales, “lo real”, ilustran las relaciones entre l...

  18. Nuevas terapias génicas en enfermedades cardiovasculares

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Cubillas, Nerea

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN: El corazón es capaz de responder a situaciones de estrés por medio de mecanismos de remodelado y compensación, generando entre otros, hipertrofia y fibrosis miocárdica. La chaperona Hsp90alpha está involucrada en la activación de proteínas clave en el proceso de fibrosis. El objetivo de este estudio es seleccionar ratones deficientes en Hsp90alpha y analizar algunos parámetros ecocardiográficos en dichos animales comparándolos con los de ratones salvajes/wildtype de la cepa C57BL6. P...

  19. El mundo del libro: Abril de 1966

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Rodríguez Garavito

    1966-04-01

    Full Text Available El documento presenta las reseñas de los siguientes títulos: EL BUEN SALVAJE-Por Eduardo Caballero Calderón. Premio NADAL 1965-Ediciones Ancora y Delfín. GUAYACAN-Novela-Premio Esso 1964. LOS SILENCIOS-Por David Mejía Velilla-Bogotá, 1966. SOCAVÓN-Por Helcías Martán G6ngora. ¿QUE SABEMOS DE LA PLANIFICACIÓN?-Por Albert Waterston-Ediciones Tercer Mundo. DE LA ENTRAÑA A LA PIEL-Mario H. Perico Ramírez- Imprenta Departamental de Boyacá-Colombia.

  20. Senegalese sole (solea senegalensis) broodstock nutrition: arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ARA) and reproductive physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Norambuena Filcun, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Considerando la total ausencia del desove natural y fertilización de huevos en reproductores de lenguado Senegalés (Solea senegalensis) nacidos en cautividad (G1) comparados con peces salvajes mantenidos en cautivo que son capaces de producir huevos fertilizados viables para su cultivo. Esta tesis se realizó con el objetivo de determinar la importancia dietética de los ácidos grasos, específicamente del ácido graso araquidónico (20:4n-6, ARA) y su interacción en la disfunción reproductiva pre...

  1. “Identidad en crisis y estética de la fragmentariedad en la novela de Roberto Bolaño”

    OpenAIRE

    Companys Tena, Mireia

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo analiza las formas que adopta la crisis de la identidad, elemento esencial de la literatura posmoderna, en las principales novelas de Roberto Bolaño (La literatura nazi en América, Estrella distante, Los detectives salvajes, Amuleto, Nocturno de Chile y 2666), tanto a nivel temático como estructural. Dicha crisis se convierte en el eje vertebrador de motivos como el doble, el viaje o la locura, y de una concepción novelística que cuestiona sus propios mecanismos, dando lugar a un...

  2. La secta de los escritores bárbaros. Agitando el campo intelectual en Estrella distante de Roberto Bolaño

    OpenAIRE

    González, Daniuska

    2017-01-01

    Si existe un autor latinoamericano contemporáneo que escribió sobre el campo intelectual hasta posicionarlo como epicentro de su obra fue Bolaño. Desde La literatura nazi en América (1996), pasando por Estrella distante, también de ese año, Llamadas telefónicas (1997), Los detectives salvajes (1998), Nocturno de Chile (2000) y 2666 (2004) y quiero mencionar hasta esta novela porque los textos posteriores me causan “ruido” por el estilo, lo fragmentado y lo inconexo de algunos de sus tramo...

  3. Cine y Filosofía. Sus rostros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernando Saldarriaga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio es un esquema para construir una cartografía del rostro en la obra cinematográfica del director sueco Ingmar Bergman. Películas como: Crisis (Kris, 1946, Un verano con Mónica (Som- maren med Monika, 1953, El silencio (Tystnaden, 1963 y Fresas Salvajes (Smultronstället, 1957, permiten aplicar las nociones filosóficas estudiadas por Gilles Delueze: rizoma, plano inmanente, plano afección, rostriedad en el marco histórico y estético. Cine y filosofía son los medios de estos pensadores.

  4. Los ojos de Amanda Berenguer y de Marosa di Giorgio para una exégesis de “El Jardín de las delicias” de El Bosco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Cancellier

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available If in Hieronymus Bosch’s (1453-­‐‑1516 hybrids and metamorphosis Marosa di Giorgio (1932-­‐‑2004 absorbs the most symbolic and disturbing aspects of his “maravilloso negro”, in the same flamish painter Amanda Berenguer (1921-­‐‑2010 finds the inspiration for a subversive discourse. Writings and images enlighten and strengthen each other while the two extraordinary texts of uruguayan literature (Papeles salvajes and Los culos de El Bosco intertwine and converse with triptych of The Garden of Earthly Delights, thus participating in its own complex exegesis.

  5. [Study and comparison on HPLC fingerprints of flavonoids of frequently used Chinese materia medica in citrus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonggang; Lin, Li

    2011-10-01

    To establish the HPLC fingerprint of flavonoids of the six clinical frequently used Chinese materia medica for regulating Qi flow,such as Citri grandis, C. grands, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium Viride, Aurantii Fructus, and Aurantii Fructus Immaturus from Citrus, and analysis differences in the fingerprints to provide scientific basis for profile-effect research and clinical reasonable use. HPLC was performed on a C18 column with methanol-water (with acetic acid), to establish HPLC fingerprints of the six kinds of medicinal herbs on the same chromatograph condition. The six frequently used Chinese materia medica were divided into naringin type and hesperidin type according to the method of phytochemotaxonomy. Based on the retention time of chromatograph peaks, C. grandis and C. grands had fifteen common peaks; Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium Viride, Aurantii Fructus and Aurantii Fructus Immaturus had ten common peaks. All herbs had five common peaks. Compared with mutual model, the holistic similarity of chromatograms of C. grandis and C. grands was in the range of 0.9285 - 0.9962. The degree of similarity was high. For Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium Viride and Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, it was in the range of 0.9221 - 0.9973 and high. But the similarity of Aurantii Fructus was only in 0.4547 - 0.7733 with the mutual model. The established fingerprints of flavonoids of the six common traditional Chinese medicines can be used to compare the differences intuitively. Meanwhile, the peak height and peak areas of characteristic peaks are different remarkably, but whether it is connected with the different function of regulating Qi flow of the six medical materials in clinical use, is still needed to be studied.

  6. Effetti dell'applicazione per breve periodo di un'atmosfera a bassa concentrazione d'ossigeno sui parametri qualitativi dei frutti di tangelo "Page"

    OpenAIRE

    Piga, Antonio; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Agabbio, Mario Carlo Salvatore

    1997-01-01

    A brief prestorage treatment of Page tangelo [(Citrus paradisi Macf. x C. reticulata) x C. reticulata] with a low-O2 atmosphere was performed, in order to assess if anaerobic conditions could delay senescence of the fruit. Freshly harvested fruits were randomly selected for minimal blemishes and omogenous size and divided into two plots. Fruits to be treated were put in a 250-liter plastic container at 20°C in which an atmosphere containing 99% N2 + 1 % O2 was established within 1 ho...

  7. Ausencia de circulación de poliovirus en departamentos colombianos con coberturas vacunales inferiores a 80%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes González

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se propuso explorar la posible circulación silente de poliovirus salvajes y derivados de la vacuna (VDPV, por sus siglas en inglés, en departamentos de Colombia con cobertura de vacunación para polio (OPV, por sus siglas en inglés menor de 80%. Se colectaron 52 muestras de aguas residuales que se concentraron mediante precipitación con polietilenglicol y cloruro de sodio. La detección viral se realizó mediante aislamiento y la identificación por neutralización del efecto citopático, así como mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa convencional y en tiempo real, posterior a la transcripción reversa (TR-RCP y rTR-RCP. Los poliovirus aislados se caracterizaron por secuenciación del gen VP1. En dos de las 52 muestras hubo presencia de poliovirus Sabin 2 con más de 99% de similitud de secuencia con la cepa OPV Sabin 2. Se detectó circulación de enterovirus no polio en 17,3% de las muestras. Los serotipos identificados correspondieron a coxsackievirus B1, echovirus 30 y echovirus 11. No se detectaron evidencias de circulación de VDPV ni poliovirus salvaje en los departamentos de Colombia con coberturas de OPV inferiores a 80%.

  8. Brain nonapeptide and gonadal steroid responses to deprivation of heterosexual contact in the black molly

    OpenAIRE

    Kulczykowska, Ewa; Kalamarz-Kubiak, Hanna; Nietrzeba, Marta; Gozdowska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fish may respond to different social situations with changes in both physiology and behaviour. A unique feature of fish is that social interactions between males and females strongly affect the sexual characteristics of individuals. Here we provide the first insight into the endocrine background of two phenomena that occur in mono-sex groups of the black molly (Poecilia sphenops): masculinization in females and same-sex sexual behaviour, manifested by gonopodial displays towards same...

  9. Indidivual differences in the behaviour of fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Budaev, Dr. Sergey

    2000-01-01

    This is the official printed Russian summary of PhD Thesis, describing a series of studies of the phenotypic organization and ecological significance of individual differences in fish behavior. The following species were studied: guppy Poecilia retuculata, lion-headed cichlid Steatocranus cassuarius, convict cichlid Archocentrus nigrofasciatum, wrasses Symphodus ocellatus, S. tinca, and two species of sturgeons Acipenser stellatus and A. gueldenstaedti. In this Thesis, I developed methods for...

  10. Individuality in Fish Behavior: Ecology and Comparative Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Budaev, Dr. Sergey; Zworykin, Dr. Dmitry

    2002-01-01

    This work is a brief review of a series of studies of the phenotypic organization and ecological significance of individual differences in fish behavior. The following species were studied: guppy Poecilia retuculata, lion-headed cichlid Steatocranus cassuarius, and the convict cichlid Archocentrus nigrofasciatum. We developed methods for the analysis of individual differences in fish behavior and studied their structure, development, and ecological and evolutionary significance.

  11. Genetically uniform strains of fish as laboratory models for experimental studies of the effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.; Hart, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The advantages are discussed of using a genetically uniform test animal such as the amazon molly, Poecilia formosa, to reduce the biotic variability in experimental determination of the effects of ionizing radiation on aquatic ecosystems. Besides a cost reduction from using less organisms for these radiation-effect studies, another significant advantage of the higher precision responses due to homozygous genetic material is the assessment of radiation effects at the molecular and cellular levels. (author)

  12. Fatty Acid And Essential Oil Compositions Of The Seed Oil Of Five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fatty acid and essential oil compositions of the seed oil of Annona cherimola, A. muricata, A. reticulata, A. senegalensis and A. squamosa were investigated by GC and GC/MS spectra. About eleven fatty acids were identified of which oleic, gondoic, palmitic and stearic acids predominated in each sample, and others ...

  13. Molecular marker analysis of 'Shatangju' and 'Wuzishatangju ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Wuzishatangju'(Citrus reticulata Blanco) is an excellent cultivar derived from a bud sport of a seedy 'Shatangju' cultivar found in Guangdong Province in the 1980s. In this study, six molecular markers including random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), simple sequence repeat (SSR) ...

  14. RAPD inheritance and diversity in pawpaw (Asimina triloba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongwen Huang; Desmond R. Layne; Thomas L. Kubisiak

    2000-01-01

    Twelve, 10-base primers amplified a total of 20 intense and easily scorable polymorphic bands in an interspecific cross of PPFl-5 pawpaw (Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal.) x RET (Asimina reticulata Shuttlew.). In this cross, all bands scored were present in, and inherited from, the A. triloba ...

  15. First record of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, W P; da Silva, R A; Araújo, S C A; Oliveira, E L A; da Silva, W R

    2011-01-01

    Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) is recorded for the first time in citrus (Rutaceae) in Brazil. Specimens were obtained from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) sampled in the municipalities of Belém and Capitão Poço, and from mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata) from Tomé-Açu, state of Pará, Brazil.

  16. First record of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, WP; Silva, RA da; Araújo, SCA; Oliveira, ELA; Silva, WR da

    2011-01-01

    Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) is recorded for the first time in citrus (Rutaceae) in Brazil. Specimens were obtained from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) sampled in the municipalities of Belém and Capitão Poço, and from mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata) from Tomé-Açu, state of Pará, Brazil.

  17. A New species and records of Gripopterygidae (Plecoptera) from Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Da Conceição Bispo, Pitágoras

    2016-10-17

    Specimens of Gripopterygidae (Plecoptera) from Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil were studied. A new species, Tupiperla sepeensis n. sp. is described. Tupiperla misionera Froehlich 2002 is a new record for Brazil and Gripopteryx reticulata Brauer 1866 and Tupiperla tessellata Brauer 1866 are new records for southern Brazil.

  18. Description and classification of dictyoceratid sponges from the Northern Red Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmy, Tamer; Serehy, el Hamed; Mohamed, Saad Zakaria; Soest, van Rob W.M.

    2004-01-01

    Seven dictyoceratid sponge species were collected from the Gulf of Aqaba, Northern Red Sea. Two new species were recognized: Scalarispongia aqabaensis n. sp. and Spongia lesleighae n. sp. Five others belong to the known species, Fascaplysinopsis reticulata (Hentschel, 1912), Phyllospongia papyracea

  19. Adesalu & Agadagba (10)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    (fungus), Stigonema (cyanobacterium) and Trebouxia. Major components of these two lichens were ... lichen can be utilized in Nigeria for the production of dyes for use in the manufacturing industry. Keyword: Lichen, Permalia reticulata, Usnea, ..... (Orcein and litmus pigments: constitutional elucidation and constitutional ...

  20. Mycotrophie Et Connaissances Paysannes Des Essences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dacryodes edulis, Elaesis guineensis, Citrus sinensis, Citrus reticulata, Mangifera indica et Persea americana sont plus fréquentes dans les deux sites. La classification des paysans des essences fertilitaires est basée sur certains attributs fonctionnels tels que le système racinaire et la surface foliaire. La comparaison entre ...

  1. The status and role of radiobiology in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, K.

    2007-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with history of the University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice as well as with the status and role of radiobiology in veterinary medicine. Some results of gamma irradiation of Pecilia reticulata are presented. Activity levels of cesium-137 in contaminated mushrooms gathered in Slovakia in 2001 are presented.

  2. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annona reticulata L. (English: Bullock's heart; Hindi: Ramphal) of Annonaceae is a medium-size tree that is often cultivated, but generally grows wild and yields an edible fruit. The leaves are shiny and dark-green. The branches are dark-brown. Flowers are unimpressive, both sepals and petals being sepal-like. The.

  3. Isolation of symbionts and GC-MS analysis of lichens collected from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, a good number of lichen species have been recorded and so far not much work has been done to isolate or identify the symbionts. The utility of lichen comes from a range of secondary compounds produced by them. In view of this, two lichen samples, foliose (Parmalia reticulata Taylor) and fruticose Usnea ...

  4. An illustrated key to powder post beetles (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae associated with rubberwood in Thailand, with new records and a checklist of species found in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisut Sittichaya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to seventeen species of Bostrichidae recorded in association with rubberwood in Thailand is provided. A checklist is given of nine species infesting rubberwood sawn timber in sawmills in southern Thailand, with information on distribution, host trees and biology. Three species are recorded for the first time from Thailand: Cephalotoma tonkinea Lesne, Lyctoxylon dentatum (Pascoe, and Minthea reticulata Lesne.

  5. Bioactivity of essential oils from medicinal plants of Cameroon and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The EOs of Eucalyptus globulus, Cymbopogon citratus, Xylopia aethiopica, Thymus vulgaris, Ocimum canum, Cananga odorata, Citrus medica, Citrus paradisi and Citrus reticulata were screened against the most incriminated bacterial species using the spot-on-agar test and microdilution methods. Some of the EOs with ...

  6. Establishment of an efficient callus induction method from leaf and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco.) is a highly adaptable variety among citrus cultivars in the climate of the region of Panjab, Pakistan and citron (Citrus medica L.) was the first of the citrus fruits known to become visible in the Mediterranean Basin. In Sylhet region of Bangladesh, it is commonly known as Zara lemon ...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-34 - Clementines from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clementines from Spain. 319.56-34 Section 319.56-34... Clementines from Spain. Clementines (Citrus reticulata) from Spain may only be imported into the United States... agreement. Clementines from Spain may be imported only if the Government of Spain or its designated...

  8. The Effect of Stocking Density on the Performance of the Seaweed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seaweed biofilter Ulva reticulata was grown at two stocking densities (1 and 3 kg m-2) in a low cost integrated system in Zanzibar, Tanzania. The seaweed was stocked in 2 m2 cages made of 1 inch netting material placed at the outflow of fish ponds. Control seaweed was grown at the fish pond inflow channel.

  9. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science - Vol 6, No 1 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of Stocking Density on the Performance of the Seaweed Ulva reticulata as a Biofilter in Earthen Pond Channels, Zanzibar, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. F Msuya. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wiojms.v6i1.48227 ...

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Msuya, F. Vol 6, No 1 (2008) - Articles The Effect of Stocking Density on the Performance of the Seaweed Ulva reticulata as a Biofilter in Earthen Pond Channels, Zanzibar, Tanzania Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0856-860X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  11. Survey of current crop management practices in a mixed-ricefield landscape, Mekong Delta, Vietnam - potential of habitat manipulation for improved control of citrus leafminer and citrus red mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mele, van P.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2002-01-01

    In the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (CLM) and the citrus red mite Panonychus citri are major pests in both sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and Tieu mandarin (C. reticulata). Survey data indicate that these pest problems might be aggravated after farmers have

  12. Acute toxicity of double-walled carbon nanotubes to three aquatic organisms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lukhele, LP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available , respectively. In the presence of humic acid high DWCNTs acute toxicity towards D. pulex and P. reticulata was observed but ionic strength led to opposite effect irrespective of DWCNTs form. Both humic acid and ionic strength shielded the P. subcapitata from...

  13. Produtividade e qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira 'Pêra' clone IAC em 16 porta-enxertos na região de Bebedouro-SP Yield and fruit quality of 'Pêra' sweet orange clone IAC on 16 rootstocks in Bebedouro region, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência de 16 porta-enxertos na produtividade, nas características físicas e químicas (sólidos solúveis totais-°Brix; acidez; ratio; porcentagem de suco; índice tecnológico e tamanho dos frutos dos frutos da laranjeira 'Pêra' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] e na incidência e severidade da clorose variegada dos citros (CVC. O plantio do experimento foi realizado em julho de 1993, com espaçamento de 6,0 m entre linhas e 3,5 m entre plantas (476 plantas/ha. O experimento foi conduzido sem irrigação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, duas plantas por parcela, três repetições e 16 tratamentos, constituídos pelas seguintes cultivares porta-enxertos: tangerineira 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (Citrus reticulata Blanco, tangerineira 'Pectinífera' (C. reticulata, 'Shekwasha' (C. depressa Hayata, tangerineira 'Pectinífera/Shekwasha' (C. depressa Hayata, tangerineira 'Batangas' (C. reticulata, tangerineira 'Oneco' (C. reticulata, citrangor [citrange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. x C. sinensis x C. sinensis], citrandarin [C.sunki hort. Ex Tanaka x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. cv. English, tangerineira 'Sunki' (C. sunki, tangerineira 'Suen-Kat' (C. sunki, tangerineira 'Nasnaran' (C. amblycarpa Ochse, tangerineira 'Venezuela' (C. reticulata, tangerineira Heen Naran (C. lycopersicaeformis hort. ex Tan. , limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck x tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni hort ex Tanaka, limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia, tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni. A intensidade da clorose variegada dos citros variou em função dos porta-enxertos e não se relacionou com a produção de frutos até a quarta safra. Os porta-enxertos estudados, com exceção da tangerineira Nasnaran, proporcionaram qualidade e produções iniciais de frutos similares aos do limoeiro 'Cravo'.An experiment was set up in July 1993, at Bebedouro city, São Paulo state, Brazil, aiming to evaluate the rootstock influence on the yield and several physical

  14. First record of two ectoparasitic ciliates of the genus Trichodina (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) parasitizing gills of an invasive freshwater fish, Micropercops swinhonis, in Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Deng, Qiong; Zhou, Tong; Yang, Hao; Gu, Zemao

    2018-07-01

    Although high diversity of parasitic ciliates has been reported in China, little is known about the species from high altitude areas, especially in Tibet. To investigate the species of parasitic ciliates in Tibet, a project was initiated in the Chabalang wetland in 2013. Two Trichodina species, namely, Trichodina sp. and T. reticulata Hirschmann & Partsch, 1955, were isolated from gills of an invasive fish, Micropercops swinhonis for the first time. In the present study, we provided the morphological, morphometrical, and molecular characterizations of the two species and conducted the phylogenetic analyses of mobilids based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequences. Both morphological characters and morphometric data of the T. reticulata agreed well with previous studies. Although two partial SSU rDNA sequences were obtained in the present study, only the sequence of T. reticulata population in the present study was thought to be reliable. The other sequence may not belong to the other species. Thus, we regarded the other species isolated in the present study as Trichodina sp. to avoid the wrong or confused species identification. Morphologically, Trichodina sp. is distinguished mainly by its large body shape with a broad adhesive disk, robust and obliquely quadrilateral blades, and well-developed rays. T. reticulata is mainly characterized with the 8-12 spherical or elliptical granules in the central zone of adhesive disk. Phylogenetic analyses consistently showed the two ectoparasites clustered with freshwater species of the genus Trichodina within the order Mobilida. Our study extended the host range of T. reticulata and supplemented the molecular data. Also, results reveal that invasion of exotic fish may cause a potential threat to native fish by introducing or dispersing parasitic ciliates.

