Sample records for salvador exploitation model

  1. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Exploitation model, performance predictions, economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripperda, M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Goranson, C.


    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is conducting a reservoir evaluation study of the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador. This work is being performed in cooperation with the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with funding from the US Agency for International Development (USAID). This report describes the work done during the second year of the study (FY89--90). The first year's report included (1) the development of geological and conceptual models of the field, (2) the evaluation of the reservoir's initial thermodynamic and chemical conditions and their changes during exploitation, (3) the evaluation of interference test data and the observed reservoir pressure decline and (4) the development of a natural state model for the field. In the present report the results of reservoir engineering studies to evaluate different production-injection scenarios for the Ahuachapan geothermal field are discussed. The purpose of the work was to evaluate possible reservoir management options to enhance as well as to maintain the productivity of the field during a 30-year period (1990--2020). The ultimate objective was to determine the feasibility of increasing the electrical power output at Ahuachapan from the current level of about 50 MW{sub e} to the total installed capacity of 95 MW{sub e}. 20 refs., 75 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Dollarization In El Salvador And Ecuador: A Model Worth Following (United States)


    Salvadoran experience, but at the same time it has its own unique story. Like El Salvador, Ecuador was colonized by the Spanish which largely resulted...Almost immediately after the Spanish conquistadores arrived, they instituted an externally focused, commodity driven export market. This type of

  3. Exploitation of parallelism in climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, F.; Tribbia, J.J.; Williamson, D.L.


    The US Department of Energy (DOE) through its CHAMMP initiative, hopes to develop the capability to make meaningful regional climate forecasts on time scales exceeding a decade, such capability to be based on numerical prediction type models. We propose research to contribute to each of the specific items enumerated in the CHAMMP announcement (Notice 9103); i.e., to consider theoretical limits to prediction of climate and climate change on appropriate time scales, to develop new mathematical techniques to utilize massively parallel processors (MPP), to actually utilize MPP's as a research tool, and to develop improved representations of some processes essential to climate prediction. To explore these initiatives, we will exploit all available computing technology, and in particular MPP machines. We anticipate that significant improvements in modeling of climate on the decadal and longer time scales for regional space scales will result from our efforts. This report summarizes the activities of our group during a part of the first year's effort to meet the objectives stated in our proposal. We will comment on three research foci, time compression studies, subgrid scale model studies, and distributed climate ensemble studies and additional significant technical matters.

  4. Exploitation of Parallelism in Climate Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, F.; Tribbia, J.J.; Williamson, D.L.


    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through its CHAMMP initiative, hopes to develop the capability to make meaningful regional climate forecasts on time scales exceeding a decade, such capability to be based on numerical prediction type models. We propose research to contribute to each of the specific items enumerated in the CHAMMP announcement (Notice 91-3); i.e., to consider theoretical limits to prediction of climate and climate change on appropriate time scales, to develop new mathematical techniques to utilize massively parallel processors (MPP), to actually utilize MPPs as a research tool, and to develop improved representations of some processes essential to climate prediction. In particular, our goals are to: (1) Reconfigure the prediction equations such that the time iteration process can be compressed by use of MMP architecture, and to develop appropriate algorithms. (2) Develop local subgrid scale models which can provide time and space dependent parameterization for a state- of-the-art climate model to minimize the scale resolution necessary for a climate model, and to utilize MPP capability to simultaneously integrate those subgrid models and their statistics. (3) Capitalize on the MPP architecture to study the inherent ensemble nature of the climate problem. By careful choice of initial states, many realizations of the climate system can be determined concurrently and more realistic assessments of the climate prediction can be made in a realistic time frame. To explore these initiatives, we will exploit all available computing technology, and in particular MPP machines. We anticipate that significant improvements in modeling of climate on the decadal and longer time scales for regional space scales will result from our efforts.

  5. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models. (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Larreynaga, J.; González, M.; Castro, M.; Gavidia, F.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; González-Riancho, P.; Carreño, E.


    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and deterministic methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold: on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high-resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps, and from the elevation in the near shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific Basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences-finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the linear and non-linear shallow water equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake-generated tsunami scenarios. Our results show that at the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results

  6. Geostatistical Spatio-Time model of crime in el Salvador: Structural and Predictive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welman Rosa Alvarado


    Full Text Available Today, to study a geospatial and spatio-temporal phenomena requires searching statistical tools that enable the analysis of the dependency of space, time and interactions. The science that studies this kind of subjects is the Geoestatics which the goal is to predict spatial phenomenon. This science is considered the base for modeling phenomena that involves interactions between space and time. In the past 10 years, the Geostatistic had seen a great development in areas like the geology, soils, remote sensing, epidemiology, agriculture, ecology, economy, etc. In this research, the geostatistic had been apply to build a predictive map about crime in El Salvador; for that the variability of space and time together is studied to generate crime scenarios: crime hot spots are determined, crime vulnerable groups are identified, to improve political decisions and facilitate to decision makers about the insecurity in the country.

  7. [Ecotourism exploitation model in Bita Lake Natural Reserve of Yunnan]. (United States)

    Yang, G; Wang, Y; Zhong, L


    Bita lake provincial natural reserve is located in Shangri-La region of North-western Yunnan, and was set as a demonstrating area for ecotourism exploitation in 1998. After a year's exploitation construction and half a year's operation as a branch of the 99' Kunming International Horticulture Exposition to accept tourists, it was proved that the ecotourism demonstrating area attained four integrated functions of ecotourism, i.e., tourism, protection, poverty clearing and environment education. Five exploitation and management models including function zoned exploitation model, featured tourism communication model signs system designing model, local Tibetan family reception model and environmental monitoring model, were also successful, which were demonstrated and spreaded to the whole province. Bita lake provincial natural reserve could be a good sample for the ecotourism exploitation natural reserves of the whole country.

  8. Optimization Models for Petroleum Field Exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsbraaten, Tore Wiig


    This thesis presents and discusses various models for optimal development of a petroleum field. The objective of these optimization models is to maximize, under many uncertain parameters, the project`s expected net present value. First, an overview of petroleum field optimization is given from the point of view of operations research. Reservoir equations for a simple reservoir system are derived and discretized and included in optimization models. Linear programming models for optimizing production decisions are discussed and extended to mixed integer programming models where decisions concerning platform, wells and production strategy are optimized. Then, optimal development decisions under uncertain oil prices are discussed. The uncertain oil price is estimated by a finite set of price scenarios with associated probabilities. The problem is one of stochastic mixed integer programming, and the solution approach is to use a scenario and policy aggregation technique developed by Rockafellar and Wets although this technique was developed for continuous variables. Stochastic optimization problems with focus on problems with decision dependent information discoveries are also discussed. A class of ``manageable`` problems is identified and an implicit enumeration algorithm for finding optimal decision policy is proposed. Problems involving uncertain reservoir properties but with a known initial probability distribution over possible reservoir realizations are discussed. Finally, a section on Nash-equilibrium and bargaining in an oil reservoir management game discusses the pool problem arising when two lease owners have access to the same underlying oil reservoir. Because the oil tends to migrate, both lease owners have incentive to drain oil from the competitors part of the reservoir. The discussion is based on a numerical example. 107 refs., 31 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. A fuzzy model for exploiting customer requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Javadirad


    Full Text Available Nowadays, Quality function deployment (QFD is one of the total quality management tools, where customers’ views and requirements are perceived and using various techniques improves the production requirements and operations. The QFD department, after identification and analysis of the competitors, takes customers’ feedbacks to meet the customers’ demands for the products compared with the competitors. In this study, a comprehensive model for assessing the importance of the customer requirements in the products or services for an organization is proposed. The proposed study uses linguistic variables, as a more comprehensive approach, to increase the precision of the expression evaluations. The importance of these requirements specifies the strengths and weaknesses of the organization in meeting the requirements relative to competitors. The results of these experiments show that the proposed method performs better than the other methods.

  10. Exploring, exploiting and evolving diversity of aquatic ecosystem models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Annette B. G.; Arhonditsis, George B.; Beusen, Arthur


    Here, we present a community perspective on how to explore, exploit and evolve the diversity in aquatic ecosystem models. These models play an important role in understanding the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, filling in observation gaps and developing effective strategies for water quality...... management. In this spirit, numerous models have been developed since the 1970s. We set off to explore model diversity by making an inventory among 42 aquatic ecosystem modellers, by categorizing the resulting set of models and by analysing them for diversity. We then focus on how to exploit model diversity...... by comparing and combining different aspects of existing models. Finally, we discuss how model diversity came about in the past and could evolve in the future. Throughout our study, we use analogies from biodiversity research to analyse and interpret model diversity. We recommend to make models publicly...

  11. Exploring, exploiting and evolving diversity of aquatic ecosystem models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.B.G.; Arhonditsis, G.B.; Beusen, Arthur; Bolding, Karsten; Bruce, Louise; Bruggeman, Jorn; Couture, Raoul Marie; Downing, Andrea S.; Alex Elliott, J.; Frassl, M.A.; Gal, Gideon; Gerla, Daan J.; Hipsey, M.R.; Hu, Fenjuan; Ives, S.C.; Janse, J.H.; Jeppesen, Erik; Jöhnk, K.D.; Kneis, David; Kong, Xiangzhen; Kuiper, J.J.; Lehmann, M.K.; Lemmen, Carsten; Özkundakci, Deniz; Petzoldt, Thomas; Rinke, Karsten; Robson, B.J.; Sachse, René; Schep, S.A.; Schmid, Martin; Scholten, Huub; Teurlincx, Sven; Trolle, Dennis; Troost, T.A.; Dam, Van A.A.; Gerven, Van L.P.A.; Weijerman, Mariska; Wells, S.A.; Mooij, W.M.


    Here, we present a community perspective on how to explore, exploit and evolve the diversity in aquatic ecosystem models. These models play an important role in understanding the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, filling in observation gaps and developing effective strategies for water quality

  12. El Salvador. (United States)


    Background notes on El Salvador capsulizes specific statistical and descriptive information on geography, demography, government. and economic conditions. The man text describes the people, their history and the nature of the peace process, principal government officials, political conditions, human rights, the state of the economy, foreign relations, and relations with the US. In 1992, the estimated population was about 5 million of which 89% are mestizo (Spanish-Indian), 10% Indian, and 1% Caucasian. 58% live in rural areas. It is largely Roman Catholic. Literacy is about 65% among adults. 6 years of education are compulsory. 40% are engaged in agriculture, 27% in services, and 16% in industry. The gross domestic product was $5.1 billion; per capita income was $1160. El Salvador's history has been marked by frequent revolutions. Almost every present since 1932 has been a military officer. In the more recent past (1969-80), Honduras and El Salvador fought over borders; a peace treaty was signed in 1980, but it was not until 1992 that the land in dispute was awarded by the International Court of Justice to Honduras. During the 1970, efforts by Duarte were made toward democratic reform, but fraud and corruption contributed to the rise of armed guerrilla warfare as a means to bring about change. There were rightist and leftists groups accelerating violence; event he Salvadoran armed forces engaged in lawlessness. The judicial system failed. Nicaragua after 1979 supplied arms and munitions to 5 guerrilla groups. Duarte returned to power and his junta initiated land reform and nationalized banks and marketing of coffee and sugar. The elections in 1982 led to the transfer of power to Alvaro Magana. The new constitution in 1983 appeased some, but land reforms still did not satisfy guerrillas. Duarte was elected again in 1984 and Alfredo Christiani in 1989 in a peaceful transfer of power. In 1991 and 1992 peace accords were signed with the guerrillas. During this 12-year

  13. Enhanced surrogate models for statistical design exploiting space mapping technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawek; Bandler, John W.; Mohamed, Achmed S.


    We present advances in microwave and RF device modeling exploiting Space Mapping (SM) technology. We propose new SM modeling formulations utilizing input mappings, output mappings, frequency scaling and quadratic approximations. Our aim is to enhance circuit models for statistical analysis...... and yield-driven design. We illustrate our results using a capacitively-loaded two-section impedance transformer, a single-resonator waveguide filter and a six-section H-plane waveguide filter....

  14. Testing cosmic dose rate models for ESR: Dating corals and molluscs on San Salvador, Bahamas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deely, A.E. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Blackwell, B.A.B., E-mail: [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Dept. of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown MA, 01267-2692 (United States); Mylroie, J.E. [Dept. of Geosciences, Mississippi State University, MS, 39762-5448 (United States); Carew, J.L. [Dept. of Geology and Environmental Geosciences, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Blickstein, J.I.B. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Skinner, A.R. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Dept. of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown MA, 01267-2692 (United States)


    Sealevel curves are best developed on tectonically stable coastlines, like San Salvador, where eolianites preserve transgressive and regressive phases associated with Quaternary high seastands, while reef facies mark the highstands. At 11 locations around San Salvador, terrestrial molluscs (Cerion) from the eolianites, lagoonal bivalves (Codakia), and corals from the highstand deposits were dated by ESR. Volumetrically averaged sedimentary dose rates were calculated from sedimentary geochemistry and time-averaged cosmic dose rates from each sample's current and past geologic contexts. Rice Bay Formation corals dated at 3.9 {+-} 0.3 to 7.1 {+-} 0.4 ka (OIS 1). Minimum ages for the Cockburn Town Member's regressive phase ranged from 49 {+-} 6 to 75 {+-} 8 ka, correlating with OIS 3-4. Codakia dates showed that an OIS 5a sealevel approached modern levels at 91-78 ka. In situ corals from the Cockburn Town Reef averaged from 127 {+-} 6 to 138 {+-} 10 ka, correlating well with OIS 5e. Ages from the Reef's rubble zones hint that some coral reefs grew as early as OIS 7, but were likely reworked during OIS 5. San Salvador preserves deposits from three mid to late Quaternary highstands above, and as many as three that closely approach, modern sealevel.

  15. Exploiting Thread Parallelism for Ocean Modeling on Cray XC Supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarje, Abhinav [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jacobsen, Douglas W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Samuel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ringler, Todd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oliker, Leonid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The incorporation of increasing core counts in modern processors used to build state-of-the-art supercomputers is driving application development towards exploitation of thread parallelism, in addition to distributed memory parallelism, with the goal of delivering efficient high-performance codes. In this work we describe the exploitation of threading and our experiences with it with respect to a real-world ocean modeling application code, MPAS-Ocean. We present detailed performance analysis and comparisons of various approaches and configurations for threading on the Cray XC series supercomputers.

  16. Space Mapping Optimization of Microwave Circuits Exploiting Surrogate Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr, M. H.; Bandler, J. W.; Madsen, Kaj


    is a convex combination of a mapped coarse model and a linearized fine model. It exploits, in a novel way, a linear frequency-sensitive mapping. During the optimization iterates, the coarse and fine models are simulated at different sets of frequencies. This approach is shown to be especially powerful......A powerful new space-mapping (SM) optimization algorithm is presented in this paper. It draws upon recent developments in both surrogate model-based optimization and modeling of microwave devices, SM optimization is formulated as a general optimization problem of a surrogate model. This model...

  17. Mathematical modeling of the behavior of geothermal systems under exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodvarsson, G.S.


    Analytical and numerical methods have been used in this investigation to model the behavior of geothermal systems under exploitation. The work is divided into three parts: (1) development of a numerical code, (2) theoretical studies of geothermal systems, and (3) field applications. A new single-phase three-dimensional simulator, capable of solving heat and mass flow problems in a saturated, heterogeneous porous or fractured medium has been developed. The simulator uses the integrated finite difference method for formulating the governing equations and an efficient sparse solver for the solution of the linearized equations. In the theoretical studies, various reservoir engineering problems have been examined. These include (a) well-test analysis, (b) exploitation strategies, (c) injection into fractured rocks, and (d) fault-charged geothermal reservoirs.

  18. [Strategic planning models at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán]. (United States)

    Velázquez-Pastrana, Ruth


    The Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (Spanish acronym INCMNSZ) is a third tier healthcare facility operated by the Mexican Ministry of Health, ando ver the years various strategic planning models have been used in its development. This paper present a brief overview of some of those strategic planning models and their application and concludes with a discussion of the lessons learned and challenges than remain.

  19. Exploitation of parallelism in climate models. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Ferdinand; Tribbia, Joseph J.; Williamson, David L.


    This final report includes details on the research accomplished by the grant entitled 'Exploitation of Parallelism in Climate Models' to the University of Maryland. The purpose of the grant was to shed light on (a) how to reconfigure the atmospheric prediction equations such that the time iteration process could be compressed by use of MPP architecture; (b) how to develop local subgrid scale models which can provide time and space dependent parameterization for a state-of-the-art climate model to minimize the scale resolution necessary for a climate model, and to utilize MPP capability to simultaneously integrate those subgrid models and their statistics; and (c) how to capitalize on the MPP architecture to study the inherent ensemble nature of the climate problem. In the process of addressing these issues, we created parallel algorithms with spectral accuracy; we developed a process for concurrent climate simulations; we established suitable model reconstructions to speed up computation; we identified and tested optimum realization statistics; we undertook a number of parameterization studies to better understand model physics; and we studied the impact of subgrid scale motions and their parameterization in atmospheric models.

  20. Exploiting topic modeling to boost metagenomic reads binning. (United States)

    Zhang, Ruichang; Cheng, Zhanzhan; Guan, Jihong; Zhou, Shuigeng


    With the rapid development of high-throughput technologies, researchers can sequence the whole metagenome of a microbial community sampled directly from the environment. The assignment of these metagenomic reads into different species or taxonomical classes is a vital step for metagenomic analysis, which is referred to as binning of metagenomic data. In this paper, we propose a new method TM-MCluster for binning metagenomic reads. First, we represent each metagenomic read as a set of "k-mers" with their frequencies occurring in the read. Then, we employ a probabilistic topic model -- the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model to the reads, which generates a number of hidden "topics" such that each read can be represented by a distribution vector of the generated topics. Finally, as in the MCluster method, we apply SKWIC -- a variant of the classical K-means algorithm with automatic feature weighting mechanism to cluster these reads represented by topic distributions. Experiments show that the new method TM-MCluster outperforms major existing methods, including AbundanceBin, MetaCluster 3.0/5.0 and MCluster. This result indicates that the exploitation of topic modeling can effectively improve the binning performance of metagenomic reads.

  1. October 1986 San Salvador, El Salvador Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — At least 1,000 people killed, 10,000 injured, 200,000 homeless and severe damage in the San Salvador area. About 50 fatalities were the result of landslides in the...

  2. Mining in El Salvador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir


    In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country.......In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country....

  3. Assessment of earthquake-triggered landslide susceptibility in El Salvador based on an Artificial Neural Network model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. García-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach for assessing earthquake-triggered landslide susceptibility using artificial neural networks (ANNs. The computational method used for the training process is a back-propagation learning algorithm. It is applied to El Salvador, one of the most seismically active regions in Central America, where the last severe destructive earthquakes occurred on 13 January 2001 (Mw 7.7 and 13 February 2001 (Mw 6.6. The first one triggered more than 600 landslides (including the most tragic, Las Colinas landslide and killed at least 844 people.

    The ANN is designed and programmed to develop landslide susceptibility analysis techniques at a regional scale. This approach uses an inventory of landslides and different parameters of slope instability: slope gradient, elevation, aspect, mean annual precipitation, lithology, land use, and terrain roughness. The information obtained from ANN is then used by a Geographic Information System (GIS to map the landslide susceptibility. In a previous work, a Logistic Regression (LR was analysed with the same parameters considered in the ANN as independent variables and the occurrence or non-occurrence of landslides as dependent variables. As a result, the logistic approach determined the importance of terrain roughness and soil type as key factors within the model. The results of the landslide susceptibility analysis with ANN are checked using landslide location data. These results show a high concordance between the landslide inventory and the high susceptibility estimated zone. Finally, a comparative analysis of the ANN and LR models are made. The advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are discussed using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves.

  4. Initial Analysis of Inner Crater Eruptive Deposits and Modeling of the 2005 Eruption of Ilamatepec (Santa Ana) Volcano, El Salvador (United States)

    Martinez-Hackert, B.; Bajo, J. V.; Escobar, D.; Gutierrez, E.


    The October 1st, 2005 eruption of Ilamatepec Volcano, also known as Santa Ana Volcano in El Salvador, Central America, was a relatively small phreatic possibly phreatomagmatic eruption that generated an approximately 10km high ash column, with a volume of 1.5 million cubic meters. It generated small pyroclastic density currents, and shortly after the eruption a hot lahar. All of these volcanic products present grat danger to the surrounding population and the surrounding fertile lands growing coffe and sugar cane, the major export products. To better understand the eruptive behavior of this active composite volcano, older deposits need to be studied. An initial analysis of the inner crater eruptive deposits was undertaken in 2011. The many layers that can be seen within the crater suggest that Santa Ana volcano alternates its eruptions from phreatic to phreatomagmatic to magmatic, back to phreatomagmatic to phreatic with a period of rest in between. The last magmatic eruption of the Santa Ana Volcano took place in 1904. There are some historical records of it, and the scoracious materials and lava flows can still be well traced on the flanks and the crater of Ilamatepec, while the 2005 eruption has been eroded away in most areas of the flanks. Observations and data collected in 2005 and 2011 indicate that pyroclastic density currents went not only to the Southeastern flanks of the volcano, but also towards the Northwestern flanks, an area behind the highest rim of the volcano. Deposits up to 0.5 m were found in 2011, after significant erosion already had taken place. We present here the partial stratigraphic column taken within the inner crater walls that indicate alternating eruption styles from eruptions well pre-1904, with radiocarbon dating pending. Additionally, we show the results of the modeling of pyroclastic deposits, and lahars using Titan2D on DEMs extracted from the only topographic map (pre-1980) which has a 10 m resolution of the volcano, and a DEM

  5. Television production, Funding Models and Exploitation of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Doyle


    Full Text Available The rise of digital platforms has transformative implications for strategies of financing media production and for exploitation of the economic value in creative content. In the television industry, changes in technologies for distribution and the emergence of SVOD services such as Netflix are gradually shifting audiences and financial power away from broadcasters while at the same time creating unprecedented opportunities for programme-makers.  Drawing on findings from recent RCUK-funded research, this article examines how these shifts are affecting production financing and the economics of supplying television content.  In particular, it focuses on how changes in the dynamics of rights markets and in strategic approaches towards the financing of television production might mean for markets, industries and for policies intended to support the economic sustainability of independent television content production businesses.

  6. IDRC in El Salvador

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Grantee: Instituto de Estudios Comparados en Ciencias Penales de Guatemala. Central American countries report some of the highest homicide rates in the world. Organized crime is rampant, and trans- national gangs are among the region's most powerful institutions. Researchers mapping crime activity in El Salvador and ...

  7. Production et commercialisation durables de l'indigo au Salvador ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Asociación Balsamo tente de mettre au point un nouveau modèle agroindustriel de production d'indigo, au Salvador, qui permettra aux petits exploitants de faire de cette culture leur principale source de revenus. Le projet permettra à une équipe ...

  8. Economic modelling under conditions of exploitation of cohesive construction minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mikoláš


    Full Text Available Managers of mining companies use for decision-making on optimization of manufacturing processes advanced modelling methods and simulations on computers. The article proposes and analyses the model of a mining company production cycle consisting of a three-dimensional quarry model, technology model and economic-mathematical model. Based on the latter model an economic simulation model of a quarry has been created in the MS Excel program currently available on all personal computers, which measures outputs in the form of changes in total and unit costs according to the generic classification of costs in response to changes in inputs in the form of parameters of technology equipment and other operating parameters. Managers use the economic simulation model of quarry as decision support to increase profitability or improve competitiveness of their product from the sector of construction minerals.

  9. Exploiting Modelling and Simulation in Support of Cyber Defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.H.A.; Boltjes, B.; Croom-Jonson, S.; Jonat, F.; Çankaya, Y.


    The rapidly evolving environment of Cyber threats against the NATO Alliance has necessitated a renewed focus on the development of Cyber Defence policy and capabilities. The NATO Modelling and Simulation Group is looking for ways to leverage Modelling and Simulation experience in research, analysis

  10. Exploiting Instability: A Model for Managing Organizational Change. (United States)

    Frank, Debra; Rocks, William

    In response to decreased levels of funding and declining enrollments, increased competition, and major technological advances, Allegany Community College, in Maryland, has developed a model for managing organizational change. The model incorporates the following four components for effective transition and change: conceptualization; communication;…

  11. Exploiting linkage disequilibrium in statistical modelling in quantitative genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei

    Alleles at two loci are said to be in linkage disequilibrium (LD) when they are correlated or statistically dependent. Genomic prediction and gene mapping rely on the existence of LD between gentic markers and causul variants of complex traits. In the first part of the thesis, a novel method...... the recently proposed antedependence models, which treat neighbouring marker effects as correlated; another approach involves use of haplotype block information derived using the program Beagle. The overall conclusion is that taking LD information into account in genomic prediction models potentially improves...

  12. Religious Coping, Spirituality, and Substance Use and Abuse Among Youth in High-Risk Communities in San Salvador, El Salvador (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Olate, Rene; Vaughn, Michael G.


    Little is known about the relationship between religious coping, spirituality, and substance use in developing nations such as El Salvador. Collected in 2011, the sample consists of 290 high-risk and gang-involved adolescents (11–17 years) and young adults (18–25 years) in San Salvador, El Salvador. Structural equation modeling and logistic regression are employed to examine the associations between the Measure of Religious Coping (RCOPE), the Intrinsic Spirituality Scale, and substance use and abuse. Results suggest that spirituality and, to a far lesser degree, religious coping may serve to protect for substance use and abuse among this high-risk population of Salvadoran youth. PMID:23647129

  13. Using CASE to Exploit Process Modeling in Technology Transfer (United States)

    Renz-Olar, Cheryl


    A successful business will be one that has processes in place to run that business. Creating processes, reengineering processes, and continually improving processes can be accomplished through extensive modeling. Casewise(R) Corporate Modeler(TM) CASE is a computer aided software engineering tool that will enable the Technology Transfer Department (TT) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to capture these abilities. After successful implementation of CASE, it could then go on to be applied in other departments at MSFC and other centers at NASA. The success of a business process is dependent upon the players working as a team and continuously improving the process. A good process fosters customer satisfaction as well as internal satisfaction in the organizational infrastructure. CASE provides a method for business process success through functions consisting of systems and processes business models; specialized diagrams; matrix management; simulation; report generation and publishing; and, linking, importing, and exporting documents and files. The software has an underlying repository or database to support these functions. The Casewise. manual informs us that dynamics modeling is a technique used in business design and analysis. Feedback is used as a tool for the end users and generates different ways of dealing with the process. Feedback on this project resulted from collection of issues through a systems analyst interface approach of interviews with process coordinators and Technical Points of Contact (TPOCs).

  14. The German gas hydrate initiative sugar : innovative exploitation techniques, numerical modelling, and laboratory experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeckel, M. [IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany)


    The German gas hydrate initiative and innovative exploitation techniques, numerical modelling, and laboratory experiments were discussed in this presentation. The main objectives of the sugar project are to model spatial and temporal distribution of sub-seafloor gas hydrates; to constrain major control parameters of hydrate formation; and to develop a new tool for three-dimensional prediction of gas hydrate deposits. The overall purpose is to predict exploitable gas hydrate deposits. Several illustrations were offered, including basin/geological modelling; properties of gas hydrate layers; and nested model/local grid refinement. The future of basin modeling was also discussed with particular reference to testing and calibration of software packages. Options for carbon dioxide storage and methane hydrate exploitation as well as critical issues that needed to be addressed were also outlined. Several reservoir modelling projects were presented. Scenarios and technical concepts were discussed. The presentation concluded with a summary of international co-operation efforts in this area. tabs., figs.

  15. Exploiting Textured 3D Models for Developing Serious Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kontogianni


    Full Text Available Digital technologies have affected significantly many fields of computer graphics such as Games and especially the field of the Serious Games. These games are usually used for educational proposes in many fields such as Health Care, Military applications, Education, Government etc. Especially Digital Cultural Heritage is a scientific area that Serious Games are applied and lately many applications appear in the related literature. Realistic 3D textured models which have been produced using different photogrammetric methods could be a useful tool for the creation of Serious Game applications in order to make the final result more realistic and close to the reality. The basic goal of this paper is how 3D textured models which are produced by photogrammetric methods can be useful for developing a more realistic environment of a Serious Game. The application of this project aims at the creation of an educational game for the Ancient Agora of Athens. The 3D models used vary not only as far as their production methods (i.e. Time of Flight laser scanner, Structure from Motion, Virtual historical reconstruction etc. is concerned, but also as far as their era as some of them illustrated according to their existing situation and some others according to how these monuments looked like in the past. The Unity 3D® game developing environment was used for creating this application, in which all these models were inserted in the same file format. For the application two diachronic virtual tours of the Athenian Agora were produced. The first one illustrates the Agora as it is today and the second one at the 2nd century A.D. Finally the future perspective for the evolution of this game is presented which includes the addition of some questions that the user will be able to answer. Finally an evaluation is scheduled to be performed at the end of the project.

  16. Acquiring and Exploiting Rich Causal Models for Robust Decision Making (United States)


    snake robot in a maze -like world. The models learns a set of motion primitives that look like the serpentine motions of real snakes – because those are 8...Figure 8: On the left: a simple maze world with shared structure between states. States are fully observable, but are augmented with information about...must navigate a maze (left); the right shows performance (vertical axis) as a function of time (horizontal axis) for different algo- rithms. BOSS

  17. Exploiting Language Models to Classify Events from Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc-Thuan Vo


    Full Text Available Classifying events is challenging in Twitter because tweets texts have a large amount of temporal data with a lot of noise and various kinds of topics. In this paper, we propose a method to classify events from Twitter. We firstly find the distinguishing terms between tweets in events and measure their similarities with learning language models such as ConceptNet and a latent Dirichlet allocation method for selectional preferences (LDA-SP, which have been widely studied based on large text corpora within computational linguistic relations. The relationship of term words in tweets will be discovered by checking them under each model. We then proposed a method to compute the similarity between tweets based on tweets’ features including common term words and relationships among their distinguishing term words. It will be explicit and convenient for applying to k-nearest neighbor techniques for classification. We carefully applied experiments on the Edinburgh Twitter Corpus to show that our method achieves competitive results for classifying events.

  18. Exploitation of Semantic Building Model in Indoor Navigation Systems (United States)

    Anjomshoaa, A.; Shayeganfar, F.; Tjoa, A. Min


    There are many types of indoor and outdoor navigation tools and methodologies available. A majority of these solutions are based on Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and instant video and image processing. These approaches are ideal for open world environments where very few information about the target location is available, but for large scale building environments such as hospitals, governmental offices, etc the end-user will need more detailed information about the surrounding context which is especially important in case of people with special needs. This paper presents a smart indoor navigation solution that is based on Semantic Web technologies and Building Information Model (BIM). The proposed solution is also aligned with Google Android's concepts to enlighten the realization of results. Keywords: IAI IFCXML, Building Information Model, Indoor Navigation, Semantic Web, Google Android, People with Special Needs 1 Introduction Built environment is a central factor in our daily life and a big portion of human life is spent inside buildings. Traditionally the buildings are documented using building maps and plans by utilization of IT tools such as computer-aided design (CAD) applications. Documenting the maps in an electronic way is already pervasive but CAD drawings do not suffice the requirements regarding effective building models that can be shared with other building-related applications such as indoor navigation systems. The navigation in built environment is not a new issue, however with the advances in emerging technologies like GPS, mobile and networked environments, and Semantic Web new solutions have been suggested to enrich the traditional building maps and convert them to smart information resources that can be reused in other applications and improve the interpretability with building inhabitants and building visitors. Other important issues that should be addressed in building navigation scenarios are location tagging and end-user communication

  19. Models for solid oxide fuel cell systems exploitation of models hierarchy for industrial design of control and diagnosis strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Marra, Dario; Polverino, Pierpaolo; Sorrentino, Marco


    This book presents methodologies for optimal design of control and diagnosis strategies for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell systems. A key feature of the methodologies presented is the exploitation of modelling tools that balance accuracy and computational burden.

  20. Shapes and excitations of heavy nuclei: Exploiting the simplicities of algebraic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casten, R.F. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States) Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik)


    Despite years of study there are still major unanswered questions concerning the shapes of medium and heavy nuclei and the nature of their intrinsic excitations. Some of these questions may profitably be addressed by exploiting the simplicities inherent in algebraic models. Examples, using the IBA, focusing on axial asymmetry, the nature of {beta} and {gamma} vibrations, and octupole correlations will be briefly discussed.

  1. Shapes and excitations of heavy nuclei: Exploiting the simplicities of algebraic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casten, R.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik


    Despite years of study there are still major unanswered questions concerning the shapes of medium and heavy nuclei and the nature of their intrinsic excitations. Some of these questions may profitably be addressed by exploiting the simplicities inherent in algebraic models. Examples, using the IBA, focusing on axial asymmetry, the nature of {beta} and {gamma} vibrations, and octupole correlations will be briefly discussed.

  2. Reconstruction of walleye exploitation based on angler diary records and a model of predicted catches. (United States)

    Willms, Allan R; Green, David M


    The walleye population in Canadarago Lake, New York, was 81-95% exploited in the 1988 fishing season, the year in which a previous restriction on the length and number of legally harvestable fish was liberalized. Using diary records from a subset of fishermen, growth estimates, and an estimate of the walleye population in the following year, a method is developed to reconstruct the fish population back to the spring of 1988 and thus determine the exploitation rate. The method is based on a model of diary catches that partitions time and fish length into a set of cells and relates predicted catches and population sizes in these cells. The method's sensitivity to the partitioning scheme, the growth estimates, and the diary data is analyzed. The method could be employed in other fish exploitation analyses and demonstrates the use of inexpensive angler-collected data in fisheries management.

  3. null Izalco, El Salvador Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Izalco is a young stratovolcano on the south flank of Santa Ana Volcano in western El Salvador. Its continuous small explosive eruptions (beginning in 1770) caused...

  4. Gazetteer of El Salvador, (United States)


    ADM2 second-order administrative division (distrito) ADM3 third-order administrative division (municipio) BAR sandbar (deposit of waterborne materials...Botoncillal PPL 13󈧰’N 8921’W ES05 BL41 ND16-09 Hramadero: see El Bramadero PPL 13󈧺’N 88󈧈’W ES08 CL83 ND16-10 Brava , Punta [EL SALVADOR...CK69 ND16-10 Camulian PPL 14 17’N 8917 W ESll 6L58 ND16-05 Carla Brava PPL 13󈧫’N 89 08’W ESlO BL60 ND16-09 (’afiafistula PPL 13 45’N 88 35’W ES02

  5. Balanced Exploration and Exploitation Model search for efficient epipolar geometry estimation. (United States)

    Goshen, Liran; Shimshoni, Ilan


    The estimation of the epipolar geometry is especially difficult when the putative correspondences include a low percentage of inlier correspondences and/or a large subset of the inliers is consistent with a degenerate configuration of the epipolar geometry that is totally incorrect. This work presents the Balanced Exploration and Exploitation Model Search (BEEM) algorithm that works very well especially for these difficult scenes. The algorithm handles these two problems in a unified manner. It includes the following main features: (1) Balanced use of three search techniques: global random exploration, local exploration near the current best solution and local exploitation to improve the quality of the model. (2) Exploits available prior information to accelerate the search process. (3) Uses the best found model to guide the search process, escape from degenerate models and to define an efficient stopping criterion. (4) Presents a simple and efficient method to estimate the epipolar geometry from two SIFT correspondences. (5) Uses the locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) approximate nearest neighbor algorithm for fast putative correspondences generation. The resulting algorithm when tested on real images with or without degenerate configurations gives quality estimations and achieves significant speedups compared to the state of the art algorithms.

  6. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Reservoir analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Steingrimsson, B.; Truesdell, A.H.; Witherspoon, P.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland); Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA); Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))


    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is conducting a reservoir evaluation study of the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador. This work is being performed in cooperation with the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report describes the work done during the first year of the study (FY 1988--89), and includes the (1) development of geological and conceptual models of the field, (2) evaluation of the initial thermodynamic and chemical conditions and their changes during exploitation, (3) evaluation of interference test data and the observed reservoir pressure decline, and (4) the development of a natural state model for the field. The geological model of the field indicates that there are seven (7) major and five (5) minor faults that control the fluid movement in the Ahuachapan area. Some of the faults act as a barrier to flow as indicated by large temperature declines towards the north and west. Other faults act as preferential pathways to flow. The Ahuachapan Andesites provide good horizontal permeability to flow and provide most of the fluids to the wells. The underlying Older Agglomerates also contribute to well production, but considerably less than the Andesites. 84 refs.

  7. A low memory cost model based reconstruction algorithm exploiting translational symmetry for photoacustic microscopy. (United States)

    Aguirre, Juan; Giannoula, Alexia; Minagawa, Taisuke; Funk, Lutz; Turon, Pau; Durduran, Turgut


    A model based reconstruction algorithm that exploits translational symmetries for photoacoustic microscopy to drastically reduce the memory cost is presented. The memory size needed to store the model matrix is independent of the number of acquisitions at different positions. This helps us to overcome one of the main limitations of previous algorithms. Furthermore, using the algebraic reconstruction technique and building the model matrix "on the fly", we have obtained fast reconstructions of simulated and experimental data on both two- and three-dimensional grids using a traditional dark field photoacoustic microscope and a standard personal computer.

  8. El Salvador’s Crime Prevention Policies - From Mano Dura to El Salvador Seguro (United States)


    Cerén presenta Plan Quinquenal de Desarrollo “El Salvador Productivo, Educado, y Seguro,” El Salvador: Presidencia de La Republica, (San Salvador, El...93 “Presidente Sánchez Cerén Presenta Plan Quinquenal de Desarrollo ‘El Salvador Productivo, Educado Y Seguro,’” El...08- citizen-insecurity-casas-zamora. 66 Consejo Nacional de la Seguridad Ciudadano y Convivencia. Plan El Salvador Seguro. Presidencia de la

  9. Analyzing the Learning of the Taking Personal and Social Responsibility Model within a New Physical Education Undergraduate Degree Program in El Salvador (United States)

    Andre, Mauro H.; Mandigo, James L.


    El Salvador has an unfortunate history that includes a military regime and a civil war that together created a legacy of violence in which the country still struggles nowadays. Salud Escolar Integral (SEI) was created in 2005 by universities, federal governments, a corporate sponsor, and sport associations as a program to combat youth violence…

  10. Improving the Effectiveness of Integral Property Calculation in a CSG Solid Modeling System by Exploiting Predictability (United States)

    Clark, A. L.


    Integral property calculation is an important application for solid modeling systems. Algorithms for computing integral properties for various solid representation schemes are fairly well known. It is important to deigners and users of solid modeling systems to understand the behavior of such algorithms. Specifically the trade-off between execution time and accuracy is critical to effective use of integral property calculation. The average behavior of two algorithms for Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) representations is investigated. Experimental results from the PADL-2 solid modeling system show that coarse decompositions can be used to predict execution time and error estimates for finer decompositions. Exploiting this predictability allow effective use of the algorithms in a solid modeling system.

  11. Salvador Dali : 1904-1989

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Sürrealismi joonte levimine mööblikujundusse - Salvador Dali Edvard Jamesile kavandatud diivan "Mae Westi huuled". Diivani ideeks Dali maal "Mae Westi nägu, mida võiks kasutada sürrealistliku ruumina", mille järgi on sisustatud üks ruum 1973. a. Hispaanias Figuerases avatud Dali majamuuseumis. 2 ill

  12. Childhood cancer in El Salvador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossell, Nuria; Gigengack, Roy; Blume, Stuart


    Purpose: In El Salvador, children under 12 diagnosed with cancer have access to free treatment at a specialized national facility. Until recently, 13 percent of patients annually abandoned therapy-a serious loss of lives and scarce resources. This qualitative study explores how some parents

  13. Modelling the response of size and diversity spectra of fish assemblages to changes in exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Henrik; Rice, J.


    to changes in natural mortality, but sensitive to changes in growth and to the relationship between stock and recruitment. The results agree will with results obtained from previous analysis of survey data from the North Sea and suggest that the slope of the size spectrum is a useful measure of fishing......In this paper we investigate whether single and multispecies fisheries models call be used to predict the response of sire and diversity spectra of fish assemblages to changes in exploitation. Both types of models estimate that the slope of the size spectrum will steepen and the intercept...... will increase when fishing intensity increases, while the response of the slope and intercept of the diversity spectrum depend on the model used. The changes in the slope and intercept of the size spectrum are found to be proportional to the change in fishing intensity. The proportionality is insensitive...

  14. The Peace and Power Conceptual Model: An Assessment Guide for School Nurses Regarding Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children. (United States)

    Fraley, Hannah E; Aronowitz, Teri


    Human trafficking is a global problem; more than half of all victims are children. In the United States (US), at-risk youth continue to attend school. School nurses are on the frontlines, presenting a window of opportunity to identify and prevent exploitation. Available papers targeting school nurses report that school nurses may lack awareness of commercial sexual exploitation and may have attitudes and misperceptions about behaviors of school children at risk. This is a theoretical paper applying the Peace and Power Conceptual Model to understand the role of school nurses in commercial sexual exploitation of children.

  15. Inverse modeling and forecasting for the exploitation of the Pauzhetsky geothermal field, Kamchatka, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finsterle, Stefan; Kiryukhin, A.V.; Asaulova, N.P.; Finsterle, S.


    A three-dimensional numerical model of the Pauzhetsky geothermal field has been developed based on a conceptual hydrogeological model of the system. It extends over a 13.6-km2 area and includes three layers: (1) a base layer with inflow; (2) a geothermal reservoir; and (3) an upper layer with discharge and recharge/infiltration areas. Using the computer program iTOUGH2 (Finsterle, 2004), the model is calibrated to a total of 13,675 calibration points, combining natural-state and 1960-2006 exploitation data. The principal model parameters identified and estimated by inverse modeling include the fracture permeability and fracture porosity of the geothermal reservoir, the initial natural upflow rate, the base-layer porosity, and the permeabilities of the infiltration zones. Heat and mass balances derived from the calibrated model helped identify the sources of the geothermal reserves in the field. With the addition of five makeup wells, simulation forecasts for the 2007-2032 period predict a sustainable average steam production of 29 kg/s, which is sufficient to maintain the generation of 6.8 MWe at the Pauzhetsky power plant.

  16. Exploiting CMS data popularity to model the evolution of data management for Run-2 and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Bonacorsi, D; Giordano, D; Girone, M; Neri, M; Magini, N; Kuznetsov, V; Wildish, T


    During the LHC Run-1 data taking, all experiments collected large data volumes from proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions. The collisions data, together with massive volumes of simulated data, were replicated in multiple copies, transferred among various Tier levels, transformed/slimmed in format/content. These data were then accessed (both locally and remotely) by large groups of distributed analysis communities exploiting the WorldWide LHC Computing Grid infrastructure and services. While efficient data placement strategies - together with optimal data redistribution and deletions on demand - have become the core of static versus dynamic data management projects, little effort has so far been invested in understanding the detailed data-access patterns which surfaced in Run-1. These patterns, if understood, can be used as input to simulation of computing models at the LHC, to optimise existing systems by tuning their behaviour, and to explore next-generation CPU/storage/network co-scheduling solutions. This...

  17. El Salvador: La guerra transparente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Luers


    Full Text Available La función comunicacional tuvo una importancia destacada en la guerra de El Salvador. Radios, agencias de prensa, cine, videos, medios internacionales y fotografías fueron parte del conflicto. En este contexto el cine documental logró un desarrollo destacado. En 1980 se creó el Instituto Cinematográfico de El Salvador revolucionario con corta duración pues en 1983 se disolvió. Trata además de proyectos documentales como el sistema Radio Venceremos, la Carta de Morazán de gran impacto internacional rompió el estilo, el lenguaje y la concepción cinematográfica.

  18. Coupled modeling of land hydrology–regional climate including human carbon emission and water exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Hui Xie


    Full Text Available Carbon emissions and water use are two major kinds of human activities. To reveal whether these two activities can modify the hydrological cycle and climate system in China, we conducted two sets of numerical experiments using regional climate model RegCM4. In the first experiment used to study the climatic responses to human carbon emissions, the model were configured over entire China because the impacts of carbon emissions can be detected across the whole country. Results from the first experiment revealed that near-surface air temperature may significantly increase from 2007 to 2059 at a rate exceeding 0.1 °C per decade in most areas across the country; southwestern and southeastern China also showed increasing trends in summer precipitation, with rates exceeding 10 mm per decade over the same period. In summer, only northern China showed an increasing trend of evapotranspiration, with increase rates ranging from 1 to 5 mm per decade; in winter, increase rates ranging from 1 to 5 mm per decade were observed in most regions. These effects are believed to be caused by global warming from human carbon emissions. In the second experiment used to study the effects of human water use, the model were configured over a limited region—Haihe River Basin in the northern China, because compared with the human carbon emissions, the effects of human water use are much more local and regional, and the Haihe River Basin is the most typical region in China that suffers from both intensive human groundwater exploitation and surface water diversion. We incorporated a scheme of human water regulation into RegCM4 and conducted the second experiment. Model outputs showed that the groundwater table severely declined by ∼10 m in 1971–2000 through human groundwater over-exploitation in the basin; in fact, current conditions are so extreme that even reducing the pumping rate by half cannot eliminate the groundwater depletion cones observed in the area

  19. Exploitation of parallelism in climate models. [Annual] report, 1 September 1991--29 February 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, F.; Tribbia, J.J.; Williamson, D.L.


    The US Department of Energy (DOE) through its CHAMMP initiative, hopes to develop the capability to make meaningful regional climate forecasts on time scales exceeding a decade, such capability to be based on numerical prediction type models. We propose research to contribute to each of the specific items enumerated in the CHAMMP announcement (Notice 9103); i.e., to consider theoretical limits to prediction of climate and climate change on appropriate time scales, to develop new mathematical techniques to utilize massively parallel processors (MPP), to actually utilize MPP`s as a research tool, and to develop improved representations of some processes essential to climate prediction. To explore these initiatives, we will exploit all available computing technology, and in particular MPP machines. We anticipate that significant improvements in modeling of climate on the decadal and longer time scales for regional space scales will result from our efforts. This report summarizes the activities of our group during a part of the first year`s effort to meet the objectives stated in our proposal. We will comment on three research foci, time compression studies, subgrid scale model studies, and distributed climate ensemble studies and additional significant technical matters.

  20. DM-BLD: differential methylation detection using a hierarchical Bayesian model exploiting local dependency. (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Gu, Jinghua; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena; Clarke, Robert; Xuan, Jianhua


    The advent of high-throughput DNA methylation profiling techniques has enabled the possibility of accurate identification of differentially methylated genes for cancer research. The large number of measured loci facilitates whole genome methylation study, yet posing great challenges for differential methylation detection due to the high variability in tumor samples. We have developed a novel probabilistic approach, D: ifferential M: ethylation detection using a hierarchical B: ayesian model exploiting L: ocal D: ependency (DM-BLD), to detect differentially methylated genes based on a Bayesian framework. The DM-BLD approach features a joint model to capture both the local dependency of measured loci and the dependency of methylation change in samples. Specifically, the local dependency is modeled by Leroux conditional autoregressive structure; the dependency of methylation changes is modeled by a discrete Markov random field. A hierarchical Bayesian model is developed to fully take into account the local dependency for differential analysis, in which differential states are embedded as hidden variables. Simulation studies demonstrate that DM-BLD outperforms existing methods for differential methylation detection, particularly when the methylation change is moderate and the variability of methylation in samples is high. DM-BLD has been applied to breast cancer data to identify important methylated genes (such as polycomb target genes and genes involved in transcription factor activity) associated with breast cancer recurrence. A Matlab package of DM-BLD is available at CONTACT: Xuan@vt.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  1. Exploiting multiple sources of information in learning an artificial language: human data and modeling. (United States)

    Perruchet, Pierre; Tillmann, Barbara


    This study investigates the joint influences of three factors on the discovery of new word-like units in a continuous artificial speech stream: the statistical structure of the ongoing input, the initial word-likeness of parts of the speech flow, and the contextual information provided by the earlier emergence of other word-like units. Results of an experiment conducted with adult participants show that these sources of information have strong and interactive influences on word discovery. The authors then examine the ability of different models of word segmentation to account for these results. PARSER (Perruchet & Vinter, 1998) is compared to the view that word segmentation relies on the exploitation of transitional probabilities between successive syllables, and with the models based on the Minimum Description Length principle, such as INCDROP. The authors submit arguments suggesting that PARSER has the advantage of accounting for the whole pattern of data without ad-hoc modifications, while relying exclusively on general-purpose learning principles. This study strengthens the growing notion that nonspecific cognitive processes, mainly based on associative learning and memory principles, are able to account for a larger part of early language acquisition than previously assumed. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Salvador Dali Kopenhaagenis / Ave Räkk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Räkk, Ave


    Salvador Dalí näitus Kopenhaageni moodsa kunsti muuseumis Arkenis kuni 2. I 2000. Eksponeeritud 119 originaaljoonistust autobiograafilisest raamatust 'The secret life of Salvador Dali', umbes 300 illustratsiooni, graafikat, skulptuure, kuld ja klaasehistöid, mööblit ja üks maal: 1944. a. valminud, esmakordselt avalikkuse ees olev 'Papillion'.

  3. Enhanced identification and exploitation of time scales for model reduction in stochastic chemical kinetics. (United States)

    Gómez-Uribe, Carlos A; Verghese, George C; Tzafriri, Abraham R


    Widely different time scales are common in systems of chemical reactions and can be exploited to obtain reduced models applicable to the time scales of interest. These reduced models enable more efficient computation and simplify analysis. A classic example is the irreversible enzymatic reaction, for which separation of time scales in a deterministic mass action kinetics model results in approximate rate laws for the slow dynamics, such as that of Michaelis-Menten. Recently, several methods have been developed for separation of slow and fast time scales in chemical master equation (CME) descriptions of stochastic chemical kinetics, yielding separate reduced CMEs for the slow variables and the fast variables. The paper begins by systematizing the preliminary step of identifying slow and fast variables in a chemical system from a specification of the slow and fast reactions in the system. The authors then present an enhanced time-scale-separation method that can extend the validity and improve the accuracy of existing methods by better accounting for slow reactions when equilibrating the fast subsystem. The resulting method is particularly accurate in systems such as enzymatic and protein interaction networks, where the rates of the slow reactions that modify the slow variables are not a function of the slow variables. The authors apply their methodology to the case of an irreversible enzymatic reaction and show that the resulting improvements in accuracy and validity are analogous to those obtained in the deterministic case by using the total quasi-steady-state approximation rather than the classical Michaelis-Menten. The other main contribution of this paper is to show how mass fluctuation kinetics models, which give approximate evolution equations for the means, variances, and covariances of the concentrations in a chemical system, can feed into time-scale-separation methods at a variety of stages.

  4. Documenting, modelling and exploiting P300 amplitude changes due to variable target delays in Donchin's speller (United States)

    Citi, Luca; Poli, Riccardo; Cinel, Caterina


    The P300 is an endogenous event-related potential (ERP) that is naturally elicited by rare and significant external stimuli. P300s are used increasingly frequently in brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) because the users of ERP-based BCIs need no special training. However, P300 waves are hard to detect and, therefore, multiple target stimulus presentations are needed before an interface can make a reliable decision. While significant improvements have been made in the detection of P300s, no particular attention has been paid to the variability in shape and timing of P300 waves in BCIs. In this paper we start filling this gap by documenting, modelling and exploiting a modulation in the amplitude of P300s related to the number of non-targets preceding a target in a Donchin speller. The basic idea in our approach is to use an appropriately weighted average of the responses produced by a classifier during multiple stimulus presentations, instead of the traditional plain average. This makes it possible to weigh more heavily events that are likely to be more informative, thereby increasing the accuracy of classification. The optimal weights are determined through a mathematical model that precisely estimates the accuracy of our speller as well as the expected performance improvement w.r.t. the traditional approach. Tests with two independent datasets show that our approach provides a marked statistically significant improvement in accuracy over the top-performing algorithm presented in the literature to date. The method and the theoretical models we propose are general and can easily be used in other P300-based BCIs with minimal changes.

  5. Exploiting CMS data popularity to model the evolution of data management for Run-2 and beyond (United States)

    Bonacorsi, D.; Boccali, T.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Neri, M.; Magini, N.; Kuznetsov, V.; Wildish, T.


    During the LHC Run-1 data taking, all experiments collected large data volumes from proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions. The collisions data, together with massive volumes of simulated data, were replicated in multiple copies, transferred among various Tier levels, transformed/slimmed in format/content. These data were then accessed (both locally and remotely) by large groups of distributed analysis communities exploiting the WorldWide LHC Computing Grid infrastructure and services. While efficient data placement strategies - together with optimal data redistribution and deletions on demand - have become the core of static versus dynamic data management projects, little effort has so far been invested in understanding the detailed data-access patterns which surfaced in Run-1. These patterns, if understood, can be used as input to simulation of computing models at the LHC, to optimise existing systems by tuning their behaviour, and to explore next-generation CPU/storage/network co-scheduling solutions. This is of great importance, given that the scale of the computing problem will increase far faster than the resources available to the experiments, for Run-2 and beyond. Studying data-access patterns involves the validation of the quality of the monitoring data collected on the “popularity of each dataset, the analysis of the frequency and pattern of accesses to different datasets by analysis end-users, the exploration of different views of the popularity data (by physics activity, by region, by data type), the study of the evolution of Run-1 data exploitation over time, the evaluation of the impact of different data placement and distribution choices on the available network and storage resources and their impact on the computing operations. This work presents some insights from studies on the popularity data from the CMS experiment. We present the properties of a range of physics analysis activities as seen by the data popularity, and make recommendations for

  6. Exploiting remote sensing land surface temperature in distributed hydrological modelling: the example of the Continuum model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Silvestro


    Full Text Available Full process description and distributed hydrological models are very useful tools in hydrology as they can be applied in different contexts and for a wide range of aims such as flood and drought forecasting, water management, and prediction of impact on the hydrologic cycle due to natural and human-induced changes. Since they must mimic a variety of physical processes, they can be very complex and with a high degree of parameterization. This complexity can be increased by necessity of augmenting the number of observable state variables in order to improve model validation or to allow data assimilation.

    In this work a model, aiming at balancing the need to reproduce the physical processes with the practical goal of avoiding over-parameterization, is presented. The model is designed to be implemented in different contexts with a special focus on data-scarce environments, e.g. with no streamflow data.

    All the main hydrological phenomena are modelled in a distributed way. Mass and energy balance are solved explicitly. Land surface temperature (LST, which is particularly suited to being extensively observed and assimilated, is an explicit state variable.

    A performance evaluation, based on both traditional and satellite derived data, is presented with a specific reference to the application in an Italian catchment. The model has been firstly calibrated and validated following a standard approach based on streamflow data. The capability of the model in reproducing both the streamflow measurements and the land surface temperature from satellites has been investigated.

    The model has been then calibrated using satellite data and geomorphologic characteristics of the basin in order to test its application on a basin where standard hydrologic observations (e.g. streamflow data are not available. The results have been compared with those obtained by the standard calibration strategy based on streamflow data.

  7. Inference of gene regulatory networks with sparse structural equation models exploiting genetic perturbations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Cai

    Full Text Available Integrating genetic perturbations with gene expression data not only improves accuracy of regulatory network topology inference, but also enables learning of causal regulatory relations between genes. Although a number of methods have been developed to integrate both types of data, the desiderata of efficient and powerful algorithms still remains. In this paper, sparse structural equation models (SEMs are employed to integrate both gene expression data and cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL, for modeling gene regulatory networks in accordance with biological evidence about genes regulating or being regulated by a small number of genes. A systematic inference method named sparsity-aware maximum likelihood (SML is developed for SEM estimation. Using simulated directed acyclic or cyclic networks, the SML performance is compared with that of two state-of-the-art algorithms: the adaptive Lasso (AL based scheme, and the QTL-directed dependency graph (QDG method. Computer simulations demonstrate that the novel SML algorithm offers significantly better performance than the AL-based and QDG algorithms across all sample sizes from 100 to 1,000, in terms of detection power and false discovery rate, in all the cases tested that include acyclic or cyclic networks of 10, 30 and 300 genes. The SML method is further applied to infer a network of 39 human genes that are related to the immune function and are chosen to have a reliable eQTL per gene. The resulting network consists of 9 genes and 13 edges. Most of the edges represent interactions reasonably expected from experimental evidence, while the remaining may just indicate the emergence of new interactions. The sparse SEM and efficient SML algorithm provide an effective means of exploiting both gene expression and perturbation data to infer gene regulatory networks. An open-source computer program implementing the SML algorithm is freely available upon request.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Wiggins; Raymon L. Brown; Faruk Civan; Richard G. Hughes


    For many years, geoscientists and engineers have undertaken research to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. Geoscientists have focused on understanding the process of fracturing and the subsequent measurement and description of fracture characteristics. Engineers have concentrated on the fluid flow behavior in the fracture-porous media system and the development of models to predict the hydrocarbon production from these complex systems. This research attempts to integrate these two complementary views to develop a quantitative reservoir characterization methodology and flow performance model for naturally fractured reservoirs. The research has focused on estimating naturally fractured reservoir properties from seismic data, predicting fracture characteristics from well logs, and developing a naturally fractured reservoir simulator. It is important to develop techniques that can be applied to estimate the important parameters in predicting the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. This project proposes a method to relate seismic properties to the elastic compliance and permeability of the reservoir based upon a sugar cube model. In addition, methods are presented to use conventional well logs to estimate localized fracture information for reservoir characterization purposes. The ability to estimate fracture information from conventional well logs is very important in older wells where data are often limited. Finally, a desktop naturally fractured reservoir simulator has been developed for the purpose of predicting the performance of these complex reservoirs. The simulator incorporates vertical and horizontal wellbore models, methods to handle matrix to fracture fluid transfer, and fracture permeability tensors. This research project has developed methods to characterize and study the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs that integrate geoscience and engineering data. This is an important step in developing exploitation strategies for

  9. Voto preferente en El Salvador: Lecciones aprendidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cristina Araujo Serrano


    Full Text Available Se analiza la implementación del voto preferente en El Salvador por medio de una resolución de la Sala Constitucional salvadoreña. Asimismo, se estudian las consecuencias de esta disposición en el ordenamiento jurídico salvadoreño, la percepción de la opinión pública y en el sistema de partidos de ese país centroamericano. Finalmente, se exponen algunas de las discusiones que en torno a este tema se han generado en el ámbito costarricense.

