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Sample records for salto sem contramovimento

  1. Efeitos agudos no desempenho do salto vertical após o agachamento com banda elástica de joelho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Andrade Gomes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A banda elástica pode afetar o desempenho durante exercícios de alta intensidade, reduzindo a ativação muscular, o que pode influenciar o efeito de potencialização pós-ativação, que depende de alta intensidade para o exercício subsequente que visa potência. Objetivo: Verificar os efeitos agudos no desempenho do salto com contramovimento (SCM após o agachamento em alta intensidade com e sem o uso da banda elástica de joelhos em sujeitos treinados em força.MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 14 homens (idade: 24 ± 4 anos, estatura: 176 ± 6 cm, massa corporal: 81 ± 11 kg, 1RM: 107 ± 30 kgf, treinados em força (>3 anos. Foram realizados três SCM antes e após três meio-agachamentos a 90% de 1RM nas condições com e sem a banda elástica de joelhos. Durante o SCM foram avaliados ativação muscular (IEMG do vasto lateral (VL, glúteo máximo (GM, tempo de salto (TS e impulso (IMP por meio da força vertical de reação do solo (FRSv.RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que para o TS foi verificada diferença significante entre as condições pós-meio-agachamento (com e sem banda (P= 0,044, TE = 1,02, sendo que os maiores valores foram observados para a condição sem banda. Para a IEMG de VL foi verificada diferença significante entre as condições pré e pós o meio-agachamento (com banda (P= 0,029, TE = 1,68, sendo que os maiores valores foram observados para a IEMG com banda. Para a IEMG de GM e para o IMP não foram verificadas diferenças significantes entre as condições.CONCLUSÃO: Após a utilização da banda elástica de joelhos durante o exercício agachamento, ocorreu uma redução na participação do vasto lateral durante o salto com contramovimento, afetando o tempo de contato, mas não a produção de impulso, e consequente desempenho.

  2. Respostas neuromusculares dos membros inferiores durante protocolo intermitente de saltos verticais em voleibolistas Neuromuscular responses of the lower limb muscles during vertical jumping in volleyball athletes

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    Caroline Tosini Felicissimo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o desempenho e as respostas eletromiográficas dos músculos Reto Femoral, Bíceps Femoral e Gastrocnêmio Medial durante protocolo de saltos verticais. Participaram 13 voleibolistas do sexo feminino (15,6 ± 0,9 anos. Inicialmente foi realizado um protocolo de potência máxima (três saltos máximos, seguido do protocolo de resistência de saltos (ciclos de três saltos máximos em aproximadamente 10 segundos (s - um salto a cada três s, com recuperação de 15 s. O tempo de duração do protocolo de resistência foi de 20 minutos. Foi usada a técnica do salto com contramovimento sem ajuda dos braços, sobre tapete de contato. Para tratamento dos dados os saltos foram divididos em quatro períodos com 12 ciclos cada um. Os resultados mostraram queda na altura dos saltos de aproximadamente 1,3cm entre os períodos de 1 a 4, sendo que, essa queda foi mais significativa nos 3º e 4º períodos em comparação ao 1º e 2º. Entretanto, com relação às variáveis RMS e FM, não ocorreu alteração nas respostas eletromiográficas entre músculos e períodos. Concluiu-se, assim, que a fadiga pode depender de variáveis psicofisiológicas, ao nível do SNC, que também influem no desempenho.The purpose of this study was to analyze the performance and the electromyographic responses of the muscles Rectus Femoris, Biceps Femoris and Gastrocnemius Medialis during vertical jumping protocol. Participated 13 female volleyball players (15,6 ± 0,9 years. Initially was performed a protocol of maximum power (three maximum jumps, followed by resistance jumps protocol (cycles of three maximum jumps in about 10 seconds (s - one jump every three s, with recovery of 15s. The duration of resistance protocol was 20 minutes. Technique used was countermovement jump without the aid of arms on a mat of contact. The data collected during the jumps were divided into four periods containing 12 cycles each. The results showed a

  3. Salto de Vinon, Francia

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    Vié, G.

    1966-05-01

    Full Text Available The hydroelectric exploitation of the Verdon stream, which is the most important of those flowing into the Durance river, is achieved by means of the Vinon Dam, and other dams. The combined water supply from the Greoux dam and the Vinon dam provide a controlled flow for the Provence canal, which is fed through the Maurras gallery. In this Alpine zone a general study is being conducted at present to coordinate in the best possible manner the use of the torrential water, available in the various valleys, both for irrigation and power producing purposes. The most important aspects of the Vinon project are the drilling of the very long galleries. This work has been done with very modem equipment of high efficiency. The author describes this in detail. The Vinon power plant is partly underground, and has a central cylindrical section, of 19 m diameter. This power station has a Francis unit, of 27.800 kw, operated by a water supply of 40 m3/sec under a hydrostatic head of 78 m.El aprovechamiento hidroeléctrico del arroyo Verdón, afluente más importante del río Durance, se realiza por medio del salto de Vinon. Las aguas combinadas de la restitución y embalse de Gréoux suministrarán un caudal regulado al canal de Provenza, para lo cual se aprovechará la galería de Maurras. Esta zona alpina es objeto, actualmente, de un estudio general que coordinará las aguas torrenciales de las distintas cuencas afectadas para un mejor aprovechamiento, tanto hidroeléctrico como para riegos, además de asegurar una regulación de caudales. Los trabajos más importantes del salto de Vinon se centran en la perforación de galerías de gran longitud, trabajo que se ha realizado con material moderno de gran rendimiento que el autor describe. La central de Vinon, semiexterior, presenta en su núcleo central una forma cilíndrica de 19 m de diámetro. Esta central se ha equipado con un grupo Francis de 27.800 kW de potencia, dispone de un salto hidrostático de 78

  4. Salto de Miranda, Asturias

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    Vilanova Bosch, José Luis

    1964-07-01

    Full Text Available The water from the rivers Pigüeña and Somiedo is collected and conducted to the Salto de Miranda hydroelectric power station. The civil engineers Constructora Hidrocivil, S. A., carried out the project for the owners of this power station. Hidroeléctrica Cantábrica, S. A. The project is situated in the mountains, where a small dam collects the water. This is then led through a long conduit to the entry of the pressure pipes leading to the turbines. The water later flows back to the original river course. The total pressure head is 410 ms, and the mean volume of water which is exploited is 15 m3/sec. As the author is planning to publish additional articles describing specific aspects of the problem, no attempt is made here to emphasize the importance of many significant features of this project. In carrying out this project, the contractors devoted great care to the planning of the various constructional steps, in order that no delay in one particular operation should hold up the progress in the rest of the work.La entidad propietaria del Salto de Miranda es Hidroeléctrica del Cantábrico, S. A.; e Hidrocivil, S. A., participó muy activamente en la ejecución de los trabajos de obra e ingeniería civil. Fue una labor tan recia y tenaz de todos los que participaron en esta gran tarea, y tan elogioso su trabajo, su constante espíritu y voluntad de superación, que a ellos, obreros y técnicos, me debo sin reservas y con sinceridad. El éxito es suyo. Éxito basado en labor de equipo, perfecta compenetración de los binomios «hombre-hombres» «máquina-hombres». Quiero agradecer a la Compañía de Construcciones Hidráulicas y Civiles la oportunidad que me brindó de dirigir estos trabajos, que forjaron en mí una experiencia técnica y la satisfacción de una rendida colaboración. En otros números de esta revista espero poder extenderme, con mayor detalle, en otros aspectos específicos de esta importante obra.

  5. SALTO project evaluation - WG4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozdrovicky, J.; Prandorfy, M.

    2006-01-01

    Many of the operating nuclear power plants are approaching their design life. In response, the IAEA initiated Extrabudgetary Programme on Safety Aspects of Long Term Operation (SALTO) of Water Moderated Reactors (Programme). The Programme's objectives are to assist those Member States considering LTO of water moderated reactors in how best to reconcile the related processes and practices; how to establish a general LTO framework; and finally, it provides a forum in which Member States can freely exchange information. The main goal of project was to develop an internationally agreed document that will provide MS with specific guidance for long term operation. Collection of WWER specific information by all participants increased quality and unification of national programmes. Original design plant life of 30 years is planned to be extended by 10 years to the overall period of 40 years of operation. The Programme activities were guided by the Programme Steering Committee (SC), follow the overall SC Programme Workplan and SC Terms of Reference, and are implemented in 4 Working Groups (WG). The WGs focus on: - general LTO framework (WG 1); - mechanical components and materials (WG 2); - electrical components and I and C (WG 3); - structures and structural components (WG 4). VUEZ, a.s., Levice participated on activities for structural components implemented in 4 th Working Group. This programme was finished and final report was published. In this article we bring a short presentation of the SALTO project and the report. (authors)

  6. Desenvolvimento de um método de familiarização individualizado para saltos verticais

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    João Gustavo Claudino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Propor um método de familiarização individualizado para saltos verticais e verificar o seu efeito na variabilidade intrassujeito. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta e três homes (média ± DP; idade 23,5 ± 3,3 anos; estatura 1,76 ± 0,08 m; massa 72,8 ± 8,6 kg; percentual de gordura 12,9 ± 5,2% realizaram sucessivos saltos até atingir o nível de estabilidade proposto. Após 48 h este processo era repetido e a estabilidade entre dias era verificada, se necessário, mais sessões eram realizadas. O nível de estabilidade foi determinado por um teste z, com intervalo de confiança de 95%. Após o processo de familiarização, duas sessões experimentais adicionais foram realizadas para determinar a confiabilidade do desempenho no salto agachado (SA e no salto com contramovimento (SCM. O coeficiente de variação e o erro padrão de medida foram determinados individualmente (CVi e EPMi. Um teste t pareado foi realizado para verificar diferenças no CVi e EPMi antes e depois do processo de familiarização. RESULTADOS: O CVi apresentou uma redução significativa após o processo de familiarização (p < 0,001, alterando de 5,01 ± 2,40% para 2,95 ± 0,89% no SA e de 4,50 ± 2,19% para 2,58 ± 0,81% no SCM. O mesmo ocorreu para o EPMi variando de 1,29± 0,53 cm para 0,83 ± 0,25 cm no SA e de 1,35 ± 0,51 cm para 0,83 ± 0,26 cm no SCM. CONCLUSÃO: o método de familiarização individualizado proposto reduziu significativamente a variação intrassujeito, permitindo maior poder estatístico em estudos experimentais e maior sensibilidade para ferramentas de monitoramento do desempenho.

  7. Efecto agudo y retardado de siete tipos de estímulos diferentes sobre la capacidad de salto y efecto de ocho estímulos diferentes sobre la capacidad de salto y la velocidad de desplazamiento

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    Eduardo Sáez Sáez de Villarreal

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron 3 estudios experimentales para determinar el efecto agudo y retardado de diferentes estímulos sobre la capacidad de salto (CSV y velocidad de desplazamiento (VD. En el primer estudio comprobamos el efecto de 7 tipos de estímulos de activación muscular sobre la CSV a corto y largo plazo (5 min-6 h. 12 jugadores de voleibol de 1ª división, realizaron diferentes estímulos de activación aleatoriamente. La utilización de movimientos dinámicos con cargas de alta intensidad (80-95% 1RMSP así como protocolos de calentamiento específicos para el voleibol generaron mejores efectos neuromusculares sobre las acciones explosivas realizadas a corto plazo (5 min.. Los efectos agudos positivos sobre la CSV tras una óptima activación fueron mantenidos después de largos periodos de descanso (6 horas, cuando se realizaron acciones dinámicas de alta intensidad. En el segundo estudio examinamos el efecto de tres frecuencias de entrenamiento pliométrico (1, 2 y 4 días/sem durante un programa de 7 semanas, sobre la CSV, la VD la fuerza máxima (FM y explosiva (FE. 42 estudiantes fueron aleatoriamente asignados en 4 grupos experimentales. El entrenamiento incluía saltos drop jump (DJ desde 20-40-60 cm. El tratamiento (2 días/sem, 840 saltos produjo similares mejoras en la CSV, aunque fue más eficiente (~12% y 0,014%/salto cuando se comparó con un volumen de (4 días/sem, 1.680 saltos (~18% y 0,011%/saltos. Se observaron mejoras similares en la VD en 20m y en la FM tanto utilizando un moderado o bajo como un alto volumen de entrenamiento, a pesar de que el número medio de saltos realizados por el grupo 7S (420 saltos y 14S (840 saltos fue un 25% y un 50% de los realizados por el grupo 28S (1680 saltos. En el tercer estudio examinamos el efecto retardado de 5 estímulos diferentes sobre la CSV y la VD después de 7 semanas de entrenamiento. 63 estudiantes fueron aleatoriamente asignados en 5 grupos experimentales. Se produjo una mejora

  8. CAPACIDAD DE SALTO EN NIÑAS PREPÚBERES QUE PRACTICAN GIMNASIA RÍTMICA

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    R. Arteaga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Estudiamos el rendimiento en el salto vertical y como podría verse afectado por lacomposición corporal en 13 niñas que practicaban gimnasia rítmica (GR; 10.4 ± 0.9 años y13 niñas control (CO; 9.9 ± 0.7 años. La composición corporal fue determinada medianteantropometría y DXA. Se realizaron saltos con y sin contramovimiento (CMJ y SJ sobre unaplataforma de fuerza analizándose entre otras variables la altura de vuelo (AV, velocidad dedespegue (VD, velocidad vertical máxima del centro de masas (Vimax, la potencia media(Pm, el impulso mecánico positivo (Ipos, tiempo de fuerza máxima (Tfmax y potenciainstantánea máxima (Pimax. Las gimnastas consiguieron una AV, VD, Ipos y Vimax mayoren ambos saltos y una Pm, Tfmax y Pimax mayores en el CMJ que las control (p<0.05. Enconclusión, prácticar gimnasia rítmica 10 h·sem-1 se asocia a un mayor rendimiento en elsalto vertical.

    Palabras claves: gimnasia rítmica, entrenamiento de fuerza, capacidad de salto.

  9. Contribution to the study of Arapey Salto-Aquifer System (Department of Salto - Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provide hydrogeological data about the Salto Arapey aquifer system constituted by sedimentary deposits and fisurate effusive rocks, respectively Tertiary and Cretacic aged. The information belongs to an area located at latitude South 31º20' West. North of the Salto city (NW of Uruguay) 500 km away from Montevideo. A regional aquifer system can be defined where the biggest flows are originated in the basaltic fisurate d rocks of the Arapey formation. Environment features are also considered and data about the main polluting agents - both organic and inorganic ones- are provided, bearing in mind that they justify an urgent safety design to protect the aquifer system

  10. Salto and The Garden of Eden / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2011-01-01

    Eesti edukast arhitektuuribüroost Salto. 2004. a. loodud büroo on pälvinud 38 autasu arhitektuurikonkurssidelt. Salto arhitektide projekti järgi on valminud Sõmeru vallamaja, Maanteemuuseumi välialad, Eesti Maaülikooli spordihoone, Põhuteater, Tartu Kesklinna Kooli juurdeehitus jm.

  11. Salto! / Karli Luik, Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke ; intervjueerinud Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luik, Karli, 1977-

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Kultuurkapitali 2010. a. arhitektuuri peapreemia pälvis AB Salto Eesti Maanteemuuseumi väliala ja Sõmeru keskusehoone lahenduse eest. Büroo arhitektid oma büroost, osalemiset arhitektuurivõistlustel, valminud ja käsilolevatest töödest. Valik AB Salto arhitektuurikonkursil pälvitud jt. preemiatest

  12. Aprovechamiento de Salto Grande Argentina – Uruguay

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    Bongiovanni, M.

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available The power harnessing of Salto Grande will be the first common project carried out by two South American Countries and this will foster greater integration of both countries. The project involves the following: — One 39 m-high dam — Two hydroelectric power plants — One international bridge — One shipping canal The benefits to be obtained from the project include: increase and improvement of the waterway network; increase of electricity production; railways and highway tie-ups between both countries; industrial development; increased availability of irrigation water; new tourist resorts; increase of fishing resources.

    El aprovechamiento hidroeléctrico de Salto Grande será el primer aprovechamiento común a dos países sudamericanos, lo que permitirá una mayor integración entre ellos. Consta de las siguientes obras: _ una presa de 39 m de altura; _ dos centrales hidroeléctricas; _ un puente internacional; _ un canal de navegación, etc. Entre los beneficios que se obtendrán destacan: aumento y mejora de la red de navegación; aumento de la producción eléctrica; enlace de las vías de ferrocarril y carreteras entre los dos países; desarrollo industrial; aumento de la disponibilidad de agua de riego; creación de zonas de turismo, e incremento de la riqueza piscícola.

  13. Contribuição dos parâmetros biomecânicos para o desempenho de saltos verticais de jogadoras de basquetebol Contribución de los parámetros biomecánicos para el desempeño en saltos verticales de jugadoras de baloncesto Contribution of biomechanical parameters to vertical jump performance in basketball players

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    Rodrigo Maciel Andrade

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a contribuição dos parâmetros biomecânicos para o desempenho do salto vertical com contramovimento (SV e SV precedido de corrida (SVcorrida em 19 jogadoras da seleção brasileira adulta de basquetebol feminino (26,2 ± 4,7 anos; 1,81 ± 0,07 m; 75,6 ± 12,6 kg; 20,4 ± 6,0% de gordura. Foram considerados os picos de força passiva (PFPa e propulsão (PFP, tempo para alcance dos picos de força passiva (TPFPa e propulsão (TPFP, "load rate" (LR, taxa de desenvolvimento de força (TDF, tempo de fase excêntrica (Texc e concêntrica (Tcon. A análise de componentes principais revelou que 50,86% da altura de SV foi explicada por PFPa, TPFPa, LR, Texc e TPFP, e que 43,28% de SVcorrida foi explicada por PFPa, TPFPa, LR, PFP. Esses resultados sugerem que parâmetros temporais parecem contribuir de maneira mais significativa para o desempenho de salto, porém diferentes tipos de salto podem demandar comportamentos distintos de parâmetros biomecânicos.El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la contribución de parámetros biomecánicos para el rendimiento de salto vertical con contra movimiento (SV e SV precedido de carrera (SVcarrera en diecinueve jugadoras de baloncesto de la selección brasileña femenina adultas (26,2 ± 4,7 años; 1,81 ± 0,07 m; 75,6 ± 12,6 kg; 20,4 ± 6,0% de grasa. Fueran considerados el pico de fuerza pasiva (PFPa y propulsión (PFP, tiempo para llegar a picos de fuerza pasiva (TPFPa y propulsión (TPFP, la tasa de carga (LR, tasa de desarrollo de fuerza (TDF, tiempo de la fase excéntrica (Texc y concéntrica (Tcon. Las análisis de los componentes principales mostraron que 50,86% da la altura de SV fue explicada por PFPa, TPFPa, LR, Texc y TPFP, y que 43,28% de SVcarrera fue explicada por PFPa, TPFPa, LR, PFP. Los resultados sugieren parámetros temporales parecen contribuir más significativamente para rendimiento del salto pero, diferentes tipos del salto pueden

  14. Velocities and joint angles during double backward stretched salto performed with stable landing and in combination with tempo salto

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    J Sadowski

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the values of velocity an joint angles obtained during performance of double salto backward stretched with a stable landing and its combination with salto tempo. Seven top level acrobats (track jumpers participated in study. Mean values of body height, mass and age had a value of: 170 cm ± 4.0 cm, 72.4 kg ± 3.6 kg, 20.4±1.7 years, respectively. The studies were conducted on a standard acrobatic path (type PTS 2000. Two digital video cameras (240 Hz and APAS 2000 (Ariel Dynamics Inc. were used during studies. Markers were placed in ankle, knee, hip, arm, elbow and wrist joints. All marker positions were tracked and reconstructed using the APAS system. Two sequences with the following elements were analysed: round-off - double salto backward stretched (A and round-off - double salto backward stretched - tempo salto (B. The highest differences between the key components describing performance of presented exercises exist for joint angles during launching and landing position, and resultant velocities during touchdown. In version A the athlete created prerequisites for “gliding” double salto backward stretched by means of the body segments motions, whereas in version B he executes faster motions of the body segments accentuating his actions upon backward rotation of the body. During the final phase of double salto backward stretched in combination with tempo salto the athlete performed courbette “under himself” (almost straight feet are placed in front of vertical line, pushes directly back and in 0,1 s executes stable arm swing upward-backward to tempo salto.