  15. A set of primers for analyzing chloroplast DNA diversity in Citrus and related genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yunjiang; de Vicente, M Carmen; Meng, Haijun; Guo, Wenwu; Tao, Nengguo; Deng, Xiuxin

    2005-06-01

    Chloroplast simple sequence repeat (cpSSR) markers in Citrus were developed and used to analyze chloroplast diversity of Citrus and closely related genera. Fourteen cpSSR primer pairs from the chloroplast genomes of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and Arabidopsis were found useful for analyzing the Citrus chloroplast genome (cpDNA) and recoded with the prefix SPCC (SSR Primers for Citrus Chloroplast). Eleven of the 14 primer pairs revealed some degree of polymorphism among 34 genotypes of Citrus, Fortunella, Poncirus and some of their hybrids, with polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranging from 0.057 to 0.732, and 18 haplotypes were identified. The cpSSR data were analyzed with NTSYS-pc software, and the genetic relationships suggested by the unweighted pair group method based on arithmetic means (UPGMA) dendrogram were congruent with previous taxonomic investigations: the results showed that all samples fell into seven major clusters, i.e., Citrus medica L., Poncirus, Fortunella, C. ichangensis Blanco, C. reticulata Swingle, C. aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle and C. grandis (L.) Osbeck. The results of previous studies combined with our cpSSR analyses revealed that: (1) Calamondin (C. madurensis Swingle) is the result of hybridization between kumquat (Fortunella) and mandarin (C. reticulata), where kumquat acted as the female parent; (2) Ichang papeda (C. ichangensis) has a unique taxonomic status; and (3) although Bendiguangju mandarin (C. reticulata) and Satsuma mandarin (C. reticulata) are similar in fruit shape and leaf morphology, they have different maternal parents. Bendiguangju mandarin has the same cytoplasm as sweet orange (C. sinensis), whereas Satsuma mandarin has the cytoplasm of C. reticulata. Seventeen PCR products from SPCC1 and 21 from SPCC11 were cloned and sequenced. The results revealed that mononucleotide repeats as well as insertions and deletions of small segments of DNA were associated with SPCC1 polymorphism, whereas polymorphism

  16. PAPEL DEL LABORATORIO NACIONAL DE POLIOVIRUS EN EL PROGRAMA DE ERRADICACIÖN Y VIGILANCIA DE LA POLIOMIELITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Trallero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El Laboratorio Nacional de Poliovirus (LNP coordina la Red Española de Vigilancia de Parálisis Flácida Aguda desde 1998 y caracteriza los poliovirus (PV y otros enterovirus detectados, utilizando métodos de cultivo celular y moleculares. Durante 1998-2012 se estudiaron por la Red un total de 110.725 (70.046+40.679 muestras clínicas, resultando positivas para enterovirus 8.804 (8%, entre las que 241 se caracterizaron como PV. La caracterización intratípica demostró que todos los PV eran vacunales excep- to las muestras correspondientes a un caso importado de poliomielitis postvacunal y sus contactos, que fueron caracterizados como PV2 derivado de vacuna. En el LNP se ha realizado el serotipado y la caracterización intratípica de todos los PV aislados en España de cualquier síndrome. Con ello se ha demostrado que el PV salvaje no ha circulado en nuestro país durante los 15 años que recoge este trabajo y eso condujo a la firma del Acta de la “Erradicación de la Poliomielitis en España” por parte de la OMS en 2001 y a la “Certificación de la Erradicación Europea como libre de circulación de PV salvaje”el 21 de junio de 2002 . En la actualidad sólo 3 países presentan transmisión endémica de PV salvaje (Pakistán, Afganistán y Nigeria y hasta que no se haya conseguido la erradicación a nivel mundial, España debe mantener la infraestructura creada en el Plan de Erradicación de la Poliomielitis y continuar con la vigilancia e inmunización. También el Programa de Contención de los PV salvajes en los laboratorios debe seguir en activo para evitar reintroducciones accidentales.

  17. Neuronal inhibition and synaptic plasticity of basal ganglia neurons in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Luka; Kalia, Suneil K; Hodaie, Mojgan; Lozano, Andres M; Fasano, Alfonso; Popovic, Milos R; Hutchison, William D

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease symptoms. The therapeutic benefits of deep brain stimulation are frequency-dependent, but the underlying physiological mechanisms remain unclear. To advance deep brain stimulation therapy an understanding of fundamental mechanisms is critical. The objectives of this study were to (i) compare the frequency-dependent effects on cell firing in subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata; (ii) quantify frequency-dependent effects on short-term plasticity in substantia nigra pars reticulata; and (iii) investigate effects of continuous long-train high frequency stimulation (comparable to conventional deep brain stimulation) on synaptic plasticity. Two closely spaced (600 µm) microelectrodes were advanced into the subthalamic nucleus (n = 27) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (n = 14) of 22 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery for Parkinson’s disease. Cell firing and evoked field potentials were recorded with one microelectrode during stimulation trains from the adjacent microelectrode across a range of frequencies (1–100 Hz, 100 µA, 0.3 ms, 50–60 pulses). Subthalamic firing attenuated with ≥20 Hz (P stimulation (silenced at 100 Hz), while substantia nigra pars reticulata decreased with ≥3 Hz (P stimulation. Patients with longer silent periods after 100 Hz stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus tended to have better clinical outcome after deep brain stimulation. At ≥30 Hz the first evoked field potential of the stimulation train in substantia nigra pars reticulata was potentiated (P stimulation (P stimulation-induced inhibition than the substantia nigra pars reticulata likely due to differing ratios of GABA:glutamate terminals on the soma and/or the nature of their GABAergic inputs (pallidal versus striatal). We suggest that enhancement of inhibitory synaptic plasticity, and frequency-dependent potentiation and

  18. Itinerario de la Patria: por tierras del golfo lejano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel López Gómez

    1965-06-01

    Full Text Available Veinticinco años atrás solo primaba en estas infinitudes el imperio de la selva. Desde Dabeiba tórrido hasta Turbo sudoroso y lacustre se empleaba casi una semana a lomo de mula o a quimba de peatón, por una sombría trocha de miasmas y de lodo, abierta a machete por entre la áspera e interminable manigua. Por allí pasaron una y otra vez los pálidos hombres de nuestros enganches, cuando en 1939 iniciamos, a la orilla del Golfo de Urabá, la ingente tarea de construír una carretera hacia el interior para poner al alcance de las llantas antioqueñas la orilla salvaje del Atlántico maicero.

  19. Exile and Orphanhood. Fathers and Children in Roberto Bolaño's narrative works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Mecozzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the relationship between fathers and children in Roberto Bolaño's narrative works. To do so, it is shown how that relationship, both in Bolaño's novels and short stories, is intrinsically linked to the theme of the exile. Once the connection between exile and orphanhood is shown, the article tries to offer an insight of the relationship fathers-children in Bolaño's works and to focus on some key characters. Therefore, specific novels and short stories are analyzed in depth: in particular the article examines the characters and the narrative strategies of Los Detectives Salvajes, 2666 and two short stories contained in Putas Asesinas.

  20. La ira de Dios: sobre ‘Relatos salvajes’ de Damián Szifrón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Aguilar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available “La ira de Dios (sobre ‘Relatos salvajes’ de Damián Szifrón” propone un debate sobre una de las películas argentinas más exitosas de todos los tiempos. En polémica con las lecturas que señalaban y cuestionaban el carácter prepolítico del film y su uso de las pasiones más bajas del público, este ensayo busca otro camino: por un lado, analizar la ira como uno de los capitales políticos más importantes y decisivos de la sociedad contemporánea. Por otro, investigar los vínculos entre la película Relatos salvajes y la pospolítica en la sociedad del espectáculo.

  1. Lo fantástico y la memoria histórica en Rivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Bode

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A partir de tres ejemplos, En salvaje compañía (1994, El lápiz del carpintero (1998 y Los libros arden mal (2006, esta contribución pretende determinar la función de ‘lo fantástico’ en las novelas de Ma-nuel Rivas, con respecto a la memoria cultural de un evento traumático como la Guerra Civil y el fran-quismo. La argumentación parte de la hipótesis de que lo ‘real maravilloso gallego’ ofrece una estruc-tura particularmente apta para hablar de la Guerra Civil al darles a los muertos un espació ficticio de acción

  2. Papageno down the ages : A study in fowling methods, with particular reference to the Palaeolithic of Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Eastham

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El hombre ha explotado las aves salvajes desde la época antigua, por lo menos desde el Paleolítico Medio. Sorprendentemente, las estrategias aquí presentadas han sobrevivido en sociedades y localidades muy diferentes. Todas se muestran uniformes al depender de una sofisticada comprensión del comportamiento aviar específico para crear las formas más sencillas y efectivas de atrapar las aves. Encontramos una comparable diversidad de especies en los manuales de caza del medioevo, en las pinturas funerarias egipcias y en los registro óseos de los yacimientos ocupados en el Paleolítico en Europa Occidental, lo que parece constituir un argumento a favor del uso de las mismas técnicas en las distintas épocas.

  3. FRONTERAS DIFUSAS Y ACTORES SOCIALES MESTIZOS: DEBATES CONCEPTUALES Y DESARROLLOS ANALÍTICOS EN TORNO A LOS ESPACIOS DE FRONTERA Y SUS VINCULACIONES CON LOS INDIOS-BLANCOS EN LA REGIÓN DEL CHACO DURANTE LA SEGUNDA MITAD DEL SIGLO XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Spota

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En la frontera establecida entre el Estado argentino y las distintas parcialidades aborígenes de la región del Chaco durante la segunda parte del siglo XIX, se configuraron identidades étnicas mestizas que escapaban a la simple esquematización de blancos e indios, civilizados y salvajes. La praxis histórica de los actores sociales como los indios-blancos (soldados desertores, criminales fugitivos de la ley, perseguidos y refugiados políticos y comerciantes que fueron incorporados dentro de los grupos indígenas proporciona un espacio privilegiado de reflexión antropológica poco explorado hasta el momento. En el presente artículo nos proponemos determinar las causas históricas que motivaron la migración de los criollos y recuperar la perspectiva de los actores sociales que protagonizaron los hechos estudiados.

  4. Vico en el diario de Pavese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Durán

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio aborda y esboza, en un tratamiento inédito en español, la recepción de Vico en el Il mestiere di vivere del poeta y novelista piamontés Cesare Pavese. En las páginas del diario pavesiano se tratan los siguientes tópicos viquianos: la historicidad de la poesía, la “lógica poética”, la rusticidad, lo primitivo y lo salvaje, las figuras de la barbarie, Homero, el sentido de la interpretación, el “ricorso”, el mundo de la infancia y la hermenéutica del mito. La conclusión es que la lectura de Vico resulta fundamental para entender a los dos Pavese, el hombre y el poeta.

  5. Judíos, indios y el mito del crimen ritual. El caso de Chamula, Chiapas, 1868

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misgav Har Peled

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1867 y 1869 se vivió en Los Altos de Chiapas la rebelión de los indios chamulas contra los ladinos de San Cristóbal de Las Casas conocida como Guerra de Castas. Según la historia oficial, los indígenas crucificaron el Viernes Santo de 1868 a un niño de dicha comunidad tsotsil. Este hecho puede compararse con la “leyenda de sangre” imputada a los judíos, y su transferencia a los indios suscita preguntarse si se trata de un suceso aislado, o si responde a una lógica que vincula al indio salvaje con el judío como el asesino del Hijo de Dios.

  6. La utopía del bárbaro. Imágenes idealizadas del pasado prerromano en la España contemporánea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Aguilera Durán

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El tópico de la heroica resistencia hispana frente a Roma ha tenido un papel fundamental en el imaginario antiguo y moderno, procedente de la noción cínico-estoica del buen salvaje y perpetuado a través de la lectura humanista y positivista de las fuentes. Esta visión idealizada y esencialista se ha transformado y reinventado según el contexto histórico e ideológico de cada momento; se analizan algunos de los elementos que inciden en ese constructo cultural, en su dimensión antigua y moderna, y sus mecanismos de transmisión, y se profundiza en una de sus versiones más interesantes, su derivación en utopía socialista.

  7. FASE ACTUAL DE CONTROL DE LA VIGILANCIA EPIDEMIOLÓGICA DE LA POLIOMIELITIS EN ESPAÑA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odorina Tello Anchuela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En España, el último caso de poliomielitis por virus salvaje autóctono ocurrió en 1988. Desde entonces los casos detectado por el sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica corresponden o bien a casos importados, casos asociados a la vacuna o derivados de la vacuna oral (VDPV. El Plan de Actuaciones necesarias para la Consecución del Certificado de Erradicación de la Poliomielitis se inició en 1997. Las actividades incluidas fue- ron consensuadas con las comunidades autónomas y aprobadas en el Consejo Interterritorial del Sistema Nacional de Salud. El plan integra actividades de vigilancia epidemiológica y actividades de Laboratorio: - Implantar un sistema de vigilancia eficaz de parálisis flácida agudas (PFA en menores de 15 años -Alcanzar y mantener altas cobertura de inmunización (del 95% en la serie primaria, en menores de 2 años. - Vigilancia medioambiental mediante la vigilancia de enterovirus. En la aplicación del Plan en España se han mantenido altas coberturas de vacunación y especial preocupación por evitar bolsas de susceptibles en grupos de población vulnerables. El Sistema de Vigilancia de Parálisis FlácidaAguda en menores de 15 años ha sido constantemente evaluado mediante los indicadores de calidad referidos a la sensibilidad, oportunidad (en la notificación y toma de muestras y los indicadores referentes a la investigación epidemiológica y de laboratorio. Los retos de la vigilancia de la poliomielitis son la introducción de casos: importados de polio producido por poliovirus salvaje, poliovirus derivados de la vacuna (VDPV o poliovirus vacunales. Por ello, todas las actividades deben continuar hasta conseguir un mundo libre de polio.

  8. In vitro pollen germination of five citrus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Perveen, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study is In vitro germination of the pollen grains of five Citrus species belonging to the family Rutaceae viz., Citrus aurantium L. var., aurantium Hook.f., C. limon (L.) Brum. f., C. paradisii Macfad, C. reticulata Blanco and C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck. using hanging drop technique. The germination was checked up to 48 weeks, for the pollen stored at different temperatures like 4 degree C, -20 degree C, -30 degree C and -60 degree C. The study indicates that low temperature and low relative humidity is better than high temperature and humidity with respect to pollen germination capacity and viability. Freeze dryer (-60 degree C) seems to be the best method to maintain pollen viability of stored pollen grains for a long period of time. Among five species Citrus aurantium, C. limon and C. sinensis showed high percentage of germination as compared to C. reticulata and C. paradisii. (author)

  9. Vigor, produtividade e qualidade de frutos de quatro tangerineiras e híbridos sobre quatro porta-enxertos Vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of four mandarin and hybrid cultivars on four rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento vegetativo, a produção e a qualidade de frutos das cultivares-copa 'Swatow' (Citrus reticulata Blanco, 'Ellendale' [C. reticulata x C. sinensis (L. Osbeck], 'Fortune' (C. clementina hort. ex Tanaka x C. tangerina hort. ex Tanaka e 'Nova' [C. clementina x (C. paradisi Macfad. x C. reticulata] sobre limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck, citrumeleiro 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata (L. Raf., tangelereiro 'Orlando' (C. reticulata x C. paradisi e tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni hort. ex Tanaka, de 2000 a 2006. O experimento foi instalado em Bebedouro-SP, em outubro de 1997. As variáveis analisadas foram: produção anual e produção acumulada de todas as cultivares para todos os anos (2000 a 2006, qualidade de frutos em 2005 e 2006 (massa, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total, ratio, volume da copa, diâmetro do tronco da copa, eficiência de produção (Kg frutos/m³ copa e índice de alternância de produção. A produção acumulada e a qualidade de frutos das cultivares testadas não foram influenciadas pelos porta-enxertos. O citrumelo 'Swingle' induziu menor porte às plantas das cultivares-copa. O tangelo 'Nova' apresentou características adequadas à comercialização in natura. A tangerineira 'Swatow' produziu frutos de qualidade semelhante aos de tangerineira 'Ponkan'. O tangor 'Ellendale' e a tangerineira 'Fortune' apresentaram produção de frutos baixa e irregular.Plant growth, yield, and fruit quality of 'Swatow' (Citrus reticulata Blanco, 'Ellendale' (C. reticulata x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Fortune' (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. x Citrus tangerina Hort. ex Tan. e 'Nova' [(C. clementina x (Citrus paradisi Macf. x C. reticulata] mandarins budded on 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Swingle' citrumelo (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf., 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf., and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. were evaluated, from 2000

  10. Hyaline Tintinnina (Protozoa-Ciliophora-Oligotrichida from northeast Brazilian coastal reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sassi

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of hyaline Tintinnina were obtained from plankton samples collected near the coastal reefs of Ponta do Seixas (Lat. 7º09'16"S, Long. 34º4735"W, Northeastern Brazil, from April 1981 to May 1982 and from April 1983 to May 1984: Amphorellopsis acuta (Schmidt, 1901, Dadayiella ganymedes (Entz Sr., 1884, Epiplocyloides reticulata (Ostenfeld & Schmidt, 1901, Eutintinnus tubulosus (Ostenfeld, 1899, Favella ehrenbergi (Claparède & Lachmann, 1858, Metacylis mereschkowskyi Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 and M. perspicax (Hada, 1938. The most frequent and abundant species were M. mereschkowskyi and F. ehrenbergi. Except/.ganymedes, E. reticulata and F. ehrenbergi all species are new records from Brazil. Metacylis perspicax is also the seventh world register. For all species we provide description, drawings, measurements, seasonal occurrence, world distribution and some systematic comments.

  11. Characterization of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, Causal Agent of Citrus Blast of Mandarin in Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanovi?, ?arko; Perovi?, Tatjana; Popovi?, Tatjana; Blagojevi?, Jovana; Trkulja, Nenad; Hrn?i?, Snje?ana

    2017-01-01

    Citrus blast caused by bacterium Pseudomonas syringae is a very important disease of citrus occuring in many areas of the world, but with few data about genetic structure of the pathogen involved. Considering the above fact, this study reports genetic characterization of 43 P. syringae isolates obtained from plant tissue displaying citrus blast symptoms on mandarin (Citrus reticulata) in Montenegro, using multilocus sequence analysis of gyrB, rpoD, and gap1 gene sequences. Gene sequences from...

  12. Impact of aquatic insect life stage and emergence strategy on sensitivity to esfenvalerate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Katherine R; Jepson, Paul C; Jenkins, Jeffrey J

    2008-08-01

    We investigated the impact of aquatic insect life stage and emergence strategy on sensitivity to esfenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, using field-collected Brachycentrus americanus Banks (Trichoptera: Brachycentridae) and Cinygmula reticulata McDunnough (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae) insects. Final-instar C. reticulata emergence was observed for one week following three environmentally relevant, 48-h esfenvalerate exposures (0.005, 0.01, and 0.015 microg/L). Emergence was significantly depressed following exposure to esfenvalerate and resulted from an increase in nymph mortality during the emergence process. This experiment was duplicated for late-instar C. reticulata nymphs, which were similar in size to the final-instar nymphs but were not near emergence. Late-instar C. reticulata mayflies were approximately fivefold less sensitive to esfenvalerate exposures as gauged by one-week mortality rates. Brachycentrus americanus pupal mortality was significantly increased over that in controls following 48-h esfenvalerate exposures of 0.1 and 0.2 microg/L. These response concentrations correlated closely with those for case-abandonment rates of fourth-instar B. americanus larvae (a sublethal effect of esfenvalerate exposure). Pupal mortality rates were approximately 16-fold higher than those observed in larvae. Adult female egg weight as a percentage of total body weight was significantly decreased following pupal esfenvalerate exposures of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 microg/L. These findings suggest that exposure to esfenvalerate may impair hemimetabolous insect emergence behaviors and may decrease fecundity in holometabolous aquatic insects.