  10. Redefining Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwala, Rina


    -employed workers are organizing as workers. They are fighting labor exploitation by redefining the concept to include additional exploitation axes (from the state and middle class) and forms (including sexual). In doing so, they are redefining potential solutions, including identities and material benefits, to fit...... their unique needs. By expanding the category of “workers” beyond those defined by a narrow focus on a standard employer-employee relationship, these movements are also fighting exclusion from earlier labor protections by increasing the number of entitled beneficiaries. These struggles provide an important...

  11. [Demand for cigarettes and tax increases in El Salvador]. (United States)

    Ramos-Carbajales, Alejandro; González-Rozada, Martín; Vallarino, Hugo


    Analyze short- and long-term elasticities of demand for cigarettes in El Salvador as a tool for supporting recommendations on tax increases to reduce prevalence and consumption through price increases. Demand for cigarettes in El Salvador was analyzed through an econometric time-series model using a database from El Salvador's General Directorate of Internal Taxes (DGII) and the General Directorate of Statistics and Census (DIGESTYC). The analysis period was quarterly: 2000Q1-2012Q4. The usual tests were done to prevent a spurious econometric estimation. It was found that the variables volume sales, actual sale prices, and actual per capita income exhibited first-order cointegration; this result makes it possible to use an error correction model with short- and long-term elasticity estimates. Only long-term elasticities were found to be statistically significant to 5%. Results show long-term price elasticity (5 quarters) of -0.9287 and income price elasticity of 0.9978. Absolute price elasticity is somewhat high, although it is within the levels estimated in other studies in low per-capita income countries. A tax increase from a base amount of US$1.04 per pack of 20 cigarettes to US$1.66 within three years would reduce demand by 20% to 31% and would increase tax revenues by 9% to 22%.

  12. El Salvador - Non-Formal Skills Development (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Non-Formal Skills Development Sub-Activity had a budget of $5 million (USD) to provide short-term training to vulnerable populations in El Salvador's Northern...

  13. Arreteeriti Salvador Dali võltsija

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Hispaania politsei arreteeris Cadaquesis Salvador Dali endise sekretäri, ameeriklase John Peter Moore'i, kes tabati Dali võltslitograafiate müümiselt. Läbiotsimisel leiti Moore'i majast sadu võltsinguid

  14. Lenini ilmumine Salvador Dalile / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-2016


    Salvador Dali maali "Osaline kangastus. Kuus Lenini ilmumist tiibklaveril" ("Hallucination partielle. Six apparitions de Lénine sur un piano") verbaalsest interpretatsioonist Harkovi ülikooli uurija Oleg Zaslavski teooria alusel

  15. Women and Science in El Salvador (United States)

    de Maria Mendez Martınez, Luz; Portillo, Mercy; Elías, José Héctor


    Physics is rarely pursued by El Salvadoran students. As in most Latin-American countries, there exists the false idea in El Salvador that some careers should be exclusively for men, such as engineering and hard sciences like physics. Because El Salvador is a natural laboratory for geophysical phenomena, due to the existence of more than 20 volcanoes, prevalent seismic activity, and large production of geothermic energy, geophysics is the most common branch of physics studied in El Salvador. The numbers and gender breakdown of physics and geophysics students at the University of El Salvador in the years since the last IUPAP Women in Physics Conference in 2005 are presented, and the numbers are encouraging.

  16. Modeling a hierarchical structure of factors influencing exploitation policy for water distribution systems using ISM approach (United States)

    Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, Małgorzata; Wyczółkowski, Ryszard; Gładysiak, Violetta


    Water distribution systems are one of the basic elements of contemporary technical infrastructure of urban and rural areas. It is a complex engineering system composed of transmission networks and auxiliary equipment (e.g. controllers, checkouts etc.), scattered territorially over a large area. From the water distribution system operation point of view, its basic features are: functional variability, resulting from the need to adjust the system to temporary fluctuations in demand for water and territorial dispersion. The main research questions are: What external factors should be taken into account when developing an effective water distribution policy? Does the size and nature of the water distribution system significantly affect the exploitation policy implemented? These questions have shaped the objectives of research and the method of research implementation.

  17. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Frauk; Hughes, Richard G.


    Research continues on characterizing and modeling the behavior of naturally fractured reservoir systems. Work has progressed on developing techniques for estimating fracture properties from seismic and well log data, developing naturally fractured wellbore models, and developing a model to characterize the transfer of fluid from the matrix to the fracture system for use in the naturally fractured reservoir simulator.

  18. Exploitation of homogeneous isotropic turbulence models for optimization of turbulence remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Nijhuis, A.C.P.; Krasnov, O.K.; Unal, C.M.H.; Russchenberg, H.W.J.; Yarovoy, A.


    Homogeneous isotropic turbulence (HIT) models are compared, with respect to optimization of turbulence remote sensing. HIT models have different applications such as load calculation for wind turbines (Mann, 1998) or droplet track modelling (Pinsky and Khain, 2006). Details of vortices seem of less

  19. [The echinoderms (Echinodermata) from El Salvador]. (United States)

    Enrique Barraza, José; Roberto Hasbún, Carlos


    A list of echinoderms from El Salvador (tropical eastern Pacific) is presented. The results were obtained from field surveys (between the years 2000 and 2004), the scarce literature sources, and Internet information. A total of 37 species and six genera are reported. The most abundant echinoderms in rocky shores were: Phataria unifascialis, Echinometra vanbrunti, Holothuria kefersteini, as well as Astropecten armatus in soft bottoms.

  20. Carles Salvador, l'autoritat gramatical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent Pitarch


    Full Text Available Carles Salvador had strong nationalistic convictions and was very active in promoting the Catalan language in several areas, specifically in developing treatises on spelling, grammar and lexicography. His work would help consolidate the standardization of Catalan in the Valencian Country and would make him an unquestionable authority on Catalan grammar.

  1. On the advantages of exploiting the hierarchical structure of astrodynamical models (United States)

    Dei Tos, Diogene Alessandro; Topputo, Francesco


    In this paper an algorithm is developed that combines the capabilities and advantages of several different astrodynamical models of increasing complexity. Splitting these models in a strict hierarchical order yields a clearer grasp on what is available. With the effort of developing a comprehensive model overhead, the equations for the spacecraft motion in simpler models can be readily obtained as particular cases. The proposed algorithm embeds the circular and elliptic restricted three-body problems, the four-body bicircular and concentric models, an averaged n-body model, and, at the top hierarchic ladder, the full ephemeris SPICE-based restricted n-body problem. The equations of motion are reduced to the assignment of 13 time-varying coefficients, which multiply the states and the gravitational potential to reproduce the proper vector field. This approach yields an efficient and quick way to check solutions for different dynamics and parameters. We show that in bottom-up applications, a gradual increase of model complexity benefits accuracy, the chances of success and the convergence rate of a continuation algorithm. Case studies are simple periodic orbits and low-energy transfers.

  2. Exploiting the Expressiveness of Cyclo-Static Dataflow to Model Multimedia Implementations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk Corporaal


    Full Text Available The design of increasingly complex and concurrent multimedia systems requires a description at a higher abstraction level. Using an appropriate model of computation helps to reason about the system and enables design time analysis methods. The nature of multimedia processing matches in many cases well with cyclo-static dataflow (CSDF, making it a suitable model. However, channels in an implementation often use for cost reasons a kind of shared buffer that cannot be directly described in CSDF. This paper shows how such implementation specific aspects can be expressed in CSDF without the need for extensions. Consequently, the CSDF graph remains completely analyzable and allows reasoning about its temporal behavior. The obtained relation between model and implementation enables a buffer capacity analysis on the model while assuring the throughput of the final implementation. The capabilities of the approach are demonstrated by analyzing the temporal behavior of an MPEG-4 video encoder with a CSDF graph.

  3. Next-Generation Image and Sound Processing Strategies: Exploiting the Biological Model (United States)


    improved models of the nonlinear center-surround antagonism in the early stages of visual processing. We will then incorporate 2 these improved models...detect nonspecific conspicuous targets in cluttered auditory scenes before fully processing and recognizing the targets. We developed a novel biologically...during speech perception, a particular phoneme or syllable can be perceived to be more salient than the others due to the coarticulation between

  4. Exploiting the functional and taxonomic structure of genomic data by probabilistic topic modeling. (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Hu, Xiaohua; Lim, Tze Y; Shen, Xiajiong; Park, E K; Rosen, Gail L


    In this paper, we present a method that enable both homology-based approach and composition-based approach to further study the functional core (i.e., microbial core and gene core, correspondingly). In the proposed method, the identification of major functionality groups is achieved by generative topic modeling, which is able to extract useful information from unlabeled data. We first show that generative topic model can be used to model the taxon abundance information obtained by homology-based approach and study the microbial core. The model considers each sample as a “document,” which has a mixture of functional groups, while each functional group (also known as a “latent topic”) is a weight mixture of species. Therefore, estimating the generative topic model for taxon abundance data will uncover the distribution over latent functions (latent topic) in each sample. Second, we show that, generative topic model can also be used to study the genome-level composition of “N-mer” features (DNA subreads obtained by composition-based approaches). The model consider each genome as a mixture of latten genetic patterns (latent topics), while each functional pattern is a weighted mixture of the “N-mer” features, thus the existence of core genomes can be indicated by a set of common N-mer features. After studying the mutual information between latent topics and gene regions, we provide an explanation of the functional roles of uncovered latten genetic patterns. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed method.

  5. Exploiting proteomic data for genome annotation and gene model validation in Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoriev Igor V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomic data is a potentially rich, but arguably unexploited, data source for genome annotation. Peptide identifications from tandem mass spectrometry provide prima facie evidence for gene predictions and can discriminate over a set of candidate gene models. Here we apply this to the recently sequenced Aspergillus niger fungal genome from the Joint Genome Institutes (JGI and another predicted protein set from another A.niger sequence. Tandem mass spectra (MS/MS were acquired from 1d gel electrophoresis bands and searched against all available gene models using Average Peptide Scoring (APS and reverse database searching to produce confident identifications at an acceptable false discovery rate (FDR. Results 405 identified peptide sequences were mapped to 214 different A.niger genomic loci to which 4093 predicted gene models clustered, 2872 of which contained the mapped peptides. Interestingly, 13 (6% of these loci either had no preferred predicted gene model or the genome annotators' chosen "best" model for that genomic locus was not found to be the most parsimonious match to the identified peptides. The peptides identified also boosted confidence in predicted gene structures spanning 54 introns from different gene models. Conclusion This work highlights the potential of integrating experimental proteomics data into genomic annotation pipelines much as expressed sequence tag (EST data has been. A comparison of the published genome from another strain of A.niger sequenced by DSM showed that a number of the gene models or proteins with proteomics evidence did not occur in both genomes, further highlighting the utility of the method.

  6. Exploiting the flexibility of a family of models for taxation and redistribution (United States)

    Bertotti, M. L.; Modanese, G.


    We discuss a family of models expressed by nonlinear differential equation systems describing closed market societies in the presence of taxation and redistribution. We focus in particular on three example models obtained in correspondence to different parameter choices. We analyse the influence of the various choices on the long time shape of the income distribution. Several simulations suggest that behavioral heterogeneity among the individuals plays a definite role in the formation of fat tails of the asymptotic stationary distributions. This is in agreement with results found with different approaches and techniques. We also show that an excellent fit for the computational outputs of our models is provided by the κ-generalized distribution introduced by Kaniadakis in [Physica A 296, 405 (2001)].

  7. Modelling Crop Pattern Changes and Water Resources Exploitation: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Zingaro


    Full Text Available Agriculture and farming worldwide are responsible for numerous environmental threats, including degradation of land and water resource depletion. Underlining the dynamic interaction between bio-physical and socio-economic drivers is the key towards a more sustainable land and water management. With regard to a highly-developed agricultural area in Southern Italy, multi-regression models were developed to provide an ex-post interpretation of the observed inter-annual variability of cropped land. The main drivers related to Common Agricultural Policy support, product market prices, crop yield, and irrigation water availability were investigated. The adopted models revealed the different weights of each driver. The findings reported the role that direct payments played in supporting the extension of irrigated crops, such as processing tomato. Likewise, the models pointed out the decoupled payment scheme as the most important driver of change in the crop pattern over the last years.

  8. Mammalian models of chemically induced primary malignancies exploitable for imaging-based preclinical theragnostic research. (United States)

    Liu, Yewei; Yin, Ting; Feng, Yuanbo; Cona, Marlein Miranda; Huang, Gang; Liu, Jianjun; Song, Shaoli; Jiang, Yansheng; Xia, Qian; Swinnen, Johannes V; Bormans, Guy; Himmelreich, Uwe; Oyen, Raymond; Ni, Yicheng


    Compared with transplanted tumor models or genetically engineered cancer models, chemically induced primary malignancies in experimental animals can mimic the clinical cancer progress from the early stage on. Cancer caused by chemical carcinogens generally develops through three phases namely initiation, promotion and progression. Based on different mechanisms, chemical carcinogens can be divided into genotoxic and non-genotoxic ones, or complete and incomplete ones, usually with an organ-specific property. Chemical carcinogens can be classified upon their origins such as environmental pollutants, cooked meat derived carcinogens, N-nitroso compounds, food additives, antineoplastic agents, naturally occurring substances and synthetic carcinogens, etc. Carcinogen-induced models of primary cancers can be used to evaluate the diagnostic/therapeutic effects of candidate drugs, investigate the biological influential factors, explore preventive measures for carcinogenicity, and better understand molecular mechanisms involved in tumor initiation, promotion and progression. Among commonly adopted cancer models, chemically induced primary malignancies in mammals have several advantages including the easy procedures, fruitful tumor generation and high analogy to clinical human primary cancers. However, in addition to the time-consuming process, the major drawback of chemical carcinogenesis for translational research is the difficulty in noninvasive tumor burden assessment in small animals. Like human cancers, tumors occur unpredictably also among animals in terms of timing, location and the number of lesions. Thanks to the availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with various advantages such as ionizing-free scanning, superb soft tissue contrast, multi-parametric information, and utility of diverse contrast agents, now a workable solution to this bottleneck problem is to apply MRI for noninvasive detection, diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring on those otherwise

  9. CSDFa: a model for exploiting the trade-off between data and pipeline parallelism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, Peter; Geuns, S.J.; Hausmans, J.P.H.M.; Corporaal, Henk; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit


    Real-time stream processing applications, such as SDR applications, are often executed concurrently on multiprocessor systems. A unified data flow model and analysis method have been proposed that can be used to simultaneously determine the amount of pipeline and coarse-grained data parallelism

  10. Bacteria, Yeast, Worms, and Flies: Exploiting Simple Model Organisms to Investigate Human Mitochondrial Diseases (United States)

    Rea, Shane L.; Graham, Brett H.; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Kar, Adwitiya; Falk, Marni J.


    The extensive conservation of mitochondrial structure, composition, and function across evolution offers a unique opportunity to expand our understanding of human mitochondrial biology and disease. By investigating the biology of much simpler model organisms, it is often possible to answer questions that are unreachable at the clinical level.…

  11. Subsidence Modeling of the Over-exploited Granular Aquifer System in Aguascalientes, Mexico (United States)

    Solano Rojas, D. E.; Wdowinski, S.; Minderhoud, P. P. S.; Pacheco, J.; Cabral, E.


    The valley of Aguascalientes in central Mexico experiences subsidence rates of up to 100 [mm/yr] due to overexploitation of its aquifer system, as revealed from satellite-based geodetic observations. The spatial pattern of the subsidence over the valley is inhomogeneous and affected by shallow faulting. The understanding of the subsoil mechanics is still limited. A better understanding of the subsidence process in Aguascalientes is needed to provide insights for future subsidence in the valley. We present here a displacement-constrained finite-element subsidence model using Deltares iMOD (interactive MODeling), based on the USGS MODFLOW software. The construction of our model relies on 3 main inputs: (1) groundwater level time series obtained from extraction wells' hydrographs, (2) subsurface lithostratigraphy interpreted from well drilling logs, and (3) hydrogeological parameters obtained from field pumping tests. The groundwater level measurements were converted to pore pressure in our model's layers, and used in Terzaghi's equation for calculating effective stress. We then used the effective stresse along with the displacement obtained from geodetic observations to constrain and optimize five geo-mechanical parameters: compression ratio, reloading ratio, secondary compression index, over consolidation ratio, and consolidation coefficient. Finally, we use the NEN-Bjerrum linear stress model formulation for settlements to determine elastic and visco-plastic strain, accounting for the aquifer system units' aging effect. Preliminary results show higher compaction response in clay-saturated intervals (i.e. aquitards) of the aquifer system, as reflected in the spatial pattern of the surface deformation. The forecasted subsidence for our proposed scenarios show a much more pronounced deformation when we consider higher groundwater extraction regimes.

  12. Development and exploitation of a controlled vocabulary in support of climate modelling (United States)

    Moine, M.-P.; Valcke, S.; Lawrence, B. N.; Pascoe, C.; Ford, R. W.; Alias, A.; Balaji, V.; Bentley, P.; Devine, G.; Callaghan, S. A.; Guilyardi, E.


    There are three key components for developing a metadata system: a container structure laying out the key semantic issues of interest and their relationships; an extensible controlled vocabulary providing possible content; and tools to create and manipulate that content. While metadata systems must allow users to enter their own information, the use of a controlled vocabulary both imposes consistency of definition and ensures comparability of the objects described. Here we describe the controlled vocabulary (CV) and metadata creation tool built by the METAFOR project for use in the context of describing the climate models, simulations and experiments of the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). The CV and resulting tool chain introduced here is designed for extensibility and reuse and should find applicability in many more projects.

  13. Exploiting anti-obesity mechanism of Clerodendrum phlomidis against two different models of rodents


    Chidrawar, Vijay R.; Krishnakant N Patel; Shiromwar, Shruti S.; Kshirsagar, Ajay D.


    Roots of Clerodendrum phlomidis are used by the local people of Dibrugarh district of Assam state India as a dietary supplement for treating weight issues and are also mentioned in the traditional system of Indian medicine as a remedy for obesity. We examined the anti-obesity effect of Clerodendrum phlomidis (family Verbenaceae) L. roots against cafeteria diet (CD) and progesterone-induced obesity. In CD-induced model obesity was induced by feeding CD for 48-days and increase in body weight a...

  14. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Faruk; Hughes, Richard G.


    This research was directed toward developing a systematic reservoir characterization methodology which can be used by the petroleum industry to implement infill drilling programs and/or enhanced oil recovery projects in naturally fractured reservoir systems in an environmentally safe and cost effective manner. It was anticipated that the results of this research program will provide geoscientists and engineers with a systematic procedure for properly characterizing a fractured reservoir system and a reservoir/horizontal wellbore simulator model which can be used to select well locations and an effective EOR process to optimize the recovery of the oil and gas reserves from such complex reservoir systems.

  15. Exploiting magnetic resonance angiography imaging improves model estimation of BOLD signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghui Hu

    Full Text Available The change of BOLD signal relies heavily upon the resting blood volume fraction ([Formula: see text] associated with regional vasculature. However, existing hemodynamic data assimilation studies pretermit such concern. They simply assign the value in a physiologically plausible range to get over ill-conditioning of the assimilation problem and fail to explore actual [Formula: see text]. Such performance might lead to unreliable model estimation. In this work, we present the first exploration of the influence of [Formula: see text] on fMRI data assimilation, where actual [Formula: see text] within a given cortical area was calibrated by an MR angiography experiment and then was augmented into the assimilation scheme. We have investigated the impact of [Formula: see text] on single-region data assimilation and multi-region data assimilation (dynamic cause modeling, DCM in a classical flashing checkerboard experiment. Results show that the employment of an assumed [Formula: see text] in fMRI data assimilation is only suitable for fMRI signal reconstruction and activation detection grounded on this signal, and not suitable for estimation of unobserved states and effective connectivity study. We thereby argue that introducing physically realistic [Formula: see text] in the assimilation process may provide more reliable estimation of physiological information, which contributes to a better understanding of the underlying hemodynamic processes. Such an effort is valuable and should be well appreciated.

  16. Exploitation of Digital Surface Models Generated from WORLDVIEW-2 Data for SAR Simulation Techniques (United States)

    Ilehag, R.; Auer, S.; d'Angelo, P.


    GeoRaySAR, an automated SAR simulator developed at DLR, identifies buildings in high resolution SAR data by utilizing geometric knowledge extracted from digital surface models (DSMs). Hitherto, the simulator has utilized DSMs generated from LiDAR data from airborne sensors with pre-filtered vegetation. Discarding the need for pre-optimized model input, DSMs generated from high resolution optical data (acquired with WorldView-2) are used for the extraction of building-related SAR image parts in this work. An automatic preprocessing of the DSMs has been developed for separating buildings from elevated vegetation (trees, bushes) and reducing the noise level. Based on that, automated simulations are triggered considering the properties of real SAR images. Locations in three cities, Munich, London and Istanbul, were chosen as study areas to determine advantages and limitations related to WorldView-2 DSMs as input for GeoRaySAR. Beyond, the impact of the quality of the DSM in terms of building extraction is evaluated as well as evaluation of building DSM, a DSM only containing buildings. The results indicate that building extents can be detected with DSMs from optical satellite data with various success, dependent on the quality of the DSM as well as on the SAR imaging perspective.

  17. On Better Exploring and Exploiting Task Relationships in Multitask Learning: Joint Model and Feature Learning. (United States)

    Li, Ya; Tian, Xinmei; Liu, Tongliang; Tao, Dacheng


    Multitask learning (MTL) aims to learn multiple tasks simultaneously through the interdependence between different tasks. The way to measure the relatedness between tasks is always a popular issue. There are mainly two ways to measure relatedness between tasks: common parameters sharing and common features sharing across different tasks. However, these two types of relatedness are mainly learned independently, leading to a loss of information. In this paper, we propose a new strategy to measure the relatedness that jointly learns shared parameters and shared feature representations. The objective of our proposed method is to transform the features of different tasks into a common feature space in which the tasks are closely related and the shared parameters can be better optimized. We give a detailed introduction to our proposed MTL method. Additionally, an alternating algorithm is introduced to optimize the nonconvex objection. A theoretical bound is given to demonstrate that the relatedness between tasks can be better measured by our proposed MTL algorithm. We conduct various experiments to verify the superiority of the proposed joint model and feature MTL method.

  18. AAV exploits subcellular stress associated with inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum expansion, and misfolded proteins in models of cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrod S Johnson


    Full Text Available Barriers to infection act at multiple levels to prevent viruses, bacteria, and parasites from commandeering host cells for their own purposes. An intriguing hypothesis is that if a cell experiences stress, such as that elicited by inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER expansion, or misfolded proteins, then subcellular barriers will be less effective at preventing viral infection. Here we have used models of cystic fibrosis (CF to test whether subcellular stress increases susceptibility to adeno-associated virus (AAV infection. In human airway epithelium cultured at an air/liquid interface, physiological conditions of subcellular stress and ER expansion were mimicked using supernatant from mucopurulent material derived from CF lungs. Using this inflammatory stimulus to recapitulate stress found in diseased airways, we demonstrated that AAV infection was significantly enhanced. Since over 90% of CF cases are associated with a misfolded variant of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (ΔF508-CFTR, we then explored whether the presence of misfolded proteins could independently increase susceptibility to AAV infection. In these models, AAV was an order of magnitude more efficient at transducing cells expressing ΔF508-CFTR than in cells expressing wild-type CFTR. Rescue of misfolded ΔF508-CFTR under low temperature conditions restored viral transduction efficiency to that demonstrated in controls, suggesting effects related to protein misfolding were responsible for increasing susceptibility to infection. By testing other CFTR mutants, G551D, D572N, and 1410X, we have shown this phenomenon is common to other misfolded proteins and not related to loss of CFTR activity. The presence of misfolded proteins did not affect cell surface attachment of virus or influence expression levels from promoter transgene cassettes in plasmid transfection studies, indicating exploitation occurs at the level of virion trafficking or processing. Thus

  19. El origen de la identidad salvadoreña : etnicidad en la antigua Villa de San Salvador


    Gallardo, Roberto


    Definiciones de identidad y de etnicidad. Contacto, aculturación y conflicto. Etnicidad en la Villa de San salvador. Los españoles. Los nativos. Otros grupos étnicos. Un entorno político social hostil en el territorio donde fue establecido San Salvador. Dificultad en obtener bienes importados de España. UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLÓGICA DE EL SALVADOR.

  20. Surrogate Model Application to the Identification of Optimal Groundwater Exploitation Scheme Based on Regression Kriging Method-A Case Study of Western Jilin Province. (United States)

    An, Yongkai; Lu, Wenxi; Cheng, Weiguo


    This paper introduces a surrogate model to identify an optimal exploitation scheme, while the western Jilin province was selected as the study area. A numerical simulation model of groundwater flow was established first, and four exploitation wells were set in the Tongyu county and Qian Gorlos county respectively so as to supply water to Daan county. Second, the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method was used to collect data in the feasible region for input variables. A surrogate model of the numerical simulation model of groundwater flow was developed using the regression kriging method. An optimization model was established to search an optimal groundwater exploitation scheme using the minimum average drawdown of groundwater table and the minimum cost of groundwater exploitation as multi-objective functions. Finally, the surrogate model was invoked by the optimization model in the process of solving the optimization problem. Results show that the relative error and root mean square error of the groundwater table drawdown between the simulation model and the surrogate model for 10 validation samples are both lower than 5%, which is a high approximation accuracy. The contrast between the surrogate-based simulation optimization model and the conventional simulation optimization model for solving the same optimization problem, shows the former only needs 5.5 hours, and the latter needs 25 days. The above results indicate that the surrogate model developed in this study could not only considerably reduce the computational burden of the simulation optimization process, but also maintain high computational accuracy. This can thus provide an effective method for identifying an optimal groundwater exploitation scheme quickly and accurately.

  1. Hydrocarbon market in El Salvador; Mercado de hidrocarburos en El Salvador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava de Hernandez, Gina Mercedes [Ministerio de Economia, Direccion de Energia, Minas e Hidrocarburos (El Salvador)


    This document presents a summary of the present situation of the market of hydrocarbons in El Salvador, doing a synthesis of the conformation of the industry, of the demand of the country, the prices and others. In addition, it shows the situation before and after the deregulation, making emphasis in the changes originated by such a measure. [Spanish] El presente documento presenta un resumen de la situacion actual del mercado de los hidrocarburos en El Salvador, haciendo una sintesis de la conformacion de la industria, de la demanda del pais, los precios y otros. Ademas muestra la situacion antes y despues de la desregulacion, haciendo enfasis en los cambios ocurridos por tal medida.

  2. Salvador na "Globalização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Porto


    Full Text Available El texto sitúa la ciudad de Salvador-Bahía, tercera en población de Brasil, en el contexto de los impactos de la globalización. Desde la década de 1950 hasta la de 1970, Salvador se destacó de las demás ciudades del Nordeste de Brasil experimentando un rápido crecimento gracias a los incentivos y subsidios fiscales y financieros del gobierno federal. El crecimiento de la Región y ciudades fue desigual y abrupto, sobre todo Salvador, que abrió espacios internos para expandir y descentralizarse. Todavía, a partir de los años 80 y 90, con la reestruturación productiva y el neoliberalismo, que definen los terminos de la globalización, el proceso se invirtió. El espacio metropolitano se contrajo, económica y socialmente, con un aumento desmesurado de desempleados y sub-empreados, intensificando de esa forma el proceso de segregación y exclusión social. En contraposición, algunas «islas de modernidad» pasaron a conectarse, a partir de sus cada vez más reducidas y cada vez más ricas actividades económicas -el turismo, antes y encima de todo-, a puntos y espacios nacionales y, mayoritariamente, internacionales, mucho más de que a espacios y flujos internosThe following paper sets the city of Salvador-Bahía, Brazil´s third most populated city, in context with the effects of globalization. Between the 1950’s and 1970’s, Brazil’s northeastern region experienced fast economic growth due to federal financial and fiscal incentives. This sudden process occurred unevenly at regional and city levels, especially for Salvador that released internal areas to expand and decentralize itself. However, during the 1980’s and 1990’s this process was reversed due to neoliberalism and productive restructuring. These are the elements that define in what terms globalization sets in. Consequently, the economic and social spaces of the metropolitan area contracted, increasing the number of unemployed and under-employed people, and

  3. Many trained at E1 Salvador center. (United States)


    The Family Planning Association of E1 Salvador is conducting regular week-long courses in family planning for doctors, nurses, social workers and other interested people in El Salvador and the surrounding countries of Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Twelve regional courses on population dynamics, the physiology of reproduction and family planning were held in the academic year 1968-69 at the Faculty of Medicine at the University of El Salvador. Because the demand for places far exceeds the capacity of the Association's training unit, careful selection of candidates is made through consultation with the national family planning associations. Most of those trained are doctors who are being specially equipped to carry out family planning work either as part of government maternal and child health centres or in Association clinics. Many places are also found for nurses and some social workers also attend in order to build up teams for effective clinic management. A few journalists and teachers have been among the trainees as well as groups of religious leaders including Roman Catholics. Lecturers are mainly university personnel drawn from a wide range of disciplines in order to relate family planning not only to health and medicine but also to socio-economic aspects and community welfare. The El Salvador Association, an IPPF member, gets financial support from the Population Council for the training programme but hopes eventually that responsibility for continuing the courses will be taken over by the Government, probably through the Ministry of Education. Another pace-setting activity of the Association has been its close contacts with industry, particulary through the efforts of its President, Mr. Lucio Burgos, General Manager of the El Salvador Power Company, who has gained the interest and support of business and union leaders. Not only do these groups help the work of the Association through fund-raising and public relations activities, but

  4. An ecosystem model of an exploited southern Mediterranean shelf region (Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia) and a comparison with other Mediterranean ecosystem model properties (United States)

    Hattab, Tarek; Ben Rais Lasram, Frida; Albouy, Camille; Romdhane, Mohamed Salah; Jarboui, Othman; Halouani, Ghassen; Cury, Philippe; Le Loc'h, François


    In this paper, we describe an exploited continental shelf ecosystem (Gulf of Gabes) in the southern Mediterranean Sea using an Ecopath mass-balance model. This allowed us to determine the structure and functioning of this ecosystem and assess the impacts of fishing upon it. The model represents the average state of the ecosystem between 2000 and 2005. It includes 41 functional groups, which encompass the entire trophic spectrum from phytoplankton to higher trophic levels (e.g., fishes, birds, and mammals), and also considers the fishing activities in the area (five fleets). Model results highlight an important bentho-pelagic coupling in the system due to the links between plankton and benthic invertebrates through detritus. A comparison of this model with those developed for other continental shelf regions in the Mediterranean (i.e., the southern Catalan, the northern-central Adriatic, and the northern Aegean Seas) emphasizes similar patterns in their trophic functioning. Low and medium trophic levels (i.e., zooplankton, benthic molluscs, and polychaetes) and sharks were identified as playing key ecosystem roles and were classified as keystone groups. An analysis of ecosystem attributes indicated that the Gulf of Gabes is the least mature (i.e., in the earliest stages of ecosystem development) of the four ecosystems that were compared and it is suggested that this is due, at least in part, to the impacts of fishing. Bottom trawling was identified as having the widest-ranging impacts across the different functional groups and the largest impacts on some commercially-targeted demersal fish species. Several exploitation indices highlighted that the Gulf of Gabes ecosystem is highly exploited, a finding which is supported by stock assessment outcomes. This suggests that it is unlikely that the gulf can be fished at sustainable levels, a situation which is similar to other marine ecosystems in the Mediterranean Sea.

  5. Results of investigation at the Ahuachapan Geothermal Field, El Salvador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.B. (HydroGeophysics, Tucson, AZ (United States))


    The Ahuachapan Geothermal Field (AGF) is a 95 megawatt geothemal-sourced power-plant operated by the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) of El Salvador. During the past decade, as part of an effort to increase in situ thermal reserves in order to realize the full generation capacity of the AGF, extensive surface geophysical coverage has been obtained over the AGF and the prospective Chipilapa area to the east. The geophysical surveys were performed to determine physical property characteristics of the known reservoir and then to search for similar characteristics in the Chipilapa area. A secondary objective was to evaluate the surface recharge area in the highlands to the south of the AGF. The principal surface electrical geophysical methods used during this period were DC resistivity and magnetotellurics. Three available data sets have been reinterpreted using drillhole control to help form geophysical models of the area. The geophysical models are compared with the geologic interpretations.

  6. A Geographic Model to Assess and Limit Cumulative Ecological Degradation from Marcellus Shale Exploitation in New York, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Davis


    Full Text Available When natural resources are exploited, environmental costs and economic benefits are often asymmetric. An example is apparent in the environmental impacts from fossil fuel extraction by hydraulic fracturing. So far, most scrutiny has been focused on water quality in affected aquifers, with less attention paid to broader ecological impacts beyond individual drilling operations. Marcellus Shale methane exploitation in New York State, USA, has been delayed because of a regulatory moratorium, pending evaluation that has been directed primarily at localized impacts. We developed a GIS-based model, built on a hexagonal grid underlay nested within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's EMAP system, to examine potential cumulative ecological impacts. In a two-step process, we characterized > 19,000 hexagons, each sized to approximate the footprint of one drilling site (2.57 km², using ecological attributes; we then developed a method for apportioning resource access that includes assessments of cumulative ecological costs. Over one-quarter of the hexagons were excluded as off-limits on the basis of six criteria: slope suitability, regulated wetland cover, protected-land cover, length of high-quality streams, mapped road density, and open water cover. Three additional criteria were applied to assess the estimated conservation vulnerability of the remaining sites: density of grassland birds (North American Breeding Bird Survey, percent core forest (Coastal Change Analysis Program, and total density of all state-mapped streams; these were determined and used in combination to rank the 14,000 potentially accessible sites. In a second step, an iterative process was used to distribute potential site access among all towns (sub-county governments within the Marcellus Shale Formation. At each iteration, one site was selected per town, either randomly or in rank order of increasing vulnerability. Results were computed as percent cumulative impact versus the

  7. Violence in Counterinsurgency - The Case of El Salvador (United States)



  8. Promoting Non-violent Masculine Identities in El Salvador and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Promoting Non-violent Masculine Identities in El Salvador and Nicaragua. The aim of this project is to prevent violence and increase resilience among individuals and communities in El Salvador and Nicaragua by contributing to more informed, effective, and participatory interventions. Although violence levels in the region ...

  9. Autoregressive higher-order hidden Markov models: exploiting local chromosomal dependencies in the analysis of tumor expression profiles. (United States)

    Seifert, Michael; Abou-El-Ardat, Khalil; Friedrich, Betty; Klink, Barbara; Deutsch, Andreas


    Changes in gene expression programs play a central role in cancer. Chromosomal aberrations such as deletions, duplications and translocations of DNA segments can lead to highly significant positive correlations of gene expression levels of neighboring genes. This should be utilized to improve the analysis of tumor expression profiles. Here, we develop a novel model class of autoregressive higher-order Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) that carefully exploit local data-dependent chromosomal dependencies to improve the identification of differentially expressed genes in tumor. Autoregressive higher-order HMMs overcome generally existing limitations of standard first-order HMMs in the modeling of dependencies between genes in close chromosomal proximity by the simultaneous usage of higher-order state-transitions and autoregressive emissions as novel model features. We apply autoregressive higher-order HMMs to the analysis of breast cancer and glioma gene expression data and perform in-depth model evaluation studies. We find that autoregressive higher-order HMMs clearly improve the identification of overexpressed genes with underlying gene copy number duplications in breast cancer in comparison to mixture models, standard first- and higher-order HMMs, and other related methods. The performance benefit is attributed to the simultaneous usage of higher-order state-transitions in combination with autoregressive emissions. This benefit could not be reached by using each of these two features independently. We also find that autoregressive higher-order HMMs are better able to identify differentially expressed genes in tumors independent of the underlying gene copy number status in comparison to the majority of related methods. This is further supported by the identification of well-known and of previously unreported hotspots of differential expression in glioblastomas demonstrating the efficacy of autoregressive higher-order HMMs for the analysis of individual tumor expression

  10. Development of a 1 D hydrodynamic habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibious as basis for sustainable exploitation of hydroelectric power (United States)

    Manful, D. Y.; Kaule, G.; Wieprecht, S.; Rees, J.; Hu, W.


    operating rules of the reservoir in the post-construction phase of the dam. A great deal of work has been done on the effects of stream flow changes on fish especially salmonids. Very little work however has been done assessing the impact of hydropower schemes on aquatic mammals especially in Africa. HIPStrA is the first attempt at developing a computer-based habitat model for a large aquatic megaherbivore. The need for energy for development, the availability of large rivers and a rich biodiversity base in Africa makes a case for careful and ecological smart exploitation. The overarching aim of the study is the sustainable development of hydroelectric power through the use of methodologies and tools to rigorously assess changes in instream conditions that impact aquatic mammals.

  11. Generation of Digital Surface Models from satellite photogrammetry: the DSM-OPT service of the ESA Geohazards Exploitation Platform (GEP) (United States)

    Stumpf, André; Michéa, David; Malet, Jean-Philippe


    The continuously increasing fleet of agile stereo-capable very-high resolution (VHR) optical satellites has facilitated the acquisition of multi-view images of the earth surface. Theoretical revisit times have been reduced to less than one day and the highest spatial resolution which is commercially available amounts now to 30 cm/pixel. Digital Surface Models (DSM) and point clouds computed from such satellite stereo-acquisitions can provide valuable input for studies in geomorphology, tectonics, glaciology, hydrology and urban remote sensing The photogrammetric processing, however, still requires significant expertise, computational resources and costly commercial software. To enable a large Earth Science community (researcher and end-users) to process easily and rapidly VHR multi-view images, the work targets the implementation of a fully automatic satellite-photogrammetry pipeline (i.e DSM-OPT) on the ESA Geohazards Exploitation Platform (GEP). The implemented pipeline is based on the open-source photogrammetry library MicMac [1] and is designed for distributed processing on a cloud-based infrastructure. The service can be employed in pre-defined processing modes (i.e. urban, plain, hilly, and mountainous environments) or in an advanced processing mode (i.e. in which expert-users have the possibility to adapt the processing parameters to their specific applications). Four representative use cases are presented to illustrate the accuracy of the resulting surface models and ortho-images as well as the overall processing time. These use cases consisted of the construction of surface models from series of Pléiades images for four applications: urban analysis (Strasbourg, France), landslide detection in mountainous environments (South French Alps), co-seismic deformation in mountain environments (Central Italy earthquake sequence of 2016) and fault recognition for paleo-tectonic analysis (North-East India). Comparisons of the satellite-derived topography to airborne

  12. User modeling for exploratory search on the Social Web. Exploiting social bookmarking systems for user model extraction, evaluation and integration


    Gontek, Mirko


    Exploratory search is an information seeking strategy that extends be- yond the query-and-response paradigm of traditional Information Retrieval models. Users browse through information to discover novel content and to learn more about the newly discovered things. Social bookmarking systems integrate well with exploratory search, because they allow one to search, browse, and filter social bookmarks. Our contribution is an exploratory tag search engine that merges social bookmarking with ex...

  13. Role of Temperature, Humidity and Rainfall on Influenza Transmission in Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Bonilla, Luis; Jara, Jorge; McCracken, John; Azziz?-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kiang, Richard


    Worldwide, seasonal influenza causes about 500,000 deaths and 5 million severe illnesses per year. The environmental drivers of influenza transmission are poorly understood especially in the tropics. We aimed to identify meteorological factors for influenza transmission in tropical Central America. We gathered laboratory-confirmed influenza case-counts by week from Guatemala City, San Salvador Department (El Salvador) and Panama Province from 2006 to 2010. The average total cases per year were: 390 (Guatemala), 99 (San Salvador) and 129 (Panama). Meteorological factors including daily air temperature, rainfall, relative and absolute humidity (RH, AH) were obtained from ground stations, NASA satellites and land models. For these factors, we computed weekly averages and their deviation from the 5-yr means. We assessed the relationship between the number of influenza case-counts and the meteorological factors, including effects lagged by 1 to 4 weeks, using Poisson regression for each site. Our results showed influenza in San Salvador would increase by 1 case within a week of every 1 day with RH>75% (Relative Risk (RR)= 1.32, p=.001) and every 1C increase in minimum temperature (RR=1.29, p=.007) but it would decrease by 1 case for every 1mm-above mean weekly rainfall (RR=0.93,pGuatemala had 1 case increase for every 1C increase in minimum temperature in the previous week (RR=1.21, p<.001), and for every 1mm/day-above normal increase of rainfall rate (RR=1.03, p=.03) (model pseudo-R2=0.54). Our findings that cases increase with temperature and humidity differ from some temperate-zone studies. But they indicate that climate parameters such as humidity and temperature could be predictive of influenza activity and should be incorporated into country-specific influenza transmission models

  14. Empirical estimation of recreational exploitation of burbot, Lota lota, in the Wind River drainage of Wyoming using a multistate capture–recapture model (United States)

    Lewandoski, S. A.; Guy, Christopher S.; Zale, Alexander V.; Gerrity, Paul C.; Deromedi, J. W.; Johnson, K.M.; Skates, D. L.


    Burbot, Lota lota (Linnaeus), is a regionally popular sportfish in the Wind River drainage of Wyoming, USA, at the southern boundary of the range of the species. Recent declines in burbot abundances were hypothesised to be caused by overexploitation, entrainment in irrigation canals and habitat loss. This study addressed the overexploitation hypothesis using tagging data to generate reliable exploitation, abundance and density estimates from a multistate capture–recapture model that accounted for incomplete angler reporting and tag loss. Exploitation rate μ was variable among the study lakes and inversely correlated with density. Exploitation thresholds μ40 associated with population densities remaining above 40% of carrying capacity were generated to characterise risk of overharvest using exploitation and density estimates from tagging data and a logistic surplus-production model parameterised with data from other burbot populations. Bull Lake (μ = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.03–0.11; μ40 = 0.18) and Torrey Lake (μ = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.00–0.11; μ40 = 0.18) had a low risk of overfishing, Upper Dinwoody Lake had intermediate risk (μ = 0.08, 95% CI: 0.02–0.32; μ40 = 0.18) and Lower Dinwoody Lake had high risk (μ = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.10–0.67; μ40 = 0.08). These exploitation and density estimates can be used to guide sustainable management of the Wind River drainage recreational burbot fishery and inform management of other burbot fisheries elsewhere.

  15. Sistema de salud de El Salvador The health system of El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Acosta


    Full Text Available En este artículo se describen las condiciones de salud de la población salvadoreña y, con mayor detalle, el sistema de salud de El Salvador, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos con los que cuenta, las actividades de rectoría que desarrolla el Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social, y la participación de los usuarios de los servicios de salud en la evaluación del sistema. Asimismo se discuten las más recientes innovaciones implantadas por el sistema salvadoreño de salud, dentro de las que destacan la aprobación de la Ley de Creación del Sistema Nacional de Salud que busca ampliar la cobertura, disminuir las desigualdades y mejorar la coordinación de las instituciones públicas de salud.This paper describes the health conditions in El Salvador and the main característics of the Salvadoran health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the physical, material and human resources available, the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Public Health, and the participation of health care users in the evaluation of the system. It also discusses the most recent policy innovations including the approval of the Law for the Creation of the National Health System, which intends to expand coverage, reduce health inequalities and improve the coordination of public health institutions.

  16. [Professional Burnout Syndrome of intensive care physicians from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil]. (United States)

    Tironi, Márcia Oliveira Staffa; Nascimento Sobrinho, Carlito Lopes; Barros, Dalton de Souza; Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Marques Filho, Edson Silva; Almeida, Alessandro; Bitencourt, Almir; Feitosa, Ana Isabela Ramos; Neves, Flávia Serra; Mota, Igor Carlos Cunha; França, Juliana; Borges, Lorena Guimarães; Lordão, Manuela Barreto de Jesus; Trindade, Maria Valverde; Teles, Marcelo Santos; Almeida, Mônica Bastos T; Souza, Ygor Gomes de


    Describe prevalence of the Burnout syndrome in intensive care physicians of Salvador, associated to demographic data and aspects of the work environment (psychological demand and job control). This cross sectional study has investigated the association between work conditions and Burnout Syndrome in a population of 297 Intensive Care Physicians from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. An individual, self-report questionnaire evaluated the physicians' psychological aspects of work, using the demand-control model (Job Content Questionnaire) and their mental health, using the Maslash Burnout Inventory (MBI). The study found work overload,a high proportion of on duty physicians and low income for the hours worked. Prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome was 7.4% and it was more closely associated with aspects of the job's psychological demand than with its control. Physicians under great stress (high demand and low control) presented prevalence of the Bornout Syndrome 10.2 times higher than those under low stress (low demand and high control) jobs.

  17. The Ethics of Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul McLaughlin


    Full Text Available Philosophical inquiry into exploitation has two major deficiencies to date: it assumes that exploitation is wrong by definition; and it pays too much attention to the Marxian account of exploitation. Two senses of exploitation should be distinguished: the ‘moral’ or pejorative sense and the ‘non-moral’ or ‘non-prejudicial’ sense. By demonstrating the conceptual inadequacy of exploitation as defined in the first sense, and by defining exploitation adequately in the latter sense, we seek to demonstrate the moral complexity of exploitation. We contend, moreover, that moral evaluation of exploitation is only possible once we abandon a strictly Marxian framework and attempt, in the long run, to develop an integral ethic along Godwinian lines.

  18. On a model of mixtures with internal variables: Extended Liu procedure for the exploitation of the entropy principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Oliveri


    Full Text Available The exploitation of second law of thermodynamics for a mixture of two fluids with a scalar internal variable and a first order nonlocal state space is achieved by using the extended Liu approach. This method requires to insert as constraints in the entropy inequality either the field equations or their gradient extensions. Consequently, the thermodynamic restrictions imposed by the entropy principle are derived without introducing extra terms neither in the energy balance equation nor in the entropy inequality.

  19. Indigo équitable au Salvador | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sustainable Production and Commercialization of Indigo in El Salvador : Exploration and Program Plan. In the year 2000, the Balsam Association, a nongovernmental organization, approached members of the Health Dyes Project, Department of Human Ecology, University of Alberta, for assistance with.

  20. Actitudes lingüísticas de los hablantes de San Salvador, El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Rivera Orellana


    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de hablantes nativos de español de la ciudad de San Salvador hacia al español de El Salvador y el de los otros países hispanohablantes. El artículo es parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigación (RCN. La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando a una muestra de 400 personas estratificada con las variables de edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico. Los estudios sobre actitudes lingüísticas en el país son escasos y este es el estudio que más dimensiones abarca respecto de cómo los salvadoreños que habitan en la capital se identifican con el idioma que hablan, cómo valoran o califican las formas de hablar de los habitantes de su entorno y cómo reaccionan ante formas de hablar el español en otros países, tanto de aquellos que conocen directamente como de otros con los cuales tienen una relación indirecta, principalmente a través de los medios de comunicación. Abstract This article analyzes the linguistic attitudes of native Spanish speakers from San Salvador towards Spanish spoken in El Salvador and in the other Spanish-speaking countries. It is a result of the LIAS-Project (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, funded by The Research Council of Norway (RCN. The data were gathered in the capital of the country, interviewing a stratified sample of 400 respondents, based on the variables of age, sex and socioeconomic status. Studies of linguistic attitudes are scarce in the country and this research study is the first one with a broad scope regarding how people living in the capital identify themselves with the way they speak; how they value or characterize the way people around them speak, and how they react to the way people speak Spanish in other countries that they know personally or through

  1. Generating Orthorectified Multi-Perspective 2.5D Maps to Facilitate Web GIS-Based Visualization and Exploitation of Massive 3D City Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Liang


    Full Text Available 2.5D map is a convenient and efficient approach to exploiting a massive three-dimensional (3D city model in web GIS. With the rapid development of oblique airborne photogrammetry and photo-based 3D reconstruction, 3D city models are becoming more and more accessible. 3D Geographic Information System (GIS can support the interactive visualization of massive 3D city models on various platforms and devices. However, the value and accessibility of existing 3D city models can be augmented by integrating them into web-based two-dimensional (2D GIS applications. In this paper, we present a step-by-step workflow for generating orthorectified oblique images (2.5D maps from massive 3D city models. The proposed framework can produce 2.5D maps from an arbitrary perspective, defined by the elevation angle and azimuth angle of a virtual orthographic camera. We demonstrate how 2.5D maps can benefit web-based visualization and exploitation of massive 3D city models. We conclude that a 2.5D map is a compact data representation optimized for web data streaming of 3D city models and that geometric analysis of buildings can be effectively conducted on 2.5D maps.

  2. Exploitability Assessment with TEASER (United States)


    exploits. We saw this as an advantage of our dataset because we had to confirm that either a bug was exploitable or not exploitable. For the 28 CHAPTER 5...corruption which demonstrates that there is very little activity within c-ares to take advantage of after the heap corruption. This idea is in line with the...remote code execution POCs. 42 Bibliography [1] Analyze crashes to find security vulnerabilities in your apps . https: //

  3. Anthropology of sexual exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Velibor


    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors observe sexual exploitation from an anthropological perspective. They analyze the rational, ethical, emotional and mythological dimensions of human sexuality. Consequently, after setting the phenomenon in a social and historical context, sexual exploitation is closely observed in the contemporary age. Based on thoughts of relevant thinkers, they make the conclusion that the elimination of sexual exploitation is not an utterly legal issue, but political and economical issues as well. Namely, legal norms are not sufficient to overcome sexual exploitation, but, political and economical relationships in contemporary societies, which will be based on sincere equal opportunities must be established.

  4. Tsunami hazard and risk assessment in El Salvador (United States)

    González, M.; González-Riancho, P.; Gutiérrez, O. Q.; García-Aguilar, O.; Aniel-Quiroga, I.; Aguirre, I.; Alvarez, J. A.; Gavidia, F.; Jaimes, I.; Larreynaga, J. A.


    Tsunamis are relatively infrequent phenomena representing a greater threat than earthquakes, hurricanes and tornadoes, causing the loss of thousands of human lives and extensive damage to coastal infrastructure around the world. Several works have attempted to study these phenomena in order to understand their origin, causes, evolution, consequences, and magnitude of their damages, to finally propose mechanisms to protect coastal societies. Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of adaptation and mitigation strategies to reduce risk on coastal areas. This work -Tsunami Hazard and Risk Assessment in El Salvador-, funded by AECID during the period 2009-12, examines the state of the art and presents a comprehensive methodology for assessing the risk of tsunamis at any coastal area worldwide and applying it to the coast of El Salvador. The conceptual framework is based on the definition of Risk as the probability of harmful consequences or expected losses resulting from a given hazard to a given element at danger or peril, over a specified time period (European Commission, Schneiderbauer et al., 2004). The HAZARD assessment (Phase I of the project) is based on propagation models for earthquake-generated tsunamis, developed through the characterization of tsunamigenic sources -sismotectonic faults- and other dynamics under study -tsunami waves, sea level, etc.-. The study area is located in a high seismic activity area and has been hit by 11 tsunamis between 1859 and 1997, nine of them recorded in the twentieth century and all generated by earthquakes. Simulations of historical and potential tsunamis with greater or lesser affection to the country's coast have been performed, including distant sources, intermediate and close. Deterministic analyses of the threats under study -coastal flooding- have been carried out, resulting in different hazard maps (maximum wave height elevation, maximum water depth, minimum tsunami

  5. A spatio-temporal analysis of suicide in El Salvador. (United States)

    Carcach, Carlos


    In 2012, international statistics showed El Salvador's suicide rate as 40th in the world and the highest in Latin America. Over the last 15 years, national statistics show the suicide death rate declining as opposed to an increasing rate of homicide. Though completed suicide is an important social and health issue, little is known about its prevalence, incidence, etiology and spatio-temporal behavior. The primary objective of this study was to examine completed suicide and homicide using the stream analogy to lethal violence within a spatio-temporal framework. A Bayesian model was applied to examine the spatio-temporal evolution of the tendency of completed suicide over homicide in El Salvador. Data on numbers of suicides and homicides at the municipal level were obtained from the Instituto de Medicina Legal (IML) and population counts, from the Dirección General de Estadística y Censos (DIGESTYC), for the period of 2002 to 2012. Data on migration were derived from the 2007 Population Census, and inequality data were obtained from a study by Damianović, Valenzuela and Vera. The data reveal a stable standardized rate of total lethal violence (completed suicide plus homicide) across municipalities over time; a decline in suicide; and a standardized suicide rate decreasing with income inequality but increasing with social isolation. Municipalities clustered in terms of both total lethal violence and suicide standardized rates. Spatial effects for suicide were stronger among municipalities located in the north-east and center-south sides of the country. New clusters of municipalities with large suicide standardized rates were detected in the north-west, south-west and center-south regions, all of which are part of time-stable clusters of homicide. Prevention efforts to reduce income inequality and mitigate the negative effects of weak relational systems should focus upon municipalities forming time-persistent clusters with a large rate of death by suicide. In


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cotman


    Full Text Available The processes of forming, petrography, features, properties and exploitation of granite boulders are described. The directional drilling and black powder blasting is the succesful method in exploitation of granite boulders (boulder technology (the paper is published in Croatian.

  7. Spatial patterns of preventable perinatal mortality in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. (United States)

    Nascimento, Rita de Cássia de Sousa; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Braga, José Uéleres; Natividade, Márcio Santos da


    To identify the spatial distribution patterns and areas of higher risk of preventable perinatal mortality in the city of Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil. We carried out a spatial aggregated study in 2007, considering the weighting areas (census tracts contiguous sets) of Salvador, of which the center and north present low life conditions. Data were obtained from national vital statistics systems and the 2010 Census. Addresses of live births and stillbirths were geocoded by weighting area. The spatial distribution of the perinatal mortality rate was analyzed from thematic maps. Spatial dependence was evaluated by the Global and Local Geary's and Moran's Indexes. Crude and smoothed perinatal mortality rates were high in areas situated to the north, west, and in center of Salvador. The smoothed rates in weighting areas ranged from 4.9/1,000 to 22.3/1,000 births. Of all perinatal deaths, 92.1% could have been prevented. We identified spatial dependence for preventable perinatal mortality for care in pregnancy, with neighboring areas with high risk in the north of the city. The preventability potential of perinatal mortality was high in Salvador, in 2007. The spatial distribution pattern with higher rates in disadvantaged areas of the city suggests the existence of social inequalities in health. The characteristics of the process of urban development of Salvador, which has inadequate prenatal care, possibly influenced the magnitude and spatial distribution pattern of this mortality.

  8. [Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from El Salvador, Central America]. (United States)

    García-Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez-Ruiz, Migdalia; Barraza, José E; Rivera, Ana M; Hasbún, Carlos R


    Collections of 11 species of shallow water Polyplacophora from El Salvador were made in July 2002. Previously only five species had been documented in El Salvador: Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832); Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910); Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909); Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832) and Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893). Of these, L. guatemalensis and A. exquisita were not collected in this census. Seven other species are reported here for El Salvador for the first time: Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857); Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832); Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832); Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1865); Acanthochitona arragonites (Carpenter, 1867); A. ferreirai (Lyons, 1988) and A. hirudiniformis (Sowerby, 1832). The known geographic distribution of 1. dispar is extended to the north. An un-named species of Lepidochitona is briefly described.

  9. Housing development strategies in El Salvador cities and natural disasters


    Panadero Moya, Miguel; Cebrián Abellán, Francisco


    La política de vivienda en El Salvador en la segunda mitad del siglo XX se ha desarrollado siguiendo el mismo modelo establecido en el resto de los países de su entorno cultural en esos momentos. En todos ellos se trataba de dar respuesta a un acelerado crecimiento demográfico que también apareció con un comportamiento similar en toda América Latina. Sin embargo, en este marco general, las características físicas del territorio salvadoreño introducen un factor perturbador de la dinámica socia...