  15. Interview with Karli Luik from Salto / intervjueerinud Eero Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luik, Karli, 1977-

    2011-01-01

    2004. a. loodud arhitektuuribüroost Salto. Büroo kavandatud hoonete arhitektuurist, selle omapärast, ühiskondlike hoonete suurest osakaalust, arvestamisest keskkonnaga, Eesti varasema arhitektuuri mõjust, büroo hetkeseisust ja tulevikuplaanidest

  16. Elamuslik arhitektuur : Salto AB Sõmeru keskusehoone = Salto AB experiential architecture and the Sõmeru Community Centre / Carl-Dag Lige

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lige, Carl-Dag

    2011-01-01

    Arhitektuuribüroo Salto loomingust, mille fookus on kasutaja teenimisel ning meeleheal. 2010. a. valminud Sõmeru keskusehoonest. Arhitektid Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke, Karli Luik, kaasautorid Kristiina Arusoo, Margit Argus. Projekt: 2004

  17. Põhuteater ehk Salto arhitektide must monoliit = Straw Theatre or the Black Monolith by the Salto Architects / Risto Kozer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kozer, Risto

    2011-01-01

    Tallinnas 2011. a. valminud NO99 Põhuteatrist. Arhitektid: Maarja Kask, Karli Luik, Ralf Lõoke, Pelle-Sten Viiburg (Salto AB). Projekt: 2010. Loodud ajaperioodiks 30.04.-01.10.2011. Skoone bastionist enne Põhuteatrit

  18. TL/OSL ages from Salto Formation (Uruguay)tectonic, climatic and environmental considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubilla, M.; Veroslavsky, G.

    2004-01-01

    TL/OSL ages from Salto Formation based on two sandy samples collected at Salto City and Route 3 (Boycua Creek) are provided: 986±100 ky (LVD-948) and 830±95 ky (LVD-949) respectively. Both support a Pleistocene age for Salto Formation, approximately late early/early middle Pleistocene. Neotectonic and climatic processes are also discussed [es

  19. Aumento de altura en salto en jugadores universitarios de voleibol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Quiroga Maraboli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El entrenamiento del salto es fundamental para obtener un óptimo desempeño en diversos deportes, siendo el método complejo, basado en el fenómeno de potenciación posactivación (PPA, uno de los de los más utilizados para el entrenamiento de esta cualidad. Numerosos estudios respaldan la existencia de PPA representada en las variaciones de un salto vertical, sin embargo, en la literatura no se describe un protocolo estándar de entrenamiento que genere dicho fenómeno. Este estudio piloto cuantitativo cuasi experimental tiene como objetivo determinar en cuál de las zonas de fuerza descritas por Naclerio se debe entrenar para que la PPA se exprese, en mayor medida, evidenciado en las variaciones de altura de un salto Counter Movement Jump (CMJ. Se utilizó un muestreo por conveniencia de veinticinco individuos, divididos aleatoriamente en cinco grupos, cada uno correspondiente a una zona de fuerza. Luego los sujetos fueron entrenados con sentadilla media según los parámetros de cada zona. Finalmente, se obtuvo la altura del salto basándose en la fórmula de Bosco a partir de los fotogramas de una cámara digital. Existieron dos zonas de fuerza que presentaron un aumento en la altura del salto posterior a la potenciación, la zona de fuerza potencia y explosiva, sin embargo solo la primera de estas mostró resultados significativos en dicho cambio (p < 0,05, representados como un 7 % de aumento. Pretendemos que dichos hallazgos sean útiles para el desarrollo de nuevos estudios que permitan el diseño de nuevas metodologías de entrenamiento y rehabilitación deportiva viéndose beneficiados por sus propiedades.

  20. SEM Anthology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michelle; Zimar, Heather

    2004-01-01

    The "SEM Anthology" is a compilation of articles by more than 30 enrollment management professionals from a variety of institutions across the country. This collection, which has appeared in SEM Monthly over the past year, chronicles Strategic Enrollment Management efforts at campuses nationwide. The book illustrates the successes and challenges…

  1. Memories of silence. Literature in Caribbean and Central America, by Graciela Salto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Perilli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed book:SALTO, Graciela. Memorias del silencio. Literaturas en el Caribe y en Centroamérica. Edición, compilación y prólogo de Graciela Salto. Buenos Aires: Corregidor, 2010.---Original in Spanish.

  2. Treinamento de força com uso de correntes e potencialização pós-ativação do salto vertical Entrenamiento de fuerza con cadenas y la potenciación post-activación del salto vertical Chain resistance training and vertical jump post-activation potentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéderson Nunes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A Potencialização Pós-Ativação (PPA é estratégia para melhora do desempenho com uso de carga fixa (RF, definida no ponto de falha mecânica (PFM. Por outro lado, o uso de correntes (CRT é estímulo com resistência variável (RV. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos do CRT na altura e tempo de voo do salto vertical com contramovimento (CMJ. A partir de estudo de intervenção, 15 sujeitos foram avaliados quanto à carga máxima no agachamento (1RM e altura CMJ. Após isto, executaram três tipos de intervenções: i RF com 85% de 1RM; ii RV com 85% de 1RM posicionado no PFM (RV-TF e, iii RV com 85% de 1RM posicionado na maior extensão dos joelhos (RV-TV. Observou-se incremento do CMJ para RV-TF e RV-TV, mas não para RF. Conclui-se que houve PPA com os dois estímulos de CRT.La potenciación post-activación (PAP es estrategia para mejorar el rendimiento, utilizando una carga fija (RF, que se define en el punto de falla mecánica (PFM. Además, el uso de cadenas (CRT es estimulo con resistencia variable (RV. Así, el objetivo fue evaluar los efectos de la CRT en el salto vertical con contramovimiento (CMJ. Con estudio de intervención, 15 sujetos fueron evaluados acerca de la carga máxima en la sentadilla (1RM y altura en el CMJ. Después de eso, se realizaron tres tipos de intervenciones: i RF con el 85% de 1RM; ii RV con el 85% de 1RM en el PFM (RV-TF, y iii la RV en 1RM 85% situado en la mayor extensión de las rodillas (RV-TV. Se observó aumento de lo CMJ para RV-TF y RV-TV, pero no para la RF. Se concluye que existe PPA con los dos estímulos de RV.The Post-Activation Potentiation (PAP is a strategy to improve performance, using a fixed load (RF, defined at the sticking point (PFM. Moreover, the use of chains (CRT is an effort with variable resistance (RV. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the effects of CRT in the countermovement jump (CMJ. With an intervention study, 15 subjects were evaluated for the maximum squat load (1

  3. Long term operation of nuclear power plants – IAEA SALTO peer review service and its results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivanek, Robert, E-mail: r.krivanek@iaea.org

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • SALTO peer review service is designed for reviewing of ageing management and NPPs’ preparedness LTO. • It has been established as an effective tool to review the compliance with IAEA safety standards. • The important issues for safe LTO are being identified by SALTO missions. • Analysis of those issues is provided in the paper. • This peer review service is strongly recommended for NPPs prior to entering LTO period. - Abstract: This paper presents main IAEA activities for safe long term operation (LTO) which includes establishment of IAEA Safety Standards and other LTO related documents, fostering information exchange and establishing databases and provision of SALTO (Safety Aspects of Long Term Operation) peer review service. This paper provides insights into IAEA SALTO peer review service objectives, scope and methodology. The SALTO peer review service was designed to assist nuclear power plant (NPP) operators in adopting a proper approach to LTO of their plants and in implementing complete and appropriate activities to ensure that plant safety will be maintained during the LTO period. The SALTO peer review service can also support regulators in establishing or improving regulatory and licensing strategies for LTO of NPPs. Issues derived from 19 SALTO missions and 2 LTO modules of OSART (Operational Safety Review Team) missions conducted during the period of 2005 to March 2014 are also analyzed in this paper.

  4. Long term operation of nuclear power plants – IAEA SALTO missions observations and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivanek, Robert, E-mail: r.krivanek@iaea.org [Operational Safety Section, Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna 1400 (Austria); Havel, Radim, E-mail: Radim.Havel@gmail.com [RESCO, Nitranska 894/8, 10100 Praha 10 (Czech Republic)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • During the period 2005–mid 2015, 22 SALTO peer review missions and 2 LTO modules of OSART missions were conducted. • Analysis of these mission results and main trends observed are gathered in this paper. • The main task of the assessment performed was to evaluate and give a weight to the evaluation. • Results of SALTO follow-up missions as well as OSART follow-up missions with LTO module are summarized. • The SALTO peer review service is strongly recommended for NPPs prior to entering LTO period. - Abstract: This paper builds on paper “Long term operation of nuclear power plants – IAEA SALTO peer review service and its results”, NED8070, presented in Nuclear Engineering and Design in September 2014. This paper presents the analysis of SALTO mission results and main trends observed so that all the most important results of SALTO missions are gathered in one paper. The paper also includes the results of LTO module reviews performed in the frame of OSART missions where applicable as well as follow-up missions. This paper is divided in three main Sections. Section 1 provides brief introduction to SALTO peer review service. Section 2 provides overview of performed SALTO missions and LTO modules of OSART missions performed between 2005 and mid-2015. Section 3 summarizes the most significant observations and trends resulting from the missions between 2005 and mid-2015. Section 4 summarizes the results of SALTO follow-up missions as well as OSART follow-up missions.

  5. Correlação entre o desempenho de jogadores de futebol no teste de sprint de 30m e no teste de salto vertical Correlation between performance of Soccer players in the 30-meter sprint test and in the vertical jump test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barbosa Coelho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi determinar o nível de correlação entre o desempenho nos 10m iniciais, dos 20m finais e no tempo total do teste de sprint de 30m, com o do salto vertical com contra-movimento (CMJ entre jogadores de futebol. Participaram do estudo 167 jogadores das categorias profissional (N. 94 e júnior (N. 73. Foram determinadas as velocidades dos jogadores em 10m (V10, 20m (V20 e no total de 30m (V30. A habilidade de salto foi avaliada através do CMJ. Para correlacionar os dados, foi utilizado o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson com nível de significância de pThe aim of the present study was to determine the association between the results in the counter movement jump (CMJ and the results in the first 10 meters, in the final 20 meters and the in the total 30 meters of a 30-meter sprint. One-hundred and sixty seven Soccer players from the professional (N. 93 and under twenty (N. 74 categories, from a Brazilian first division Soccer club participated in the study. The sprint test consisted of a 30-meter run timed at the 10-meter and at the 30-meter marks. The jump capacity was assessed through the CMJ. Pearson's correlation (r was used to determine the association between these variables. The significance level adopted was p<.05. The U-20 players presented faster V10 and slower V20 than the professionals (p<.05. The correlation (r between CMJ and V10, V20 and V30 were .239, .370 and .408, respectively, for the U20 group and .381, .381 and .470, respectively, for the professional group. Evaluating the two categories together the correlation were; r= 0,293, 0,386 and 0,441 to V10, V20 and V30 respectively. The correlation between CMJ and V10 was weak and moderate for V20 and V30. In the professional category the correlation between CMJ and all the other parameters was moderate. It is probable that higher correlation values for CMJ and V10 for the professionals could be attributed to specific training effects.

  6. Efecto de la intensidad del contramovimiento sobre el rendimiento del salto vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gutiérrez-Dávila

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de esta investigación ha sido comprobar el efecto de la intensidad del contramovimiento sobre el rendimiento del salto vertical. Para el control de la intensidad se han utilizado tres protocolos de saltos verticales con participación de brazos: a saltos verticales partiendo desde la posición de erguidos (CMJ + S; b partiendo de un salto previo donde la altura de caída estaba regulada por el participante (DJ-AR, y c partiendo de un salto previo máximo (DJ-M. Han participado 28 deportistas practicantes de modalidades deportivas donde el salto vertical constituye una habilidad básica. Se ha utilizado una plataforma de fuerza, operando a 500 Hz, sincronizada temporalmente a una cámara de vídeo, que registraba a 210 Hz el plano sagital de los saltos realizados sobre la plataforma. La aceleración vertical del CM se determinó a partir de la fuerza neta vertical y la masa del saltador. A continuación, los sucesivos registros de la velocidad vertical y las posiciones de componente vertical adoptadas por el CM se determinaron mediante integración de las componentes verticales de las funciones de aceleración-tiempo y velocidad-tiempo, respectivamente. Las constantes de integración se determinaron mediante imágenes de vídeo (2D. Los resultados han puesto de manifiesto que, cuando se realizan saltos con alturas de caída superiores a 0,39 ± 0,05 m, el pico de potencia durante la fase propulsiva (PP(propulsiva, el impulso vertical de propulsión (Iv(propulsión., y la altura de salto (Ycm vuelo, se reducen de forma significativa (p < 0,001, lo que nos permite afirmar que se reduce el rendimiento durante la fase propulsiva.

  7. Esclusas de peces en la represa de Salto Grande. Consideraciones acerca de su funcionamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Delfino, R.; Baigún, C.R.M.; Quirós, R.

    1986-01-01

    Fishlocks at Salto Grande Reservoir. Considerations about its functioning. The Salto Grande dam, has in its structure two Borland type fishlocks. The fish passage efficiency is low, and it is limited by the original system design, the management of the dam and the Uruguay river hidrology. Thus, in the 1984-1986 period, on annual average, the fishlocks were out of service 53 o/o of the time, while in the two periods when higher observed fish accumulation occur, march-april and september-octobe...

  8. Ao leitor sem medo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eisenberg

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O texto resenha Ao leitor sem medo, de Renato Janine Ribeiro (Belo Horizonte, UFMG, 1999.This text is a review of Ao leitor sem medo by Renato Janine Ribeiro (Belo Horizonte, UFMG, 1999

  9. Entrenamiento de la capacidad de salto en el jugador de baloncesto: una revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime San Román-Quintana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El baloncesto es un deporte intermitente en el que se combinan acciones de intensidad leve, moderada y alta y por tanto el metabolismo aeróbico y anaeróbico se presentan conjuntamente. Una de las acciones más determinantes durante la competición es la capacidad de salto, dado que es utilizada por los jugadores para ejecutar, a su vez, diferentes situaciones específicas del juego como tirar o entrar a canasta, etc., sugiriéndose así, que dicha Expresión de la fuerza es un factor principal en el éxito en este deporte. Por ello, el entrenamiento del salto vertical en el jugador de baloncesto es una cuestión determinante en el rendimiento final del juego.

  10. A influência postural do salto alto em mulheres adultas: análise por biofotogrametria computadorizada Postural influence of high heels among adult women: analysis by computerized photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DH Iunes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Em nossa sociedade, temos observado uma oferta cada vez maior de modelos, cores, estilos, altura e diversos tipos de salto. OBJETIVO: Avaliar se o uso de calçados de salto alto influencia nas alterações posturais com base em um conjunto de variáveis mensuradas por meio da fotogrametria computadorizada. MÉTODOS: Vinte indivíduos que utilizam salto alto com freqüência (grupo 1 e 20 indivíduos que utilizam salto alto esporadicamente (grupo 2 foram fotografados no plano frontal anterior e sagital em três momentos: a sem utilização de calçado, b utilizando salto agulha e c utilizando salto plataforma, sendo estas fotografias aleatorizadas e analisadas por um experimentador cego por meio da fotogrametria. A análise estatística foi realizada a partir da análise de variância em esquema fatorial 2x3, ou seja, comparando-se a freqüência do uso de salto com o tipo de calçado, com 5% de significância. RESULTADOS: Apenas o ângulo protrusão da cabeça apresentou diferença quando comparados grupo 1 e 2 (pINTRODUCTION: In our society, it is observed an increasing number of models, colors, styles, heights and types of high heels. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the use of high heel shoes results in postural changes, based on a set of variables measured through computerized photogrammetry. METHODS: Twenty individuals who often used high heels (group 1 and 20 individuals who only used high heels sporadically (group 2 were photographed in the frontal and sagittal planes at three conditions: a without using footwear; b using stiletto heels; and c using high platform heels. These photographs were randomized and analyzed by a blinded examiner, by means of photogrammetry. Statistical analysis was performed, using a 2x3 factorial analysis of variance to compare the frequency of high heel use with the type of shoe, at the 5% significance level. RESULTS: Only the head protrusion angle showed a difference between groups 1 and 2 (p<0

  11. Geology of hole drill thermal infra basaltic (Guarani Aquifer System) in Salto Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso, C.; Muzio, R.; Marmisolle, J.; De Souza, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the lithological description of a thermal infrabasaltic (Guarani Aquifer System) hole drill cutting in Dayman (Kanarek Hotel), Salto department (Uruguay). This hole drill shows 152 meters of Buena Vista Formation (Upper Permian- Lower Triassic), 188 meters of Tacuarembo Formation (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) and 940meters of Arapey Formation (Lower Cretaceous). Petrographical studies of six basaltic levels were done [es

  12. Improved dengue fever prevention through innovative intervention methods in the city of Salto, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, César; García da Rosa, Elsa; Romero, Sonnia; González, Cristina; Lairihoy, Rosario; Roche, Ingrid; Caffera, Ruben M; da Rosa, Ricardo; Calfani, Marisel; Alfonso-Sierra, Eduardo; Petzold, Max; Kroeger, Axel; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2015-02-01

    Uruguay is located at the southern border of Aedes aegypti distribution on the South American sub-continent. The reported dengue cases in the country are all imported from surrounding countries. One of the cities at higher risk of local dengue transmission is Salto, a border city with heavy traffic from dengue endemic areas. We completed an intervention study using a cluster randomized trial design in 20 randomly selected 'clusters' in Salto. The clusters were located in neighborhoods of differing geography and economic, cultural and social aspects. Entomological surveys were carried out to measure the impact of the intervention on vector densities. Through participatory processes of all stakeholders, an appropriate ecosystem management intervention was defined. Residents collected the abundant small water holding containers and the Ministry of Public Health and the Municipality of Salto were responsible for collecting and eliminating them. Additional vector breeding places were large water tanks; they were either altered so that they could not hold water any more or covered so that oviposition by mosquitoes could not take place. The response from the community and national programme managers was encouraging. The intervention evidenced opportunities for cost savings and reducing dengue vector densities (although not to statistically significant levels). The observed low vector density limits the potential reduction due to the intervention. A larger sample size is needed to obtain a statistically significant difference. © The author 2015. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  13. Avaliação da simetria e descarga de peso entre os membros inferiores de atletas de futebol da categoria de base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lucas Spagnuolo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A avaliação instrumentada dos saltos verticais informa sobre as capacidades funcionais e variáveis neuromusculares, auxiliando no atendimento dos atletas. Essencial dar atenção maior para as categorias de base, pois contém fases importantes do desenvolvimento dos atletas que serão o futuro do esporte. Objetivo: Avaliar as características funcionais e neuromusculares de atletas de futebol da categoria de base, no desempenho em saltos verticais. METODOLOGIA: Foram avaliados atletas de futebol com idade entre 15 e 17 anos. Foram realizados em duas plataformas de força os seguintes saltos verticais: salto em agachamento, salto em contramovimento, salto pliométrico de 40 cm de altura. Para análise das variáveis das forças concêntrica, excêntrica, impacto e altura dos saltos utilizou-se a prova estatística de Shapiro-Wilk, descrição das variáveis em média e desvio padrão, considerando quando p 0,05. Sem diferença na força concêntrica entre as categorias e os tipos de saltos. Maior força de impacto no contramovimento. Maior força em membro inferior direito em todos os saltos e variáveis de força. CONCLUSÕES: Encontramos assimetria entre os membros inferiores, podendo correlacionar com um déficit de potência muscular, má desaceleração do movimento e erros biomecânicos. Fatores predisponentes a lesões musculoesqueléticas, os quais podem ser prevenidos. A avaliação instrumentada da força através desses testes pode subsidiar os profissionais do clube como uma ferramenta de trabalho, capaz de aprimorar o treinamento, preparação e reabilitação. Entretanto, são necessárias mais pesquisas, de forma que momentos distintos da idade e da temporada do atleta sejam avaliados.