  13. Clonal diversity and fine-scale genetic structure in a high andean treeline population

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peng, Y.; Macek, P.; Macková, Jana; Romoleroux, K.; Hensen, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2015), s. 59-65 ISSN 0006-3606 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA601110702; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010009 Program:IA Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : AFLP * clonal diversity * clonal propagation * fine-scale genetic structure * Polylepis reticulata * treeline Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.944, year: 2015

  14. Frothy bloat and serous fat atrophy associated with insufficient fibre intake in a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Colville, K; Bouts, T; Hartley, A; Clauss, Marcus; Routh, A

    2009-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in captive giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). Frothy bloat, a nutrition-related disease of domestic ruminants, has not previously been reported in Giraffidae. A 10-year-old female reticulated giraffe (G. c. reticulata) had a chronic cough and died in February 2007 following a two-month period of weight loss. Multiple nutrition-related abnormalities were identified post mortem: frothy bloat appeared to have been the immediate cause of de...

  15. Glycine receptors in the human substantia nigra as defined by (3H)strychnine binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Montis, G; Beaumont, K; Javoy-Agid, F; Agid, Y; Constandinidis, J; Lowenthal, A; Lloyd, K G

    1982-03-01

    Specific (3H)strychnine binding was used to identify the glycine receptor macromolecular complex in human spinal cord, substantia nigra, inferior olivary nucleus, and cerebral cortex. In material from control patients a high-affinity KD (3--8 nM) was observed in the spinal cord and the substantia nigra, both the pars compacta and the pars reticulata. This is very similar to the values observed in the rat and bovine spinal cord (8 and 3 nM, respectively) and rat substantia nigra (12 nM). In the human brain the distribution of (3H)strychnine binding (at 10 nM) was: spinal cord . substantia nigra, pars compacta greater than substantia nigra, pars reticulata . inferior olivary nucleus greater than cerebral cortex. The binding capacity (Bmax) of the rat brain (substantia nigra or spinal cord) was approximately 10-fold that of the human brain. (3H)Strychnine binding was significantly decreased in the substantia nigra from Parkinson's disease patients, both in the pars compacta (67% of control) and the pars reticulata (50% of control), but not in the inferior olivary nucleus. The results were reproduced in preliminary experiment in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle. In the substantia nigra from patients who died with Huntington's disease, (3H)strychnine binding tended to be high (150% of control, NS) in both the pars compacta and the reticulata. (3H)Strychnine binding was unaltered in the substantia nigra of patients with senile dementia. Together with previous neurophysiological and neuropharmacological findings, those results support the hypothesis of glycine receptors occurring on dopamine cell bodies and/or dendrites in the substantia nigra.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of four plants from Peruvian north-east

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Q., Julio R.; Roque A., Mirtha

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigated the in vitro antimicrobial activities of ethanolic, methonolic and hydroalcoholic extracts corresponding to four plants of north easter of Peru; Cassia reticulata (whole plant), Ilex guayusa Loes (leaves), Piper lineatum (leaves), y Terminalia catappa (leaves). The plants were collected in the department of Cajamarca, except Terminalia catappa (Amazonas). The antimicrobial activity was determinated by the method of agar diffusion. The used microorganisms were the...

  17. Environmental Impact Assessment Sandia Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    awn (Aristida divaricata) 45. Arizona three-awn (Aristida arizonica ) 46. Purple three-awn (Aristida purpurea) 47. Wright’s three-awn (Aristida wrightii...californica) Willow Family *102. Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) Beech Family *103. Gambel oak ( Quercus gambelii) *104. Gray oak ( Quercus grisea...105. Shrub live oak ( Quercus turbinella) Elm Family *106. Siberian elm or Chinese elm (Ulmus pumila) 107. Netlead hackberry (Celtis reticulata) Nist

  18. Autoradiographic localization of substance P receptors using 125I substance P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shults, C.W.; Quirion, R.; Jensen, R.T.; Moody, T.W.; O'Donohue, T.L.; Chase, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a method for localization of substance P receptors in the rat central nervous system using 125 I labeled substance P in an autoradiographic procedure. Particularly high densities of substance P receptors were observed in the olfactory bulb, dentate gyrus, amygdala, superior colliculus, and locus coeruleus. Surprisingly low densities of substance P receptors were found in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, a region which contains high concentrations of substance P

  19. Molecular and functional differences in voltage-activated sodium currents between GABA projection neurons and dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Shengyuan; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Fu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    GABA projection neurons (GABA neurons) in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and dopamine projection neurons (DA neurons) in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) have strikingly different firing properties. SNc DA neurons fire low-frequency, long-duration spikes, whereas SNr GABA neurons fire high-frequency, short-duration spikes. Since voltage-activated sodium (NaV) channels are critical to spike generation, the different firing properties raise the possibility that, compared with DA...

  20. Estudo taxonômico de Sapotaceae Juss. do litoral Paraense The taxonomic study of the Sapotaceae Juss. on the coast of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyvid Marques Valente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no tratamento taxonômico de Sapotaceae Juss. nas restingas do litoral paraense. Com auxilio de estereomicroscópio foram feitas as descrições morfológicas das partes vegetativas e reprodutivas. Utilizou-se literatura especializada, coleções identificadas por especialistas para confirmar as características diferenciais dos táxons e montada uma chave de identificação para as espécies. Foram descritas cinco espécies e quatro subespécies, distribuídas em quatro gêneros: Manilkara bidentata subsp. bidentata, M. bidentata subsp. surinamensis, M. triflora, M. paraensis; Micropholisvenulosa, M. gnaphaloclados; Pouteria ramiflora, P. reticulata subsp. reticulata and Pradosia schomburgkiana subsp. schomburgkiana. O gênero Manilkara Adans.foi o mais representativo com duas espécies e duas subespécies. A formação floresta de restinga foi o ecossistema que apresentou o maior número de táxons.This study deals with the taxonomic treatment of Sapotaceae Juss. on the coastal sandbanks of Pará State. With the aid of a stereomicroscopy, there were made morphological descriptions of reproductive and vegetative parts. We used literature and collections identified by specialists to confirm the different characteristics of the taxa. We also constructed an identification key for species. We described five species and four subspecies, distributed into four genera: Manilkara bidentata subsp. bidentata, M. bidentata subsp. surinamensis, M. triflora, M. paraensis; Micropholisvenulosa, M. gnaphaloclados; Pouteria ramiflora, P. reticulata subsp. reticulata and Pradosia schomburgkiana subsp. schomburgkiana. The genus Manilkara Adans. was the most representative with two species and two subspecies. The sandbank forest formation was the ecosystem with the largest number of taxa.

  1. Do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with contrasting life-history strategies differ in their responses to repeated defoliation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijdo, Marleen; Schtickzelle, Nicolas; Cranenbrouck, Sylvie; Declerck, Stéphane

    2010-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi obligatorily depend on carbon (C) resources provided via the plant and therefore fluctuations in C availability may strongly and differently affect AM fungi with different life-history strategies (LHS). In the present study, we examined the effect of repeated defoliation of in vitro grown barrel medic (Medicago truncatula) on the spore and auxiliary cell (AC) production dynamics of a presumed r-strategist (Glomus intraradices) and a presumed K-strategist (Dentiscutata reticulata). Glomus intraradices modulated the production of spores directly to C availability, showing direct investment in reproduction as expected for r-strategists. In contrast, AC production of D. reticulata was not affected after a single defoliation and thus showed higher resistance to fluctuating C levels, as expected for K-strategists. Our results demonstrate that plant defoliation affects the production of extraradical C storage structures of G. intraradices and D. reticulata differently. Our results contribute towards revealing differences in LHS among AM fungal species, a step further towards understanding their community dynamics in natural ecosystems and agroenvironments.

  2. [Investigation on Cheyletoidea mites breeding in culture environment of Eupolyphaga sinensis and morphologic observation of Eucheyletia reticulate Cunliffe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Tao; Wei, Guo; Shao-Sheng, Wang; Chao-Pin, Li

    2016-01-27

    To investigate the species of Cheyletoidea mites breeding in the culture environment of Eupolyphaga sinensis and to observe the morphology of Eucheyletia reticulata Cunliffe. The soil samples from an E. sinensis farm in northern Anhui were collected. The mites in the soil samples were separated directly under a microscope and the glass specimens were made to observe the morphological feature of the mites under a light microscope, then the mites species were identified and classified based on the morphological characteristics. In the culture soil of E. sinensis , totally 7 kinds of Cheyletoidea mites were isolated, namely Eucheyletia reticulata Cunliffe, Cheyletus eruditus Schrank, Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans, Cheyletus troussarti Oudemans, Cheyletus aveisor Rohdendorz, Acaropsis sollers Rohdendorz and Cheletomorpha lepidopterorum Shaw. They belonged to genera Eucheyletia , Cheletomorpha , Acaropsis and Cheyletus of Cheyletidae Leach family. The Eucheyletia reticulata Cunliffe was firstly found in the culture environment of E. sinensis , and its gnathosoma was large, the pedipalpal femurs were expanding and there were two strips of comb hair and two smooth bristles on the pedipalpal tarsus, and the back of the body was covered with two pieces of tergum, which were decorated with reticular pattern. The body and foot setae were fan-shape. There are various of Cheyletoidea mites found in the breeding environment of E. sinensis . These mites are important species for pest control in the culture environments of E. sinensis . Related measures should be taken to prevent the excessive growth of Cheyletoidea mites, so as to avoid the adverse effects on the quality and quantity of E. sinensis .

  3. Detection and Estimation of alpha-Amyrin, beta-Sitosterol, Lupeol, and n-Triacontane in Two Medicinal Plants by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat S. Mallick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A normal phase high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC method has been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of four components, namely, alpha-amyrin, beta-sitosterol, lupeol, and n-triacontane from two medicinally important plants, Leptadenia reticulata Wight & Arn. and Pluchea lanceolata (DC. CB. Clarke. In Ayurveda, both plants have been reported to possess immunomodulatory activity. Chromatographic separation of the four components from the methanolic extracts of whole plant powders of Leptadenia reticulata Wight & Arn. and Pluchea lanceolata (DC. CB. Clarke. was performed on TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 using a suitable mobile phase. The densitometric scanning was done after derivatization at λ = 580 nm for α-amyrin, β-sitosterol, and lupeol, and at 366 nm for n-triacontane. The developed HPTLC method has been validated and used for simultaneous quantitation of the four components from the methanolic extracts of whole plant powders of Leptadenia reticulata Wight & Arn. and Pluchea lanceolata (DC. CB. Clarke. The developed HPTLC method is simple, rapid, and precise and can be used for routine quality control.

  4. Phlorin screening in various citrus species and varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louche, L M; Luro, F; Gaydou, E M; Lesage, J C

    2000-10-01

    Phlorin (3,5-dihydroxyphenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside), an orange peel marker, has been searched in 45 species and varieties of Citrus. The phlorin content was determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography in juices and aqueous peel extracts of these different fruits. The phlorin content in C. reticulata peel extract varies from 0 to 1012 mg L(-)(1) with a mean of 162 mg L(-)(1). On the contrary, phlorin was not found in mandarin and clementine juices except for mandarin "Commune" and "Beauty" (33 and 30 mg L(-)(1), respectively). In the 14 species of oranges and varieties, phlorin was detected in juices and peel extracts with a mean of 22 and 492 mg L(-)(1), respectively, while for grapefruits, means were 108 mg L(-)(1) in juices and 982 mg L(-)(1) for peel extracts. Tangors and tangelos which are hybrids (C. reticulata x C. sinensis and C. reticulata x C. paradisi, respectively) are characterized by the systematic presence of phlorin in peels (mean: 406 and 659 mg L(-)(1), respectively) while in juices its presence could be variable (0-73 mg L(-)(1)). These heterogeneity and values may be explained by the genetic variability of these hybrids and the phlorin content of their parentage group.

  5. A new species of the rare endoparasitic copepod Entobius (Copepoda: Entobiidae) from Mexico with a key to the species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Carrera-Parra, Luis F

    2012-09-01

    Abstract: In a study of the benthic polychaete fauna of the southern Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, several specimens of the terebellid polychaete Scionides reticulata (Ehlers) were found to host endoparasitic copepods that represent an undescribed species of the rare cyclopoid genus Entobius Dogiel, 1948. The new species, E. scionides sp. n., can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters including a genital region without constrictions, three-segmented antennules, a reduced antenna with a blunt terminal process, reduced ornamentation of endopods of legs 1-4 and its relatively small size (2.3-2.7 mm). It is the smallest species of the genus. Comments on immature females are also provided, but males of this species remain unknown. It has a high prevalence (53%) in populations of the terebellid S. reticulata in the southern Gulf of Mexico, but it is absent from the Caribbean. This is the first occurrence of this copepod genus in the Americas. The finding of the new species of Entobius in S. reticulata confirms the strict specificity of most members of the genus and expands the host range of this copepod genus. A key for the identification of the species of Entobius is provided.

  6. Comportamento de 16 porta-enxertos para o tangor Murcott na região de Itirapina-SP Behavior of sixteen rootstocks for Murcott in Itirapina, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Orlando de Figueiredo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi monitorado o comportamento de 16 porta-enxertos para o tangor Murcott [Citrus reticulata Blanco x C. sinensis (L. Osbeck], do clone nucelar J, em experimento instalado em 1990, na Fazenda Raio de Sol, Itirapina-SP. Os porta-enxertos foram: tangelo 'Orlando' (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf., laranja 'Caipira DAC' [C. sinensis (L. Osbeck], limão 'Cravo'(C. limonia Osbeck, os trifoliatas 'Kryder 8-5'e 'EEL'[Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] e as tangerinas 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni hort. ex. Tanaka, 'Sunki' [C. sunki (Hayata hort. ex. Tanaka], 'Batangas', 'Oneco', 'Swatow', 'Szinkon', 'Satsuma', 'Cravo', 'Dancy', 'Suen Kat' e 'Pook Ling Ming' (C. reticulata Blanco. As produções foram avaliadas de 1996 a 2003 e as maiores médias foram proporcionadas pelas plantas enxertadas nas tangerinas 'Cleópatra', 'Suen Kat', 'Pook Ling Ming' e 'Sunki' (>40 kg planta-1. Dentre os porta-enxetos que induziram as mais baixas produções, estão os dois trifoliatas, a 'Caipira DAC' e a tangerina 'Cravo' (Sixteen rootstocks were compared in a trial started in 1990, for Murcott tangor, nucellar clone "J", in Itirapina, Brazil. The rootstocks tested were Orlando tangelo (Citrus reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf., sweet orange [C. sinensis (L. Osbeck] cv. Caipira DAC, Rangpur lime (C. limonia Osbeck, Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. cv. Kryder 8-5, P. trifoliata (L. Raf. cv. EEL and the mandarins Cleopatra (C. reshni hort. ex. Tanaka, Sunki [C. sunki (Hayata hort. ex. Tanaka] and Batangas, Oneco, Swatow, Szinkon, Satsuma, Cravo, Dancy, Suen Kat and Pook Ling Ming (C. reticulata Blanco. Fruit yield was measured per plant, in a period of seven years (1996-2003. The best yielding rootstocks were Cleopatra, Suen Kat, Pook Ling Ming and Sunki mandarins (> 40 kg tree-1. The two Trifoliate, sweet orange cv. Caipira DAC and Cravo mandarin presented the lowest yields (< 25 kg tree-1. No significant variation was observed for fruit quality characteristics of trees on

  7. Selection from parasites favours immunogenetic diversity but not divergence among locally adapted host populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, M; Plath, M; Riesch, R; Schlupp, I; Grasse, A; Munimanda, G K; Setzer, C; Penn, D J; Moodley, Y

    2014-05-01

    The unprecedented polymorphism in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is thought to be maintained by balancing selection from parasites. However, do parasites also drive divergence at MHC loci between host populations, or do the effects of balancing selection maintain similarities among populations? We examined MHC variation in populations of the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana and characterized their parasite communities. Poecilia mexicana populations in the Cueva del Azufre system are locally adapted to darkness and the presence of toxic hydrogen sulphide, representing highly divergent ecotypes or incipient species. Parasite communities differed significantly across populations, and populations with higher parasite loads had higher levels of diversity at class II MHC genes. However, despite different parasite communities, marked divergence in adaptive traits and in neutral genetic markers, we found MHC alleles to be remarkably similar among host populations. Our findings indicate that balancing selection from parasites maintains immunogenetic diversity of hosts, but this process does not promote MHC divergence in this system. On the contrary, we suggest that balancing selection on immunogenetic loci may outweigh divergent selection causing divergence, thereby hindering host divergence and speciation. Our findings support the hypothesis that balancing selection maintains MHC similarities among lineages during and after speciation (trans-species evolution). © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Predator avoidance in extremophile fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2013-02-06

    Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis.

  9. Complementary effect of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintains differentiation between locally adapted fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, Martin; Riesch, Rüdiger; Oranth, Alexandra; Dzienko, Justina; Karau, Nora; Schießl, Angela; Stadler, Stefan; Wigh, Adriana; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Schlupp, Ingo; Tobler, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Adaptation to ecologically heterogeneous environments can drive speciation. But what mechanisms maintain reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations? Using poeciliid fishes in a system with naturally occurring toxic hydrogen sulfide, we show that (a) fish from non-sulfidic sites ( Poecilia mexicana) show high mortality (95 %) after 24 h when exposed to the toxicant, while locally adapted fish from sulfidic sites ( Poecilia sulphuraria) experience low mortality (13 %) when transferred to non-sulfidic water. (b) Mate choice tests revealed that P. mexicana females exhibit a preference for conspecific males in non-sulfidic water, but not in sulfidic water, whereas P. sulphuraria females never showed a preference. Increased costs of mate choice in sulfidic, hypoxic water, and the lack of selection for reinforcement due to the low survival of P. mexicana may explain the absence of a preference in P. sulphuraria females. Taken together, our study may be the first to demonstrate independent—but complementary—effects of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintaining differentiation between locally adapted fish populations.

  10. Predator Avoidance in Extremophile Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis. PMID:25371337

  11. Relation of desert pupfish abundance to selected environmental variables in natural and manmade habitats in the Salton Sea basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B.A.; Saiki, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the relation between abundance of desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius, and selected biological and physicochemical variables in natural and manmade habitats within the Salton Sea Basin. Field sampling in a natural tributary, Salt Creek, and three agricultural drains captured eight species including pupfish (1.1% of the total catch), the only native species encountered. According to Bray-Curtis resemblance functions, fish species assemblages differed mostly between Salt Creek and the drains (i.e., the three drains had relatively similar species assemblages). Pupfish numbers and environmental variables varied among sites and sample periods. Canonical correlation showed that pupfish abundance was positively correlated with abundance of western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, and negatively correlated with abundance of porthole livebearers, Poeciliopsis gracilis, tilapias (Sarotherodon mossambica and Tilapia zillii), longjaw mudsuckers, Gillichthys mirabilis, and mollies (Poecilia latipinnaandPoecilia mexicana). In addition, pupfish abundance was positively correlated with cover, pH, and salinity, and negatively correlated with sediment factor (a measure of sediment grain size) and dissolved oxygen. Pupfish abundance was generally highest in habitats where water quality extremes (especially high pH and salinity, and low dissolved oxygen) seemingly limited the occurrence of nonnative fishes. This study also documented evidence of predation by mudsuckers on pupfish. These findings support the contention of many resource managers that pupfish populations are adversely influenced by ecological interactions with nonnative fishes. ?? Springer 2005.

  12. Trophic relationships of small nonnative fishes in a natural creek and several agricultural drains flowing into the Salton Sea, and their potential, effects on the endangered desert pupfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Barbara A.; Saiki, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize trophic relationships of small nonnative fishes and to determine if predation by these fishes contributes to the decline of desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), an endangered cyprinodont on the verge of extinction. We sampled 403 hybrid Mozambique tilapias (Oreochromis mossambica by O. urolepis), 107 redbelly tilapias (Tilapia zillii), 32 longjaw mudsuckers (Gillkhthys mirabilis), 182 western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), 222 sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna), 63 shortfin mollies (Poecilia mexicana), and 235 porthole livebearers (Poecilurpsis gracilis) from a natural creek and four agricultural drains during September 1999- December 2001. Evidence of piscivory was in gastrointestinal contents of 14 hybrid Mozambique tilapias, 3 redbelly tilapias, 10 longjaw mudsuckers, 8 western mosquitofish, 2 sailfin mollies, and 8 porthole livebearers. Although digestion often was too advanced for identification of fishes consumed by nonnative fishes, remains of desert pupfish were in gastrointestinal contents of a longjaw mudsucker. Our findings, along with Field evidence from other studies that inverse relationships exist between abundances of desert pupfish and nonnative species, are consistent with the hypothesis that predation by nonnative species is contributing to decline of desert pupfish. We suspect that competitive interactions with nonnative fishes might also adversely affect abundance of desert pupfish.