  10. Palabras de la Primera Dama de El Salvador


    Elizabeth Aguirre de Calderón Sol


    Este documento incluye las palabras de la Primera Dama de El Salvador Elizabeth de Calderón Sol en la clausura del Foro "Convivencia y seguridad ciudadana en el Istmo Centroamericano y la Isla Española". La conferencia se centra en la violencia doméstica, un tema de particular interés para el gobierno y el instituto salvadoreño para el desarrollo de la mujer que preside. Se presenta el "Programa de saneamiento de la relación familiar", el esfuerzo del gobierno para abordar el problema de la v...

  11. Teotihuacan, tepeapulco, and obsidian exploitation. (United States)

    Charlton, T H


    Current cultural ecological models of the development of civilization in central Mexico emphasize the role of subsistence production techniques and organization. The recent use of established and productive archeological surface survey techniques along natural corridors of communication between favorable niches for cultural development within the Central Mexican symbiotic region resulted in the location of sites that indicate an early development of a decentralized resource exploitation, manufacturing, and exchange network. The association of the development of this system with Teotihuacán indicates the importance such nonsubsistence production and exchange had in the evolution of this first central Mexican civilization. The later expansion of Teotihuacán into more distant areas of Mesoamerica was based on this resource exploitation model. Later civilizations centered at Tula and Tenochtitlán also used such a model in their expansion.

  12. Student Modeling in Orthopedic Surgery Training: Exploiting Symbiosis between Temporal Bayesian Networks and Fine-Grained Didactic Analysis (United States)

    Chieu, Vu Minh; Luengo, Vanda; Vadcard, Lucile; Tonetti, Jerome


    Cognitive approaches have been used for student modeling in intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs). Many of those systems have tackled fundamental subjects such as mathematics, physics, and computer programming. The change of the student's cognitive behavior over time, however, has not been considered and modeled systematically. Furthermore, the…

  13. Modeling and simulation of stamp deflections in nanoimprint lithography: Exploiting backside grooves to enhance residual layer thickness uniformity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Hayden; Smistrup, Kristian; Boning, Duane


    We describe a model for the compliance of a nanoimprint stamp etched with a grid of backside grooves. We integrate the model with a fast simulation technique that we have previously demonstrated, to show how etched grooves help reduce the systematic residual layer thickness (RLT) variations that ...

  14. Echinodermata das praias de Salvador (Bahia, Brasil The Echinoderms of Salvador beaches (Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orane Falcão de Souza Alves


    Full Text Available This paper presents 28 species of Echinoderms collected on 5 beaches of Salvador (12º54' to 13º01' S and 38º26' to 38º33' W, Brazil, which are distributed in 19 families. Ophiuroidea represented 53,6% of the collected species, followed by Echinoidea (28,6%, Asteroidea (7,1%, Holothuroidea (7,1%, and Crinoidea (3,6%. Ophiuroidea and Echinoidea were the most frequent groups, occurring at all the studied beaches while Crinoidea occurred only on 20% of them. Most of the species are characterized as belonging to the tropical warm waters, some to the shallow coastal areas and some having a broad bathymetric distribution. The richness of species values on beaches ranged from 7 to 24, at Itapua Beach, and from 2 to 14 among different kinds of habitats, where protected ones showed higher values.

  15. Maintaining the confidentiality of plot locations by exploiting the low sensitivity of forest structure models to different spectral extraction kernels (United States)

    Sean P. Healey; Elizabeth Lapoint; Gretchen G. Moisen; Scott L. Powell


    The United States Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) unit maintains a large national network of inventory plots.While the consistency and extent of this network make FIA data attractive for ecological modelling, the FIA is charged by statute not to publicly reveal inventory plot locations. However, use of FIA plot data by the remote sensing community...

  16. Tumor hypoxia - A confounding or exploitable factor in interstitial brachytherapy? Effects of tissue trauma in an experimental rat tumor model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, AP; van Geel, CAJF; van Hooije, CMC; van der Kleij, AJ; Visser, AG


    Purpose: To evaluate the potential effects of tumor hypoxia induced by afterloading catheter implantation on the effectiveness of brachytherapy in a rat tumor model. Methods and Materials: Afterloading catheters (4) Here implanted in subcutaneously growing R1M rhabdomyosarcoma in female Wag/Rij

  17. Minera Australiana adquiere proyecto cuestionado en El Salvador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir


    This article looks at the environmental risks of gold mining in El Salvador in general and specifically at the risks associated with OceanaGold's project. The article also examines the stiff opposition to the project presented by an alliance of local and international organisations....

  18. An Introduction to the Psychedelic Psychotherapy of Salvador Roquet (United States)

    Villoldo, Alberto


    Psychosynthesis as developed by Salvador Roquet presents a new method combining Freudian, Frommian, and transpersonal therapies. Its immediate result is to obtain results expected from long-term psychoanalysis in an abbreviated period of time. It also helps the individual take responsibility for his own development. (Author/RK)

  19. Revolution and Accommodation. Post-Insurgency in El Salvador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenkels, R.


    In 1980, El Salvador fragmented revolutionary movement united to form the Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional (FMLN). This Front subsequently fought a war against the U.S. backed Salvadoran military which culminated in military stalemate. After the 1992 Peace Accords, the guerrilla

  20. Rethinking El Salvador's public transit trouble | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jul 19, 2017 ... Riding a public bus in El Salvador can be a treacherous and even deadly experience. But a local think tank is using its newfound ability to conduct detailed on-the-ground research to help transform a system relied upon by millions. This article is part of an ongoing series of stories about innovative projects ...

  1. Market research completed in El Salvador. (United States)


    Intensive market research, completed in El Salvador for the contraceptive social marketing project of the Asociacion Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), was designed to obtain a better understanding of Salvadoran usage of and attitudes toward contraceptives in general and ADS products in particular. The research results are being used to develop a new marketing plan for the Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) program as it works to increase the program's effectiveness in reaching consumers. Points-of-purchase (retail outlets) were surveyed in November 1982 to study brand presence and vendor perceptions of consumer behavior in order to define the market in terms of products, prices, and distribution. Focus groups were conducted during November and December 1982 to probe consumer awareness and attitudes regarding methods, brands, and purchasing behavior. The results of the focus groups helped guide the development of a door-to-door consumer survey conducted from December 1982 through February 1983 to further define the market in terms of consumer size and characteristics. Personal interviews were conducted with the owner or manager of each of 247 pharmacies selected at random but in proportion to their distributional weight as to location. Aragon and Associates found that standard-dose orals and condoms were sold in 86% of the outlets surveyed and foaming tablets and low-dose pills in 37%. In terms of brand presence in outlets, the CSM products Perla (orals) and Condor (condom) both led their respective categories. In the foaming tablet category Suave had the lowest presence and Neo Sampoon the highest. The difference between reported and actual presence of contraceptives in the outlets was significant: 32% of the sellers of Perla, 18% of the sellers of Condor, and 26% of the sellers of Suave were out of stock at the time of the survey. The difference in average CSM product prices and the next lowest priced brands is very large. Dealers reported that their contraceptive

  2. Groundwater – Geothermal preliminary model of the Acque Albule Basin (Rome: future perspectives of geothermal resources exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco La Vigna


    Full Text Available This work presents the preliminary results of a groundwater and geothermal model applied to the hydrothermal system of the Tivoli- Guidonia plain, located in the east surroundings of Rome. This area, which is characterized by a thick outcropping travertine deposit, has been an important quarry extraction area since roman age. Today the extraction is in deepening helped by a large dewatering action. By an hydrogeological point of view, the travertine aquifer of the Tivoli- Guidonia Plain, is recharged by lateral discharge in the Lucretili and Cornicolani Mts., and by piping trough important regional faults, located in the basal aquiclude, in the central area of the basin. Piping hydrothermal groundwater is the main contribution on flow in the basin. Preliminary simulations of the groundwater-geothermal model, reproduce quite well the heat and mineralization plumes of groundwater observed in the travertine aquifer.

  3. Exploiting amoeboid and non-vertebrate animal model systems to study the virulence of human pathogenic fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios Mylonakis


    Full Text Available Experiments with insects, protozoa, nematodes, and slime molds have recently come to the forefront in the study of host-fungal interactions. Many of the virulence factors required for pathogenicity in mammals are also important for fungal survival during interactions with non-vertebrate hosts, suggesting that fungal virulence may have evolved, and been maintained, as a countermeasure to environmental predation by amoebae and nematodes and other small non-vertebrates that feed on microorganisms. Host innate immune responses are also broadly conserved across many phyla. The study of the interaction between invertebrate model hosts and pathogenic fungi therefore provides insights into the mechanisms underlying pathogen virulence and host immunity, and complements the use of mammalian models by enabling whole-animal high throughput infection assays. This review aims to assist researchers in identifying appropriate invertebrate systems for the study of particular aspects of fungal pathogenesis.

  4. Interactions between Climate, Land Use and Vegetation Fire Occurrences in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolors Armenteras


    Full Text Available Vegetation burning is a global environmental threat that results in local ecological, economic and social impacts but also has large-scale implications for global change. The burning is usually a result of interacting factors such as climate, land use and vegetation type. Despite its importance as a factor shaping ecological, economic and social processes, countries highly vulnerable to climate change in Central America, such as El Salvador, lack an assessment of this complex relationship. In this study we rely on remotely sensed measures of the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI and thermal anomaly detections by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor to identify vegetation cover changes and fire occurrences. We also use land use data and rainfall observations derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM data to determine the spatial and temporal variability and interactions of these factors. Our results indicate a highly marked seasonality of fire occurrence linked to the climatic variability with a peak of fire occurrences in 2004 and 2013. Low vegetation indices occurred in March–April, around two months after the driest period of the year (December–February, corresponding to months with high detection of fires. Spatially, 65.6% of the fires were recurrent and clustered in agriculture/cropland areas and within 1 km of roads (70% and only a 4.7% of fires detected were associated with forests. Remaining forests in El Salvador deserve more attention due to underestimated consequences of forest fires. The identification of these clear patterns can be used as a baseline to better shape management of fire regimes and support decision making in this country. Recommendations resulting from this work include focusing on fire risk models and agriculture fires and long-term ecological and economic consequences of those. Furthermore, El Salvador will need to include agricultural fires in the

  5. Acetylcholine-Based Entropy in Response Selection: A Model of How Striatal Interneurons Modulate Exploration, Exploitation, and Response Variability in Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eStocco


    Full Text Available The basal ganglia play a fundamental role in decision making. Their contribution is typically modeled within a reinforcement learning framework, with the basal ganglia learning to select the options associated with highest value and their dopamine inputs conveying performance feedback. This basic framework, however, does not account for the role of cholinergic interneurons in the striatum, and does not easily explain certain dynamic aspects of decision-making and skill acquisition like the generation of exploratory actions. This paper describes BABE (Basal ganglia Acetylcholine-Based Entropy, a model of the acetylcholine system in the striatum that provides a unified explanation for these phenomena. According to this model, cholinergic interneurons in the striatum control the level of variability in behavior by modulating the number of possible responses that are considered by the basal ganglia, as well as the level of competition between them. This mechanism provides a natural way to account for the role of basal ganglia in generating behavioral variability during the acquisition of certain cognitive skills, as well as for modulating exploration and exploitation in decision making. Compared to a typical reinforcement learning model, BABE showed a greater modulation of response variability in the face of changes in the reward contingencies, allowing for faster learning (and re-learning of option values. Finally, the paper discusses the possible applications of the model to other domains.

  6. Modelling the sequential geographical exploitation and potential collapse of marine fisheries through economic globalization, climate change and management alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Merino


    Full Text Available Global marine fisheries production has reached a maximum and may even be declining. Underlying this trend is a well-understood sequence of development, overexploitation, depletion and in some instances collapse of individual fish stocks, a pattern that can sequentially link geographically distant populations. Ineffective governance, economic considerations and climate impacts are often responsible for this sequence, although the relative contribution of each factor is contentious. In this paper we use a global bioeconomic model to explore the synergistic effects of climate variability, economic pressures and management measures in causing or avoiding this sequence. The model shows how a combination of climate-induced variability in the underlying fish population production, particular patterns of demand for fish products and inadequate management is capable of driving the world’s fisheries into development, overexploitation, collapse and recovery phases consistent with observations. Furthermore, it demonstrates how a sequential pattern of overexploitation can emerge as an endogenous property of the interaction between regional environmental fluctuations and a globalized trade system. This situation is avoidable through adaptive management measures that ensure the sustainability of regional production systems in the face of increasing global environmental change and markets. It is concluded that global management measures are needed to ensure that global food supply from marine products is optimized while protecting long-term ecosystem services across the world’s oceans.

  7. Development of a complex groundwater model to assess the relation among groundwater resource exploitation, seawater intrusion and land subsidence (United States)

    Hsi Ting, Fang; Yih Chi, Tan; Chen, Jhong Bing


    The land subsidence, which is usually irreversible, in Taiwan Pintung Plain occurred due to groundwater overexploitation. Many of the land subsidence areas in Taiwan are located in coastal area. It could not only result in homeland loss, but also vulnerability to flooding because the function of drainage system and sea wall are weakened for the lowered ground surface. Groundwater salinization and seawater intrusion could happen more easily as well. This research focuses on grasping the trend of environmental change due to the damage and impact from inappropriate development of aquaculture in the last decades. The main task is developing the artificial neural networks (ANNs) and complex numerical model for conjunctive use of surface and groundwater which is composed of a few modules such as land use, land subsidence, contamination transportation and etc. An approach based on self-organizing map (SOM) is proposed to delineate groundwater recharge zones. Several topics will be studied such as coupling of surface water and groundwater modeling, assessing the benefit of improving groundwater resources by recharge, identifying the improper usage of groundwater resources, and investigating the effect of over-pumping on land subsidence in different depth. In addition, a complete plan for managing both the flooding and water resources will be instituted by scheming non-engineering adaptation strategies for homeland planning, ex. controlling pumping behavior in area vulnerable to land subsidence and increasing groundwater recharge.

  8. Dark matters: exploitation as cooperation. (United States)

    Dasgupta, Partha


    The empirical literature on human cooperation contains studies of communitarian institutions that govern the provision of public goods and management of common property resources in poor countries. Scholars studying those institutions have frequently used the Prisoners' Dilemma game as their theoretical tool-kit. But neither the provision of local public goods nor the management of local common property resources involves the Prisoners' Dilemma. That has implications for our reading of communitarian institutions. By applying a fundamental result in the theory of repeated games to a model of local common property resources, it is shown that communitarian institutions can harbour exploitation of fellow members, something that would not be possible in societies where cooperation amounts to overcoming the Prisoners' Dilemma. The conclusion we should draw is that exploitation can masquerade as cooperation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Network exploitation using WAMI tracks (United States)

    Rimey, Ray; Record, Jim; Keefe, Dan; Kennedy, Levi; Cramer, Chris


    Creating and exploiting network models from wide area motion imagery (WAMI) is an important task for intelligence analysis. Tracks of entities observed moving in the WAMI sensor data are extracted, then large numbers of tracks are studied over long time intervals to determine specific locations that are visited (e.g., buildings in an urban environment), what locations are related to other locations, and the function of each location. This paper describes several parts of the network detection/exploitation problem, and summarizes a solution technique for each: (a) Detecting nodes; (b) Detecting links between known nodes; (c) Node attributes to characterize a node; (d) Link attributes to characterize each link; (e) Link structure inferred from node attributes and vice versa; and (f) Decomposing a detected network into smaller networks. Experimental results are presented for each solution technique, and those are used to discuss issues for each problem part and its solution technique.

  10. Long Term Association of Tropospheric Trace gases over Pakistan by exploiting satellite observations and development of Econometric Regression based Model (United States)

    Zeb, Naila; Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad; Khan, Saud Ahmed; Noreen, Asma; Murtaza, Rabbia


    . Furthermore to explore causal relation, regression analysis is employed to estimate model for CO and TOC. This model numerically estimated the long term association of trace gases over the region.

  11. Exploiting elasticity: Modeling the influence of neural control on mechanics and energetics of ankle muscle-tendons during human hopping. (United States)

    Robertson, Benjamin D; Sawicki, Gregory S


    We present a simplified Hill-type model of the human triceps surae-Achilles tendon complex working on a gravitational-inertial load during cyclic contractions (i.e. vertical hopping). Our goal was to determine the role that neural control plays in governing muscle, or contractile element (CE), and tendon, or series elastic element (SEE), mechanics and energetics within a compliant muscle-tendon unit (MTU). We constructed a 2D parameter space consisting of many combinations of stimulation frequency and magnitude (i.e. neural control strategies). We compared the performance of each control strategy by evaluating peak force and average positive mechanical power output for the system (MTU) and its respective components (CE, SEE), force-length (F-L) and -velocity (F-V) operating point of the CE during active force production, average metabolic rate for the CE, and both MTU and CE apparent efficiency. Our results suggest that frequency of stimulation plays a primary role in governing whole-MTU mechanics. These include the phasing of both activation and peak force relative to minimum MTU length, average positive power, and apparent efficiency. Stimulation amplitude was primarily responsible for governing average metabolic rate and within MTU mechanics, including peak force generation and elastic energy storage and return in the SEE. Frequency and amplitude of stimulation both played integral roles in determining CE F-L operating point, with both higher frequency and amplitude generally corresponding to lower CE strains, reduced injury risk, and elimination of the need for passive force generation in the CE parallel elastic element (PEE). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploration, Exploitation, and Organizational Coordination Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Popadiuk


    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical relationship among exploration, exploitation, and organizational coordination mechanisms, classified as the centralization of decision-making, formalization, and connectedness. In order to analyze the findings of this survey, we used two techniques: Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Partial Least Squares Path Modeling (PLS-PM. Our analysis was supported by 249 answers from managers of companies located in Brazil (convenience sampling. Contrary to expectations, centralization and exploitation were negatively associated. Our data supports the research hypothesis that formalization is positively associated with exploitation. Although the relationship between formalization and exploration were significant, the result is contrary to the research hypothesis that we made. The relationships among connectedness and exploitation, and connectedness and exploration were both positive and significant. This relationship means that the more connectedness increases, the higher the likelihood of exploitation and exploration.

  13. Exploiting diverse crowd-sourced data as part of a mixed-methods approach to validating modelled flood extents and dynamics (United States)

    Rollason, Edward; Bracken, Louise; Hardy, Richard; Large, Andy


    The use of flood models for evaluating flood risk from rivers and the sea is now a standard practice across Europe since the introduction of the 2007 EU Floods Directive requiring the assessment and mapping of flood risk from all major rivers and the sea. The availability of high quality topographic data from LiDAR and other remotely sensed sources has led to the increasing adoption of 2 dimensional models for simulating the dynamics of flooding on the floodplain. However, the ability to effectively validate dynamic floodplain inundation has not kept pace with the increasing complexity and spatial resolution of flood models. Validation remains dependent upon in-channel validation using flood level gauges or post-event data collection of wrack-marks, sometimes supplemented by community-derived anecdotal data. This poster presents the findings of a 'mixed-methods approach' to flood model validation using the winter 2016 floods on the River Tyne, UK. Using flood inundation results from a simple LISFLOOD-FP model of the River Tyne at Corbridge, the research develops a novel mixed-methods approach to validating both the maximum flood depths and extents, and the dynamics of the flood through the event. A crowd-sourced dataset of anecdotal information on flood dynamics, supported by photographic and video evidence, as well as community-derived, high definition UAV footage captured 24 and 48 hours after the peak of the event, allows for the comprehensive reconstruction of the flood dynamics and a more complete validation of the effectiveness of the model in reconstructing not just the maximum flood extent but also the dynamics of the rising and falling stages of an event. The findings of the research indicate the potential for making use of a much greater variety of locally-sourced data, particularly exploiting new technologies which offer opportunities for the collection of high quality data in the immediate aftermath of flooding events when traditional agencies may still

  14. Global Climate Responses to Anthropogenic Groundwater Exploitation (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Xie, Z.


    In this study, a groundwater exploitation scheme is incorporated into the earth system model, Community Earth System Model 1.2.0 (CESM1.2.0), which is called CESM1.2_GW, and the climatic responses to anthropogenic groundwater withdrawal are then investigated on global scale. The scheme models anthropogenic groundwater exploitation and consumption, which are then divided into agricultural irrigation, industrial use and domestic use. A group of 41-year ensemble groundwater exploitation simulations with six different initial conditions, and a group of ensemble control simulations without exploitation are conducted using the developed model CESM1.2_GW with water supplies and demands estimated. The results reveal that the groundwater exploitation and water consumption cause drying effects on soil moisture in deep layers and wetting effects in upper layers, along with a rapidly declining groundwater table in Central US, Haihe River Basin in China and Northern India and Pakistan where groundwater extraction are most severe in the world. The atmosphere also responds to anthropogenic groundwater exploitation. Cooling effects on lower troposphere appear in large areas of North China Plain and of Northern India and Pakistan. Increased precipitation occurs in Haihe River Basin due to increased evapotranspiration from irrigation. Decreased precipitation occurs in Northern India because water vapor here is taken away by monsoon anomalies induced by anthropogenic alteration of groundwater. The local reducing effects of anthropogenic groundwater exploitation on total terrestrial water storage evinces that water resource is unsustainable with the current high exploitation rate. Therefore, a balance between slow groundwater withdrawal and rapid human economic development must be achieved to maintain a sustainable water resource, especially in over-exploitation regions such as Central US, Northern China, India and Pakistan.

  15. Viruses exploiting peroxisomes. (United States)

    Lazarow, Paul B


    Viruses that are of great importance for global public health, including HIV, influenza and rotavirus, appear to exploit a remarkable organelle, the peroxisome, during intracellular replication in human cells. Peroxisomes are sites of lipid biosynthesis and catabolism, reactive oxygen metabolism, and other metabolic pathways. Viral proteins are targeted to peroxisomes (the spike protein of rotavirus) or interact with peroxisomal proteins (HIV's Nef and influenza's NS1) or use the peroxisomal membrane for RNA replication. The Nef interaction correlates strongly with the crucial Nef function of CD4 downregulation. Viral exploitation of peroxisomal lipid metabolism appears likely. Mostly, functional significance and mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Recently, peroxisomes were discovered to play a crucial role in the innate immune response by signaling the presence of intracellular virus, leading to the first rapid antiviral response. This review unearths, interprets and connects old data, in the hopes of stimulating new and promising research. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Dissemination and Exploitation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio; Fransson, Torsten

    The research infrastructure project Virtual Campus Hub (VCH) runs from October 1, 2011 to September 30, 2013. Four technical universities in Europe, who are all active in the field of sustainable energy, form the project consortium: the Technical University of Denmark, The Royal Institute...... of Technology in Sweden, Politecnico di Torino in Italy, and Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. The project is partially funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme (project no. RI-283746). This report describes the final dissemination and exploitation strategy...... for project Virtual Campus Hub. A preliminary dissemination and exploitation plan was setup early in the project as described in the deliverable D6.1 Dissemination strategy paper - preliminary version. The plan has been revised on a monthly basis during the project’s lifecycle in connection with the virtual...

  17. Advising Indigenous Forces: American Advisors in Korea, Vietnam, and El Salvador (United States)


    Team MATA Military Assistance Training and Advisory (course) MD Maryland MI military intelligence MILGROUP Military Group (El Salvador ) MILZONE...Advising Indigenous Forces: American Advisors in Korea, Vietnam, and El Salvador Robert D. Ramsey III Global War on Terrorism Occasional Paper 18...Advising Indigenous Forces: American Advisors in Korea, vietnam, and El Salvador 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  18. The Role of Temperature and Humidity on Seasonal Influenza in Tropical Areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008-2013 (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Clara, Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Castillo, Leticia; Sorto, Oscar Rene; Marinero, Sidia; Antinori, Maria E. Barnett de; McCracken, John P.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; hide


    Background: The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama. Method/ Findings: Logistic regression was used to model the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples during 2008 to 2013 (excluding pandemic year 2009). Meteorological data was obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and the Global Land Data Assimilation System. We found that specific humidity was positively associated with influenza activity in El Salvador (Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval of 1.18 (1.07-1.31) and 1.32 (1.08-1.63)) and Panama (OR = 1.44 (1.08-1.93) and 1.97 (1.34-2.93)), but negatively associated with influenza activity in Guatemala (OR = 0.72 (0.6-0.86) and 0.79 (0.69-0.91)). Temperature was negatively associated with influenza in El Salvador's west-central departments (OR = 0.80 (0.7-0.91)) whilst rainfall was positively associated with influenza in Guatemala's central departments (OR = 1.05 (1.01-1.09)) and Panama province (OR = 1.10 (1.05-1.14)). In 4 out of the 6 locations, specific humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to temperature and rainfall. The model performed best in estimating 2013 influenza activity in Panama and west-central El Salvador departments (correlation coefficients: 0.5-0.9). Conclusions/Significance: The findings highlighted the association between influenza activity and specific humidity in these 3 tropical countries. Positive association with humidity was found in El Salvador and Panama. Negative association was found in the more subtropical Guatemala, similar to temperate regions. Of all the study locations, Guatemala had annual mean temperature and specific

  19. The Role of Temperature and Humidity on Seasonal Influenza in Tropical Areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008–2013 (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Clara, Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Castillo, Leticia; Sorto, Oscar Rene; Marinero, Sidia; de Antinori, María E. Barnett; McCracken, John P.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Kiang, Richard K.


    Background The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama. Method/Findings Logistic regression was used to model the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples during 2008 to 2013 (excluding pandemic year 2009). Meteorological data was obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and the Global Land Data Assimilation System. We found that specific humidity was positively associated with influenza activity in El Salvador (Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval of 1.18 (1.07–1.31) and 1.32 (1.08–1.63)) and Panama (OR = 1.44 (1.08–1.93) and 1.97 (1.34–2.93)), but negatively associated with influenza activity in Guatemala (OR = 0.72 (0.6–0.86) and 0.79 (0.69–0.91)). Temperature was negatively associated with influenza in El Salvador's west-central departments (OR = 0.80 (0.7–0.91)) whilst rainfall was positively associated with influenza in Guatemala's central departments (OR = 1.05 (1.01–1.09)) and Panama province (OR = 1.10 (1.05–1.14)). In 4 out of the 6 locations, specific humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to temperature and rainfall. The model performed best in estimating 2013 influenza activity in Panama and west-central El Salvador departments (correlation coefficients: 0.5–0.9). Conclusions/Significance The findings highlighted the association between influenza activity and specific humidity in these 3 tropical countries. Positive association with humidity was found in El Salvador and Panama. Negative association was found in the more subtropical Guatemala, similar to temperate regions. Of all the study locations, Guatemala had

  20. Women in physics in El Salvador: Historical perspectives and current challenges (United States)

    Jiménez, Telma; Jiménez, Diana; Larios, Gloria


    Physics as a discipline in El Salvador's higher education system has struggled historically; however, since 1991, it has enjoyed a growth-friendly environment. While there are few female physicists in El Salvador, they are employed in various organizations and educational institutions, demonstrating that physics is a viable career path. El Salvador currently offers a range of opportunities for women in physics. With the support of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, we will both meet the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities that face female physicists in El Salvador.

  1. Video documental biográfico sobre Paco Salvador.


    Pérez Lascano, José David


    The following text will present an audiovisual recording about the Paco Salvador’s biography, thanks to this; it will be possible that choreographers and dancers realize that is really important a deep research before to make a performance. Paco Salvador, a very important ecuadorian person, who has a Master’s degree in Studies about Culture and with a great CV, does extensive research for performing their choreographies. He has an interesting proposal which consist in to n...

  2. HTLV-I associated myelopathy in salvador (northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meireles


    Full Text Available Recent studies of tropical spastic paraparesis have confirmed the existence of human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLVI in several tropical areas of the world. In order to determine the role of HTLVI as an etiologic agent of myelopathies in Salvador, we conducted a clinical and serological study in 43 patients with non-traumatic and non-tumoral myelopathies. We found 9 patients with HTLVI associated myelopathy (HAM which points to a new endemic area of HAM.

  3. El Salvador: Background and U.S. Relations (United States)


    improve the business climate, (2) investing in education and health care, and (3) combatting crime and violence. Sánchez Cerén stressed the importance...emigrated in search of opportunities (work and education ) and/or to reunite with family living in the United States. Escalating crime and violence, as...emigration by unaccompanied children from El Salvador and reintegrate deportees from the United States into Salvadoran society, figure prominently on the

  4. Strategic Thinking: A Proposal to Reduce Violence in El Salvador (United States)


    governmental institutions and organizations of civil society that work towards the prevention of youth violence by creating diverse occupational industries ...Seelke, “Gangs in Central America”, 5 23 21 Carmen Gentile, “The Gangs of El Salvador: A Growing Industry ”, TIME, Program (UNDP), “Informe Sobre Desarrollo Humano Para América Central 2009-2010: Abrir Espacios a la Seguridad Ciudadana y el Desarrollo

  5. The decreased diphthongization in popular speech of Salvador: variational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ludwig Gayer


    Full Text Available This work presents a variational analysis of the decreased diphthongization process in the popular speech of Salvador. The diphthongization can occur between words, between the final vowel of the first word and the initial vowel of the second word in the sequence, when one of the vowels is phonetically high and unstressed. In the case of decreased diphthongization, the second vowel becomes glide with the application of the process, as in the example minh[aj]scola (my school. The objective of this work was to contribute with a more detailed description of the decreased diphthongization that occurs in Brazilian Portuguese, considering the popular speech data of Salvador, taken from PEPP (Studies Program on the Spoken Popular Portuguese of Salvador, coordinated by Professor Norma Lopes (UNEB. We selected eight interviews classified by sex (male and female, education (primary and secondary education and age (25-35 years and over 65 years, totaling 1.121 data for the statistical analysis. These data passed through a statistical analysis of Goldvarb X, taking into account some variables that have already been analysed in other studies. The main favorable factors to the application of the process were a combination of a stressed vowel plus an unstressed vowel, clitic group, combination of a not high vowel plus a high vowel, etc.---DOI: http:/ 

  6. Tuberculosis and living conditions in Salvador, Brazil: a spatial analysis. (United States)

    Erazo, Carlos; Pereira, Susan M; Costa, Maria da Conceição N; Evangelista-Filho, Delsuc; Braga, José Ueleres; Barreto, Mauricio L


    To investigate spatial tuberculosis (TB) distribution patterns and the association between living conditions and incidence of the disease in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. An ecological study with neighborhood as the unit of analysis. Data was collected from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, SINAN) and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, IBGE). Rates of TB incidence were transformed and smoothed. Spatial analysis was applied to identify spatial auto-correlation and "hotspot" areas of high and low risk. The relationship between TB and living conditions was confirmed by spatial linear regression. The incidence of TB in Salvador displayed heterogeneous patterns, with higher rates occurring in neighborhoods with poor living conditions in 1995 - 1996. Over the study period, disease occurrence declined, particularly in less-privileged strata. In 2004 - 2005, the association between living conditions and TB was no longer observed. The heterogeneous spatial distribution of TB in Salvador previously reflected inequalities related to living conditions. Improvements in such conditions and health care for the less privileged may have contributed to observed changes.

  7. Tabagismo em amostra de adolescentes escolares de Salvador-Bahia Smoking among school adolescents in Salvador (BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelmo Souza Machado Neto


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O hábito de fumar em geral se inicia na adolescência. No Brasil, as estimativas da freqüência deste hábito entre adolescentes variam de 1% até 35%. OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência do tabagismo entre os adolescentes da oitava série do ensino fundamental à terceira série do curso médio, em escolas de Salvador - Bahia, Brasil. MÉTODO: Feito um estudo do tipo corte transversal de caráter exploratório. Foram aplicados 3.500 questionários a alunos matriculados entre a 8ª série do ensino fundamental e a 3ª série do ensino médio, em cinco escolas da região metropolitana de Salvador (BA. Análise estatística: medidas descritivas e de associação (razão de prevalência e o teste t de Student e o do qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: A prevalência do tabagismo entre adolescentes de Salvador (BA foi de 9,6%, considerando-se os 3.180 questionários válidos, sendo maior no sexo masculino (14% que no feminino (6%. À medida que aumentava a idade, elevava-se essa prevalência. A média de idade do início do tabagismo foi de 14 ± 2 anos. Dentre adolescentes, 46% experimentaram o cigarro e 20% destes continuaram fumando. Entre filhos de fumantes a freqüência foi maior. O número médio de cigarros consumidos por dia pelos adolescentes que fumavam diariamente (n = 132 foi de 7 ± 6, sendo maior no sexo masculino. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência do tabagismo em uma amostra selecionada de adolescentes escolares de Salvador (BA foi de 9,6%, sendo maior entre os indivíduos do sexo masculino. A experimentação e a influência dos pais foram associadas ao tabagismo nos adolescentes.BACKGROUND: Most tobacco users become addicted during adolescence. In Brazil, smoking prevalence among teenagers varies from 1% to 35%. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of smoking among teenagers, aged from 13 to 20, in fundamental and high school in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. METHOD: Cross-sectional exploratory study. Thirty five hundred questionnaires were

  8. Hacking the art of exploitation

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Jon


    A comprehensive introduction to the techniques of exploitation and creative problem-solving methods commonly referred to as "hacking," Hacking: The Art of Exploitation is for both technical and non-technical people who are interested in computer security. It shows how hackers exploit programs and write exploits, instead of just how to run other people's exploits. Unlike many so-called hacking books, this book explains the technical aspects of hacking, including stack based overflows, heap based overflows, string exploits, return-into-libc, shellcode, and cryptographic attacks on 802.11b.

  9. A spatio-temporal analysis of suicide in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Carcach


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2012, international statistics showed El Salvador’s suicide rate as 40th in the world and the highest in Latin America. Over the last 15 years, national statistics show the suicide death rate declining as opposed to an increasing rate of homicide. Though completed suicide is an important social and health issue, little is known about its prevalence, incidence, etiology and spatio-temporal behavior. The primary objective of this study was to examine completed suicide and homicide using the stream analogy to lethal violence within a spatio-temporal framework. Methods A Bayesian model was applied to examine the spatio-temporal evolution of the tendency of completed suicide over homicide in El Salvador. Data on numbers of suicides and homicides at the municipal level were obtained from the Instituto de Medicina Legal (IML and population counts, from the Dirección General de Estadística y Censos (DIGESTYC, for the period of 2002 to 2012. Data on migration were derived from the 2007 Population Census, and inequality data were obtained from a study by Damianović, Valenzuela and Vera. Results The data reveal a stable standardized rate of total lethal violence (completed suicide plus homicide across municipalities over time; a decline in suicide; and a standardized suicide rate decreasing with income inequality but increasing with social isolation. Municipalities clustered in terms of both total lethal violence and suicide standardized rates. Conclusions Spatial effects for suicide were stronger among municipalities located in the north-east and center-south sides of the country. New clusters of municipalities with large suicide standardized rates were detected in the north-west, south-west and center-south regions, all of which are part of time-stable clusters of homicide. Prevention efforts to reduce income inequality and mitigate the negative effects of weak relational systems should focus upon municipalities forming time

  10. The immunomodulatory effects of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin are amplified in BRCA1--deficient ovarian tumors and can be exploited to improve treatment response in a mouse model. (United States)

    Mantia-Smaldone, Gina; Ronner, Lukas; Blair, Anne; Gamerman, Victoria; Morse, Christopher; Orsulic, Sandra; Rubin, Stephen; Gimotty, Phyllis; Adams, Sarah


    Women with BRCA-associated ovarian cancer demonstrate excellent responses to Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin (PLD). PLD has also been shown to enhance T cell recognition of tumor cells. Here we characterize immunophenotypic changes associated with BRCA1 dysfunction in ovarian cancer cells, and evaluate the T cell contribution to the therapeutic efficacy of PLD in a BRCA1- ovarian cancer model to determine whether enhanced anti-tumor immunity contributes to the improved response to PLD in BRCA1- ovarian cancers. The immunophenotype of BRCA1- and wild-type (WT) ovarian cancer cells and their response to PLD were compared in vitro using flow cytometry. T cell recruitment to BRCA1- tumors was evaluated with flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. The contribution of T cell populations to the therapeutic effect of PLD in a BRCA1- model was evaluated using immunodepleting antibodies with PLD in vivo. The cytotoxic response to PLD was similar in BRCA1- and WT cells in vitro. BRCA1- inactivation resulted in higher expression of Fas and MHC-I at baseline and after PLD exposure. PLD prolonged the survival of BRCA1- tumor bearing mice and increased intratumoral T cell recruitment. CD4+ depletion combined with PLD significantly prolonged overall survival (p=0.0204) in BRCA1- tumor-bearing mice. Differences in the immunophenotype of BRCA1- and WT cells are amplified by PLD exposure. The enhanced immunomodulatory effects of PLD in BRCA1- tumors may be exploited therapeutically by eliminating suppressive CD4+ T cells. Our results support further study of combination therapy using PLD and immune agents, particularly in women with BRCA gene mutations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Leadership in nonprofit organizations of Nicaragua and El Salvador: a study from the social identity theory. (United States)

    Moriano León, Juan Antonio; Topa Cantisano, Gabriela; Lévy Mangin, Jean-Pierre


    This study follows the social identity model of leadership proposed by van Knippenberg and Hogg (2003), in order to examine empirically the mediator effect of leadership prototypicality between social identity, extra effort, and perceived effectiveness of group members. The sample consisted of 109 participants who worked in 22 different work-teams of non-profit organizations (NPO) from Nicaragua and El Salvador. The data analysis was performed through structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that NPO membership is related to a high level of social identity. In addition, the results confirmed that leadership prototypicality has a significant and positive mediator effect in the relationship between the group identification and the group members' extra effort and the perceived effectiveness of leadership.

  12. 75 FR 39556 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic... (United States)


    ... March 9, 2001, the Attorney General designated El Salvador for TPS based on an environmental disaster... earthquakes, other recent destructive environmental events and its weak economy, El Salvador cannot adequately... crisis that threatens to undermine sustained development and confidence in democratic governance, as well...

  13. 75 FR 38589 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Salvador Dali: The Late... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Salvador Dali: The Late Work... that the objects to be ] included in the exhibition ``Salvador Dali: The Late Work,'' imported from...

  14. The Geohazards Exploitation Platform (United States)

    Laur, Henri; Casu, Francesco; Bally, Philippe; Caumont, Hervé; Pinto, Salvatore


    The Geohazards Exploitation Platform, or Geohazards TEP (GEP), is an ESA originated R&D activity of the EO ground segment to demonstrate the benefit of new technologies for large scale processing of EO data. This encompasses on-demand processing for specific user needs, systematic processing to address common information needs of the geohazards community, and integration of newly developed processors for scientists and other expert users. The platform supports the geohazards community's objectives as defined in the context of the International Forum on Satellite EO and Geohazards organised by ESA and GEO in Santorini in 2012. The GEP is a follow on to the Supersites Exploitation Platform (SSEP) an ESA initiative to support the Geohazards Supersites & Natural Laboratories initiative (GSNL). Today the GEP allows to exploit 70+ Terabyte of ERS and ENVISAT archive and the Copernicus Sentinel-1 data available on line. The platform has already engaged 22 European early adopters in a validation activity initiated in March 2015. Since September, this validation has reached 29 single user projects. Each project is concerned with either integrating an application, running on demand processing or systematically generating a product collection using an application available in the platform. The users primarily include 15 geoscience centres and universities based in Europe: British Geological Survey (UK), University of Leeds (UK), University College London (UK), ETH University of Zurich (CH), INGV (IT), CNR-IREA and CNR-IRPI (IT), University of L'Aquila (IT), NOA (GR), Univ. Blaise Pascal & CNRS (FR), Ecole Normale Supérieure (FR), ISTERRE / University of Grenoble-Alpes (FR). In addition, there are users from Africa and North America with the University of Rabat (MA) and the University of Miami (US). Furthermore two space agencies and four private companies are involved: the German Space Research Centre DLR (DE), the European Space Agency (ESA), Altamira Information (ES

  15. Exploitative Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Elena; Lopes Bento, Cindy; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies...... and learning about new markets ? R&D investments and marketing investments, in search of novel insights into the content and process underlying learning by exporting. We draw from organizational learning theory for predicting changes in both R&D and marketing investment patterns that accompany firm entry......, it is predominantly the marketing-related investment decisions associated with starting to export that lead to increases in firm productivity. We conclude that learning-by-exporting might be more properly characterized as ?learning about and exploiting new markets? rather than ?learning about new technologies...

  16. Image exploitation for MISAR (United States)

    Heinze, N.; Edrich, M.; Saur, G.; Krüger, W.


    The miniature SAR-system MiSAR has been developed by EADS Germany for lightweight UAVs like the LUNASystem. MiSAR adds to these tactical UAV-systems the all-weather reconnaissance capability, which is missing until now. Unlike other SAR sensors, that produce large strip maps at update rates of several seconds, MiSAR generates sequences of SAR images with approximately 1 Hz frame rate. photo interpreters (PI) of tactical drones, now mainly experienced with visual interpretation, are not used to SARimages, especially not with SAR-image sequence characteristics. So they should be supported to improve their ability to carry out their task with a new, demanding sensor system. We have therefore analyzed and discussed with military PIs in which task MiSAR can be used and how the PIs can be supported by special algorithms. We developed image processing- and exploitation-algorithms for such SAR-image sequences. A main component is the generation of image sequence mosaics to get more oversight. This mosaicing has the advantage that also non straight /linear flight-paths and varying squint angles can be processed. Another component is a screening-component for manmade objects to mark regions of interest in the image sequences. We use a classification based approach, which can be easily adapted to new sensors and scenes. These algorithms are integrated into an image exploitation system to improve the image interpreters ability to get a better oversight, better orientation and helping them to detect relevant objects, especially considering long endurance reconnaissance missions.

  17. Learning Metasploit exploitation and development

    CERN Document Server

    Balapure, Aditya


    A practical, hands-on tutorial with step-by-step instructions. The book will follow a smooth and easy-to-follow tutorial approach, covering the essentials and then showing the readers how to write more sophisticated exploits.This book targets exploit developers, vulnerability analysts and researchers, network administrators, and ethical hackers looking to gain advanced knowledge in exploitation development and identifying vulnerabilities. The primary goal is to take readers wishing to get into more advanced exploitation discovery and reaching the next level.Prior experience exploiting basic st

  18. [Heart failure mortality trend in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil]. (United States)

    Latado, Adriana Lopes; Passos, Luiz Carlos Santana; Guedes, Rodrigo; Santos, Alessandra B; Andrade, Marianna; Moura, Simone


    To assess mortality trend due to heart failure (HF) in Salvador--Bahia, from 1979 to 1995. HF was defined by notations from the 9th Review of International Disease Code (IDC9) 428.0, 428.1 and 428.9. HF death and population data (metropolitan area of Salvador) were obtained by means of Secretaria de Saúde da Bahia (Bahia State Health Secretariat) and Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). Mortality rates (/100,000) were total or per gender and age, and gross or adapted per age (straight standardization). Mortality rates due to HF had a progressive reduction in the period of time assessed, for both genders, especially up to 1992. From then and up to 1995, there was an apparent stabilization of the curves. Gross mortality rate went from 25.0/10(5), in 1979, to 16.4/10(5) inhabitants, in 1995 (a decrease of 34.4%). The reduction was 34.0% (23.3/10(5), in 1979, to 15.4/10(5) inhabitants, in 1995) for male sex and 35.2% (26.7/10(5), in 1979, to 17.3/10(5) inhabitants, in 1995), for female sex. The same trend took place in several age ranges, including the population > or = 40 years old, which has a greater risk for HF. After adaptation per age (standard population of 1979), it is observed that relative reductions in the rates were even greater. Mortality due to HF, in Salvador-Bahia, decreased from 1979 to 1992, becoming stable from then to 1995.

  19. El Salvador - Improving Quality of General Education (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) was contracted by MCC to conduct an impact evaluation of the Integrated Systems of Full-Time Inclusive Schools model (SI-EITP for...

  20. De las pasiones al conocimiento en Farabeuf, de Salvador Elizondo


    Mari Carmen Esquivel-Colín


    Se exploraron las diferencias entre filosofía y literatura como modos de razonamiento presentes en la novela de Salvador Elizondo: Farabeuf , y se analizó la manera en que ambas disciplinas se acercan al cuerpo y las pasiones. Se encontró que el erotismo aparece en esa novela como un modo de acceder al conocimiento del alma humana. Así entendida, la verdad que la literatura propone es interior, se aparta del mero razonamiento y exige de su lector la experiencia para ser aprehendida; tam...

  1. De las pasiones al conocimiento en Farabeuf, de Salvador Elizondo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Carmen Esquivel-Colín


    Full Text Available Se exploraron las diferencias entre filosofía y literatura como modos de razonamiento presentes en la novela de Salvador Elizondo: Farabeuf , y se analizó la manera en que ambas disciplinas se acercan al cuerpo y las pasiones. Se encontró que el erotismo aparece en esa novela como un modo de acceder al conocimiento del alma humana. Así entendida, la verdad que la literatura propone es interior, se aparta del mero razonamiento y exige de su lector la experiencia para ser aprehendida; también ofrece la oportunidad de imaginar la muerte y el erotismo como escapes del mundo.

  2. Sources of income persistence: evidence from rural El Salvador


    Sosa Escudero, Walter; Marchionni, Mariana; Arias, Omar


    Este trabajo utiliza una base de datos longitudinales única sobre zonas rurales en El Salvador (1995-2001) para investigar las fuentes principales de la persistencia y variabilidad del ingreso. Primero, proponemos un marco econométrico donde un modelo dinámico de paneles se simplifica a una estructura lineal con covarianza dinámica, lo cual aumenta la cantidad de grados de libertad usualmente perdidos en la construcción de instrumentos para estimar modelos dinámicos estándar. Segundo, investi...

  3. Direct and mediated associations between religious coping, spirituality, and youth violence in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Salas-Wrigh


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the direct and mediated relationships between religious coping, spirituality, social developmental factors, and violence among high-risk and gang-involved youth in a high-crime, Latin American country. METHODS: Using a community sample of 290 high-risk and gang-involved youth in San Salvador, El Salvador, structural equation modeling was employed to examine the relationships between religious coping, spirituality, social developmental factors (e.g., antisocial bond and antisocial beliefs, and violence. RESULTS: Religious coping (β = - 0.14, P < 0.05 and spirituality (β = - 0.20, P < 0.01 were both significantly associated with antisocial bond. Antisocial bond, in turn, was directly associated with violence (β = 0.70, P < 0.001 and was associated with antisocial beliefs (β = 0.54, P < 0.001; however, the path from antisocial beliefs to violence was not statistically significant. No direct paths were identified from religiosity and spirituality to violence. The goodness-of-fit statistics (root mean square error of approximation, 0.034; comparative fit index, 0.974; and Tucker-Lewis index, 0.966 suggest that the final model had acceptable fit. CONCLUSIONS: This study is among the first to shed light on the relationship between religiosity, spirituality, and youth violence in the Latin American context. Elevated levels of religious coping and spirituality are associated with less antisocial bonding, which, in turn, is associated with lower levels of violent behavior among high-risk and gang-involved Salvadoran youth. Study findings suggest that religious coping and spirituality are indirectly protective for youth violence among this high-risk population.

  4. Mielopatias por HTLV-1 na cidade de Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Melo


    Full Text Available Paraparesia espástica progressiva associada a HTLV-1 constitui-se em uma patologia com características endêmicas em várias regiões do Brasil. Em Salvador, 102 pacientes com mielopatias de diversas etiologias foram triados para HTLV-I/II com ELISA e Western blot em quatro hospitais gerais que assistem a população de baixa renda. Foram encontrados 36 pacientes com mielopatia associada a HTLV-I/II, o que está de acordo com a elevada prevalência dessa patologia em Salvador. Todos os pacientes com infecção pelo HTLV-I/ II apresentavam paraparesia espástica progressiva, bexiga neurogênica associada, a graus variáveis de comprometimento sensitivo superficial e/ou profundo e síndrome do neurônio motor inferior. O exame de LCR mostrou pleocitose linfocitária com aumento moderado de gama-globulinas e a ressonância magnética mostrou graus variáveis de lesões periventriculares e subcorticais associadas ou não a atrofia da medula espinal torácica. O exame neurológico e os dados de ressonância magnética sugerem que os pacientes com comprometimento neurológico por HTLV-I podem estar acometidos por graus variáveis de leucoencefalomieloneuropatia.

  5. La prensa en El Salvador: tolerancia al mejor postor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Eric Lemus


    Full Text Available El periodismo salvadoreño en el año 2002 estuvo marcado por la presión política, empresarial y las agresiones a la prensa de parte de distintos actores. Una característica que parece afincarse en el trabajo de campo es el riesgo a reportear cualquier evento público. Sufrir el impacto de una bolsa con agua o un empellón puede suceder en cualquier evento público, desde una huelga de médicos hasta en una pelea de vendedores callejeros que protestan por su desalojo.¿La prensa salvadoreña sufre un problema de credibilidad o el respeto al derecho a informar no existe? Las encuestan todavía registran a los medios de comunicación, después de la Iglesia Católica, como uno de los sectores con mayor credibilidad en el país.

  6. El senador Salvador Parga Torreiro (1838-1901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdés Hansen, Felipe


    Full Text Available Biography of Salvador Parga Torreiro (1838- 1901, a member of the Spanish Senate, a professor at the Law School of the University of Santiago de Compostela, and the president of one of the Spanish societies for economic development. Throughout his life he carried out a fruitful task of promoting local life in the social and economic levels and he became one of the first defenders in Spain and Europe of the right for women’s vote.

    Biografía de Salvador Parga Torreiro (1838- 1901, senador, catedrático de Derecho de la Universidad de Santiago y presidente de la Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País de Santiago. A lo largo de su vida desarrolló una importante labor en pro de la modernización socio-económica del país a nivel local, siendo uno de los primeros en reclamar el sufragio femenino en España y Europa en 1870.

  7. On the issue of Roşia Montană gold exploitation An application and extension of the Arrow-Fisher uncertainty model on local issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Săveanu Mircea


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse the prospects of gold mine development at Roşia Montană, with a focus on the uncertainty regarding this process. We are specifically interested in the issues associated with cyanide spill accidents and how these uncertain events can alter the cost/benefit analysis. Making use of an established methodology, we conclude that the projected gold exploitation can pose considerable risks to the environment, and that an efficient operation would imply either reducing these risks, their effect on the environment, or both. Finally, we also draw from historical knowledge regarding the ancient mine Alburnus Maior, in order to assess the viability of the modern exploitation. We conclude that the modern project could be improved by technological progress, which would seek to maximize the scale of operations, while minimizing both the risk of accidents and their impact on the environment.

  8. Resíduos da construção civil em Salvador: os caminhos para uma gestão sustentável Construction waste in Salvador: ways to a sustainable management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardênia Oliveira David de Azevedo


    Full Text Available O artigo discute o impacto ambiental provocado pela geração crescente de resíduos da construção civil e sua disposição inadequada, analisando a legislação sobre o tema e as possibilidades de sua minimização na cidade do Salvador. Como contribuição, são sugeridas medidas para viabilizar a prevenção da geração de resíduos e é proposto um modelo simplificado de fluxo dos resíduos da construção civil em Salvador, para estimular a redução do desperdício nas obras e, conseqüentemente, menor custo na gestão da cidade e menor impacto ambiental. A partir dessa proposta se obteria uma redução da geração dos RCC de 30%, um desvio do aterro de inertes de 37,3% e, ainda, permaneceria seguindo, diretamente, para o aterro 32,7% dos resíduos totais, não absorvidos na reciclagem ou reutilização.This paper discusses the environmental impacts caused by construction waste generation and its inadequate disposal, analyzing the regulation related to this subject and possibilities for its minimization in the city of Salvador. As a contribution measures are suggested to make viable waste construction prevention. It is proposed a draft model for construction waste streams that stimulates the reduction of losses of building materials in construction sites and, consequently, reduces costs in urban management as well as environmental impacts. This proposal suggests the possibility of a source generation reduction of 30%, a 37% diversion of materials from landfills and, still, 32.7% of construction waste generation, not absorbed in the recycling or reuse, remain following, directly, for landfill.

  9. Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources Exploitation at remote regions, using Computing Model and Multi-Criteria Analysis: A Case-Study in Samothrace, Greece


    Mourmouris, J. C.; Potolias, C.; Fantidis, Jacob G


    The exhaustion of conventional energy reserves (diesel, coal, gas etc.), coupled with environmental impacts, influence seriously sustainability aspects of the whole planet, both from an economic as well as an environmental point of view. The use of renewable energy resources for electricity generation is being promoted by most countries. The present job focuses on exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) based not only on economical criteria which derived from a HOMER software tool but ...

  10. M-Commerce Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Jørgensen, Frances


    into this emerging market may well depend on development of new business models that emphasize the socio-technical intricacies of these networks. The objective of this paper is to examine the development of these networks as a central part of new M-commerce business models in SME's and report on initial findings...

  11. Salvador Dali’nin Takı Çalışmaları / Jewelry Works of Salvador Dali


    Yağmur, Önder; Bulat, Serap


    Öz: Modern sanatın büyük isimlerinden olan Salvador Dali’nin resim sanatındaki dehasınınyanında takı sanatında da nasıl bir dahi olduğunun anlatılması gerekir. Sinemadantakıya kadar birçok sanatsal alanda çalışmalar ortaya koymuş olan Dali, kendisineözgü sanatsal üslubunu çalışmış olduğu her sanat dalında olduğu gibi takı eserlerine deyansıtmıştır. Salvador Dali’nin resimlerinde görülen detaycı ve zihni zorlayıcı özelliği,Dali’nin takı alanında ortaya koymuş olduğu eserlerinde de görülmektedi...

  12. Attributes of patient-centered primary care associated with the public perception of good healthcare quality in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and El Salvador. (United States)

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Guanais, Frederico C; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Canning, David; Macinko, James; Reich, Michael R


    This study evaluated primary care attributes of patient-centered care associated with the public perception of good quality in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and El Salvador. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a Latin American survey on public perceptions and experiences with healthcare systems. The primary care attributes examined were access, coordination, provider-patient communication, provision of health-related information and emotional support. A double-weighted multiple Poisson regression with robust variance model was performed. The study included between 1500 and 1503 adults in each country. The results identified four significant gaps in the provision of primary care: not all respondents had a regular place of care or a regular primary care doctor (Brazil 35.7%, Colombia 28.4%, Mexico 22% and El Salvador 45.4%). The communication with the primary care clinic was difficult (Brazil 44.2%, Colombia 41.3%, Mexico 45.1% and El Salvador 56.7%). There was a lack of coordination of care (Brazil 78.4%, Colombia 52.3%, Mexico 48% and El Salvador 55.9%). Also, there was a lack of information about healthy diet (Brazil 21.7%, Colombia 32.9%, Mexico 16.9% and El Salvador 20.8%). The public's perception of good quality was variable (Brazil 67%, Colombia 71.1%, Mexico 79.6% and El Salvador 79.5%). The primary care attributes associated with the perception of good quality were a primary care provider 'who knows relevant information about a patient's medical history', 'solves most of the health problems', 'spends enough time with the patient', 'coordinates healthcare' and a 'primary care clinic that is easy to communicate with'. In conclusion, the public has a positive perception of the quality of primary care, although it has unfulfilled expectations; further efforts are necessary to improve the provision of patient-centered primary care services in these four Latin American countries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  13. Trabalho e síndrome da estafa profissional (Síndrome de Burnout em médicos intensivistas de Salvador Professional Burnout Syndrome among intensive care physicians in Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Oliveira Staffa Tironi


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência da Síndrome de Burnout em médicos intensivistas de Salvador, associando-a a dados demográficos e aspectos da situação de trabalho (demanda psicológica e controle sobre o trabalho. MÉTODOS: Um estudo de corte transversal investigou a associação entre aspectos psicossocias do trabalho e a síndrome da estafa profissional em uma população de 297 médicos intensivistas de Salvador, Bahia. Um questionário individual autoaplicável avaliou aspectos psicossociais do trabalho, utilizando o modelo demanda-controle (Job Content Questionnaire e a saúde mental dos médicos, usando Inventário de Burnout de Maslach (MBI. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se elevada sobrecarga de trabalho e de trabalho em regime de plantão. A prevalência da Síndrome da Estafa Profissional (Burnout foi de 7,4% e estava mais fortemente associada com aspectos da demanda psicológica do trabalho do que com o controle deste por parte dos médicos intensivistas. CONCLUSÃO: Médicos com trabalho de alta exigência (alta demanda e baixo controle apresentaram 10,2 vezes mais burnout que aqueles com trabalho de baixa exigência (baixa demanda e alto controle.OBJECTIVE: Describe prevalence of the Burnout syndrome in intensive care physicians of Salvador, associated to demographic data and aspects of the work environment (psychological demand and job control. METHODS: This cross sectional study has investigated the association between work conditions and Burnout Syndrome in a population of 297 Intensive Care Physicians from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. An individual, self-report questionnaire evaluated the physicians' psychological aspects of work, using the demand-control model (Job Content Questionnaire and their mental health, using the Maslash Burnout Inventory (MBI. RESULTS: The study found work overload,a high proportion of on duty physicians and low income for the hours worked. Prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome was 7.4% and it was more closely

  14. Salvador Allende, por la democracia y el socialismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto de la Fuente A


    Full Text Available ¿Habrá algo más obvio que preguntarse quién fue Salvador Allende? ¿Es reflejo, la definición o la interpretación de la historia de la que formó parte, entre 1927 y 1973? ¿Qué grado de sensibilidad y sentido de trascendencia había en él, cuando le habla al mundo desde el Palacio de Gobierno bombardeado e incendiándose, esa mañana del 11 de septiembre de 1973. El propósito de esta comunicación es sistematizar las experiencias, ideas y pensamientos de quien fuera el "Compañero Presidente de Chile". De paso, rendirle un homenaje a quien dejara una lección de entusiasmo, perseverancia y coherencia. Salvador Allende (1908-1973, quiso hacer concordar sus ideales con la conciencia crítica del político que fue madurando en su práctica y concepción revolucionaria. Mi hipótesis es la siguiente: en la biografía de Salvador Allende, en sus vínculos con las luchas sociales, políticas, culturales y controversias con el partido socialista, subyace una idea de América Latina y de socialismo a la chilena, donde él sitúa su praxis como médico, militante socialista, dirigente político, parlamentario y luego como Presidente de la República. La síntesis de su concepción política y programática, entre otros documentos, se encuentra en el diálogo que sostiene con Régis Debray en 1971 y que queda plasmada en el libro Conversaciones: a la realidad de un país subdesarrollado le aplica las concepciones teóricas de un marxismo enriquecido con los aportes científicos del devenir social. Su tesis es la transformación del país al socialismo por la vía pacífica-electoral, con respeto a las demás concepciones políticas, ideológicas y religiosas. Concibe América Latina ¿en la unidad de los pueblos en su lucha emancipatoria como base esencial de la victoria definitiva, (1966, Conferencia Tricontinental de La Habana.