  14. Advanced SEM imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D. C.; Newbury, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) represents the most promising tool for metrology, defect review, and for the analysis of ULSI structures, but both fundamental problems such as electron-solid interactions, and practical considerations such as electron-optical constraints, are now setting a limit to performance. This paper examines the directions in which an advanced SEM might be developed to overcome these constraints. The SEM also offers considerable promise as a tool for the high spatial resolution X-ray microanalysis, especially for those situations where a thin cross-section is not practical and first surface analysis is required. The ways in which this capability can be incorporated in an advanced SEM are examined

  15. Advanced SEM imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.C.; Newbury, D.E.; Newbury, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) represents the most promising tool for metrology, defect review, and for the analysis of ULSI structures, but both fundamental problems such as electron-solid interactions, and practical considerations such as electron-optical constraints, are now setting a limit to performance. This paper examines the directions in which an advanced SEM might be developed to overcome these constraints. The SEM also offers considerable promise as a tool for the high spatial resolution X-ray microanalysis, especially for those situations where a thin cross-section is not practical and first surface analysis is required. The ways in which this capability can be incorporated in an advanced SEM are examined. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  16. Percentiles de salto con contramovimiento en escolares de Bogotá, Colombia: Estudio FUPRECOL

    OpenAIRE

    Ferro Vargas, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la distribución por percentiles de salto con contramovimiento (CMJ) en una población escolar de Bogotá, Colombia, perteneciente al estudio Fuprecol. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado entre 2846 niños y 2754 adolescentes, entre 9 a 17 años de edad, pertenecientes a 18 instituciones educativas oficiales de Bogotá, Colombia. Se evaluó el CMJ, de acuerdo, con lo establecido por la batería de condición física, Fuprecol. Se calcularon, los percentiles (P3, P...

  17. O salto transmidiático dos super-heróis: HQ - Filme - Game

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Thiago Sanches

    2012-01-01

    A pesquisa investiga a relação entre os fenômenos digitais da transposição e transmídia no contexto da mútua influência entre a cultura dos HQs e games e suas repercussões nas estruturas narrativas digitais. Metodologicamente propõe a leitura e o aprofundamento das relações entre os conceitos buscando o seu entendimento de processo enquanto fenômeno da cultura digital, identificando- os em uma ação história anterior à narrativa transmídia: o salto transmidiático. Para tanto, utiliza-...

  18. SALTO Peer Review Guidelines. Guidelines for Peer Review of Safety Aspects of Long Term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    International peer review is a useful tool for Member States to exchange experiences, learn from each other and apply good practices in the long term operation (LTO) of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The peer review is also an important mechanism through which the IAEA supports Member States in enhancing the safety of NPPs. The IAEA has conducted various types of safety review that indirectly address aspects of LTO, including safety reviews for design, engineering, operation and external hazards. Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) services include review of ageing management programmes. In addition, several Member States have requested Ageing Management Assessment Team (AMAT) missions. Through these experiences, it was recognized that a comprehensive peer review on LTO would be very useful to Member States. The Safety Aspects of Long Term Operation (SALTO) peer review addresses strategy and key elements for the safe LTO of NPPs, which includes AMAT objectives and complements OSART reviews. The SALTO peer review is designed to assist operating organizations in adopting a proper approach to LTP including implementing appropriate activities to ensure that plant safety will be maintained during the LTO period. The SALTO peer review can be tailored to focus on ageing management programmes (AMPs) or on other activities related to LTO to support the Member State in enhancing the safety of its NPPs. The SALTO peer review can also support regulators in establishing or improving regulatory and licensing strategies for the LTO of NPPs. The guidelines in this publication are primarily intended for members of a SALTO review team and provide a basic structure and common reference for peer reviews of LTO. Additionally, the guidelines also provide useful information to the operating organizations of NPPs (or technical support organizations) for carrying out their own self-assessments or comprehensive programme reviews. The guidelines are intended to be generic, as there are

  19. LAND WHERE YOU LOOK? – FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GAZE AND MOVEMENT BEHAVIOUR IN A BACKWARD SALTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Heinen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In most everyday actions the eyes look towards objects and locations they are engaged with in a specific task and this information is used to guide the corresponding action. The question is, however, whether this strategy also holds for skills incorporating a whole-body rotation in sport. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate relationships between gaze behaviour and movement behaviour in a complex gymnastics skill, namely the backward salto performed as a dismount on the uneven bars. Thirteen expert gymnasts were instructed to fixate a light spot on the landing mat during the downswing phase when performing a backward salto as dismount. The location of the light spot was varied systematically with regard to each gymnast’s individual landing distance. Time-discrete kinematic parameters of the swing motion and the dismount were measured. It was expected that fixating the gaze towards different locations of the light spot on the landing mat would directly affect the landing location. We had, however, no specific predictions on the effects of manipulating gaze direction on the remaining kinematic parameters. The hip angle at the top of the backswing, the duration of the downswing phase, the hip angle prior to kick-through, and the landing distance varied clearly as a function of the location of the light spot. It is concluded that fixating the gaze towards the landing mat serves the function to execute the skill in a way to land on a particular location.

  20. Spin-polarized SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoto, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Development of highly effective evaluation technology of magnetic structures on a nanometric scale is a key to understanding spintronics and related phenomena. A high-resolution spin-polarized scanning electron microscope (spin SEM) developed recently is quite suitable for probing such nanostructures because of the capability of analyzing local magnetization vectors in three dimensions. Utilizing the spin SEM, a layered antiferromagnetic structure with the 1nm-alternation of bilayer-sheet magnetization has been successfully resolved. The real-space imaging with full analysis of the temperature-dependent magnetization vectors will be demonstrated. (author)

  1. SEM microcharacterization of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, D B

    1989-01-01

    Applications of SEM techniques of microcharacterization have proliferated to cover every type of material and virtually every branch of science and technology. This book emphasizes the fundamental physical principles. The first section deals with the foundation of microcharacterization in electron beam instruments and the second deals with the interpretation of the information obtained in the main operating modes of a scanning electron microscope.

  2. Efectos de saltos inesperados en el gasto público y variables demográficas en el crecimiento económico. El caso mexicano con un enfoque GARCH con saltos (1936-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Estrella Castillo-Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo desarrolla un modelo estocástico macroeconómico útil para explicar los efectos que tienen los saltos inesperados en el gasto de gobierno per cápita y en variables demográficas en el crecimiento económico per cápita. Para ello se supone que las dinámicas estocásticas del gasto público y de la población son conducidas por procesos de difusión con saltos modulados por una cadena de Markov. Los resultados más importantes son que los saltos bruscos e inesperados en el gasto público per cápita y en el crecimiento de la población impactan negativamente la tasa de crecimiento per cápita del producto. En particular, si hay un salto brusco y repentino en la tasa de crecimiento de la población, entonces el capital per cápita disminuye repentinamente impactando con ello negativamente el producto per cá- pita. Por último, los resultados teóricos encontrados se complementan con eviden- cia empírica del caso mexicano obtenida mediante un modelo que toma en cuenta tanto la volatilidad de las tasas de crecimiento de la población y del gasto público per cápita así como las sorpresas en la intensidad de los saltos en esas variables.

  3. Kuldne Salto: Ralf Lõoke, Maarja Kask ja Karli Luik / Ralf Lõoke, Maarja Kask, Karli Luik ; intervjueerinud Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõoke, Ralf, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    Arhitektuurivõistlustel edukalt esinenud büroo Salto arhitektid buumiajast, kui tööd oli meeletult palju, tööde skaalast, reisimisest, oma tööst ja meeskonnatööst, konkurssidel osalemisest, projektist "Gaasitoru", Tallinnast, unistuste kodust. Konkursivõite 2004-2009

  4. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  5. Efeito do Uso do Estabilizador Active Ankle System® na Altura do Salto Vertical em Jogadores de Voleibol Effect of the Use of the Active Ankle System Stabilizer in The Vertical Jump Height in Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Túlio Saldanha dos Anjos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVO: Na prática do voleibol, as entorses de tornozelo representam 25 a 50% das lesões agudas. Medidas preventivas, como estabilizadores dinâmicos de tornozelo (EDT, são frequentemente utilizadas, porém, há controvérsias se esse dispositivo pode ou não interferir no desempenho esportivo. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o efeito do EDT Active Ankle System® (AAS na altura do salto vertical em jogadoras de voleibol. MÉTODOS: Selecionou-se uma amostra de conveniência de 14 atletas entre 14 e 18 anos de idade, do gênero feminino. Estas foram instruídas a saltar simulando o gesto esportivo do ataque e do bloqueio com e sem o EDT, sobre placas de contato conectadas a um computador portátil que, através de um programa, calculava a altura do salto vertical. Previamente, foi feito um estudo-piloto para determinação do coeficiente de correlação intraclasse para as quatro condições de teste (n = 4, no qual os valores encontrados foram: ataque com EDT, 0,95; ataque sem EDT, 0,76; bloqueio com EDT, 0,92; bloqueio sem EDT, 0,89. Os dados de altura de cada tipo de salto vertical nas condições com e sem EDT foram comparadas através de testes t de Student para amostras pareadas. RESULTADOS: Para um nível de significância de α = 0,05, não foi encontrada diferença significativa entre os saltos do ataque com o EDT (0,41 + 0,073m e sem o EDT (0,41 + 0,086m, p = 0,517. Também não foi encontrada diferença significativa para os saltos do bloqueio com o EDT (0,31 ± 0,048m e sem o EDT (0,32 ± 0,050m, p = 0,06. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados do presente estudo apontam para não interferência do uso do EDT AAS no desempenho do salto vertical em atletas de voleibol.INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: In volleyball practice, ankle sprains represent 25 to 50% of the acute injuries. Preventive measures such as dynamic ankle bracing (DAB are very often used; however, there is controversy on whether this would affect athletic

  6. O Cinema sem Imagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Andrade

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A obra cinematográfica de Marguerite Duras, praticamente desconhecida pelo grande público, estabeleça intricadas relações com sua obra literária, ao promover a indiscernibilidade entre os dois campo, sem, contudo, instituir qualquer tipo de subordinação de um ao outro. O processo de criação do filme Lê camion, de 1977, aponta para outras possibilidades de se pensar o cinema e a literatura.

  7. Relaciones entre el salto vertical y la velocidad de mae-geri en karatecas de nivel internacional, especialidad kata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Martínez-Majolero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo persiguió dos objetivos: (1 describir la capacidad de salto vertical y la velocidad y el tiempo de ejecución de la técnica de pierna frontal mae-geri en karatecas de nivel internacional y (2 analizar el grado de covariación entre dichas variables. Los participantes fueron 13 karatecas españoles masculinos de nivel internacional, estilo shito-ryu y especialidad de katas. El estudio siguió un diseño descriptivo y correlacional. Las variables analizadas fueron: salto vertical CMJ, medido con una plataforma de infrarrojos Optojump, y velocidad y tiempo de ejecución de patada mae-geri, medida con una cámara de alta velocidad (Casio EXFC-100. Los datos registrados fueron: altura media de salto de 48,7 ± 0,12 cm; velocidad media de mae-geri de 19,8 ± 1,9 km/h y de 19,6 ± 1,4 km/h, y tiempo de ejecución de dicha patada de 264,85 ± 28,14 ms y de 274,69 ± 18,4 ms, pierna dominante y no dominante respectivamente. Las intensidades de correlación se situaron entre r = 0,72 y r = –0,80. El salto vertical mantuvo una relación alta y estadísticamente significativa con la velocidad y el tiempo de ejecución de la patada mae-geri, técnica de gran importancia en las katas de competición en karate. Esta información puede ser valiosa tanto para planificar el entrenamiento mediante pruebas simples y de bajo coste como para detectar talentos.

  8. Diferencias de género en salto de altura según categorías de edad

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    Javier Bermejo Frutos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue determinar los parámetros biomecánicos del salto de altura en los que se producen diferencias entre saltadores y saltadoras en diferentes categorías de edad. La muestra analizada estuvo formada por 69 saltadores de élite, 37 hombres (13-15 años, n = 11; 17-18 años, n = 13, y 18-34 años, n = 13 y 32 mujeres (13-14 años, n = 11; 17-18 años, n = 9; y 15-33 años, n = 12. A través de fotogrametría 3D se analizó el mejor salto del Campeonato de España en pista cubierta 2009. Se calcularon 46 variables durante las fases de ante-salto, batida, y paso del listón. Para determinar diferencias entre géneros se aplicó la prueba t-test para muestras independientes. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que al subir de categoría de edad las diferencias entre los valores registrados por los hombres y los registrados por las mujeres aumentan. Esta diferencia se produce en mayor medida en las variables madurativas que en las antropométricas y técnicas.

  9. Relaciones entre pruebas de velocidad, tests de salto y dinamometría isométrica en velocistas

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    Rafael Sabido Solana

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de las habilidades deportivas, la capacidad de producir fuerza lo más rápidamente posible, o fuerza explosiva, juega el papel más importante en la optimización de dichas habilidades. Zatsiorsky (1995 la define como “la habilidad para desarrollar la máxima fuerza en la menor cantidad de tiempo”. Las correlaciones existentes entre pruebas de velocidad y tests de salto han sido ampliamente observadas. Sin embargo, las correlaciones entre pruebas de velocidad y tests isométricos están menos estudiadas. Una muestra de 24 velocistas de categoría junior fue sometida a pruebas de velocidad específica, tests de salto con contramovimiento y en profundidad, así como a un test isométrico máximo para la musculatura extensora del tobillo. Los resultados muestran fuertes relaciones entre los tests de carrera y los de salto, así como de estos últimos con los de dinamometría. Por otro lado, sólo con el test de 20 metros se obtienen correlaciones con variables del test isométrico, sin que se encuentren correlaciones con la marca en 100 metros lisos. La principal conclusión de nuestros datos es que las variables medidas en un test isométrico van a tener alta relación con la primera fase de la carrera en pruebas de velocidad.

  10. Immediate effect on vertical jumping ability after the completion of trampoline jumping Efecto inmediato sobre la capacidad de salto vertical después de la realización de saltos en cama elástica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fernández del Olmo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of this study was to value the immediate effect on the capacity of vertical jump, caused by the execution of continuous jumps in a trampoline. Nine subjects (23,4 ± 2.83 years, males and sportsmen with prior experience in the execution of countermovement jump (CMJ, they carried out a series of continuous vertical jumps on a trampoline during 60 seconds, being valued the capacity of jump in platform of contacts before and after this activity. The electromyographic (EMG activity was registered of five muscles of the right leg (gluteus, biceps femoris, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis and soleus in all the CMJ. The height of jump diminished significantly (p <0.01 after the execution of the jumps in the trampoline, being recovered in a brief period of time. Themselves differences were not observed in the EMG for the root mean squared (RMS or in the amplitude in none of the muscles, neither in the phase of impulse, neither in the 50 ms previous to start of the jump. In the neuromuscular pattern, in spite of the great variability existing inter and intraindividual, a significant delay was identified (p<0.05 in the activation of the biceps femoris immediately after the trampoline. Keeping in mind these results, seems probably that the smaller height of the vertical jump reached after the trampoline be more attributable to a modification in the temporary characteristics and sequence of activation of the muscles that to a decrease in the activation of the same.
    KEY WORDS: Vertical Jump, Neuromuscular pattern, Sprung surface, Electromyography.

     

    El propósito de este estudio fue valorar el efecto inmediato sobre la capacidad de salto vertical, provocado por la realización de saltos continuos en una cama elástica. Nueve sujetos (23,4 ± 2,83 años, varones y deportistas con experiencia previa en la ejecución del

  11. SEM analysis for irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaosong; Yao Liang

    2008-06-01

    A radiation-proof Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) system is introduced. It has been widely used in various areas. For analyzing radioactive samples, normal SEM system needs lots of alterations. Based on KYKY-2800B SEM, the sample room, belt line, operating table and aerator were updated. New radiation-proof SEM system has used to analytic surface contaminated samples and RPV materials samples. An elementary means of SEM analysis for radioactive samples was studied, and this examination supported some available references for further irradiated fuel researches. (authors)

  12. Efecto del entrenamiento combinado de pliometría y electroestimulación en salto vertical. (Effect of combined plyometric and electrostimulation training on vertical jump.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Benito Martínez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En este estudio se han analizado los efectos del entrenamiento combinado de pliometría y electroestimulación en un entrenamiento de fuerza muscular de los miembros inferiores. El estudio incluyó tres grupos experimentales, que trabajaron ambos métodos en orden diferente y de forma simultánea, y uno de control. Participaron 78 atletas, 40 mujeres y 38 hombres, de disciplinas de velocidad (100 y 200 m lisos y 100 y 110 m vallas, con una edad de 17,94 ± 1,44 años y una masa de 58,53 ± 8,05 kg. El programa incluyó dos días / sem de entrenamiento pliométrico y dos sesiones utilizando un electroestimulador Megasonic 313-P4. Tras dos meses de entrenamiento, se midió con plataforma de contacto ORGANISER PSION 2 la altura de salto vertical y potencia del tren inferior en test de Abalakov y Drop Jump. Las mayores diferencias pre/post test (p Abstract This paper analyses the effects of combined electrostimulation and plyometric training on lower body strength training. The training programme was applied to three experimental groups and one control group. The experimental groups used both methods simultaneously but in different order. The participants were 78 sprinters (100m and 200m, and 100m and 110m hurdles, 38 male and 40 female. Their average age was 15,9 ± 1,4 years and their average weight was 58,53 ± 8,05kg. The training programme consisted in two days a week of plyometric training and two sessions with a Megasonic 313-P4 electrostimulation unit. After two months training, vertical jump height and lower body power were measured in Abalakov test and Drop Jump test with PSION ORGANISER II. The most significant pre- and post-test (p

  13. GEODIVERSIDADE E POTENCIAL GEOTURÍSTICO DO SALTO DE FURNAS - INDIANÓPOLIS-MG

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    Lilian Carla Moreira BENTO

    2011-04-01

    algumas particularidades, como diversidade litológica, grau de preservação, facilidade de acesso, proximidade do perímetro urbano, entre outros. Para tanto, foi realizada pesquisa bibliográfica sobre a temática em questão e de trabalhos voltados à caracterização da geodiversidade local, enfatizando os aspectos geológicos e geomorfológicos; trabalhos de campo visando o georreferenciamento e medição do tamanho da queda e registro fotográfico e, ao final, trabalhos de gabinete, momento no qual os dados foram interpretados e relacionados, gerando as informações aqui expostas. Diante desta metodologia conclui-se que o Salto de Furnas, assim como outras quedas localizadas em Indianópolis, apresenta uma geodiversidade rica, bela e de grande valor científico, didático e turístico, sendo local propício para a implantação do geoturismo.