  13. Ausencia de circulación de poliovirus en departamentos colombianos con coberturas vacunales inferiores a 80% Absence of poliovirus circulation in Colombian departments with vaccination coverage below 80%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes González

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se propuso explorar la posible circulación silente de poliovirus salvajes y derivados de la vacuna (VDPV, por sus siglas en inglés, en departamentos de Colombia con cobertura de vacunación para polio (OPV, por sus siglas en inglés menor de 80%. Se colectaron 52 muestras de aguas residuales que se concentraron mediante precipitación con polietilenglicol y cloruro de sodio. La detección viral se realizó mediante aislamiento y la identificación por neutralización del efecto citopático, así como mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa convencional y en tiempo real, posterior a la transcripción reversa (TR-RCP y rTR-RCP. Los poliovirus aislados se caracterizaron por secuenciación del gen VP1. En dos de las 52 muestras hubo presencia de poliovirus Sabin 2 con más de 99% de similitud de secuencia con la cepa OPV Sabin 2. Se detectó circulación de enterovirus no polio en 17,3% de las muestras. Los serotipos identificados correspondieron a coxsackievirus B1, echovirus 30 y echovirus 11. No se detectaron evidencias de circulación de VDPV ni poliovirus salvaje en los departamentos de Colombia con coberturas de OPV inferiores a 80%.This study aims to explore a possible silent circulation of wild and vaccine-derived polioviruses in departments of Colombia with polio vaccination coverage of below 80%. The study collected 52 samples of wastewater concentrated as a result of precipitation with polyethylene glycol and sodium chloride. The viral detection was carried out through isolation and the identification through neutralization of the cytopathic effect, as well as through a conventional polymerase chain reaction following reverse transcription. The isolated polioviruses were characterized by the VP1 gene sequence. In two of the 52 samples, there was a presence of the Sabin type 2 poliovirus with more than 99% sequence similarity with the Sabin type 2 strain polio. Circulation of the nonpolio enterovirus was

  14. Nuclear Species-Diagnostic SNP Markers Mined from 454 Amplicon Sequencing Reveal Admixture Genomic Structure of Modern Citrus Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha) with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105) were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species-diagnostic SNP

  15. Contribución al estudio cariológico del género Nepeta l. en la Península Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    Ubera, Jose L.

    1982-01-01

    En el presente trabajo, se estudian cariológicamente 14 taxones del género Nepeta en la Península Ibérica. Son nuevos, al parecer, los siguientes números cromosómios: N. nepetella subsp. cordifolia, n = 17; N, nepetalla subsp. aragonensis, n = 17; N. amethystina subsp. mallophora, n= 17, 2n = 34; N. multibrateata, n = 9, 2n= 18; N. tuberosa subsp. tuberosa. n = 9,2n = 18; N. tuberosa subsp. reticulata, n = 9, 2n = 18; N. granatensis n = 18, 2n = 36; N. Latiha, n = 18; N. coerulea, n =...

  16. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  17. Evaluación morfológica y molecular de accesiones de anonáceas (anón, chirimoya y atemoya) en condiciones in situ, de las regiones Andina y Caribe Colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda Garzón, Sandra Liliana

    2014-01-01

    A través de la prospección de los recursos fitogenéticos de especies de la familia Annonaceae en Colombia (2009 y 2011), se conformó una población in situ compuesta por 167 accesiones, de cinco especies y un híbrido interespecífico (Annona cherimola, A. glabra, A. reticulata, A. squamosa, Rollinia sp. y A. squamosa x A. cherimola), distribuidas en 13 departamentos y 48 municipios de las regiones Andina y Caribe. Estableciendo y enriqueciendo tres colecciones de trabajo, conform...

  18. Partitioning the metabolic scope: the importance of anaerobic metabolism and implications for the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejbye-Ernst, Rasmus; Michaelsen, Thomas Y.; Tirsgaard, B.

    2016-01-01

    . aurata. In contrast, both species revealed significant negative correlations between aerobic and anaerobic components of the MS, indicating a trade-off where both components of the MS cannot be optimized simultaneously. Importantly, the fraction of the MS influenced by anaerobic metabolism was on average...... 24.3 and 26.1% in S. aurata and P. reticulata, respectively. These data highlight the importance of taking anaerobic metabolism into account when assessing effects of environmental variation on the MS, because the fraction where anaerobic metabolism occurs is a poor indicator of sustainable aerobic...

  19. Desenvolvimento vegetativo, produção e qualidade de frutos da tangerina 'Fremont' sobre quatro porta-enxertos Growth, yield and fruit quality of 'Fremont' mandarin on four rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Espinoza Núñez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo, produção e qualidade de frutos da tangerina 'Fremont' (C. clementina Hort. ex Tan. X C. reticulata Blanco sobre os porta-enxertos limão 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck, citrumelo 'Swingle' (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf., tangerina 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. e tangelo 'Orlando' (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf., foi instalado um experimento em Bebedouro-SP, em 1997. Embora diferenças na produção tenham sido registradas em função dos porta-enxertos, nos anos de 2003 a 2005, a produção acumulada nas safras de 2000 a 2006 não revelou influência dos mesmos. Os valores do índice de alternância de produção e eficiência de produção não foram influenciados pelos porta-enxertos. O teor de sólidos solúveis, bem como acidez total foram superiores nos frutos das plantas enxertadas sobre citrumelo 'Swingle' e tangerina 'Cleópatra'. Os valores de volume da copa e diâmetro do tronco foram superiores nas árvores sobre tangelo 'Orlando' e tangerina 'Cleópatra'.An experiment was installed in Bebedouro, SP, Brazil in 1997, with the aim of evaluate the effect of the rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Swingle' citrumelo (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf., 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. and 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf. on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of 'Fremont' mandarin (C. clementina Hort. ex Tan. X C. reticulata Blanco. Despite that differences in yield have been registered related to the rootstocks between 2003 to 2005; cumulative yield from 2000 to 2006 seasons was not affected by the rootstock. Alternate bearing index and yield efficiency values were not influenced by the rootstocks. Fruits from trees on 'Swingle' citrumelo and 'Cleópatra' mandarin had higher values of total soluble solids concentration and total acids. Trunk diameter and canopy volume values were higher in

  20. Atividade antibacteriana e antioxidante de óleos essenciais cítricos com potencialidade para inclusão como aditivos em alimentos

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Adriana Oliveira Santos; Freire, Josinaura Aparecida de S.; de Carvalho, Thaís Dantas; Barbosa, Thayara Corrado; Prates, Rodrigo Pereira; Lopes Silva, Júlio César Rodrigues; Farias, Paula Karoline Soares

    2016-01-01

    Indubitavelmente, os óleos essenciais atraem cada vez mais o interesse da população por sua eficiência orgânica beneficente. O presente trabalho avaliou o potencial antibacteriano e a atividade antioxidante dos óleos essenciais cítricos de Citrus aurantium var. dulcis (laranja doce), Passiflora edulis (maracujá) e Citrus reticulata v. tangerine (tangerina) frente a bactérias lácticas e patogênicas. Foram utilizadas bactérias lácticas de Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus delbrueckii s...

  1. Detección y caracterización preliminar de lectinas presentes en semillas de leguminosas

    OpenAIRE

    de Navarro, Yolanda; Pérez, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    La aglutinación de eritrocitos humanos o animales fue ensayada con 23 especies de leguminosas. Las semillas de Bauhinia picta, marindus indica, Dioclea lehmannii y Erythrina rubrinervia poseen lectinas inespecíficas para el sistema ABO; Crotalaria agatifolia, C. spp, Cassia indecora y Ormosia spp, presentan cierto grado de especificidad. Se ensayaron eritrocitos de seis especies animales, observándose aglutinación con las especies ya citadas y además con Cassia fruticosa, C. reticulata, Delon...

  2. Associações Rhizobium - Leguminosas no Estado de Rondõnia

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães,Fátima M. M.; Silva,Marlene F. da

    1987-01-01

    Verificou-se a ocorrência de nodulação em mudas e/ou individuos adultos de 54 es-pécies da familia Leguminosae em áreas de floresta intacta e áreas perturbadas,no Estado de Rondônia. Das espécies observadas: Acácia polyphyllaÁ. DC., Amburana acreana(Ducke) A. C. Smith, Babieria pinnata(Pers.) Baill., Bauhinia acreanaHarms., BauhiniulongicuspÍ4 Spr. ex Benth., Cassia fastuosaWilld., Dalbergia inundataBenth., Derris ama zonicaKiiiip, Hymenaea reticulataDucke, Machaerium inundaium(Mart. ex Benth...

  3. Seaweeds for the remediation of wastewaters contaminated with zinc(II) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthilkumar, R.; Vijayaraghavan, K.; Thilakavathi, M.; Iyer, P.V.R.; Velan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Eleven different species of marine macroalgae were screened at different pH conditions on the basis of zinc(II) biosorption potential. Among the seaweeds, a green alga, Ulva reticulata, exhibited a highest uptake of 36.1 mg/g at pH 5.5 and 100 mg/l initial zinc(II) concentration. Further experiments were conducted to evaluate the zinc(II) biosorption potential of U. reticulata. Sorption isotherm data obtained at different pH (5-6) and temperature (25-35 deg. C) conditions were fitted well with Sips model followed by Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir models. A maximum zinc(II) biosorption capacity of 135.5 mg/g was observed at optimum conditions of 5.5 (pH) and 30 deg. C (temperature), according to the Langmuir model. It was observed from the kinetic data that the zinc(II) biosorption process using U. reticulata follows pseudo-second-order kinetics. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔG o , ΔH o and ΔS o were calculated and they indicated that the present system was a spontaneous and an endothermic process. The influence of the co-ions (Na + , K + , Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ) along with zinc(II) present in the wastewater was also studied. Desorption of zinc(II) ions from the zinc(II)-loaded biomass were examined using 0.1 M CaCl 2 at different pH conditions in three sorption-desorption cycles. A fixed-bed column (2 cm i.d. and 35 cm height) was employed to evaluate the continuous biosorption performance of U. reticulata. The column experiments at different bed heights and flow rates revealed that the maximum zinc(II) uptake was obtained at the highest bed height (25 cm) and the lowest flow rate (5 ml/min). Column data were fitted well with Thomas, Yoon-Nelson and modified dose-response models. The column regeneration studies were carried out for three sorption-desorption cycles. A loss of sorption performance was observed during regeneration cycles indicated by a shortened breakthrough time and a decreased zinc(II) uptake

  4. Standing crops and ecology of aquatic invertebrates in agricultural drainwater ponds in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, N.H.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    We examined standing crops and ecology of aquatic invertebrates in agricultural drainwater evaporation ponds in California from October 1982 to March 1983 and September 1983 to March 1984. Evaporation ponds supported low diversities but high standing crops of aquatic invertebrates. A water boatman (Trichocorixa reticulata) and a midge (Tanypus grodhausi) were the most abundant invertebrates, constituting 44.9% and 51.4% of total macroinvertebrate biomass. Regression models indicated that of 6 environmental variables measured, only electrical conductivity (EC) and Julian date affected biomass and density of water boatmen. EC was the only significant correlate of midge biomass in evaporation ponds.

  5. Mi Primer Concepto de Turismo (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Mojíca Campo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available La evolución del turismo puede ser diferenciada claramente en una serie de etapas realmente trascendentales, que muestran ser influenciadas de manera especial por la conducta humana. Iniciando en la escuela económica, manchada por un capitalismo salvaje, pasando por la filantropía y egoísmo del hombre hacia el hombre hasta la apertura de las barreras y la aceptación del hecho turístico como un hecho social y no individual. Posteriormente, se ofrece una lista de elementos de los que radicalmente se compone el turismo, el tiempo, el espacio y el ocio que los liga y les da uno de sus fines más específicos. Además, una diferenciación entre viaje y turismo que enseña intrínsecas diferencias de fondo y forma básicas. Y finalmente, un vistazo a la teoría de la sistémica, imperiosa para comprender no sólo de forma holística y más cercana la dinámica funcional y estructural del turismo, sino de la vida misma.

  6. 'Nada se pierde' en "El cielo protector" y "Cita en Tombuctú"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Martín

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende comparar dos novelas distantes en el tiempo y en el espacio, a saber, The Protecting Sky (1949, de Paul Bowles, y Cita en Tombuctú (1996, de Joseph Subirós. La novela espaúola remite en más de una ocasión a la obra americana. Varios temas, presentes en ambas obras, que quisiéramos destacar: La fascinación por el continente africano; el desierto como telón de fondo; el viaje (especialmente interior como formación del hombre civilizado en un entorno hostil; el amor carnal entre la mujer civilizada y el hombre salvaje; la huída del hombre civilizado de su habitat en busca de otros valores; y, la derrota, debida al desequilibrio (físico, mental y temporal del hombre civilizado. Así, comparando las obras y mediante una frase ('Nada se pierde en el desierto' que Cita en Tombuctú presta de The Protecting Sky, la novela espaúola ofrece alternativas a los problemas planteados en la novela americana. Si en Bowles hay resignación, en Subirós hay esperanza.

  7. Lycalopex culpaeus reissii, el segundo cánido más grande de Sudamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Garzón

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lycalopex culpaeus reissii es una subespecie del Lycalopex Culpaeus perteneciente a la familia Canidae. El culpaeus es el segundo cánido más grande de América del Sur. En Ecuador, se localiza principalmente en los páramos, estepas y bosques como los de la reserva Antisana y en el Bosque Jerusalén. Es un animal tímido y solitario que se distingue por su pelaje rojizo, y su cráneo prolongado. Suele mantener una pareja estable para la reproducción y cuidado de las crías. Su alimentación es muy variada pero principalmente se constituye de mamíferos más pequeños. Actualmente, sus principales amenazas son el ser humano, esencialmente porque se considera que este lobo es perjudicial para el ganado, y la depredación por perros domésticos y salvajes, así como su adquisición de enfermedades parasitarias. Además, las investigaciones centradas en esta subespecie son escasas en el país.

  8. Bacterial production and growth rate estimation from [3H]thymidine incorporation for attached and free-living bacteria in aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriberri, J.; Unanue, M.; Ayo, B.; Barcina, I.; Egea, L.

    1990-01-01

    Production and specific growth rates of attached and free-living bacteria were estimated in an oligotrophic marine system, La Salvaje Beach, Vizcaya, Spain, and in a freshwater system having a higher nutrient concentration, Butron River, Vizcaya, Spain. Production was calculated from [methyl- 3 H]thymidine incorporation by estimating specific conversion factors (cells or micrograms of C produced per mole of thymidine incorporated) for attached and free-living bacteria, respectively, in each system. Conversion factors were not statistically different between attached and free-living bacteria: 6.812 x 10 11 and 8.678 x 10 11 μg of C mol -1 for free-living and attached bacteria in the freshwater system, and 1.276 x 10 11 and 1.354 x 10 11 μg of C mol -1 for free-living and attached bacteria in the marine system. Therefore, use of a unique conversion factor for the mixed bacterial population is well founded. However, conversion factors were higher in the freshwater system than in the marine system. This could be due to the different tropic conditions of the two systems. Free-living bacteria contributed the most to production in the two systems (85% in the marine system and 67% in the freshwater system) because of their greater contribution to total biomass. Specific growth rates calculated from production data and biomass data were similar for attached and free-living bacteria

  9. Segunda Parte Bases para la Orientación de una Campaña de Reforestación en el Departamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roldan Julio

    1955-06-01

    Full Text Available Conocida a grandes rasgos la historia sobre lo que se ha realizado en materia de fomento y defensa forestal, conviene, para la correcta orientación de una campaña efectiva en el Departamento, tener en cuenta las consideraciones siguientes: 1-La gravedad y extensión del problema, que implica la necesidad de acometer labores en varios frentes, para que la acción sea simultánea en toda el área Departamental. 2-La falta de conciencia pública en lo referente al papel que juegan los montes y arbolados en la economía general. 3-La ignorancia total por parte de los agricultores, de los sistemas racionales para explotación de bosques y el desconocimiento de los más elementales métodos de plantación y manejo de especies forestales, fruto del poco interés que ha despertado esta actividad, confiada hasta hoya la naturaleza, y, 4-La falta de experiencia en el personal técnico nacional y extranjero, sobre el comportamiento de las especies forestales nativas, al reducirlas de su vida salvaje a los tratamientos comunes en selvicultura y la muy poca experiencia, sobre las especies foráneas aclimatadas, respecto a los resultados finales de un cultivo extensivo.

  10. The Jacobin detectives and the poetics of the children of disappeared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Paula Badagnani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The poetry collection Los detectives salvajes, belonging to the publishing house Libros de la talita dorada, in La Plata, appears as an explicit attempt to establish a counterpoint between militant poetry of the '70s and that one made by the children of disappeared activists. The poetry of the disappeared stands as an artefact of the memory of the past, one of the vestiges or scattered fragments which children have to reconstruct their parents' past. In this way children become detectives. It would have been arduous for children of missing parents to make their own voices audible in a scenario marked by the presence of the absent. The development of a poetic voice with a profound collective and generational imprint appears in the form of the problematization of the paternal legacy. In this context we notice that the authors play with the language of militancy as a parodic form of reconstruction of the link. Poetry of the children stands in the intersection of the fields of human rights, politics and literature; the differential logic operations of these spaces generate tensions that poets seem to want to overcome with polemic public gestures as a way of achieving their own place. In this case, the classical figures of literature, parricide and revenge, appear as polemic exaggerations which poets work with on the field of memory as a form of struggle for meaning.

  11. Viaje maldito en “La universidad desconocida”, de Roberto Bolaño

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    Leila Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the seldom studied poetry of Roberto Bolaño, using "La Universidad Desconocida", the exhaustive compilation published posthumously in 2007. Although Bolaño received wide recognition and many awards for his novels, he defined himself as a poet. In his poetry, we find the same topics and tendencies that he developed in the characters and plots of his narratives. A prime example is "Los detectives salvajes", a novel about a group of young rebel poets in the Mexico of the seventies. Bolaño’s poet characters, as well as his travels, exiles and criticisms of the literary establishment, take on a new light when compared alongside his poetry. this article explores the modes of poetic production as understood by Bolaño, as a way of life outside universities, the literary canon, and any other institutional networks. Instead, his poetic production is marked by the figure of Arthur Rimbaud as the archetype of the cursed poet.

  12. Fruta podrida: La reivindicación de la vida y de la muerte desde un cuerpo enfermo, desechado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Fallas Arias

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enfrentada a la desmemoria y al olvido, Lina Meruane recrea en la novela Fruta podrida, el drama vivido en Chile con la implementación salvaje de la economía de mercado, sistema que atacó, de manera siniestra, los campos y los cuerpos de los chilenos. En esta obra Meruane desmonta los dispositivos violentos y coercitivos sobre los cuerpos, reivindicando el derecho a la vida y a la muerte, conjetura desde la que se explora esta novela, a partir de las perspectivas teóricas de Michel Foucault y Judith Butler sobre el poder y la desigual valoración de los cuerpos. Crítica de la memoria oficial que absolvió a los culpables de la deScomposición de la sociedad chilena, Meruane se atreve a decir lo indecible desde un cuerpo enfermo que denuncia la red de poderes deshumanizantes del sistema neoliberal-dictatorial-patriarcal, red que controla el territorio y los cuerpos, haciendo de Chile un gran galpón desmemoriado.

  13. La colonialidad del ver. Hacia un nuevo diálogo visual interepistémico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Barriendos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La colonialidad del ver es constitutiva de la modernidad, en consecuencia, actúa como patrón heterárquico de dominación, determinante para todas las instancias de la vida contemporánea. El artículo busca así: 1 contribuir al estudio y crítica de la matriz visual de la colonialidad; 2 ofrecer herramientas para hacer visible el lugar de enunciación de la mirada occidental-colonial; y 3 analizar imágenes-archivo relacionadas con el caníbal, el salvaje, el primitivo y el antropófago. De allí se discuten mecanismos y tecnologías visuales donde opera hoy la inferiorización, la objetualización y la racialización, y se problematiza la relación entre producción visual de alteridad y racismo epistemológico.

  14. “Las minas del Perú, concubinas de los ambiciosos”. La crítica moralizadora de la conquista de América

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    Caro López, Ceferino

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    La crítica moralizadora de la conquista de América, en la literatura del Siglo de Oro, se basaba en la tradicional condena de la codicia porque el Nuevo Mundo distraía las energías de los conquistadores de empresas más gloriosas. La crítica se fundamentaba en valores subjetivos y su objeto principal era el de denunciar las amenazas al orden social establecido desde el punto de vista de una mentalidad conservadora. El Nuevo Mundo era visto como alegoría moral de todos los desórdenes: la crítica revela la oposición a la incipiente mentalidad mercantil. El símbolo de esa depravación es la figura del indiano, el hombre enriquecido en América, codicioso, vicioso y cínico; en reacción a este tipo humano se proponía el modelo del buen salvaje, puro contrapunto del taimado arribista. La crítica moralizadora es, en este sentido, en Guevara y en Las Cortes de la Muerte, el choque frontal entre el mundo impoluto, pacífico y generoso, de los nativos, y la invasión de todos los vicios procedentes del Viejo Continente.