  15. Cognitive, social, and neural determinants of diminished decision-making and financial exploitation risk in aging and dementia: A review and new model. (United States)

    Spreng, R Nathan; Karlawish, Jason; Marson, Daniel C


    In this article we will briefly review how changes in brain and in cognitive and social functioning, across the spectrum from normal to pathological aging, can lead to decision-making impairments that increase abuse risk in many life domains (e.g., health care, social engagement, financial management). The review will specifically focus on emerging research identifying neural, cognitive, and social markers of declining financial decision-making capacity in older adults. We will highlight how these findings are opening avenues for early detection and new interventions to reduce exploitation risk.

  16. The Peace Processes of Colombia and El Salvador: A Comparative Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gantiva, Diego


    Colombia and El Salvador, two Latin American countries, have developed similar counterinsurgency processes and started similar processes of peace negotiations between the insurgent armies and the forces of order...

  17. The Rule of Law and the U.S. Quest for Security in El Salvador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stapleton, Anthony K


    .... Separate case studies examine U.S. efforts to promote the rule of law in El Salvador in response to security threats ranging from human rights violations and insurgency to illegal immigration and transnational street gangs...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Nogueira Maia


    Full Text Available Este trabajo representa un estudio de caso de comercio de la calle que se produce en la Centralización Iguatemi y Avenida Lima e Silva, en Salvador, Bahia. Al caminar por las calles es la diversidad notable que esta actividad presenta son bienes de todo tipo, ropa, electrónica, productos alimenticios y los que están diseñados para satisfacer una necesidad momentánea. Buscamos entender el camino que lleva a la diversidad bienes desde la producción hasta el consumo, se analizan los productos de “extranjero” en un intento de controlar todo el trayecto del camino para ellos. Por lo tanto, desarrollamos un entendimiento en torno a redes posibles formados detrás de la venta ambulante, es decir, las redes de suministro de este comercio.

  19. Para una lectura iconotextual de Farabeuf de Salvador Elizondo


    Patricia Reveles


    L’objectif de ce travail est de montrer comment Farabeuf, roman du mexicain Salvador Elizondo,invite à réaliser une lecture à partir aussi bien des éléments visuels intégrés dans le texte, que de ceux auxquels le texte fait référence. Divisé en trois parties, l’article repère les éléments paratextuels et intertextuels présents dans l’oeuvre, afin de souligner l’importance des relations intermédiaires et iconotextuelles en tant que point de départ pour une lecture spécifique.El objetivo del pr...

  20. Fluid geochemistry of the San Vicente geothermal field (El Salvador)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiuppa, A.; Carapezza, M.L.; Parello, F. [University of Palermo (Italy). Istituto di Mineralogia


    The volcano Chichontepeque (San Vicente) is one of the nine recent volcanoes making up the El Salvador sector of the WNW-ESE-trending active Central American volcanic belt. Thermal activity is at present reduced to a few thermal springs and fumaroles. The most important manifestations (Agua Agria and Los Infernillos Ciegos) are boiling springs and fumaroles located on the northern slope of the volcano (850 m a.s.l.) along two radial faults. The application of geothermometric and geobarometric methods to the gases and thermal waters suggests that both thermal areas are linked to the identified 1100-1300 m reservoir, whose temperature (250{sup o}C), lateral extension and chemical composition, as resulting from this study, are of interest for industrial development. (author)

  1. El Salvador: Entre la guerra y la paz, UNICEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Jaramillo


    Full Text Available Durante la guerra civil salvadoreña se dieron momentos de tregua. En una de ellas la UNICEF organizó la campaña de vacunación infantil; estos días abrieron el camino a la paz en otras latitudes del mundo. Con esta favorable experiencia fue posible organizar 17 campañas más con el apoyo de varias instituciones. El país tuvo que solidarizarse y extraer de esta dura década positivas lecciones, falta por pensar en la reconstrucción del país asolado por la violencia, el deterioro económico y la falta de oportunidades para el desarrollo humano de la población. Las negociaciones entre el gobierno y la guerrilla llegaron a su fin.

  2. Nuevas obras de Luis y José Salvador Carmona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro, Juan Nicolau


    Full Text Available Hace unos años publicábamos un artículo sobre un grupo de esculturas de José Salvador Carmona aún existentes o procedentes del convento de San Miguel de las Victorias de la villa de Priego en la provincia de Cuenca. Del conjunto existía una descripción del Padre Pedro Cruz Ocaña redactada antes de su dispersión y en el momento de realizar el trabajo nos encontramos con el hecho de que dos de las figuras del inventario no estaban en el pueblo y nada nos supieron decir sobre su paradero. En una visita a la Catedral de Cuenca tuvimos la sorpresa de encontrarlas en las dependencias del museo catedralicio. Las esculturas localizadas ahora son un San Pascual Bailón y un San Francisco de Asís recibiendo los estigmas....

  3. Emergence and proliferation of private security companies in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Saavedra


    Full Text Available El Salvador has been impacted by political instability and socioeconomic turmoil in a perfect environment for organized crime amidst the pacification and democratization of the country after a bloody internal conflict. This essay focuses on private security through a descriptive analysis of the factors that influence its development and implications for governance and governability in the country. Analysis of security as a common good, factors that influence the use of private security, and inter-institutional relations of private security and police require appropriate regulation in accordance with the factors mentioned above. When considering security as a common good, observance of fundamental rights is mandatory and forms the basis of legitimacy of government action.DOI:

  4. The peace processes of Colombia and El Salvador : a comparative study


    Gantiva Arias, Diego A.; Palacios Luna, Marco A.


    Colombia and El Salvador, two Latin American countries, have developed similar counterinsurgency processes and started similar processes of peace negotiations between the insurgent armies and the forces of order. One peace process was concluded in 1992, when El Salvador ended the war through a political solution (Peace Accords). Salvadoran insurgent forces agreed to demobilize its army and to become a legal political party, while the government agreed to make changes in the social and politic...

  5. Quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) de El Salvador, América Central


    Cedar I García-Ríos; Migdalia Álvarez-Ruiz; José E Barraza; Ana M Rivera; Carlos R Hasbún


    En El Salvador se habían registrado los poliplacóforos Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832); Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910); Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909); Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832) y Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893). Recolectamos quitones en aguas someras de El Salvador en julio del 2002, agragando a la lista a Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857); Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832); Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832); Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1...

  6. The Impact of the Vietnam Analogy on American Policy in El Salvador from 1979 to 1984 (United States)


    were shot in front of the National Cathedral . Nowhere was the concern for the spread of revolution felt more intensely than in El Salvador. A small...98. 78. Ibid. 79. Ibid., 310. 80. Gettleman, xiii. 81. Ibid., 3. 92 82. Steffen W. Schmidt El Salvador: America’s Next Vietnam ( Salisbury , NC...Colorado River Press, 1984. Salisbury , Harrison E. Vietnam Reconsidered: Lessons From a War. New York, NY: Harper & Row, 1984. Schmidt, Steffen W. El

  7. PARANOÏA: la vie secrète de Salvador Dali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Buuren, Maarten


    En 1942, Salvador Dali, âgé de trente-huit ans, termine son autobiographie La vie secrète de Salvador Dali. Il prétend s’y livrer au lecteur en toute candeur. Mais c’est un leurre. Dali construit l’histoire de sa vie sur ce qu’il considère comme sa trouvaille capitale : la méthode

  8. Quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora de El Salvador, América Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar I García-Ríos


    Full Text Available En El Salvador se habían registrado los poliplacóforos Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832; Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910; Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909; Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832 y Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893. Recolectamos quitones en aguas someras de El Salvador en julio del 2002, agragando a la lista a Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857; Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832; Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832; Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1865; Acanthochitona arragonites (Carpenter, 1867; Acanthochitona ferreirai (Lyons, 1988 y Acanthochitona hirudiniformis (Sowerby, 1832. Ampliamos la distribución documentada de I. dispar hacia el norte y describimos brevemente una especie innominada de Lepidochitona.Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora from El Salvador, Central America. Collections of 11 species of shallow water Polyplacophora from El Salvador were made in July 2002. Previously only five species had been documented in El Salvador: Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832; Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910; Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909; Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832 and Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893. Of these, I. guatemalensis and A. exquisita were not collected in this census. Seven other species are reported here for El Salvador for the first time: Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857; Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832; Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832; Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1865; Acanthochitona arragonites (Carpenter, 1867; A. ferreirai (Lyons, 1988 and A. hirudiniformis (Sowerby, 1832. The known geographic distribution of I. dispar is extended to the north. An un-named species of Lepidochitona is briefly described. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 171-176. Epub 2007 March. 31.

  9. Commercial sexual exploitation of children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mauricio Rojas Betancur; Raquel Mendez Villamizar; Diana Lucía Moreno


      We study the sexual exploitation of children contributing to the understanding of risk and situations favouring the entry and permanence of children and adolescents from the reconstruction of the...

  10. School Literary Canon and Teaching of Literature in Middle School: A Critical Analysis of High School Programs in El Salvador Canon literario escolar y enseñanza de la literatura en la educación media: Un análisis crítico de los programas de enseñanza secundaria en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Aguilar Ciciliano


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the pedagogical-didactic model for the teaching of Literature in Middle School in the Salvadoran Educational system. This is part of a larger work towards a PhD project. The main goal of this project is to characterize the historical process in the construction of this model through a critical analysis of canonization sources. The findings suggest that the teaching of Literature is performed based on a historicist, pro-European, male-based approach. Among the consequences of this type of education are progressive invisibility of women writers and the marginal status of the Salvadoran literature, despite the reformist discourse that postulates gender equality and strengthening of the national identity as central policies in the current educational project.Recibido 20 de marzo de 2013 • Corregido 14 de junio de 2013 • Aceptado 19 de junio de 2013 Este artículo analiza el modelo didáctico-pedagógico para la enseñanza de la literatura en la educación media salvadoreña. Es parte de un trabajo más amplio de tesis doctoral. El objetivo es caracterizar el proceso histórico de conformación de dicho modelo mediante un análisis crítico de las fuentes de canonización. Los hallazgos sugieren que la enseñanza de la literatura se realiza con base en un enfoque historicista, europeizante y masculino; entre las consecuencias de este tipo de enseñanza se encuentran la progresiva invisibilización de la mujer escritora y el estatus marginal que ocupa la literatura salvadoreña, pese al discurso reformista que postula la equidad de género y el fortalecimiento de la identidad nacional como políticas centrales del actual proyecto educativo.Doctor en Educación de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Máster en Derechos Humanos y Educación para la Paz. Licenciado en Letras. Investigador del Consejo de Investigaciones Científicas de la Universidad de El Salvador (CIC-UES. Actualmente labora como profesor de la Universidad de El

  11. Transnational gestational surrogacy: does it have to be exploitative? (United States)

    Kirby, Jeffrey


    This article explores the controversial practice of transnational gestational surrogacy and poses a provocative question: Does it have to be exploitative? Various existing models of exploitation are considered and a novel exploitation-evaluation heuristic is introduced to assist in the analysis of the potentially exploitative dimensions/elements of complex health-related practices. On the basis of application of the heuristic, I conclude that transnational gestational surrogacy, as currently practiced in low-income country settings (such as rural, western India), is exploitative of surrogate women. Arising out of consideration of the heuristic's exploitation conditions, a set of public education and enabled choice, enhanced protections, and empowerment reforms to transnational gestational surrogacy practice is proposed that, if incorporated into a national regulatory framework and actualized within a low income country, could possibly render such practice nonexploitative.

  12. Comparisons of the 1995 and 1998 coral bleaching events on the patch reefs of San Salvador Island, Bahamas


    McGrath, Thomas A.; Smith, Garriet W.


    Coral patch reefs around San Salvador Island, Bahamas have been monitored with the aid of Earthwatch volunteers three times a year since 1992. During that period two significant mass bleaching events occurred: autumn 1995, and late summer 1998. Elsewhere in 1995, bleaching was caused by higher-than-normal summer sea tempera-tures; in San Salvador, however, temperatures were normal. In 1998 a prolonged period of higher-than-normal sea temperatures preceded bleaching on San Salvador and worldwi...

  13. Exploitation et obligation de travailler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Étienne Vandamme


    Full Text Available Cet article défend une définition de l’exploitation, restreinte aux relations de travail, en tentant d’une part d’expliciter une certaine compréhension de sens commun du concept (rémunération inéquitable en fonction du travail presté, et d’autre part d’échapper aux difficultés qui ont affecté la définition marxiste traditionnelle de l’exploitation comme extorsion de la plus-value (dans ses diverses variantes. Il explore ainsi le lien entre l’exploitation et l’obligation matérielle de travailler pour subvenir à ses besoins fondamentaux. Après avoir mis en garde contre les politiques d’activation des chômeurs, il conclut que l’exploitation est un phénomène contre lequel on peut lutter à l’aide de mécanismes relativement simples, même dans les sociétés capitalistes. Il rappelle toutefois que cela ne suffit pas à réaliser la justice sociale, resituant l’exploitation parmi d’autres enjeux fondamentaux pour une philosophie politique égalitariste

  14. Flare Systems Exploitation and Impact on Permafrost (United States)

    Filimonov, M. Yu; Vaganova, N. A.


    Mathematical models and numerical algorithms of horizontal and vertical flare systems exploitation in northern oil and gas fields located in permafrost zone are developed. Computations of long-term forecasts of permafrost degradation around such constructions have been carried out for various types of operation, including emergency situations, which cause a short-term increase in the heat flow near the ground surface, which leads to an additional soil temperature increasing.

  15. Geological control of earthquake induced landslide in El Salvador (United States)

    Tsige Aga, Meaza


    Geological control of earthquake induced landslides in El Salvador. M., Tsige(1), I., Garcia-Flórez(1), R., Mateos(2) (1)Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Geología, Madrid, Spain, ( (2)IGME, Mallorca El Salvador is located at one of the most seismically active areas en Central America, and suffered severe damage and loss of life in historical and recent earthquakes, as a consequence of earthquake induced landslides. The most common landslides were shallow disrupted soil-slides on steep slopes and were particularly dense in the central part of the country. Most of them are cited in the recent mechanically weak volcanic pyroclastic deposits known as "Tierra Blanca" and "Tierra Color Café" which are prone to seismic wave amplification and are supposed to have contributed to the triggering of some of the hundreds of landslides related to the 2001 (Mw = 7.6 and Mw = 6.7), seismic events. The earthquakes also triggered numerous deep large scale landslides responsible for the enormous devastation of villages and towns and are the source for the current high seismic hazard as well. Many of these landslides are located at distances more than 50 and 100 km from the focal distance, although some of them occurred at near field. Until now there has been little effort to explain the causes and concentration of the deep large-scale landslides especially their distribution, failure mechanism and post-rapture behavior of the landslide mass (long run-out). It has been done a field investigation of landslides, geological materiales and interpretation of aerial photographs taken before and after the two 2001 (Mw= 7.6 and Mw= 6.7) El Salvador earthquakes. The result of the study showed that most of the large-scale landslides occured as coherent block slides with the sliding surface parallel to a pre-existing fractures and fault planes (La Leona, Barriolera, El Desague, Jiboa landslides). Besides that the pre-existing fractures are weak zones controlling

  16. en El Salvador, una intervención de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Larissa Centeno Monge


    Full Text Available Este artículo describe algunas de las fortalezas y debilidades encontradas en el Proyecto de Atención a Poblaciones Móviles y sectores que las atienden directamente: personal de salud, migración, aduanas, cuerpos uniformados -recién instalados en las fronteras a nivel nacional- y que se encuentra plasmado en el Plan Estratégico Nacional para la Prevención, Atención y Control del VIH-SIDA e ITS / El Salvador 2005 –2010. El propósito de la intervención fue desarrollar la capacidad, mejorar los conocimientos y habilidades para realizar actividades de educación e información continuas que generen percepción de riesgo y un cambio de comportamiento para tener relaciones sexuales seguras o de menor riesgo ante las Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual y el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana-SIDA (ITS/VIH-SIDA que al final incidan en la disminución de la transmisión. La metodología incluyó tres momentos claves: la construcción de una línea de base, la implementación de talleres educativos y de información y una evaluación final. Logró captar un total de 380 individuos a nivel nacional. De los resultados mas significativos se pueden mencionar los alcanzados por los participantes que no pertenecían al sector salud, en los cuales hubo un aumento de conocimientos básicos –transmisión y prevención del VIH- y adquisición de habilidades de un 40% hasta un 60% más de lo encontrado en la línea basal, situación que no resultó ser la misma en los profesionales de salud, en quienes la tendencia fue similar en la línea basal y en la evaluación final. Se concluye que los esfuerzos realizados desde el año 2001 en que dan inicio las intervenciones en poblaciones móviles y que tienen como fin frenar el avance del SIDA en El Salvador no han sido suficientes hasta el momento pues sus estrategias carecen de participación activa de todos los sectores que atienden a dichas poblaciones vulnerables y expuestas a riesgo.

  17. A gripe espanhola em Salvador, 1918: cidade de becos e cortiços The Spanish flu in Salvador, 1918: city of alleys and tenements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Cruz de Souza


    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo investigar o episódio da epidemia de gripe espanhola que atingiu a cidade de Salvador e outras áreas da Bahia, tendo seu ápice entre setembro e dezembro de 1918. Utilizando como fonte privilegiada a imprensa local, analiso o jogo do poder, a condição sanitária da capital, alguns aspectos da economia, as condições materiais de sobrevivência dos moradores de Salvador, a fragilidade das políticas de saúde e assistência pública e outros aspectos de uma sociedade complexa e desigual evidenciados pela epidemia.The article investigates the Spanish flu epidemic that hit the city of Salvador and the state of Bahia, reaching its height between September and December of 1918. The local press is a primary source in this analysis of power politics, sanitary conditions in the state capital, some economic issues, the material conditions for survival in Salvador, and the fragility of public health and assistance policies - all features of a complex, unequal society made visible by the epidemic.

  18. Prenatal care quality indexes of public health services in Salvador, Bahia Indicadores de calidad de la asistencia prenatal en Salvador, Bahia Indicadores de qualidade da assistência pré-natal em Salvador - Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enilda Rosendo do Nascimento


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze prenatal care quality indexes of public health services in Salvador, Bahia following the implementation of the Prenatal and Birth Humanization Program (PBHB. METHODS: This quantitative descriptive study was conducted in primary care units in Salvador that adopted the Prenatal and Birth Humanization Program. RESULTS: Few pregnant women registered in the Prenatal and Birth Humanization Program had the benchmark of six prenatal consultations (9.76%. More than half of these registered pregnant women received all basic exams. However, only few women received puerperal consultations (5.66%, which conclude their maternal care. CONCLUSION: Prenatal care in Salvador, carried out through the Prenatal and Birth Humanization Program in 2002, had a low performance in basic exams, and in prenatal and puerperal consultations.OBJETIVO: Analizar indicadores de calidad de la asistencia prenatal prestada por servicios públicos de salud de Salvador/Bahia, después de la implantación del Programa de Humanización en el Prenatal y Nacimiento. MÉTODOS: Estudio cuantitativo realizado en las unidades básicas de salud de Salvador que se adhirieron al Programa de Humanización en el Prenatal y Nacimiento. RESULTADOS: Bajo porcentaje de gestantes inscritas en el Programa de Humanización en el Prenatal y Nacimiento realizaron seis consultas de prenatal (9,76%; más de la mitad de esas mujeres realizaron todos los exámenes básicos y hubo bajo porcentaje de las que se presentaron a la consulta de puerperio (5,66%. Además, apenas el 5,66% concluyeron la asistencia prenatal. CONCLUSIÓN: La asistencia prenatal en Salvador, prestada a través del Programa de Humanización en el Prenatal y Nacimiento en el año 2002, se caracteriza por la baja cobertura realizada por las unidades de salud tanto de consultas prenatales como de exámenes básicos y consulta puerperal.OBJETIVO: Analisar indicadores de qualidade da assistência pré-natal prestada por

  19. Prevalence of visual impairment in El Salvador: inequalities in educational level and occupational status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rius


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of blindness, visual impairment, and related eye diseases and conditions among adults in El Salvador, and to explore socioeconomic inequalities in their prevalence by education level and occupational status, stratified by sex. METHODS: Based upon the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB methodology, this nationwide sample comprised 3 800 participants (3 399 examined ≥ 50 years old from 76 randomly selected clusters of 50 persons each. The prevalence of blindness, visual impairment and related eye diseases and conditions, including uncorrected refractive error (URE, was calculated for categories of education level and occupational status. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs and stratified by sex. RESULTS: Age-adjusted prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI: 2.2-2.6 for blindness (men: 2.8% (95% CI: 2.5-3.1; women: 2.2% (95% CI: 1.9-2.5 and 11.8% (95% CI: 11.6-12.0 for moderate visual impairment (men: 10.8% (95% CI: 10.5-11.1; women: 12.6% (95% CI: 12.4-12.8. The proportion of visual impairment due to cataract was 43.8% in men and 33.5% in women. Inverse gradients of socioeconomic inequalities were observed in the prevalence of visual impairment. For example, the age-adjusted OR (AOR was 3.4 (95% CI: 2.0-6.4 for visual impairment and 4.3 (95% CI: 2.1-10.4 for related URE in illiterate women compared to those with secondary education, and 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-3.1 in cataract in unemployed men. CONCLUSIONS: Blindness and visual impairment prevalence is high in the El Salvador adult population. The main associated conditions are cataract and URE, two treatable conditions. As socioeconomic and gender inequalities in ocular health may herald discrimination and important barriers to accessing affordable, good-quality, and timely health care services, prioritization of public eye health care and disability policies should be put in place

  20. Prevalence of visual impairment in El Salvador: inequalities in educational level and occupational status. (United States)

    Rius, Anna; Guisasola, Laura; Sabidó, Meritxell; Leasher, Janet L; Moriña, David; Villalobos, Astrid; Lansingh, Van C; Mujica, Oscar J; Rivera-Handal, José Eduardo; Silva, Juan Casrlos


    To examine the prevalence of blindness, visual impairment, and related eye diseases and conditions among adults in El Salvador, and to explore socioeconomic inequalities in their prevalence by education level and occupational status, stratified by sex. Based upon the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) methodology, this nationwide sample comprised 3 800 participants (3 399 examined) ≥ 50 years old from 76 randomly selected clusters of 50 persons each. The prevalence of blindness, visual impairment and related eye diseases and conditions, including uncorrected refractive error (URE), was calculated for categories of education level and occupational status. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and stratified by sex. Age-adjusted prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI: 2.2-2.6) for blindness (men: 2.8% (95% CI: 2.5-3.1); women: 2.2% (95% CI: 1.9-2.5)) and 11.8% (95% CI: 11.6-12.0) for moderate visual impairment (men: 10.8% (95% CI: 10.5-11.1); women: 12.6% (95% CI: 12.4-12.8)). The proportion of visual impairment due to cataract was 43.8% in men and 33.5% in women. Inverse gradients of socioeconomic inequalities were observed in the prevalence of visual impairment. For example, the age-adjusted OR (AOR) was 3.4 (95% CI: 2.0-6.4) for visual impairment and 4.3 (95% CI: 2.1-10.4) for related URE in illiterate women compared to those with secondary education, and 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-3.1) in cataract in unemployed men. Blindness and visual impairment prevalence is high in the El Salvador adult population. The main associated conditions are cataract and URE, two treatable conditions. As socioeconomic and gender inequalities in ocular health may herald discrimination and important barriers to accessing affordable, good-quality, and timely health care services, prioritization of public eye health care and disability policies should be put in place, particularly among women, the unemployed, and

  1. Electric properties of organic and mineral electronic components, design and modelling of a photovoltaic chain for a better exploitation of the solar energy; Proprietes electriques des composants electroniques mineraux et organiques, conception et modelisation d'une chaine photovoltaique pour une meilleure exploitation de l'energie solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, A


    The research carried out in this thesis relates to the mineral, organic electronic components and the photovoltaic systems. Concerning the mineral semiconductors, we modelled the conduction properties of the structures metal/oxide/semiconductor (MOS) strongly integrated in absence and in the presence of charges. We proposed a methodology allowing characterizing the ageing of structures MOS under injection of the Fowler Nordheim (FN) current type. Then, we studied the Schottky diodes in polymers of type metal/polymer/metal. We concluded that: The mechanism of the charges transfer, through the interface metal/polymer, is allotted to the thermo-ionic effect and could be affected by the lowering of the potential barrier to the interface metal/polymer. In the area of photovoltaic energy, we conceived and modelled a photovoltaic system of average power (100 W). We showed that the adaptation of the generator to the load allows a better exploitation of solar energy. This is carried out by the means of the converters controlled by an of type MPPT control provided with a detection circuit of dysfunction and restarting of the system. (author)

  2. Salvador Alvarado y las elecciones de 1920, una candidatura olvidada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Iván Méndez Lara


    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra una de las facetas menos estudiadas del general Salvador Alvarado: su papel en la sucesión presidencial de 1920. A través de la revisión de fuentes poco exploradas como los periódicos El Heraldo de México y El Monitor Republicano podrá observarse la complejidad y tensión del ambiente político en la coyuntura electoral. Alvarado modificó su postura conforme avanzó la contienda, de una actitud belicosa que lo llevó a crear su propio partido político contra los generales Pablo González y Álvaro Obregón, pasó a ser un aliado del grupo sonorense en la lucha contra la imposición del candidato carrancista, Ignacio Bonillas. Además de comprender a un Alvarado interesado en la silla presidencial, este trabajo muestra el accionar de los periódicos capitalinos como espacios de discusión e impulsores de plataformas políticas en las elecciones que posicionaron a los sonorenses en la cúspide del poder.

  3. Police, Prevention, Social Capital and Communities in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Argueta Hernández


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between police and the community. In El Salvador, the role traditionally played by police has been that of the repressor of crime, with no concern for community outreach. However, over the last two years, the law enforcement agency has had an about face in terms of its attention to the problem of violence and crime. As a result, it has introduced the community police philosophy. That is, a law enforcement agency that empowers active participation in the community in identifying and preventing problems that affect it, meaning that community participation is promoted in terms of tasks tied to citizen security. Currently, what is under consideration is the degree to which there is a process of strengthening the bonds of solidarity, constructive relationships between neighbors, and the existence of social capital that contributes to cooperation between law enforcement and community in preventing violence and crime. Evidently the results of this new form of taking on public security will not be obtained immediately. It requires both the agents and commanders to be convinced that this philosophy can yield good results in crime prevention. However, the community must also become an active player in co-producing security.DOI:

  4. Hemoglobinopathies in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Northeast Brazil. (United States)

    Adorno, Elisângela Vitória; Couto, Fábio David; Moura Neto, José Pereira de; Menezes, Joelma Figueiredo; Rêgo, Marco; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão dos; Gonçalves, Marilda Souza


    Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary disorders of the hemoglobin molecule with a high prevalence worldwide. Brazil has a prevalence of 0.1 to 0.3% of newborns with sickle cell anemia and 20.0 to 25.0% of heterozygous alpha2 thalassemia among African Brazilians. In the present study, we investigated the presence of variant hemoglobins and alpha2(3.7 Kb) and alpha2 (4.2 Kb) thalassemia in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Samples of umbilical cord blood from a total of 590 newborns were analyzed, of which 57 (9.8%) were FAS; 36 (6.5%) FAC; one (0.2%) SF; and five (0.9%) FSC. One hundred fourteen (22.2%) newborns had alpha2(3.7 Kb) thalassemia, of whom 101 (19.7%) were heterozygous and 13 (2.5%) homozygous, showing statistical significance for hematological data between newborns with normal alpha genes and alpha2(3.7 Kb) thalassemia carriers. The alpha2(4.2 Kb) thalassemia was not found. Frequencies found in the present study confirm that hemoglobinopathies are a public health problem in Brazil, emphasizing the need for neonatal screening and genetic counseling programs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Pitiá Barreto


    Full Text Available The Controllership has been the subject of studies and analyzes and reflections of prominentresearchers of the sciences that focus on the field management of organizations such as theAdministration and Accounting. It is important to note the contribution of the Controllershipof public governance, the foundation of a democratic and participative management. In this context, it fits the purpose of this study, reflect on public performance of the comptroller of the city of Salvador, noting the contribution that effective governance in the municipality. The studies were developed in the Department of Finance (SEFAZ Controllership of the municipality who is linked to. With exploratory, descriptive investigation that involved field research, analysis of documents and reports issued by SEFAZ and the Court of the City(TCM. It is the chart of SEFAZ, your budget and the opinions of TCM. The results show the importance of the Comptroller and denote the impression that the institution studied, this area is not performing their role well.

  6. Hemoglobinopathies in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adorno Elisângela Vitória


    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary disorders of the hemoglobin molecule with a high prevalence worldwide. Brazil has a prevalence of 0.1 to 0.3% of newborns with sickle cell anemia and 20.0 to 25.0% of heterozygous alpha2 thalassemia among African Brazilians. In the present study, we investigated the presence of variant hemoglobins and alpha2(3.7 Kb and alpha2(4.2 Kb thalassemia in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Samples of umbilical cord blood from a total of 590 newborns were analyzed, of which 57 (9.8% were FAS; 36 (6.5% FAC; one (0.2% SF; and five (0.9% FSC. One hundred fourteen (22.2% newborns had alpha2(3.7 Kb thalassemia, of whom 101 (19.7% were heterozygous and 13 (2.5% homozygous, showing statistical significance for hematological data between newborns with normal alpha genes and alpha2(3.7 Kb thalassemia carriers. The alpha2(4.2 Kb thalassemia was not found. Frequencies found in the present study confirm that hemoglobinopathies are a public health problem in Brazil, emphasizing the need for neonatal screening and genetic counseling programs.

  7. Financiamiento de la seguridad pública en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfredo Molina Batlle


    Full Text Available El artículo describe y analiza el comportamiento de las principales variables que afectan la seguridad pública, tomando como referencia los homicidios, extorsiones y delitos al patrimonio, además de variables en el ámbito económico y que mantienen una relación con el tema de estudio; utilizando métodos comparativos, tendenciasy modelos econométricos, con el propósito de concluir sobre los datos históricos y situar al lector en el contexto salvadoreño. Con ello se crea un modelo de seguridad pública que permite definir escenarios financieros, concluyendo en ideas y propuesta de fuentes de financiamiento para obtenerlos recursos que fortalezcan las institucionesy programas que afectan la seguridad pública en el país, analizándolas bajo perspectivas e impactos macroeconómicos, procurando que estas no afecten las principales variables económicas.Revista Policía y Seguridad Pública 5(1 2015: 31-74


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Pitiá Barreto


    Full Text Available A Controladoria tem sido alvo de estudos e destaque de análises e reflexões dos estudiosos das ciências que têm como foco o campo gerencial das organizações como a da Administração e Contabilidade. É importante observar a contribuição da Controladoria à governança pública, fundamento de uma gestão democrática e participativa. Nesse contexto, insere-se o objetivo deste estudo, refletir sobre atuação da controladoria pública da cidade de Salvador, observando a contribuição efetiva na governança nesse município. Os estudos foram desenvolvidos na Secretaria da Fazenda (SEFAZ do município a quem Controladoria vincula-se. Com caráter exploratório, essa investigação descritiva envolveu pesquisa de campo, análise de documentos e relatórios emitidos pela SEFAZ e pelo Tribunal de Contas do Município (TCM. Verificou-se o organograma da SEFAZ, seu orçamento e os pareceres do TCM. Os resultados expressam a importância da Controladoria e denotam a impressão de que, na instituição estudada, essa área não esteja cumprindo bem seu papel. 

  9. Extending the Global Sensitivity Analysis of the SimSphere model in the Context of its Future Exploitation by the Scientific Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P. Petropoulos


    Full Text Available In today’s changing climate, the development of robust, accurate and globally applicable models is imperative for a wider understanding of Earth’s terrestrial biosphere. Moreover, an understanding of the representation, sensitivity and coherence of such models are vital for the operationalisation of any physically based model. A Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA was conducted on the SimSphere land biosphere model in which a meta-modelling method adopting Bayesian theory was implemented. Initially, effects of assuming uniform probability distribution functions (PDFs for the model inputs, when examining sensitivity of key quantities simulated by SimSphere at different output times, were examined. The development of topographic model input parameters (e.g., slope, aspect, and elevation were derived within a Geographic Information System (GIS before implementation within the model. The effect of time of the simulation on the sensitivity of previously examined outputs was also analysed. Results showed that simulated outputs were significantly influenced by changes in topographic input parameters, fractional vegetation cover, vegetation height and surface moisture availability in agreement with previous studies. Time of model output simulation had a significant influence on the absolute values of the output variance decomposition, but it did not seem to change the relative importance of each input parameter. Sensitivity Analysis (SA results of the newly modelled outputs allowed identification of the most responsive model inputs and interactions. Our study presents an important step forward in SimSphere verification given the increasing interest in its use both as an independent modelling and educational tool. Furthermore, this study is very timely given on-going efforts towards the development of operational products based on the synergy of SimSphere with Earth Observation (EO data. In this context, results also provide additional support for the

  10. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.


    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  11. [Work in health: sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador (state of Bahia, Brazil)]. (United States)

    Bastos, Augusto Amorim; Costa, Ediná Alves; de Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo


    A drugstore is an establishment of interest in health, from which medication is dispensed, namely the therapeutic technology most broadly used in the practice of medicine. The scope of this study is to describe and analyze the sanitary surveillance of drugstores. Based on the theory of working processes in healthcare, a case study was conducted on the sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil), examining 2 analytical categories: agents and activities. Data were collected through observation, analysis of documents and interviews, and QSR N Vivo software was used for data processing. Personnel of the surveillance service were found to have varied professional and educational backgrounds, with limited experience in the sanitary surveillance of drugstores, and insufficient technical training for the performance of the tasks assigned. Deficiencies of a managerial nature were detected in the service. Its operation is primarily focused on granting drugstore licenses, prioritizing attendance to spontaneous demand, thereby configuring a technological model of intervention based on sanitary inspection. The findings revealed a need for updating the service and the adoption of technologies to enhance control of risk, given that technological evolution provides drugs that are increasingly more potent, with a concomitant rise in levels risk.

  12. What is needed to improve food sales in schools?Food vendors’ opinion from El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eHilari


    Full Text Available Latin America and the Caribbean are at the forefront of the double burden of malnourishment, with rocketing rates of overweight, obesity and stagnant prevalence of stunting in many countries. School children are at a crucial age for setting eating habits, physical activity, nutritional status and long term outcomes both in their health as well as their education and economic productivity. Save the Children International implements a school health and nutrition program in 45 rural schools in El Salvador, Central America. The program aims at increasing the consumption of protein and micronutrients while reducing intake of sugar and fats in school children. In addition, there is great emphasis on food hygiene and safe handling, through training of the food vendors. We developed a conceptual framework for school nutrition programs that is phrased around five different moments: school snacks, school stores, nutrition learning, bringing food to school and eating at home. Monitoring and control lies in the hands of student brigades, which fosters child participation. We present findings of a qualitative evaluation on sale regulation in school food stores, documenting additional interventions that were needed to foster compliance. We explore how vendors are making money on healthy food if head teachers and parents are involved in regulating food stores and children are motivated to cherish fruits and vegetables. Based on these findings, we discuss a model of an enabling environment for healthy food at school.

  13. Implementation of a model-independent search for new physics with the CMS detector exploiting the world-wide LHC Computing Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Hof, Carsten

    With this year's start of CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) it will be possible for the first time to directly probe the physics at the TeV-scale at a collider experiment. At this scale the Standard Model of particle physics will reach its limits and new physical phenomena are expected to appear. This study performed with one of the LHC's experiments, namely the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), is trying to quantify the understanding of the Standard Model and is hunting for deviations from the expectation by investigating a large fraction of the CMS data. While the classical approach for searches of physics beyond the Standard Model assumes a specific theoretical model and tries to isolate events with a certain signature characteristic for the new theory, this thesis follows a model-independent approach. The method relies only on the knowledge of the Standard Model and is suitable to spot deviations from this model induced by particular theoretical models but also theories not yet thought of. Future data are to ...

  14. El Salvador en transición: el proceso de paz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El artículo hace un balance de la transición política salvadoreña, centrándose en el proceso de cumplimiento de los acuerdos de paz y las modificaciones sufridas por el sistema político entre 1992 y 1994. Asimismo se plantean algunos desafíos para la gobernabilidad democrática de El Salvador en los próximos años.ABSTRACT: The article makes a balance of the Salvadorian political transition, dealing with the process of implementation of peace agreements and the modifications of the political system between 1992 and 1994. Therefore some challenges for the future democratic governability of El Salvador are suggested in the next pages.

  15. Visión general del mercado de las telecomunicaciones en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Vidales Bolaños


    Full Text Available El artículo identifica las dimensiones del mercado de las telecomunicaciones en El Salvador para entender en qué medida las tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación son una realidad accesible para los jóvenes salvadoreños. Además pretende conocer si la emergencia de esta realidad tecnológica está suscitando el interés de los investigadores en comunicación de las universidades salvadoreñas y, en caso de que así sea, qué enfoques están adoptando en sus trabajos.

  16. Política habitacional e locação social em Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Baltrusis

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar o mercado imobiliário de locação em Salvador. Num primeiro momento, caracterizaremos o problema habitacional em Salvador, para o que nos apoiaremos nas diretrizes e ações previstas no Plano Municipal de Habitação de Interesse Social (PMHIS. Em seguida, trataremos das políticas implantadas pelos governos do estado e federal, destacando a experiência do Programa de Arrendamento Residencial (PAR e incorporando algumas considerações sobre o Programa Minha Casa, Minha Vida. Também será abordada a questão do mercado de locação em Salvador a partir do perfil de moradores e da dinâmica do mercado.

  17. Distúrbio Ondulatório de Leste e seus impactos na cidade de Salvador Wavelike easterly disturbance and its impacts on Salvador city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Helena Machado dos Santos


    Full Text Available Um evento extremo de chuva registrado na cidade de Salvador, Bahia, é investigado neste trabalho. Dados observacionais de superfície e altitude, dados em pontos de grade, imagens de satélite meteorológico e informações de desastres fornecidas pela Defesa Civil de Salvador (CODESAL foram utilizados na análise. No período entre a meia noite e 3 horas da madrugada do dia 12 de junho de 2006, a precipitação acumulada foi de 51 mm. Um número elevado de ocorrências foi registrado pela CODESAL, notadamente deslizamentos de encosta. Ventos fracos em toda a troposfera e energia potencial convectiva disponível máxima de 3.233 J kg-1 foram diagnosticados em Salvador no dia 11 de junho, quinze horas antes do período de chuva forte. Áreas de convecção profunda caracterizaram esse evento provocado por uma onda que chegou à costa leste do Nordeste do Brasil, após se propagar para oeste sobre o Atlântico Sul com velocidade de fase estimada de 10 m s-1, conforme evidenciado no campo da componente meridional do vento no nível de 700 hPa e em imagens de satélite meteorológico.An extreme rainfall event registered in the city of Salvador, Bahia, is investigated in this work. Observational surface and upper air data, gridpoint data, meteorological satellite images and disasters information provided by the Civil Defense of Salvador (CODESAL were used in the analysis. During the period from midnight to 3 A.M. on 12 June 2006 51 mm accumulated rainfall was registered. A high number of disasters were registered by CODESAL, particularly landslides. Weak winds throughout the troposphere and maximum convective available potential energy of 3,233 J kg-1 were identified in Salvador on June 11th, fifteen hours before the heavy rainfall. Areas of deep convection characterized this event, favored by a wave that reached the eastern coast of Northeast Brazil after moving westward over the South Atlantic with an estimated phase speed of 10 m s-1, as seen on

  18. A baixa qualidade do soro caseiro em Salvador, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martins Carvalho


    Full Text Available Durante o ano de 1988 foi realizada uma campanha de âmbito nacional com o objetivo de informar a população brasileira sobre o preparo e utilização do soro caseiro (solução sal/açúcar para reidratação oral. A campanha foi intensivamente divulgada pelos meios de comunicação de massa. Este estudo preliminar avaliou a qualidade do soro caseiro preparado por 23 mães de crianças internadas num hospital pediátrico de Salvador, Bahia. Catorze (60,9% dentre as 23 mães prepararam soluções, contendo concentrações de Na na faixa de 30-80mmol/L, recomendada pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Onze (47,8% soluções continham glicose dentro da faixa recomendada, de 30-112 mmol/L. Apenas seis (26% das 23 mães prepararam soluções com concentrações adequadas de Na e glicose simultaneamente e, destas, somente três (13% apresentavam, também, balanço adequado das concentrações dos eletrólitos. Características potencialmente iatrogênicas devido a elevadas concentrações de Na e glicose foram encontradas em 30,4% e em 43,5% das soluções, respectivamente. Os resultados revelam grande dificuldade das mães em preparar o soro caseiro com características adequadas para sua utilização numa campanha de controle da diarréia.In 1988 a nation-wide campaign aiming to inform the Brazilian population about preparation and use of simple sugar/salt oral rehydration solution (ORS was carried out. The campaign was massively shown by the media. This preliminary study assessed the quality of ORS prepared by 23 mothers of in-patient children from a pediatric hospital in Salvador, State of Bahia. Fourteen (60.9% among the 23 mothers prepared solutions containing Na concentrations ranging from 30 to 80 mmol/L which is recommended by the World Health Organization. Eleven (47.8% solutions contained glucose within the recommended range of 30 to 112 mmoI/L Only 6 (26% out of the 23 mothers prepared ORS with simultaneously adequate Na and glucose

  19. Las migraciones internacionales y sus efectos económicos en El Salvador


    Rivera Funes, Oscar Francisco


    Se plantearán aspectos relacionados a los flujos migratorios sucedidos en El Salvador, desde la década de los años setentas y cómo se intensificó en el decenio de 1980, como consecuencia del guerra interna. Se utilizaron algunos estudios realizados por el Dr. Segundo Montes de la Universidad Centroamericana Simeón Cañas (UCA), y se determinará hacia donde migraron principalmente esos grupos de población. Luego se tomará de referencia los datos del Banco Central de Reserva de El Salvador (BCR)...

  20. Sinopsis del género Meliosma (Sabiaceae en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menjívar C., Jenny


    Full Text Available A synopsis of the genus Meliosma (Sabiaceae in El Salvador is presented, with a key, descriptions, illustrations, distributional data, phenology, and citation of all specimens examined. Two species are reported, including a new taxon, Meliosma echeverriae.Se presenta una sinopsis del género Meliosma (Sabiaceae en El Salvador, incluyendo una clave, descripciones, ilustraciones, datos de distribución, fenología y una lista de los especímenes examinados. Se describen un total de dos especies, incluyendo un nuevo taxón, Meliosma echeverriae.

  1. Social cohesion and peace education: Alternatives for preventing child-youth violence in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhina Cabezas Valencia


    Full Text Available This article presents a general overview of the current situation of the phenomenon of childyouth violence in El Salvador. It describes some of the measures, both governmental and those deriving from international cooperation, that have been implemented to date, in order to seek a solution to the problem. The authors also explore more deeply the new trends in preventing the phenomenon. In this sense, the article is aimed at the prevention of violence through twospecific mechanisms: peace education and social cohesion. As the authors demonstrate, both mechanisms are potentially adaptable to the reality of El Salvador.

  2. Legislative attitudes toward overpopulation: the case of EL Salvador. (United States)

    Verner, J G


    The members of the 1972-1974 national assembly of El Salvador were asked to complete questionnaires on population in an effort to determine what their general attitude toward the population problem was. Indications were that the legislators were factually aware of the dimensions of population growth and the existing overpopulation, and that both problems were seen as impediments to economic progress. They also showed a willingness to act quickly on various public programs for controlling population growth, primarily in the areas of public education and healht. However, while admitting the urgency of the problems, none of the legislators had individually done anything about them and no such plans were underway. They indicated in their responses that they would have to play a major role in formulating any population control policy and that such a policy would probably concentrate on measures to deal with overpopulation in the short run, i.e., to cut the population growth rate by educating and informing the populous both with general and governmental publicity and through sex education in schools. The policy would also in part attempt to alleviate the general social conditions that the legislators perceived as contributing to high birthrates, i.e., illiteracy, lack of sex information, unemployment, rural isolation, unavailability of contraceptives, and lack of family planning Support would be sought from the public in spite of the Catholic Church, though the Church would eventually have to be considered in the formulation of a final policy. The fact of religious opposition plus the fact that the government has not yet embarked on a policy make the adoption and implementation of such a policy unlikely in the forseeable future. The ligislators themselves were pessimistic as to the possibility of controlling the population and felt that in view of its rapid growth, the country would not be able to provide educational and employment opportunites for the advancement of the

  3. Regularized joint inverse estimation of extreme rainfall amounts in ungauged coastal basins of El Salvador (United States)

    Friedel, M.J.


    A regularized joint inverse procedure is presented and used to estimate the magnitude of extreme rainfall events in ungauged coastal river basins of El Salvador: Paz, Jiboa, Grande de San Miguel, and Goascoran. Since streamflow measurements reflect temporal and spatial rainfall information, peak-flow discharge is hypothesized to represent a similarity measure suitable for regionalization. To test this hypothesis, peak-flow discharge values determined from streamflow recurrence information (10-year, 25-year, and 100-year) collected outside the study basins are used to develop regional (country-wide) regression equations. Peak-flow discharge derived from these equations together with preferred spatial parameter relations as soft prior information are used to constrain the simultaneous calibration of 20 tributary basin models. The nonlinear range of uncertainty in estimated parameter values (1 curve number and 3 recurrent rainfall amounts for each model) is determined using an inverse calibration-constrained Monte Carlo approach. Cumulative probability distributions for rainfall amounts indicate differences among basins for a given return period and an increase in magnitude and range among basins with increasing return interval. Comparison of the estimated median rainfall amounts for all return periods were reasonable but larger (3.2-26%) than rainfall estimates computed using the frequency-duration (traditional) approach and individual rain gauge data. The observed 25-year recurrence rainfall amount at La Hachadura in the Paz River basin during Hurricane Mitch (1998) is similar in value to, but outside and slightly less than, the estimated rainfall confidence limits. The similarity in joint inverse and traditionally computed rainfall events, however, suggests that the rainfall observation may likely be due to under-catch and not model bias. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  4. Intertemporal Choice of Marine Ecosystem Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    Management, however, requires models that can link the ecosystem level to the operation level, so this paper examines an ecosystem production model and shows that it is suitable for applying ground rent theory. This model is the simplest possible that incorporates the principles of size as the main...... at the ecosystem level in the present management. Therefore, economic predictions for an ecosystem managed as a common pool resource must be that  the exploitation probably are conducted at lower sized than optimum. In addition, given its population stock approach, the present management probably overlooks...... the ability of an ecosystem to sustain total volume of harvest. Given the two aspects of intertemporal choice revealed by the model, the conclusion must be that the Fishing Down Marine Food Webs is probably driven by the current management's inability to conduct adequate intertemporal balancing; therefore...

  5. AN EARLY POSTCLASSIC ROUND STRUCTURE AT CIHUATÁN, EL SALVADOR (Una estructura circular del Posclásico Temprano en Cihuatán, El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paúl E. Amaroli Bertolucci


    Full Text Available Round temples in Mesoamerica have been commonly ascribed to Ehécatl-Quetzalcóatl, the God of Wind and Air, on the basis of conquest period chronicles referring to such buildings. Round structures have been rarely reported on the southeastern frontier of Mesoamerica and none has previously been adequately documented or published. A recently excavated round structure at the Early Postclassic site of Cihuatán in western El Salvador raises questions concerning its possible use. The platform, unfinished at the time Cihuatán was burned and abandoned, could have been intended to be either a temple to Ehécatl or a gladiatorial platform for sacrifices to Xipe Tótec, two Mexican deities whose presence in El Salvador is attested to by archaeological evidence from other sites. ESPAÑOL: Los templos circulares mesoamericanos por lo común se relacionan con el culto a Ehécatl-Quetzalcóatl, el dios del Viento y del Aire, en base a las crónicas coloniales. En la frontera sureste de Mesoamérica apenas se ha documentado o publicado en detalle ninguno de ellos. Aquí informamos sobre nuestra excavación de una plataforma circular en el sitio de Cihuatán, un centro urbano del Posclásico Temprano de El Salvador occidental, que plantea cuestiones sobre su posible uso. La plataforma, sin terminar en el momento de la destrucción y abandono de Cihuatán, podría haber sido un templo dedicado a Ehécatl o una plataforma de gladiadores relacionada con los sacrificios al dios Xipe Tótec, dos deidades mexicanas cuya presencia en El Salvador está confirmada por la evidencia arqueológica de otros sitios.

  6. Compressed sensing MRI exploiting complementary dual decomposition. (United States)

    Park, Suhyung; Park, Jaeseok


    Compressed sensing (CS) MRI exploits the sparsity of an image in a transform domain to reconstruct the image from incoherently under-sampled k-space data. However, it has been shown that CS suffers particularly from loss of low-contrast image features with increasing reduction factors. To retain image details in such degraded experimental conditions, in this work we introduce a novel CS reconstruction method exploiting feature-based complementary dual decomposition with joint estimation of local scale mixture (LSM) model and images. Images are decomposed into dual block sparse components: total variation for piecewise smooth parts and wavelets for residuals. The LSM model parameters of residuals in the wavelet domain are estimated and then employed as a regional constraint in spatially adaptive reconstruction of high frequency subbands to restore image details missing in piecewise smooth parts. Alternating minimization of the dual image components subject to data consistency is performed to extract image details from residuals and add them back to their complementary counterparts while the LSM model parameters and images are jointly estimated in a sequential fashion. Simulations and experiments demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method in preserving low-contrast image features even at high reduction factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Los costos económicos de la violencia en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos ACEVEDO


    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este trabajo efectúa un ejercicio de cuantificación de los costos económicos asociados a las diversas manifestaciones y consecuencias de la situación de violencia prevaleciente en El Salvador, utilizando información para 2007. Tales costos son clasificados en cuatro grandes categorías: i costos en salud; ii costos institucionales (legales, judiciales y policiales; iii costos preventivos en seguridad privada; y iv pérdidas materiales. Los resultados de las estimaciones efectuadas indican que, en dicho año, la violencia impuso sobre El Salvador un costo económico equivalente a 10,9% del Producto Interno Bruto (PIB y a más del doble de las asignaciones presupuestarias para Educación y Salud. ABSTRACT: This essay carries out an accounting exercise on the economic costs derived from the violence situation which prevails in El Salvador, using information for 2007. Those costs are classified into four main categories: i costs on health; ii institutional costs (legal, judiciary and police; iii preventive costs for private security; and iv material losses. The results from the estimations performed indicate that, in 2007, the different expressions and consequences derived from the violence situation imponed on El Salvador an economic cost which was equivalent to 10,9% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP and more than twice the combined budget allocations to Education and Health.

  8. Agricultural Elites; Economic Structure; and the Transition Towards Democracy in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofía Cardenal


    Full Text Available This article addresses the process of democratization in El Salvador. More particularly, it attempts to explain a political outcome: the Peace Accords that were achieved in this country in January of 1992. Despite the attention recent theories about democracy have placed on political variables and strategic behavior, this study focusses mainly on structural factors emphasizing the role that such variables played in explaining democratic change in El Salvador. The argument lay down here rests on Barrington Moore’s thesis regarding the role of agrarian elites in democratic transitions. Based on his seminal comparative study, he established that no democratic result could possibly emerge without an erosion of the agrarian elite’s power base. As this article discloses, the Moore Condition was fullfiled for El Salvador in the 80s, rendering possible the peace accords. One of the most important consequences of the war -and the political and social processes that accompanied it- concerned the changes that took place in the economy. Those transformations moved El Salvador away from an agro-export economy to place it into a commercial and moreindustrialized one, leading in turn to a weakening of the traditional agrarian elite.

  9. Chupar frutas in Salvador da Bahia. A case of practice-specific alterities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Port, M.P.J.; Mol, A.


    In this article we interfere with the naturalization of 'eating' by comparing two modes of engaging with fruits in Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. One of these is comer, which translates as 'to eat'. The other is chupar, 'to suck'. In comer, a piece of fruit crosses distinct bodily boundaries and gets

  10. Chupar frutas in Salvador da Bahia: a case of practice-specific alterities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Port, M.; Mol, A.


    In this article we interfere with the naturalization of ‘eating’ by comparing two modes of engaging with fruits in Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. One of these is comer, which translates as ‘to eat’. The other is chupar, ‘to suck’. In comer, a piece of fruit crosses distinct bodily boundaries and gets


    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    of her three children head over to the indigo planta- tion, where they clean and fertilize the crops. Jose and Santos Inocente are among the 18 fam- ilies of the San Lucas community—which is located about an hour's drive northwest of El Salvador's capital—who celebrated their first harvest of true in- digo leaves under fair ...

  12. Small States and Big Institutions: USAID and Education Policy Formation in El Salvador (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.


    This article analyses the institutional power of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in the process of education policy formation in El Salvador during 2003-2005. The results show how bi- and multi-lateral institutions are able to leverage financial and intellectual capital to guide the policymaking process and sway…

  13. On a collection of Decapod Crustacea from the Republic of El Salvador (Central America)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.


    For about half a year (February-July, 1953) Dr. M. Boeseman, curator of Fishes of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, was the guest of the Instituto Tropical de Investigaciones Científicas at San Salvador. During this time Dr. Boeseman made extensive collections in numerous localities

  14. End-stage renal disease among patients in a referral hospital in El Salvador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trabanino, Ramón García; Aguilar, Raúl; Silva, Carlos Reyes; Mercado, Manuel Ortiz; Merino, Ricardo Leiva


    El Salvador is a country with high mortality from end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of a series of new cases of ESRD seen in a referral hospital in the country...

  15. [Vagotonía. The medical thesis of Salvador Zubirán]. (United States)

    Delgado, Guillermo; Estañol-Vidal, Bruno


    Salvador Zubirán submitted his thesis for his MD degree in 1923. This thesis falls within the context of the new Mexican physiological medicine and denotes the visionary character of its author. Zubirán appears here as the introducer in Mexico of the physiopharmacological approach in autonomic nervous system disorders.

  16. Dimensions of child punishment in two Central American countries: Guatemala and El Salvador. (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Goodwin, Mary M; Samandari, Ghazaleh; Kim, Shin Y; Clyde, Maureen


    Severe physical punishment of children is an important issue in international child health and welfare. This study examines such punishment in Guatemala and El Salvador. Data came from nationally representative surveys of women aged 15-49 and men aged 15-59 residing in Guatemala (2002) and El Salvador (2002-2003). The surveys included questions about punishment experienced during childhood, with response options ranging from verbal scolding to beating. In Guatemala, parents were asked how they disciplined their children; questions allowed them to compare how they were punished in their childhood with how they punished their own children. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are presented. In Guatemala, 35% of women and 46% of men reported being beaten as punishment in childhood; in El Salvador, the figures were 42% and 62%, respectively. In both countries, older participants were relatively more likely than younger participants to have been beaten as children. Witnessing familial violence was associated with an increased risk of being beaten in childhood. In Guatemala, having experienced physical punishment as a child increased the chance that parents would use physical punishment on their own children. Multivariate analyses revealed that women who were beaten in childhood were significantly more likely in both countries to be in a violent relationship. The use of beating to physically punish children is a common problem in Guatemala and El Salvador, with generational and intergenerational effects. Its negative and lingering effects necessitate the introduction of policies and programs to decrease this behavior.