  14. THE USE OF GEOTECHNOLOGY IN ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS IN SALTO VENTOSO (FARROUPILHA/RS

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    Paulo Roberto Teixeira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the outcome of a survey on environmental impacts due to visitors in a tourist attraction, using geotechnology as a tool. The study was carried out at Salto Ventoso, Farroupilha, Rio Grande do Sul State (Brazil, a tourist attraction with major importance for the region. At the site, a private area, the attraction is a 60 meters (197 feet height cascade and its scenic landscape. Visitors can also hike through the trail that goes behind the waterfall. The trail was mapped using GPS (Global Positioning System and theodolite, and divided into twelve sections, which were evaluated on the issues of declivity, width, damage to natural resources and infrastructure, drainage problems, number of unofficial trails and amount of waste. The results showed that the site presents a series of environmental impacts resulting from both lack of planning and great amount of visitors. Some strategies for managing the site would be the installation of safety and signing infrastructure, as well as a work on environmental awareness of the visitors and their impacts on site.

  15. How to define, plan and implant infrastructure for operation and maintenance of large power plants. Salto Caxias - the Parana Electricity Company, Brazil - experience; Como definir, planejar e implantar infraestrutura para operacao e manutencao de grandes usinas. Experiencia de Salto Caxias (COPEL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, Faisal Ali; Potenza, Luiz Frederico [Usina Hidreletrica de Salto Caxias, Capitao Leonidas Marques, PR (Brazil)]. E-mails: faisal@copel.br; potenza@mail.copel.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the evolutional process which has been adopted by COPEL along the hydroelectric undertaking, focusing the Salto Caxias operation staff experience, during the pre-commissioning, commissioning and beginning of the plant commercial operation.

  16. Salto de Miranda. Trabajos de excavación de la galería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilanova Bosch, José Luis

    1964-12-01

    Full Text Available The first article of this series was published in issue N.° 162 of «Informes de la Construcción», under the title «Salto de Miranda». The present article deals with the work of excavating the gallery. Modern practice requires that to do this type of work successfully the auxiliary material should be most carefully studied beforehand. N.° 164 of the this magazine has included a paper entitled «Recent progress in the auxiliary material for underground gallery excavation», summarising the most recent type of machinery now available in the market. Since the Grand Coulee Dam was built by the Bureau of Reclamation, where essentially new techniques were introduced, including minimum times for maximum progress, these new procedures and equipment have been generally adopted throughout the world. To this must be added the urgent and increasing demands for electric power, and the vast amounts of money involved in these hydroelectric projects, which explain the rapid adoption of automatic procedures in this kind of work. In this paper the author explains how, using the means available to him, he sought to coordinate the various constructional tasks, to get as near as possible to the most economic working cycle. Underground ventilation is an acute problem, and involves the safety of those working inside the tunnel. The author explains, in simple terms, how the theory of fluids and air circulation can affect the rational and practical solution of providing adequate air supply for the health and comfort of the underground worker. To attain this end, however, a considerable mechanical and economic investment is necessary.En el número 163 de Informes de la Construcción se publicó el primer trabajo de esta serie, con el título de «Salto de Miranda». En éste se trata de la ejecución de la excavación en galería, para cuyo éxito las técnicas modernas exigen un depurado estudio del mater ial auxiliar. En el número 164 apareció también un art

  17. A influência do treinamento de força especial explosiva pliométrica para membros inferiores em saltos e velocidade

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    Rodrigo Alves Gonçalves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O futsal, esporte muito praticado em escolas no Brasil e que se utiliza força explosiva de membros inferiores e a velocidade de seus praticantes. A fim de conseguir melhor rendimento de seus atletas, professores e treinadores de futsal, podem criar métodos de treinamento bastante eficientes para esta determinada modalidade, que enfoquem a força explosiva de membros inferiores e a velocidade, em virtude disso este estudo tem como objetivo verificar a influência do treinamento de força especial explosiva de membros inferiores, em saltos e velocidade, que estão sempre presentes em jogos de futsal. Para realizar o estudo foram utilizados vinte alunos do sexo masculino do Colégio Marista de Ribeirão Preto com idade média de 16  1 ano, que treinam futsal duas vezes na semana. Os vinte indivíduos foram submetidos aos testes de Corrida de 50 Metros, Sargen´t Jump Test Adaptado e o de Salto Longitudinal; após as avaliações os alunos foram subdivididos em dois grupos de dez alunos cada, sendo os grupos A e B. O grupo A foi submetido a oito semanas de treinamento pliométrico com cones, o grupo B não teve nenhum tipo de treinamento físico. Após este período de treinamento os grupos A e B foram reavaliados. Assim conclui pelos resultados apresentados pelo grupo A e grupo B, que o Grupo A, que treinou, obteve uma melhora significativa em relação aos valores obtidos antes do treinamento e sobre o grupo B, que não realizaram nenhum tipo de treinamento físico. Sendo que o grupo B, sem fazer treinamento físico algum, também obteve melhora no seu pós-teste, mas o grupo A teve rendimento superior ao grupo B no pós-teste. ABSTRACT The influence of special explosive plyometric strength training for lower limbs in heels and speed The futsal, sport very practiced at schools in Brazil and that is used explosive force of inferior members and your apprentices' speed. In order to get your athletes' better revenue, teachers and futsal trainers

  18. Action Research as a tool for the Strengthening of the Small Businesses Collective (Copec) in Salto, Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Marisabina Minteguiaga; Alejandro Noboa

    2018-01-01

    This article looks at the intervention process in the universe of the so-called family businesses or small business in the outskirts of the city of Salto, Uruguay. These are made up of commercial units whose economic function is linked, or better said, integrated, to the family structure function. This work is preceded by work done at the Universidad Cenur Litoral Norte between 2014 and 2015 with a group of about 15 entrepreneur units. On the whole, their location and influence area are ne...

  19. Análisis de variables medidas en salto vertical relacionadas con el rendimiento deportivo y su aplicación al entrenamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jiménez-Reyes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los indicadores de la condición física de los atletas es la potencia. La altura del salto es un buen predictor de la potencia muscular, y, por tanto, varios tipos de saltos verticales se han empleado como tests estandarizados del rendimiento deportivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la relación entre la capacidad de salto y la capacidad de aceleración en velocistas. Participaron 36 velocistas de nivel nacional e internacional y realizaron los saltos Squat Jump (SJ, el Salto con Contramovimiento (CMJ y el CMJ con cargas progresivas (CMJc, además de carreras de 20 m y 30 m. En nuestro caso, obtuvimos relaciones significativas entre el CMJ (r=-0,65, p<0,01 y el CMJ con aquella carga que permite generar la máxima potencia en el test de CMPc (r=-0,56, p<0,01, dándose las mayores relaciones para el tramo lanzado de 20 m a 30 m. En conclusión, el tiempo en distancias lanzadas sería la mejor referencia para comprobar la evolución del rendimiento, aconsejando que el control de los cambios producidos por el entrenamiento en la velocidad en la fase de aceleración debería evaluarse en un tramo lanzado. Además, la carga con la que se alcanza la máxima potencia en el salto (CMJMP debe utilizarse para controlar la evolución de la condición física del deportista en cualquier momento del ciclo de entrenamiento.

  20. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A., E-mail: walace@usp.br [Setor de Analises Toxicologicas. CETESB, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao com Neutrons

    2011-07-01

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  1. An acute case of intoxication with cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in recreational water in Salto Grande Dam, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannuzzi, Leda; Sedan, Daniela; Echenique, Ricardo; Andrinolo, Dario

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms and hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) usually occur in summer, constituting a sanitary and environmental problem in Salto Grande Dam, Argentina. Water sports and recreational activities take place in summer in this lake. We reported an acute case of cyanobacterial poisoning in Salto Grande dam, Argentina, which occurred in January 2007. Accidentally, a young man was immersed in an intense bloom of Microcystis spp. A level of 48.6 μg·L(-1) of microcystin-LR was detected in water samples. Four hours after exposure, the patient showed nausea, abdominal pain and fever. Three days later, dyspnea and respiratory distress were reported. The patient was hospitalized in intensive care and diagnosed with an atypical pneumonia. Finally, a week after the exposure, the patient developed a hepatotoxicosis with a significant increase of hepatic damage biomarkers (ALT, AST and γGT). Complete recovery took place within 20 days. This is the first study to show an acute intoxication with microcystin-producing cyanobacteria blooms in recreational water.

  2. Análisis del volumen de entrenamiento pliométrico para la mejora del salto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Copoví Lanusse

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de diferentes volúmenes de entrenamiento sobre la mejora del salto vertical. Método: se realizó una búsqueda de información en las bases de datos PubMed, MedLine y SportsDiscus donde se identificaron 59 artículos que cumplían los siguientes criterios: a Estudios que incluyan programas de entrenamiento pliométrico de miembros inferiores, b Que contengan programas experimentales y medidas válidas y seguras. Aquellos programas con un volumen de entrenamiento de 8 a 12 semanas con una frecuencia de 2 a 3 sesiones semanales, en las cuales se realizan de 1 a 3 ejercicios con un total de 3 a 8 series por sesión y en las que se den una media de 70 a 100 saltos, parece ser la mejor combinación.

  3. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2011-01-01

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  4. Geology, petrography and macro meso- aspects, and microstructural area of Salto del Penitente

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero Cherma, S.

    2016-05-01

    This work corresponds to a geological and structural study of multi scale approach conducted in a representative area of ​​the southwest sector Dom Feliciano Belt. The study area is located near the Salto del Penitente and presents an array of blocks with lithology and structural characteristics distinctive. A foundation block pre-Brasiliano, a strip of supra crustal rocks and granitoid non-cinematic. The base block, is constituted mainly of gneisses, migmatites, schists and quartzites, foliation has a preferential N259º / 70 (NW). The supra crustal correspond to a meta-volcano sedimentary green schist facies, sequence preferential foliation N040º / 75 ° (SE) and non-kinematic granitoid a granite-gneiss foliation mylonitic according to said preferential direction. The geological survey and the macro- and mesoestructural analysis, determines that the contact of these blocks is through shear zones. These, presented regional and preferential directions N040º and N020º. They are defined respectively as Shear Zone La Posada (informal) and Shear Zone Tips Sugar loaf, corresponding in the study area to the homonymous lineament Machado and Fragoso (1987). Microstructural analysis suggests in low temperature conditions (green schist facies lower) for the event that brings the ZCPPA and contacts Rocks pre-Brasiliano basement with supra crustal. Instead, this event is only significant in the ZCLP, which shows effects of deformation temperature under medium high (amphibolite facies). Based on these conditions, as well as the relations between the two cutting shear zones, a poly phase evolution for the proposed study area. The deformation conditions identified in the work area are correlated with regional events. Both the high temperature dextral event that brings Shear Zone Sarandi del Yi, during the collision Land Nico Perez with the Río de la Plata Craton between 630-590 Ma (Oriolo et al., 2016), as the (2009 Oyhantçabal et al.) sinistral event that gathers the

  5. Levantamento de plantas aquáticas no reservatório de Salto Grande, Americana-SP Aquatic plant survey in Salto Grande reservoir in Americana-SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martins

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a frequência relativa e o nível de infestação de cada espécie da flora aquática presente no reservatório de Salto Grande, Americana-SP. O levantamento e a identificação das plantas aquáticas foram realizados percorrendo-se as margens do reservatório em uma embarcação. Ao longo dele foram estabelecidos 20 pontos de avaliação, sendo todos eles fotografados e georreferenciados. Foram atribuídos valores de 0 a 100% tanto para as espécies presentes como para os espaços livres de macrófitas aquáticas que eventualmente pudessem ocorrer dentro dos pontos amostrados. Com os dados referentes ao número de indivíduos e pontos avaliados, foi determinada a frequência relativa de cada espécie. Foram identificadas 13 espécies em todo o reservatório, sendo 12 vasculares e uma de alga-verde (Chlorella spp.. Entre as espécies vasculares, nove eram plantas emersas flutuantes, as quais poderiam estar ou não ancoradas no leito do reservatório: Alternanthera philoxeroides, Brachiaria subquadripara, Cyperus difformis, Echinochloa polystachia var. spectabilis, Eichhornia crassipes, Panicum rivulare, Pistia stratiotes, Salvinia auriculata e Typha angustifolia. Outras três espécies foram encontradas somente em solo firme alagado: Aeschynomene sensitiva, Hedychium coronarium e Mimosa pigra.The objectives of this work were to determine the relative frequency and infestation level of each species present in the Salto Grande Reservoir in Americana-SP. The survey and identification of the aquatic plants were carried out in the Salto Grande reservoir on a boat. Twenty evaluation sites were established along the reservoir, photographed and geo-referenced. Values from 0 to 100% were assigned for both the species present and for the aquatic plants that could possibly occur within the sampled sites. Based on the number of individuals and points evaluated, the relative frequency of each species was determined

  6. Secondary emission monitor (SEM) grids.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    A great variety of Secondary Emission Monitors (SEM) are used all over the PS Complex. At other accelerators they are also called wire-grids, harps, etc. They are used to measure beam density profiles (from which beam size and emittance can be derived) in single-pass locations (not on circulating beams). Top left: two individual wire-planes. Top right: a combination of a horizontal and a vertical wire plane. Bottom left: a ribbon grid in its frame, with connecting wires. Bottom right: a SEM-grid with its insertion/retraction mechanism.

  7. Evolution of geodesical auscultation monitoring in power plants: Foz do Areia, Segredo and Salto Caxias; Evolucao da auscultacao geodesica no monitoramento das usinas: Foz do Areia, Segredo e Salto Caxias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Marcos Alberto; Ferreira, Elizeu Santos [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], Emails: marcos.asoares@copel.com, elizeu.sf@copel.com; Faggion, Pedro Luis; Veiga, Luis Augusto Kuenig; Nadal, Carlos Aurelio; Freitas, Silvio Rogerio Correia de; Nadal, Marco Aurelio Debus; Neves, Ricardo Vilares [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], Emails: faggion@ufpr.br, kngveiga@ufpr.br, cnadal@ufpr.br, sfreitas@ufpr.br, marco_nadal@yahoo.com.br, ricvilar@yahoo.com.br; Boszczowski, Roberta Bomfim [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], Email: roberta.bomfim@lactec.org.br

    2009-10-15

    The main objective of the geodetic auscultation is to obtain cartesian coordinates of points by geodetic techniques, such as differential leveling, GPS, triangulation and traverse applied in the monitoring of certain phenomena.This paper presents some results on the integration of Geodetic Auscultation with the security instrumentation; The objective of this is to determine possible points displacements in the Salto Caxias dam. This integration is intended to provide support to the technicians to set absolute displacements of the blocks since the conventional instruments provides only relative changes. Thus, it were established a monitoring network downstream of the reservoir, formed by six concrete piles, equipped with forced centering system. This network serves to perform the external monitoring of the dam and also to support a precision traverse that is conducted within the galleries. It were also performed a differential leveling on the crest of the dam. (author)

  8. SEM: A Cultural Change Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…

  9. Action Research as a tool for the Strengthening of the Small Businesses Collective (Copec in Salto, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisabina Minteguiaga

    2018-01-01

    up of commercial units whose economic function is linked, or better said, integrated, to the family structure function. This work is preceded by work done at the Universidad Cenur Litoral Norte between 2014 and 2015 with a group of about 15 entrepreneur units. On the whole, their location and influence area are neighborhoods; their importance lies in the relevance they have for the livelihood of the family. The family-business unit is seen as an integrality that broadly surpasses the economic factor; it is a family lifestyle with a specific identity that responds to a new production scenario. During 2016, a new experience with another group of seventeen business units took place, after reformulating the project’s objectives based on the previous experience. This time the participation methodology proposed by Tomás Rodríguez Villasante and the Citizens’ Network and Sustainable Environment (Cimas, acronym in Spanish was adopted and as Rodriquez states in his book, through the incorporation of specificities of the process itself. In this participatory work dynamic, the actors themselves participated in the path to be taken by the small business collective of Salto through the generation of systematic training and exchange scenarios. Within this framework, this text presents this experience which seeks the creation and strengthening of the collective actor, highlighting the actors of the social and economic reality of the city of Salto.

  10. SALTO guidelines. Guidelines for peer review of long term operation and ageing management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    other and apply good practices in dealing with LTO of NPPs. The peer review service is also an important mechanism through which the IAEA supports Member States in enhancing the safety of NPPs. The IAEA has conducted various types of safety review services that indirectly address some aspects of LTO, including safety review services for design, engineering, operation and external hazards. OSART (Operational Safety Review Team) services include some review of ageing management programmes. In addition, several Member States have requested AMAT (Ageing Management Assessment Team) missions. Through these activities and considering the increasing average age of NPPs connected to the grid worldwide, it was recognized that a comprehensive engineering safety review service on LTO would be very useful to Member States. The Safe Long Term Operation (SALTO) peer review is a new comprehensive engineering safety review service directly addressing strategy and the key elements for safe LTO of NPPs, which includes AMAT objectives and complements OSART reviews. The SALTO peer review service is designed to assist NPP operators in adopting a proper approach to long term operation of their plants and in implementing complete and appropriate activities to ensure that plant safety will be maintained during the LTO period. The SALTO peer review service can be tailored to focus on AMPs and/or on other programmes related to LTO to support the Member State in enhancing the safety of its NPPs. The SALTO peer review service can also support regulators in establishing or improving regulatory and licensing strategies for LTO of NPPs. These guidelines are primarily intended for members of the SALTO review team and they provide a basic structure and common reference for peer reviews of LTO. However, the guidelines could provide useful information to operating organizations of NPPs (or technical support organizations) for carrying out their own self-assessments or comprehensive programme reviews. The

  11. Framework for SEM contour analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, L.; Farys, V.; Serret, E.; Fenouillet-Beranger, C.