  15. Bondad, compasión y virtud: claves de las propuestas educativas de Rousseau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Villar Ezcurra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La defensa de la bondad originaria del ser humano es una de las concepciones más conocidas y polémicas del pensamiento de Rousseau. En este artículo se analiza la vinculación de su concepción antropológica con su modelo educativo. Al defender que el ser humano tiene una «disposición» al bien, es compasivo y se siente concernido ante el sufrimiento ajeno, Rousseau no piensa en un regreso al estado salvaje, sino en una educación que desarrolle dichas tendencias, mediante «las máximas de la piedad» y el ejercicio de la virtud. De este modo, propone una educación orientada al fomento de la cooperación y de los sentimientos humanitarios, que vea en el otro a un igual más que a un rival. Finalmente, se reflexiona sobre la ambivalencia de la compasión y sobre algunas de las valoraciones de este sentimiento, considerado por Rousseau como origen de los sentimientos de humanidad.

  16. Da partilha as independências: o continente africano nos livros didáticos de Geografía do Brasil (1890-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemberg Ferracini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este texto es un resumen de la tesis doctoral en curso. Nuestro objeto de estudio es investigar la presencia de África en los libros de texto de Geografía en el período 1890-2003. Tenemos como objetivo discutir cómo este contenido escolar fue publicado, por ejemplo, con un enfoque de dominación territorial. Esto nos lleva a entender otras categorías como la de guerra, poder, raza, etnia, civilización y lo salvaje. El análisis se divide en cinco partes, con la elección de un libro por período, en función de su difusión entre el público estudiantil. La bibliografía de la investigación está disponible en el Laboratorio de Ciencias Humanas de la Facultad de Educación y en el Laboratorio de libros de texto de la Facultad de Filosofía y Humanidades de la Universidade de São Paulo.

  17. Entre los meandros de la memoria y el dilema fáustico. Entrevista a Jorge Volpi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel López de Abiada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Un somero recuento de los premios españoles de prestigio concedidos en los últimos años de la última década a la narrativa hispanoamericana nos lleva a una conclusión perentoria: a la nutrida lista de autores del boom y postboom se añade un elenco considerable de nuevos nombres, en general refrendados por las cifras de ventas. Entre los narradores galardonados con premios prestigiosos en los últimos años figuran los ganadores del Premio Herralde, concedido, respectivamente, a Jaime Bayly por La noche es virgen (1997 y Roberto Bolaño por Los detectives salvajes (1998; en 1999 quedó finalista Andrés Neuman con Bariloche; el renacido y antaño mítico Premio Biblioteca Breve fue en su primera edición (1999 para Jorge Volpi por En busca de Klingsor (el argentino Gonzalo Garcés fue el ganador de la segunda edición, en 2000. Este breve repaso apunta cuando menos hacia un fenómeno nuevo (amén de relevante: desde mediados de los años 90, la narrativa hispanoamericana vuelve a ocupar en España un lugar preferencial, hasta entonces dominado por los españoles.

  18. Importancia y propiedades físico química de la Rosa mosqueta (R. canina, R. rubiginosa: una revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Espinoza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los consumidores cada día exigen productos en sus dietas que no solo aporten los nutrientes requeridos para una vida sana, sino que además son de preferencia aquellos que puedan complementar con propiedades benéficas para la salud. En las últimas décadas se ha reconocido a la Rosa mosqueta, la Rosa canina y a la Rosa rubiginosa, como frutos que contienen muchas propiedades nutracéuticas. El presente trabajo hace una revisión de los artículos de investigación realizados a la Rosa mosqueta desde un punto de vista de su importancia de su consumo y sus beneficios para la salud; describiendo las características químicas, físicas y bioquímicas tales como el contenido de componentes fenólicos, ácidos grasos, ácido linoleico, minerales; y de otros compuestos importantes también desde el punto de vista industrial, tales como el contenido de antioxidantes, pigmentos, entre otros. De acuerdo a los antecedentes recopilados, la Rosa mosqueta es una fuente de micronutrientes incluyendo la vitamina c y el licopeno, entregando además un buen aporte nutricional; por lo anterior debe ser considerado como un alimento funcional. Aun siendo una especie que crece en estado salvaje, sobre suelos forestales; siendo un frutal menor y una planta medicinal su importancia en el consumo masivo debe ser considerada.

  19. Contribution à la connaissance de la permanence ursine dans les diverses manifestations culturelles, cultuelles et festives dans le périmètre de l´ancienne province romain de Novempopulaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truffaut, T.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo quiere ser una contribución al conocimiento de los estudios sobre el "oso" en la vieja Europa, y más concretamente en la zona de la "Novempopulania". Esta región inscrita en la Aquitania Romana fue instaurada en el siglo II de nuestra era y está carazterizada principalmente por la influencia lingüística del euskara presente en la toponimia y el sustrato lingüístico conservado tanto en el gascón como en el bearnés, ambos dialectos del occitano. El estudio de la presencia del oso será abordado tomando como base diversas fuentes culturales, religiosas y festivas de esta zona, tanto antiguas como contemporáneas, a través de cuatro temáticas relevantes y representativas: -La importancia de las reprentaciones de osos en el arte prehistórico. -La presencia significativa del oso en la evangelización del arzobispado de Auch. -El oso y el hombre salvaje en las creencias, cuentos, leyendas y relatos de estas comarcas, concretamente en los relatos de caza, y el calendario. -La arraigada costumbre de disfrazarse de oso en las diversas manifestaciones invernales y carnavalescas.

  20. Inactivación de microorganismos por altas presiones en la industria vinícola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Nelson Montaña B.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar experimentalmente la capacidad de los gases C02 y N2 bajo presión para inactivar levaduras salvajes, mostos de uva del Viñedo y Cava de Puntalarga (Nobsa, Boyacá, estos se sometieron a tratamientos hiperbáricos con los mencionados gases. El C02 a 15°C y presiones entre 1 y 5 MPa alcanzó altos porcentajes de inactivación de células de levadura (>90% al final del proceso de pascalización (después de 2 horas. Contrario al tratamiento con C02, el uso de N2 a 15°C falló para ejercer un efecto microbicida a 4 y 10 MPa durante un tiempo igual de proceso. Mientras el C02 de alta solubilidad en H20 tiene el potencial para reducir cargas microbianas en mostos; el N2de baja solubilidad en H20, no tiene efecto significativo sobre la supervivencia de microorganismos patógenos en dicho jugo.

  1. An Index of Biotic Integrity for shallow streams of the Hondo River basin, Yucatan Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitter-Soto, Juan J., E-mail: jschmitt@ecosur.mx; Ruiz-Cauich, Lissie E.; Herrera, Roberto L.; Gonzalez-Solis, David

    2011-01-15

    An Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) is proposed, based on the fish communities and populations in streams of the Hondo River basin, Mexico-Belize. Freshwater environments in this area are threatened by exotic fishes, eutrophication, and pesticide pollution, among other problems. This IBI should allow to identify the most vulnerable sites and eventually guide rehabilitation efforts. Data on composition, structure, and function of fish communities were evaluated. Twenty-three sites in the Mexican part of the basin were explored; a stratified sample of 13 sites was used to design the IBI, and the rest were used to test and refine the index. Thirty-four candidate indicator metrics were scanned for their correlation with an index of water and habitat quality (IWHQ), as well as for the possible influence of stream width and altitude or distance to the Hondo River mainstem. Twelve variables were selected to constitute the IBI: relative abundances of Astyanax aeneus, 'Cichlasoma' urophthalmus, Poecilia mexicana, Poecilia sp. (a new species, probably endemic to the upper Hondo River basin), Xiphophorus hellerii, and X. maculatus; relative abundances of bentholimnetic, herbivore, and sensitive species; percentage of native and tolerant species; and Pielou's evenness index. Most of the sites have a low-medium quality and integrity, showing impact due to partial channelization or to suboptimal water quality, reflected in scarcity or absence of sensitive species, frequent excess of tolerant species, occasional presence of exotics, dominance of herbivores (perhaps due to proliferation of filamentous algae), or dominance of the opportunistic species P. mexicana. The streams with better water and habitat quality are those farthest away from the river mainstem, probably because of lower human population and economical production. - Research Highlights: {yields} An Index of Biotic Integrity based on fishes is proposed for streams of the Hondo River basin. {yields

  2. Unusual dominance by desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius) in experimental ponds within the Salton Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; Anderson, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    In October 2006, months after shallow experimental ponds in the Salton Sea Basin were filled with water from the Alamo River and Salton Sea, fish were observed in several ponds, although inlets had been screened to exclude fish. During October 2007November 2009, nine surveys were conducted using baited minnow traps to document species and relative abundance of fish. Surveys yielded 3,620 fish representing five species. Desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), the only native species encountered, was the most numerous and comprised >93% of the catch. Nonnative species included western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis, 4.1%), sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna, 2.8%), and tilapia (a mixture of hybrid Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus ?? O. urolepis and redbelly tilapia Tilapia zillii, <0.1%). Dominance by desert pupfish, which persisted over our 2 years of study, was unusual because surveys conducted in nearby agricultural drains yielded relatively few desert pupfish.

  3. Comparative study of infection with Tetrahymena of different ornamental fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharon, G.; Leibowitz, M. Pimenta; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    different super orders. The species examined were platy (Xiphophorus), molly (Poecilia sphenops) and angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) of the Acanthopterygii super order (which also includes guppies) and goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) of the Ostariophysi super order....... These two super orders are phylogenetically distant from each other. Infection with Tetrahymena resulted in parasite invasion of internal organs, skin and muscle in all fish species. A relatively strong inflammatory response was observed in infected goldfish and koi, with negligible response in fish species...... of the Acanthopterygii super order. Guppies were the most susceptible to Tetrahymena infection, exhibiting a mortality rate of 87% and 100% in two separate experiments. A high mortality rate was also observed in platy (77%), while that of molly and angelfish was significantly lower (23% and 33%, respectively). Goldfish...

  4. An Index of Biotic Integrity for shallow streams of the Hondo River basin, Yucatan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitter-Soto, Juan J; Ruiz-Cauich, Lissie E; Herrera, Roberto L; González-Solís, David

    2011-01-15

    An Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) is proposed, based on the fish communities and populations in streams of the Hondo River basin, Mexico-Belize. Freshwater environments in this area are threatened by exotic fishes, eutrophication, and pesticide pollution, among other problems. This IBI should allow to identify the most vulnerable sites and eventually guide rehabilitation efforts. Data on composition, structure, and function of fish communities were evaluated. Twenty-three sites in the Mexican part of the basin were explored; a stratified sample of 13 sites was used to design the IBI, and the rest were used to test and refine the index. Thirty-four candidate indicator metrics were scanned for their correlation with an index of water and habitat quality (IWHQ), as well as for the possible influence of stream width and altitude or distance to the Hondo River mainstem. Twelve variables were selected to constitute the IBI: relative abundances of Astyanax aeneus, 'Cichlasoma' urophthalmus, Poecilia mexicana, Poecilia sp. (a new species, probably endemic to the upper Hondo River basin), Xiphophorus hellerii, and X. maculatus; relative abundances of bentholimnetic, herbivore, and sensitive species; percentage of native and tolerant species; and Pielou's evenness index. Most of the sites have a low-medium quality and integrity, showing impact due to partial channelization or to suboptimal water quality, reflected in scarcity or absence of sensitive species, frequent excess of tolerant species, occasional presence of exotics, dominance of herbivores (perhaps due to proliferation of filamentous algae), or dominance of the opportunistic species P. mexicana. The streams with better water and habitat quality are those farthest away from the river mainstem, probably because of lower human population and economical production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The imperiled fish fauna in the Nicaragua Canal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härer, Andreas; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Meyer, Axel

    2017-02-01

    Large-scale infrastructure projects commonly have large effects on the environment. The planned construction of the Nicaragua Canal will irreversibly alter the aquatic environment of Nicaragua in many ways. Two distinct drainage basins (San Juan and Punta Gorda) will be connected and numerous ecosystems will be altered. Considering the project's far-reaching environmental effects, too few studies on biodiversity have been performed to date. This limits provision of robust environmental impact assessments. We explored the geographic distribution of taxonomic and genetic diversity of freshwater fish species (Poecilia spp., Amatitlania siquia, Hypsophrys nematopus, Brycon guatemalensis, and Roeboides bouchellei) across the Nicaragua Canal zone. We collected population samples in affected areas (San Juan, Punta Gorda, and Escondido drainage basins), investigated species composition of 2 drainage basins and performed genetic analyses (genetic diversity, analysis of molecular variance) based on mitochondrial cytb. Freshwater fish faunas differed substantially between drainage basins (Jaccard similarity = 0.33). Most populations from distinct drainage basins were genetically differentiated. Removing the geographic barrier between these basins will promote biotic homogenization and the loss of unique genetic diversity. We found species in areas where they were not known to exist, including an undescribed, highly distinct clade of live bearing fish (Poecilia). Our results indicate that the Nicaragua Canal likely will have strong impacts on Nicaragua's freshwater biodiversity. However, knowledge about the extent of these impacts is lacking, which highlights the need for more thorough investigations before the environment is altered irreversibly. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Comparison of cell wall metabolism in the pulp of three cultivars of 'Nanfeng' tangerine differing in mastication trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Gu, Qing-Qing; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Jin-Yin

    2012-02-01

    Like sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) is another citrus crop grown widely throughout the world. However, whether it shares a common mechanism with sweet orange in forming a given mastication trait is still unclear. In this study, three 'Nanfeng' tangerine cultivars, 'Yangxiao-26' ('YX-26') with inferior mastication trait, elite 'YX-26' with moderate mastication trait and 'Miguang' ('MG') with superior mastication trait, were selected to investigate the formation mechanism of mastication trait. 'MG' had the lowest contents of total pectin, protopectin and lignin and the highest gene expression levels of citrus polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin methylesterase (PME) at the end of fruit ripening, whereas 'YX-26' had the lowest water-soluble pectin (WSP) content, the highest lignin content and the lowest PG and PME expression levels. The contents of cellulose and hemicellulose were similar among the three tangerines. The fruit mastication trait of C. reticulata was determined by the proportions of WSP and protopectin as well as lignin content, not by cellulose and hemicellulose contents. Pectin content could be a major contribution to the feeling of mastication trait, while PG and PME exhibited an important role in forming a given mastication trait according to the present results as well as previous results for C. sinensis. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Shell biofilm-associated nitrous oxide production in marine molluscs: processes, precursors and relative importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterkamp, Ines M; Schramm, Andreas; Larsen, Lone H; Svenningsen, Nanna B; Lavik, Gaute; de Beer, Dirk; Stief, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2 O) from freshwater and terrestrial invertebrates has exclusively been ascribed to N2 O production by ingested denitrifying bacteria in the anoxic gut of the animals. Our study of marine molluscs now shows that also microbial biofilms on shell surfaces are important sites of N2 O production. The shell biofilms of Mytilus edulis, Littorina littorea and Hinia reticulata contributed 18-94% to the total animal-associated N2 O emission. Nitrification and denitrification were equally important sources of N2 O in shell biofilms as revealed by (15) N-stable isotope experiments with dissected shells. Microsensor measurements confirmed that both nitrification and denitrification can occur in shell biofilms due to a heterogeneous oxygen distribution. Accordingly, ammonium, nitrite and nitrate were important drivers of N2 O production in the shell biofilm of the three mollusc species. Ammonium excretion by the animals was found to be sufficient to sustain N2 O production in the shell biofilm. Apparently, the animals provide a nutrient-enriched microenvironment that stimulates growth and N2 O production of the shell biofilm. This animal-induced stimulation was demonstrated in a long-term microcosm experiment with the snail H. reticulata, where shell biofilms exhibited the highest N2 O emission rates when the animal was still living inside the shell. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Bidirectional modulation of substantia nigra activity by motivational state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Rossi

    Full Text Available A major output nucleus of the basal ganglia is the substantia nigra pars reticulata, which sends GABAergic projections to brainstem and thalamic nuclei. The GABAergic (GABA neurons are reciprocally connected with nearby dopaminergic neurons, which project mainly to the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical nuclei critical for goal-directed behaviors. Here we examined the impact of motivational states on the activity of GABA neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and the neighboring dopaminergic (DA neurons in the pars compacta. Both types of neurons show short-latency bursts to a cue predicting a food reward. As mice became sated by repeated consumption of food pellets, one class of neurons reduced cue-elicited firing, whereas another class of neurons progressively increased firing. Extinction or pre-feeding just before the test session dramatically reduced the phasic responses and their motivational modulation. These results suggest that signals related to the current motivational state bidirectionally modulate behavior and the magnitude of phasic response of both DA and GABA neurons in the substantia nigra.

  9. Selective alterations in cerebral metabolism within the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system produced by acute cocaine administration in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porrino, L.J.; Domer, F.R.; Crane, A.M.; Sokoloff, L.

    1988-05-01

    The 2-(/sup 14/C)deoxyglucose method was used to examine the effects of acute intravenous administration of cocaine on local cerebral glucose utilization in rats. These effects were correlated with the effects of cocaine on locomotor activity assessed simultaneously in the same animals. At the lowest dose of cocaine, 0.5 mg/kg (1.47 mumol/kg), alterations in glucose utilization were restricted to the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Metabolic activity at 1.0 mg/kg (2.9 mumol/kg) was altered in these structures, but in the substantia nigra reticulata and lateral habenula as well. The selectivity of cocaine's effects at low doses demonstrates the particular sensitivity of these structures to cocaine's actions in the brain. In contrast, 5.0 mg/kg (14.7 mumol/kg) produced widespread changes in glucose utilization, particularly in the extrapyramidal system. Only this dose significantly increased locomotor activity above levels in vehicle-treated controls. Rates of glucose utilization were positively correlated with locomotor activity in the globus pallidus, substantia nigra reticulata, and subthalamic nucleus, and negatively correlated in the lateral habenula.

  10. Biochemical evidence for. gamma. -aminobutyrate containing fibres from the nucleus accumbens to the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walaas, I; Fonnum, F

    1980-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase activity, a specific marker for ..gamma..-aminobutyrate-containing neurons, has been analysed in microdissected samples from rat mesencephalon following unilateral electrocoagulations of the nucleus accumbens. This lesion resulted in a consistent decrease of 50% in the enzyme activity in the rostromedial substantia nigra, and a slight, but insignificant decrease (- 15%) in the medial parts of the caudal pars compacta of the substantia nigra. No change was found in the lateral pars compacta or the central pars reticulata. In the ventral tegmental area, the highest activity was found in the rostromedial part, adjacent to the mammillary body. At this level, a significant decrease of 20% was found in the ventral tegmental area on the lesioned side. In contrast, the activities in the medial accessory optic nucleus and the caudal ventral tegmental area adjacent to the interpenduncular nucleus were unchanged. The results indicate that the nucleus accumbens sends ..gamma..-aminobutyrate-containing fibres to the rostromedial substantia nigra and to the rostral ventral tegmental area. The caudal ventral tegmental area, the lateral pars compacta and the central pars reticulata do not receive measurable amounts of such fibres.

  11. Response of wild and weedy broomrapes to synthetic strigolactone analogue GR24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Matusova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic plants of genera Orobanche and Phelipanche germinate after exposition to chemical signals exuded by roots of the host plants. The most studied germination stimulants belong to strigolactones (SLs, the newly discovered plant hormones which are stimulating hyphal branching of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and are involved in regulation of shoot and root architecture of plants. However, little is known about the effect of strigolactones on germination of non-weedy broomrapes. The objective of our study was to investigate the sensitivity of seeds of non-weedy broomrapes to synthetic analogue of SLs, GR24. The seeds of non-weedy broomrapes Orobanche alba, O. alsatica, O. caryophyllacea, O. elatior, O. flava, O. lutea, O. pallidiflora, O. reticulata, Phelipanche arenaria, P. purpurea and weedy species P. ramosa were collected in natural and cropland plant communities in Slovakia. Seeds of P. ramosa and P. purpurea were highly sensitive to GR24. On the other hand, effectivity of GR24 in inducing germination of several wild species, O. alba, O. caryophyllacea and P. arenaria was low, while the stimulant shown to be completely not effective on other non-weedy species O. alsatica, O. elatior, O. flava, O. lutea, O. pallidiflora, and O. reticulata. The results point out there are differences in the requirement for germination signals that possibly depend on the host.