  17. Evaluación del Proceso Consultivo Ciudadano en Villa el Salvador, Lima, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Calderon (Julio); L. Marulanda (Liliana)


    textabstractEl presente informe contiene un estudio de caso sobre “Evaluación del Proceso Consultivo Ciudadano en Villa el Salvador, Lima, Perú” realizado para el Instituto de Estudios de Vivienda y Desarrollo Urbano - IHS (Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies) y el Programa SINPA

  18. EDUCO Schools in El Salvador: A Democratic Tree in a Globalized Forest? (United States)

    Desmond, Cheryl T.


    This research on the Educacion con Participacion de Communidad (EDUCO) rural schools in El Salvador examined the nature of the reform and its impact on parent involvement and engagement for the local community; the underlying economic and political ideologies of EDUCO; and interpreted these findings to uncover the implications of the reform for…

  19. 77 FR 2990 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services RIN 1615-ZB06 Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension of Employment Authorization Documentation...

  20. 77 FR 1710 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic... (United States)


    ... Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension of Employment Authorization Documentation...- registrants at local offices. ] Am I eligible to receive an automatic 6-month extension of my current EAD from March 9, 2012 through September 9, 2012? You will receive an automatic 6-month extension of your EAD if...

  1. Carles Salvador i Gimeno: l'home i l'obra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Salvador


    Full Text Available Carles Salvador's daughter offers here a great amount of previously unknown information about the life of her father. This information deals with topics such as his background and family relations, the changes in his professional activities as teacher, and how he was professionally marginalized after Franco carne to power.

  2. Salvador Dalí et le mécénat du Zodiaque

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaar, Marijke


    When Salvador Dalí settled in Paris with the avowed aim to conquer the art world, he was unknown and virtually penniless. The great Economic Crisis which had hit Europe at that time, did nothing to improve his prospects. Yet, during his early years in the French capital, 1929-1935, he was able to

  3. Exploiting the Nephrotoxic Effects of Venom from the Sea Anemone, Phyllodiscus semoni, to Create a Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Model in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Paul Morgan


    Full Text Available In the natural world, there are many creatures with venoms that have interesting and varied activities. Although the sea anemone, a member of the phylum Coelenterata, has venom that it uses to capture and immobilise small fishes and shrimp and for protection from predators, most sea anemones are harmless to man. However, a few species are highly toxic; some have venoms containing neurotoxins, recently suggested as potential immune-modulators for therapeutic application in immune diseases. Phyllodiscus semoni is a highly toxic sea anemone; the venom has multiple effects, including lethality, hemolysis and renal injuries. We previously reported that venom extracted from Phyllodiscus semoni induced acute glomerular endothelial injuries in rats resembling hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS, accompanied with complement dysregulation in glomeruli and suggested that the model might be useful for analyses of pathology and development of therapeutic approaches in HUS. In this mini-review, we describe in detail the venom-induced acute renal injuries in rat and summarize how the venom of Phyllodiscus semoni could have potential as a tool for analyses of complement activation and therapeutic interventions in HUS.

  4. Exploiting the nephrotoxic effects of venom from the sea anemone, Phyllodiscus semoni, to create a hemolytic uremic syndrome model in the rat. (United States)

    Mizuno, Masashi; Ito, Yasuhiko; Morgan, B Paul


    In the natural world, there are many creatures with venoms that have interesting and varied activities. Although the sea anemone, a member of the phylum Coelenterata, has venom that it uses to capture and immobilise small fishes and shrimp and for protection from predators, most sea anemones are harmless to man. However, a few species are highly toxic; some have venoms containing neurotoxins, recently suggested as potential immune-modulators for therapeutic application in immune diseases. Phyllodiscus semoni is a highly toxic sea anemone; the venom has multiple effects, including lethality, hemolysis and renal injuries. We previously reported that venom extracted from Phyllodiscus semoni induced acute glomerular endothelial injuries in rats resembling hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), accompanied with complement dysregulation in glomeruli and suggested that the model might be useful for analyses of pathology and development of therapeutic approaches in HUS. In this mini-review, we describe in detail the venom-induced acute renal injuries in rat and summarize how the venom of Phyllodiscus semoni could have potential as a tool for analyses of complement activation and therapeutic interventions in HUS.

  5. Mitochondrial Echoes of First Settlement and Genetic Continuity in El Salvador (United States)

    Salas, Antonio; Lovo-Gómez, José; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Cerezo, María; Lareu, María Victoria; Macaulay, Vincent; Richards, Martin B.; Carracedo, Ángel


    Background From Paleo-Indian times to recent historical episodes, the Mesoamerican isthmus played an important role in the distribution and patterns of variability all around the double American continent. However, the amount of genetic information currently available on Central American continental populations is very scarce. In order to shed light on the role of Mesoamerica in the peopling of the New World, the present study focuses on the analysis of the mtDNA variation in a population sample from El Salvador. Methodology/Principal Findings We have carried out DNA sequencing of the entire control region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome in 90 individuals from El Salvador. We have also compiled more than 3,985 control region profiles from the public domain and the literature in order to carry out inter-population comparisons. The results reveal a predominant Native American component in this region: by far, the most prevalent mtDNA haplogroup in this country (at ∼90%) is A2, in contrast with other North, Meso- and South American populations. Haplogroup A2 shows a star-like phylogeny and is very diverse with a substantial proportion of mtDNAs (45%; sequence range 16090–16365) still unobserved in other American populations. Two different Bayesian approaches used to estimate admixture proportions in El Salvador shows that the majority of the mtDNAs observed come from North America. A preliminary founder analysis indicates that the settlement of El Salvador occurred about 13,400±5,200 Y.B.P.. The founder age of A2 in El Salvador is close to the overall age of A2 in America, which suggests that the colonization of this region occurred within a few thousand years of the initial expansion into the Americas. Conclusions/Significance As a whole, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that today's A2 variability in El Salvador represents to a large extent the indigenous component of the region. Concordant with this hypothesis is also the observation of a

  6. Rationalising predictors of child sexual exploitation and sex-trading. (United States)

    Klatt, Thimna; Cavner, Della; Egan, Vincent


    Although there is evidence for specific risk factors leading to child sexual exploitation and prostitution, these influences overlap and have rarely been examined concurrently. The present study examined case files for 175 young persons who attended a voluntary organization in Leicester, United Kingdom, which supports people who are sexually exploited or at risk of sexual exploitation. Based on the case files, the presence or absence of known risk factors for becoming a sex worker was coded. Data were analyzed using t-test, logistic regression, and smallest space analysis. Users of the voluntary organization's services who had been sexually exploited exhibited a significantly greater number of risk factors than service users who had not been victims of sexual exploitation. The logistic regression produced a significant model fit. However, of the 14 potential predictors--many of which were associated with each other--only four variables significantly predicted actual sexual exploitation: running away, poverty, drug and/or alcohol use, and having friends or family members in prostitution. Surprisingly, running away was found to significantly decrease the odds of becoming involved in sexual exploitation. Smallest space analysis of the data revealed 5 clusters of risk factors. Two of the clusters, which reflected a desperation and need construct and immature or out-of-control lifestyles, were significantly associated with sexual exploitation. Our research suggests that some risk factors (e.g. physical and emotional abuse, early delinquency, and homelessness) for becoming involved in sexual exploitation are common but are part of the problematic milieu of the individuals affected and not directly associated with sex trading itself. Our results also indicate that it is important to engage with the families and associates of young persons at risk of becoming (or remaining) a sex worker if one wants to reduce the numbers of persons who engage in this activity. Copyright

  7. Exploitation of subsea gas hydrate reservoirs (United States)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge


    Natural gas hydrates are considered to be a potential energy resource in the future. They occur in permafrost areas as well as in subsea sediments and are stable at high pressure and low temperature conditions. According to estimations the amount of carbon bonded in natural gas hydrates worldwide is two times larger than in all known conventional fossil fuels. Besides technical challenges that have to be overcome climate and safety issues have to be considered before a commercial exploitation of such unconventional reservoirs. The potential of producing natural gas from subsea gas hydrate deposits by various means (e.g. depressurization and/or injection of carbon dioxide) is numerically studied in the frame of the German research project »SUGAR«. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into a numerical model. The physics of the process leads to strong non-linear couplings between hydraulic fluid flow, hydrate dissociation and formation, hydraulic properties of the sediment, partial pressures and seawater solution of components and the thermal budget of the system described by the heat equation. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the recent development regarding the production of natural gas from subsea gas hydrate reservoirs. It aims at giving a broad insight into natural gas hydrates and covering relevant aspects of the exploitation process. It is focused on the thermodynamic principles and technological approaches for the exploitation. The effects occurring during natural gas production within hydrate filled sediment layers are identified and discussed by means of numerical simulation results. The behaviour of relevant process parameters such as pressure, temperature and phase saturations is described and compared for different strategies. The simulations are complemented by calculations for different safety relevant problems.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The sexual exploitation of children by peacekeepers is particularly insidious. Educational interventions and training initiatives to bring about behaviour change to address sexual exploitation and abuse .... its own peacekeeping personnel are engaging in acts of sexual exploitation and abuse, including such crimes as rape.

  9. The exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy. (United States)

    Wilkinson, Stephen


    This paper discusses the exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy: the claim that commercial surrogacy is morally objectionable because it is exploitative. The following questions are addressed. First, what exactly does the exploitation argument amount to? Second, is commercial surrogacy in fact exploitative? Third, if it were exploitative, would this provide a sufficient reason to prohibit (or otherwise legislatively discourage) it? The focus throughout is on the exploitation of paid surrogates, although it is noted that other parties (e.g. 'commissioning parents') may also be the victims of exploitation. It is argued that there are good reasons for believing that commercial surrogacy is often exploitative. However, even if we accept this, the exploitation argument for prohibiting (or otherwise legislatively discouraging) commercial surrogacy remains quite weak. One reason for this is that prohibition may well 'backfire' and lead to potential surrogates having to do other things that are more exploitative and/or more harmful than paid surrogacy. It is concluded therefore that those who oppose exploitation should (rather than attempting to stop particular practices like commercial surrogacy) concentrate on: (a) improving the conditions under which paid surrogates 'work'; and (b) changing the background conditions (in particular, the unequal distribution of power and wealth) which generate exploitative relationships.

  10. High Zika Virus Seroprevalence in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil Limits the Potential for Further Outbreaks (United States)

    Netto, Eduardo Martins; Moreira-Soto, Andres; Pedroso, Celia; Höser, Christoph; Funk, Sebastian; Kucharski, Adam J.; Rockstroh, Alexandra; Kümmerer, Beate M.; Sampaio, Gilmara Souza; Luz, Estela; Vaz, Sara Nunes; Dias, Juarez Pereira; Bastos, Fernanda Anjos; Cabral, Renata; Kistemann, Thomas; Ulbert, Sebastian; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Jaenisch, Thomas; Brady, Oliver J.; Drosten, Christian; Sarno, Manoel


    ABSTRACT During 2015 to 2016, Brazil reported more Zika virus (ZIKV) cases than any other country, yet population exposure remains unknown. Serological studies of ZIKV are hampered by cross-reactive immune responses against heterologous viruses. We conducted serosurveys for ZIKV, dengue virus (DENV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 633 individuals prospectively sampled during 2015 to 2016, including microcephaly and non-microcephaly pregnancies, HIV-infected patients, tuberculosis patients, and university staff in Salvador in northeastern Brazil using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and plaque reduction neutralization tests. Sera sampled retrospectively during 2013 to 2015 from 277 HIV-infected patients were used to assess the spread of ZIKV over time. Individuals were georeferenced, and sociodemographic indicators were compared between ZIKV-positive and -negative areas and areas with and without microcephaly cases. Epidemiological key parameters were modeled in a Bayesian framework. ZIKV seroprevalence increased rapidly during 2015 to 2016, reaching 63.3% by 2016 (95% confidence interval [CI], 59.4 to 66.8%), comparable to the seroprevalence of DENV (75.7%; CI, 69.4 to 81.1%) and higher than that of CHIKV (7.4%; CI, 5.6 to 9.8%). Of 19 microcephaly pregnancies, 94.7% showed ZIKV IgG antibodies, compared to 69.3% of 257 non-microcephaly pregnancies (P = 0.017). Analyses of sociodemographic data revealed a higher ZIKV burden in low socioeconomic status (SES) areas. High seroprevalence, combined with case data dynamics allowed estimates of the basic reproduction number R0 of 2.1 (CI, 1.8 to 2.5) at the onset of the outbreak and an effective reproductive number Reff of ZIKV-associated congenital disease and an association of low SES and ZIKV infection and suggest that population immunity caused cessation of the outbreak. Similar studies from other areas will be required to determine the fate of the American ZIKV outbreak. PMID:29138300

  11. The Exploitation of Evolving Resources

    CERN Document Server

    McGlade, Jacqueline; Law, Richard


    The impact of man on the biosphere is profound. Quite apart from our capacity to destroy natural ecosystems and to drive species to extinction, we mould the evolution of the survivors by the selection pressures we apply to them. This has implications for the continued health of our natural biological resources and for the way in which we seek to optimise yield from those resources. Of these biological resources, fish stocks are particularly important to mankind as a source of protein. On a global basis, fish stocks provide the major source of protein for human consumption from natural ecosystems, amounting to some seventy million tonnes in 1970. Although fisheries management has been extensively developed over the last century, it has not hitherto considered the evolutionary consequences of fishing activity. While this omission may not have been serious in the past, the ever increasing intensity of exploitation and the deteriorating health of fish stocks has generated an urgent need for a better understanding...

  12. Aphid Heritable Symbiont Exploits Defensive Mutualism. (United States)

    Doremus, Matthew R; Oliver, Kerry M


    Insects and other animals commonly form symbioses with heritable bacteria, which can exert large influences on host biology and ecology. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum , is a model for studying effects of infection with heritable facultative symbionts (HFS), and each of its seven common HFS species has been reported to provide resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses. However, one common HFS, called X-type, rarely occurs as a single infection in field populations and instead typically superinfects individual aphids with Hamiltonella defensa , another HFS that protects aphids against attack by parasitic wasps. Using experimental aphid lines comprised of all possible infection combinations in a uniform aphid genotype, we investigated whether the most common strain of X-type provides any of the established benefits associated with aphid HFS as a single infection or superinfection with H. defensa We found that X-type does not confer protection to any tested threats, including parasitoid wasps, fungal pathogens, or thermal stress. Instead, component fitness assays identified large costs associated with X-type infection, costs which were ameliorated in superinfected aphids. Together these findings suggest that X-type exploits the aphid/ H. defensa mutualism and is maintained primarily as a superinfection by "hitchhiking" via the mutualistic benefits provided by another HFS. Exploitative symbionts potentially restrict the functions and distributions of mutualistic symbioses with effects that extend to other community members. IMPORTANCE Maternally transmitted bacterial symbionts are widespread and can have major impacts on the biology of arthropods, including insects of medical and agricultural importance. Given that host fitness and symbiont fitness are tightly linked, inherited symbionts can spread within host populations by providing beneficial services. Many insects, however, are frequently infected with multiple heritable symbiont species, providing potential

  13. A descriptive study of youth risk behavior in urban and rural secondary school students in El Salvador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Springer, Andrew E; Selwyn, B J; Kelder, Steven H


    ..., and sexual behaviors-among public secondary school students in central El Salvador. We employed a multi-stage sampling design in which school districts, schools, and classrooms were randomly selected...

  14. Six scenarios of exploiting an ontology based, mobilized learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kismihók, G.; Szabó, I.; Vas, R.


    In this article, six different exploitation possibilities of an educational ontology based, mobilized learning management system are presented. The focal point of this system is the educational ontology model. The first version of this educational ontology model serves as a foundation for curriculum

  15. The use of Ahuachapan fluid chemistry to indicate natural state conditions and reservoir processes during exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treusdell, A.H. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Alonso, J.; Campos, A. (Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) (El Salvador))


    Chemical analyses of production fluids from Ahuachapan, El Salvador, have been used to indicate natural state reservoir fluid temperatures and chloride concentrations and reservoir processes resulting from exploitation. Geothermometer temperatures (Na--K--Ca and SiO{sub 2}) and calculated aquifer Cl for early flows show a gradient from about 265{degree}C and 9000 ppM Cl in the western part of the well field to 235{degree}C and 6000 ppM Cl in the eastern part. The geochemical temperatures are 10--20{degree}C higher than early downhole measurements. Since exploitation started, pressures have declined over most of the drilled area with boiling and excess-enthalpy discharges in the eastern and western parts. In the center of the field, a number of wells show mixing with cooler, less-saline water. These wells are nearly coincident with a major NE-SW oriented fault that may be the conduit for downward recharge of cooler fluids from an overlying aquifer. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. The Road from LaPalma. Analysis of the Potential for a Negotiated Solution in El Salvador. (United States)


    that is not their role. * - 3 6 Juqg, Harald, " Class Strugle and Civil War in El Salvador , in El Salvador: Central America in the New Cold War...weakened the hold of oligarchic domination. Along with modernization came the attendant social dynamics of urbanization and middle class growth. The urban...NUMBER OF PAGES 63 14. MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(if dillerent from Controlling office) IS. SECURITY CLASS . (of this report) UNCLASSIFIED 13s

  17. Storm drains as larval development and adult resting sites for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Salvador, Brazil


    Paploski,Igor Adolfo Dexheimer; Rodrigues, Moreno S.; Mugabe, V?nio Andr?; Kikuti,Mariana; Tavares, Aline S.; Reis, Mitermayer Galv?o; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro,Guilherme Sousa


    Background Dengue (DENV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), Zika (ZIKV), as well as yellow fever (YFV) viruses are transmitted to humans by Aedes spp. females. In Salvador, the largest urban center in north-eastern Brazil, the four DENV types have been circulating, and more recently, CHIKV and ZIKV have also become common. We studied the role of storm drains as Aedes larval development and adult resting sites in four neighbourhoods of Salvador, representing different socioeconomic, infrastructure and topo...

  18. Tendência da mortalidade por insuficiência cardíaca em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Heart failure mortality trend in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lopes Latado


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a tendência da mortalidade por insuficiência cardíaca (IC em Salvador - Bahia, no período de 1979-1995. MÉTODOS: A IC foi definida pelas notações da 9ª Revisão do Código Internacional de Doenças (CID9 428.0, 428.1 e 428.9. Dados de óbitos por IC e populacionais (região metropolitana de Salvador foram obtidos por meio da Secretaria de Saúde da Bahia e do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. As taxas de mortalidade (/100.000 foram totais ou por gênero e idade, e brutas ou ajustadas por idade (padronização direta. RESULTADOS: As taxas de mortalidade por IC sofreram redução progressiva no período de tempo avaliado, para ambos os gêneros, especialmente até o ano de 1992. A partir daí e até 1995, ocorreu uma aparente estabilização das curvas. A taxa de mortalidade bruta passou de 25,0/10(5, em 1979, para 16,4/10(5 habitantes, em 1995 (queda de 34,4%. A redução foi de 34,0% (23,3/10(5, em 1979, para 15,4/10(5 habitantes, em 1995 para o sexo masculino e de 35,2% (26,7/10(5, em 1979, para 17,3/10(5 habitantes, em 1995, para o sexo feminino. A mesma tendência ocorreu nas diversas faixas etárias, inclusive para a população > 40 anos, de maior risco para IC. Após o ajuste por idade (população padrão de 1979, observa-se que as reduções relativas nas taxas foram ainda maiores. CONCLUSÃO: A mortalidade por IC, em Salvador-Bahia, declinou de 1979 a 1992, estabilizando-se a partir de então até 1995.OBJECTIVE: To assess mortality trend due to heart failure (HF in Salvador - Bahia, from 1979 to 1995. METHODS: HF was defined by notations from the 9th Review of International Disease Code (IDC9 428.0, 428.1 and 428.9. HF death and population data (metropolitan area of Salvador were obtained by means of Secretaria de Saúde da Bahia (Bahia State Health Secretariat and Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Mortality rates (/100,000 were

  19. Exploiting the Errors: A Simple Approach for Improved Volatility Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Patton, Andrew J.; Quaedvlieg, Rogier

    We propose a new family of easy-to-implement realized volatility based forecasting models. The models exploit the asymptotic theory for high-frequency realized volatility estimation to improve the accuracy of the forecasts. By allowing the parameters of the models to vary explicitly with the (est......We propose a new family of easy-to-implement realized volatility based forecasting models. The models exploit the asymptotic theory for high-frequency realized volatility estimation to improve the accuracy of the forecasts. By allowing the parameters of the models to vary explicitly...... with the (estimated) degree of measurement error, the models exhibit stronger persistence, and in turn generate more responsive forecasts, when the measurement error is relatively low. Implementing the new class of models for the S&P500 equity index and the individual constituents of the Dow Jones Industrial Average...

  20. Arquivos secretos eclesiásticos em Salvador Archivos secretos eclesiásticos en Salvador de Bahía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aparecida Gonzaga da Silva


    Full Text Available O estudo investiga os critérios empregados por arquivos de ordens religiosas e pelo Arquivo da Cúria de Salvador para identificar o teor secreto de seus documentos. Consideram-se as relações históricas entre a Igreja Católica e o poder civil para compreender o porquê de muitos documentos depositados nos arquivos eclesiásticos brasileiros serem identificados como de interesse público e social pela lei nacional. O trabalho também destaca as disposições normativas existentes nas legislações civil e canônica relacionadas aos arquivos secretos. Apresenta ainda uma breve discussão sobre a questão do acesso e sigilo da informação, bem como sobre o direito à informação. Quanto aos procedimentos de pesquisa, utilizou-se o sítio eletrônico da Arquidiocese de Salvador na seleção das ordens masculinas e femininas estudadas; em seguida, foi aplicada entrevista com questões semi-estruturadas com a finalidade de coletar dados para os resultados empíricos desta pesquisa. Conclui-se que não existem critérios explícitos para a classificação dos documentos considerados secretos nos arquivos eclesiásticos católicos de Salvador, o que leva à utilização de critérios aleatórios e que seus responsáveis não demonstraram possuir domínio do significado de documentos secretos, já que entram em contradição em suas afirmações.

  1. The Gaia scientific exploitation networks (United States)

    Figueras, F.; Jordi, C.


    On July 2014 the Gaia satellite, placed at L2 since January 2014, finished their commissioning phase and started collecting high accurate scientific data. New and more realistic estimations of the astrometric, photometric and spectroscopic accuracy expected after five years mission operation (2014-2019) have been recently published in the Gaia Science Performance Web page. Here we present the coordination efforts and the activities being conducted through the two GREAT (Gaia Research for European Astronomy Training) European Networks, the GREAT-ESF, a programme supported by the European Science Foundation (2010-2015), and the GREAT-ITN network, from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (2011-2015). The main research theme of these networks is to unravel the origin and history of our home galaxy. Emphasis is placed on the research projects being conducted by the Spanish Researchers through these networks, well coordinated by the Red Española de Explotación Científica de Gaia (REG network, with more than 140 participants). Members of the REG play an important role on the collection of complementary spectroscopic data from ground based telescopes, on the development of new tools for an optimal scientific exploitation of Gaia data and on the preparation task to create the Gaia archive.

  2. Automatic image exploitation system for small UAVs (United States)

    Heinze, N.; Esswein, M.; Krüger, W.; Saur, G.


    For surveillance and reconnaissance tasks small UAVs are of growing importance. These UAVs have an endurance of several hours, but a small payload of about some kilograms. As a consequence lightweight sensors and cameras have to be used without having a mechanical stabilized high precision sensor-platform, which would exceed the payload and cost limitations. An example of such a system is the German UAV Luna with optical and IR sensors on board. For such platforms we developed image exploitation algorithms. The algorithms comprise mosaiking, stabilization, image enhancement, video based moving target indication, and stereo-image generation. Other products are large geo-coded image mosaics, stereo mosaics, and 3-D-model generation. For test and assessment of these algorithms the experimental system ABUL has been developed, in which the algorithms are integrated. The ABUL system is used for tests and assessment by military PIs.

  3. Características da assistência ao parto na cidade do Salvador (Bahia, Brasil Characteristics of the maternity care in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Guimarães Neto Dias


    Full Text Available Levou-se a efeito estudo para analisar a disponibilidade de serviços de maternidade na cidade do Salvador, Brasil. Foi elaborado questionário destinado à obtenção de informações sobre o tipo de hospital, meios de manutenção, número de leitos obstétricos existentes, tempo e percentual de ocupação de leitos hospitalares. Informações sobre o tipo de assistência fornecida por ocasião da admissão, foram obtidas a partir do livro de ocorrências de cada instituição. Os dados referentes a mortalidade para o período 1961-1970 foram obtidos de duas fontes diferentes. No primeiro período de 1971, o estudo assim conduzido, demonstrou elevada demanda para leitos hospitalares mantidos pelo Governo estadual e período de permanência muito curto na maioria dos hospitais. As taxas de abortos e de mortalidade materna, em 1970, revelaram-se muito elevadas. Ambos os aspectos da assistência à maternidade apresentam-se como problemas importantes de Saúde Pública na cidade do Salvador.A study was made attempting to analyse the availability of maternity services in the City of Salvador, Brazil. A questionaire was designed aiming at to obtain information on the type of the hospital, owner ship, number of existing lying-beds, length of stay and percentage of occupation of hospital beds. The kind of natal care delivered by the time of the admission, was obtained from the book of ocurrences of each institution, while the mortality data to the period 1961-1970 were derived from two different sources. The study was conducted in the first period of 1971 and has indicated: a high demand for the hospital beds maintained by the state government and a very low length of stay in most of the lying in hospitals. The abortion rate observed in 1970 as well as the maternal mortality rates were found extremelly high, and both aspects of maternity care appeared as important public health problems in the City of Salvador.

  4. ¿El armario está abierto?: estudios sobre diversidad sexual en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Palevi Gómez Arévalo


    Full Text Available El presente texto tiene por objetivo analizar 39 producciones universitarias sobre diferentes temáticas de diversidad sexual producidas entre 1988 a 2015, las cuales se organizan en 4 ejes/binomios: Prácticas sexuales/Cuerpos, Matrimonio/Familias, Identidades/Prejuicios y Derechos/Ciudadanías. Al mismo tiempo se proponen nuevas temáticas para investigar y se reflexiona sobre los retos al interior de la educación superior salvadoreña para constituir un campo de Estudios sobre Diversidad Sexual. Concluyendo, a pesar de la existencia dispersa de 39 producciones universitarias, las cuales son un avance, el armario de la academia salvadoreña está aún cerrado, y por tal motivo surge la pregunta ¿cómo lo podemos abrir?

  5. [An information system for injuries from external causes (SILEX): a successful project in El Salvador]. (United States)

    Salinas, Oscar; de Cosío, Gerardo; Clavel-Arcas, Carme; Montoya, Jeannette; Serpas, Mario; Morán de García, Silvia; Concha-Eastman, Alberto


    This article examines the stages in developing an information system for injuries from external causes (Sistema de Información de Lesiones de Causa Externa-SILEX), as well as its limitations and achievements. SILEX is a Web-based application for collection, quality control, presentation, and analysis of data available from the hospital system for surveillance of injuries from external causes created by Ministry of Health of El Salvador with data from the hospital emergency services. This system maintains comprehensive information on the injured person-type of injury, intention, injury site, activity being performed at the time of injury, risk factors, etc.-in the form of tables, graphs, and maps, which streamlines the development of intervention plans and prevention initiatives for these types of injuries in El Salvador. This experience is an example of what can be done to close the information gap on injuries by external causes in the Region of the Americas.

  6. PARANOÏA: la vie secrète de Salvador Dali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Buuren


    Full Text Available En 1942, Salvador Dali, âgé de trente-huit ans, termine son autobiographie La vie secrète de Salvador Dali. Il prétend s’y livrer au lecteur en toute candeur. Mais c’est un leurre. Dali construit l’histoire de sa vie sur ce qu’il considère comme sa trouvaille capitale : la méthode paranoïaque-critique. Qu’est-ce que la paranoïa? Comment Dali a-t-il transformé ce complexe psychanalytique en un instrument de production artistique? Comment s’en sert-il comme canevas pour son autobiographie ? Voilà une série de questions auxquelles nous allons répondre dans la présente analyse.

  7. Ethnographies of the Brau: body, masculinity and race in the reafricanization in Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmundo Pinho


    Full Text Available In this article, the author aims to explore the developments in the process known as "cultural and political reafricanization in Salvador," embodied in the transitory crystallization of a specific social figure known as the brau. This refers to an inflection of masculinity informed by the racial and gender tensions in Salvador, as well as a local re-appropriation of cultural themes in the African diaspora. The Braus were (are Negro youths, in the periphery, who re-invent a Negro visualness/bodiliness from re-readings of the North American soul 'culture' and are at the same time stigmatized by the middle class as violent, of "bad taste" and hyper-sexualized, that is, excessively 'Negro' and excessively 'masculinized,' in a hyperbolization, which, in a sense, contradicts the stigmatization.

  8. Ocorrência de neoplasias em caninos na cidade de Salvador, Bahia (Achados de biopsias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. F. de Souza


    Full Text Available RESUMO: Estudaram-se microscopicamente 138 amostras obtidas de biopsias de diversos tecidos e órgãos de caninos da região metropolitana de Salvador, Bahia. Foram diagnosticadas 126 casos de neoplasias de vários tipos histológicos, sobressaindo os tumores de pele e os da glândula mamária . PALAVRAS CHAVE: Neoplasias, caninos, tumores, patologia , achados de biopsia , câncer, neoplasmas SUMMARY: Microscopic examinations were performed in the 138 biopsies of various tecides and organs of the canines from the metropolitan regions of Salvador, Bahia. Diagnostic showed 126 cases of the neoplasms of various histologic appearances, must of the teguments and mammary glands tumors. KEYWORDS: Neoplasies, canines, tumours, pathology, biopsies, findings, cancer, neoplasms.

  9. Insurgents to Presidents: Contemporary Civil-Military Relations In Brazil, El Salvador, and Uruguay (United States)


    legislative oversight of the military. Both the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies and Senate have congressional oversight of the military granted by the 1988...mixed record toward achieving positive civil–military relations. A. SALVADORAN MILITARY HISTORY: 1979–PRESENT The military in El Salvador has a bloody ...has still not been held accountable, however, for widespread abuse during the bloody civil war. Successive FMLN presidencies have taken very modest

  10. Crónica de la prensa salvadoreña: imaginarios que migran


    Amparo Marroquín Parducci


    EL ARTÍCULO PRESENTA UN ESTUDIO DE LAS NARRATIVAS QUE LA PRENSA escrita ha venido construyendo en El Salvador en torno al fenómeno de la migración. Se argumenta que a través del tema de la migración se construye una poética de nación imaginada, y conjuntamente, se da la construcción de las alteridades que desde el discurso oficial se han mantenido vigentes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Blázquez-Sanz


    Full Text Available Exploramos la influencia de las matemáticas y la ciencia contemporánea en la obra de Salvador Dalí. Nos centramos en algunos motivos matemáticos que aparecen de forma recurrente en sus obras, como son el hipercubo, la razón aúrea o la teoría de catástrofes.

  12. The red tide event in El Salvador, August 2001-January 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Enrique Barraza


    Full Text Available A red tide event occurred in El Salvador from August 2001 to January 2002. National health authorities usually measured toxin levels in Ostrea iridescens, however other species were analyzed during this microalgae bloom: Anadara similis, Anadara tuberculosa and Modiolus sp. El Salvador authorities consider 400 mouse units/100 g the highest value that is safe for human health. During this period toxin levels in O. iridescens and Modiolus sp. increased from values under 400 to 3 977 and 15 468 mouse units/100 g, respectively. Persistent and higher levels were recorded in oyster and mussel banks on the west part of the country. The Ministry of Health and Social Assistance treated 41 slight to moderate intoxications associated to bivalve mollusks consumptionHubo una marea roja en El Salvador desde agosto de 2001 hasta enero de 2002. Las autoridades de salud usualmente medían niveles de toxinas en Ostrea iridescens, pero durante esta proliferación de microalgas se estudió también Anadara similis, Anadara tuberculosa y Modiolus sp. En El Salvador se consideran 400 unidades ratón/ 100 g como el límite sobre el cual el consumo de moluscos representa riesgo para la salud humana. Durante este período se detectó que los niveles de toxinas en O. iridescens y Modiolus sp. variaron desde niveles menores a 400 hasta 3 977 y 15 468 unidades ratón/100 g, respectivamente. Los niveles más altos y persistentes se registraron en los bancos de ostras y mejillones de la zona oeste del país. El Ministerio de Salud y Asistencia Social atendio 41 intoxicaciones de leves a moderadas atribuidas al consumo de moluscos bivalvos

  13. The Decade of the Seventies in El Salvador: Prelude to Revolution (United States)


    April 1969, the Honduran 1Scwnldt. Staffmn W.. El Slvalor: Amerdca’s Next Vistomn ( Salisbury . NC: Documentary Publications, 1983). 58-62. 22 government...intolerable. On 9 May 1979, the National Guard opened fire on about one hundred demonstrators in front of a cathedral . Twenty- three of the unarmed...commemorate the matanza of 1932. Thousands gathered in the capital city of San Salvador to participate in the march toward Cathedral 27 1bid, 133

  14. First person: a mental health mission to post-earthquake El Salvador. (United States)

    Katz, Craig L


    In this article the author excerpts and discusses salient quotes or moments from the journal he compiled while visiting El Salvador in February 2001 as head of Disaster Psychiatry Outreach (DPO) to assist survivors of a major earthquake. This case discussion of a single disaster mental health response exemplifies key issues related to both short and long term mental health service delivery to disaster affected communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Política e cidadania operária em Salvador (1890-1919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrin A. S. Castellucci


    Full Text Available This article demonstrates that an important fraction of the working class in Salvador, aiming for citizenship, was actively engaged in the elections of the First Republic. This struggle for political and social rights was implemented by three organizations founded between 1890 and 1893: the Partido Operário da Bahia, the União Operária Bahiana and the Centro Operário da Bahia.

  16. The Rule of Law and the U.S. Quest for Security in El Salvador (United States)


    high levels of income inequality and limited economic opportunities steer juveniles towards crime and delinquency , and magnify the levels of...turning a blind eye to weapons trafficking and other activity, facilitates street gang dominance of some urban areas .199 In light of these obstacles...above areas could lead to the U.S. government identifying itself with the policies of the government of El Salvador, increasing U.S. economic assista

  17. La materia metamorfica. Percorsi nel Surrealismo di Salvador Dalì


    Nigro, Francesco


    Questo lavoro effettua un attraversamento dell’opera artistica e letteraria del genio surrealista Salvador Dalì, mediante un continuo rifermento ai passi della teoria psicoanalitica di Sigmund Freud e Jacques Lacan, evidenziando il tema costante della “metamorfosi”. I capitoli trattano del problema della definizione della paranoia, della rappresentazione dello smembramento corporeo, delle suggestioni dalla fisica nucleare, delle riprese dall’arte classica, rinascimentale e barocca, del...

  18. Establishment of a Comprehensive Military Medical System during Wartime in El Salvador: A Retrospective View (United States)


    of wealthy landowners known as the "Fourteen Families." 2 4 In 1932, a peasant uprising against this oligarchy was led by Agustin Farabundo Marti, a...the capital, San Salvador, Jose Napoleon Duarte, ran for the presidency and won by * plurality. He was not allowed to take office, was beaten 12...or "La Universidad Centroamericana Jose Simon Canas, 55) openly promulgated their views on "Liberation Theology." This doctrine emerged from the

  19. The Foreign Policy of Venezuela Toward El Salvador: 1979-1983 (United States)


    contenido cientifico y lenguaje . Profesor Tu or t94 ~6Ad~/~ 1/ 0 Fecha ESTA TESIS HA SIDO APROBADA EN NOMBRE DE LA UNIVERSIDAD SIMON BOLIVAR POR El Salvador enviando eguipos militares y asesores para "entrenar a tres batAllones salvadoreffos en logIstica, comunicaciones e inteligencia." En...administrativo, el sector industrial, el sector de comercio internacional, el sector cultural, y el sector de transporte y comunicaciones " (27). Una lista

  20. Carles Salvador i la reivindicació de l'ús social de la llengua catalana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Pérez i Moragón


    Full Text Available Carles Salvador described himself as «a politician of language». Already at an early age, he staunchly defended the right to speak Catalan in the Valencian Country at every level, beginning in primary school. Pérez i Moragón situates this posture within the Valencian linguistic panorama in an era characterized by the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, the Second Republic, and the Franco regime.

  1. Virtual Exploitation Environment Demonstration for Atmospheric Missions (United States)

    Natali, Stefano; Mantovani, Simone; Hirtl, Marcus; Santillan, Daniel; Triebnig, Gerhard; Fehr, Thorsten; Lopes, Cristiano


    The scientific and industrial communities are being confronted with a strong increase of Earth Observation (EO) satellite missions and related data. This is in particular the case for the Atmospheric Sciences communities, with the upcoming Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor, Sentinel-4, -5 and -3, and ESA's Earth Explorers scientific satellites ADM-Aeolus and EarthCARE. The challenge is not only to manage the large volume of data generated by each mission / sensor, but to process and analyze the data streams. Creating synergies among the different datasets will be key to exploit the full potential of the available information. As a preparation activity supporting scientific data exploitation for Earth Explorer and Sentinel atmospheric missions, ESA funded the "Technology and Atmospheric Mission Platform" (TAMP) [1] [2] project; a scientific and technological forum (STF) has been set-up involving relevant European entities from different scientific and operational fields to define the platforḿs requirements. Data access, visualization, processing and download services have been developed to satisfy useŕs needs; use cases defined with the STF, such as study of the SO2 emissions for the Holuhraun eruption (2014) by means of two numerical models, two satellite platforms and ground measurements, global Aerosol analyses from long time series of satellite data, and local Aerosol analysis using satellite and LIDAR, have been implemented to ensure acceptance of TAMP by the atmospheric sciences community. The platform pursues the "virtual workspace" concept: all resources (data, processing, visualization, collaboration tools) are provided as "remote services", accessible through a standard web browser, to avoid the download of big data volumes and for allowing utilization of provided infrastructure for computation, analysis and sharing of results. Data access and processing are achieved through standardized protocols (WCS, WPS). As evolution toward a pre

  2. Modernização e concentração do transporte urbano em Salvador (1849-1930 Tramway modernization and concentration in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil (1849-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Macchione Saes


    Full Text Available O artigo recupera a história da formação das empresas de transporte urbano da cidade de Salvador entre os anos de 1849 e 1930. A proclamação da República marcou a fase inicial de modernização das empresas de transporte, em que a fusão de companhias e a incorporação de capitais estrangeiros possibilitaram a introdução dos bondes elétricos na capital baiana. Foi nesse contexto que dois grupos rivais iniciaram mais uma batalha no Brasil, agora pelos mercados de Salvador: de um lado, o grupo nacional da Companhia Brasileira de Energia Elétrica, e de outro lado, o grupo estrangeiro Light, liderado em Salvador pelo empresário norte-americano Percival Farquhar. Diante desse cenário de concorrência, o artigo analisa a relação entre as empresas e a Câmara Municipal de Salvador, instituição responsável por distribuir as concessões de transporte na cidade.This paper draws on the history of the formation of Salvador's city tramways between 1849 and 1930. The Proclamation of the Republic in Brazil (1889 started the modernization of the tramway companies which, through the merger of enterprises and the arrival of foreign capital, was responsible for the introduction of the electric tramways in Bahia's capital. Two rival groups, in this context, competed in the Brazilian market, now in Salvador: on the one hand, the national enterprise Companhia Brasileira de Energia Elétrica, and on the other, the foreign company Light, led by the North-American entrepreneur Percival Farquhar. In this context of competition, the paper analyses the relation between the enterprises and Salvador's Town Council, the institution responsible for tramway concessions in the city.

  3. Perfil epidemiológico dos afogamentos em praias de Salvador, Bahia, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnildo De Santana Só Segundo

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever o perfil epidemiológico e a frequência dos afogamentos em praias do município de Salvador, estado da Bahia, Brasil, cobertas pela Coordenadoria de Salvamento Marítimo de Salvador (Salvamar, em 2012. MÉTODOS: foram descritos os dados obtidos do banco de informações sobre as vitimas atendidas pelo Salvamar. RESULTADOS: foram registrados 733 afogamentos; houve predomínio do sexo masculino (65,5%, adolescentes (40,8%, estudantes (67,7% e moradores de Salvador (69,4%; a idade média das vitimas era de 22,2 anos; quase todos os afogamentos foram não fatais (98,9%, a maioria deles aconteceu entre 10 e 16 horas (89,5% e os meses com maior ocorrência foram janeiro (20,9% e fevereiro (16,4%. CONCLUSÃO: predominaram, entre as vítimas, homens, jovens e estudantes, e os afogamentos não fatais; as ocorrências foram registradas, principalmente, nos meses do verão; as ações de prevenção a afogamentos deveriam focar os subgrupos identificados como mais vulneráveis.

  4. Urban population genetics of slum-dwelling rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Salvador, Brazil. (United States)

    Kajdacsi, Brittney; Costa, Federico; Hyseni, Chaz; Porter, Fleur; Brown, Julia; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; Reis, Mitermayer G; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa


    Throughout the developing world, urban centres with sprawling slum settlements are rapidly expanding and invading previously forested ecosystems. Slum communities are characterized by untended refuse, open sewers and overgrown vegetation, which promote rodent infestation. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoirs for epidemic transmission of many zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Understanding the population ecology of R. norvegicus is essential to formulate effective rodent control strategies, as this knowledge aids estimation of the temporal stability and spatial connectivity of populations. We screened for genetic variation, characterized the population genetic structure and evaluated the extent and patterns of gene flow in the urban landscape using 17 microsatellite loci in 146 rats from nine sites in the city of Salvador, Brazil. These sites were divided between three neighbourhoods within the city spaced an average of 2.7 km apart. Surprisingly, we detected very little relatedness among animals trapped at the same site and found high levels of genetic diversity, as well as structuring across small geographical distances. Most F(ST) comparisons among sites were statistically significant, including sites norvegicus in Salvador, linked to the heterogeneous urban landscape. Future rodent control measures need to take into account the spatial and temporal linkage of rat populations in Salvador, as revealed by genetic data, to develop informed eradication strategies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. High-Resolution Analysis of Seismicity Induced at Berlín Geothermal Field, El Salvador (United States)

    Kwiatek, G.; Bulut, F.; Dresen, G. H.; Bohnhoff, M.


    We investigate induced microseismic activity monitored at Berlín Geothermal Field, El Salvador, during a hydraulic stimulation. The site was monitored for a time period of 17 months using thirteen 3-component seismic stations located in shallow boreholes. Three stimulations were performed in the well TR8A with a maximum injection rate and well head pressure of 160l/s and 130bar, respectively. For the entire time period of our analysis, the acquisition system recorded 581 events with moment magnitudes ranging between -0.5 and 3.7. The initial seismic catalog provided by the operator was substantially improved: 1) We re-picked P- and S-wave onsets and relocated the seismic events using the double-difference relocation algorithm based on cross-correlation derived differential arrival time data. Forward modeling was performed using a local 1D velocity model instead of homogeneous full-space. 2) We recalculated source parameters using the spectral fitting method and refined the results applying the spectral ratio method. We investigated the source parameters and spatial and temporal changes of the seismic activity based on the refined dataset and studied the correlation between seismic activity and production. The achieved hypocentral precision allowed resolving the spatiotemporal changes in seismic activity down to a scale of a few meters. The application of spectral ratio method significantly improved the quality of source parameters in a high-attenuating and complex geological environment. Of special interest is the largest event (Mw3.7) and its nucleation process. We investigate whether the refined seismic data display any signatures that the largest event is triggered by the shut-in of the well. We found seismic activity displaying clear spatial and temporal patterns that could be easily related to the amount of water injected into the well TR8A and other reinjection wells in the investigated area. The migration of seismicity outside of injection point is observed

  6. Tonic dopamine modulates exploitation of reward learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff A Beeler


    Full Text Available The impact of dopamine on adaptive behavior in a naturalistic environment is largely unexamined. Experimental work suggests that phasic dopamine is central to reinforcement learning whereas tonic dopamine may modulate performance without altering learning per se; however, this idea has not been developed formally or integrated with computational models of dopamine function. We quantitatively evaluate the role of tonic dopamine in these functions by studying the behavior of hyperdopaminergic DAT knockdown mice in an instrumental task in a semi-naturalistic homecage environment. In this closed economy paradigm, subjects earn all of their food by pressing either of two levers, but the relative cost for food on each lever shifts frequently. Compared to wild-type mice, hyperdopaminergic mice allocate more lever presses on high-cost levers, thus working harder to earn a given amount of food and maintain their body weight. However, both groups show a similarly quick reaction to shifts in lever cost, suggesting that the hyperdominergic mice are not slower at detecting changes, as with a learning deficit. We fit the lever choice data using reinforcement learning models to assess the distinction between acquisition and expression the models formalize. In these analyses, hyperdopaminergic mice displayed normal learning from recent reward history but diminished capacity to exploit this learning: a reduced coupling between choice and reward history. These data suggest that dopamine modulates the degree to which prior learning biases action selection and consequently alters the expression of learned, motivated behavior.

  7. HIV and STI control in El Salvador: results from an integrated behavioural survey among men who have sex with men. (United States)

    Creswell, Jacob; Guardado, Maria Elena; Lee, Janet; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Kim, Andrea A; Monterroso, Edgar; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela


    This cross-sectional study investigates HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STI), and risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM) in two cities in El Salvador. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to recruit MSM in the cities of San Salvador and San Miguel, El Salvador. Participants responded to questions about HIV risk behaviours; and blood, urine and anal swabs were collected. Blood samples were tested for herpes simplex type 2, syphilis and HIV infection. Urine and anal samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Mycoplasma genitalium. HIV-positive samples were tested with the BED capture enzyme immunoassay to distinguish recent from longstanding HIV infection. We estimated population-adjusted prevalence of behavioural variables, STI and HIV, and identified risk factors for HIV. The final sample included 596 and 195 MSM in San Salvador and San Miguel, respectively. Consistent condom use was low across all partner types as was recent HIV testing. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence was 10.8% (95% CI 7.4% to 14.7%) in San Salvador, and 8.8% (95% CI 4.2% to 14.5%) in San Miguel. The proportion of recent testing among HIV-positive samples was 20%. Prevalence of any bacterial STI by PRC testing was 12.7% (95% CI 8.2% to 17.5%) in San Salvador, and 9.6% (95% CI 4.9% to 15.4%) in San Miguel. We found a high prevalence of HIV, high levels of recent infection, and low condom usage. In El Salvador, targeted interventions towards MSM are needed to promote condom use, as well as to diagnose, treat and prevent HIV and other STIs.

  8. Incidence of leukemias in children from El Salvador and Mexico City between 1996 and 2000: population-based data. (United States)

    Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Bonilla, Miguel; Lorenzana, Rodolpho; Juárez-Ocaña, Servando; de Reyes, Gladys; Pérez-Saldivar, María Luisa; González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Ortiz-Fernández, Antonio; Ortega-Alvarez, Manuel; Martínez-García, María del Carmen; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo


    There are very few studies that report the incidence of acute leukemias in children in Latin America. This work assesses the incidence of acute leukemias, between 1996 and 2000, in children from 0-14 years old who were attended at the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City and in children from 0-11 years old in El Salvador. Population-based data. Hospitals: In San Salvador, El Salvador, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Benjamin Bloom", the only center in El Salvador which attends all children, younger than 12 years, with oncologic disease. The Pediatric Hospital and the General Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City, the only centers in Mexico City which attend all those children with acute leukemia who have a right to this service. All patients were diagnosed by bone marrow smear and were divided into acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and unspecified leukemias (UL). The annual incidence rate (AIR) and average annual incidence rate (AAIR) were calculated per million children. Cases were stratified by age and assigned to one of four age strata: 1) AAIRs in Mexico City were 44.9, 10.6, 2.5, 0.5, and 58.4 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. The AAIRs in El Salvador could not be calculated because the fourth age stratum in El Salvador included children only from 0-11 years old. The incidence rates for the Salvadorian group of 0-11 year olds were 34.2, 7.1, 0.6, 0.2, and 43.2 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. Reported AIRs for each age group in El Salvador were similar to those from other American countries. The AAIR of ALL in Mexico City is one of the highest reported for North America.

  9. Exploiting wild relatives of S. lycopersicum for quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Víquez Zamora, A.M.


    Exploiting wild relatives of S. lycopersicum for quality traits Ana Marcela Víquez Zamora Tomatoes are consumed worldwide and became a model for crop plant research. A part of the research aims at expanding genetic diversity in tomato; this can be done by incorporating

  10. Risk assessment by dynamic representation of vulnerability, exploitation, and impact (United States)

    Cam, Hasan


    Assessing and quantifying cyber risk accurately in real-time is essential to providing security and mission assurance in any system and network. This paper presents a modeling and dynamic analysis approach to assessing cyber risk of a network in real-time by representing dynamically its vulnerabilities, exploitations, and impact using integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. Given the set of vulnerabilities detected by a vulnerability scanner in a network, this paper addresses how its risk can be assessed by estimating in real-time the exploit likelihood and impact of vulnerability exploitation on the network, based on real-time observations and measurements over the network. The dynamic representation of the network in terms of its vulnerabilities, sensor measurements, and observations is constructed dynamically using the integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. The transition rates of outgoing and incoming links of states in hidden Markov models are used in determining exploit likelihood and impact of attacks, whereas emission rates help quantify the attack states of vulnerabilities. Simulation results show the quantification and evolving risk scores over time for individual and aggregated vulnerabilities of a network.

  11. Final Report, “Exploiting Global View for Resilience”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Andrew [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)


    Final technical report for the "Exploiting Global View for Resilience" project. The GVR project aims to create a new approach to portable, resilient applications. The GVR approach builds on a global view data model,, adding versioning (multi-version), user control of timing and rate (multi-stream), and flexible cross layer error signalling and recovery. With a versioned array as a portable abstraction, GVR enables application programmers to exploit deep scientific and application code insights to manage resilience (and its overhead) in a flexible, portable fashion.

  12. Packaging of Sin Goods - Commitment or Exploitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia

    to such self-control problems, and possibly exploit them, by offering different package sizes. In a competitive market, either one or three (small, medium and large) packages are offered. In contrast to common intuition, the large, and not the small package is a commitment device. The latter serves to exploit...

  13. The exploitation of Gestalt principles by magicians. (United States)

    Barnhart, Anthony S


    Magicians exploit a host of psychological principles in deceiving their audiences. Psychologists have recently attempted to pinpoint the most common psychological tendencies exploited by magicians. This paper highlights two co-occurring principles that appear to be the basis for many popular magic tricks: accidental alignment and good continuation.

  14. Emission of gas and atmospheric dispersion of SO2 during the December 2013 eruption at San Miguel volcano (El Salvador) (United States)

    Salerno, Giuseppe G.; Granieri, Domenico; Liuzzo, Marco; La Spina, Alessandro; Giuffrida, Giovanni B.; Caltabiano, Tommaso; Giudice, Gaetano; Gutierrez, Eduardo; Montalvo, Francisco; Burton, Michael; Papale, Paolo


    y Recursos Naturales (MARN) of El Salvador and by a network of geophysical and geochemical stations established on the volcano by the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), immediately after the December 2013 eruption, on the request of MARN. During the eruption, SO2 emissions increased from a background level of ~330 t d-1 to 2200 t d-1, dropping after the eruption to an average level of 680 t d-1. Wind measurements and SO2 fluxes during the pre-, syn- and post-eruptive stages were used to model SO2 dispersion around the volcano. Air SO2 concentration exceeds the dangerous threshold of 5 ppm in the crater region, and in some middle sectors of the highly visited volcanic cone.

  15. High Zika Virus Seroprevalence in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil Limits the Potential for Further Outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Martins Netto


    Full Text Available During 2015 to 2016, Brazil reported more Zika virus (ZIKV cases than any other country, yet population exposure remains unknown. Serological studies of ZIKV are hampered by cross-reactive immune responses against heterologous viruses. We conducted serosurveys for ZIKV, dengue virus (DENV, and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV in 633 individuals prospectively sampled during 2015 to 2016, including microcephaly and non-microcephaly pregnancies, HIV-infected patients, tuberculosis patients, and university staff in Salvador in northeastern Brazil using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs and plaque reduction neutralization tests. Sera sampled retrospectively during 2013 to 2015 from 277 HIV-infected patients were used to assess the spread of ZIKV over time. Individuals were georeferenced, and sociodemographic indicators were compared between ZIKV-positive and -negative areas and areas with and without microcephaly cases. Epidemiological key parameters were modeled in a Bayesian framework. ZIKV seroprevalence increased rapidly during 2015 to 2016, reaching 63.3% by 2016 (95% confidence interval [CI], 59.4 to 66.8%, comparable to the seroprevalence of DENV (75.7%; CI, 69.4 to 81.1% and higher than that of CHIKV (7.4%; CI, 5.6 to 9.8%. Of 19 microcephaly pregnancies, 94.7% showed ZIKV IgG antibodies, compared to 69.3% of 257 non-microcephaly pregnancies (P = 0.017. Analyses of sociodemographic data revealed a higher ZIKV burden in low socioeconomic status (SES areas. High seroprevalence, combined with case data dynamics allowed estimates of the basic reproduction number R0 of 2.1 (CI, 1.8 to 2.5 at the onset of the outbreak and an effective reproductive number Reff of <1 in subsequent years. Our data corroborate ZIKV-associated congenital disease and an association of low SES and ZIKV infection and suggest that population immunity caused cessation of the outbreak. Similar studies from other areas will be required to determine the fate of the American

  16. Exploitation of cloud computing in management of construction projects in Slovakia


    Mandičák, Tomáš; Mesároš, Peter; Kozlovská, Mária


    The issue of cloud computing is a highly topical issue. Cloud computing represents a new model for information technology (IT) services based on the exploitation of Web (it represents a cloud) and other application platforms, as well as software as a service. In general, the exploitation of cloud computing in construction project management has several advantages, as demonstrated by several research reports. Currently, research quantifying the exploitation of cloud computing in the Slovak con...