    2017-03-01

    SEM images provide valuable information about patterning capability. Geometrical properties such as Critical Dimension (CD) can be extracted from them and are used to calibrate OPC models, thus making OPC more robust and reliable. However, there is currently a shortage of appropriate metrology tools to inspect complex two-dimensional patterns in the same way as one would work with simple one-dimensional patterns. In this article we present a full framework for the analysis of SEM images. It has been proven to be fast, reliable and robust for every type of structure, and particularly for two-dimensional structures. To achieve this result, several innovative solutions have been developed and will be presented in the following pages. Firstly, we will present a new noise filter which is used to reduce noise on SEM images, followed by an efficient topography identifier, and finally we will describe the use of a topological skeleton as a measurement tool that can extend CD measurements on all kinds of patterns.

  12. SEM-based characterization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope is now a common instrument in materials characterization laboratories. The basic role of the SEM as a topographic imaging system has steadily been expanding to include a variety of SEM-based analytical techniques. These techniques cover the range of basic semiconductor materials characterization to live-time device characterization of operating LSI or VLSI devices. This paper introduces many of the more commonly used techniques, describes the modifications or additions to a conventional SEM required to utilize the techniques, and gives examples of the use of such techniques. First, the types of signals available from a sample being irradiated by an electron beam are reviewed. Then, where applicable, the type of spectroscopy or microscopy which has evolved to utilize the various signal types are described. This is followed by specific examples of the use of such techniques to solve problems related to semiconductor technology. Techniques emphasized include: x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, electron beam induced current (EBIC), stroboscopic voltage analysis, cathodoluminescnece and electron beam IC metrology. Current and future trends of some of the these techniques, as related to the semiconductor industry are discussed

  13. Winding substitution of the step-up transformer 196,5 MVA/230 KV in situ in the Usina Hidroeletrica de Salto Osorio; Substituicao de enrolamento de transformador elevador 196,5 MVA/230 kV no local da instalacao da Usina Hidreletrica de Salto Osorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, J.C.; Schmidt, F.; Rabito, E. [ELETROSUL, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    1991-12-31

    Management aspects and repair costs on a step-up transformer in the Usina Hidroeletrica de Salto Osorio, Rio Grande do Sul, are presented. Costs comparison demonstrated that for ELETROSUL, (Centrais Eletricas do Sul do Brasil S.A.) it was cheaper to perform the repairs in situ. 1 tab.

  14. International Conference on SEMS 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chuang; Scientific explanation and methodology of science; SEMS 2012

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains the contributed papers of invitees to SEMS 2012 who have also given talks at the conference. The invitees are experts in philosophy of science and technology from Asia (besides China), Australia, Europe, Latin America, North America, as well as from within China. The papers in this volume represent the latest work of each researcher in his or her expertise; and as a result, they give a good representation of the cutting-edge researches in diverse areas in different parts of the world.

  15. Análise biomecânica da marcha de mulheres com uso de sapatos com saltos em solo plano e inclinado

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Glauce Gonzaga [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    É grande o número de mulheres que faz uso de sapatos com saltos na atualidade durante várias horas por dia, sendo freqüentemente sujeitas a andarem por diversos tipos de superfícies, sejam elas planas ou inclinadas, submetendo o sistema músculoesquelético a esforços variados. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram: adaptar uma esteira para realização de análise biomecânica; analisar a marcha de mulheres com uso de sapatos com saltos em comparação com a condição descalça; analisar a influência ...

  16. The Effect of Nonnormality on CB-SEM and PLS-SEM Path Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Jannoo; B. W. Yap; N. Auchoybur; M. A. Lazim

    2014-01-01

    The two common approaches to Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) are the Covariance-Based SEM (CB-SEM) and Partial Least Squares SEM (PLS-SEM). There is much debate on the performance of CB-SEM and PLS-SEM for small sample size and when distributions are nonnormal. This study evaluates the performance of CB-SEM and PLS-SEM under normality and nonnormality conditions via a simulation. Monte Carlo Simulation in R programming language was employed to generate data based on the theoretical model w...

  17. Validade de um novo tapete de contato para avaliação do salto vertical Validity of a new contact mat system for evaluating vertical jump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Gomes Borges Júnior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a validade da medida de tempo de vôo e de contato de um tapete de contato, SaltoBras (SB, comparando-o com um osciloscópio (OS e uma plataforma de forças (PF. Para isso o SB foi colocado sobre uma plataforma de forças. Primeiramente, quatro homens e duas mulheres realizaram quinze saltos sobre o SB e o tempo de vôo foi obtido. Depois, os mesmos realizaram seis saltos consecutivos e os tempos de contato foram obtidos. O SB apresentou-se valido em relação ao OS, mas subestimou o tempo de vôo (~0.30 % e de contato (~1.01 % quando comparado a PF. Apesar das diferenças, o erro encontrado entre SB e PF apresentou-se sistemático e duas equações de predição foram definidas e inseridas no software para a correção dos erros. Os resultados sugerem que SB é um instrumento válido para a avaliação do salto vertical.The purpose of this study was to verify the validity of the flight and ground contact time measurement of a contact mat, SaltoBras (SB, comparing it to an oscilloscope (OS and to a force plate (FP. For that, the SB was placed upon a FP. At first, four male and two female performed 15 jumps on the SB and the flight times were obtained. After, they performed six consecutive jumps and the ground contact times were obtained. SB software was valid in comparison with the OS, but underestimated the flight (~0.30 % and ground contact (~1.01 % time measurements when comparing it to the FP. Despite the differences, the error found between SB and FP was systematic, and two prediction equations were defined and added to the software for correction. The results suggest that SB is a valid instrument for the evaluation of vertical jump.

  18. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Lange, Theis

    2018-01-01

    -mainstream and mainstream SEM groups, and (iii) to explore the validity and predictive accuracy of the Non-Mainstream Pornography Arousal Scale (NPAS). METHODS: Online cross-sectional survey of 2,035 regular SEM users in Croatia. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Patterns of sexual arousal to 27 different SEM themes, sexual...

  19. Biomecánica aplicada al diseño de una Herramienta de Evaluación de los saltos en Gimnasia Rítmica atendiendo al Código Internacional de Puntuación. Aplicación a la evaluación del salto zancada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Grande Rodríguez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La Biomecánica ha realizado estudios sobre los saltos en Gimnasia Rítmica desde el punto de vista cinemático (Lebré y Sousa, 1997; Sousa y Lebré, 1998 y dinámico (Ferro, Rivera y Pagola, 2000. Sin embargo no tenemos constancia de ningún estudio que los valore atendiendo a los requerimientos específicos del vigente Código de Puntuación. Éstos requerimientos son tres Características de Base que deben cumplir los saltos: altura, forma y amplitud (FIG, 2005. El objetivo principal de este Proyecto es crear una herramienta para evaluar los saltos de Gimnasia Rítmica incluyendo tanto variables cinemáticas generales, variables de uso extensivo en el análisis de este tipo de movimientos desde el punto de vista de la biomecánica, como variables cinemáticas específicas, traduciendo las Características de Base que son juzgadas en competición a variables cinemáticas cuantificables. Para realizar la evaluación de los saltos nos apoyándonos en análisis cinemáticos realizados mediante videogrametría 3D. Tras varios diseños se presenta la Ficha de Evaluación del salto zancada que ha sido ya aplicada en un grupo de gimnastas de alto nivel (n=19. Las principales novedades de esta propuesta son el diseño de una herramienta de evaluación específica para este tipo de elementos técnicos teniendo en cuenta la normativa concreta de la Gimnasia Rítmica, la valoración objetiva de las características de base del salto y el intento de presentar los resultados biomecánicos de una forma entendible y rápidamente asimilable para el entrenador.

  20. Contribución segmentaria de los saltos con contramovimiento en vertical y en horizontal. [Segmental contribution on countermovement vertical and horizontal jumps].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gutiérrez-Dávila

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El propósito ha sido realizar un análisis dinámico y cinemático sobre los saltos verticales (SV y horizontales (SH y cuantificar la aportación de los segmentos corporales al desplazamiento del centro de masa (CM durante la fase de propulsión. Han participado 28 deportistas practicantes de modalidades deportivas donde el salto vertical constituye una habilidad básica. Se ha utilizado una plataforma de fuerza, operando a 500 Hz, sincronizada temporalmente a una cámara de vídeo a 210 Hz que registraba el plano sagital de los saltos. Los saltos han sido considerados como un movimiento simétrico que se desarrolla en un plano, compuesto por un modelo mecánico coordinado simplificado de ocho segmentos. En la condición SV, los participantes debían de realizar un salto vertical máximo partiendo de una posición erguida sobre la plataforma de fuerza. En la condición SH, los participantes debían realizar un salto máximo en horizontal desde la misma posición. El tiempo de batida ha sido superior en SH con respecto a SV, (0.898 vs 1.056 s, constatándose una estrategia de rotación-extensión para SH. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que la fuerza neta ejercida durante el impulso de frenado es mayor para SV debido a la mayor velocidad radial al inicio del impulso de frenado (-1.166 vs -0.992 m/s. Existe una mayor participación de las articulaciones del tobillo y la cadera plasmada en la mayor contribución del tronco en SH durante toda la batida, además de constatarse una mayor contribución de las extremidades superiores al desplazamiento vertical del CM en SV. Abstract The main aim of this research was a dynamics and kinematics analysis of vertical (SV and horizontal (SH jumps and quantify the body segments’ contribution to center of mass, CM, displacement during the propulsion phase. 28 athletes from different sport modalities where the vertical jump is a basic skill have participated. We used a force platform, operating at 500 Hz

  1. Arquitectura multi-controlador con transferencia sin salto para procesos con conmutación de modos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagore Iriondo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Los sistemas con conmutación de modos se definen como aquéllos que pueden exhibir diferente comportamiento dinámico en función del estado en que se encuentran. Pueden por tanto ser descritos por un conjunto finito de subsistemas dinámicos y una lógica que rige la conmutación entre ellos. Una alternativa para su control es la arquitectura multi-controlador con supervisión ya que permite utilizar controladores de modo diferentes y alcanzar así múltiples objetivos de control. Pero la conmutación de controladores suele tener como consecuencia la aparición de saltos o transitorios derivados que pueden ser inaceptables. Este tipo de sistemas y problemática son frecuentes en diferentes áreas de aplicación industrial, en donde la tecnología de control más utilizada es el Controlador Lógico Programable (PLC. Es por ello que el objetivo de este trabajo es presentar un método de diseño e implementación de un mecanismo de transferencia sin salto (BT en una arquitectura multi-modo y multi-bucle para sistemas con conmutación de modos, en PLC y en conformidad con el estándar IEC 61131-3. La estrategia BT se basa en que controladores de modos candidatos a conmutar realicen un seguimiento a los controladores activos, siendo la detección del estado de operación actual y de los posibles estados siguientes, clave en la definición de la forma de ejecución de los algoritmos de control que componen la arquitectura. Se presentan también los pasos del diseño de la arquitectura completa así como resultados experimentales que validan la arquitectura. Abstract: Switched mode systems are defined as those represented by a finite set of linear subsystems and a set of logic rules orchestrating the switching among them. A set of dynamic subsystems together with a logical system that orchestrates the switching among them could be used in order to describe it. An alternative to control them is a supervisory multi-mode controller architecture

  2. Sensibilidade e especificidade do diagnóstico de desempenho da força por diferentes testes de saltos verticais em futebolistas e voleibolistas na puberdade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Eduardo Hespanhol

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a sensibilidade e a especificidade de diferentes protocolos de medida dos testes de saltos verticais para o diagnóstico da força explosiva em futebolistas e voleibolistas na puberdade. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com população não probabilística de 110 jovens atletas do sexo masculino (60 futebolistas e 50 voleibolistas na faixa etária de 13 a 18 anos pertencentes a clubes da região metropolitana de Campinas, SP, Brasil. Os participantes tiveram sua maturação biológica avaliada por dois métodos: autoavaliação e medida clínica. Após essa avaliação, foram incluídos os classificados como púberes (25 futebolistas e 23 voleibolistas. Foram coletados dados antropométricos (massa corporal, estatura e dobras cutâneas e testes de saltos verticais: squat jump (SJ, counter movement jump (CMJ, drop jump (DJ; 40 cm height e saltos verticais contínuos com cinco segundos de duração (CJ5s. Foram calculadas as medidas de desempenho diagnóstico: sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia. O nível de significância adotado foi 5% para todos os testes. RESULTADOS: As forças explosivas estimadas pelos métodos de SJ e CMJ apresentaram sensibilidades equivalentes, enquanto o SJ apresentou maior especificidade do que os três métodos, e a acurácia do SJ foi diferente dos outros métodos, a qual foi alta (superior a 80%. CONCLUSÃO: O diagnóstico da força explosiva como teste SJ apresentou sensibilidade e especificidade elevadas, com seu valor preditivo alto na puberdade.

  3. A possibilidade de saltos no câmbio implícita nos prêmios das opções

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo de Vasconcellos Guimarães

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, são estimados os parâmetros - implícitos nos prêmios das opções - de um modelo de precificação de derivativos que considera a possibilidade de saltos discretos no câmbio (o modelo de Merton, no período entre janeiro de 1997 e janeiro de 1999. Esses parâmetros representam probabilidades e magnitudes esperadas de uma desvalorização do real. Argumenta-se em favor dessas estimativas como medidas de credibilidade do regime de bandas que vigorou de março de 1995 a janeiro de 1999 e apresentam-se evidências de que os smiles de volatilidade encontrados no mercado de câmbio no período são explicados pela possibilidade de saltos discretos. Os resultados obtidos mostram que os momentos de grande desconfiança na moeda correspondem a épocas de crises em outros países e que o salto cambial de janeiro de 1999 superou em muito a magnitude esperada de uma desvalorização do real.This paper estimates the parameters of a pricing model which considers the possibility of discrete jumps in the Brazilian exchange rate (Merton's model, from January 1997 to January 1999. Those parameters can be seen as probabilities and expected magnitudes of real devaluation. Such estimates are defended as good measures of credibility of the exchange rate policy that prevailed from March 1995 to January 1999, and it is argued that the possibility of discrete jumps explains the existence of volatility smiles for Brazilian exchange rate options during that period. According to the results presented by this paper, the magnitude of the discrete jump occurred in January 1999 was underestimated by the market and the credibility of the exchange rate policy was mainly affected by crises in other developing countries.

  4. Relevancia de la técnica de inmovilización de brazos en las variables cinéticas en el test de salto con contramovimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel López Gómez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El test de salto vertical con contramovimiento (CMJse ha venido conformando como uno de los métodos de evaluación de la potencia del tren inferior más utilizado. A la hora de ejecutarlo de forma correcta, se debe aislar al máximo la acción de las extremidades superiores, con el fin de que la producción de fuerza provenga exclusivamente del tren inferior. En la bibliografía específica se han propuesto diversas formas de limitar la acción de los brazos, siendo la más frecuente con las manos en la cintura. Cabe preguntarse si el uso de una técnica u otra podría influir en el rendimiento del salto, lo que no permitiría comparar entre diferentes estudios. Participó una muestra de 19 sujetos que realizó cuatro técnicas diferentes de colocación de los brazos en CMJ: con acción de brazos libre; agarre de antebrazos por detrás de la espalda; manos en la cintura; y agarre de una pica de plástico sobre los hombros. Se analizaron y compararon las principales variables cinemáticas en el salto con el fin de determinar si la posición de los brazos es un factor que condiciona los resultados de los test. Como cabía esperar, se aprecian diferencias significativas con ayuda de brazos respecto a las otras técnicas (p < 0.05. Sin embargo, no se aprecian diferencias significativas entre las tres técnicas de inmovilización de brazos planteadas. Esto lleva a concluir que no es determinante la posición de brazos utilizada, por lo que es posible comparar los resultados obtenidos en los distintos estudios publicados.

  5. Re-diseño de la línea de ejes de turbinas Francis de salto elevado para la mejora de su competitividad

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA MÓNACO, ALEJANDRO

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto es mejorar la línea de ejes de las turbinas Francis de eje horizontal. En especial, se ha trabajado con aquellas máquinas diseñadas para funcionar con saltos de agua elevados. El proyecto surge del conocimiento de importantes ventajas económicas de las turbinas horizontales frente a las verticales y de la voluntad por parte de ALSTOM HYDRO de mejorar los rendimientos de las primeras para hacerlas más competitivas. Los capítulos 3 y 4 son introductorios a la pro...

  6. Determinación de plaguicidas en la cuenca de Salto Grande : Incidencia de los procesos de potabilización sobre los niveles residuales

    OpenAIRE

    Williman, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Los problemas de calidad de agua en los lagos y embalses de Argentina se han incrementado por las actividades agrícolas, deforestación, explotación forestal, cría de animales, actividades mineras, escurrimiento urbano y descargas de aguas residuales no tratadas. La región aledaña al embalse Salto Grande, presenta un importante desarrollo agrícola, donde se utilizan numerosos tipos de plaguicidas. Estos compuestos generan contaminación ambiental, ya sea por deriva y/o acumulación en ...

  7. Efecto del kinesiotaping con y sin tensión aplicado en cuadríceps sobre la capacidad de salto en deportistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayerly Carolina Anaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Estudios previos han encontrado que la técnica del Kinesiotaping (KT reduce la intensidad y duración del dolor y la inflamación, incrementa la fuerza muscular y estabiliza las articulaciones. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre su efecto para mejorar las capacidades físicas a través de la estimulación muscular en deportistas. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto del KT aplicado en el cuadríceps sobre la capacidad de salto vertical en deportistas sanos, ajustado por el porcentaje de coordinación y elasticidad, edad e Índice de Masa Corporal. Metodología: Estudio experimental realizado en 24 voleibolistas, aleatorizados en dos grupos: (1 12 sujetos (21.3 ± 3.4 años, 75.6 ± 13.9Kg, con aplicación del KT en cuádriceps femoral con tensión; (2 12 sujetos (20.5± 2.9 años, 71.8 ± 6.8 Kg con aplicación del KT en cuádriceps femoral sin tensión. Resultados: Los datos no mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la aplicación del KT con y sin tensión; se encontró asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el porcentaje de coordinación y la altura del salto alcanzado en la prueba de Abalakov (p=0,006, cuando el KT tenía tensión y ajustado por edad e IMC. Discusión y conclusiones: La técnica KT no mejora del desempeño del salto en deportistas sanos. No se debería aplicar KT en el cuadríceps femoral con el único objetivo de mejorar el salto en jugadores de voleibol saludables masculinos.