  12. Toxicity of pentachlorophenol to aquatic organisms under naturally varying and controlled environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedtke, S.F.; West, C.W.; Allen, K.N.; Norberg-King, T.J.; Mount, D.I.

    1986-06-01

    The toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was determined in the laboratory for 11 aquatic species. Tests were conducted seasonally in ambient Mississippi River water and under controlled conditions in Lake Superior water. Fifty-one acute toxicity tests were conducted, with LC50 values ranging from 85 micrograms/L for the white sucker Catastomus commersoni during the summer to greater than 7770 micrograms/L for the isopod Asellus racovitzai during the winter. The effect of PCP on growth and/or reproduction was determined for seven species. The most sensitive chronically exposed organisms were the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia reticulata and the snail Physa gyrina. The greatest variation in toxicity was due to species sensitivity. Within a given, season there was as much as a 40-fold difference in LC50 values between species. For any one species, the maximum variation in LC50 between seasons was approximately 14-fold. There were also substantial differences in acute-chronic relationships, with acute/chronic ratios ranging from greater than 37 for C. reticulata to 1 for Simocephalus vetulus. It is suggested that the composition of the aquatic community should be the most important consideration in estimating the potential environmental effects of PCP.

  13. Determination of trace elements in the human substantia nigra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morawski, M. [Paul-Flechsig-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Universitaet Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, 04109 Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: morm@medizin.uni-leipzig.de; Meinecke, Ch. [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, 04105 Leipzig (Germany); Reinert, T. [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, 04105 Leipzig (Germany); Doerffel, A.C. [Paul-Flechsig-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Universitaet Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, 04109 Leipzig (Germany); Riederer, P. [Klin. Neurochemie, Abt. Psychiatrie, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Fuechsleinstrasse 15, 97080 Wuerzburg (Germany); Arendt, T. [Paul-Flechsig-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Universitaet Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, 04109 Leipzig (Germany); Butz, T. [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, 04105 Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    'The gain in brain is mainly in the stain' was long time a key sentence for research in neurodegenerative disease. However, for a quantification of the element concentrations (especially iron) in brain tissue, standard staining methods are insufficient. Advanced physical methods allow a quantitative elemental analysis of brain tissue. The sophisticated ion beam analysis provides a quantitative determination of elemental concentrations with a subcellular spatial resolution using a scanning proton beam focussed down to below 1 {mu}m that induces characteristic X-rays in the specimen (PIXE - particle induced X-ray emission). Histochemical and biochemical determinations of total iron content in brain regions from idiopathic Parkinson's disease have demonstrated an increase of iron in parkinsonian substantia nigra pars compacta but not in the pars reticulata, however without a clear cellular classification. For the first time, we have differentially investigated the intra- and extraneuronal elemental concentrations (especially iron) of the human substantia nigra pars compacta versus pars reticulata with detection limits in the range of 50 {mu}mol/l. Thus, we could compare the neuronal iron concentration in human brain sections of healthy and parkinsonian brain tissue. Clear differences in the iron concentration and distribution could be disclosed. Additionally, we could show in situ that the increased intraneuronal iron content is linked to neuromelanin.

  14. Bidirectional Modulation of Substantia Nigra Activity by Motivational State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Mark A.; Fan, David; Barter, Joseph W.; Yin, Henry H.

    2013-01-01

    A major output nucleus of the basal ganglia is the substantia nigra pars reticulata, which sends GABAergic projections to brainstem and thalamic nuclei. The GABAergic (GABA) neurons are reciprocally connected with nearby dopaminergic neurons, which project mainly to the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical nuclei critical for goal-directed behaviors. Here we examined the impact of motivational states on the activity of GABA neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and the neighboring dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the pars compacta. Both types of neurons show short-latency bursts to a cue predicting a food reward. As mice became sated by repeated consumption of food pellets, one class of neurons reduced cue-elicited firing, whereas another class of neurons progressively increased firing. Extinction or pre-feeding just before the test session dramatically reduced the phasic responses and their motivational modulation. These results suggest that signals related to the current motivational state bidirectionally modulate behavior and the magnitude of phasic response of both DA and GABA neurons in the substantia nigra. PMID:23936522

  15. Complex history of admixture during citrus domestication revealed by genome analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aur& #233; lio,; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Fabbro, Cristian Del; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco; Estornell, Leandro H.; Mu?oz-Sanz, Juan V.; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; P& #233; rez, Juli& #225; n P& #233; rez,; Ramon, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, Francois; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G.; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astua, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-06-30

    Although Citrus is the most globally significant tree fruit, its domestication history is poorly understood. Cultivated citrus types are believed to comprise selections from and/or hybrids of several wild progenitor species, but the identities of these progenitors, and their contribution to modern cultivars, remain controversial. Here we report the genomes of a collection of mandarins, pummelos, and oranges, including a high quality reference sequence from a haploid Clementine mandarin. By comparative genome analysis we show that these cultivated types can be derived from two progenitor species. Cultivated pummelos represent selections from a single progenitor species C. maxima. Unexpectedly, however, we find that cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into a distinct second population that we identify with the ancestral wild mandarin species C. reticulata. Sweet and sour oranges are found to be interspecific hybrids. Sweet orange, the most widely cultivated citrus, arose as the offspring of previously admixed individuals. In contrast, sour (or Seville) orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. Surprisingly, we also find that a wild Chinese mandarin from Mangshan, China shows substantial sequence divergence from C. reticulata and appears to represent a distinct taxon. Understanding the relationships and phylogeny of cultivated citrus through genome analysis will clarify taxonomic relationships and enable previously inconceivable opportunities for sequence-directed genetic improvement. Citrus are widely consumed worldwide as juice or fresh fruit, providing important sources of vitamin C and other health-promoting compounds. Global production in 2012 exceeded 86 million metric tons, with an estimated value of US$9 billion (http://www.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/citrus.pdf). The very narrow genetic diversity of cultivated citrus makes it highly

  16. Antimycobacterial potency and cytotoxicity study of three medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouh Fokou, Patrick Valere; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Kissi-Twum, Abena Adomah; Yamthe, Lauve Rachel Tchokouaha; Mokale Kognou, Aristide Laurel; Addo, Phyllis; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo

    2016-12-01

    Mycobacterial infections including tuberculosis, leprosy, and buruli ulcer are among the most prevalent, debilitating, and deadly tropical diseases, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. The development of drug resistance to the currently available drugs and the poor compliance emphasize the need for new chemotherapeutic agents. This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro activity of Cleistopholis patens, Annona reticulata, and Greenwayodendron suaveolens against Mycobacterium smegmatis. The safety on normal liver cells was also assessed. The crude extracts, fractions, and subfractions were tested against M. smegmatis and for cell cytotoxicity on WRL-68, normal human hepatocyte using microdilution resazurin-based assays. The phytochemical screening was performed using standard methods. Most of the extracts, fractions, and subfractions inhibited the growth of M. smegmatis with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 6.25μg/mL to 125μg/mL. The subfractions P12 and P29 from G. suaveolens twig were more potent with MIC values of 6.25μg/mL and 25μg/mL, respectively. Fruit crude extract and root CH 2 Cl 2 fraction from A. reticulata also showed activity with MIC values of 50μg/mL and 25μg/mL, respectively. Crude extracts from the twig and stem bark of C. patens displayed inhibition at MIC values of 125μg/mL and 100μg/mL, respectively. Majority of active extracts showed no cell cytotoxicity, except the extract from C. patens with IC 50 ranging from 41.40μg/mL to 93.78μg/mL. The chemical investigation of the promising extracts revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, glycosides, triterpenes, and acetogenins. The results achieved from this preliminary antimycobacterial drug discovery study supported the traditional claims of C. patens, A. reticulata, and G. suaveolens in the treatment of mycobacterial infections. Meanwhile, further fractionation is required to characterize the active ingredients. Copyright © 2016.

  17. Enterovirus no polio de casos con parálisis residual. Colombia, 1992-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dioselina Peláez

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Las parálisis fláccidas agudas (PFA tienen una amplia variedad de orígenes y de agentes causales: físicos, fisiopatológicos, tóxicos e infecciosos. Entre estos últimos, el virus salvaje (silvestre de la poliomielitis y el enterovirus 71 (EV71, parecen ser los agentes virales más frecuentes. Habiendo eliminado el poliovirus salvaje autóctono como agente causal de enfermedad paralítica en Colombia desde junio de 1991 y teniendo aislamientos de virus no polio en el 20,8% del total de casos de PFA notificados anualmente, quisimos conocer el papel que juegan los enterovirus en la incidencia de parálisis fláccida aguda y la dinámica de circulación y distribución de los mismos en Colombia. Se revisó la base de datos de los casos notificados al Programa de Erradicación de la Poliomielitis en Colombia entre el 1"" de enero de 1992 y el 31 de diciembre de 1995, al cual se notificaron 856 casos sospechosos de niños menores de 15 años, y se escogieron 69 casos para el estudio pero se recuperaron 57 aislamientos virales por reinoculación en células RD y Hep-2C. Estos se identificaron mediante neutralización con mezclas de antisueros de Lim & Benyesh-Melnick (LBM.Todos ellos fueron sometidos a caracterización molecular mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa -PCR-, utilizando iniciadores complementarios a la regiónVP1 del genoma viral, seguida del análisis de secuencia de nucleótidos de los fragmentos amplificados por PCR. La identificación final del serotipo se realizó por comparación de nucleótidos en auto assemblery el análisis descriptivo de los datos. No se estableció circulación mayor de ningún serotipo específico en región geográfica alguna del país. Tampoco hubo asociación causal a ninguna patología característica con ninguno de los enterovirus aislados. Se describe el hallazgo de EV71 en un caso de PFA con diagnóstico clínico de síndrome de Guillain-Barré. La descripción de 22 serotipos diferentes

  18. Producción masiva y simultánea de machos de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae y parasitoides Dichasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae Massive and simultaneous production of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae males and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia N. López

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En la línea de sexado genético «Cast191» las hembras de Ceratitis capitata son homocigotas para el gen slow , lo que reduce su velocidad de desarrollo; los machos son heterocigotas y muestran una velocidad de desarrollo normal. Esta característica permitió producir, con Cast191, machos estériles por un lado, y parasitoides criados sobre las larvas remanentes por el otro. Nuestro objetivo con este trabajo fue producir ambos insumos simultáneamente y a una escala mayor que hasta ahora. Además, bajo estas condiciones, y en un intento por aumentar la separación entre sexos, se aplicó a las larvas del primer estadío un pulso de 15º C, durante 1 ó 2 días, luego del cual se las mantuvo a 20º C ó 25º C, hasta que entraron al estado de pupa, luego se mantuvo todo el material a 25º C. La mejor separación de sexos, lograda con el tratamiento a 20º C sin pulso de frío, se usó para comparar la calidad del parasitoide Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, criado sobre las larvas obtenidas tras la separación de los machos, con aquellos criados sobre la línea salvaje. Para ello, este tratamiento de separación fue aplicado en la cría de la mosca, y el material remanente de dieta con larvas fue expuesto al parasitoide. La tasa de parasitismo obtenida fue semejante a la hallada sobre la línea salvaje, y la tasa sexual de la F 1 del parasitoide presentó un sesgo hacia las hembras aún mayor. Se discute la factibilidad de utilizar la línea Cast191 de C. Capitata, para la producción a mayor escala de machos de mosca y para la cría masiva del parasitoide D. longicaudata.In the genetic sexing strain «Cast191», the females of Ceratitis capitata are homozygous for the mutation slow , slowing down their rate of development, and the males are heterozygous, having a normal rate of development. This feature made Cast191 capable of producing sterile males, on one hand, and parasitoids that are reared on the remaining larvae, on the other. The

  19. EL PATAGONISMO COMO CONSTRUCCIÓN DISCURSIVA Y LA GÉNESIS DE UN PERSONAJE LITERARIO: JEMMY BUTTON / PATAGONISM AS DISCURSIVE CONSTRUCTION AND THE GENESIS OF A LITERARY CHARACTER: JEMMY BUTTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Patricia Moller Jensen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la detección de un discurso eurocentrista aún presente en el libro álbum Jemmy Button y de la novela histórica Three Men of the Beagle, dos obras anglófonas contemporáneas sobre Tierra del Fuego, en las cuales se evidencia la presencia de los estereotipos del británico civilizador y del salvaje caníbal de Tierra del Fuego, este artículo se propone explorar el proceso de construcción discursiva en un intento por detectar cómo, cuándo y dónde surgieron los mencionados estereotipos. En las narrativas de los exploradores británicos que visitaron la Patagonia en el siglo XIX, en lo que Pratt denomina zona de contacto, se observa con claridad este proceso de construcción discursiva de los estereotipos fundacionales de la literatura anglófona sobre Tierra del Fuego. Tal construcción, en analogía con lo que Said denomina orientalismo, puede denominarse patagonismo, ya que define al otro según la ideología del imperio y utiliza como recursos descriptivos las categorías del salvaje caníbal y del británico civilizador. Tomando como estudio de caso los relatos sobre Orundellico, llamado Jemmy Button por los británicos, cotejando estos relatos con datos históricos, e interpretando la voz del colonizador y la falta de voz del colonizado, no sólo se identifica el caso de Jemmy Button como uno de los casos más interesantes de resistencia lingüística y cultural. También permite una exploración sobre la manera en que esta herramienta identificadora del discurso británico sobre la Patagonia se ha fortalecido creando un personaje de ficción que aun hoy habita los textos literarios que relatan las historias de aquella época. / After the analysis of two contemporary Anglophone narratives construed around the story of Orundellico, known to the British as Jemmy Button, the picturebook Jemmy Button and the historical novel Three Men of the Beagle (Marks, 1991, it becomes evident that both still make use of a Eurocentric

  20. Narrativa audiovisual, ontología y terrorismo: paradojas comunicativas en los videos del Estado Islámico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Rodríguez-Serrano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza los procesos de significación e impacto global del material audiovisual generado por el autoproclamado Estado Islámico. Se trata, sin duda, de un objeto de estudio contemporáneo y de primer or-den, en cuanto gran parte de la crisis geopolítica en Oriente Próximo, así como los flujos migratorios hacia Europa, penden en este momento de las acciones bélicas de las fuerzas terroristas que emergieron de las llamadas primaveras árabes. Nuestra hipótesis de partida es que la técnica comunica-tiva de Estado Islámico no solo es una evolución salvaje de los propios pro-cesos comunicativos en las sociedades posmodernas, sino que, además, es profundamente paradójico e inconsistente en lo que a sus procesos de sig-nificación se refieren. Para analizar este material, se utilizará una metodolo-gía híbrida compuesta, en primer lugar, por una ontología política, en la que se rastrean las relaciones entre espectáculo, atrocidad, terrorismo y control político, incluyendo referencias a la existencia de la ley obscena como fundamento ideológico generador de mensajes. En segundo lugar, se repasarán someramente algunos de los recursos narrativos audiovisuales que generan significación en dichas piezas.

  1. Clarice Lispector y la crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Namorato

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available En una entrevista publicada en julio de 2011, Antonio Candido observa que el crítico de hoy en día se arriesga mucho menos que en su época. En sus palabras: “Hoy la crítica académica no corre riesgo alguno, es una actividad extremadamente segura. Los jóvenes escriben tesis sobre Machado de Assis, Jorge Amado, José Lins do Rego, Clarice Lispector. Ahora, la persona no escoge un libro de un autor contemporáneo y dice ‘éste es bueno, éste es malo’. Eso se acabó” (Candido, 2011: 2. A sus noventa y dos años, Candido recuerda la suerte de haber trabajado en un tiempo de esplendor en la literatura brasileña. Crítico titular del periódico Folha da Manhã de São Paulo en la década de los 40, Candido publicaba semanalmente un artículo sobre las novedades literarias de la época. Las “novedades” de su época eran nada menos que obras de Carlos Drummond de Andrade, João Cabral de Melo Neto, Jorge Amado, José Lins do Rego y Graciliano Ramos, hoy consideradas figuras canónicas de las letras brasileñas. Candido recuerda, en esta misma entrevista, que en 1943 recibió un libro titulado Cerca del corazón salvaje, la primera novela de Clarice Lispector.

  2. Ensayo de neutralización in vitro de aplicación en la evaluación de inmunógenos contra la hepatitis A, obtenidos mediante la tecnología de expresión en fagos filamentosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Aguilar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La inmunidad contra el virus de la hepatitis A (VHA se debe en primera instancia a la inducción de anticuerpos neutralizantes. Disponer de ensayos de neutralización es indispensable para evaluar nuevos candidatos vacunales contra este patógeno. En el presente trabajo se desarrolló un ensayo de neutralización in vitro que permitió evaluar la inmunogenicidad de mimotopos del VHA obtenidos mediante la tecnología de expresión en fagos al ser inmunizados ratones Balb/c. Diferentes diluciones de anticuerpos se incubaron con 103 o 102 Dosis Infecciosas en Cultivo de Tejidos 50% (DICT50 del clon citopático HM175/18f de VHA, y se inocularon en placas con células FRhK4. Después de 7 días de incubación el título neutralizante se determinó como el recíproco de la dilución del suero capaz de reducir la multiplicación viral al 50%. Tanto 103 como 102 DICT50 fueron neutralizadas por el anticuerpo monoclonal 7E7 y los sueros humanos (A12 y A31 positivos a anticuerpos anti-VHA. Los controles negativos del ensayo no neutralizaron al virus. Los títulos neutralizantes de los sueros de ratones inmunizados con fagos portadores de mimotopos de VHA oscilaron entre 4 y 16, mientras que los sueros preinmunes y los de ratones inmunizados con fago salvaje M13 no neutralizaron la infectividad viral. Este ensayo de neutralización resultó adecuado para la evaluación de los inmunógenos propuestos

  3. Bolaño, o investigador da vida e dos versos pelas trilhas do valor e do medo

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    Edson Oliveira da Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A leitura do romance Los detectives salvajes do escritor chileno Roberto Bolaño nos coloca diante de uma narrativa inquietante, pautada no jogo sinuoso entre ficção e realidade, de modo que as ambições e experiências do escritor, enquanto "homem vulgar" e intelectual se confundam, em diferentes circunstâncias, com as tramas vividas pela legião de personagens que povoam a ficção. Nesse sentido, para além de representar a história latino-americana, marcada pela explosão de vozes e conflitos entranhados, desde séculos atrás na genealogia deste espaço, onde o vazio e a errância se destacam muito mais do que os encontros e as convicções, esta narrativa nos apresenta um fluxo descontínuo de experiências e discursos, em que a literatura se apresenta como um caminho para compreender melhor os nossos instintos e mazelas. Sob esse ponto de vista, partindo da possibilidade de que alinhemos a produção literária de Bolaño a uma onda de fenômenos políticos e culturais, quase sempre ligados à ideia de deslocamento e fragmentação, que assinalam a contemporaneidade, este estudo se preocupa em reconhecer a figura do escritor como uma espécie de detetive incansável, que, tanto dentro quanto fora da ficção, se propõe a investigar a vida e a poesia, percorrendo os campos invisíveis do valor e do medo.

  4. Determinación de anticuerpos contra patógenos virales y bacterianos seleccionados en la población de cerdos silvestres (Sus scrofa de la Reserva Natural Bahía Samborombón, Argentina

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    B. Carpinetti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Los cerdos silvestres (Sus scrofa descienden de cruzamientos entre cerdos domésticos liberados durante la colonización con jabalíes salvajes euroasiáticos, liberados con propósitos cinegéticos. Son invasivos y su coexistencia con especies domésticas implica riesgos sanitarios. Argentina es considerada libre de fiebre aftosa (FA, peste porcina clásica (PPC y africana (PPA y síndrome reproductivo y respiratorio porcino (PRRS. La enfermedad de Aujeszky (EA y la leptospirosis son endémicas en ciertas áreas del país. El objetivo fue evaluar la presencia de ciertas enfermedades zoonóticas y/o de importancia para la producción animal y la conservación de la biodiversidad en cerdos silvestres de la Bahía de Samborombón. Se capturaron 118 animales. Se tomaron muestras de suero, tonsilas, músculo, intestino delgado, linfonódulos, entre otras. Se estudió la presencia de anticuerpos contra Brucella spp., coronavirus respiratorio porcino, virus de la estomatitis vesicular, de la FA, de la gastroenteritis transmisible porcina (TGEV, de la PPC, PPA, EA, PRRS y Leptospira spp. Se realizaron análisis bacteriológicos para Mycobacterium spp. Los resultados ratificaron la ausencia de las enfermedades exóticas e indicaron que 36 % de los animales presentó anticuerpos contra Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona y 62,5 % contra el virus de la EA. Estos resultados remarcan la importancia del monitoreo de la interfase productiva/silvestre en función de la salud pública, producción animal y conservación de la biodiversidad.