  17. Uso de substâncias psicoativas entre estudantes de Medicina de Salvador (BA Psychoactive substance use by medical students from Salvador (BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleuber Moreira Lemos


    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Estudos indicam que estudantes de Medicina, apesar do seu dedutível conhecimento sobre os efeitos das substâncias psicoativas, consomem-nas em proporção semelhante à dos jovens de mesma idade na população geral. OBJETIVO: Analisar o padrão local do consumo dessas substâncias entre graduandos de Medicina e contribuir na formulação de atividades preventivas. MÉTODOS: Aplicação de questionário semi-estruturado no qual foi avaliada a freqüência de uso das substâncias psicoativas entre os estudantes, assim como as principais razões apontadas para o consumo. Foram analisados 404 questionários obtidos entre alunos dos seis anos de curso das duas maiores escolas médicas de Salvador. RESULTADOS: As drogas mais utilizadas no critério uso na vida foram álcool (92,8% e lança-perfume (46,2%. O uso de álcool apresentou-se constante nos seis anos de curso. Entretanto, o uso de tabaco, lança-perfume e tranqüilizantes aumentou significativamente para os alunos dos últimos anos (p BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that medical students consume psychoactive substances at the same rates as the same age youth on general population, despite their predictable knowledge about drugs effects. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the local pattern of psychoactive substances use among medical students and contribute for the formulation of preventive activities. METHODS: The frequency of psychoactive substances use was evaluated by a self-administered anonymous questionnaire that also asked the main reasons for that use. Four hundred and four students in the first to sixth year from the two biggest medical schools in Salvador answered the questionnaire. RESULTS: The lifetime use was bigger for alcohol (92.8% and inhalant (46.2%. Alcohol use was constant for the students from first to sixth year of course, but it was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. However, tobacco, inhalants and tranquilizers use had a significant increase at the last two years

  18. Distribuição espacial da mortalidade por tuberculose em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Spatial distribution of tuberculosis mortality in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Frias Mota


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de descrever a distribuição espacial da mortalidade por tuberculose em Salvador nos anos de 1991, 1994 e 1997, foi realizado um estudo ecológico, descritivo, tendo como unidade de análise o Distrito Sanitário (DS. Foram calculados os coeficientes padronizados de mortalidade por tuberculose e a mortalidade proporcional por tuberculose, em relação ao conjunto das doenças infecciosas e parasitárias, utilizando-se as declarações de óbitos como fonte de dados. O DS com os maiores coeficientes padronizados foi o Subúrbio Ferroviário, com taxas de 15,7, 10,6 e 10,6/100 mil habitantes, em 1991, 1994 e 1997, respectivamente. Em 1997, foram observadas as menores taxas padronizadas. A mortalidade proporcional por tuberculose em Salvador, nos anos de 1991, 1994 e 1997, representou 20,7%, 18,2 % e 16,9%, respectivamente, do total das mortes por doenças infecciosas e parasitárias. A faixa etária de maior risco, nos anos estudados, foi aquela acima de 65 anos. Os autores discutem as possibilidades de utilização dos resultados deste estudo para a implementação de políticas locais de saúde equânimes e desenvolvimento de operações de vigilância da saúde, tendo em vista a identificação de DS com maior risco de óbito e as faixas etárias mais acometidas.An ecological study was conducted to describe the urban spatial distribution of mortality attributable to tuberculosis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil in 1991, 1994, and 1997. The unit of analysis was the Health District (HD. The HD with the highest standardized rates was Subúrbio Ferroviário in 1991, 1994, and 1997, with 15.7, 10.6, and 10.6/100.000 inhabitants, respectively. Inequalities in mortality between HDs were high. The year 1997 showed the lowest standardized rates. The proportional mortality ratios for tuberculosis when compared with total deaths from infectious diseases were 20.7%, 18.2%, and 16.9% for 1991, 1994, and 1997 respectively. The highest rates were

  19. Reasoning About Programs by Exploiting the Environment (United States)


    1i TITLE ( lude Security Ca .fcation) Reasoning about Programs by Exploiting the Environment rt 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) w]ba1oa A Limor Fix axd...editions are obsolete. Reasoning About Programs by Exploiting the Environment * Limor Fix Fred B. Schneider TR 94-1409 February 1994 Department of Computer...agencies. Limor Fix is also supported, in part, by a Fullbright post-doctoral award. Reasoning about Programs by Exploiting the Environment ---- NITIS GRA&I

  20. Prevalência de dislipidemias em adultos da demanda laboratorial de Salvador, Brasil Prevalence of dyslipidemias in non-hospital laboratory tests of adults from Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Lessa


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência das dislipidemias em adultos da demanda laboratorial não-hospitalar da cidade de Salvador (BA. MÉTODOS: Casuística procedente de amostra probabilística de 25% dos laboratórios não-hospitalares da cidade que usavam o método enzimático para dosagem dos lípides séricos e controle de qualidade da Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica (93% do total; LDL estimado pela fórmula de Friedewald. Sorteados os meses ímpares de 1995 para o estudo. Critérios para dislipidemias, em mg/dl: colesterol ³240; LDL ³160; HDL ³200. Análise: prevalências, seus intervalos de confiança (IC a 95% e qui-quadrado (chi². RESULTADOS: Excluídos uma recusa e um laboratório que arquivava laudos só por 3 meses, foram analisados dados de 24 dos 26 laboratórios amostrados. Dos 7392 adultos, 65,5% eram mulheres. Prevalências estimadas e valores dos IC a 95% para homens, foram: hipercolesterolemia =24,0% (20,5; 27,5; LDL elevado =26,1 (22,4; 29,3; HDL baixo =15,9 (14,2; 17,8 e hipertrigliceridemia =27,6 (25,7; 29,5. Para mulheres: hipercolesterolemia =30,0 (27,8; 32,2, LDL elevado =33,1 (30,8; 35,4; HDL baixo =8,0 (7,1; 8,9 e hipertrigliceridemia =30,4 (29,0; 31,4. Todas as prevalências diferiram significantemente inter-gênero (p, 0,05 a pPURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia in non-hospital laboratory tests of adults from Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: The study was carried out in subjects from a probabilistic sample of 25% of a total of 104 local laboratories that used the same enzymatic method for lipid analysis with the quality control as recommended by the Brazilian Society of Clinical Analyses. These represented 93% of all non-hospital laboratories of Salvador in 1995. The odd months of 1995 were selected for sampling in the present study. Criteria for dyslipidemias were: total cholesterol ³240; LDL ³160; HDL ³200mg/dl. Prevalence rates and their 95% confidence intervals (CI and chi² test were

  1. Comida de rua: um estudo crítico e multirreferencial em Salvador, BA − Brasil / Street food: A critical and multifaceted study in Salvador, BA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Oliveira Benevides Sanches Leal


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é descrever e analisar a situação da comida de rua em Salvador, BA – Brasil, compreendendo suas especificidades em diferentes contextos da cidade. Trata-se de estudo de caso único, cujas técnicas de coleta de dados foram a observação de cunho etnográfico, entrevistas semiestruturadas, uso de imagens e leitura de jornal local ao logo de um ano em três aspectos relacionados ao segmento: riscos relacionados aos alimentos e ao ambiente onde são comercializados e riscos relacionados aos trabalhadores. Os resultados indicaram grandes fragilidades relacionadas às categorias analisadas: diversidade de alimentos comercializados, mal manipulados e conservados; ambiente urbano insalubre, sem pontos de água, coleta de lixo inadequada, drenagem precária de águas e poluição atmosférica pelo elevado número de veículos; trabalhadores sem qualificação, sem uniformização adequada e submetidos a riscos sociais e ambientais constantes. Evidencia-se a necessidade da adoção de novas formas de gerenciamento de riscos para o segmento pela Vigilância sanitária, numa perspectiva intersetorial e solidária, dada a complexidade do objeto e a importância socioeconômica, cultural e nutricional da comida de rua. Constata-se a dificuldade para a VISA controlar os riscos relacionados à comida de rua atuando de forma apenas fiscalizatória, especialmente em grandes centros urbanos, como no caso de Salvador, BA. ==================================== This study aims to describe and analyze the present situation of street food in Salvador, BA, Brazil, understanding its specificities in different urban contexts. In this single case study, the data collection techniques included ethnographic observation, semi-structured interviews, use of images, and reading a local newspaper for one year focusing on three aspects related to the segment that include risks related to food, to the environment in which it is sold, and to workers

  2. Cine Surrealista: Salvador Dalí y Luis Buñuel / Surrealist cinema: Salvador Dalí and Luis Buñuel


    Castiglioni, Ruben Daniel Méndez; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul


    RESUMO Salvador Dalí, além de pintor e escritor, se dedicou ao cinema. Neste texto procura-se fazer uma aproximação à produção cinematográfica de Dalí realizada com Luis Buñuel. Seus trabalhos mais conhecidos são do período de Hollywood, onde Dalí trabalhou nos filmes Quando fala o coração, de Alfred Hitchcock e Destino, de Walt Disney. Porém, suas obras mais importantes foram feitas na sua etapa surrealista que compreenderia aproximadamente de 1929 até 1937. Nesse período realizou com Luis B...

  3. Exploitative and Deceptive Resource Acquisition Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Reynolds


    Full Text Available Life history strategy (LHS and life history contingencies (LHCs should theoretically influence the use of exploitative and deceptive resource acquisition strategies. However, little research has been done in this area. The purpose of the present work was to create measures of exploitative strategies and test the predictions of life history theory. Pilot studies developed and validated a behavioral measure of cheating called the Dot Game. The role of individual LHS and LHCs (manipulated via validated story primes on cheating was investigated in Study 1. Studies 2a through 2c were conducted to develop and validate a self-report measure called the Exploitative and Deceptive Resource Acquisition Strategy Scale (EDRASS. Finally, Study 3 investigated life history and EDRASS. Results indicated that while LHS influences exploitative strategies, life history contingences had little effect. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. Life History Theory and Exploitative Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Reynolds


    Full Text Available Exploitative strategies involve depriving others of resources while enhancing one’s own. Life history theory suggests that there are individual differences (life history strategy and environmental characteristics (life history contingencies [LHCs] that influence the use of exploitative strategies. However, past work manipulating LHCs has found mixed evidence for the influence of this information on exploitative behavior. We present three studies that help clarify the effects of this type of information. Results indicated that younger individuals are most sensitive to LHC information. We also found, contrary to predictions, that communicating slow LHC information (i.e., high population density, intraspecific competition, and resource scarcity increased rather than decreased the temptation to engage in exploitative behavior. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  5. Exploiting Genome Structure in Association Analysis (United States)

    Kim, Seyoung


    Abstract A genome-wide association study involves examining a large number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify SNPs that are significantly associated with the given phenotype, while trying to reduce the false positive rate. Although haplotype-based association methods have been proposed to accommodate correlation information across nearby SNPs that are in linkage disequilibrium, none of these methods directly incorporated the structural information such as recombination events along chromosome. In this paper, we propose a new approach called stochastic block lasso for association mapping that exploits prior knowledge on linkage disequilibrium structure in the genome such as recombination rates and distances between adjacent SNPs in order to increase the power of detecting true associations while reducing false positives. Following a typical linear regression framework with the genotypes as inputs and the phenotype as output, our proposed method employs a sparsity-enforcing Laplacian prior for the regression coefficients, augmented by a first-order Markov process along the sequence of SNPs that incorporates the prior information on the linkage disequilibrium structure. The Markov-chain prior models the structural dependencies between a pair of adjacent SNPs, and allows us to look for association SNPs in a coupled manner, combining strength from multiple nearby SNPs. Our results on HapMap-simulated datasets and mouse datasets show that there is a significant advantage in incorporating the prior knowledge on linkage disequilibrium structure for marker identification under whole-genome association. PMID:21548809

  6. Uma nota sobre ilusionismos e alegorias na pintura barroca de Salvador da Bahia A Note on Illusionism and Allegory in the Baroque Painting of Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís de Moura Sobral


    Full Text Available As principais tendências da pintura no Brasil colonial podem ser estudadas na Catedral de Salvador, a igreja do antigo Colégio da Companhia de Jesus. Datando dos finais do século XVII, várias séries de quadros de qualidade diversa, compõem com as esculturas dos altares um soberbo e complexo bel composto de propaganda inaciana. Para decorar o forro da Biblioteca, por cima da sacristia, os Jesuítas encomendaram cerca de 1735-1736 uma monumental quadratura ao pintor português António Simões Ribeiro (?-1755. A pintura é estudada em função da tradição de decoração das bibliotecas durante a época moderna. Para além da quadratura, Simões Ribeiro introduziu na arte brasileira as figuras alegóricas, tornando-se assim o primeiro pintor brasileiro verdadeiramente barroco e o criador da chamada Escola Bahiana.The main trends of the painting in colonial Brazil can be studied in the Cathedral of Salvador, Bahia, the church of the former Jesuit College. Dating from the late 17th Century, several cycles of paintings on the walls and the ceiling of the sacristy, of varying quality, accomplish particular symbolic functions; in conjunction with the sculpture of the altars, they compose a complex bel composto of Jesuit propaganda. To decorate the ceiling of their Library, above the sacristy, the Jesuits commissioned around 1735-1736 a huge quadratura from the Portuguese born painter António Simões Ribeiro (?-1755. This painting is discussed within the tradition of Library decoration in the Modern period. Besides the quadratura, Simões Ribeiro introduced in the Brazilian art the allegorical figures and became the first full-Baroque painter in Brazil and the initiator of the so-called Bahian School.

  7. Cuando los hijos se quedan en El Salvador: Familias transnacionales y reunificación familiar de inmigrantes salvadoreños en Washington, D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Molina, Raúl


    Full Text Available Current migratory flows develope new social-cultural patterns such as transnational families. Using ethnographic data collected in Washington, D.C. and El Salvador, this article describes and analyzes the different strategies develop by Salvadoran immigrants living in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area to re-shape their domestic units. The immigrant modes of incorporation into the US societies and the logic of family unity affect these configurations to such an extent that until all the family members can be together again, the pre-migratory cultural patterns and those acquired in the host society affect in the transnational family configurations.

    Los actuales movimientos migratorios están propiciando el desarrollo de patrones socioculturales transnacionales que, en el ámbito de las unidades domésticas, permiten configuraciones de familias transnacionales. A partir de los datos obtenidos en una investigación etnográfica transnacional, este artículo describe y analiza las estrategias de inmigrantes en la reestructuración de sus familias. La lógica de la unidad familiar, por un lado, y los modos de incorporación de los salvadoreños al área metropolitana de Washington, D.C., por otro, explican las estrategias utilizadas por los inmigrantes en las reestructuración de sus unidades domésticas. De tal manera que hasta que los miembros de la familia puedan estar juntos de nuevo, tanto los patrones culturales premigratorios, como los adquiridos en las sociedades de asentamiento influyen en las configuraciones de las familias transnacionales.

  8. Liposomal cancer therapy: exploiting tumor characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Andresen, Thomas Lars


    the reader will gain: The review focuses on strategies that exploit characteristic features of solid tumors, such as abnormal vasculature, overexpression of receptors and enzymes, as well as acidic and thiolytic characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. Take home message: It is concluded that the design...... of new liposomal drug delivery systems that better exploit tumor characteristic features is likely to result in more efficacious cancer treatments....

  9. Optimal exploitation strategies for an animal population in a Markovian environment: A theory and an example (United States)

    Anderson, D.R.


    Optimal exploitation strategies were studied for an animal population in a Markovian (stochastic, serially correlated) environment. This is a general case and encompasses a number of important special cases as simplifications. Extensive empirical data on the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) were used as an example of general theory. The number of small ponds on the central breeding grounds was used as an index to the state of the environment. A general mathematical model was formulated to provide a synthesis of the existing literature, estimates of parameters developed from an analysis of data, and hypotheses regarding the specific effect of exploitation on total survival. The literature and analysis of data were inconclusive concerning the effect of exploitation on survival. Therefore, two hypotheses were explored: (1) exploitation mortality represents a largely additive form of mortality, and (2) exploitation mortality is compensatory with other forms of mortality, at least to some threshold level. Models incorporating these two hypotheses were formulated as stochastic dynamic programming models and optimal exploitation strategies were derived numerically on a digital computer. Optimal exploitation strategies were found to exist under the rather general conditions. Direct feedback control was an integral component in the optimal decision-making process. Optimal exploitation was found to be substantially different depending upon the hypothesis regarding the effect of exploitation on the population. If we assume that exploitation is largely an additive force of mortality in Mallards, then optimal exploitation decisions are a convex function of the size of the breeding population and a linear or slight concave function of the environmental conditions. Under the hypothesis of compensatory mortality forces, optimal exploitation decisions are approximately linearly related to the size of the Mallard breeding population. Dynamic programming is suggested as a very general

  10. Tidal Power Exploitation in Korea (United States)

    Choi, Byung Ho; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Choi, Jae Cheon

    The highest tides in South Korea are found along the northwest coast between latitudes 36-38 degrees and the number of possible sites for tidal range power barrages to create tidal basins is great due to irregular coastlines with numerous bays. At present Lake Sihwa tidal power plant is completed. The plant is consisted of 10 bulb type turbines with 8 sluice gates. The installed capacity of turbines and generators is 254MW and annual energy output expected is about 552.7 GWh taking flood flow generation scheme. Three other TPP projects are being progressed at Garolim Bay (20 turbines with 25.4MW capacity), Kangwha (28 turbines with 25.4MW capacity), Incheon (44 or 48 turbines with 30 MW capacity) and project features will be outlined here. The introduction of tidal barrages into four major TPP projects along the Kyeonggi bay will render wide range of potential impacts. Preliminary attempts were performed to quantify these impacts using 2 D hydrodynamic model demonstrating the changes in tidal amplitude and phase under mean tidal condition, associated changes in residual circulation (indicator for SPM and pollutant dispersion), bottom stress (indicator for bedload movement), and tidal front (positional indicator for bio-productivity) in both shelf scale and local context. Tidal regime modeling system for ocean tides in the seas bordering the Korean Peninsula is designed to cover an area that is broad in scope and size, yet provide a high degree of resolution in strong tidal current region including off southwestern tip of the Peninsula (Uldolmok , Jangjuk, Wando-Hoenggan), Daebang Sudo (Channel) and Kyeonggi Bay. With this simulation system, real tidal time simulation of extended springneap cycles was performed to estimate spatial distribution of tidal current power potentials in terms of power density, energy density and then extrapolated annual energy density.

  11. Chaparrastique (San Mighel) Volcano Eruptions since Dec. 29th, 2013, El Salvador (United States)

    Martinez-Hackert, B.; Bajo, J. V.; Escobar, D.; Gutierrez, E.


    The December 29th, 2013 eruption of Chaparrastique (San Miguel) volcano in El Salvador came as a surprise and was the first of several small eruptions in the past two years. They came after many years of preceeding earthquake swarms and significant degassing. Being the second volcano to erupt in El Salvador in less than ten years, it caused grave concern for the population of the country. Although they were not large eruptions (VEI 2), the materials were widespread and caused deposits of volcanic tephra as far at the capital San Salvador and closed the airports in the vecinity for a couple of days. This is a summary of the research, mitigation and services that were done days after the first eruption on December 29, 2013 and the follwing months. In conjunction with the team of the Direccion General del Observatorio Ambiental from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales possible first response strategies were discussed and decided to obtain results that could be quickly put in place to mitigate and decide on actions such as evacuations or relocations of people living in volcano related high-risk hazard areas. Collection of samples, mapping and measurements of the volcanic tephra in the field together with Digital Globe and areal photography after the event, allowed identification of four different volcanic products that can be correlated to the opening of the vent and ending in the eruption of juvenile materials of basaltic to trachybasaltic composition, and the production of a lahar hazard map based on LaharZ.

  12. Salvador, un reto para las políticas de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Larissa Centeno Monge


    Full Text Available En El Salvador, para el año 2003, la población de 15 a 24 años representa un poco más de un tercio de la población clasificada como en edad fértil. Los indicadores de salud reflejan una situación que demanda atención y acciones concretas hacia las necesidades de la salud reproductiva que afrontan los adolescentes. Según la Encuesta nacional de salud familiar realizada en 1998, el 48.8% de las mujeres menores de 24 años han tenido experiencia sexual, menos del 10% utilizaron algún método anticonceptivo en su primera relación y el 42% han tenido al menos un embarazo antes de los 24 años. Dado que los problemas de salud sexual y reproductiva fueron de los primeros en poner a la adolescencia en el tapete como sujeto prioritario de atención de la salud, la promoción de la salud del adolescente debe constituir uno de los principales objetivos de cualquier proyecto de desarrollo, tanto a nivel local como nacional. Al utilizar los datos de la FESAL–98 e información proporcionada por el Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social de El Salvador, se presentan en este artículo algunas cifras y reflexiones acerca de la situación referente a la salud sexual y reproductiva de las adolescentes salvadoreñas de 15 a 24 años y algunas acciones que se realizan al respecto. Se plantea el modelo de atención a los y las adolescentes implementado en el país y las principales implicaciones y retos que aun hay que atender.

  13. Influenza Illness among Case-Patients Hospitalized for Suspected Dengue, El Salvador, 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Chacon

    Full Text Available We estimate the proportion of patients hospitalized for suspected dengue that tested positive for influenza virus in El Salvador during the 2012 influenza season. We tested specimens from 321 hospitalized patients: 198 patients with SARI and 123 patients with suspected dengue. Among 121 hospitalized suspected dengue (two co-infected excluded patients, 28% tested positive for dengue and 19% positive for influenza; among 35 with suspected dengue and respiratory symptoms, 14% were positive for dengue and 39% positive for influenza. One percent presented co-infection between influenza and dengue. Clinicians should consider the diagnosis of influenza among patients with suspected dengue during the influenza season.

  14. Influenza Illness among Case-Patients Hospitalized for Suspected Dengue, El Salvador, 2012. (United States)

    Chacon, Rafael; Clara, Alexey Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Armero, Julio; Lozano, Celina; El Omeiri, Nathalie; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo


    We estimate the proportion of patients hospitalized for suspected dengue that tested positive for influenza virus in El Salvador during the 2012 influenza season. We tested specimens from 321 hospitalized patients: 198 patients with SARI and 123 patients with suspected dengue. Among 121 hospitalized suspected dengue (two co-infected excluded) patients, 28% tested positive for dengue and 19% positive for influenza; among 35 with suspected dengue and respiratory symptoms, 14% were positive for dengue and 39% positive for influenza. One percent presented co-infection between influenza and dengue. Clinicians should consider the diagnosis of influenza among patients with suspected dengue during the influenza season.

  15. Condições atuais da esquistossomose no "Dique do Tororó" em Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth B. Amorim


    Full Text Available Os Autores apresentam os resultados de observações realizadas entre os anos de 1971 a 1974 sobre a incidência humana da esquistosomose no Dique do Tororó, em Salvador, Bahia, após alí terem sido realizadas melhorias pela engenhària sanitária e medidas de combate biológico ao caramujo vetor pelo uso de peixes predadores. Comparando com os resultados obtidos por outros Autores em 1960, concluem que o Dique do Tororó não mais representa uma importante fonte de propagação da esquistosomose.

  16. Crónica de la prensa salvadoreña: imaginarios que migran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Marroquín Parducci


    Full Text Available EL ARTÍCULO PRESENTA UN ESTUDIO DE LAS NARRATIVAS QUE LA PRENSA escrita ha venido construyendo en El Salvador en torno al fenómeno de la migración. Se argumenta que a través del tema de la migración se construye una poética de nación imaginada, y conjuntamente, se da la construcción de las alteridades que desde el discurso oficial se han mantenido vigentes.

  17. Indigo équitable au Salvador | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jose et Santos Inocente font partie des 18 familles de la communauté de San Lucas, située à une heure de route au nord-ouest de la capitale du Salvador, qui, au mois d'août dernier, ont procédé à leur première récolte de feuilles d'indigotier effectuée selon des procédés équitables et durables. Depuis 2000, l'organisme ...

  18. Sintomas de asma e fatores associados em adolescentes de Salvador, Bahia


    Mascarenhas, Jean Márcia Oliveira; Silva, Rita de Cássia Ribeiro; Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira de; Pinto, Elizabete de Jesus; Conceição, Jackson Santos; Barreto, Maurício Lima


    RESUMO: Objetivo: Identificar os fatores associados a sintomas de asma em adolescentes. Métodos: Estudo transversal, com a participação de 1.176 alunos com idade entre 11 e 17 anos, em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Os sintomas de asma foram identificados utilizando-se o questionário padronizado do The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Program (ISAAC), fase III. A avaliação do consumo alimentar dos adolescentes foi obtida por meio de questionário da frequência alimentar (Q...

  19. Comunicación insurgente y proceso revolucionario en El Salvador, 1970-1992


    Cortina Orero, Eudald


    A lo largo de esta tesis hemos abordado dos décadas de proceso revolucionario en El Salvador (1970-1992), deteniéndonos en el análisis de los proyectos comunicativos insurgentes surgidos en este período. Estos medios han sido puestos en diálogo con el desarrollo experimentado por las diferentes organizaciones en forma independiente (ERP, FPL, RN, PRTC y PCS) y en el marco unitario del FMLN. En este sentido, nuestro trabajo se ha orientado en dos direcciones: por un lado, a analizar el papel ...

  20. Algunas consideraciones sobre el modelo de psicoterapia familiar de Salvador Minuchin


    Martínez Buzzoni, Ana María


    Teniendo en cuenta el titulo de la mesa autoconvocada " los padecimientos actuales y sus terapéuticas" este trabajo intentara presentar algunas nociones básicas que forman parte del modelo sistémico psicoterapéutico familiar propuesto en la actualidad por Salvador Minuchin. Este autor y psicoterapeuta sistémico, es atendiendo a familias con problemáticas de violencia, que intentará abordarlas, no justamente para dar las mismas respuestas que desde algunos organismos estatales se precipitan, c...

  1. Les espaces utopiques de la peinture de Salvador Dalí


    Mendiboure, Jean-Michel


    International audience; La nature des espaces construits dans les tableaux de Salvador Dalí, que ceux-ci s'élaborent dans la perspective surréaliste (période principalement évoquée dans cet article), ou dans celle de la "mystique nucléaire" ultérieure, invite à s'interroger sur le degré d'existence ou de non-existence de ces espaces pour celui qui en est le spectateur et, par là même, sur la capacité de ce dernier à les habiter ou non de son regard.

  2. Adela Salvador. Una vida dedicada a las Matemáticas


    Nieves Martín Díaz


    En el verano de 2012 tuve la oportunidad de entrevistar a la matemática Adela Salvador,que no sólo se ha preocupado de la enseñanza de la materia en Institutos o Universidades,sino que también ha realizado importantes investigaciones en el campo de la Lógica Borrosa (entre otros) y especializado en la vida de otras Mujeres Matemáticas que la precedieron. Lleva dando clases unos 45 años, de forma ininterrumpida. Ha dirigido, coordinado o colaborado con más de 83 proyectos de investigación o de...

  3. Automatización de invernadero para cultivos hidropónicos en El Salvador


    Pérez Zavala, Josué Alberto; López Guevara, Leonel Eduardo; Romero Vásquez, René David


    Este estudio muestra de manera concisa la historia del surgimiento de la hidroponía en el mundo del ser humano, desde sus orígenes hasta su llegada y crecimiento en Latinoamérica, lo que permitió implementar proyectos y desarrollar investigaciones que tratan de llevar este conocimiento hacia la agricultura salvadoreña, para el desarrollo del país, y con el asesoramiento por parte de naciones amigas, la hidroponía con métodos tecnológicos avanzados podría mejorar en gran medida la economía sal...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emperatriz Arreaza-Camero


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper the political documentary in El Salvador: comparative study with Cuba and Venezuela, is to know diferent communicatives and alternative experiences in coyuntural situations of special meaning in Latin America and the Caribbean. In general, these experiences had the main objetive to promote more important political participation of the population, and also to promote the defense of the human rights of the subaltern groups, and the unification of the criteria about the political projects of national liberation.

  5. Centro socio-deportivo y nueva plaza : centro histórico de Salvador de Bahía, Brasil




    Actuación en el casco histórico de la ciudad brasileña de Salvador de Bahía, consta de dos actuaciones diferentes. Rehabilitación de un edificio preexiste con el fin de crear un centro socio-deportivo e intervención urbanística en el entorno donde se encuentra dicho edificio, generando una plaza nueva. Martí Rodríguez, R. (2013). Centro socio-deportivo y nueva plaza : centro histórico de Salvador de Bahía, Brasil. Archivo delegado

  6. Heráldica del condado: San Salvador de Leirado y Santa María de Oleiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez Cruces, Plácido


    Full Text Available Is question of a genealogyc and heraldry studio some noble houses to exist in the parish of St. Salvador de Leirado and Sta. Maria de Oleiros of Salvaterra de Miño in the south of the province of Pontevedra.

    Se trata de un estudio genealógico y heráldico de varias casas nobles existentes en las parroquias de San Salvador de Leirado y Santa María de Oleiros, pertenecientes al Ayuntamiento de Salvaterra de Miño, en el sur de la provincia de Pontevedra.

  7. Incidence of leukemias in children from El Salvador and Mexico City between 1996 and 2000: Population-based data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernáldez-Ríos Roberto


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are very few studies that report the incidence of acute leukemias in children in Latin America. This work assesses the incidence of acute leukemias, between 1996 and 2000, in children from 0–14 years old who were attended at the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City and in children from 0–11 years old in El Salvador. Methods Design: Population-based data. Hospitals: In San Salvador, El Salvador, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Benjamín Bloom", the only center in El Salvador which attends all children, younger than 12 years, with oncologic disease. The Pediatric Hospital and the General Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City, the only centers in Mexico City which attend all those children with acute leukemia who have a right to this service. Diagnosis: All patients were diagnosed by bone marrow smear and were divided into acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL, acute myeloid leukemia (AML, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, and unspecified leukemias (UL. The annual incidence rate (AIR and average annual incidence rate (AAIR were calculated per million children. Cases were stratified by age and assigned to one of four age strata: 1 Results The number of cases was 375 and 238 in El Salvador and Mexico City, respectively. AAIRs in Mexico City were 44.9, 10.6, 2.5, 0.5, and 58.4 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. The AAIRs in El Salvador could not be calculated because the fourth age stratum in El Salvador included children only from 0–11 years old. The incidence rates for the Salvadoran group of 0–11 year olds were 34.2, 7.1, 0.6, 0.2, and 43.2 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. Conclusion Reported AIRs for each age group in El Salvador were similar to those from other American countries. The AAIR of ALL in Mexico City is one of the highest reported for North America.

  8. Exploitation in International Paid Surrogacy Arrangements. (United States)

    Wilkinson, Stephen


    Many critics have suggested that international paid surrogacy is exploitative. Taking such concerns as its starting point, this article asks: (1) how defensible is the claim that international paid surrogacy is exploitative and what could be done to make it less exploitative? (2) In the light of the answer to (1), how strong is the case for prohibiting it? Exploitation could in principle be dealt with by improving surrogates' pay and conditions. However, doing so may exacerbate problems with consent. Foremost amongst these is the argument that surrogates from economically disadvantaged countries cannot validly consent because their background circumstances are coercive. Several versions of this argument are examined and I conclude that at least one has some merit. The article's overall conclusion is that while ethically there is something to be concerned about, paid surrogacy is in no worse a position than many other exploitative commercial transactions which take place against a backdrop of global inequality and constrained options, such as poorly-paid and dangerous construction work. Hence, there is little reason to single surrogacy out for special condemnation. On a policy level, the case for prohibiting international commercial surrogacy is weak, despite legitimate concerns about consent and background poverty.

  9. Exploiting Network Topology Information to Mitigate Ambiguities in VMP Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri


    We investigate an extension to the probabilistic model of a wireless sensor network (WSN) in the variational message passing localization algorithm. This extension exploits network topology information to mitigate ambiguities in WSN localization schemes. In a simulation case study we show...... that this extension in some cases improves the location estimates produced by the algorithm. The final version of the paper will present quantitative results from more extensive investigations that will document the extent of this improvement....

  10. The role of mobility for the emergence of diversity in victim-exploiter systems. (United States)

    Chaianunporn, T; Hovestadt, T


    Theoretical and empirical studies indicate that exploitation is a possible driver of exploiter and victim diversification. However, there are many factors which could promote and limit this diversification process. Using a spatially explicit individual-based model, where an exploiter's success depends on matching between its own and a victim's continuous trait, we simulate local communities of victims and exploiters. We investigate how exploiter mobility (searching ability and movement strategies) can influence diversification of victims. We find that if victim traits are under intermediate intensity of stabilizing selection, disruptive selection exerted by exploiters can indeed lead to diversification in victim population and the victim trait distribution can split into two or more groups. Searching ability and movement strategy of exploiters (local vs. global movement) play a role in determining the number of victim trait groups emerging. Moreover, they affect the proportion of infected victims and the formation of spatial patterns in the victim trait distribution. In addition, with a high searching ability, exploiters with global movement drive victims to be more diverse than exploiters with local movement. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Probing The Buried Remains of The Todos los Santos, City of San Salvador in Hoping Island with Shallow Subsurface Geophysics Method (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-fan; Chang, Pin-yu; Eugenio Borao Mateo, José


    The study in ancient sites with GPR is widely documented over several decades. This non-invasive geophysical method provides a rapid measure for anthropogenic objects and therefore serves as a guide for possible excavation for the next stage of archaeological surveys. City of San Salvador, which is a Dutch colonial city consisted of fortress, hospitals and churches in 17 century, is located in the Hoping Island in Keelung, Taiwan. The fortress and its affiliated structures were abandoned and left collapsing since the mid-17th century. Some relics of the fortress wall were still remained until the early 20th century but the fast development projects in the island has caused the relics demolished or buried under building or road pavements. Many wells and bones have been found around the area belong to over three hundred years ago. As a consequence, the government initiated a new excavation project at the parking lot where the ancient convent of Todos los Santos is believed since 2011 in order to find the remains of the convent in city of San Salvador. Meanwhile we have surveyed with GPR to help guiding the excavation location. In this case, we surveyed with wide-angle-refraction/reflection (WARR) of GPR as well as common-offset array, to compensate the defect of traditional common-offset of lack of longitudinal resolution with velocity profile, and the combination of velocity profile and common-offset data helped distinguish the signals from other noises and further located the position of subsurface structures. After data analysis and numerical modeling of the buried materials, we have located the possible remains of walls of the convent or other structures around 0.9 to 1.3 meters in depth that can offer useful information to better plan the archaeological excavations.

  12. Diáspora salvadoreña: identidades y mapas culturales en el ciberespacio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Benítez


    Full Text Available EL FENÓMENO DE LA MIGRACIÓN INTERNACIONAL PLANTEA NUEVOS desafíos de investigación al campo académico de la comunicación. En esta perspectiva, algunos estudios de comunicación han analizado el papel de los medios de comunicación y sus narrativas mediáticas sobre la migración, la construcción de imaginarios sociales acerca de la experiencia de emigrar, y la importancia de las nuevas tecnologías enlas prácticas cotidianas de los inmigrantes. En este contexto, este artículo explora algunos contenidos y formatos que grupos y comunidades migrantes salvadoreñas construyen desde sitios y páginas web, usos de medios de comunicación local y nacional accesibles desde el Internet, y nuevas plataformas de redes sociales como los blogs, Myspace, Facebook, YouTube, entre otros. Por tanto, este artículo intenta dibujar algunos trazos de mapas culturales y expresiones de identidades colectivas que la diáspora salvadoreña construye día a día en el ciberespacio.

  13. Spatial analysis of migrating Apis mellifera colonies in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato L. Jr. Sandes


    Full Text Available Beekeeping in Brazil is growing but also associated with an increase in the number of human and animal accidents involved. In particular, bees of the Apis mellifera species (Africanized bees are known for their aggressive behaviour and frequent swarming activity due to their poor adaptation to the human environment. This study analyzed the spatial distribution of occurrences of migratory swarms of A. mellifera and recorded apicultural accidents in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The association of demographic and climatic variations on places where the swarms occurred was also evaluated. The study is based on data collected within the frame of the “SOS Bees”, a project initiated for the protection of the environment and enforced by a special unit of the military police in Bahia. In the 3-year period from 2000 to 2003, 590 swarms were registered in 75 of the 98 zones of information of Salvador. Three cluster areas, representing 25.4% of all events, were identified. In that period, 316 apicultural accidents were registered involving humans and one involving dogs. The seasonal rise of the monthly average temperature showed an association with the increase of the number of swarming events.

  14. Exploring factors in the decision to choose sterilization vs alternatives in rural El Salvador. (United States)

    Cremer, Miriam L; Holland, Erica; Monterroza, Maritza; Duran, Sonia; Singh, Rameet; Terbell, Heather; Edelman, Alison


    To explore the factors that influence rural Salvadoran women to undergo tubal sterilization versus opting for alternative methods of family planning. A moderator fluent in English and Spanish conducted eleven 90-minute focus groups consisting of 5-10 women each. Eligible women in the municipality of San Pedro Perulapan, El Salvador, were identified and recruited by local health workers. Participant demographics and information about family planning decisions were collected through detailed notes and tape-recorded sessions. The tapes were transcribed verbatim, and all data were analyzed using grounded theory procedures to identify common themes. Eighty women aged 24-45 years who had previously been sterilized participated in the study. Three major themes influenced a woman's decision to undergo sterilization instead of opting for alternative forms of family planning: (1) availability: tubal sterilization is readily available, (2) fears about side effects of other methods: these women associated negative side effects with other forms of family planning, (3) effectiveness: the women in these focus groups thought sterilization was more effective than other forms of family planning. This study shows that there is a lack of information, and misinformation, about other effective methods of contraception, especially the intrauterine device and oral contraceptives. Reproductive health education projects, especially those providing services in locations similar to rural El Salvador, should focus on providing accurate information about all forms of contraception, including tubal sterilization.

  15. Esporte e Modernidade no Rio de Janeiro e Salvador: Um Estudo Comparado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coriolano Pereira da Rocha Junior


    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar comparativamente a relação entre a construção de projetos de modernidade e a conformação do campo esportivo no Rio de Janeiro e em Salvador, no âmbito dos governos Pereira Passos (1902-1906 e J. J. Seabra (1912-1916, respectivamente. Estabeleceram-se as seguintes questões a investigar: como essas cidades mobilizaram o esporte nos seus projetos de intervenção? Qual o impacto da experiência esportiva nas duas cidades? A investigação justifica-se por se tratar de duas cidades, historicamente, importantes para o país, bem como pela ausência de estudos correlatos. A análise comparada é, pois, o aspecto mais original deste texto. Para o alcance do objetivo, como fontes para investigar o caso de Salvador, examinamos jornais de circulação diária, como também algumas revistas. Como conclusão, identificamos que no Rio de Janeiro o campo esportivo desenvolveu-se em ampla relação com o processo de modernização, enquanto na Bahia essa relação foi menos significativa, implicando menor desenvolvimento esportivo.DOI: 10.5585/podium.v2i1.38

  16. Prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in children with diarrhea in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Franzolin


    Full Text Available We report the frequency of the different diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC categories isolated from children with acute endemic diarrhea in Salvador, Bahia. The E. coli isolates were investigated by colony blot hibridization whit the following genes probes: eae, EAF, bfpA, Stx1, Stx2, ST-Ih, ST-Ip, LT-I, LT-II, INV, and EAEC, as virulence markers to distinguish typical and atypical EPEC, EHEC/STEC, ETEC, EIEC, and EAEC. Seven of the eight categories of DEC were detected. The most frequently isolated was atypical EPEC (10.1% followed by ETEC (7.5%, and EAEC (4.2%. EHEC, STEC, EIEC, and typical EPEC were each detected once. The strains of ETEC, EAEC, and atypical EPEC belonged to a wide variety of serotypes. The serotypes of the others categories were O26:H11 (EHEC, O21:H21 (STEC, O142:H34 (typical EPEC, and O?H55 (EIEC. We also present the clinical manifestations and other pathogenic species observed in children with DEC. This is the first report of EHEC and STEC in Salvador, and one of the first in Brazil.

  17. Between New Terrains and Old Dichotomies: Peacebuilding and the Gangs’ Truce in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Roque

    Full Text Available Abstract This article intends to challenge the dominant assumptions that undermine the potential application of peacebuilding frameworks beyond formal post-war contexts. It analyses the gangs’ truce that recently took place in El Salvador as a privileged laboratory to rethink hegemonic understandings and practices of peacebuilding by specifically addressing the importance of overcoming dichotomised categories such ‘war and peace’, ‘criminal and political’, and ‘success and failure’. It is claimed that while the truce fostered a discourse pointing towards an ongoing peace process and enlarged the public debate on the failings of post-war policies and on the structural roots of violence, it was also decisively undermined by the inability to surmount the dichotomy that juxtaposes the criminal and the political domains. It is argued that a peacebuilding framework, inspired by a set of critical perspectives on war and peace and on the nature of ‘the political’, may thus be of crucial importance for the future of policies aimed at curbing violence in El Salvador and elsewhere.

  18. Rethinking exploitation: a process-centered account. (United States)

    Jansen, Lynn A; Wall, Steven


    Exploitation has become an important topic in recent discussions of biomedical and research ethics. This is due in no small measure to the influence of Alan Wertheimer's path-breaking work on the subject. This paper presents some objections to Wertheimer's account of the concept. The objections attempt to show that his account places too much emphasis on outcome-based considerations and too little on process-based considerations. Building on these objections, the paper develops an alternative process-centered account of the concept. This alternative account of exploitation takes as its point of departure the broadly Kantian notion that it is wrong to use another as an instrument for the advancement of one's own ends. It sharpens this slippery notion and adds a number of refinements to it. The paper concludes by arguing that process-centered accounts of exploitation better illuminate the ethical challenges posed by research on human subjects than outcome-centered accounts.

  19. [Sources of interest to the history and culture of health: Arquivo Histórico municipal de Salvador]. (United States)

    Matos, Maria Teresa Navarro de Britto


    Based on documental investigation, supplemented by bibliographic research, this exploratory study recaptures the historical and institutional evolution of Salvador's Municipal History Archives and describes its current organizational structure and documental collection. Special attention is placed on sources of interest to the history and culture of health.

  20. El Registro de Mammuthus (Proboscidea, Elephantidae) en la República de El Salvador, América Central


    Laurito Mora, César; Huziel Aguilar Calles, Daniel


    Se describen dos nuevos registros de mamuts Mammuthus columbi Falconer (1857) para el Pleistoceno Tardío de El Salvador y se analiza el patrón paleobiogeográfico de Mammuthus en el Cuaternario de América Central.

  1. Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer


    Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

  2. The Dilemma Between Peace and Justice. Transitional Justice in Post-conflict Context: the Cases of Guatemala and El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article aims to describe and explain the trade-off between justice and peace through the analysis of two post-conflict cases: Guatemala and El Salvador. Using the comparative methodology, we analyse the issues of truth, justice and reparation from the Peace Agreements until today.

  3. Amsterdam Expeditions to the West Indian Islands, Report 13. Marine sponges from an island cave on San Salvador Island, Bahamas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.; Sass, B. Daniel


    Dixon Hill Lighthouse Cave, about 800 m (0.5 miles) inshore on San Salvador Island, Bahamas, was found to hold populations of three sponge species new to science, viz. Pellina penicilliformis n. sp., Prosuberites geracei n. sp., and Cinachyra subterranea n. sp. The new species are described and

  4. 78 FR 70092 - 2013 Special 301 Out-of-Cycle Review of El Salvador: Identification of Countries Under Section... (United States)


    ... and whose acts, policies, or practices have the greatest adverse impact (actual or potential) on... STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE 2013 Special 301 Out-of-Cycle Review of El Salvador: Identification of Countries Under Section 182 of the Trade Act of 1974: Request for Public Comment AGENCY: Office of the...

  5. Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina (United States)

    Jones, Lauren Ila


    In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the…

  6. Estratégia de apoio em saúde mental aos agentes comunitários de saúde de Salvador-BA Strategy for supporting community health agents in mental health actions in Salvador-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Batista da Silva


    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve uma intervenção de apoio matricial, modelo de integração do cuidado em saúde mental na Estratégia de Saúde da Família (ESF, a partir de suporte técnico-pedagógico e retaguarda especializada à equipe de referência, cuja atuação permite que os sujeitos sejam cuidados na dinâmica do seu próprio território. OBJETIVO: relatar experiência de apoio matricial junto aos Agentes Comunitários de Saúde no bairro de Saramandaia (Salvador, Bahia que buscou formular novas formas de relação entre saúde mental e saúde da família. PROCEDIMENTOS METODOLÓGICOS: A experiência resultou de uma pesquisa, intitulada "Construção social da aprendizagem em saúde mental e saúde da família" e dos contatos com a equipe; nela foram respeitados três cuidados essenciais da pesquisa qualitativa: aprovação pelo comitê de ética, anonimato e resguardo do uso abusivo do poder na relação entre pesquisador e participantes. Para o matriciamento, foram realizadas reuniões teóricas, discussão de casos e visitas domiciliares. RESULTADOS: O apoio matricial propiciou a construção coletiva de saberes em saúde mental, garantiu espaço de cuidado aos Agentes Comunitários de Saúde e fomentou a construção de redes do cotidiano, estimulando a articulação entre saúde mental e saúde da família de forma a favorecer o exercício da cidadania e a autonomia dos sujeitos sobre sua própria saúde.This paper describes an intervention offering matrix support, a model for integrating mental health care in Family Health Strategy (FHS. In this model, technical-pedagogical and specialized services are offered to the primary care team, helping them to provide care to the patients in the dynamics of their own territory. OBJECTIVE: To report the experience of offering matrix support to Community Health Agents in the district of Saramandaia (Salvador, Bahia, which tried to formulate new possible relations between mental health and family

  7. Tuberculose na cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil: o perfil na década de 1990 Tuberculosis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, in the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Mota Xavier


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar o perfil epidemiológico da tuberculose (incidência e mortalidade no Município de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, na década de 1990, foram analisadas as características demográficas, clínicas e laboratoriais dos casos e óbitos por esta doença ocorridos no período. Foram calculadas as taxas médias anuais de mortalidade e da incidência por sexo, faixa etária e formas clínicas da doença com base nas informações dos bancos de dados do Sistema de Informações de Tuberculose da Secretaria de Saúde do Estado da Bahia e do Sistema de Informações de Mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde. Analisou-se a distribuição espacial da tuberculose segundo distritos sanitários. Ficou evidente o predomínio dos casos e óbitos no sexo masculino e na faixa etária de 15 a 39 anos. A forma pulmonar apresentou uma maior taxa de incidência e de mortalidade. Sobre a hipótese de que, a co-infecção AIDS/tuberculose possa contribuir para manter elevadas taxas de mortalidade, os dados existentes não corroboram para esta associação. A maior ocorrência de tuberculose em determinados distritos sanitários pode estar associada à densidade populacional e às condições desfavoráveis de vida.The characteristics of tuberculosis (TB cases and deaths were analyzed in order to characterize the epidemiological profile of TB (incidence and mortality in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, in the 1990s. Annual incidence and mortality rates were calculated by gender, age bracket, and clinical forms of the disease using databases from the Tuberculosis Information System of the Bahia State Health Secretariat and the Mortality Information System of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. TB spatial distribution was analyzed according to health district. Cases and deaths were predominantly in males in the 15 to 39 year group. The pulmonary form showed the highest incidence and mortality. The existing data did not corroborate the hypothesis that AIDS

  8. LA LOCALIDAD HISTÓRICO ARQUEOLÓGICA DEL RÍO SAN SALVADOR (SORIANO, URUGUAY The historical archaeological town of Rio San Salvador (Soriano, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José López Mazz


    Full Text Available Los primeros cronistas de la conquista del Río de la Plata expusieron la diversidad cultural reinante en el área en el siglo XVI. Las investigaciones arqueológicas de los años 60 y 70 confirman, a nivel arqueológico, la intensa ocupación de la que fue objeto esta zona próxima a la confluencia del río Paraná con el río Uruguay. Este trabajo presenta información producida durante un trabajo de diagnóstico realizado en el marco de la llamada Arqueología Pública, en un sitio de ocupación española del siglo XVI ubicado al oriente de dicha confluencia. Los resultados muestran que la ocupación del sitio desde el año 1000 AP está caracterizada por una amplia diversidad de estilos cerámicos. El área constituyó un lugar estratégico para los asentamientos europeos en función de la presencia de redes de intercambio pre existente. La información producida permite afinar la secuencia cronológica prehistórica para el bajo río Uruguay, al tiempo que abre el debate  respecto de la dinámica etnohistórica regional y del rol jugado por este particular asentamiento humano.   Palabras claves: asentamientos europeos, Uruguay, río San Salvador, siglo XVI.    Abstract Early chroniclers of the conquest of the Río de la Plata exposed the cultural diversity prevailing in the area in the sixteenth century. Archaeological research during the 60’s and 70’s confirm an intense occupation of the confluence of the Paraná river and the Uruguay river area. This paper presents information recovered during a diagnostic fieldwork developed on a Spanish settlement from the sixteenth century. The results show an intense occupation of the site since 1000 AP, characterized by a wide variety of ceramic styles. The area was a strategic location for European occupation due to the presence of preexisting exchange networks. Information produced refines prehistoric chronological sequence for lower Uruguay river while opening the discussion about regional

  9. Práticas de higiene em uma feira livre da cidade de Salvador (BA Hygiene practices in a street market in the city of Salvador, Bahia State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia de Sá Teles Minnaert


    Full Text Available Trata-se de compreender os significados das práticas de higiene dos alimentos em uma feira livre da cidade de Salvador (BA. O estudo etnográfico consegue apreender duas categorias centrais como produção simbólica das práticas higiênicas: o limpo como ordem e o sujo como desordem. Esses códigos culturais fazem correspondências com os estudos de Mary Douglas e Norbert Elias e apresentam especificidades para decifrar um mundo cotidiano em que concepções e práticas de higiene são aspectos normalizados por personagens que compartilham o espaço da feira: feirantes, consumidores, garis e fiscais municipais. O conhecimento técnico-científico e a legislação sanitária são tidos como estranhos ao sistema simbólico dos feirantes. As leis não são efetivas e não têm uma influência importante na construção das práticas higiênicas. As práticas dos fiscais municipais são coercitivas e punitivas e não consideram os valores culturais na formação de novas práticas de higiene.The main objective of this research is to understand the meaning of the practices concerning food hygiene in a street market in Salvador, the capital of Bahia State in Brazil. The ethnographic study presents two main categories for symbolic production related to hygiene practices: cleanliness as order and dirtiness as disorder. These cultural codes make correspondence with the studies of Mary Douglas and Nobert Elias. The codes present particularities to decode everyday life, in which concept and hygiene practices are aspects normalized, in daily activity, for persons who share the space of street market: vendors, consumers, street cleaners and official inspectors. The techno-scientific knowledge and sanitary legislation are strange to the symbolic system of street market vendors. The laws are ineffective and their influence is of little importance in the creation of hygiene practices. Official inspectors' attitudes are coercive and punitive and do not take

  10. La colección nacional de aves del Museo de historia natural de El Salvador: 40 años de ciencia


    Ibarra Portillo, Ricardo


    Antecedentes. Introducción. Quiénes, cómo y por qué hacer una recolecta científica. Importancia de las colecciones biológicas. Marco legal. Las colecciones ornitológicas en la región Centroamericana y Panamá. Breve historia del estudio de aves en El Salvador. La colección ornitológica de El Salvador. Especies interesantes. Proporción por departamento. Conclusiones. Agradecimientos. UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLÓGICA DE EL SALVADOR

  11. Host exploitation strategies of the social parasite Maculinea alcon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Matthias Alois

    . Throughout the first instars M. alcon lives on a specific food plant, however, in the last instar before pupation it develops into an obligate social parasite, posing a considerably cost to its host ant colony. I here focus on the different exploitation strategies of M. alcon throughout its lifecycle......  Coevolution is the process where at least two species put some selective pressure on each other, thereby reciprocally influencing each others evolution. To explain co-adaptations invoked by coevolution of interacting species, evolutionary biologists predominantly use host-parasite interactions...... as model systems. These enable the study of adaptations and counter-adaptations that might evolve in the arms-race between a parasite pursuing maximum gain and a host trying to avoid exploitation. One such system is the socially parasitic butterfly Maculinea alcon and its host the ant Myrmica rubra...

  12. Information source exploitation/exploration and NPD decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    of gate decision-making and information sources was developed across five generic stages (idea, concept, design, test, and commercialization). Our data was generated with a participatory agent-based simulation of NPD gate decision-points in the development process. The sample consists of 134 managers from......The purpose of this study is to examine how the exploration/exploitation continuum is applied by decision-makers in new product gate decision-making. Specifically, we analyze at gate decision-points how the evaluation of a new product project is affected by the information source exploitation....../exploration search behavior of decision-makers. In addition, overexploitation and overexploration in new product development decision-making is investigated through mediating effects of perceived information usefulness and applied performance criteria by decision-makers at gates. To this end a conceptual model...

  13. Exploitation of Natural Resources and the Public Sector in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    This paper considers the role of the public sector in future exploitation of non-renewable resources, especially minerals, in Greenland. The focus is on fiscal sustainability, principles for public sector involvement and the form of government take from mining activities. At present, the public...... to GDP. Hence, fiscal policy is quite far from being sustainable. Apart from a need for reforms, these facts also constrain the possible role of the public sector in future resource exploitation. In any case, the government should preferably adhere to strict principles when developing the mineral sector...... in Greenland. Furthermore, serious attention should be given to how to secure an appropriate government take from mineral activities. The paper discusses several types of taxes as well as financing models....

  14. Growth, Mortality and Exploitation Rates of Sarotherodon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Sarotherodon melanotheron population of Dominli Lagoon in the Western Region of Ghana was studied for its growth and mortality parameters as well as exploitation rate. The study generally aimed at providing basic information necessary for the assessment and management of the fish stock in the lagoon.

  15. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons exploiting spent substrate from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 13, 2014 ... Biodegradation of hydrocarbons exploiting spent substrate from Pleurotus ostreatus in agricultural soils. A. Mauricio-Gutiérrez1, T. Jiménez-Salgado2, A. Tapia-Hernández2, J. Cavazos-Arroyo1 and. B. Pérez-Armendáriz1*. 1Interdisciplinary Research and Consulting, Autonomus Popular University of State ...

  16. Exploiting a natural auxotrophy for genetic selection. (United States)

    Ramage, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Larry; Manoil, Colin


    We exploited the natural histidine auxotrophy of Francisella species to develop hisD (encodes histidinol dehydrogenase) as a positive selection marker. A shuttle plasmid (pBR103) carrying Escherichia coli hisD and designed for cloning of PCR fragments replicated in both attenuated and highly virulent Francisella strains. During this work, we formulated a simplified defined growth medium for Francisella novicida.

  17. Courseware Design: Exploiting the Colour Micro. (United States)

    Kidd, Marilyn E.; Holmes, Glyn


    Discusses the impact of the presentation of data on the educational effectiveness of computer assisted learning systems, describes some of the existing systems for controlling the display of instructional data on CRTs, and outlines a project undertaken at the University of Western Ontario to exploit the capabilities of microcomputer color…

  18. Child Exploitation: Some Pieces of the Puzzle. (United States)

    Rohlader, Dorothy

    The report addresses the status in North Carolina and in the nation of child exploitation. Legislative and judicial backgrounds of child pornography and child prostitution are reviewed, and difficulties in obtaining statistical data are noted. Law enforcement issues in pornography are cited, and suggestions for further legislation regarding child…

  19. On the dynamics of exploited fish populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beverton, R. J. H; Holt, Sidney J


    ...-brooding cichlids, and viviparity in many sharks and toothcarps. Moreover, fish are of considerable importance to the survival of the human species in the form of nutritious, delicious and diverse food. Rational exploitation and management of our global stocks of fishes must rely upon a detailed and precise insight of their biology. The...

  20. Exploiting indigenous knowledge in the environmental conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of agriculture and reared livestock (especially goats). Over several years, they developed sustainable and effective exploitation mechanisms of the existing biodiversity resources to satisfy their individual needs and those of their societies in general. Journal of Language, Technology and Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol.

  1. Groundwater exploitation in the Abakaliki metropolis (southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Full Length Research Paper. Groundwater exploitation in the Abakaliki metropolis. (southeastern Nigeria): Issues and challenges. O. P. Aghamelu*, H. N. Ezeh and A. I. Obasi. Department of Geology and Exploration Geophysics, Ebonyi State University, P.M.B., 053,. Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Accepted 24 September ...

  2. The Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207


    This essay discusses the involvement of organized crime in natural resource exploitation and trade. This is accomplished by examining case studies from different tropical regions in the world: Africa (Liberia, Sierra Leone, and DR Congo), Southeast Asia (Indonesia), and Latin America (Brazilian

  3. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (United States)

    ... Have you experienced the tragedy of a missing child? We're here to help. Learn More >> × KidSmartz New Parent Tips to Help Kids Set Physical Boundaries! Download Resources >> × Subscribe EN SP Blog Media About Us Contact Us Legal T&C Careers Copyright © National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. All ...

  4. Finding All Elementary Circuits Exploiting Transconductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Bruccoleri, F.; Nauta, Bram

    Commonly used elementary circuits like single transistor amplifier stages, the differential pair and current mirror basically exploit the transconductance of transistors. This paper aims at finding ALL elementary transconductance based circuits. For this purpose, all graphs of two-port circuits with

  5. Finding all elementary circuits exploiting transconductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Bruccoleri, F.; Nauta, Bram


    Commonly used elementary circuits like single-transistor amplifier stages, the differential pair, and current mirrors basically exploit the transconductance property of transistors. This paper aims at finding all elementary transconductance-based circuits. For this purpose, all graphs of two-port

  6. Trabalho em saúde: vigilância sanitária de farmácias no município de Salvador (Bahia, Brasil Work in health: sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador (state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Amorim Bastos


    Full Text Available A farmácia é um estabelecimento de interesse da saúde onde são dispensados medicamentos, tecnologia terapêutica mais utilizada na prática médica. Este trabalho objetiva descrever e analisar a vigilância sanitária de farmácias. A partir da teoria do processo de trabalho em saúde, realizou-se um estudo sobre a vigilância sanitária em farmácias de Salvador (Bahia, Brasil, segundo as categorias analíticas agentes e atividades. Os dados foram coletados por meio da observação, análise documental e entrevistas. No processamento, utilizou-se o software QSR N Vivo. Verificou-se multiprofissionalidade no quadro técnico, profissionais com pouco tempo de serviço em vigilância sanitária de farmácias e insuficiente capacitação técnica para o exercício das atividades. Foram observadas deficiências de ordem gerencial no serviço, que ainda não incorporou práticas de planejamento e avaliação. As atividades estão direcionadas à concessão da licença sanitária, priorizando-se o atendimento à demanda espontânea, configurando um modelo tecnológico de intervenção baseado na inspeção sanitária. Revelou-se a necessidade de modernização do serviço e utilização de tecnologias diversificadas para propiciar o controle do risco, dado que a evolução tecnológica oferece medicamentos cada vez mais potentes, porém com maior grau de risco.A drugstore is an establishment of interest in health, from which medication is dispensed, namely the therapeutic technology most broadly used in the practice of medicine. The scope of this study is to describe and analyze the sanitary surveillance of drugstores. Based on the theory of working processes in healthcare, a case study was conducted on the sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil, examining 2 analytical categories: agents and activities. Data were collected through observation, analysis of documents and interviews, and QSR N Vivo software was used for data

  7. Dissemination and Exploitation: Project Goals beyond Science (United States)

    Hamann, Kristin; Reitz, Anja


    Dissemination and Exploitation are essential parts of public funded projects. In Horizon 2020 a plan for the exploitation and dissemination of results (PEDR) is a requirement. The plan should contain a clear vision on the objectives of the project in relation to actions for dissemination and potential exploitation of the project results. The actions follow the basic idea to spread the knowledge and results gathered within the project and face the challenge of how to bring the results into potentially relevant policy circle and how they impact the market. The plan follows the purpose to assess the impact of the project and to address various target groups who are interested in the project results. Simply put, dissemination concentrates on the transfer of knowledge and exploitation on the commercialization of the project. Beyond the question of the measurability of project`s impact, strategies within science marketing can serve purposes beyond internal and external communication. Accordingly, project managers are facing the challenge to implement a dissemination and exploitation strategy that ideally supports the identification of all partners with the project and matches the current discourse of the project`s content within the society, politics and economy. A consolidated plan might unite all projects partners under a central idea and supports the identification with the project beyond the individual research questions. Which applications, strategies and methods can be used to bring forward a PEDR that accompanies a project successfully and allows a comprehensive assessment of the project afterwards? Which hurdles might project managers experience in the dissemination process and which tasks should be fulfilled by the project manager?