  8. EFECTO DE DIFERENTES MÉTODOS DE ENTRENAMIENTO DE CONTRASTE PARA LA MEJORA DE LA FUERZA DE IMPULSIÓN EN UN SALTO VERTICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Padial

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    RESUMEN

    La finalidad del presente estudio es conocer el efecto de dos tipos de entrenamiento de contraste de fuerza en los que se combinan cargas ligeras (multisaltos con cargas pesadas (sentadillas al 70% del 1RM sobre las distintas manifestaciones de la fuerza dinámica. La muestra seleccionada se extrajo del Ejercito Español de Tierra, divididos en dos grupos experimentales (n=30: 15 en cada grupo, varones, 22 ± 4 años de edad, sin que existiera para ello grupo control. La razón de este diseño, sin grupo control, es porque está suficientemente comprobado por la literatura científica que el entrenamiento de contraste de fuerza produce ganancias significativas en la altura del salto. La variable independiente manipulada es la forma de combinación de las cargas: en el grupo 1 la combinación de cargas se realiza en la misma serie (grupo de contraste en la serie –CSR- y en el grupo 2 la combinación de cargas se realiza en la misma sesión (grupo de contraste en la sesión – CSS-.Por lo tanto, lo que se trata de determinar es qué método de contraste, de los dos empleados, es más eficaz. Procedimiento: Ambos grupos experimentales entrenaron 3 veces a la semana, durante 8 semanas consecutivas. La intensidad del entrenamiento y la carga fue la misma para los dos grupos. Se realizaron controles, mediante una alfombra de contacto, al inicio y en la 4ª y 8ª semana de la experimentación. Se evaluó la altura de salto siguiendo el protocolo de Bosco: salto sin contramomivimiento (SJ, salto con controamovimiento (CMJ, salto sin contramovimiento con el 50% de peso corporal (SJ50, salto sin contramovimiento con el 100% de peso corporal (SJ100 y la fuerza máxima del tren inferior mediante una repetición máxima -1RM en sentadilla-. Resultados: Tras el correspondiente an

  9. PREDICCION DE LA ALTURA DE SALTO VERTICAL. IMPORTANCIA DEL IMPULSO MECÁNICO Y DE LA MASA MUSCULAR DE LAS EXTREMIDADES INFERIORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ferragut

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    RESUMEN

    El objetivo de este estudio ha sido determinar si es posible predecir la altura de vuelo en el salto vertical a partir de variables cinemáticas, dinamométricas y antropométricas, mediante un modelo de regresión múltiple lineal. Participaron en el estudio 53 sujetos, 21 hombres jugadores de voleibol de categorías nacionales (División de Honor y Primera División y 9 mujeres jugadoras de voleibol de División de Honor, así como 23 estudiantes de Educación Física, de los cuales 12 eran hombres y 11 mujeres. Inicialmente se determinó la altura de vuelo en saltos efectuados sin contramovimiento o "squat jumps" (SJ y en saltos precedidos por un contramovimiento o "countermovement jumps" (CMJ. Además, se determinó la fuerza isométrica máxima (FIM en posición de semisentadillla, con las rodillas flexionadas a 90º, 120º y 140º , simultáneamente se tomaron medidas de la actividad electromiográfica del vasto externo del cuádriceps. La masa muscular de las extremidades inferiores se midió mediante absociometría fotónica dual de rayos X (DEXA. El impulso positivo explicó por sí solo un 77% de la variabilidad en altura de vuelo. La variable anterior combinada con el porcentaje de masa corporal representado por la masa muscular de las extremidades inferiores permitió explicar un 82% de la variabilidad de la altura de vuelo en el CMJ. Al añadir a la ecuación anterior la masa muscular de las extremidades inferiores se pudo explicar un 98% de la variabilidad en altura de vuelo. En los saltos sin contramovimiento, también fue posible explicar un porcentaje similar de la variabilidad de la altura de vuelo utilizando las mismas variables.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Salto vertical, DEXA, masa muscular, fuerza

    ABSTRACT

  10. Inventário arbóreo-urbano do município de Salto de Pirapora, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Porto Benatti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo realizar o inventário arbóreo-urbano em 24 bairros do Município de Salto de Pirapora, SP, por meio da avaliação quali-quantitativa. Para tanto, foram obtidas informações relacionadas à: espécie arbórea, situação da copa e do tronco, orientação do tronco, fitossanidade, interceptação das raízes no passeio, necessidade de tratos silviculturais, altura total e altura da primeira bifurcação, assim como características do espaço viário. Foram registrados 868 indivíduos, dos quais 679 foram catalogados em 71 espécies arbóreas. A espécie de maior frequência foi Caesalpinia pluviosa, representando 13,6% do total, seguida de Ficus benjamin (10,4%, Lagerstroemia indica (5,0% e Terminalia catappa (4,8%. Quanto à condição do tronco, 68,8% dos indivíduos arbóreos não apresentaram problemas; 85,7% das árvores observadas possuíam orientação simpodial adequada; poucas árvores apresentavam danos relacionados à fitossanidade que poderiam interferir em sua integridade e, ou, longevidade; 69,6% não interferiam, de forma direta, na calçada; 32,8% das árvores necessitavam de podas por estarem acima da fiação elétrica; 0,5% necessitava de substituição; e 5,7% precisavam ser removidas. Com relação à altura total das árvores, 63,0% apresentavam crescimento menor que 5 m; e 65,3% com altura da primeira bifurcação do tronco inferior a 1,80 m. O Bairro Primavera destacou-se pelo maior número de árvores em sua urbanização. Em contrapartida, o Jardim Amélia apresentou apenas um indivíduo. Dessa forma, observou-se que cada bairro possuía sua particularidade, e ações de manutenção e enriquecimento, tanto relacionadas ao número de espécies quanto à quantidade de indivíduos, deveriam ser consideradas no planejamento urbano-arbóreo daquele município.

  11. Longitudinal processes in Salto Grande reservoir (Americana, SP, Brazil and its influence in the formation of compartment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. ZANATA

    Full Text Available Studies on the longitudinal processes in reservoirs, involving physical, chemical and biological processes have been thoroughly appraised, suggesting the existence of a longitudinal organization controlled by the entrance and circulation of water which inserts modifications in the structuring of the system. To evaluate this effect, the Salto Grande reservoir (Americana, SP was analyzed in 11 sampling stations in its longitudinal axis, in the rainy and dry seasons of 1997 considering the physical chemical and biological variables. Analyzing the results in agreement with the declining concentration degree of the river--barrage direction, a more significant correlation was verified in the dry period for total phosphorus (r² = 0.86, dissolved total phosphate (r² = 0.83, nitrite (r² = 0.93, inorganic phosphate (r² = 0.89, ammonium (r² = 0.84 and suspended material (r² = 0.85. In the rainy period, only nitrite (r² = 0.90 and conductivity (r² = 0.89 presented correlation with the distance of the dam, which demonstrates the effects of precipitation and the operational mechanism of the dam, as well as the distinction among the physical (sedimentation, chemical (oxidation and biological (decomposition processes in spatial heterogeneity of the system. These factors were decisive in the organization of these communities, with higher occurrence of rotifers and copepods in relation to cladocerans, the first ones being more abundant in the entrance of the Atibaia river, decreasing towards the dam direction, while copepods presented an inverse pattern. A distribution pattern similar to Copepoda was also verified for the Cladocera, evidencing a tendency to increase the density of organisms in the stations distant to the entrance of the Atibaia river, not being registered, however, a distribution gradient in the longitudinal axis, as observed for rotifers and copepods. In relation to the trophic degree a longitudinal gradient was also verified from

  12. SEM probe of IC radiation sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, M. K.; Stanley, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) used to irradiate single integrated circuit (IC) subcomponent to test for radiation sensitivity can localize area of IC less than .03 by .03 mm for determination of exact location of radiation sensitive section.

  13. Comentarios al Salto Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facultad de Ciencias Económicas

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available 1. El Plan considera que la política social es un componente central de la estrategia macroeconómica. A diferencia de la administración Gaviria, lo social ha dejado de ser un asunto marginal, es consustancial al desarrollo y, por tanto, se le confiere una dimensión cualitativamente diferente.

  14. Advanced metrology by offline SEM data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakcher, Amine; Schneider, Loïc.; Le-Gratiet, Bertrand; Ducoté, Julien; Farys, Vincent; Besacier, Maxime

    2017-06-01

    Today's technology nodes contain more and more complex designs bringing increasing challenges to chip manufacturing process steps. It is necessary to have an efficient metrology to assess process variability of these complex patterns and thus extract relevant data to generate process aware design rules and to improve OPC models. Today process variability is mostly addressed through the analysis of in-line monitoring features which are often designed to support robust measurements and as a consequence are not always very representative of critical design rules. CD-SEM is the main CD metrology technique used in chip manufacturing process but it is challenged when it comes to measure metrics like tip to tip, tip to line, areas or necking in high quantity and with robustness. CD-SEM images contain a lot of information that is not always used in metrology. Suppliers have provided tools that allow engineers to extract the SEM contours of their features and to convert them into a GDS. Contours can be seen as the signature of the shape as it contains all the dimensional data. Thus the methodology is to use the CD-SEM to take high quality images then generate SEM contours and create a data base out of them. Contours are used to feed an offline metrology tool that will process them to extract different metrics. It was shown in two previous papers that it is possible to perform complex measurements on hotspots at different process steps (lithography, etch, copper CMP) by using SEM contours with an in-house offline metrology tool. In the current paper, the methodology presented previously will be expanded to improve its robustness and combined with the use of phylogeny to classify the SEM images according to their geometrical proximities.

  15. Mosquito-Producing Containers, Spatial Distribution, and Relationship between Aedes aegypti Population Indices on the Southern Boundary of its Distribution in South America (Salto, Uruguay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, César; Caffera, Ruben M.; García da Rosa, Elsa; Lairihoy, Rosario; González, Cristina; Norbis, Walter; Roche, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted in the city of Salto, Uruguay, to identify mosquito-producing containers, the spatial distribution of mosquitoes and the relationship between the different population indices of Aedes aegypti. On each of 312 premises visited, water-filled containers and immature Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were identified. The containers were counted and classified into six categories. Pupae per person and Stegomyia indices were calculated. Pupae per person were represented spatially. The number of each type of container and number of mosquitoes in each were analyzed and compared, and their spatial distribution was analyzed. No significant differences in the number of the different types of containers with mosquitoes or in the number of mosquitoes in each were found. The distribution of the containers with mosquito was random and the distribution of mosquitoes by type of container was aggregated or highly aggregated. PMID:23128295

  16. Mosquito-producing containers, spatial distribution, and relationship between Aedes aegypti population indices on the southern boundary of its distribution in South America (Salto, Uruguay).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, César; Caffera, Ruben M; García da Rosa, Elsa; Lairihoy, Rosario; González, Cristina; Norbis, Walter; Roche, Ingrid

    2012-12-01

    A study was conducted in the city of Salto, Uruguay, to identify mosquito-producing containers, the spatial distribution of mosquitoes and the relationship between the different population indices of Aedes aegypti. On each of 312 premises visited, water-filled containers and immature Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were identified. The containers were counted and classified into six categories. Pupae per person and Stegomyia indices were calculated. Pupae per person were represented spatially. The number of each type of container and number of mosquitoes in each were analyzed and compared, and their spatial distribution was analyzed. No significant differences in the number of the different types of containers with mosquitoes or in the number of mosquitoes in each were found. The distribution of the containers with mosquito was random and the distribution of mosquitoes by type of container was aggregated or highly aggregated.

  17. [Assessment of congenital malformation risk in the progeny of the military and civilian personnel of the Salto di Quirra military base: preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, G; Pilleri, M; Garofalo, E; Masala, E; Pili, C; Tocco, A; Ursi, M; D'Andrea, I; Campagna, M; Carta, W; Castellet y Ballarà, A; Chiodini, S; Nonne, T; Sartorello, A; Addis, M; Cocco, P

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the congenital malformation rate in the progeny of the personnel of the Salto di Quirra military base in Sardinia. During 2011, we gathered questionnaire information on the reproductive history of 389 employees, more then 99% of those eligible for routine health surveillance. the observed congenital malformation rate (20.1 x 10(-3), 95% CI 6.3 - 33.8) was lower than that reported by the Italian Registries of Congenital Malformations, and it did not vary by exposure to radiofrequency, elf electromagnetic fields, and solvents, and by jobs associated with alleged exposure to nanoparticles or alpha radiation. Our findings suggest that the documented or alleged occupational exposures among the PISQ workforce did not increase the congenital malformation rate in the progeny.

  18. Contribución de los brazos en el aterrizaje del salto vertical. [Contribution of the arms in the landing of the vertical jump].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gutiérrez-Dávila

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Se pretende comprobar el efecto que tiene la contribución de los brazos en los aterrizajes de los saltos verticales sobre las componentes de las fuerzas de reacción, goniometría articular y contribución de los segmentos corporales al desplazamiento vertical del centro de gravedad (CG. Han participado 29 deportistas donde el salto vertical constituye una habilidad básica. Todos los participantes debían dejarse caer desde una altura de 0.5 m y amortiguar la caída en dos situaciones experimentales: a sin acción de brazos y b con participación libre de los brazos. Se ha utilizado una plataforma de fuerza, operando a 500 Hz, sincronizada temporalmente a una cámara de vídeo a 240 Hz que registraba el plano sagital de los saltos. Los saltos han sido considerados como un movimiento simétrico que se desarrolla en un plano, compuesto por un modelo mecánico simplificado de ocho segmentos. Los resultados han puesto de manifiesto que la participación libre de los brazos contribuye a reducir del segundo pico máximo de fuerza, lo que se produce debido a la mayor distancia de frenado del CG y una menor reducción de la velocidad vertical del CG, lo que podría contribuir a reducir el riesgo de lesiones. La contribución segmentaria al desplazamiento vertical del CG indica que la restricción de los brazos durante los aterrizajes produce un cambio importante en el mecanismo de absorción de las fuerzas que podría incrementar la tensión en el ligamento cruzado anterior de la rodilla. Abstract The purpose was to evaluate the effect of the arms action during vertical jump landing on ground reaction forces, joint kinematic and vertical displacement of the center of gravity (CG. 29 athletes where the vertical jump constitutes a basic skill in their sport have participated in this study. All participants had to drop from a height of 0.5 m and cushion the fall in two experimental situations: a without arm action and b with free participation of the

  19. Oxford CyberSEM: remote microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M; Kirkland, A; Cockayne, D; Meyer, R

    2008-01-01

    The Internet has enabled researchers to communicate over vast geographical distances, sharing ideas and documents. e-Science, underpinned by Grid and Web Services, has enabled electronic communications to the next level where, in addition to document sharing, researchers can increasingly control high precision scientific instruments over the network. The Oxford CyberSEM project developed a simple Java applet via which samples placed in a JEOL 5510LV Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) can be manipulated and examined collaboratively over the Internet. Designed with schoolchildren in mind, CyberSEM does not require any additional hardware or software other than a generic Java-enabled web browser. This paper reflects on both the technical and social challenges in designing real-time systems for controlling scientific equipments in collaborative environments. Furthermore, it proposes potential deployment beyond the classroom setting.

  20. Partial Least Squares Strukturgleichungsmodellierung (PLS-SEM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hair, Joseph F.; Hult, G. Tomas M.; Ringle, Christian M.

    (PLS-SEM) hat sich in der wirtschafts- und sozialwissenschaftlichen Forschung als geeignetes Verfahren zur Schätzung von Kausalmodellen behauptet. Dank der Anwenderfreundlichkeit des Verfahrens und der vorhandenen Software ist es inzwischen auch in der Praxis etabliert. Dieses Buch liefert eine...... anwendungsorientierte Einführung in die PLS-SEM. Der Fokus liegt auf den Grundlagen des Verfahrens und deren praktischer Umsetzung mit Hilfe der SmartPLS-Software. Das Konzept des Buches setzt dabei auf einfache Erläuterungen statistischer Ansätze und die anschauliche Darstellung zahlreicher Anwendungsbeispiele anhand...... einer einheitlichen Fallstudie. Viele Grafiken, Tabellen und Illustrationen erleichtern das Verständnis der PLS-SEM. Zudem werden dem Leser herunterladbare Datensätze, Aufgaben und weitere Fachartikel zur Vertiefung angeboten. Damit eignet sich das Buch hervorragend für Studierende, Forscher und...

  1. FIB-SEM tomography in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilyaprak, Caroline; Bittermann, Anne Greet; Daraspe, Jean; Humbel, Bruno M

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional information is much easier to understand than a set of two-dimensional images. Therefore a layman is thrilled by the pseudo-3D image taken in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) while, when seeing a transmission electron micrograph, his imagination is challenged. First approaches to gain insight in the third dimension were to make serial microtome sections of a region of interest (ROI) and then building a model of the object. Serial microtome sectioning is a tedious and skill-demanding work and therefore seldom done. In the last two decades with the increase of computer power, sophisticated display options, and the development of new instruments, an SEM with a built-in microtome as well as a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM), serial sectioning, and 3D analysis has become far easier and faster.Due to the relief like topology of the microtome trimmed block face of resin-embedded tissue, the ROI can be searched in the secondary electron mode, and at the selected spot, the ROI is prepared with the ion beam for 3D analysis. For FIB-SEM tomography, a thin slice is removed with the ion beam and the newly exposed face is imaged with the electron beam, usually by recording the backscattered electrons. The process, also called "slice and view," is repeated until the desired volume is imaged.As FIB-SEM allows 3D imaging of biological fine structure at high resolution of only small volumes, it is crucial to perform slice and view at carefully selected spots. Finding the region of interest is therefore a prerequisite for meaningful imaging. Thin layer plastification of biofilms offers direct access to the original sample surface and allows the selection of an ROI for site-specific FIB-SEM tomography just by its pronounced topographic features.

  2. Coleópteros acuáticos y semiacuáticos del Parque Provincial Salto Encantado y Valle del Cuñá Pirú (Misiones, Argentina Aquatic and semiaquatic Coleoptera from Salto Encantado y Valle del Cuñá Pirú Provincial Park (Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana A. Fernández

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de la recolección de coleópteros acuáticos y semiacuáticos del Parque Provincial Salto Encantado y Valle del Cuñá Pirú, con el objeto de contribuir al conocimiento de la biodiversidad del área protegida mencionada, de la provincia de Misiones. Los sitios de muestreo incluyeron ambientes lóticos y lénticos. Se registraron 74 especies de coleópteros, distribuidas en 44 géneros y 14 familias: Haliplidae, Noteridae, Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Hydrochidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, Staphylinidae, Scirtidae, Psephenidae, Limnichidae, Lutrochidae, Dryopidae y Elmidae. Se mencionan nuevas citas para la provincia y para la Argentina, así como la presencia de especies nuevas para la ciencia.This paper presents a list of aquatic and semiaquatic Coleoptera collected during a biodiversity study carried out in Salto Encantado and Valle del Cuñá Pirú Provincial Park. This study aims to improve the knowledge of this protected area located in Misiones Province. Permanent and semi-permanent lotic and lentic habitats were sampled. Seventy-four species of beetles in 44 genera and 14 families were recorded: Haliplidae, Noteridae, Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Hydrochidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, Staphylinidae, Scirtidae, Psephenidae, Limnichidae, Lutrochidae, Dryopidae and Elmidae. New records for the province and for Argentina are listed, and the presence of new species is mentioned.

  3. Search Engine Marketing (SEM: Financial & Competitive Advantages of an Effective Hotel SEM Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leora Halpern Lanz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Search Engine Marketing and Optimization (SEO, SEM are keystones of a hotels marketing strategy, in fact research shows that 90% of travelers start their vacation planning with a Google search. Learn five strategies that can enhance a hotels SEO and SEM strategies to boost bookings.