  5. Actividad biológica y caracterización química de los extractos de las hojas de Rhizophora mangle L., como una alternativa fitofarmacéutica en la cicatrización.

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    María Nereida Marroquín Tintí

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Los taninos tiene propiedad astringente, por lo que ayudan al proceso de cicatrización; la corteza de Rhizophora mangle L., mangle rojo, presenta taninos y cuenta con evidencia de uso tradicional y estudios pre-clínicos que demuestran su acción cicatrizante. Las hojas de mangle presenta una cantidad de taninos y actividad antioxidante muy similar al reportado para la corteza. En este estudio se correlacionó la actividad cicatrizante de los extractos etanólicos de hojas mediante métodos in vitro, cuantificando de taninos y flavonoides, determinando la actividad antioxidante mediante DPPH y fenoles totales; y evaluando su actividad antibacteriana contra bacterias específicas que pueden causar infecciones en heridas. En los extractos de hojas se cuantificó  29.28% de taninos, actividad antioxidante de CI50 0.18mg/mL, fenoles totales de 227.76µg de ácido gálico/g de extracto y actividad antibacteriana contra Staphylococcus aereus ATCC 6538, S. epidermides ATCC 14990 y S. salvaje con una CIM de 1mg/mL. El análisis estadístico muestra una correlación entre la cantidad de taninos y actividad antioxidante con un valor de p < 0.0001; así mismo la prueba de t-student muestra que no existe diferencia entre los extractos etanólicos de hoja y corteza; por lo que la hoja puede ser una alternativa para el tratamiento de heridas como cicatrizante, lo que desde el punto de vista de conservación favorece, ya que la obtención de la hoja como droga vegetal no ocasiona riego a la especie y se protege el recurso del manglar.

  6. FRONTERAS DIFUSAS Y ACTORES SOCIALES MESTIZOS: DEBATES CONCEPTUALES Y DESARROLLOS ANALÍTICOS EN TORNO A LOS ESPACIOS DE FRONTERA Y SUS VINCULACIONES CON LOS INDIOS-BLANCOS EN LA REGIÓN DEL CHACO DURANTE LA SEGUNDA MITAD DEL SIGLO XIX

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    Julio César Spota

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In the frontier drawn between the Argentine State and the different aborigine groups of the Chaco region during the second half of the XIX century, different half-breed social identities that escape simple dichotomies between whites and Indians, civilized people and savage people were formed. The historical practice of considering social actors as white Indians (deserting soldiers, fugitive criminals, political exiles and refugees, as well asmerchants who were incorporated to the Indian groups provides a privileged space for anthropological observation which has been relatively little explored until now. This paper investigates the historical reasons that motivated the migration of Creoles and recovers the perspective of social actors who took a leading role in the facts studied.RESUMEN: En la frontera establecida entre el Estado argentino y las distintas parcialidades aborígenes de la región del Chaco durante la segunda parte del siglo XIX, se configuraron identidades étnicas mestizas que escapaban a la simple esquematización de blancos e indios, civilizados y salvajes. La praxis histórica de los actores sociales como los indios-blancos (soldados desertores, criminales fugitivos de la ley, perseguidos y refugiados políticos ycomerciantes que fueron incorporados dentro de los grupos indígenas proporciona un espacio privilegiado de reflexión antropológica poco explorado hasta el momento. En el presente artículo nos proponemos determinar las causas históricas que motivaron la migración de loscriollos y recuperar la perspectiva de los actores sociales que protagonizaron los hechos estudiados.

  7. El concepto de bienestar animal en el currículo de Secundaria Obligatoria y en los libros de texto de ciencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Mazas Gil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un análisis de libros de texto de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO realizado para conocer si en ellos se contemplan contenidos relacionados con el bienestar animal. La muestra consta de 12 libros de texto de Biología y Geología de todos los niveles de esta etapa educativa. Se han estudiado tanto los contenidos teóricos de los textos como las actividades. Ante la falta del tratamiento específico del bienestar animal, se analizan en este trabajo los contenidos y las actividades que versan sobre el funcionamiento del sistema nervioso en los animales, sobre la protección de la biodiversidad y sobre la conservación de los ecosistemas y el medio ambiente. En ninguno de los libros analizados se aborda explícitamente el bienestar animal. No obstante, en algunas de las actividades se exponen y comentan experiencias con animales y su protección que facilitarán hacer recapacitar a los estudiantes sobre diferentes aspectos relacionados con el bienestar animal, como las acciones encaminadas a la protección de los animales, sean estos domésticos o salvajes. Nuestra sugerencia final es que los textos incorporen el término de bienestar animal y que se amplíe un poco el significado del sistema nervioso relacionando el sufrimiento animal con la forma de responder de los animales a las situaciones provocadas por el ser humano que conllevan maltrato en cualquiera de sus formas.

  8. Hermes Tovar Pinzón. Los fantasmas de la memoria. Poder e inhibición en la historia de América Latina. Bogotá: Universidad de los Andes, 2009. 392 páginas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán Vega Cantor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En 1976, Darío Jaramillo Agudelo acuñó el apelativo de nueva historia en un libro que compiló, que se convirtió en algo así como el manifiesto inaugural de lo que luego se llamaría, de manera cuasi oficial, La nueva historia de Colombia, y cuya producción más reconocida se plasmó en el libro mencionado, junto con el Manual de historia de Colombia en tres volúmenes, editado por Colcultura, y en Colombia hoy, un pequeño volumen publicado por la Editorial Siglo XXI, en 1978. En estos libros aparecen escritos de académicos que emergían o se autoproclamaban, en ese momento, como lo más novedoso e innovador de una investigación histórica que se pretendía independiente del bipartidismo e, incluso, crítica del capitalismo salvaje, a la colombiana. Los nombres más representativos, tal como aparecen en los libros mencionados, eran Jorge Orlando Melo, Álvaro Tirado Mejia, Salomón Kalmanovitz, Jesús Antonio Bejarano, Miguel Urrutia, Germán Colmenares y su mentor intelectual, Jaime Jaramillo Uribe. El nombre de Hermes Tovar Pinzón, un historiador de la misma generación, cuya producción intelectual ya era notable desde finales de la década de 1960, solo apareció en el libro editado por Darío Jaramillo, con un pequeño artículo sobre el “Modo de producción precolombino”.

  9. ERRADICACIÓN Y POSTERRADICACIÓN

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    Francisco Salmerón García

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La vacunación antipoliomielítica genera inmunidad de grupo (con vacunas atenuadas (VPO e inactivadas (VPI y ello permitirá la erradica- ción de la enfermedad. La VPO produce de 2-4 casos de poliomielitis por cohorte de un millón de niños y por ello los países que pueden hacer frente al coste de la VPI (unas 15 veces más cara la utilizan. En 1988 la Asamblea de la Organización Mundial de la Salud aprobó el objetivo de la erradicación como “la interrupción de la transmisión de poliovirus salvajes”. Si se conseguía su eliminación, el mantenimiento de la VPO produciría al año entre 250 y 500 casos de poliomielitis en el mundo. Desde 1999 era evidente que la erradicación requeriría la cesación de la vacunación con VPO. El 25 de enero del 2013 se aprobó el plan para la erradicación y la contención de todos los virus de la polio, salvajes o no, para que ningún niño sufra una poliomielitis paralítica. Los hitos más importantes incluyen, la no aparición de casos de polio saducción de al menos una dosis de VPI en todos los programas de vacunación y que se suspenda la vacunación con VPO tipo 2 al final del 2016 y que en 2019 se pueda cesar de utilizar la vacuna bivalente oral. Para todo ello será preciso un trabajo científico complejo y solidaridad financiera.

  10. Programa\tde\tindicadores\tvalorativos\tpara\tel\tentrenamiento personalizado en el acondicionamiento físico general a un grupo de jóvenes de la comunidad “Carlos Manuel” en el gimnasio de cultura física de la universidad de Pinar del Río

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    Domingo Rolando Hernández Forcelledo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Desde los tiempos más remotos, o sea desde que comienza la transformación del  mono  en  hombre  este  se  vio  obligado  en  su  larga  y  salvaje  vida  a desarrollar una serie de actividades físicas que eran imprescindibles para poder subsistir; tanto para defenderse de las inclemencias del tiempo, de los animales feroces de otras tribus, como para obtener sus alimentos o trasladarse de uno a otro lugar. El trabajo, factor fundamental de esta transformación ha tenido y tiene una estrecha vinculación con las diferentes actividades físicas y las habilidades que sobre estas ha desarrollado el ser humano como único ser razonable para su propio beneficio. La ejercitación física es uno de los mejores medios para prevenir problemas de salud, así como para tratarlos una vez que se han desarrollados, nos ayuda a mantenernos en forma y a recuperar la forma una vez que esta se pierde. El siglo XXI no es solo el siglo de la ciencia sino también la centuria de la salud, un periodo de tiempo donde la humanidad adquiere conciencia de sus autenticas necesidades e impone en primera línea de su atención, junto al disfrute, la participación interactiva en el arte y la cultura, ese cuidado interno y externo de su cuerpo.

  11. Antioxidant activity of wild edible plants in the Black Sea Region of Turkey

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    Özen, Tevfik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidative activity of the 80% ethanol extract obtained from eleven commonly consumed wild edible plants was determined according to the phosphomolybdenum method, reducing power, metal chelating, superoxide anion and free radical scavenging activity and compared to standard compounds such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT and trolox. Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins in the extracts were also measured. Trachystemon orientalis, Vaccinium mrytillus, Rumex acetosella Polygonum amphibium, Beta vulgaris, and Similax Excelsa had the highest antioxidant capacities. Overall results showed that these plants can serve as good sources of bioactive polyphenols in the human diet and can be regarded as good candidates for nutritional supplement formulations due to their high concentrations of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanins as well as their strong antioxidant activity.La actividad antioxidante de extractos etanólicos al 80%, obtenidos de once plantas salvajes comúnmente consumidas, fue determinada por el método del fosfomolibdeno, poder reductor, actividad quelatante de metales, actividad captadora de aniones superóxidos y actividad captadora de radicales libres, y comparada con compuestos patrones tales como el butil hidroxianisol (BHA, butil hidroxitolueno (BHT y Trolox. El contenido de fenoles totales, flavonoides y antocianinas en el extracto fue también determinado. Trachystemon orientalis, Vaccinium mrytillus, Rumex acetosella Polygonum amphibium, Beta vulgaris, y Similax Excelsa tienen las capacidades antioxidantes más altas. En general, los resultados muestran que estas plantas pueden servir como una buena fuente de polifenoles bioactivos en la dieta humana, y pueden ser considerados como buenos candidatos para su uso como suplemento nutricional en formulaciones debido a su alta concentración en fenoles, flavonoides y antocinainas y a su fuerte actividad

  12. Evasión molecular de la activación del macrófago bovino por Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis

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    René Ramírez G.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis (MAP es el agente causal de una enfermedad granulomatosica crónica, que afecta el tracto gastrointestinal de rumiantes domesticos y salvajes, conocida como la enfermedad de Johne o paratuberculosis. MAP es un microorganismo de crecimiento lento en cultivo, no obstante sobrevive in vivo en células fagocíticas mononucleares de los rumiantes, bajo condiciones de susceptibilidad individual, virulencia de la cepa infectante y estado inmune del individuo afectado. Una vez MAP es fagocitado por el macrófago bovino, tanto el macrófago como MAP activan: el uno para tratar de destruir a MAP y luego sufrir apoptosis y el otro para evadir su destrucción dentro del fagolisosoma del macrófago. El balance de dicha confrontación molecular determina el curso inicial de la infección hacia la eliminación eficiente del microorganismo o hacia el establecimiento de la infección, que culminará en los estadios III (clínico intermitente y IV (clínica terminal de la enfermedad de Johne. En la presente revisión se discuten los diferentes mecanismos moleculares por los cuales MAP evade la respuesta inmune, con énfasis en su comportamiento dentro de la vacuola fagocítica y como el agente establece mecanismos de sobrevivencia intracelular y altera la activación de los macrófagos del hospedero y de la respuesta inmune específica.

  13. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, Simone M.; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Soglio, Fabio K. Dal

    2007-01-01

    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leaf miner, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 deg 68S and 51 deg 46W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. (author)

  14. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in Brazil

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    A. L. Marsaro Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae, Morus nigra L. (Moraceae, Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae, Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae, Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae, Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae, in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  15. Citrus asymmetric somatic hybrids produced via fusion of gamma-irradiated and iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts Híbridos somáticos assimétricos de citros produzidos pela fusão de protoplastos irradiados e tratados com iodoacetamida

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    Claudine Maria de Bona

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to produce citrus somatic asymmetric hybrids by fusing gamma-irradiated protoplasts with iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts. Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic suspension cells of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad. cultivars Ruby Red and Flame, sweet oranges (C. sinensis Osbeck 'Itaboraí', 'Natal', Valencia', and 'Succari', from 'Satsuma' (C. unshiu Marcow. and 'Changsha' mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco and 'Murcott' tangor (C. reticulata x C. sinensis. Donor protoplasts were exposed to gamma rays and receptor protoplasts were treated with 3 mmol L-1 iodoacetamide (IOA, and then they were fused for asymmetric hybridization. Asymmetric embryos were germinated, and the resulting shoots were either grafted onto sour orange, rough lemon or 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata x 'Sunki' mandarin rootstock seedlings, or rooted after dipping their bases in indol-butyric acid (IBA solution. The products were later acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Ploidy was analyzed by flow cytometry, and hybridity was confirmed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis of plantlet DNAsamples. The best treatment was the donor-recipient fusion combination of 80 Gy-irradiated 'Ruby Red' protoplasts with 20 min IOA-treated 'Succari' protoplasts. Tetraploid and aneuploid plants were produced. Rooting recalcitrance was solved by dipping shoots' stems in 3,000 mg L-1 IBA solution for 10 min.O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir híbridos somáticos assimétricos de citros pela fusão de protoplastos irradiados com raios gama e protoplastos tratados com iodoacetamida. Protoplastos foram isolados de suspensões celulares embriogênicas de pomelo (Citrus paradisi Macfad., cultivares Ruby Red e Flame, de laranja doce (C. sinensis Osbeck 'Itaboraí', 'Natal', Valencia' e 'Succari', de tangerinas 'Satsuma' (C. unshiu Marcow. e 'Changsha' (C. reticulata Blanco e de tangor 'Murcott' (C. reticulata x C. sinensis

  16. β-Cryptoxanthin and Zeaxanthin Pigments Accumulation to Induce Orange Color on Citrus Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati Sumiasih, Inanpi; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Efendi, Darda; Agusta, Andria; Yuliani, Sri

    2018-01-01

    Degreening, a transformation process of green color on citrus peel to be orange color on tropical low-land citrus fruits often fails. Orange color of the citrus peel comes from the mixture carotenoid pigments, such as zeaxanthine and mainly β-cryptoxanthin and β-citraurin. The accumulation of β-citraurin occurs when the fruits are exposed to low temperature, and otherwise, it will fail to occur. Precooling treatment on lowland tropical citrus fruits is expected to stimulate the accumulation of β-citraurin. The results showed the most favorable color obtained from precooling and 24-hour ethylene exposure duration. This treatment could decrease total chlorophyll and β-carotene content as well as proven to increase 3 times the accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin in accelerating the appearance of bright orange color on citrus peel. Degreening gave no significant effect to internal quality of Citrus reticulata.

  17. Review of Paraphotina (Mantodea: Photinaidae

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    Antonio A. Agudelo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The number of studies on Neotropical mantises has been growing in recent years, and the systematics of Mantodea is now a dynamic field with noteworthy contributions. Several taxonomic revisions have been published recently. The taxonomy of Paraphotina Giglio-Tos, 1915 is reviewed as part of current studies on systematics of Neotropical Mantodea. Currently, Paraphotina contains four species from South America: P. caatingaensis (Menezes & Bravo, 2013 comb. nov., P. insolita (Rehn, 1941, P. occidentalis Lombardo, 1998 and P. reticulata (Saussure, 1871. Paraphotina venezuelana Beier, 1963 is a new junior synonym of P. insolita . Keys for the Paraphotina species are proposed. The distribution of Paraphotina species is apparently correlates with areas of endemism in the Amazonian and Cerrado regions.

  18. Ketogenic diet metabolites reduce firing in central neurons by opening K(ATP) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiyuan; Berg, Jim; Yellen, Gary

    2007-04-04

    A low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet remains one of the most effective (but mysterious) treatments for severe pharmacoresistant epilepsy. We have tested for an acute effect of physiological ketone bodies on neuronal firing rates and excitability, to discover possible therapeutic mechanisms of the ketogenic diet. Physiological concentrations of ketone bodies (beta-hydroxybutyrate or acetoacetate) reduced the spontaneous firing rate of neurons in slices from rat or mouse substantia nigra pars reticulata. This region is thought to act as a "seizure gate," controlling seizure generalization. Consistent with an anticonvulsant role, the ketone body effect is larger for cells that fire more rapidly. The effect of ketone bodies was abolished by eliminating the metabolically sensitive K(ATP) channels pharmacologically or by gene knock-out. We propose that ketone bodies or glycolytic restriction treat epilepsy by augmenting a natural activity-limiting function served by K(ATP) channels in neurons.

  19. Biosorption of lead (II and copper (II by biomass of some marine algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaisuksant, Y.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption of heavy metal ions by algae is a potential technology for treating wastewater contaminated with heavy metals. Adsorption of lead (II and copper (II in aqueous solutions by some marine algae available in large quantities in Pattani Bay including Gracilaria fisheri, Ulva reticulata and Chaetomorpha sp. were investigated. The effect of pH on metal sorption of the algal biomass and the metal uptake capacity of the algal biomass comparing to that of synthetic adsorbents including activated carbon and siliga gel were studied by using batch equilibrium experiments. Each dried adsorbent was stirred in metal ions solutions with different pH or different concentration at room temperature for 24 hours and the residual metal ions were analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The initial concentrations of lead and copper ionswere 70 µg/l and 20 mg/l, respectively. It was found that the effect of pH on metal sorption was similar in each algal biomass. The metal uptake capacity increased as pH of the solution increased from 2.0 to 4.0 and reached a plateau at pH 5.0-7.0. The metal uptake capacities of each algal biomass were similar. At low concentrations of metal ions, the metal adsorption occurred rapidly while at higher metal concentration less metal adsorption by each algal biomass was observed. The metal adsorption of activated carbon and silica gel occurred gradually and was less than those of algal biomass. The equilibrium data of copper and lead ions fitted well to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The maximum sorption capacity (Qm values (mean±SD of Chaetomorpha sp., U. reticulata, G. fisheri, activated carbon and silica gel for lead ions were 1.26±0.14, 1.19±0.14, 1.18±0.15, 1.14±0.11 and 1.15±0.12 mg/g, respectively. For copper adsorption, the Qm values for G. fisheri, U. reticulata and Chaetomorpha biomass were 15.87±1.03, 14.71±1.02 and 12.35± 1.03 mg/g, respectively. While those of activated carbon and

  20. Medicinal plants indicated for flu and colds in the South of Brazil

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    Marjoriê da Costa Mendieta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We sought to know the medicinal plants used for flu and colds by farmers from the South of Rio Grande do Sul State and to compare it with scientific evidence. This descriptive study was conducted with 12 farmers living at Ilha dos Marinheiros, in the city of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We used descriptive analysis, comparing the results with the scientific literature. Thirteen plants were cited as used for cold and flu: Achyrocline satureioides, Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata, Citrus sinensis, Gochnatia polymorpha, Illicium verum, Mentha piperita, Mikania sp., Ocimum selloi, Origanum majorana and Verbena sp. Results show popular knowledge meeting scientific evidence for most indications, seen that 84,6% of cited plants are in agreement with the literature. Thus, we emphasize the richness of popular knowledge, the need of its appreciation and constant approximation of health professionals to this knowledge, integrated with science.

  1. Bioenergy potential of eight common aquatic weeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Nipaney, P.C.; Schaumberg, G.D. (Pondicherry (Central) Univ. (IN). Salim Ali School of Ecology)

    1990-01-01

    Eight common aquatic weeds Salvinia molesta, Hydrilla verticillata, Nymphaea stellata, Azolla pinnata, Ceratopteris sp. Scirpus sp. Cyperus sp, and Utricularia reticulata were digested anaerobically to produce methane. The carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, carbon to phosphorus (C/P) ratio, and the volatile solids (VS) content of the weeds varied widely. No trend between these factors and the methane yield was discernable; the possible reasons are discussed. The energy potential of the weeds per unit area of the weed crop was worked out. Natural stands of salvinia, such as the one employed in the present investigation, would yield energy (methane) of the order of 10{sup 8} Kcal/ha/yr. (author).