  8. Trolling may intensify exploitation in crappie fisheries (United States)

    Meals, K. O.; Dunn, A. W.; Miranda, Leandro E.


    In some parts of the USA, anglers targeting crappies Pomoxis spp. are transitioning from mostly stationary angling with a single pole around submerged structures to using multiple poles while drifting with the wind or under power. This shift in fishing methods could result in a change in catch efficiency, possibly increasing exploitation rates to levels that would be of concern to managers. We studied the catch statistics of anglers fishing while trolling with multiple poles (trollers) and those fishing with single poles (polers) in Mississippi reservoirs. Specifically, we tested whether (1) various catch statistics differed between trollers and polers, (2) catch rates of trollers were related to the number of poles fished, and (3) trollers could raise exploitation rates to potentially unsustainable levels. Results showed that participation in the crappie fisheries was about equally split between polers and trollers. In spring, 90% of crappie anglers were polers; in summer, 85% of crappie anglers were trollers. The size of harvested crappies was similar for the two angler groups, but the catch per hour was almost three times higher for trollers than for polers. Catch rates by trollers were directly correlated to the number of poles fished, although the relationship flattened as the number of poles increased. The average harvest rate for one troller fishing with three poles was similar to the harvest rate obtained by one poler. Simulations predicted that at the existing mix of about 50% polers and 50% trollers and with no restrictions on the number of poles used by trollers, exploitation of crappies is about 1.3 times higher than that in a polers-only fishery; under a scenario in which 100% of crappie anglers were trollers, exploitation was forecasted to increase to about 1.7 times the polers-only rate. The efficiency of trolling for crappies should be of concern to fishery managers because crappie fisheries are mostly consumptive and may increase exploitation

  9. Evidence of the negative effect of sexual minority stigma on HIV testing among MSM and transgender women in San Salvador, El Salvador. (United States)

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Hembling, John; Guardado, Maria Elena; de Maria Hernández, Flor; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Melendez, Giovanni


    A cross sectional survey was administered to 670 men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in San Salvador through respondent driven sampling to identify determinants of ever testing for HIV using a minority stress framework. A positive association was found between ever testing and older age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.10], past experience of sexual assault (aOR 2.92), perceiving that most social acquaintances had tested (aOR 1.81), and knowing a PLHIV (aOR 1.94). A negative association was found between homelessness and ever testing (aOR 0.43). Among the MSM sub-sample (n = 506), similar results were found for older age (aOR 2.63), and past experience of sexual assault (aOR 2.56). Internalized homonegativity was negatively associated with ever testing for HIV among MSM (aOR 0.46), and HIV testing stigma and experienced provider discrimination further strengthened this relationship. It is important to mitigate sexual minority stigma in order to increase HIV testing among MSM. Future research should explore this construct among TW.

  10. Parentesco, gênero e individuação no cotidiano da casa em um bairro popular de Salvador da Bahia Kinship, gender and individuation in the day-to-day life of the house in a working-class district of Salvador da Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia McCallum


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho analisamos a construção cotidiana de parentesco, individuação e diferenças de gênero num bairro de baixa renda de Salvador da Bahia, Brasil. Defendemos que a melhor forma de abordar esses temas é através de uma análise processual a partir da categoria “casa”; e que aqueles conceitos vinculados ao modelo estrutural-funcionalista ainda utilizados na literatura, como “ciclo de vida doméstico” ou “matrifocalidade”, dificultam em vez de facilitar a compreensão. A etnografia evidencia que a casa existe na medida em que está inserida em uma confi­guração de casas e que, em ambas, as relações se organizam ao integrar dois princípios distintos de “conectividade” (relatedness: “sangue” e “consideração”. Ademais, a existência relacional da casa e da configuração de casas está vinculada à coexistência e integração mútua de esforços de individuação e de processos relacionais.In this article we analyze the day-to-day construction of kinship, individuation and gender differences in a low income neighborhood of Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. We argue that these topics are best approached through a processual analysis based on the category “house”; and we show that those concepts linked to a structural-functionalist model still used in the literature, such as “the domestic life cycle” or “matrifocality”, hinder understand­ing more than help it. Our ethnography shows that in Salvador the house exists as included in a configuration of houses. Further, within both, relations are organized in such a way as to integrate two distinct principles of relatedness: “sangue” (“blood” and “consideração” (“intentional” relatedness. Moreover, the relational existence of the house and of the configuration of houses is linked to the coexistence and mutual integration of individuating efforts and relational processes.

  11. Polycystic ovary syndrome in Salvador, Brazil: a prevalence study in primary healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielli Ligia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common condition in women of reproductive age. It is characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea and polycystic ovaries. It is associated with obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. No studies have been conducted on the prevalence of PCOS in Brazilian or South American women. Few studies using the Rotterdam criteria have been published. The objective of the present study was to calculate the prevalence of PCOS at primary healthcare level in Salvador, Brazil based on these criteria. Methods This was a cross-sectional, two-phase study conducted in a probability sample of women of 18–45 years of age screened for cervical cancer in the primary healthcare network of the city of Salvador, Brazil. In the first phase, interviews were conducted, weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure and random blood sugar levels were measured, and the presence of acne and hirsutism was investigated. Women with at least one diagnostic criterion were referred for the second phase, which consisted of specialist consultation, pelvic ultrasonography and hormone measurements for differential diagnosis and/or investigation of a second criterion. Results Of the 859 women interviewed, 88.5% were black and 58.7% had 11 years of schooling or less. A diagnosis of PCOS was excluded in 84.4%, undetermined in 7.1% and confirmed in 8.5% (95%CI: 6.80–10.56. There were no statistically significant differences between these three groups with respect to weight, body mass index, waist circumference, blood sugar levels or arterial blood pressure. Women with PCOS were younger (p = 0.00, taller (p = 0.04, had fewer children (p = 0.00, were better educated (p = 0.01, and had higher total testosterone levels (p = 0.01 and a higher LH/FSH ratio (p = 0.01. Conclusion According to the Rotterdam criteria, the prevalence of PCOS in women seeking primary

  12. Social vulnerability as a contributing factor to disasters in Central America: A case study at San Vicente volcano, El Salvador (United States)

    Bowman, L. J.; Henquinet, K. B.; Gierke, J. S.; Rose, W. I.


    El Salvador's geographic location on the Pacific Ring of Fire at the juncture of the Caribbean and Cocos plates exposes its population to various natural hazards, including volcanic eruptions (e.g., Santa Ana in 2005), earthquakes (e.g., January 13 and February 13, 2001), and landslides and flooding due to tropical rainfall events (e.g., Hurricane Mitch in 1998, Hurricane Stan in 2005). Such hazards can be devastating anywhere, but the condition of social vulnerability in which many Salvadorans currently live exacerbates the impacts of these hazards. Aspects contributing to most rural Salvadorans being marginalized include a colonial history marked by ethnic discrimination and laws prohibiting land ownership, lack of access to desirable land in an agrarian society, a poor education system, global economic policies that foster inequality, political marginalization, a bloody civil conflict, and rampant criminality and violence. In November 2009, an extreme rainfall event triggered landslides and lahars killing over 200 people at San Vicente volcano. This disaster brought to light weaknesses in disaster preparedness and response plans. Despite the existence of recent hazard maps and lahar inundation models (2001), and the occurrence of a similar, deadly event in 1934, the population appeared to be unaware of the risk, and lacked the organization and decision-making protocols to adequately deal with the emergency. Therefore, in the aftermath of the 2009 lahars, much of the focus on disaster risk reduction (DRR) initiatives has been aimed at the communities affected by this most recent event. Our study examines root causes of social vulnerability and assesses the apparent impacts of these interventions on the population, including individual's perceptions regarding these risk-reducing interventions. Two years after the event, though aid abounds, many people remain vulnerable to hazards in this area. Semi-structured interviews were completed with survivors of the 2009

  13. Exploiting for medical and biological applications (United States)

    Giano, Michael C.

    Biotherapeutics are an emerging class of drug composed of molecules ranging in sizes from peptides to large proteins. Due to their poor stability and mucosal membrane permeability, biotherapeutics are administered by a parenteral method (i.e., syringe, intravenous or intramuscular). Therapeutics delivered systemically often experience short half-lives. While, local administration may involve invasive surgical procedures and suffer from poor retention at the site of application. To compensate, the patient receives frequent doses of highly concentrated therapeutic. Unfortunately, the off-target side effects and discomfort associated with multiple injections results in poor patient compliance. Therefore, new delivery methods which can improve therapeutic retention, reduce the frequency of administration and may aid in decreasing the off-target side effects is a necessity. Hydrogels are a class of biomaterials that are gaining interests for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Hydrogel materials are defined as porous, 3-dimensional networks that are primarily composed of water. Generally, they are mechanically rigid, cytocompatible and easily chemically functionalized. Collectively, these properties make hydrogels fantastic candidates to perform as drug delivery depots. Current hydrogel delivery systems physically entrap the target therapeutic which is then subsequently released over time at the site of administration. The swelling and degradation of the material effect the diffusion of the therapy from the hydrogel, and therefore should be controlled. Although these strategies provide some regulation over therapeutic release, full control of the delivery is not achieved. Newer approaches are focused on designing hydrogels that exploit known interactions, covalently attach the therapy or respond to an external stimulus in an effort to gain improved control over the therapy's release. Unfortunately, the biotherapeutic is typically required to be chemically

  14. El Salvador, Chile porphyry copper deposit revisited: Geologic and geochronologic framework (United States)

    Cornejo, P.; Tosdal, R.M.; Mpodozis, C.; Tomlinson, A.J.; Rivera, O.; Fanning, C.M.


    The Eocene (42 to 41 Ma) El Salvador porphyry copper deposit in the Indio Muerto district, northern Chile (26?? 15??? S Lat.), formerly thought to have formed at the culmination of a 9-m.y. period of episodic magmatism, is shown by new mapping, U-Pb and K-Ar geochronology, and petrologic data to have formed during the younger of two distinct but superposed magmatic events - a Paleocene (???63 to 58 Ma) and an Eocene (44 to 41 Ma) event. In the district, high-K Paleocene volcano-plutonic activity was characterized by a variety of eruptive styles and magmatic compositions, including a collapse caldera associated with explosive rhyolitic magmatism (El Salvador trap-door caldera), a post-collapse rhyolite dome field (Cerro Indio Muerto), and andesitic-trachyandesitic stratovolcanos (Kilo??metro Catorce-Los Amarillos sequence). Precaldera basement faults were reactivated during Paleocene volcanism as part of the collapse margin of the caldera. Beneath Cerro Indio Muerto, where the porphyry Cu deposit subsequently formed, the intersection of two major basement faults and the NNE-striking rotational axis of tilted ignimbrites of the Paleocene El Salvador caldera localized emplacement of post-collapse rhyolite domes and peripheral dikes and sills. Subsequent Eocene rhyolitic and granodioritic-dacitic porphyries intruded ???14 m.y. after cessation of Paleocene magmatism along the same NNE-striking structural belt through Cerro Indio Muerto as did the post-collapse Paleocene rhyolite domes. Eocene plutonism over a 3-m.y. period was contemporaneous with NW-SE-directed shortening associated with regional sinistral transpression along the Sierra Castillo fault, lying ???10 km to the east. Older Eocene rhyolitic porphyries in the Indio Muerto district were emplaced between 44 and 43 Ma, and have a small uneconomic Cu center associated with a porphyry at Old Camp. The oldest granodioritic-dacitic porphyries also were emplaced at ???44 to 43 Ma, but their petrogenetic relation to

  15. Adela Salvador. Una vida dedicada a las Matemáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Martín Díaz


    Full Text Available En el verano de 2012 tuve la oportunidad de entrevistar a la matemática Adela Salvador,que no sólo se ha preocupado de la enseñanza de la materia en Institutos o Universidades,sino que también ha realizado importantes investigaciones en el campo de la Lógica Borrosa (entre otros y especializado en la vida de otras Mujeres Matemáticas que la precedieron. Lleva dando clases unos 45 años, de forma ininterrumpida. Ha dirigido, coordinado o colaborado con más de 83 proyectos de investigación o de innovación educativa. Ha escrito 76 libros, 116 artículos, 94 ponencias a congresos, y ha impartido montones de cursos, seminarios, conferencias durante todos esos años.

  16. Health sector response to security threats during the civil war in E1 Salvador. (United States)

    Brentlinger, P. E.


    During the recent civil war in E1 Salvador, as in other modern wars, human rights abuses adversely affected health workers, patients, and medical facilities. The abuses themselves have been described in reports of human rights advocacy organisations but health sector adaptations to a hostile wartime environment have not. Agencies engaged in health work during the civil war adapted parties such as training of community based lay health workers, use of simple technology, concealment of patients and medical supplies, denunciation of human rights abuses, and multilevel negotiations in order to continue providing services. The Salvadorean experience may serve as a helpful case study for medical personnel working in wars elsewhere. Images p1471-a p1472-a p1473-a PMID:8973238

  17. Periodismo salvadoreño: de la intolerancia política a las posibilidades informativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alfredo Cantarero


    Full Text Available En este artículo se plantea la historia reciente del periodismo salvadoreño: antes de los acuerdos de paz y después de los acuerdos de paz. Se sostiene que durante la guerra el periodismo se realizaba con las limitaciones que impuso la intolerancia política. A partir de los acuerdos de paz, por la distensión política y la instauración de la democracia, el periodismo tiene mayores posibilidades de realizar un trabajo más profesional. Sin embargo, profesionalizarlo más implica superar dificultades propias del gremio de periodistas, que se encuentran el orden de la responsabilidad social, el manejo técnico, el respeto a las leyes y a la asunción de normas éticas.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article presents a rich nucleus of documentation dealing with the punitive reclusion of an upper class married woman in Salvador during the period of 1788 and 1807. As a case study of the role played by the institutions of feminine reclusion in family relations it highlights the efforts of diverse personages and institutions preserve the honor of married woman. On the other hand, it illustrates the behavior could include complete submission, to request for divorce and the commitment of transgressions. The article points out the importance of studding feminine reclusion in order to analysis family relations in colonial Brazil. lt also concludes that conjugal relations during the Old Regimen were not confined to the private sphere.

  19. Acoso en la escuela Salvadoreña:más allá del bullying


    Bermúdez Valle, Alvaro


    Bullying es el término anglosajón con el que se designa a la situación de acoso entre escolares. Acuñado por Dan Olweus en la década de 1970, el término ayudó a identificar y estudiar dichas prácticas alrededor del mundo. Sin embargo, el acoso escolar, como todo fenómeno social, muta a través del tiempo. Este ensayo parte del supuesto que el término bullying es insuficiente para explicar las situaciones que actualmente suceden en la escuela salvadoreña. Realizado en el marco de una investiga...

  20. La construcción de Return ticket, de Salvador Novo: el viaje doble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heladio Colín-Medina


    Full Text Available Con base en la narratología, se describe la forma en que el autor / narrador / personaje construye el viaje doble en Return Ticket , y se analiza dicho trayecto en exterior / objetivo e interior / subjetivo. Así se encontró que el primer viaje permite al personaje Salvador —en sus tres facetas de cronista, crítico e historiador— relatar un viaje a Hawái, donde reflexiona sobre el nacionalismo que se estaba gestando en 1928; mientras que el segundo lleva al lector hacia la recreación de una infancia. De modo que el viaje exterior / objetivo es sólo el pretexto para plantear el interior / subjetivo.

  1. Hippo pathway phylogenetics predicts monoubiquitylation of Salvador and Merlin/Nf2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Wisotzkey

    Full Text Available Recently we employed phylogenetics to predict that the cellular interpretation of TGF-β signals is modulated by monoubiquitylation cycles affecting the Smad4 signal transducer/tumor suppressor. This prediction was subsequently validated by experiments in flies, frogs and mammalian cells. Here we apply a phylogenetic approach to the Hippo pathway and predict that two of its signal transducers, Salvador and Merlin/Nf2 (also a tumor suppressor are regulated by monoubiquitylation. This regulatory mechanism does not lead to protein degradation but instead serves as a highly efficient "off/on" switch when the protein is subsequently deubiquitylated. Overall, our study shows that the creative application of phylogenetics can predict new roles for pathway components and new mechanisms for regulating intercellular signaling pathways.

  2. Sociocultural construction of San Salvador de Jujuy, the symbolic border between Argentina and Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Gaona


    Full Text Available The city of San Salvador de Jujuy is analyzed both as a border space and as a city space. Through the systematization of local studies, the aim is to consider the historical, political, socioeconomic, migratory and symbolic elements that create the urban border experience. This contribution focuses on reconstructing the city as a network of senses. It deepens our understanding of migratory flows, the recent political situation, the impact of economic inequality on urbanisms, and the relevance of media and ritual acts in the configuration of dominant senses in cities. In addition, the factors that demarcate the difference and local inequality and the process of peripheralization and impoverishment of the soil are examined. Both the recent political conflicts that affect regional disarticulation and the symbolic disputes that cause tension in national belonging against a strong Andean influence are outlined.

  3. Perceived Parental Monitoring and Health Risk Behavior among Public Secondary School Students in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Springer


    Full Text Available Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982. After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, multilevel regression analyses indicated that students reporting low parental monitoring were between 2 to 3.5 times more likely to report risk behaviors examined. The promotion of specific parenting practices such as parental monitoring may hold promise for reducing adolescent risk behaviors in El Salvador.

  4. Marvels of Illusion: illusion and perception in the art of Salvador Dali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana eMartinez-Conde


    Full Text Available The surrealist movement aimed to blur the distinction between the real and the imagined. Such lack of a border between demonstrable truth and fantasy is perhaps most apparent in the art of Spanish painter Salvador Dali (1904-1989. Dali included numerous illusions in his artworks, with the intent to challenge the viewers’ perceptions of reality and to enable them to see beyond the surface. The Marvels of Illusion exhibit, shown at The Dali Museum in St. Petersburg, FL., from June 14 to October 12, 2014, showcased Dali paintings, prints and sculptures centered on illusory themes. Here we review the significance of illusions in Dali’s art, focusing on the pieces displayed at the Marvels of Illusion exhibit.

  5. Comparing Madrid and Salvador GHG Emission Inventories: Implications for Future Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Celio Silveira Andrade


    Full Text Available This paper compares the Greenhouse Gas (GHG emission inventories of Madrid and Salvador and discusses some implications for future researches, focusing on citylevel carbon accounting (CLCA of emissions from urban supply chains (USC and final consumers. To carry out this study, secondary data were collected from official documents of municipal governments of these two cities. According to the results, there are differences in stationary energy GHG emissions due to the big distinction concerning electricity emission factors used by each city. Air transportation GHG emissions are also very different. These two cities share some common figures regarding road transportation and per capita waste sector GHG emissions. In the conclusion section, we discuss opportunities for improvement of the cities’ GHG emission inventories as well as some implications for policy-making and future researches on carbon accounting, with focus on an integrated production-consumption system.

  6. Expressão da tristeza em camada popular urbana de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Lívia Alessandra F. da


    Full Text Available Este artigo examina as peculiaridades da expressão da emoção em um bairro popular de Salvador, Bahia, o Nordeste de Amaralina. Focalizando nossa exploração na expressão da tristeza, tentamos construir um esquema que possibilite a compreensão de como os informantes percebem, identificam e lidam com esta emoção no curso de suas vidas cotidianas. Perseguindo este objetivo, construímos uma rede semântica que revela a existência de três agrupamentos principais de expressão emocional: um grupo "interior", um "corporal" e outro "interativo". Observamos também as superposições entre o universo da expressão emocional e o conceito de pessoa local.

  7. [Hygiene practices in a street market in the city of Salvador, Bahia State]. (United States)

    Minnaert, Ana Cláudia de Sá Teles; Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares


    The main objective of this research is to understand the meaning of the practices concerning food hygiene in a street market in Salvador, the capital of Bahia State in Brazil. The ethnographic study presents two main categories for symbolic production related to hygiene practices: cleanliness as order and dirtiness as disorder. These cultural codes make correspondence with the studies of Mary Douglas and Nobert Elias. The codes present particularities to decode everyday life, in which concept and hygiene practices are aspects normalized, in daily activity, for persons who share the space of street market: vendors, consumers, street cleaners and official inspectors. The techno-scientific knowledge and sanitary legislation are strange to the symbolic system of street market vendors. The laws are ineffective and their influence is of little importance in the creation of hygiene practices. Official inspectors' attitudes are coercive and punitive and do not take into account any cultural values when enforcing new hygiene practices.

  8. Molecular biology in Salvador Dalí’s artistic career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel López del Rincón


    Full Text Available Salvador Dalí’s relationship with science is one of the most important aspects of his artistic production, spanning disciplines such as physics, mathematics and biology. Considering his interest in the different sciences, the aim of this paper is to explore the special relationship between the painter and molecular biology, establishing a catalogue of works permitting the identification of its importance within Dalí’s career. We will try to demonstrate that the so-called «DNA period» encompasses a broader chronology than the one traditionally proposed, extending it from 1957 until the 1980s. That would place Dalí as the pioneer in the incorporation of molecular biology into art history.

  9. Gênero e brincadeira em parquinhos públicos de Salvador (BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Silva Fiaes


    Full Text Available Studies about the use of space to play in open environments have shown that boys and girls show differences in play, preference for certain kinds of spaces and in how they organize themselves. This study proposes to describe and discuss ways to use space in two playgrounds in the city of Salvador, prioritizing the issues associated with how girls and boys use them to play. Sessions of observation were registered, through focus on cursive records of the event of play and scanning observations in Tororo’s Dock and Campo Grande. There were no significant differences in the presence of boys and girls. Children played predominantly using physical exercise, with differences in the frequency of participation of segregated and mixed groups. Differences were found in the use of space based on gender, linked to the size of the available spaces and the adult’s presence.   Keywords: gender; play; public playground.

  10. Marvels of illusion: illusion and perception in the art of Salvador Dali. (United States)

    Martinez-Conde, Susana; Conley, Dave; Hine, Hank; Kropf, Joan; Tush, Peter; Ayala, Andrea; Macknik, Stephen L


    The surrealist movement aimed to blur the distinction between the real and the imagined. Such lack of a border between demonstrable truth and fantasy is perhaps most apparent in the art of Spanish painter Salvador Dali (1904-1989). Dali included numerous illusions in his artworks, with the intent to challenge the viewers' perceptions of reality and to enable them to see beyond the surface. The "Marvels of Illusion" exhibit, shown at The Dali Museum in St. Petersburg, FL., from June 14 to October 12, 2014, showcased Dali paintings, prints and sculptures centered on illusory themes. Here, we review the significance of illusions in Dali's art, focusing on the pieces displayed at the "Marvels of Illusion" exhibit.

  11. Dynamics of Blue Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions Along a Land Use Gradient in El Salvador (United States)

    Cifuentes, M.; Torres, D.; Sergio, V.; Rivera, C. G.; Molina, O.


    Coastal blue carbon ecosystems can store up to 5 times more carbon than their terrestrial counterparts. The former are also under great threats stemming from climate change (i.e. sea level rise) and human encroachment (i.e. land use change). Our research was conducted in Jiquilisco and Jaltepeque Bays in El Salvador and constitutes the first-ever assessment of blue carbon stocks and GHG emissions along a land use gradient in the country. Ecosystem-level carbon stocks were measured in mangroves (natural and restored stands), marshes, shrimp farms, artisan salt flats, and adjacent agriculture areas. Ecosystem carbon ranged from 738 ± 116 MgC·ha-1 to 617 ± 115 MgC·ha-1 in tall and medium mangroves to 191 ± 28 MgC·ha-1 in dwarf mangroves. An average 87 % of this carbon is sequestered in the soil, consistent with measurements made elsewhere. Carbon losses from conversion from mangroves to agricultural uses reduced natural stocks by 90%, thus producing dramatic historical emissions in the country. Conservative estimates suggest historical (1993-2014) carbon emissions from this land-use dynamics may amount to 48495 to 58004 Gg CO2e, representing 3 to 4 times the country's emissions in 2005. Our data allow us to test the efficacy of "Ecological Mangrove Restoration" programs promoted in El Salvador to strengthen local governance, livelihoods and ecosystem stability. Restored mangrove stands represent anywhere from 36 to 77 % of ecosystem carbon stocks measured in natural stands, suggesting they are playing an important role in recovering lost stocks over time. Further efforts should be spent in expanding community mangrove restoration, and ensuring carbon sequestration is properly included in the national MRV system for REDD+.

  12. Factors associated with body image dissatisfaction among adolescents in public schools students in Salvador, Brazil. (United States)

    Santana, Mônica L P; Silva, Rita de Cássia R; Assis, Ana M O; Raich, Rosa M; Machado, Maria Ester P C; de J Pinto, Elizabete; de Moraes, Lia T L P; Ribeiro Júnior, Hugo da C


    To identify the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and associated factors among students in Salvador, Brazil. A cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 1,494 (852 girls and 642 boys) adolescents between 11 and 17 years of age who were students in the public schools in Salvador, Brazil. Participants completed the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Eating Attitudes Test-26. Body image was characterized as satisfactory or unsatisfactory. We obtained demographic, anthropometric and economic information and information regarding the stage of maturation, self-perception of body weight, and consumption of sweetened beverages and diet soft drinks. To identify associated factors we used Poisson regression analysis. Body image dissatisfaction was present in 19.5% of the adolescents, with a prevalence of 26.6% among the girls and 10% among the boys. Independent of sex, the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was higher among adolescents who were overweight or obese (girls, PR: 1.38, CI: 1.09-1.73 and boys, PR: 2.26, CI: 1.08-4.75), higher among those who perceived themselves as fat (girls, PR: 2.85, CI: 2.07-3.93 and boys, PR: 3.17, CI: 1.39-7.23), and higher among those who had negative attitudes toward eating (girls, PR: 2.42, CI: 1.91-3.08 and boys, PR: 4.67, CI: 2.85-7.63).. A reduction in body image dissatisfaction was only identified among underweight girls (PR: 0.12, CI: 0.03-0.49). A high occurrence of body image dissatisfaction was observed among the adolescents, and biological and behavioral factors were associated with this dissatisfaction. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Wi-Fi Salvador: mapeamento colaborativo e redes sem fio no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lemos

    Full Text Available O trabalho faz uma breve demonstração de políticas públicas para inclusão digital por meio da disponibilização do acesso à internet por meio de redes sem fio e discute a forma como as pessoas se relacionam com os lugares, de acordo com a existência ou inexistência de acessibilidade à internet. O objetivo é discutir o acesso à internet pelas redes sem fio no Brasil e, mais especificamente, na cidade de Salvador. Este trabalho é fruto de pesquisa realizada no âmbito do Grupo de Pesquisa em Cibercidades da Universidade Federal da Bahia e mostra como a intersecção entre o ciberespaço e o espaço físico está trazendo novas experiências de uso e de produção de sentido sobre a cidade. Hoje, a urbe contemporânea supõe ampla conexão e associações entre espaço físico e "territórios informacionais" para os mais diversos fins, em uma aliança entre a mobilidade física e a informacional. Assim, mostramos os principais desafios teóricos em jogo com as mídias digitais, as redes sem fio e o espaço urbano. A partir deste aporte, o trabalho faz uma análise do projeto Wi-Fi Salvador, o maior mapeamento de redes sem fio já realizado na capital baiana e no Brasil.

  14. Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Matos Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common vaginal infection. HIV-infection is a risk factor for this infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of VVC and to describe the main Candida species isolated and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs in HIV-infected patients, compared to HIV-uninfected women in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a group of 64 HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women, followed up at the AIDS reference center and at the Gynecological Clinic of Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. RESULTS: Frequency of Candida spp. was higher in HIV-infected women (29.7% than in HIV-uninfected controls (14.5% (p = 0.02. The odds ratio value for vulvovaginal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.07 - 6.32 p = 0.03. Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species in both HIV-infected (52.3% and uninfected women (85.7%, followed by C. parapsolis in 17.6% and 14.3%, respectively. In HIV-infected women, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and a coinfection of C. albicans and C. glabrata were also identified. There was no significant difference between Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of women with VVC and colonization of the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. One C. glabrata isolate from an HIV-infected patient was resistant to fluconazole and other two isolates exhibited a dose-dependent susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm a higher frequency of Candida spp. isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women and a broader spectrum of species involved. Only Candida glabrata isolates showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole.

  15. Bacterial contamination in milk kitchens in pediatric hospitals in Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romilda Castro Cairo

    Full Text Available Milk may represent an important source of infectious agents to hospitalized pediatric patients. To describe the bacterial microflora isolated from the hands, stools, pharynx of all workers at milk kitchens in pediatric hospitals in the city of Salvador, Brazil, as well as in the formulas prepared by them, we carried out this cross-sectional study with all 91 workers from the 20 milk kitchens of all the public and private hospitals in Salvador, Brazil. Hand and pharynx swabs and stool samples were collected from all workers, as well as samples of the milk and formulas delivered by the kitchens. All samples were cultured for the detection of pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 20 (22.0% and 8 (8.8% cultures of the hands and pharynx of the workers, respectively. No pathogenic bacteria were isolated from stool samples. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 17 (18.7% milk samples. The prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in hand swabs was significantly higher in workers from public (37.8% than from private (6.5% hospitals (prevalence ratio [PR]=5.8; p<0.01. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from two (4.4% workers from public hospitals and six (13.0% workers from private hospitals (PR=0.38; p=0.27. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 11 (24.4% milk samples from public hospitals and 6 (13.0% from private hospitals (PR=1.9; p=0.16. A high prevalence of contamination was found, mainly on the hands of workers on units for manipulation of milk. Preventive efforts should be intensified and focus primarily on effective hand washing and continuous work supervision.

  16. Prevalence of patients receiving renal replacement therapy in El Salvador in 2014. (United States)

    García-Trabanino, Ramón; Trujillo, Zulma; Colorado, Ana Verónica; Magaña Mercado, Salvador; Henríquez, Carlos Atilio

    El Salvador has the highest renal failure mortality rate in the Americas. Five healthcare providers offer renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the country. The national RRT prevalence has never been reported. To determine the RRT prevalence in El Salvador and some basic characteristics. The association of nephrology coordinated a nationwide cross-sectional survey during the third quarter of 2014. 31 renal centres participated in the survey, covering 99.5% of patients. National RRT prevalence: 595 per million population (pmp), N=3807, average age 50.4 years, 67.5% male. By modality: peritoneal dialysis (PD) 289 pmp, haemodialysis (HD) 233 pmp, with functioning kidney transplantation 74 pmp (living donor only). Social security covers 25% of the population but treats 49.7% of RRT patients. Generally, higher prevalence was observed in municipalities with renal centres or located on the coast or lowlands. Ninety-five percent of HD patients receive fewer than 3 weekly sessions. Of PD patients, 59% do not belong to a continuous outpatient or automated programme, and 25% still use rigid catheter. Aetiology of chronic kidney disease: unavailable/undetermined 50%, hypertension 21.1%, diabetes 18.9%, glomerulonephritis 6.7%, obstructive causes 1.2%, tubulointerstitial 0.9%, polycystic 0.4% and other 0.7%. Despite the increase in RRT services, the prevalence is lower than the Latin American average (660 pmp). Three quarters of HD and PD patients are under-dialysed. Obsolete RRT techniques are still used. The presence of Mesoamerican nephropathy influences the demographic characteristics (many young patients, two-thirds male, high prevalence in lowlands and coastlands). Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Distribuição espacial da mortalidade por tuberculose em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Frias Mota


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de descrever a distribuição espacial da mortalidade por tuberculose em Salvador nos anos de 1991, 1994 e 1997, foi realizado um estudo ecológico, descritivo, tendo como unidade de análise o Distrito Sanitário (DS. Foram calculados os coeficientes padronizados de mortalidade por tuberculose e a mortalidade proporcional por tuberculose, em relação ao conjunto das doenças infecciosas e parasitárias, utilizando-se as declarações de óbitos como fonte de dados. O DS com os maiores coeficientes padronizados foi o Subúrbio Ferroviário, com taxas de 15,7, 10,6 e 10,6/100 mil habitantes, em 1991, 1994 e 1997, respectivamente. Em 1997, foram observadas as menores taxas padronizadas. A mortalidade proporcional por tuberculose em Salvador, nos anos de 1991, 1994 e 1997, representou 20,7%, 18,2 % e 16,9%, respectivamente, do total das mortes por doenças infecciosas e parasitárias. A faixa etária de maior risco, nos anos estudados, foi aquela acima de 65 anos. Os autores discutem as possibilidades de utilização dos resultados deste estudo para a implementação de políticas locais de saúde equânimes e desenvolvimento de operações de vigilância da saúde, tendo em vista a identificação de DS com maior risco de óbito e as faixas etárias mais acometidas.

  18. Distribuição espacial da mortalidade por tuberculose em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Fábio Frias


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de descrever a distribuição espacial da mortalidade por tuberculose em Salvador nos anos de 1991, 1994 e 1997, foi realizado um estudo ecológico, descritivo, tendo como unidade de análise o Distrito Sanitário (DS. Foram calculados os coeficientes padronizados de mortalidade por tuberculose e a mortalidade proporcional por tuberculose, em relação ao conjunto das doenças infecciosas e parasitárias, utilizando-se as declarações de óbitos como fonte de dados. O DS com os maiores coeficientes padronizados foi o Subúrbio Ferroviário, com taxas de 15,7, 10,6 e 10,6/100 mil habitantes, em 1991, 1994 e 1997, respectivamente. Em 1997, foram observadas as menores taxas padronizadas. A mortalidade proporcional por tuberculose em Salvador, nos anos de 1991, 1994 e 1997, representou 20,7%, 18,2 % e 16,9%, respectivamente, do total das mortes por doenças infecciosas e parasitárias. A faixa etária de maior risco, nos anos estudados, foi aquela acima de 65 anos. Os autores discutem as possibilidades de utilização dos resultados deste estudo para a implementação de políticas locais de saúde equânimes e desenvolvimento de operações de vigilância da saúde, tendo em vista a identificação de DS com maior risco de óbito e as faixas etárias mais acometidas.

  19. Incidence of diarrhea in children living in urban slums in Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clotildes N. de Melo

    Full Text Available Diarrhea remains a major health issue in developing countries, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Determining the incidence of acute diarrhea in children and its associated factors is crucial to the planning of preventive approaches. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of diarrhea and to assess some relevant associated factors to it in children younger than 40 months living in two slums of Salvador, Brazil. This is the first prospective cohort, community-based study that was performed in two periurban slums of Salvador, Brazil. Eighty-four children younger than 40 months were randomly selected and visited every other day for one year. The chi-square test was used to evaluate the occurrence of diarrhea and its associated factors. During the surveillance period, 232 diarrhea episodes were identified, resulting in an incidence rate of 2.8 episodes/child/year. In average (mean value of 84 children,each child suffered 11.1 days of diarrhea per year, yielding an average duration of 3.9 days per episode. The highest incidence rates were found among children under one year old. Early weaning, male sex, malnutrition, having a mother younger than 25 years or who considered her child malnourished, missed immunizations and previous pneumonia were associated factors for suffering diarrheal episodes. The rates of incidence and duration of diarrhea that we found are in accordance to those reported by others. Additionally, our results reinforce the importance of environmental and health-related associated factors to the onset of diarrhea.

  20. Serological survey of Leishmania infection in blood donors in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil. (United States)

    Fukutani, Kiyoshi F; Figueiredo, Virgínia; Celes, Fabiana S; Cristal, Juqueline R; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel; de Oliveira, Camila I


    Visceral Leishmaniasis is endemic to Brazil, where it is caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi). Following parasite inoculation, individuals may experience asymptomatic infection, raising the possibility of parasite transmission through the transfusion of contaminated blood products. In the present work, we evaluated the prevalence of asymptomatic Leishmania infection among blood donors in Salvador, northeastern Brazil. Peripheral blood was collected from 700 blood donors attending the Blood Bank of Bahia (HEMOBA/SESAB), from January to September 2010. We evaluated anti-Leishmania serology by ELISA, employing Soluble Leishmania Antigen (sensitivity 90% and specificity 95%). The presence of parasite DNA was determined by qPCR, targeting a single copy gene (G6PD), and by end-point PCR, targeting multiple targets, namely a segment located in the Leishmania rRNA locus (ITS) and the conserved region of kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) minicircles. The blood-donor population was comprised of 74.5% of males with a mean age of 34 years. Anti-Leishmania serology by ELISA was positive in 5.4% (38/700) individuals. One individual was also positive for Chagas' disease and another tested positive for Syphilis. Employing qPCR, parasite DNA was not found in any of 38 seropositive samples. However, by ITS PCR, 8/38 (21%) samples were positive and this positivity increased to 26/38 (68%) when we targeted kDNA amplification. Agreement between both techniques (ITS and kDNA PCR) was fair (kappa = 0.219). These results indicate that asymptomatic infection is present among the blood donor population of Salvador, a finding that warrants a broader discussion regarding the need to implement specific screening strategies.

  1. Exploiting host immunity: the Salmonella paradigm (United States)

    Behnsen, Judith; Perez-Lopez, Araceli; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Raffatellu, Manuela


    Pathogens have evolved clever strategies to evade and in some cases exploit the attacks of an activated immune system. Salmonella enterica is one such pathogen, exploiting multiple aspects of host defense to promote its replication in the host. Here we review recent findings on the mechanisms by which Salmonella establishes systemic and chronic infection, including strategies involving manipulation of innate immune signaling and inflammatory forms of cell death, as well as immune evasion by establishing residency in M2 macrophages. We also examine recent evidence showing that the oxidative environment and the high levels of antimicrobial proteins produced in response to localized Salmonella gastrointestinal infection enable the pathogen to successfully outcompete the resident gut microbiota. PMID:25582038

  2. Organizational Factors for Exploration and Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharadindu Pandey


    Full Text Available The Purpose of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework which suggests a relationship between organisational factors and exploratory and exploitative innovation types. We searched major databases like ABI/INFORM global, EBSCO, Elsevier’s science direct, Springer link and Emerald full text. Most of studies were included from published sources. We explored the literature of organisational culture, motivational bases of the rewards system and leadership values which are responsible for increasing creative and productive output. Our study has attempted to identify common patterns and themes in the literature regarding the drivers that increase both sides of the organisational creativity. The paper discusses the role of culture, system and styles in the initiation and implementation phases of the innovation called herein exploitative and exploratory innovation.

  3. Tribal children are most exploited - UNICEF. (United States)

    A workshop sponsored by the UN Children's Fund in the Philippines examined the status of the children of indigenous people and found that exploitation of the assets of indigenous people in the name of development has resulted in social inequalities that have damaged the indigenous children. As examples of the disregard for the human rights of the children, participants cited projects in Davao, Boracay, and Benguet that have displaced native children. These include mining schemes that have "raped" ancestral lands, large-scale agricultural enterprises, promotion of tourism, and creation of hydroelectric dams. The children rarely benefit at all from any of these projects as their families are moved from a position of isolated independence to one of exploited dependence. Social changes accompanying development ruin traditional culture without providing a better or even similar basis of existence.

  4. Sustainable exploitation and management of aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Köster, Fritz


    DTU Aqua conducts research, provides advice,educates at university level and contributes toinnovation in sustainable exploitation andmanagement of aquatic resources. The vision of DTUAqua is to enable ecologically and economicallysustainable exploitation of aquatic resourcesapplying an integrated...... ecosystem approach whichutilizes synergies in natural and technical sciencedisciplines. DTU Aqua advises the Danish Ministry ofFood, Agriculture and Fisheries and other publicauthorities, the commercial fisheries, theaquaculture industry and international commissions.DTU Aqua deals with all types ofaquatic...... in the ocean and how these factors impact the living conditions formarine organisms. Population genetics aims at gaining knowledge on how to preserve and managebiodiversity sustainably. Individual biology deals with the biology of aquatic organisms and theirinteraction with other organisms...

  5. Automatic exploitation system for photographic dosemeters; Systeme d`exploitation automatique des dosimetres photographiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magri, Y.; Devillard, D.; Godefroit, J.L.; Barillet, C.


    The Laboratory of Dosimetry Exploitation (LED) has realized an equipment allowing to exploit automatically photographic film dosemeters. This system uses an identification of the films by code-bars and gives the doses measurement with a completely automatic reader. The principle consists in putting in ribbon the emulsions to be exploited and to develop them in a circulation machine. The measurement of the blackening film is realized on a reading plate having fourteen points of reading, in which are circulating the emulsions in ribbon. The exploitation is made with the usual dose calculation method, with special computers codes. A comparison on 2000 dosemeters has shown that the results are the same in manual and automatical methods. This system has been operating since July 1995 by the LED. (N.C.).

  6. Macropinocytosis Exploitation by Cancers and Cancer Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Ha


    Full Text Available Macropinocytosis has long been known as a primary method for cellular intake of fluid-phase and membrane-bound bulk cargo. This review seeks to re-examine the latest studies to emphasize how cancers exploit macropinocytosis to further their tumorigenesis, including details in how macropinocytosis can be adapted to serve diverse functions. Furthermore, this review will also cover the latest endeavors in targeting macropinocytosis as an avenue for novel therapeutics.

  7. Macropinocytosis Exploitation by Cancers and Cancer Therapeutics. (United States)

    Ha, Kevin D; Bidlingmaier, Scott M; Liu, Bin


    Macropinocytosis has long been known as a primary method for cellular intake of fluid-phase and membrane-bound bulk cargo. This review seeks to re-examine the latest studies to emphasize how cancers exploit macropinocytosis to further their tumorigenesis, including details in how macropinocytosis can be adapted to serve diverse functions. Furthermore, this review will also cover the latest endeavors in targeting macropinocytosis as an avenue for novel therapeutics.

  8. Macropinocytosis Exploitation by Cancers and Cancer Therapeutics


    Ha, Kevin D.; Bidlingmaier, Scott M.; Liu, Bin


    Macropinocytosis has long been known as a primary method for cellular intake of fluid-phase and membrane-bound bulk cargo. This review seeks to re-examine the latest studies to emphasize how cancers exploit macropinocytosis to further their tumorigenesis, including details in how macropinocytosis can be adapted to serve diverse functions. Furthermore, this review will also cover the latest endeavors in targeting macropinocytosis as an avenue for novel therapeutics.

  9. The use of ethanol in the bus in public transport system of Salvador (Bahia): environmental benefits; O uso de onibus a etanol no sistema de transporte publico de Salvador (Bahia): beneficios ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Alberto Rodamilans Freire de; Lopo, Luciene Matos; Pereira, Osvaldo Livio Soliano [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)


    This article makes an initial approach on the environmental benefits, the replacement of diesel vehicles to the public transportation system in Salvador by cars to ethanol and natural gas. It also makes an approach on reducing the emission of pollutants like carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate material, and estimates the environmental benefit caused by the reduction of the emission of pollutants. (author)

  10. Etnografias do brau: corpo, masculinidade e raça na reafricanização em Salvador Ethnographies of the brau: body, masculinity and race in the reafricanization of Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmundo de Araújo Pinho


    Full Text Available Neste artigo, o autor pretende explorar desenvolvimentos do processo conhecido como reafricanização da cultura e da política em Salvador corporificados na cristalização transitória de determinada figura social conhecida como o brau. Essa seria uma inflexão de masculinidade informada pelas tensões raciais e de gênero em Salvador, assim como uma re-apropriação localizada de temas culturais da diáspora africana. Braus foram (são jovens negros da periferia que re-inventam uma visualidade/corporalidade negra a partir de releituras da 'cultura' soul norte-americana e ao mesmo tempo são estigmatizados pela classe média como violentos, de "mau-gosto" e hiper-sexualizados, ou seja, excessivamente 'negros' e excessivamente 'masculinos', em uma hiperbolização que em certo sentido contradiz com sua estigmatização.In this article the author seeks to explore some developments of the process known as the cultural and political reafricanization of Salvador, through the transitory crystalization of social figure called "brau". This would be an inflexion of masculinity informed by racial and gender tensions in Salvador, as well as a localized appropriation of cultural themes of the African Diaspora. "Braus" were (are young blacks from poor neighborhoods who re-created a black look/corporality from readings of North-American soul culture, while being stigmatized by the middle class as violents, ugly-looking and hyper-sexed, that is, excessively black and excessively male, a hyperbole which in a way contradicts this stigmatization.

  11. Real-time video exploitation system for small UAVs (United States)

    Su, Ang; Zhang, Yueqiang; Dong, Jing; Xu, Yuhua; Zhu, Xianwei; Zhang, Xiaohu


    The high portability of small Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles (UAVs) makes them play an important role in surveillance and reconnaissance tasks, so the military and civilian desires for UAVs are constantly growing. Recently, we have developed a real-time video exploitation system for our small UAV which is mainly used in forest patrol tasks. Our system consists of six key models, including image contrast enhancement, video stabilization, mosaicing, salient target indication, moving target indication, and display of the footprint and flight path on map. Extensive testing on the system has been implemented and the result shows our system performed well.

  12. Operational Decision Aids for Exploiting or Mitigating Electromagnetic Propagation Effects (United States)


    CORRECTION OF IONOSPHERIC EFFECTS FOR THE PRECISE ORBIT DETERMINATION OF SATELLITES by F.Foucher, R.Fleury and P.Lassudrie-Duchesne 33 THE USE OF...Eventually, three dimensional models will become reality. With TESS(3), we can more fully exploit a wide range of environmental satellites already on orbit ...dane las courbas d’iso-indice caracterise par un effondrement cur use trancha distance se situant entre 50 at 90 km par rapport A l’origina. La but des

  13. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    KAUST Repository

    Roth, Florian


    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ13Corg and δ15N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  14. Descentralização, clientelismo e capital social na governança urbana: comparando Belo Horizonte e Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boschi Renato Raul


    Full Text Available In this comparison of Belo Horizonte?s and Salvador?s experiences within three arenas of local government, the article focuses on the viability of institutional arrangements based on decentralization and citizen participation. It concludes that the relative success achieved when inaugurating city master plans, participatory budgeting (where civil society has direct input in budget definitions, and sectoral councils (councils for decentralized policy issue areas is linked to three factors: prior decentralization processes; articulation between different decision-making units; and, above all, the neutralization of clientelistic control mechanisms through the introduction of horizontal loyalty networks and spaces of representation that in the final analysis will foster greater social capital and accountability.

  15. Exploiting first-class arrays in Fortran for accelerator programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Craig E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weseloh, Wayne N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Robey, Robert W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Matthew, Sottile J [GALORIS, INC.; Quinlan, Daniel [LLNL; Overbye, Jeffrey [INDIANA UNIV.


    Emerging architectures for high performance computing often are well suited to a data parallel programming model. This paper presents a simple programming methodology based on existing languages and compiler tools that allows programmers to take advantage of these systems. We will work with the array features of Fortran 90 to show how this infrequently exploited, standardized language feature is easily transformed to lower level accelerator code. Our transformations are based on a mapping from Fortran 90 to C++ code with OpenCL extensions. The sheer complexity of programming for clusters of many or multi-core processors with tens of millions threads of execution make the simplicity of the data parallel model attractive. Furthermore, the increasing complexity of todays applications (especially when convolved with the increasing complexity of the hardware) and the need for portability across hardware architectures make a higher-level and simpler programming model like data parallel attractive. The goal of this work has been to exploit source-to-source transformations that allow programmers to develop and maintain programs at a high-level of abstraction, without coding to a specific hardware architecture. Furthermore these transformations allow multiple hardware architectures to be targeted without changing the high-level source. It also removes the necessity for application programmers to understand details of the accelerator architecture or to know OpenCL.

  16. EM-Based Optimization Exploiting Partial Space Mapping and Exact Sensitivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandler, J. W.; Mohamed, A. S.; Bakr, M. H.


    We present a family of robust techniques for exploiting sensitivities in EM-based circuit optimization through Space Mapping (SM). We utilize derivative Information for parameter extractions and mapping updates. We exploit a Partial Space Mapping (PSM) concept where a reduced set of parameters is...... is sufficient for parameter extraction optimization. Upfront gradients of both EM (fine) model and coarse surrogates can initialize possible mapping approximations. Illustrations include a two-section 10:1 impedance transformer and a microstrip bandstop filter....

  17. Solutionner les problèmes du système d'autobus urbain au Salvador ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Un trajet en autobus public au Salvador peut être une expérience périlleuse, mais un projet de recherche contribue à améliorer ce système de transport qui dessert des millions de gens. Cet article fait partie d'une série de reportages sur des projets innovants mis en œuvre dans les pays en développement, compilée dans ...

  18. First Report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Mexico, El Salvador and Panama. (United States)

    Symptoms of sugarcane orange rust were observed on July 17, 2008 in sugarcane varieties, Mex 57-1285, Mex 61-230 and Co 301 (a clone received in Mexico in 1953) at the Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Caña de Azúcar en Tuxtla Chico, Chiapas, Mexico.In El Salvador, from August 2008 through ...

  19. Security Assistance to Central America: Assessment of U.S. Involvement in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. (United States)


    in the religious education of millions of indians, and the establishment of a university (whites only) in San Carlos , Guatemala (60:9). During the...Salvador. The two dictators were Santiago Gonzalez (1871-1875) and General Carlos Erzeta (1890-1894), both of whom allowed elections after their four 2...ed. Goode’s World Atlas. Chicago: Rand McNally & Co., 1974. 48. Fagen, Richard R. and Olga Pellicer , ed. The Future of Central America. Stanford CA

  20. El derecho penal del enemigo en la legislación relativa a las Maras en EEUU y El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Javier Rua


    Full Text Available This paper studies the historical, social, cultural and political factors that allowed the generation of “Maras” in the USA and its expantion in El Salvador, particulary the “Mara Salvatrucha”. It analice from a critic point of view how the criminal laws implemented in both States recognice an afiliation with “Enemies Criminal Law’s” theories and how they didn’t help in the path of achieving a solution of this conflct.  

  1. The Relative Contribution of Immigration or Local Increase for Persistence of Urban Schistosomiasis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil


    Blanton, Ronald E.; Barbosa, L?cio M.; Reis, Eliana A.; Carmo, Theomira M.; dos Santos, Cl?udio R. A.; Costa, Jackson M.; Aminu, Peace T.; Blank, Walter A.; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Guimar?es, Isabel C.; Silva, Luciano K.; Reis, Mitermayer G.


    Urbanization is increasing across the globe, and diseases once considered rural can now be found in urban areas due to the migration of populations from rural endemic areas, local transmission within the city, or a combination of factors. We investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of urban immigrants and natives living in a neighborhood of Salvador, Brazil where there is a focus of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni. In a cross-sectional study, all inhabitants from 3 sections of the c...

  2. Mechanisms, Monitoring and Modeling Earth Fissure generation and Fault activation due to subsurface Fluid exploitation (M3EF3): A UNESCO-IGCP project in partnership with the UNESCO-IHP Working Group on Land Subsidence (United States)

    Teatini, P.; Carreon-Freyre, D.; Galloway, D. L.; Ye, S.


    Land subsidence due to groundwater extraction was recently mentioned as one of the most urgent threats to sustainable development in the latest UNESCO IHP-VIII (2014-2020) strategic plan. Although advances have been made in understanding, monitoring, and predicting subsidence, the influence of differential vertical compaction, horizontal displacements, and hydrostratigraphic and structural features in groundwater systems on localized near-surface ground ruptures is still poorly understood. The nature of ground failure may range from fissuring, i.e., formation of an open crack, to faulting, i.e., differential offset of the opposite sides of the failure plane. Ground ruptures associated with differential subsidence have been reported from many alluvial basins in semiarid and arid regions, e.g. China, India, Iran, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Spain, and the United States. These ground ruptures strongly impact urban, industrial, and agricultural infrastructures, and affect socio-economic and cultural development. Leveraging previous collaborations, this year the UNESCO Working Group on Land Subsidence began the scientific cooperative project M3EF3 in collaboration with the UNESCO International Geosciences Programme (IGCP n.641; to improve understanding of the processes involved in ground rupturing associated with the exploitation of subsurface fluids, and to facilitate the transfer of knowledge regarding sustainable groundwater management practices in vulnerable aquifer systems. The project is developing effective tools to help manage geologic risks associated with these types of hazards, and formulating recommendations pertaining to the sustainable use of subsurface fluid resources for urban and agricultural development in susceptible areas. The partnership between the UNESCO IHP and IGCP is ensuring that multiple scientific competencies required to optimally investigate earth fissuring and faulting caused by groundwater withdrawals are being employed.

  3. Exploiting Redundancy in an OFDM SDR Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Palenik


    Full Text Available Common OFDM system contains redundancy necessary to mitigate interblock interference and allows computationally effective single-tap frequency domain equalization in receiver. Assuming the system implements an outer error correcting code and channel state information is available in the receiver, we show that it is possible to understand the cyclic prefix insertion as a weak inner ECC encoding and exploit the introduced redundancy to slightly improve error performance of such a system. In this paper, an easy way to implement modification to an existing SDR OFDM receiver is presented. This modification enables the utilization of prefix redundancy, while preserving full compatibility with existing OFDM-based communication standards.

  4. Art Therapy Exhibitions: Exploitation or Advocacy? (United States)

    Davis, Terri


    Promoting awareness of human trafficking by sharing trauma survivors' art and summaries of their life stories suggests ethical complexities that have been typically neglected by bioethicists. Although these survivors voluntarily share the objects they created during art therapy sessions, they are still at risk of harm, including further exploitation, due to their vulnerability, high rates of victim sensitivity, and the mental health consequences of their traumatic experiences. While some argue that the benefits of sublimation and art therapy for human trafficking survivors make sharing their art worth the risk, anti-trafficking organizations and supporters of such art exhibitions have responsibilities to be trauma informed. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Geothermal resources: exploration and exploitation. A bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This comprehensive bibliography contains 5476 citations of foreign and domestic research reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books concerned with the exploration and exploitation of geothermal resources. The coverage dates back as far as useful references could be obtained and extends through June 1976. References are arranged in broad subject categories and are made up of complete bibliographic citations. These are followed by a listing of subject descriptors used to describe the subject content of each reference. Four indexes are included: Corporate, Personal Author, Subject, and Report Number. Also included is a list of journals from which articles were selected. (LBS)

  6. Common Ground Station For Imagery Processing And Exploitation (United States)

    Johnston, Morris V.


    a minimum number of deployable shelters. Primary imagery inputs are from Tactical and National sources. The system provides all processing necessary to support both softcopy and hardcopy imagery exploitation. The system design is expandable, contractible, modular and segmentable. Modularity consists of packaging segments in functional units so they may be added or deleted when and where required to meet specific user requirements. Segmentability is achieved by allocating system requirements to a single functional area known as a segment. The design uses off-the-shelf hardware and software where practical and cost effective. The System is capable of operating either in a stand-alone mode while deployed or while tethered to and supporting fixed intelligence facilities. Each segment provides all functions and capabilties needed to satisfy the performance requirements for that segment. Functional and physical interface documents define the exchange of information and data between segments and with external systems. To enhance future Pre-Planned Product Improvements (P3I), the architecture promotes technology transparency within JSIPS through bus type structures. Evolutionary development allows for emerging sensors and platforms to be accommodated by substituting or adding a minimum number of plug-in hardware or software interface modules to an operational production model. Technology transparency allows for incorporation of new technologies as they become available.

  7. Competing Discourses about Youth Sexual Exploitation in Canadian News Media. (United States)

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Miller, Bonnie B; Rivers, Robert; Matthews, Jennifer; Hilario, Carla; Hirakata, Pam


    Media holds the power to create, maintain, or break down stigmatizing attitudes, which affect policies, funding, and services. To understand how Canadian news media depicts the commercial sexual exploitation of children and youth, we examined 835 Canadian newspaper articles from 1989-2008 using a mixed methods critical discourse analysis approach, comparing representations to existing research about sexually exploited youth. Despite research evidence that equal rates of boys and girls experience exploitation, Canadian news media depicted exploited youth predominantly as heterosexual girls, and described them alternately as victims or workers in a trade, often both in the same story. News media mentioned exploiters far less often than victims, and portrayed them almost exclusively as male, most often called 'customers' or 'consumers,' and occasionally 'predators'; in contrast, research has documented the majority of sexually exploited boys report female exploiters. Few news stories over the past two decades portrayed the diversity of victims, perpetrators, and venues of exploitation reported in research. The focus on victims but not exploiters helps perpetuate stereotypes of sexual exploitation as business or a 'victimless crime,' maintains the status quo, and blurs responsibility for protecting youth under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Health care providers and researchers can be advocates for accuracy in media coverage about sexual exploitation; news reporters and editors should focus on exploiters more than victims, draw on existing research evidence to avoid perpetuating stereotypes, and use accurate terms, such as commercial sexual exploitation, rather than terms related to business or trade.