  4. Search Engine Marketing (SEM): Financial & Competitive Advantages of an Effective Hotel SEM Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Leora Halpern Lanz

    2015-01-01

    Search Engine Marketing and Optimization (SEO, SEM) are keystones of a hotels marketing strategy, in fact research shows that 90% of travelers start their vacation planning with a Google search. Learn five strategies that can enhance a hotels SEO and SEM strategies to boost bookings.

  5. Does Sexually Explicit Media (SEM) Affect Me?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Træen, Bente; Noor, Syed W

    2015-01-01

    and understanding of one’s sexual orientation.First-person effects refer to self-perceived and self-reported effects of SEM consumptionas experienced by the consumer. In addition, the study examined and provided athorough validation of the psychometric properties of the seven-item PornographyConsumption Effect...

  6. SEM: A user's manual for materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides a reference of techniques used by the metallurgical microscopist. It contains an introduction to the instrumentation and methods of scanning electron microscopy with historical as well as state-of-the-art methodologies. Topics covered include: SEM instrumentation, photography, energy dispersive spectroscopy, introduction to sample preparation, polished samples, fracture surfaces, replicas and thin films

  7. Building a SEM Analytics Reporting Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Jay W.; Williams, Brian G.; Kilgore, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Effective strategic enrollment management (SEM) efforts require vast amounts of internal and external data to ensure that meaningful reporting and analysis systems can assist managers in decision making. A wide range of information is integral for leading effective and efficient student recruitment and retention programs. This article is designed…

  8. Bases de Datos Semánticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irving Caro Fierros

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1992, cuando Tim Berners-Lee dio a conocer la primera  versión  de  la  Web,  su  visión  a  futuro  era  incorporar metadatos  con  información  semántica  en  las  páginas  Web.  Es precisamente   a   principios   de   este   siglo   que   inicia   el   auge repentino  de  la  Web  semántica  en  el  ambiente  académico  e Internet. El modelo de datos semántico se define como un modelo conceptual que permite definir el significado de los datos a través de  sus  relaciones  con  otros.  En  este  sentido,  el  formato  de representación  de  los  datos  es  fundamental  para  proporcionar información de carácter semántico. La tecnología enfocada en las bases de datos semánticas se encuentra actualmente en un punto de  inflexión,  al  pasar  del  ámbito  académico  y  de  investigación  a ser una opción comercial completa. En este artículo se realiza un análisis  del  concepto  de  base  de  datos  semántica.  También  se presenta  un  caso  de  estudio  donde  se  ejemplifican  operaciones básicas  que  involucran  la  gestión  de  la  información  almacenada en este tipo de base de datos.

  9. SEM investigation of heart tissue samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, R; Amoroso, M [Physics Department, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies (Trinidad and Tobago)

    2010-07-01

    We used the scanning electron microscope to examine the cardiac tissue of a cow (Bos taurus), a pig (Sus scrofa), and a human (Homo sapiens). 1mm{sup 3} blocks of left ventricular tissue were prepared for SEM scanning by fixing in 96% ethanol followed by critical point drying (cryofixation), then sputter-coating with gold. The typical ridged structure of the myofibrils was observed for all the species. In addition crystal like structures were found in one of the samples of the heart tissue of the pig. These structures were investigated further using an EDVAC x-ray analysis attachment to the SEM. Elemental x-ray analysis showed highest peaks occurred for gold, followed by carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium. As the samples were coated with gold for conductivity, this highest peak is expected. Much lower peaks at carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium suggest that a cystallized salt such as a carbonate was present in the tissue before sacrifice.

  10. SEM investigation of heart tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, R; Amoroso, M

    2010-01-01

    We used the scanning electron microscope to examine the cardiac tissue of a cow (Bos taurus), a pig (Sus scrofa), and a human (Homo sapiens). 1mm 3 blocks of left ventricular tissue were prepared for SEM scanning by fixing in 96% ethanol followed by critical point drying (cryofixation), then sputter-coating with gold. The typical ridged structure of the myofibrils was observed for all the species. In addition crystal like structures were found in one of the samples of the heart tissue of the pig. These structures were investigated further using an EDVAC x-ray analysis attachment to the SEM. Elemental x-ray analysis showed highest peaks occurred for gold, followed by carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium. As the samples were coated with gold for conductivity, this highest peak is expected. Much lower peaks at carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium suggest that a cystallized salt such as a carbonate was present in the tissue before sacrifice.

  11. Viewing Integrated-Circuit Interconnections By SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Russel A.; Gauldin, Robert E.; Ruiz, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    Back-scattering of energetic electrons reveals hidden metal layers. Experiment shows that with suitable operating adjustments, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) used to look for defects in aluminum interconnections in integrated circuits. Enables monitoring, in situ, of changes in defects caused by changes in temperature. Gives truer picture of defects, as etching can change stress field of metal-and-passivation pattern, causing changes in defects.

  12. Structuring Consumer Preferences with the SEM Method

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Franco

    2002-01-01

    Structuring preferences has been developed with econometric models using functional flexible parametric form and the exploring the perceptions about expressed and latent needs using different multivariate approaches. Purpose of this research is to explore the demand for a new drink using the mean-end chain (MEC) theory and multivariate SEM procedure. The first part is dedicated to description of specialty foods for their capacity to create new niche markets. The MEC theory is introduced to ex...

  13. Bases de Datos Semánticas

    OpenAIRE

    Irving Caro Fierros; Víctor Hugo Menéndez Domínguez; María Enriqueta Castellanos Bolaños

    2016-01-01

    En 1992, cuando Tim Berners-Lee dio a conocer la primera  versión  de  la  Web,  su  visión  a  futuro  era  incorporar metadatos  con  información  semántica  en  las  páginas  Web.  Es precisamente   a   principios   de   este   siglo   que   inicia   el   auge repentino  de  la  Web  semántica  en  el  ambiente  académico  e Internet. El modelo de datos semántico se define como un modelo conceptual que permite definir el significado de los datos a través de  sus  relaciones  con  otros.  E...

  14. EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO DE CONTAMINACIÓN POR METAMIDOFOS EN LA MICROCUENCA EL SALTO DEL MUNICIPIO DE EL SANTUARIO, ANTIOQUIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Horacio Ramírez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo de investigación, que se desarrolló en la microcuenca El Salto del municipio de El Santuario, se estimó la presencia del Metamidofos, en plantas de repollo (Brassica oleraceae y en el suelo y su riesgo de contaminación en aguas para el consumo humano. En el repollo el nivel de concentración del Metamidofos sobrepasó los límites máximos permisibles establecidos para esta planta por el Codex Alimentarius; en el suelo no se encontraron residuos del producto, pero sí en el agua de escorrentía y en dos sitios del cauce de la quebrada El Salto localizados aguas arriba de la bocatoma del acueducto municipal; no se detectó Metamidofos en la muestra de agua de la bocatoma del acueducto ni en la red de distribución del acueducto municipal. En la estimación cualitativa del riesgo de contaminación se utilizaron como variables de vulnerabilidad y amenaza la precipitación, la escorrentía, el coeficiente de escorrentía, el tiempo de concentración, la erosión, algunas propiedades físicas, químicas y biológicas del suelo y la pendiente de los terrenos. Se observó que el riesgo se presenta por la alta cantidad de insecticida utilizado y su frecuencia de utilización, que se incrementa según la distribución e intensidad de las lluvias y del potencial de erosión y este, a su vez, por el uso y manejo no adecuado del suelo. En la parcela experimental y en un terreno aledaño sembrado con pasto kikuyo (Pennisetum clandestinum, se calculó la población por unidad de área de la lombriz de tierra (Lumbricus terrestris. La ausencia de este organismo en la parcela cultivada con repollo (Brassica oleraceae se puede considerar como indicador biológico por la contaminación de este insecticida en el suelo.This investigation was done in El Salto watershed basin located in the municipality of El Santuario. It was examined the presence of Metamidofos in plants of cabbage, in soils, with risk of contamination in waters for the human

  15. A avaliação do método “Salto Triplo” aplicado a estudantes do curso de Medicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Farias Cansanção

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to report an experience of tutors in performing a triple jump by evaluating the methodology of Problem-Based Learning (PBL in a group of 37 students of the second period of a medical school of the Federal University of São Francisco Valley - UNIVASF, campus Paulo Afonso, Bahia, Brazil.The "triple jump" occurred in a daylight period, and was divided into three tutorial groups of nine students, a group of ten students and eight tutors. The problem situation was prepared by the tutors involved and all students were previously informed about the methodology applied. The assessment was divided into three stages (1-presentation of the problem; 2- individualized study; 3- Oral Presentation. In the end of the triple jump , it was applied an evaluative questionnaire and the 27 students had consented previously to fill them out. The students who participated in this application were able to quickly identify the learning objectives (94.6%. However, a small part of the participants (about 5% suggested modifications on the time used to complete all the steps of the “Triple Jump”.The reported experience consolidate this evaluative tool has formative character and effective way in the measuring the teaching-learning process of students in health care in PBL methodby improving their educational background. O presente artigo tem como objetivo relatar a experiência vivenciada por tutores na realização de um salto triplo avaliando a metodologia de Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas (ABP em um grupo de 37 estudantes do segundo período do curso de medicina da Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco-UNIVASF, campus de Paulo Afonso, Bahia, Brasil. O “salto triplo” ocorreu em um período diurno, e foi dividida em três grupos de tutoria de nove alunos, um grupo com dez alunos e oito docentes. A situação-problema foi elaborada pelos tutores envolvidos e todos os estudantes foram previamente informados sobre a metodologia

  16. Characterization of Yeast Biofilm by Cryo-SEM and FIB-SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubanová, Kamila; Nebesářová, Jana; Růžička, F.; Dluhoš, J.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, S2 (2013), s. 226-227 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0103; GA TA ČR TE01020118; GA ČR GAP205/11/1687 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : yeast biofilm * cryo-SEM * FIB-SEM Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.757, year: 2013

  17. O ciberativismo sem bússola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rüdiger

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Questiona-se no texto se uma abordagem que, no essencial, relata a trajetória do chamado ciberativismo de acordo com seus próprios termos se justifica academicamente ou, em vez disso, se mantém prisioneira de uma mitologia que o fenômeno, em si mesmo, já construiu e, por isso, autoriza seus sujeitos a dispensarem sem prejuízo eventual contribuição de origem universitária.

  18. Afasia global sem hemiparesia: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA,MARCUS TULIUS TEIXEIRA DA; CAVALCANTI,JOSÉ LUÍS DE SÁ; MOREIRA,DENISE MADEIRA

    2000-01-01

    Afasia global geralmente é acompanhada por hemiparesia direita devido à extensão da lesão subjacente. Recentemente têm sido registrados na literatura casos em que tal síndrome ou não se acompanha do déficit motor ou este é apenas transitório, sendo esta condição conhecida como afasia global sem hemiparesia (AGSH). Relatamos caso de AGSH devido a infarto cerebral embólico cardiogênico, corroborando a tese de que esta condição pode ter valor preditivo para o diagnóstico de infartos embólicos....

  19. Diet and trophic ecomorphology of the silverside, Odontesthes bonariensis, of the Salto Caxias reservoir, rio Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Aparecida da Silva Cassemiro

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the diet and trophic ecomorphology of Odontesthes bonariensis, relating these features with species' abundance in the natural environment and in the Salto Caxias reservoir (at Iguaçu river after the reservoir's formation. The samples were carried out before (from March 1997 to February 1998- pre and after (from October 1998 to February 2001 - post 1 and 2 the damming. The stomach contents of 218 individuals were analyzed by occurrence and volumetric methods. O. bonariensis' diet is based on insects, scales, plants and detritus. Microcrustaceans (Cladocera and Copepoda were the main items, allowing the characterization of the species as zooplanktivore. The species has a superior position and protractible mouth, with small teeth, creating a serrated pattern, uniformly lined side by side. There are many gill rakers, that are long and close together (typical of filtering fishes; the stomach is ill defined and the intestine is short. There was a gradual increase of O. bonariensis' abundance during the period of field study, mainly after the second year of damming. This fact seems to be closely related with the high abundance and availability of zooplankton in the dammed environment, and also with the ability of the species to exploit this resource.

  20. Educación ambiental, participación comunitaria y desarrollo sustentable: los casos de los municipios de Juanacatlán y El Salto, Jalisco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Palos Delgadillo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available El grave deterioro ecológico y la pérdida de flora y fauna en los municipios de Juanacatlán y El Salto Jalisco, en particular por un río y una cascada muertos, debido fundamentalmente a las concentraciones de contaminantes que generan las empresas establecidas en el corredor industrial de esa región, ha dañado la salud de la población. Lo anterior refleja el casi nulo desarrollo sustentable en esa parte del estado de Jalisco. El presente trabajo estudia la participación comunitaria con base en la educación ambiental y la sustentabilidad. Es decir, a la sociedad se le piden dos cosas: a que se involucre en acciones de conservación del medio ambiente y b que exija a las empresas y autoridades correspondientes, el cumplimiento a la legislación vigente a fin de obtener respuestas concretas a favor de la naturaleza. El estudio utiliza el método exploratorio bajo el supuesto de que son relevantes las habilidades de comunicación entre las partes interesadas por el cambio social. Al respecto se plantea un modelo que contempla la información retroalimentadora entre ciudadanos libres sin ningún matiz partidista o religioso, que también busquen el bien común e influyan en el desarrollo comunitario sustentable.

  1. Aeróbic deportivo: importancia del conocimiento previo del error en el aprendizaje y retención de una habilidad gimnástica de salto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Águeda Gutiérrez Sánchez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio ha sido, por un lado intentar plantear un sistema de entrenamiento técnico indicando los errores a evitar establecidos por el Código de Puntuación en esta modalidad deportiva, y por otro lado, ver los efectos de un entrenamiento global (basado en mini-circuitos empleado con éxito en otra disciplina deportiva como es la Gimnasia Artística (Carrasco, 1977; Vernetta, 1995, Vernetta y López, 1997, 98. En el presente trabajo, hemos utilizado tres grupos experimentales formados por alumnos/as de la asignatura de Alto Rendimiento en Gimnasia Aeróbica de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y Deporte de la Universidad de Vigo con un rango de edad de 19 a 22 años. La finalidad ha sido delimitar la eficacia diferencial de tres tipos de entrenamiento (Analítico progresivo, Global con Mini-circuito y Mini-circuito con conocimiento previo del error a evitar sobre el aprendizaje y retención de una habilidad gimnástica de salto del Aeróbic Deportivo. Los resultados obtenidos van a verificar la hipótesis planteada, constatándose las mayores ganancias de aprendizaje y retención en el grupo que se benefició del Mini-circuito con conocimiento previo del error a evitar.

  2. AJUSTE DE ECUACIONES DE BIOMASA PARA Pinus durangensis (Martínez M. EN LA REGIÓN DE EL SALTO, DURANGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Montes de Oca-Cano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue ajustar ecuaciones lineales y no lineales para estimar biomasa por componente de hojas, ramas, fuste y total, para árboles con edades entre tres y diez años, en la región de El Salto, Dgo. Los resultados indican que las ecuaciones se ajustan mejor a nivel individual, el componente total muestra los mejores estadísticos de ajuste, mientras que las mayores variaciones se detectan en las ramas y en el fuste. Adicionalmente se analizan porcentajes de biomasa por componente donde se observa que el fuste aporta 46.9 % de la biomasa, las hojas 35.6 % y las ramas solamente 17.3 % de la biomasa total. Así mismo, dentro del rango de edad analizado, la biomasa en el fuste aumenta anualmente 2.96 %; la biomasa en las hojas disminuye 3.13 % y la biomasa en las ramas aumenta 0.17 %.

  3. Aprovechamiento del salto de Bourg-Lés-Valence. La Presa de la Roche de Glun-Drôme – Francia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Française d´Enterprise, Compagnie

    1971-05-01

    Full Text Available To take the fullest advantage of the hydroelectric and agricultural usefulness of the Rhône, the Compagnie Nationale du Rhône has divided the river into a number of sections, and these have been separately developed. The hydraulic gradient at La Roche de Glun, at the end of the central section, involves a hydraulic system consisting of a reservoir, a dam and dykes, a canal, a power station, an overflow canal and drainage works in the , surrounding zones. This project has been carried out by the Compagnie Française d'Enterprises.Para explotar al máximo las posibilidades hidroeléctricas y agrícolas del Ródano, la Compagnie Nationale du Rhône ha dividido dicho río en una serie de tramos para proceder a su distribución. El salto de La Roche de Glun, último del tramo central, forma un complejo hidráulico que consta de: un embalse cerrado por diques, una presa, un canal de alimentación, una central, una esclusa, un canal de descarga y unas obras anejas de drenaje para evitar inundaciones en las ciudades próximas. Las obras han sido realizadas por la Compagnie Française d'Entreprises.

  4. Influência de implementos para o tornozelo nas respostas biomecânicas do salto e aterrissagem no basquete Influencia de los implementos para el tobillo en las respuestas biomecanicas del salto y el aterrizaje en el basquetbol Influence of ankle devices in the jump and landing biomechanical responses in basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel de C.N. Sacco

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS E OBJETIVO: O segmento mais freqüentemente lesado no basquetebol é o tornozelo, sendo a entorse por inversão a lesão mais comum. Para evitá-la, é comum o uso de implementos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a força reação do solo (FRS em jogadores de basquete durante execução do salto em três situações: uso de tênis, bandagem e tênis, e tênis e órtese tipo Aircast. MÉTODOS: Oito atletas foram analisados durante o salto, através de uma plataforma de força, nas três situações citadas, para análise das componentes vertical e horizontal médio-lateral da FRS. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre as três situações na componente vertical da FRS durante o salto, embora o uso de bandagem tenda a apresentar, na impulsão, maiores valores do pico de força vertical (3,10 ± 0,46PC; 3,01 ± 0,39PC; 3,03 ± 0,41PC e do gradiente de crescimento (GC (12,33 ± 12,21PC; 8,16 ± 3,89PC; 8,46 ± 3,85PC, e durante a aterrissagem, menores valores de pico de força vertical (5,18 ± 1,35PC; 5,56 ± 1,31PC; 5,49 ± 1,44PC e do GC (88,83 ± 33,85PC; 95,63 ± 42,64PC; 94,53 ± 31,69PC. Durante a impulsão, a força medial do salto com Aircast foi significativamente menor que com tênis (p = 0,0249 e apresentou valor semelhante ao do uso da bandagem, enquanto a força lateral foi significativamente maior com a bandagem do que com tênis (p = 0,0485 e tendeu a ser maior do que o Aircast. Na aterrissagem o componente médio-lateral da FRS ficou inalterado nas três situações. Concluiu-se que a bandagem potencializou a força direcionada ao salto vertical durante a impulsão, porém não estabilizou tanto quanto o Aircast os movimentos de inversão e eversão do pé. Durante a aterrissagem, os implementos não foram efetivos para reduzir a força médio-lateral, mas com a bandagem, houve um tempo maior para absorção do impacto.FUNDAMENTOS Y OBJETIVO: EL segmento mas frecuentemente

  5. El semáforo loco

    OpenAIRE

    González de Zachrisson, Hena

    2016-01-01

    El semáforo lo acababan de instalar en Vía Brasil y Calle 50 y estaba contento de poder mantener el orden del tránsito en tan importante calle. Sin embargo, pronto descubrió que su tarea no era fácil. Su territorio estaba atestado de muchachos que vendían frutas y vegetales y para escapar de ellos, los conductores hacían regatas para cruzar la calle antes de que la luz cambiara a rojo. —Todo a un dólar! —gritaban los chicos mostrando su bolsa de guineo, naranja, melón, maíz, papaya, c...