  2. Shell biofilm-associated nitrous oxide production in marine molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterkamp, I.M.; Schramm, Andreas; Larsen, Lone Heimann

    2013-01-01

    Emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) from freshwater and terrestrial invertebrates has exclusively been ascribed to N2O production by ingested denitrifying bacteria in the anoxic gut of the animals. Our study of marine molluscs now shows that also microbial biofilms on shell surfaces...... are important sites of N2O production. The shell biofilms of Mytilus edulis, Littorina littorea and Hinia reticulata contributed 18-94% to the total animal-associated N2O emission. Nitrification and denitrification were equally important sources of N2O in shell biofilms as revealed by 15N-stable isotope...... mollusc species. Ammonium excretion by the animals was found to be sufficient to sustain N2O production in the shell biofilm. Apparently, the animals provide a nutrient-enriched microenvironment that stimulates growth and N2O production of the shell biofilm. This animal-induced stimulation...

  3. Disposable penis and its replenishment in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizawa, Ayami; Seki, Satoko; Tokuzato, Masakazu; Shiga, Sakiko; Nakashima, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Although it is often thought that sexual selection is weaker in simultaneous hermaphrodites than in gonochorists, some simultaneous hermaphrodites exhibit bizarre mating behaviour. In the simultaneously hermaphroditic nudibranch Chromodoris reticulata, we found a peculiar mating behaviour, wherein the nudibranch autotomized its penis after each copulation and was able to copulate again within 24 h. To have sufficient length to be replenished for three copulations, the penis is compressed and spiralled internally. No other animal is known to repeatedly copulate using such ‘disposable penes’. Entangled sperm masses were observed on the outer surface of the autotomized penis, which is equipped with many backward-pointed spines. There is a possibility that the nudibranch removes sperm already stored in a mating partner's sperm storage organ(s). PMID:23407499

  4. http://www.bio.uaic.ro/publicatii/anale_biochimie/data/archive/papers/2007/2/2007_Anale_GBM_VIII_f2_l23.pdf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Hritcu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of lesioning the ventral tegmental area or substantia nigra pars reticulata by means of bilateral microinjections of two doses of kainic acid (50 ng/250 nl and 100 ng/500 nl were investigated to clarify the role of the mesotelencephalic dopamine system in learning and memory processes. Our findings suggest that ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons play an important role in retention of both short-term memory, tested in the Ymaze task and long-term memory evaluated with the multi-trial passive avoidance test, without affecting memory acquisition. As compared to short-term memory, long-term memory is more susceptible to the decreased dopamine level in nervous structures involved in processing and storage of information

  5. Los hongos poliporoides de la Huasteca Potosina, San Luis Potosí, México

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    Victor I. Alvarez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 98 especies de hongos poliporoides basados en 358 especímenes procedentes de 15 localidades de nueve municipios de la Huasteca Potosina en el estado de San Luis Potosí. Las 98 especies se clasifican en tres órdenes de Agaricomycetes, el orden Gloeophyllales con una familia, un género y  una especie, el orden Hymenochaetales con 2 familias, 10 géneros y 33 especies, y el orden Polyporales con seis familias,  32 géneros y 64 especies. De éstas, 73 se citan por primera vez para el estado, incluidas Phellinus calcitratus, P. coffeatoporus y Ceriporia reticulata que son nuevos registros para México.Palabras clave: Gloeophyllales, Hymenochaetales, Polyporales, macrohongos xilófagos.

  6. Kindling: A Model for the Development of Tardive Dyskinesia?

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    B. Glenthøj

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Tardive dyskinesia (TD from long-term neuroleptic treatment may be irreversible; therefore prevention has become a major concern. A controversial issue with regard to the clinical use of neuroleptic drugs is the possible influence on the development of TD of drug holidays. The major characteristics of kindling, theories of TD and the role of multiplicity in the development of TD are described. Some clinical studies point to interruption of neuroleptic therapy being a risk factor for development of irreversible TD. Induction of dyskinesia in non-human primates has been demonstrated after repeated administration of haloperidol. Rodent studies have not been conclusive. Several experimental results link TD with kindling: both conditions involve repeated stimulations, both seem to involve increased receptor responsiveness and in both conditions does depression in GABA transmission in SNR (substantia nigra; pars reticulata play an important role. It is concluded that the kindling hypothesis is relevant to the investigation of TD.

  7. Detección y caracterización preliminar de lectinas presentes en semillas de leguminosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda de Navarro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La aglutinación de eritrocitos humanos o animales fue ensayada con 23 especies de leguminosas. Las semillas de Bauhinia picta, marindus indica, Dioclea lehmannii y Erythrina rubrinervia poseen lectinas inespecíficas para el sistema ABO; Crotalaria agatifolia, C. spp, Cassia indecora y Ormosia spp, presentan cierto grado de especificidad. Se ensayaron eritrocitos de seis especies animales, observándose aglutinación con las especies ya citadas y además con Cassia fruticosa, C. reticulata, Delonix regia, Poinciana pulquerrima, Abrus fruticulosus y Mucuna mutisiana. Los ensayos de inhibición con carbohidratos indican que las lectinas de Dioclea lehmannii y Erythrina rubrinervia actúan sobre receptores diferentes.

  8. [Host plants of Aphis gossypii (Aphididae), vector of virus of Cucumis melo melon (Cucurbitaceae) in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M V; Agüero, R; Rivera, C

    2001-03-01

    Plant species associated with commercial melon crops and surrounding areas were examined to identity the natural host plants of Aphis gossypii Glover. The study was conducted in two farms located in different melon production areas and plant life zones of Costa Rica. Plant species diversity, percent coverage and distribution over time were recorded during one year. Differences between locations were observed. A total of 86 plant species (49 families) and 72 plant species (40 families) were identified associated to the crop in farms A and B, respectively. In both farms a total of 24 species plants (16 families) were colonized by A. gossypii and 16 (10 families) are new reports of host plant species for this aphid. The new reports are: Justicia comata, Tetramerium nervosum, Alternanthera pubiflora, Cassia massoni, C. reticulata, Cleome viscosa, C. spinosa, Croton argenteus, Caperonia palustris, Chamaesyce gyssopilopia, Phyllantus amarus, Sida decumbens, Ludwigia erecta, Passiflora foetida, Guazuma ulmifolia and Corchorus orinocensis.

  9. Ketogenic diet prevents neuronal firing increase within the substantia nigra during pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Andrea; Stoddard, Madison; Pisano, Simone; Operto, Francesca Felicia; Iovane, Valentina; Monda, Marcellino; Coppola, Giangennaro

    2016-07-01

    The mechanism responsible for the anti-seizure effect of ketogenic diets is poorly understood. Because the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a "gate" center for seizures, the aim of the present experiment was to evaluate if a ketogenic diet modifies the neuronal response of this nucleus when a seizure-inducing drug is administered in rats. Two groups of rats were given a standard diet (group 1) or a ketogenic diet (group 2) for four weeks, then the threshold for seizure induction and the firing rate of putative GABAergic neurons within the SNr were evaluated with progressive infusion of pentylenetetrazole under general anesthesia. The results demonstrated that the ketogenic diet abolished the correlation between the firing rate response of SNr-neurons and the seizure-threshold. This result suggests that the anti-seizure effect of ketogenic diets can be due to a decrease in reactivity of GABAergic SNr-neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Alteração na atividade de peroxidase e concentração de fenóis em microtangerinas (Citrus spp. infectadas por Phytophthora parasitica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ribamar Gusmão Araújo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to characterize and evaluate species and varieties of small-fruited mandarins of Tanaka’s group (Citrus spp. with potential use as rootstocks, in relation to infection to the Phytophthora parasitica, by means of foliar determination of peroxidase activity and total phenolics content. It was used the following species: C. reshni Hort. ex Tan., C. sunki Hort. ex Tan., C. pectinifera Tan., C. crenatifolia Lush., C. amblycarpa Ochese, C. aurantium L, C. reticulata Blanco and C. limonia Osb. The Center of Citrus Germoplasm of Botucatu and Cordeirópolis provide all plant material. Four resistant varieties to the stem rot and root rot infections: Pectinifera, Crenatifolia, Sun Chu Shu (clone Kat 1004 and Cleopatra (clone 1 were evaluated. Susceptible plants infected by P. parasitica presented higher activity of peroxidase, while phenolics contents were lower in susceptible group.

  11. Selection processes in a citrus hybrid population using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Roberto Pedroso de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the processes of selection in a citrus hybrid population using segregation analysis of RAPD markers. The segregation of 123 RAPD markers between 'Cravo' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco and 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck was analysed in a F1 progeny of 94 hybrids. Genetic composition, diversity, heterozygosity, differences in chromosomal structure and the presence of deleterious recessive genes are discussed based on the segregation ratios obtained. A high percentage of markers had a skeweness of the 1:1 expected segregation ratio in the F1 population. Many markers showed a 3:1 segregation ratio in both varieties and 1:3 in 'Pêra' sweet orange, probably due to directional selection processes. The distribution analysis of the frequencies of the segregant markers in a hybrid population is a simple method which allows a better understanding of the genetics of citrus group.

  12. Newly-fixed carbon preferentially flows through starch in the unicellular alga Rhodella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroen, W.K.; Ramus, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Cells of the unicellular red alga Rhodella reticulata produce copious amounts of anionic extracellular polysaccharides. Previous experiments, comparing growing and non-growing cells, showed little difference in the pattern of initial 14 C partitioning, with a high percentage of label in starch. Short labelling periods, followed by chasing in unlabelled medium, showed rapid movement of carbon through the starch pool within the first 6 hrs, with an accompanying increase in both the protein and mucilage fractions. The overall pattern of carbon metabolism appears fixed throughout growth of the cells, with total carbon input changing with changing growth phase. As starch is extrachloroplastic in the red algae, input of fixed carbon directly into the starch pool may serve as a routing mechanism to direct subsequent carbon metabolism within the cell

  13. Functional neuroanatomy of the basal ganglia as studied by dual-probe microdialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, William T.

    1998-01-01

    Dual probe microdialysis was employed in intact rat brain to investigate the effect of intrastriatal perfusion with selective dopamine D 1 and D 2 receptor agonists and with c-fos antisense oligonucleotide on (a) local GABA release in the striatum; (b) the internal segment of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata, which is the output site of the strionigral GABA pathway; and (c) the external segment of the globus pallidus, which is the output site of the striopallidal GABA pathway. The data provide functional in vivo evidence for a selective dopamine D 1 receptor-mediated activation of the direct strionigral GABA pathway and a selective dopamine D 2 receptor inhibition of the indirect striopallidal GABA pathway and provides a neuronal substrate for parallel processing in the basal ganglia regulation of motor function. Taken together, these findings offer new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of dopamine-linked disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and schizophrenia

  14. Study of four plants with traditional medicinal use cultivated in the Huetar Norte and Atlantica regions of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira-Gonzalez, Ileana; Arnaez Serrano, Elizabeth; Murillo-Masis, Renato; Quesada Mora, Silvia; Castro Araya, Victor; Zamora Ramirez, William; Navarro-Hoyos, Mirtha; Cordero-Hernandez, Meliza; Loaiza-Cardenas, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The advance in the domestication process of Phyllanthus niruri (chanca stone), Senna reticulata (Saragundi), Pettiveria alliaceae (Garlic) and Phyllanthus acuminatus (Chilillo) is highlighted, also phytochemistry and biological potential using techniques towards the establishment of protocols that ensure the proper use. At the same time, in a systematic way, good specific farming practice were introduced for the four species in groups of communities from the Huetar Norte and Huetar Atlantica regions. The purpose has been to support the use of these plants in a sustainable way. The transfer of results regarding good practices as well as knowledge on polyphenol contents and biological potential to the target groups has sought to support capacity building looking to improve their insertion in productive chains within communities, as an alternative livelihood, thus providing, in addition to academic scientific development through basic research results, socioeconomic and environmentally sustainable development. (author) [es

  15. Nanoplankton protists from the western Mediterranean Sea. II. Cryptomonads (Cryptophyceae = Crptomonadea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Novarino

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an electron microscopical account of cryptomonad flagellates (Cryptophyceae = Cryptomonadea in the plankton of the western Mediterranean Sea. Bottle samples collected during the spring-summer of 1998 in the Sea of Alboran and Barcelona coastal waters contained a total of eleven photosynthetic species: Chroomonas (sensu auctorum sp., Cryptochloris sp., 3 species of Hemiselmis, 3 species of Plagioselmis including Plagioselmis nordica stat. nov/sp. nov., Rhinomonas reticulata (Lucas Novarino, Teleaulax acuta (Butcher Hill, and Teleaulax amphioxeia (Conrad Hill. Identification was based largely on cell surface features, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Cells were either dispersed in the water-column or associated with suspended particulate matter (SPM. Plagioselmis prolonga was the most common species both in the water-column and in association with SPM, suggesting that it might be a key primary producer of carbon. Taxonomic keys are given based on SEM.

  16. Essential Oil Variation from Twenty Two Genotypes of Citrus in Brazil-Chemometric Approach and Repellency Against Diaphorina citri Kuwayama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Moacir Dos Santos; Ribeiro, Leandro do Prado; Borgoni, Paulo Cesar; Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da; Forim, Moacir Rossi; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Vendramin, José Djair; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2016-06-22

    The chemical composition of volatile oils from 22 genotypes of Citrus and related genera was poorly differentiated, but chemometric techniques have clarified the relationships between the 22 genotypes, and allowed us to understand their resistance to D. citri. The most convincing similarities include the synthesis of (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-caryophyllene for all 11 genotypes of group A. Genotypes of group B are not uniformly characterized by essential oil compounds. When stimulated with odor sources of 22 genotypes in a Y-tube olfactometer D. citri preferentially entered the arm containing the volatile oils of Murraya paniculata, confirming orange jasmine as its best host. C. reticulata × C. sinensis was the least preferred genotype, and is characterized by the presence of phytol, (Z)-β-ocimene, and β-elemene, which were not found in the most preferred genotype. We speculate that these three compounds may act as a repellent, making these oils less attractive to D. citri.

  17. Revision of the orb-weaving spider genus Verrucosa McCook, 1888 (Araneae, Araneidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lise, Arno A; Kesster, Cynara C; Da Silva, Estevam L Cruz

    2015-02-25

    The araneid spider genus Verrucosa McCook, 1888 is revised. Five of the seven previously known species, V. arenata (Walckenaer, 1841), V. lampra Soares & Camargo, 1948, V. meridionalis (Keyserling, 1892), V. undecimvariolata (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1889) and V. zebra (Keyserling, 1892), are redescribed and illustrated. In addition, 37 new species of Verrucosa from the Neotropical region are described and illustrated: V. cachimbo n. sp., V. tarapoa n. sp., V. scapofracta n. sp., V. carara n. sp., V. latigastra n. sp., V. guatopo n. sp., V. cuyuni n. sp., V. benavidesae n. sp., V. rancho n. sp., V. excavata n. sp., V. meta n. sp., V. levii n. sp., V. chanchamayo n. sp., V. manauara n. sp., V. brachiscapa n. sp., V. macarena n. sp., V. pedrera n. sp., V. lata n. sp., V. galianoae n. sp., V. suaita n. sp., V. coroico n. sp., V. florezi n. sp., V. hoferi n. sp., V. caninde n. sp., V. opon n. sp., V. silvae n. sp., V. avilesae n. sp., V. tuberculata n. sp., V. alvarengai n. sp., V. apuela n. sp., V. bartica n. sp., V. cajamarca n. sp., V. canje n. sp., V. cuyabenoensis n. sp., V. sergipana n. sp., V. simla n. sp. and V. rhea n. sp. Mahadiva reticulata O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 is removed from the synonymy of Verrucosa arenata (Walckenaer, 1841) and is recognized as a valid species, Verrucosa reticulata. Araneus cylicophorus Badcock, 1932 is transferred to Verrucosa by Mello-Leitão (1946) removed from the synonymy of Verrucosa meridionalis (Keyserling, 1892) and recognized as a valid species. The male of Verrucosa meridionalis (Keyserling, 1892) is described for the first time. Distributional maps are provided for all species.

  18. Neuroanatomical patterns of the mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors of rat brain as determined by quantitative in vitro autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempel, A.; Zukin, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Highly specific radioligands and quantitative autoradiography reveal strikingly different neuroanatomical patterns for the mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors of rat brain. The mu receptors are most densely localized in patches in the striatum, layers I and III of the cortex, the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampal formation, specific nuclei of the thalamus, the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra, the interpeduncular nucleus, and the locus coeruleus. In contrast, delta receptors are highly confined, exhibiting selective localization in layers I, II, and VIa of the neocortex, a diffuse pattern in the striatum, and moderate concentration in the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra and in the interpeduncular nucleus. delta receptors are absent in most other brain structures. This distribution is unexpected in that the enkephalins, the putative endogenous ligands of the delta receptor, occur essentially throughout the brain. The kappa receptors of rat brain exhibit a third pattern distinct from that of the mu and delta receptors. kappa receptors occur at low density in patches in the striatum and at particularly high density in the nucleus accumbens, along the pyramidal and molecular layers of the hippocampus, in the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus, specific midline nuclei of the thalamus, and hindbrain regions. kappa receptors appear to be uniformly distributed across regions in the neocortex with the exception of layer III, which revealed only trace levels of binding. An important conclusion of the present study is that delta receptors occur at high density only in the forebrain and in two midbrain structures, whereas mu and kappa receptors exhibit discrete patterns in most major brain regions

  19. Synergistic combinations of high hydrostatic pressure and essential oils or their constituents and their use in preservation of fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Laura; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Laglaoui, Amin; Mackey, Bernard M; Pagán, Rafael

    2013-01-15

    This work addresses the inactivation achieved with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e by combined processes of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and essential oils (EOs) or their chemical constituents (CCs). HHP treatments (175-400 MPa for 20 min) were combined with 200 μL/L of each EO (Citrus sinensis L., Citrus lemon L., Citrus reticulata L., Thymus algeriensis L., Eucalyptus globulus L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mentha pulegium L., Juniperus phoenicea L., and Cyperus longus L.) or each CC ((+)-limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, p-cymene, thymol, carvacrol, borneol, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, 1,8-cineole, α-terpinyl acetate, camphor, and (+)-pulegone) in buffer of pH 4.0 or 7.0. The tested combinations achieved different degrees of inactivation, the most effective being (+)-limonene, carvacrol, C. reticulata L. EO, T. algeriensis L. EO and C. sinensis L. EO which were capable of inactivating about 4-5 log(10) cycles of the initial cell populations in combination with HHP, and therefore showed outstanding synergistic effects. (+)-Limonene was also capable of inactivating 5 log(10) cycles of the initial E. coli O157:H7 population in combination with HHP (300 MPa for 20 min) in orange and apple juices, and a direct relationship was established between the inactivation degree caused by the combined process with (+)-limonene and the occurrence of sublethal injury after the HHP treatment. This work shows the potential of EOs and CCs in the inactivation of foodborne pathogens in combined treatments with HHP, and proposes their possible use in liquid food such as fruit juices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of dietary esfenvalerate exposures on three aquatic insect species representing different functional feeding groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Katherine R; Jenkins, Jeffrey J; Jepson, Paul C

    2008-08-01

    Given the chemical properties of synthetic pyrethroids, it is probable that compounds, including esfenvalerate, that enter surface waters may become incorporated into aquatic insect food sources. We examined the effect of dietary esfenvalerate uptake in aquatic insects representing different functional feeding groups. We used three field-collected aquatic insect species: A grazing scraper, Cinygmula reticulata McDunnough (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae); an omnivorous filter feeder, Brachycentrus americanus Banks (Trichoptera: Brachycentridae); and a predator, Hesperoperla pacifica Banks (Plecoptera: Perlidae). Laboratory-cultured algae were preexposed for 24 h to esfenvalerate concentrations of 0, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 microg/L and provided to two C. reticulata age classes (small and final-instar nymphs). Reduction in small nymph growth was observed following three weeks of feeding on algae exposed to 0.05 and 0.1 microg/L of esfenvalerate, and the highest dietary exposure reduced egg production in final-instar nymphs. The diet for B. americanus and H. pacifica consisted of dead third-instar Chironomus tentans larvae preexposed for 24 h to esfenvalerate concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1.0 microg/L. Consumption of larvae exposed to 0.5 to 1.0 microg/L of esfenvalerate caused case abandonment and mortality in B. americanus caddisfly larvae. Although H. pacifica nymphs readily consumed esfenvalerate-exposed larvae, no adverse effects were observed during the present study. Furthermore, no evidence of esfenvalerate-induced feeding deterrence was found in any of the species tested, suggesting that aquatic insects may not be able to distinguish between pyrethroid-contaminated and uncontaminated food sources. These findings indicate that feeding deterrence is not a factor in regulating aquatic insect dietary exposures to synthetic pyrethroids.