  8. Ultrasonic Flaw Imaging via Multipath Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin D. Zhang


    Full Text Available We consider ultrasonic imaging for the visualization of flaws in a material. Ultrasonic imaging is a powerful nondestructive testing (NDT tool which assesses material conditions via the detection, localization, and classification of flaws inside a structure. We utilize reflections of ultrasonic signals which occur when encountering different media and interior boundaries. These reflections can be cast as direct paths to the target corresponding to the virtual sensors appearing on the top and bottom side of the target. Some of these virtual sensors constitute a virtual aperture, whereas in others, the aperture changes with the transmitter position. Exploitations of multipath extended virtual array apertures provide enhanced imaging capability beyond the limitation of traditional multisensor approaches. The waveforms observed at the physical as well as the virtual sensors yield additional measurements corresponding to different aspect angles, thus allowing proper multiview imaging of flaws. We derive the wideband point spread functions for dominant multipaths and show that fusion of physical and virtual sensor data improves the flaw perimeter detection and localization performance. The effectiveness of the proposed multipath exploitation approach is demonstrated using real data.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The link between socioeconomics and conservation and the role of legislation in conservation work was discussed in the group with participants from nine European countries. Interest and knowledge among the general public, stakeholders and managers is the key to successful conservation of native crayfish species. Exploitation and conservation do not necessarily exclude each other. A controlled fishery, where it can be sustained, may be an essential tool for conservation by increasing the general awareness and involving more people in the task of protecting the native crayfish species. This strategy is mainly possible for the noble crayfish in the northern part of its distribution, where strong traditions connected to crayfish also exist. A balance between utilisation and overexploitation has to be found and local guidelines for sustainable exploitation produced. Media, the Internet and educational material aimed at schools and stakeholders are excellent ways of reaching a wide audience with information. Universal objectives, rules and regulations at the European level are desirable and the noble crayfish and the stone crayfish should be included in Annex II of the Habitat Directive. Based on this framework detailed regulations are best worked out at the national level, considering the specific crayfish situation in the country. Information about the legislation, the purpose of the legislation and the consequences when not obeying it should be distributed. Stricter regulation of the trade with live alien crayfish is vital because of the associated risk of introducing new diseases and species.

  10. Exploiting time in electronic health record correlations. (United States)

    Hripcsak, George; Albers, David J; Perotte, Adler


    To demonstrate that a large, heterogeneous clinical database can reveal fine temporal patterns in clinical associations; to illustrate several types of associations; and to ascertain the value of exploiting time. Lagged linear correlation was calculated between seven clinical laboratory values and 30 clinical concepts extracted from resident signout notes from a 22-year, 3-million-patient database of electronic health records. Time points were interpolated, and patients were normalized to reduce inter-patient effects. The method revealed several types of associations with detailed temporal patterns. Definitional associations included low blood potassium preceding 'hypokalemia.' Low potassium preceding the drug spironolactone with high potassium following spironolactone exemplified intentional and physiologic associations, respectively. Counterintuitive results such as the fact that diseases appeared to follow their effects may be due to the workflow of healthcare, in which clinical findings precede the clinician's diagnosis of a disease even though the disease actually preceded the findings. Fully exploiting time by interpolating time points produced less noisy results. Electronic health records are not direct reflections of the patient state, but rather reflections of the healthcare process and the recording process. With proper techniques and understanding, and with proper incorporation of time, interpretable associations can be derived from a large clinical database. A large, heterogeneous clinical database can reveal clinical associations, time is an important feature, and care must be taken to interpret the results.

  11. PROBA-V Mission Exploitation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Goor


    Full Text Available As an extension of the PROBA-Vegetation (PROBA-V user segment, the European Space Agency (ESA, de Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO, and partners TRASYS and Spacebel developed an operational Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP to drastically improve the exploitation of the PROBA-V Earth Observation (EO data archive, the archive from the historical SPOT-VEGETATION mission, and derived products by researchers, service providers, and thematic users. The analysis of the time series of data (petabyte range is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of the complete archive, including near real-time data. The platform consists of a private cloud environment, a Hadoop-based processing environment and a data manager. Several applications are released to the users, e.g., a full resolution viewing service, a time series viewer, pre-defined on-demand processing chains, and virtual machines with powerful tools and access to the data. After an initial release in January 2016 a research platform was deployed gradually, allowing users to design, debug, and test applications on the platform. From the PROBA-V MEP, access to, e.g., Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 data will be addressed as well.

  12. En búsqueda de los salvadoreños en los Estados Unidos: contextualizando los datos etnográficos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Ricardo Machuca


    Full Text Available En este artículo presento una visión de conjunto de la literatura etnográfica sobre los salvadoreños en Estados Unidos. La migración salvadoreña a los Estados Unidos comienza a finales del siglo XIX, sin embargo los salvadoreños no llegan en masa a ese país hasta principios de la década de los ochenta, a principios de la guerra civil que duraría doce años (1980-1992. En las pasadas tres décadas, la literatura general sobre salvadoreños en Estados Unidos es extensa y cubre una amplia variedad de disciplinas. Muchos trabajos académicos estudian a los migrantes salvadoreños bajo la categoría de “centroamericanos”. Con el notable incremento de la migraciónsalvadoreña a los Estados Unidos a partir de 1980, se ha publicado un número significativo de etnografías sobre su experiencia migratoria en las pasadas dos décadas.En este artículo se discuten y comparan nueve de esos trabajos académicos. Estos trabajos tratan a los salvadoreños desde temas, tópicos y perspectivas particulares,los cuales incluyen inmigración y emigración, diáspora y transnacionalismo, cambios en relaciones de género, leyes migratorias estadounidenses y estatus migratorio,remesas y derecho al voto. A medida que los migrantes salvadoreños forjan nuevas redes de conexión e interacción social entre su país de origen y los Estados Unidos,los trabajos académicos buscan entender y teorizar sobre estos emergentes espaciostransnacionales.

  13. A case study of exploiting enterprise resource planning requirements (United States)

    Niu, Nan; Jin, Mingzhou; Cheng, Jing-Ru C.


    The requirements engineering (RE) processes have become a key to conceptualising corporate-wide integrated solutions based on packaged enterprise resource planning (ERP) software. The RE literature has mainly focused on procuring the most suitable ERP package. Little is known about how an organisation exploits the chosen ERP RE model to frame the business application development. This article reports an exploratory case study of a key tenet of ERP RE adoption, namely that aligning business applications to the packaged RE model leads to integral practices and economic development. The case study analysed a series interrelated pilot projects developed for a business division of a large IT manufacturing and service company, using Oracle's appl1ication implementation method (AIM). The study indicated that AIM RE improved team collaboration and project management experience, but needed to make hidden assumptions explicit to support data visibility and integrity. Our study can direct researchers towards rigorous empirical evaluations of ERP RE adoption, collect experiences and lessons learned for practitioners, and help generate more effective and mature processes when exploiting ERP RE methods.

  14. The exploration-exploitation dilemma: a multidisciplinary framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded Berger-Tal

    Full Text Available The trade-off between the need to obtain new knowledge and the need to use that knowledge to improve performance is one of the most basic trade-offs in nature, and optimal performance usually requires some balance between exploratory and exploitative behaviors. Researchers in many disciplines have been searching for the optimal solution to this dilemma. Here we present a novel model in which the exploration strategy itself is dynamic and varies with time in order to optimize a definite goal, such as the acquisition of energy, money, or prestige. Our model produced four very distinct phases: Knowledge establishment, Knowledge accumulation, Knowledge maintenance, and Knowledge exploitation, giving rise to a multidisciplinary framework that applies equally to humans, animals, and organizations. The framework can be used to explain a multitude of phenomena in various disciplines, such as the movement of animals in novel landscapes, the most efficient resource allocation for a start-up company, or the effects of old age on knowledge acquisition in humans.

  15. Atomistic simulations and network-based modeling of the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone binding with Cdk4 client protein: A mechanism of chaperoning kinase clients by exploiting weak spots of intrinsically dynamic kinase domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Czemeres

    suggested that this mechanism may be exploited by the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone to recruit and protect intrinsically dynamic kinase clients from degradation. The results of this investigation are discussed and interpreted in the context of diverse experimental data, offering new insights into mechanisms of chaperone regulation and binding.

  16. Atomistic simulations and network-based modeling of the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone binding with Cdk4 client protein: A mechanism of chaperoning kinase clients by exploiting weak spots of intrinsically dynamic kinase domains. (United States)

    Czemeres, Josh; Buse, Kurt; Verkhivker, Gennady M


    mechanism may be exploited by the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone to recruit and protect intrinsically dynamic kinase clients from degradation. The results of this investigation are discussed and interpreted in the context of diverse experimental data, offering new insights into mechanisms of chaperone regulation and binding.

  17. Ocular Findings in Infants With Microcephaly Associated With Presumed Zika Virus Congenital Infection in Salvador, Brazil. (United States)

    de Paula Freitas, Bruno; de Oliveira Dias, João Rafael; Prazeres, Juliana; Sacramento, Gielson Almeida; Ko, Albert Icksang; Maia, Maurício; Belfort, Rubens


    The Zika virus (ZIKV) has rapidly reached epidemic proportions, especially in northeastern Brazil, and has rapidly spread to other parts of the Americas. A recent increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in newborn infants and vision-threatening findings in these infants is likely associated with the rapid spread of ZIKV. To evaluate the ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed intrauterine ZIKV infection in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Case series at a tertiary hospital. Twenty-nine infants with microcephaly (defined by a cephalic circumference of ≤32 cm) with a presumed diagnosis of congenital ZIKV were recruited through an active search and referrals from other hospitals and health unities. The study was conducted between December 1 and December 21, 2015. All infants and mothers underwent systemic and ophthalmic examinations from December 1 through December 21, 2015, in the Roberto Santos General Hospital, Salvador, Brazil. Anterior segment and retinal, choroidal, and optic nerve abnormalities were documented using a wide-field digital imaging system. The differential diagnosis included toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus, which were ruled out through serologic and clinical examinations. Ocular abnormalities associated with ZIKV. Twenty-three of 29 mothers (79.3%) reported suspected ZIKV infection signs and symptoms during pregnancy, 18 in the first trimester, 4 in the second trimester, and 1 in the third trimester. Of the 29 infants (58 eyes) examined (18 [62.1%] female), ocular abnormalities were present in 17 eyes (29.3%) of 10 children (34.5%). Bilateral findings were found in 7 of 10 patients presenting with ocular lesions, the most common of which were focal pigment mottling of the retina and chorioretinal atrophy in 11 of the 17 eyes with abnormalities (64.7%), followed by optic nerve abnormalities in 8 eyes (47.1%), bilateral iris coloboma in 1 patient (2

  18. Tendência da mortalidade neonatal na cidade de Salvador (Bahia-Brasil, 1996-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelise C. Gonçalves


    Full Text Available Objetivos:analisar a tendência da mortalidade neonatal, principais causas e potenciais fatores de risco, em Salvador-Bahia, 1996-2012.Métodos:estudo de série temporal tendo como fontes de dados os Sistemas de Informação sobre Mortalidade e sobre Nascidos Vivos/NV e Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saúde. Parâmetros da tendência temporal do coeficiente de mortalidade neonatal/CMN e da proporção de NV segundo características maternas, do recém-nascido e de atenção à saúde foram obtidos mediante Regressão Linear Simples. Coeficiente de Correlação de Spearman avaliou relação entre estas variáveis.Resultados:observou-se declínio de 21,2% no CMN, principalmente devido ao componente precoce (β= - 0,730; p=0,006; R2= 0,423. Acompanhou esta tendência, a proporção de NV de mães adolescentes e sem instrução. A proporção de NV de mães com idade > 35 anos, nascimentos prematuros e de partos cesáreos exibiram crescimento. Predominaram mortes neonatais por Infecções específicas do período perinatal (13,2%, Hipóxia intrauterina/Asfixia ao nascer (8,4% e Transtornos relacionados à prematuridade/baixo peso ao nascer (15,9%, estas últimas com tendência de crescimento (β= 1,319; p=0,006; R2= 0,428.Conclusões:a mortalidade neonatal e potenciais fatores de risco estão decrescendo em Salvador. Iniciativas voltadas para melhoria da atenção ao recém-nascido e das condições de vida da população podem estar contribuindo para esta tendência.

  19. Spread pattern of the first dengue epidemic in the city of Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Marilia S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The explosive epidemics of dengue that have been occurring in various countries have stimulated investigation into new approaches to improve understanding of the problem and to develop new strategies for controlling the disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of diffusion of the first dengue epidemic that occurred in the city of Salvador in 1995. Methods The epidemiological charts and records of notified cases of dengue in Salvador in 1995 constituted the source of data. The cases of the disease were georeferenced according to census areas (spatial units and epidemiological weeks (temporal unit. Kernel density estimation was used to identify the pattern of spatial diffusion using the R-Project computer software program. Results Of the 2,006 census areas in the city, 1,400 (70% registered cases of dengue in 1995 and the spatial distribution of these records revealed that by the end of 1995 practically the entire city had been affected by the virus, with the largest concentration of cases occurring in the western region, composed of census areas with a high population density and predominantly horizontal residences compared to the eastern region of the city, where there is a predominance of vertical residential buildings. Conclusion The pattern found in this study shows the characteristics of the classic process of spreading by contagion that is common to most infectious diseases. It was possible to identify the epicenter of the epidemic from which centrifugal waves of the disease emanated. Our results suggest that, if a more agile control instrument existed that would be capable of rapidly reducing the vector population within a few days or of raising the group immunity of the population by means of a vaccine, it would theoretically be possible to adopt control actions around the epicenter of the epidemic and consequently reduce the incidence of the disease in the city. This finding emphasizes

  20. An interpretive study of food, snack and beverage advertisements in rural and urban El Salvador. (United States)

    Amanzadeh, Baharak; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Barker, Judith C


    Globalization and increased marketing of non-nutritious foods and beverages are driving a nutrition transition in developing countries, adversely affecting the health of vulnerable populations. This is a visual interpretive study of food, snack, and beverage advertisements (ads) in rural and urban El Salvador to discern the strategies and messages used to promote consumption of highly processed, commercialized products. Digital photographs of billboard and wall advertisements recorded a convenience sample of 100 advertisements, including 53 from rural areas and 47 from urban areas in El Salvador. Advertisements were coded for location, type of product, visual details, placement and context. Qualitative methods were used to identify common themes used to appeal to consumers. Advertisements depicted "modern" fast foods, processed snacks and sugary beverages. Overall, the most prominent themes were: Cheap Price, Fast, Large Size, and Modern. Other themes used frequently in combination with these were Refreshment, Sports/Nationalism, Sex and Gender Roles, Fun/Happy Feelings, Family, Friendship and Community, and Health. In rural areas, beverage and snack food ads with the themes of cheap price, fast, and large size tended to predominate; in urban areas, ads for fast food restaurants and the theme of modernity tended to be more prominent. The advertisements represented a pervasive bombardment of the public with both explicit and subliminal messages to increase consumerism and shift dietary patterns to processed foods and beverages that are low in micronutrients and high in carbohydrates, sugar, fat and salt--dietary changes that are increasing rates of child and adult diseases including tooth decay, obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Global food and beverage industries must be held accountable for the adverse public health effects of their products, especially in low-middle income countries where there are fewer resources to prevent and treat the health

  1. Dermatozoonosis by Culicoides' bite (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil: III - Epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo A. Sherlock


    Full Text Available Nesta terceira contribuiçãos os Autores apresentam os aspectos Epídemiológicos da Dermatozoonose pela picada de Culicoides em Salvador. Salientam que embora a densidade de insetos outros de hábitos antropófilos seja elevada na cidade, as seguintes evidências os conduziram a responsabilizar os Culicoides: conincidência do aparecimento de casos de Dermatozoonose após um período de maior densidade de Culicoides; maior número de casos, desde que a densidade de Culicoides aumentou nos últimos anos; proveni~encia de maior número de casos dos bairros onde há maior infestação de Culicoides. A Dermatozoonose é acentuadamente mais freqüente no sexo feminino. Houve maior número de casos entre os negros, talvez devido a maior freqüencia de negros que procuram tratamento no Hospital das Clínicas. Não há predominância acentuada para determinado grupo etário. Num levantamento que fizeram sôbre a incomodidade do Culicoides observaram que 81% de 593 residências visitadas em diferentes bairros, são incomodadas, sendo o inverno a época de maior incômodo. As horas de maior incômodo, coincidem com a ocorrência horária máxima do Culicoides. Observaram que as medidas usadas pela população para combate ao inseto são inadequadas pois, em 56% das residências não se obtém qualquer resultado. Considerando que nesses último cinco anos a densidade de Culicoides aumentou inexplicàvelmente em Salvador, julgam que os seguintes fatôres participara para que êsse fenômeno ocorresse: a extinção do Serviço de Profilaxia da Febre Amarela em 1956, o qual, indiretamente, por meio de sua "polícia de fócos" combatendo o Aedes aegypti, controlava os Culicoides; o crescimento da cidade, aumentando o número de fossas, já que não existe um sistema de esgotos adequado; e a deficiência do Serviço de Limpeza Pública da Cidade, ocasionando o acúmulo de lixo nos quintais, terrenos baldios e mesmo em logradouros públicos. Essas condi

  2. Poverty-associated risk factors for wheezing in the first year of life in Honduras and El Salvador. (United States)

    Bueso, A; Figueroa, M; Cousin, L; Hoyos, W; Martínez-Torres, A E; Mallol, J; Garcia-Marcos, L


    Risk factors for wheezing specifically during the first year of life have been studied in well-developed countries, but the information from developing countries is very scarce. There are no such studies focusing on factors derived from poverty. The aim of the present study was to determine if risk factors related to poverty are associated to wheezing during the first year of life in infants from Honduras and El Salvador. A survey, using a validated questionnaire, was carried out in the metropolitan area of San Pedro Sula (Honduras) and in La Libertad (El Salvador) in centres where infants attended for a scheduled vaccination shot or a healthy child visit at 12 months of age. Fieldworkers offered questionnaires to parents and helped the illiterate when necessary. The main outcome variable was wheezing during the first year of life, as reported by parents. A total of 1047 infants in El Salvador and 780 in Honduras were included in the analysis. The prevalence of wheeze in the first year was higher in El Salvador (41.2%) than in Honduras (27.7%), as was recurrent wheezing defined as three or more episodes (18.4% vs. 11.7%). Wheezing and recurrent wheezing was associated to unpaved floor in the household (summary odds ratios for both countries 1.55, p=0.036 and 1.72, p=0.054 for any wheeze and recurrent wheezing, respectively); dust entering from streets (1.30, p=0.052 and 1.67, p=0.008); living in a heavily polluted area (1.33, p=0.037 and 1.52, p=0.033); and having mould stains on the household walls (1.36, p=0.072 and 1.76, p=0.007). Furthermore, marginal associations were found for additional person at home and use of kerosene as cooking fuel. University studies in the mother (0.34, p=0.046 and 0.32, p=0.022) and a professional occupation in the father (0.34, p=0.046 and 0.26, p=0.047) were associated to a lower risk. The prevalence of wheezing and recurrent wheezing is notoriously high in El Salvador and Honduras. In those populations factors related to poverty

  3. Total exploitation of an ornamental granite quarry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taboada, J.


    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a methodology to estimate the recovery percentage for each of the products which can be obtained from the exploitation of an ornamental granite quarry: block, semiblock, masonry-transverse stone, and the smaller materials that can be used to obtain construction aggregates. This methodology ensures that quarry exploitation is exhaustive, thereby minimising the production of spoils and the consequent negative impact on the environment. The analysis is based on a detailed and exhaustive compilation of discontinuity data from the research fronts, which are then interpreted statistically and projected over the three weakness planes that are a particular feature of ornamental granite deposits. Using this information, and bearing in mind the minimum commercially viable sizes for each kind of granite, the corresponding recovery rates are calculated for each material in each plane. The results are then integrated using spatial techniques, and the result is an evaluation of quarry contents with a view to total exploitation. This methodology was applied to a quarry in the opening phase in order to carry out an a priori assessment of the economic feasibility of the quarry.

    En este trabajo se propone una metodología para estimar el porcentaje de recuperación de cada uno de los productos que se pueden obtener en la explotación de una cantera de granito ornamental: bloque, semibloque, manpostería y per piaños, y material restante destinado a la obtención de áridos. De esta manera se logra un aprovechamiento integral de la cantera, evitándose la generación de estériles y el subsiguiente impacto ambiental producido por éstos. La metodología de análisis se basa en la recopilación detallada y exhaustiva de datos de discontinuidades en los frentes de investigación, que se interpretan estadísticamente y se proyectan sobre los tres planos de debilidad propios del granito ornamental. Con esta información, y las

  4. Exploiting CRISPR/Cas systems for biotechnology. (United States)

    Sampson, Timothy R; Weiss, David S


    The Cas9 endonuclease is the central component of the Type II CRISPR/Cas system, a prokaryotic adaptive restriction system against invading nucleic acids, such as those originating from bacteriophages and plasmids. Recently, this RNA-directed DNA endonuclease has been harnessed to target DNA sequences of interest. Here, we review the development of Cas9 as an important tool to not only edit the genomes of a number of different prokaryotic and eukaryotic species, but also as an efficient system for site-specific transcriptional repression or activation. Additionally, a specific Cas9 protein has been observed to target an RNA substrate, suggesting that Cas9 may have the ability to be programmed to target RNA as well. Cas proteins from other CRISPR/Cas subtypes may also be exploited in this regard. Thus, CRISPR/Cas systems represent an effective and versatile biotechnological tool, which will have significant impact on future advancements in genome engineering. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Exploiting HRM in support of lean manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Matthiesen, Rikke

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in HRM practices are-and could potentially be-exploited to support lean manufacturing in practice. First, a review of the pertinent literature regarding HRM, SHRM, and lean manufacturing is presented to provide an understanding of the mechanisms...... by which HRM practices could, theoretically, be used to support a lean implementation. Data presented in the paper are derived from 1) a longitudinal case study on lean implementation and 2) from managers currently involved with lean manufacturing in a second company. The relevant literature and the data......'s contribution to the change process itself and through bundling particular HRM practices that are aligned with the lean strategy. The paper contributes to both theory and practice, by suggesting specific ways in which HRM can be strategically aligned with a major change implementation such as lean manufacturing....

  6. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Hung


    Full Text Available The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols.

  7. Exploitation of bioremediation in the environment protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Luptáková


    Full Text Available Soils and waters contaminated with toxic metals pose a major environmental problem that needs an effective and affordable technological solution. Many areas remain contaminated with no remediation in sight because it is too expensive to clean them up with available technologies. Bioremediation may provide an economically viable solution for remediation of some of these sites. The bioremediation is an application of the biological treatment to the cleanup of hazardous chemicals and is an example of the environmental biotechnology. The aim of this paper is to give a theoretical and practical view concerning the possibility of the bioremediation exploitation in the environment protection. This paper includes some results of the bioremediation of the acid mine drainage by sulphate-reducing bacteria.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lež


    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  9. Hipertensão arterial na população adulta de Salvador (BA - Brasil Arterial hypertension in the adult population of Salvador (BA - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ínes Lessa


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência (Pr da hipertensão arterial (HA e da sua associação com outros fatores de risco cardiovascular em população fortemente miscigenada. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal, realizado em amostra populacional de 1.439 adultos e > 20 anos, em Salvador-Brasil. Todos responderam a questionário em domicilio e tiveram medidos: pressão arterial, peso, altura, circunferência da cintura (CC, glicemia e lípidas séricas. O critério para HA foi a média da PAS > 140 e/ou PAD > 90mmHg. Foram estimadas Pr da HA com IC a 95%. As associações foram medidas pelo OR ajustado (ORaj, por análise de regressão. RESULTADOS: A Pr total foi da HA foi 29,9%: 27,4% IC (23,9-31,2 em homens e 31,7%, IC(28,5-34,9 em mulheres. Em negros a Pr foi 31,6% para homens e 41,1% para mulheres. Em brancos foi 25,8% nos homens e 21,1% nas mulheres. A HA apresentou associação significante com idades > 40 anos, sobrepeso/obesidade [ORaj = 2,37(1,57-3,60] para homens e 1,62(1,02-2,58 para mulheres. Nos homens a HA associou-se à escolaridade elevada e nas mulheres com a cor da pele parda e negra, com obesidade abdominal, ORaj = 2,05 IC(1,31-3,21, diabetes ORaj = 2,16 IC(1,19-3,93 e com a menopausa. CONCLUSÃO: A HA predominou em negros de ambos os sexos, e em mulheres. Excetuando-se o sobrepeso/obesidade, as variáveis que se mantiveram independentemente associadas à HA diferiram entre os sexos. Os resultados sugerem aprofundamento do estudo da HA em negros e necessidade de intervenções educacionais contínuas e de início precoce.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of hypertension (H and its association with other cardiovascular risk factors in a highly multiracial population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study carried out in Salvador, Brazil, in a population sample of 1439 adults > 20 years of age. All participants completed a questionnaire at home and had the following measurements taken: blood pressure, body weight, height, waist

  10. Exploiting tumor shrinkage through temporal optimization of radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Unkelbach, Jan; Hong, Theodore; Papp, David; Ramakrishnan, Jagdish; Salari, Ehsan; Wolfgang, John; Bortfeld, Thomas


    In multi-stage radiotherapy, a patient is treated in several stages separated by weeks or months. This regimen has been motivated mostly by radiobiological considerations, but also provides an approach to reduce normal tissue dose by exploiting tumor shrinkage. The paper considers the optimal design of multi-stage treatments, motivated by the clinical management of large liver tumors for which normal liver dose constraints prohibit the administration of an ablative radiation dose in a single treatment. We introduce a dynamic tumor model that incorporates three factors: radiation induced cell kill, tumor shrinkage, and tumor cell repopulation. The design of multi-stage radiotherapy is formulated as a mathematical optimization problem in which the total dose to the liver is minimized, subject to delivering the prescribed dose to the tumor. Based on the model, we gain insight into the optimal administration of radiation over time, i.e. the optimal treatment gaps and dose levels. We analyze treatments consisting ...

  11. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room during The National Week of Science and Technology, Salvador

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment


    The Polytechnic School of the Federal University of Bahia (EPUFBA) was founded in 1897 in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Currently there are in EPUFBA 10 undergraduate and six graduate programs in engineering, The EPUFBA is one of the largest Brazilian centers of education and research in engineering and technology. The National Week of Science and Technology (SNCT) is an annual event organized by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT) and in 2012 will take place in the period between October 15th and 21st. The SNCT is held since 2004 and its aim is to mobilize the population, especially children and youth around science and technology themes and activities. In SNCT activities are carried out in all regions of the country, involving several partners, such as universities, research institutions, schools, public and private companies, government entities and civil society. In 2011, there were approximately 16,000 activities in 654 cities.

  12. HTLV-1 and myelopathy in Salvador (Northeastern Brazil: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Lessa


    Full Text Available The principal aim of the study was to determine the degree of association between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF that is positive for HTLV-1 and myelopathy in Salvador, Brazil. From the same hospital, twenty-eight cases of myelopathy and twenty-eight cases showing no neurological disorder were studied using blind selection matched 1:1 by age and sex. The twenty-eight pairs underwent HTLV-1 serology tests. In those with a positive result, anti-HTLV-1 antibodies were investigated in the CSF. The ELISA method was used, complemented by the Western-blot test. Myelopathy was considered associated with HTLV-1 only when the CSF was positive indicating neurotropism of the virus. The mean age of the cases was 44.6 ± 15.6 years and the control group was 43.5 ± 16.0 (p>0.05. An OR of 9.0 was detected with a reability interval (95% of 1.652-48.866 and chi-square significant at the 0.02 level. Despite a strong degree of association and considering the low level of precision, there is a need for analytical studies with larger samples which besides improving the precision will allow for greater control of the confounding variables.

  13. [End-stage renal disease among patients in a referral hospital in El Salvador]. (United States)

    Trabanino, Ramón García; Aguilar, Raúl; Silva, Carlos Reyes; Mercado, Manuel Ortiz; Merino, Ricardo Leiva


    El Salvador is a country with high mortality from end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of a series of new cases of ESRD seen in a referral hospital in the country. A cross-sectional study was conducted of all the new cases that initiated chronic dialysis between November 1999 and March 2000. Using a personal interview, data were obtained on the patients' clinical, demographic, and occupational characteristics, among others. During the five months that the study lasted, 205 new cases of ESRD were observed. Among the 202 interviewees, two groups were clearly distinguished. One group, of 67 patients (33%), had known risk factors for ESRD, similar to those for developed countries (basically, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and chronic consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatories). Another group of 135 patients (67%) had unusual characteristics that were not associated with the known risk factors. The majority of the patients in this second group were male, farmers, residents of coastal areas or areas next to rivers, and some years before had been exposed, without adequate protection, to agricultural insecticides or pesticides through their work. We have identified an important group of patients with ESRD who seem to lack a cause for their disease. Their special characteristics make it possible to suspect a relationship with the occupational exposure to insecticides or pesticides. New studies are needed in order to confirm this hypothesis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Leal Bruni


    Full Text Available Mastering basic Accountancy concepts appropriately and analyzing their characteristics are essential for the development of Accounting Theory. The financial decision making process requires knowledge on adequate economic values, which Accounting users are increasingly demanding. The aim of this research was to ascertain the understanding of some terms explored in the context of the subject Accounting Theory, such as assets, liabilities, goodwill, revenues, expenses, gains and losses. A sample was investigated, comprising 591 students enrolled in Accountancy programs who had already taken the subject Accounting Theory at higher education institutions (HEI located in the city of Salvador (BA, Brazil. Logistic regression analysis of the results indicates that the relation between student performance and the teacher’s degree is more significant than the relation between student performance and type of HEI. In general, however, superficial concepts on the topics addressed in this study were cited at all levels. The results generally disclosed errors in the understanding of relevant accounting concepts for students’ education, mainly reflecting an outdated, or at least conservative view. When compared per type of education institution, the results indicate that students from public institutions better master the concepts considered in this study. The understanding improves further when the teacher’s degree evolves from specialist to M.Sc. and Ph.D.

  15. Detection of caliciviruses associated with acute infantile gastroenteritis in Salvador, an urban center in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P.T.P. Xavier


    Full Text Available Acute gastroenteritis caused by viruses is one of the leading causes of infantile morbidity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of human caliciviruses of the genera norovirus and sapovirus in children up to 3 years of age with acute gastroenteritis from low-income communities in the city of Salvador, Brazil. This study is an extension of previous work carried out to establish the profile of the most prevalent enteric pathogens present in these communities. In this report, 139 fecal samples, collected from July 2001 to January 2002 were analyzed by RT-PCR and 13 (9% were positive for human caliciviruses. By sequencing, seven isolates were characterized as norovirus genogroup GII and one as sapovirus genotype GII/1. Sequencing of the previously detected group-A rotaviruses and human astroviruses was also performed and revealed the circulation of rotavirus group A genotypes G1P[8] and G9P[8], and human astrovirus genotypes 6, 7, and 8. No mixed infection was observed. Community-based studies provide geographically representative information on disease burden. However, there are only a few reports in developing countries concerning the genotypes of the most important gastroenteric viruses detected in such communities. The present findings demonstrate the wide diversity of genotypes of the most important viruses responsible for acute gastroenteritis circulating in low-income communities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacileda Cerqueira Santos


    Full Text Available Originados por intereses de carácter político económico, las ciudades crecerán, se multiplicarán y se diferenciarán cada vez que transcurra el tiempo. No obstante, ellas estan también cada vez mas inmersas en una dinámica escala global. En Brasil, los caminos señalados por la ordenanza de la Ciudad pretenden responder a las directrices generales del pleno desarrollo de las funciones sociales de la propiedad urbana y de la gestión democrática de las ciudades por medio de la participación de la población y de asociaciones representativas de los diversos segmentos de la comunidad en los procesos de gestión y planeamientos urbanos. Los tres Planes Reguladores elaborados en los últimos sesenta años en Salvador de Bahía, son el referencial de este trabajo, mientras que la valorizacion de la discusión sobre la democratización en la concepción de la planificacion y de la realizacíon de los cambios esperados para este proceso, son posterior a la aprobación de la ordenanza de la Ciudad.

  17. Detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli from children with and without diarrhea in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Bueris


    Full Text Available We identified different diarrheagenic (DEC Escherichia coli pathotypes isolated from 1,207 children with and without acute endemic diarrhea in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil collected as part of a case-control study. Since the identification of DEC cannot be based on only biochemical and culture criteria, we used a multiplex polymerase chain reaction developed by combining five specific primer pairs for Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli/ Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (STEC/EHEC, Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC and Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC to detect these pathotypes simultaneously in a single-step reaction. In order to distinguish typical and atypical EPEC strains, these were tested for the presence of EAF plasmid. The prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli in this sample of a global case-control study was 25.4% (259 patients and 18.7% (35 patients in the diarrhea group (1,020 patients and the control group (187 patients, respectively. The most frequently isolated pathotype was EAEC (10.7%, followed by atypical EPEC (9.4%, ETEC (3.7%, and STEC (0.6%. Typical EPEC was detected only in one sample. The prevalence of the pathotypes studied in children with diarrhea was not significantly different from that in children without diarrhea.

  18. The Metamorphoses of Narcissus in Symbolist and Surrealist Painting: Gustave Moreau and Salvador Dalí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Germ


    Full Text Available The article concentrates on interpreting the Narcissus myth in the oeuvre of Gustave Moreau (1826–1898, a symbolist artist who developed the theme in many paintings and drawings, and in the famous Metamorphosis of Narcissus (1937, Tate Modern by Salvador Dalí (1904–1989, which has proved one of the most inspiring and controversial realisations of the myth. A major topic is the relation between the Narcissus myth of symbolism and surrealism on the one hand, and the story of the Boeotian youth as depicted in Ovid’s Metamorphoses on the other. With regard to the works of Gustave Moreau, the study focuses on a new paradigm, which has not been su.ciently investigated, namely the replacement of the traditional image of Narcissus reflected in the pool with a new concept: the concept of reflection as the hero’s introspection. The analysis of Dalí’s much discussed Metamorphosis of Narcissus, on the other hand, tackles the rarely addressed problem of the classical elements employed in this painting.

  19. Social inequalities and the rise in violent deaths in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil: 2000-2006. (United States)

    Viana, Luiz Antonio Chaves; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria


    An ecological study was carried out using information zones as units of analysis in order to assess the evolution of socio-spatial inequalities in mortality due to external causes and homicides in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2000 and 2006. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística--IBGE) and the City Health Department (Secretaria Municipal de Saúde) provided the data sources, and causes of death were reviewed and reclassified based on reports from the Institute of Legal Medicine (Instituto Médico Legal). The information zones were classified into four social strata according to income and schooling. The ratio between mortality rates (inequality ratio) was calculated and confirmed a rise of 98.5% in the homicide rate. In 2000, the risk of death due to external causes and murders in the stratum with the worst living conditions was respectively 1.40 and 1.94 times greater than in the reference stratum. In 2006 these figures were 2.02 and 2.24. The authors discuss the implications for inter-sectoral public policies, based on evidence from the study's findings.

  20. Risk factors for Chagas disease among pregnant women in El Salvador. (United States)

    Sasagawa, Emi; Aiga, Hirotsugu; Corado, Edith Y; Cuyuch, Blanca L; Hernández, Marta A; Guevara, Ana V; Romero, José E; Ramos, Hector M; Cedillos, Rafael A; Misago, Chizuru; Kita, Kiyoshi


    To determine the seroprevalence of Chagas disease among pregnant women and estimate the risk factors for Chagas disease during pregnancies. Community-based serological tests on Trypanosoma cruzi and structured interviews on socio-demographic and socio-economic status were conducted with pregnant women registered at three health centres in Sonsonate province, El Salvador. Of 797 pregnant women participating in the study, 29 (3.6%) were infected with Chagas disease. None had clinical symptoms. The results of bivariate analyses showed the significant association between seropositivity and maternal age ≥35 years, anaemia, illiteracy, having no formal school education and having knowledge on Chagas disease (P Chagas disease among pregnant women (OR = 3.541 and 5.197, respectively). We recommend that the national Chagas disease control programme be better coordinated with the national maternal and child health programme to introduce blood screening for T. cruzi during antenatal visits. If financial constraint allows systematic blood screening to be only partially implemented, resources should be focused on pregnant women ≥35 years and women who have anaemia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Mental health and primary care: an experience with community health agents in Salvador-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noêmia Aragão Casais


    Full Text Available Objective: To share an experience of a link between primary care and mental health by means of matrix support. Method: A survey conducted from March to December 2007, in Pernambués neighborhood, District of Cabula-beiru, in Salvador - Bahia. The shared knowledge construction was carried out by residents of the Multidisciplinary Residency Program in Health from the Nucleus of Mental Health, State University of Bahia, with Community Health Agents (ACS. Meetings, discussions and domiciliary visits were applyed as sharing technics and tools with phonographic recording, photographic register and report. The obtained information were evaluated regarding their content and were divided into stages and categories. Results: We determined the following stages by means of the technique: approach, ties’ strengthening, teamwork and conclusion. The results were analyzed based on the ACS’ everyday interactivity for cooperation, thus obtaining the development of a critical spirit in the assesment of the relationship between primary care and mental health. Final Considerations: The exchange of experiences produced significant learning, besides health promotion for all those involved in the process: ACS, families cared for and residents.

  2. Community violence and childhood asthma prevalence in peripheral neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. (United States)

    Alves, Guilherme da Costa; Santos, Darci Neves; Feitosa, Caroline Alves; Barreto, Mauricio Lima


    This study aimed to identify degrees of exposure to community violence reported by parents and guardians of children from four to 12 years of age and the association with childhood asthma symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,232 parents/guardians in 24 peripheral neighborhoods in Salvador, the capital of Bahia State, Brazil. The authors investigated asthma symptoms in children and acts of violence in the community. More than 75% of parents/guardians had been exposed to community violence in the previous year, with 20% reporting high levels of exposure. Children that were more exposed to violence showed higher asthma prevalence (28.4%) as compared to non-exposed children (16.4%). Children exposed to maximum levels of violence were nearly twice as likely to present asthma symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.94; 95%CI: 1.12-3.36). The study highlighted the relevance of community violence as a risk factor for asthma and the need for further research to elucidate methodological issues.

  3. Molecular characterization of group A rotavirus isolates obtained from hospitalized children in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Serravalle

    Full Text Available Rotavirus is a major cause of infectious diarrhea in infants and young children. The objective of this study was to characterize the genotypes of Human Rotavirus found in children hospitalized with acute diarrhea in the Pediatric Hospital Prof. Hosannah de Oliveira of the UFBA in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, during the years of 1999, 2000 and 2002. Fecal samples were analyzed (n=358 by methods EIARA and SDS-PAGE for detection of Rotavirus. Positive samples of one or two of these methods (n=168 were submitted to RT-PCR and Multiplex-Nested PCR to determine genotypes G and P. A hundred sixty-eight (46.9% samples were positive and 190 (53.1% negative. Only 17 (4.7% samples had divergent results. The distribution of genotypes G during the first year, showed that the genotype G9 was present in 96,8% of the analyzed samples, in the second year, it was responsible for 96% and in the third year, 88,1%. The characterization of genotypes P demonstrated that the genotype P1A[8] was the most outstanding in all years. In this study we discuss the benefit to control the genotypes of Rotavirus through the molecular characterization for the development of potential vaccines.

  4. REG and GREAT, two networks to optimize Gaia scientific exploitation (United States)

    Figueras, F.; Jordi, C.; Spanish Participants in Reg; Great


    The launch of Gaia satellite by the European Space Agency is a year ahead (last quarter of 2013), and Spanish and European community have already out in place two networks devoted to the preparation of the scientific exploitation of the data acquired by the satellite: GREAT (Gaia Research for European Astronomy Training), funded by the European Science Foundation and by Marie Curie Actions in its People 7th Programme, and REG (Spanish Network for the scientific exploitation of Gaia) funded by MINECO. These networks, which are open to the international community, have adopted the challenges of Gaia mission: to revolutionize our understanding of the Milky Way and its components, trace the distribution of dark matter in the local universe, validate and improve models of stellar structure and evolution, characterizing solar system objects, ... and many more. Both networks promote the close interaction among researchers of different institutes, by supporting short and long exchange visits, workshops, schools and large conferences. Currently, 128 Spanish people actively participate in the several working groups in GREAT and REG and 2 students are performing their PhD in the framework of the GREAT-ITN Spanish node. This paper provides detailed information about the structure of these networks, the Spanish participation, and present and future tasks that are foreseen.

  5. Salmonella Typhimurium exploits inflammation to its own advantage in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eChirullo


    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium is responsible for foodborne zoonotic infections that, in humans, induce self-limiting gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the wild-type strain S. Typhimurium (STM14028 is able to exploit inflammation fostering an active infection.Due to the similarity between human and porcine diseases induced by S. Typhimurium, we used piglets as a model for salmonellosis and gastrointestinal research. This study showed that STM14028 is able to efficiently colonize in vitro porcine mono-macrophages and intestinal columnar epithelial (IPEC-J2 cells, and that the colonization significantly increases with LPS pre-treatment. This increase was then reversed by inhibiting the LPS stimulation through LPS antagonist, confirming an active role of LPS stimulation in the STM14028-intracellular colonization. Moreover, LPS in vivo treatment induces increased cytokines blood level and body temperature at 4 hours post infection, which is consistent with an acute inflammatory stimulus, capable to influence the colonization of STM14028 in different organs and tissues. The present study proves for the first time that in acute enteric salmonellosis, S.Typhimurium exploits inflammation for its benefit in piglets.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej ZYGMUNIAK


    Full Text Available This study is aimed at exposing differences between two data models in case of code lists values provided there. The first of them is an obligatory one for managing Geodesic Register of Utility Networks databases in Poland [9] and the second is the model originating from the Technical Guidelines issued to the INSPIRE Directive. Since the second one mentioned is the basis for managing spatial databases among European parties, correlating these two data models has an effect in easing the way of harmonizing and, in consequence, exchanging spatial data. Therefore, the study presents the possibilities of increasing compatibility between the values of the code lists concerning attributes for objects provid-ed in both models. In practice, it could lead to an increase of the competitiveness of entities managing or processing such databases and to greater involvement in scientific or research projects when it comes to the mining industry. More-over, since utility networks located on mining areas are under particular protection, the ability of making them more fitted to their own needs will make it possible for mining plants to exchange spatial data in a more efficient way.

  7. The effect of marine protected areas on an exploited population of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of two marine protected areas (MPAs) on roman Chrysoblephus laticeps (Sparidae), an exploited reef-fish species inhabiting the South African temperate south coast, was simulated with a spatially explicit, individual-based model based on geographically correct habitat distribution. The model domains were small ...

  8. Determinantes da experimentação do cigarro e do início precoce do tabagismo entre adolescentes escolares em Salvador (BA Determinants of smoking experimentation and initiation among adolescent students in the city of Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelmo de Souza Machado Neto


    among adolescent students (11-14 years of age. METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based study involving adolescent (middle and high school students at public and private schools in the city of Salvador, Brazil. A multiple-stage sampling protocol was used. The participants completed an anonymous, voluntary, self-report questionnaire. The dependent variables were age at smoking experimentation and smoking initiation. Sociodemographic and educational variables, as well as those related to media influence and alcohol consumption, were considered independent variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, followed by analysis of the fit of the final logistic regression model. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking experimentation was 16.1% (95% CI: 15.1-17.2. Of the 5,347 students evaluated, 757 had experimented with cigarettes, and 462 (61.2% of those 757 had done so before the age of 15 (mean age at smoking experimentation, 13.9 ± 1.8 years. Smoking initiation was associated with paternal smoking (OR = 1.53; 83% CI = 1.07-2.19 and with media influence (OR = 2.43; 83% CI: 1.46-4.04. Smoking experimentation was associated with alcohol consumption (OR = 6.04; 83% CI: 4.62-7.88, having friends who smoke (OR = 3.18; 83% CI: 2.54-3.99, having a boyfriend/girlfriend who smokes (OR = 3.42; 83% CI: 1.78-6.56, and coercive/aggressive educational interventions by the parents (OR = 1.60; 83% CI: 1.26-2.04. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption and the influence of peers and relatives who smoke showed a strong association with smoking experimentation. Paternal smoking and media influence were found to increase the chances of adolescent smoking.

  9. Three thousand years of flank and central vent eruptions of the San Salvador volcanic complex (El Salvador) and their effects on El Cambio archeological site: a review based on tephrostratigraphy (United States)

    Ferrés, D.; Delgado Granados, H.; Hernández, W.; Pullinger, C.; Chávez, H.; Castillo Taracena, C. R.; Cañas-Dinarte, C.


    The volcanic events of the last 3,000 years at San Salvador volcanic complex are reviewed using detailed stratigraphic records exposed in new excavations between 2005 and 2007, at El Cambio archeological site (Zapotitán Valley, El Salvador), and in other outcrops on the northern and northwestern sectors of the complex. The sequences that overlie Tierra Blanca Joven (cal. 429 ± 107 ad), from the Ilopango caldera, comprise the Loma Caldera (cal. 590 ± 90 ad) and El Playón (1658-1671) deposits and the San Andrés Tuff (cal. 1031 ± 29 ad), related to El Boquerón Volcano. The surge deposits within the El Playón, San Andrés Tuff and overlying Talpetate II sequences indicate the significance of phreatomagmatic phases in both central vent and flank eruptions during the last 1,600 years. Newly identified volcanic deposits underlying Tierra Blanca Joven at El Cambio extend the stratigraphic record of the area to 3,000 years bp. Paleosols interstratified with those deposits contain cultural artifacts which could be associated with the Middle Preclassic period (900-400 bc). If correct, human occupation of the site during the Preclassic period was more intense than previously known and volcanic eruptions must have affected prehistoric settlements. The archeological findings provide information on how prehistoric populations dealt with volcanic hazards, thousands of years ago in the eastern Zapotitán Valley, where several housing projects are currently being developed. The new stratigraphic and volcanological data can be used as a basis for local and regional hazard assessment related to future secondary vent activity in the San Salvador Volcanic Complex.

  10. Mission Exploitation Platform PROBA-V (United States)

    Goor, Erwin


    VITO and partners developed an end-to-end solution to drastically improve the exploitation of the PROBA-V EO-data archive (, the past mission SPOT-VEGETATION and derived vegetation parameters by researchers, service providers and end-users. The analysis of time series of data (+1PB) is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of near real-time data. From November 2015 an operational Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP) PROBA-V, as an ESA pathfinder project, will be gradually deployed at the VITO data center with direct access to the complete data archive. Several applications will be released to the users, e.g. - A time series viewer, showing the evolution of PROBA-V bands and derived vegetation parameters for any area of interest. - Full-resolution viewing services for the complete data archive. - On-demand processing chains e.g. for the calculation of N-daily composites. - A Virtual Machine will be provided with access to the data archive and tools to work with this data, e.g. various toolboxes and support for R and Python. After an initial release in January 2016, a research platform will gradually be deployed allowing users to design, debug and test applications on the platform. From the MEP PROBA-V, access to Sentinel-2 and landsat data will be addressed as well, e.g. to support the Cal/Val activities of the users. Users can make use of powerful Web based tools and can self-manage virtual machines to perform their work on the infrastructure at VITO with access to the complete data archive. To realise this, private cloud technology (openStack) is used and a distributed processing environment is built based on Hadoop. The Hadoop ecosystem offers a lot of technologies (Spark, Yarn, Accumulo, etc.) which we integrate with several open-source components. The impact of this MEP on the user community will be high and will completely change the way of working with the data and hence open the large time series to a larger

  11. Explosive and Phreatomagmatic Activity from San Salvador Volcanic Complex (El Salvador) and Their Effects on El Cambio Archaeological Site: a Review of the Last 3000 yrs. Based on Volcanic Stratigraphy Data (United States)

    Ferrés, D.; Delgado, H.; Pullinger, C.; Castillo, R.; Chávez, H. I.


    El Cambio archeological site (ECAS; Zapotitán Valley), 4 km NW from the San Salvador Volcanic Complex comprises 3000 yrs. of pyroclastic record. Sheets (1983) identified different levels rich in cultural remains intercalated within the volcanic deposits, indicating that different prehistoric settings were affected by San Salvador volcano eruptions, and giving information on the reoccupation frequency in the area. Accordingly, ECAS was occupied since the Late Pre-Classic period until before the last plinian eruption of Ilopango Caldera (425AD) reference, that originated the Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ), pyroclastic deposits generally used as key-layer in stratigraphic reconstructions. Within the next two centuries, there is no evidence of human occupation at ECAS until the end of Late Classic which was a period of maximum splendor in the valley. During this time the area was affected by at least 3 eruptions from the San Salvador volcanic complex that produced the: Laguna Caldera volcanic fall deposits (which affected Joya de Cerén archeological site in 625AD), "Talpetate" surge deposits or Toba de San Andrés (600-900AD), and fall deposits of El Playón volcano (1658). We report new data on volcanic stratigraphy and archeological history including the following: a) the phreatomagmatic nature of eruptions that affected the area, the new excavations allowed the detailed study of surge deposits indicating magma-water interaction at Laguna Caldera and El Playón, previously considered strombolian eruptions; b)document the occupation of ECAS during Middle Pre-Classic period, new surge deposits below TBJ have been identified (with Middle Pre-Classic artifacts and pottery), that had not been documented before, extending the historic record up to 3000 yrs. BP. and c) detailed study of the "Talpetate" deposits, this sequence consists of fall, pyroclastic flow and surge deposits, present in the rim and slopes of San Salvador Volcano, which can be correlated with surge deposits

  12. Prediction maps of land subsidence caused by groundwater exploitation in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thinh Hong Phi


    Full Text Available The article presents study results of the land subsidence caused by groundwater exploitation in Hanoi, Vietnam. The study includes collection and analysis of data on geology, hydrology, soil properties and settlements observed at 10 monitoring stations as well as models of the time-dependent settlement. The calculated settlements are relatively close to actual monitoring data. The models were done for prediction of the land subsidence at 92 selected points by the finite element method. Prediction maps are made for prediction of the land subsidence in 2020 and 2030. Recommendations are proposed for potential zones of groundwater exploitation in Hanoi.

  13. Efficient Media Exploitation Towards Collective Intelligence (United States)

    Mylonas, Phivos; Solachidis, Vassilios; Geyer-Schulz, Andreas; Hoser, Bettina; Chapman, Sam; Ciravegna, Fabio; Staab, Steffen; Smrz, Pavel; Kompatsiaris, Yiannis; Avrithis, Yannis

    In this work we propose intelligent, automated content analysis techniques for different media to extract knowledge from the multimedia content. Information derived from different sources/modalities will be analyzed and fused, in terms of spatiotemporal, personal and even social contextual information. In order to achieve this goal, semantic analysis will be applied to the content items, taking into account the content itself (e.g., text, images and video), as well as existing personal, social and contextual information (e.g., semantic and machine-processable metadata and tags). The above process exploits the so-called “Media Intelligence” towards the ultimate goal of identifying “Collective Intelligence”, emerging from the collaboration and competition among people, empowering innovative services and user interactions. The utilization of “Media Intelligence” constitutes a departure from traditional methods for information sharing, since semantic multimedia analysis has to fuse information from both the content itself and the social context, while at the same time the social dynamics have to be taken into account. Such intelligence provides added-value to the available multimedia content and renders existing procedures and research efforts more efficient.

  14. The Spanish network for Gaia Science Exploitation (United States)

    Figueras, F.; Jordi, C.; Luri, X.; Torra, J.; REG Executive Committee Team; Gaia UB Team


    The ''Red Española de Explotación Científica de Gaia'' (REG) continues to intensify its activities facing the imminent publication of the first and second Gaia data releases (14 September, 2016 and Q4-2017, respectively). The network, supported by the MINECO under contract Acciones de dinamizaci ´on, Redes de Excelencia (2016-2017), has as major priority the task to coordinate and support the collective activities developed by its more than 150 members. At present, REG plays a prominent role in the preparation of the Spanish community for the use of the Gaia data archive (a task lead by the Spanish team), in the work to exploit the Gaia-ESO survey collected during the last four years and in supporting the preparation of the science case and survey plan for WEAVE, the new multi-object spectrograph for the WHT at Canary Islands (commissioning, 2018). These activities are described together with the schedule of future national and international science meetings and the outreach activities being organized for the first and second Data Releases

  15. Understanding Online Child Sexual Exploitation Offenses. (United States)

    Ly, Thanh; Murphy, Lisa; Fedoroff, J Paul


    In the past three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the worldwide availability of Internet access and devices that are able to access online materials. This literature review investigated whether increased accessibility of Internet child pornography (CP) increases the risk of in-person child sexual exploitation. The current review found little to no evidence that availability of the Internet has increased the worldwide incidence or prevalence of in-person child sexual abuse. In fact, during the time period in which the Internet has flourished, international crime statistics have shown a steady decrease of in-person child sexual abuse. The only exception to this trend is an increase in Internet child pornography or luring offenses (e.g., Stats Can, 2014), which involves child abuse by definition. This article reviews the impact of the Internet on child sexual abuse. It also reviews the characteristics of online CP offenders. Treatment of these offenders and prevention of such offenses is also discussed.

  16. Exploiting epigenetic vulnerabilities for cancer therapeutics. (United States)

    Mair, Barbara; Kubicek, Stefan; Nijman, Sebastian M B


    Epigenetic deregulation is a hallmark of cancer, and there has been increasing interest in therapeutics that target chromatin-modifying enzymes and other epigenetic regulators. The rationale for applying epigenetic drugs to treat cancer is twofold. First, epigenetic changes are reversible, and drugs could therefore be used to restore the normal (healthy) epigenetic landscape. However, it is unclear whether drugs can faithfully restore the precancerous epigenetic state. Second, chromatin regulators are often mutated in cancer, making them attractive drug targets. However, in most instances it is unknown whether cancer cells are addicted to these mutated chromatin proteins, or whether their mutation merely results in epigenetic instability conducive to the selection of secondary aberrations. An alternative incentive for targeting chromatin regulators is the exploitation of cancer-specific vulnerabilities, including synthetic lethality, caused by epigenetic deregulation. We review evidence for the hypothesis that mechanisms other than oncogene addiction are a basis for the application of epigenetic drugs, and propose future research directions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploiting open data: a new era in pharmacoinformatics. (United States)

    Goldmann, Daria; Montanari, Floriane; Richter, Lars; Zdrazil, Barbara; Ecker, Gerhard F


    Within the last decade open data concepts has been gaining increasing interest in the area of drug discovery. With the launch of ChEMBL and PubChem, an enormous amount of bioactivity data was made easily accessible to the public domain. In addition, platforms that semantically integrate those data, such as the Open PHACTS Discovery Platform, permit querying across different domains of open life science data beyond the concept of ligand-target-pharmacology. However, most public databases are compiled from literature sources and are thus heterogeneous in their coverage. In addition, assay descriptions are not uniform and most often lack relevant information in the primary literature and, consequently, in databases. This raises the question how useful large public data sources are for deriving computational models. In this perspective, we highlight selected open-source initiatives and outline the possibilities and also the limitations when exploiting this huge amount of bioactivity data.

  18. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and State Child Welfare Systems. (United States)

    Bounds, Dawn; Julion, Wrenetha A; Delaney, Kathleen R


    In several states, commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is now a reportable child abuse offense. Illinois has taken the lead in tackling the issue and the Illinois experience illuminates valuable lessons. This article delineates the protection, practice, and policy implications that evolve when CSEC falls under a state child welfare system. The specific aims are to (a) discuss CSEC, its victims, risks, harms, and challenges inherent in providing effective care; (b) use Illinois as an exemplar to explicate the consequences and implementation challenges of establishing a state reporting system that frames CSEC as a child welfare issue; (c) recommend strategies for developing effective state reporting models, and (d) demonstrate how nurses are well poised to advocate for victims of human trafficking on both state and national levels. Recommendations for improving the identification of CSEC victims and overcoming challenges to state implementation are offered. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Simultaneously Exploiting Two Formulations: an Exact Benders Decomposition Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon

    . Furthermore, it proves the correctness of the procedure and considers how to include interesting extensions such as cutting planes and advanced branching strategies. Finally, we test and compare the performance of the proposed approach on publicly available instances of the Bin Packing problem. Compared......When modelling a given problem using linear programming techniques several possibilities often exist, and each results in a different mathematical formulation of the problem. Usually, advantages and disadvantages can be identified in any single formulation. In this paper we consider mixed integer...... linear programs and propose an approach based on Benders decomposition to exploit the advantages of two different formulations when solving a problem. We propose to apply Benders decomposition to a combined formulation,comprised of two separate formulations, augmented with linking constraints to ensure...

  20. Exploiting Motion Capture to Enhance Avoidance Behaviour in Games (United States)

    van Basten, Ben J. H.; Jansen, Sander E. M.; Karamouzas, Ioannis

    Realistic simulation of interacting virtual characters is essential in computer games, training and simulation applications. The problem is very challenging since people are accustomed to real-world situations and thus, they can easily detect inconsistencies and artifacts in the simulations. Over the past twenty years several models have been proposed for simulating individuals, groups and crowds of characters. However, little effort has been made to actually understand how humans solve interactions and avoid inter-collisions in real-life. In this paper, we exploit motion capture data to gain more insights into human-human interactions. We propose four measures to describe the collision-avoidance behavior. Based on these measures, we extract simple rules that can be applied on top of existing agent and force based approaches, increasing the realism of the resulting simulations.