  6. In-situ SEM electrochemistry and radiolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Nilsen, Rolf Erling Robberstad; Norby, Poul

    are backscattered and an image is reconstructed by the microscope. But the high energy electrons are a form of ionising radiation which can significantly affect the chemistry in liquid experiments. Ionising radiation can split water, produce radicals, reduce dissolved metal ions to metal particles, and more...... experiments. During the course of these studies it has also been possible to improve on the EC-SEM system. This has resulted in pyrolysed carbon electrodes, which offer the benefit of stability at 0.75 V higher potentials than traditional gold thin-film electrodes. With the quantitative insight...... microelectrodes on the windows to enable studies of electrohcemical processes. In this way it is possible to perform in-situ electrochemical experiments such as electroplating and charge and discharge analysis of battery electrodes. In a typical liquid cell, electrons are accelerated to sufficiently high energies...

  7. The luminal surface of thyroid cysts in SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zelander, T; Kirkeby, S

    1978-01-01

    Four of the five kinds of cells constituting the walls of thyroid cysts can be identified in the SEM. These are cuboidal cells, mucous cells, cells with large granules and ciliated cells. A correlation between SEM and TEM observations is attempted.......Four of the five kinds of cells constituting the walls of thyroid cysts can be identified in the SEM. These are cuboidal cells, mucous cells, cells with large granules and ciliated cells. A correlation between SEM and TEM observations is attempted....

  8. PALEOENVIRONMENTAL EVOLUTION OF THE ITARARÉ GROUP (PARANÁ BASIN IN THE REGIONS OF SALTO AND ITU, EAST OF SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Bergamaschi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Itararé Group represents the glacial record of Gondwana Continent in the intracratonic Paraná Basin, encompassing regions of Southern Brazil, Eastern Paraguay, Northeast Argentina and Northern Paraguay. Itararé Group is the thickest sedimentary package of Paraná Basin, and was deposited over 36 million years during the end of the Carboniferous and the beginning of the Permian. However, in relation to its paleoenvironmental evolution, it is generally understood that more research is necessary, in order to better understand the genesis of the Itararé Group in different places. The present work entailed mapping facies associations for the Itararé Group in the city of Salto, in São Paulo State, by identifying and classifying sedimentary facies that, in turn, were utilized to develop a paleoenvironmental evolution model. This model was based on geological mapping carried out over 125 km². Petrological and petrographic descriptions of 32 outcrops of Itararé Group also were studied. These results were compared with subsurface data obtained by Sistema de Informações de Águas Subterrâneas, Serviços Geológicos do Brasil (SIAGAS-CPRM; System Water Information Groundwater, Geological Survey of Brazil. Through lithofacies and petrographic analyses and making a comparison between five column sections, surface and subsurface data, a stratigraphic correlation model was established for the region. Through this model was possible to identify four facies associations, which, together, indicate how the paleoenvironmental evolution of the region occurred. The first three associations (A, B, C were interpreted as being formed in subaqueous environment, being related to sandy lobe systems, followed by the last association (D, pertaining to a fluvial system.

  9. Control de la carga de entrenamiento a través del CMJ en pruebas de velocidad y saltos para optimizar el rendimiento deportivo en atletismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jiménez-Reyes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la dosificación de la carga siempre ha suscitado controversias y no está resuelta cuál es la carga óptima de entrenamiento para alcanzar el mayor rendimiento. La mayoría de estudios analizan los efectos agudos del entrenamiento y las relaciones entre las variables del entrenamiento de manera sincrónica, sin que exista, en muchos casos, una evidencia científica sobre las cargas más adecuadas y su efecto en el rendimiento. Nuestro objetivo fue proporcionar una información relevante y útil para poder controlar y organizar el entrenamiento de manera racional en atletismo, obteniendo una información más completa y real de los efectos del proceso de entrenamiento. Participaron 24 sujetos que realizaron un seguimiento del control del entrenamiento a través del "Salto con Contramovimiento" (CMJ y la carga de entrenamiento durante 71 semanas. Destacamos la evolución del CMJ y la carga de entrenamiento en las cuatro semanas previas a la competición en la que se obtenía el mejor rendimiento durante las 71 semanas de seguimiento. En conclusión, si se realiza un exhaustivo control de la carga de entrenamiento y su relación con el rendimiento físico y deportivo, permitiría ajustar las cargas de entrenamiento adecuadamente, proporcionando una información relevante y útil para poder organizar el entrenamiento de manera racional.

  10. Measuring topographies from conventional SEM acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiwei; Roux, Stéphane; Latourte, Félix; Hild, François; Loisnard, Dominique; Brynaert, Nicolas

    2018-04-27

    The present study extends the stereoscopic imaging principle for estimating the surface topography to two orientations, namely, normal to the electron beam axis and inclined at 70° as suited for EBSD analyses. In spite of the large angle difference, it is shown that the topography can be accurately determined using regularized global Digital Image Correlation. The surface topography is compared to another estimate issued from a 3D FIB-SEM procedure where the sample surface is first covered by a Pt layer, and its initial topography is progressively revealed from successive FIB-milling. These two methods are successfully compared on a 6% strained steel specimen in an in situ mechanical test. This analysis is supplemented by a third approach estimating the change of topography from crystal rotations as measured from successive EBSD images. This last technique ignores plastic deformation, and thus only holds in an elastic regime. For the studied example, despite the large plastic flow, it is shown that crystal rotation already accounts for a significant part of the deformation-induced topography. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis list: sem-4 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sem-4 Larvae + ce10 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/sem-4.1....tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/sem-4.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/sem...-4.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/sem-4.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Larvae.gml ...

  12. Stirling Energy Module (SEM) as Micro-CHP; Stirling Energy Module (SEM) als Mini-BHKW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, A.

    2006-07-01

    Since many years, a lot of effort is being put into the development of combined heat and power units (CHP) for the decentralised production of electric power. For long time, the main focus was on fuel cells. In the meantime, the Stirling technology, which is based upon classical mechanical engineering and innovative technical concepts, proceeded in its development as well. The following article describes the technology and the actual state of the development of the Stirling Energy Module (SEM) for the application as Micro-CHP in one-family-houses. SEM is based on a free-piston engine with a linear power generator, producing electric power while heating. The Stirling engine is planned the be introduced into the market as a replacement for the conventional heating systems within a couple of years. (author)

  13. Análise cinemática do salto do goleiro de futebol em cobranças de pênaltis: relação entre preferência lateral e desempenho

    OpenAIRE

    Reinaldo Macari

    2015-01-01

    O termo lateralidade é usado para definir a preferência para executar os movimentos com uma das mãos ou um dos pés conhecidos como preferência lateral. Essa preferência pode acarretar a modificação no padrão de movimento em determinadas ações de jogo. O objetivo do trabalho é analisar a trajetória do Centro de Massa (CM) do salto com queda lateral de goleiros de futebol e avaliar possíveis assimetrias originadas pela preferência lateral. Participaram do estudo dez sujeitos do sexo masculino, ...

  14. Biomechanical analysis of countermovement jump in people with cerebral palsy Análisis biomecánico del salto vertical con contramovimiento en personas con parálisis cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gianikellis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the patterns of the developed ground reaction forces in the two – legged countermovement jumping, performed by persons affected by tetraparesis with ataxia, tetraparesis with athetosis, tetraparesis with spasticity, diplegia with spasticity, right and left hemiplegia and, finally, right and left hemiparesis. After twenty subjects jumped on the surface of a force plate analysis of the ground reaction force – time trend took place. The obtained results confirm the accomplishment of the biomechanical principle of the initial force as in the case of persons not affected by neurological disorders. Finally the calculated ratio between the breaking impulse and the acceleration impulse is very near to optimum values.
    KEY WORDS: cerebral palsy, biomechanics, countermovement jump.

     

    El valor óptimo del impulso de aceleración en el salto vertical con contra -movimiento, es aproximadamente tres veces superior al impulso de “frenaje”. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido investigar el modo de actuación de la cadena biocinemática del tren inferior en el salto vertical con contra -movimiento para personas afectadas por parálisis cerebral, concretamente, tetraparesia con ataxia, tetraparesia con atetosis, tetraparesia con espasticidad, diplegia con espasticidad, hemiplegia izquierda y derecha, y finalmente, hemiparesia izquierda y derecha. Para ello, se han analizado las fuerzas de reacción de veintitrés sujetos que han realizado saltos con contramovimiento sobre una plataforma de fuerzas. El hallazgo de un valor medio de la ratio entre el impulso de “frenaje” y el de aceleración muy próximo al valor teórico para los veintitrés sujetos con diferentes síntomas de parálisis cerebral, confirma el principio de la fuerza inicial mientras que el alto coeficiente de variación de los parámetros utilizados en este estudio confirma la esperada

  15. O papel da Crabi no assentamento dos ribeirinhos atingidos pela construção da hidrelétrica de Salto Caxias no estado do Paraná El papel del Crabi en el asentamiento de los ribereños afectados por la construcción de la represa de Salto Caxias en el estado de Paraná The role of the Crabi riverine settlement of affected by the construction of the dam of Salto Caxias in the state of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Derrosso

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir a forma com que o movimento social Comissão Regional dos Atingidos por Barragens do Rio Iguaçu (Crabi atuou no assentamento dos sujeitos deslocados pela construção da hidrelétrica de Salto Caxias. Mediante entrevistas e dados secundários foi investigada a ampla participação da população neste movimento, o que se refletiu em melhores condições para o assentamento. O senso de luta coletiva fomentado pela criação e mobilização da Crabi permeou os processos de reconstrução da vida dos sujeitos deslocados pela Usina, e a efetiva participação deles fez com que fossem conquistadas melhores condições de enfrentamento da situação vivida.Este artículo tiene como objetivo discutir cómo el movimiento social Comisión Regional de los Atingidos por Presas del río Iguazú (Crabi se presentó en el asentamiento de personas desplazadas por la construcción de la represa de Salto Caxias. A través de entrevistas y datos secundarios se determinó la amplia participación de la gente en este movimiento, que se tradujo en mejores condiciones para el asentamiento. El sentido de la lucha colectiva fomentado la creación y movilización de Crabi impregnaba el proceso de reconstrucción de las vidas de las personas desplazadas por la presa, con la participación efectiva de ellos conquistaron mejor posición para hacer frente a la situación vivenciada.This article aims to discuss how the social movement Regional Commission of Dam Iguassu River (Crabi served on the settlement of individuals displaced by the construction of the dam of Salto Caxias. Through interviews and secondary data we investigated the wide participation of the people in this movement, which resulted in better conditions for settlement. The sense of collective struggle fostered the creation and mobilization of Crabi permeated the process of rebuilding the lives of individuals displaced by the plant, with the effective participation of

  16. Canticum Novum: música sem palavras e palavras sem som no pensamento de Santo Agostinho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Mammì

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available NO De Magistro, Santo Agostinho coloca a reza e o canto numa posição similar, à margem das funções imediatamente comunicativas da linguagem. A reflexão agostiniana sobre a reza se baseia nos hábitos cristãos da leitura, da oração e da meditação silenciosas. Há sobre o canto, na prática igualmente inovadora do jubilus, melodia sem palavra destinada aos momentos mais intensos e gaudiosos da liturgia. A oração silenciosa e o jubilus são temas recorrentes da literatura patrística, mas Agostinho os aborda de maneira original, desenhando, a partir das palavras sem som da oração e do som sem palavra do jubilus, o perfil de um discurso interior, que não se destina aos homens, mas a Deus.IN HIS De Magistro Saint Augustine places prayer and song on a similar level, alongside the language immediately communicative functions. His considerations on prayer are grounded on the Christian habits of silent reading, prayer and meditation; those on song, on the equally innovating practice called jubilus, which is melody without words designed for the intensest and most joyous liturgical moments. Silent prayer and jubilus are recurring topics in patristic literature, but Augustine deals with them in an original way, drawing from the soundless words of prayer and the wordless sound of jubilus an inner discourse, addressed not to men but to God.

  17. O salto qualitativo em Theodosius Dobzhansky: unindo as tradições naturalista e experimentalista A quality leap in Theodosius Dobzhansky: uniting naturalistic and experimental traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Mellender de Araújo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Em alta durante quase todo o século XIX, o prestígio dos naturalistas caiu nas últimas décadas do mesmo século, na medida em que o enfoque dos estudos biológicos transitava do histórico para o funcional. A redescoberta dos trabalhos de Mendel, em 1900, e a emergência da genética aceleraram este processo, onde a atividade do experimentalista substituía a anterior. Ao mesmo tempo, o darwinismo também declinava e os primeiros anos do século XX caracterizam o chamado "eclipse do darwinismo". Theodosius Dobzhansky, russo radicado nos Estados Unidos a partir de 1927, é o pesquisador que irá reunir as duas tradições, a naturalista e a experimentalista. No desempenho de suas atividades, ele realiza um verdadeiro salto qualitativo nos estudos de evolução em populações naturais, que pela primeira vez podem ser efetuados através do método experimental, auxiliados por um rigoroso planejamento teórico. Este artigo narra algumas etapas desta história.The high prestige naturalists had during most of the 19th century began to decrease in the last decades of that century, as the focus in biological studies switched from historical to functional. The rediscovering of Mendel's works in 1900 and the emerging of genetics made the process move faster and caused experimentalist activities to take over. Simultaneously, Darwinism was also losing ground and the first years of the 20th century were characterized by the so-called 'eclipse of Darwinism'. Theodosius Dobzhansky, a Russian researcher who moved to the United States in 1927, joined the two different traditional approaches, the naturalistic and the experimental ones. Through his activities, he accomplishes a quality leap for the study of evolution in natural populations, which can for the first time be carried out through experimental methods guided by thorough theoretical planning. This article narrates some of the steps of this story.

  18. Patrón de distribución espacial de las especies arbóreas de la región de El Salto, Durango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Hernández

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente estudio fue determinar el patrón de distribución espacial de los árboles presentes en la región de El Salto, Pueblo Nuevo, Durango. Para ello, se seleccionaron 12 comunidades representativas de las condiciones de los bosques de la región, donde se ubicaron, de manera aleatoria, 269 sitios circulares de 0.1 ha, distribuidos en un intervalo altitudinal de 1 500 a 3 000 m. El patrón de distribución de los árboles por nivel de altitud se determinó aplicando los índices de Cox y Morisita, mientras que el correspondiente para cada especie se probó con las pruebas de ajuste de la distribución de Poisson y binomial negativa. El grado de agregación se evaluó a través del parámetro de agregación K, proporción de la densidad media por taxón en relación a la media 1/K, el número promedio por individuo por especie, con respecto a los individuos presentes en la unidad de muestreo m*. Los índices de Cox y Morisita variaron de 12.05 a 17.39 y de 1.18 a 1.28, respectivamente, los cuales indican que en cada nivel de altitud los individuos se distribuyen de manera agregada. A su vez, el índice de Cox y el ajuste de la distribución binomial negativa (P>0.05 señalaron que los individuos por especie se distribuyen de manera agregada. Los valores del parámetro K, 1/K y m* variaron de 0.002 a 0.454, 2 a 500 y 9 a 69, respectivamente evidencian un alto grado de agregación entre individuos.

  19. Description and calibration beamline SEM/Ion Chamber Current Digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoo, D.

    1994-05-01

    This report discusses the following on beamline SEM/ion chamber current digitizers: Module description; testing and calibration; common setup procedures; summary of fault indications and associated causes; summary of input and output connections; SEM conversion constant table; ion chamber conversion constant table; hexadecimal to decimal conversion table; and schematic diagram

  20. lsnjbhakta@gmail.com A Comparative SEM-EDS Elemental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    effect on food production in terrestrial and aquatic compartment in ... Processing and SEM-EDS analysis of mud: In the laboratory, the ... and for SEM image observation was 15 kV, applying .... by weathering in the Omi acid clay deposit, Japan.

  1. On the Nature of SEM Estimates of ARMA Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaker, Ellen L.; Dolan, Conor V.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2002-01-01

    Reexamined the nature of structural equation modeling (SEM) estimates of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models, replicated the simulation experiments of P. Molenaar, and examined the behavior of the log-likelihood ratio test. Simulation studies indicate that estimates of ARMA parameters observed with SEM software are identical to those…

  2. Structural Equations and Causal Explanations: Some Challenges for Causal SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    One common application of structural equation modeling (SEM) involves expressing and empirically investigating causal explanations. Nonetheless, several aspects of causal explanation that have an impact on behavioral science methodology remain poorly understood. It remains unclear whether applications of SEM should attempt to provide complete…

  3. The influence of environment temperature on SEM image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Li; Liu, Junshan

    2015-01-01

    As the structure dimension goes down to the nano-scale, it often requires a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to provide image magnification up to 100 000  ×. However, SEM images at such a high magnification usually suffer from high resolution value and low signal-to-noise ratio, which results in low quality of the SEM image. In this paper, the quality of the SEM image is improved by optimizing the environment temperature. The experimental results indicate that at 100 000  ×, the quality of the SEM image is influenced by the environment temperature, whereas at 50 000  × it is not. At 100 000  × the best SEM image quality can be achieved from the environment temperature ranging 292 from 294 K, and the SEM image quality evaluated by the double stimulus continuous quality scale method can increase from grade 1 to grade 5. It is expected that this image quality improving method can be used in routine measurements with ordinary SEMs to get high quality images by optimizing the environment temperature. (paper)

  4. Design and Use of the Simple Event Model (SEM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hage, W.R.; Malaisé, V.; Segers, R.H.; Hollink, L.

    2011-01-01

    Events have become central elements in the representation of data from domains such as history, cultural heritage, multimedia and geography. The Simple Event Model (SEM) is created to model events in these various domains, without making assumptions about the domain-specific vocabularies used. SEM

  5. Canticum Novum: música sem palavras e palavras sem som no pensamento de Santo Agostinho

    OpenAIRE

    Mammì, Lorenzo

    2000-01-01

    NO De Magistro, Santo Agostinho coloca a reza e o canto numa posição similar, à margem das funções imediatamente comunicativas da linguagem. A reflexão agostiniana sobre a reza se baseia nos hábitos cristãos da leitura, da oração e da meditação silenciosas. Há sobre o canto, na prática igualmente inovadora do jubilus, melodia sem palavra destinada aos momentos mais intensos e gaudiosos da liturgia. A oração silenciosa e o jubilus são temas recorrentes da literatura patrística, mas Agostinho o...

  6. Automated CD-SEM metrology for efficient TD and HVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starikov, Alexander; Mulapudi, Satya P.

    2008-03-01

    CD-SEM is the metrology tool of choice for patterning process development and production process control. We can make these applications more efficient by extracting more information from each CD-SEM image. This enables direct monitors of key process parameters, such as lithography dose and focus, or predicting the outcome of processing, such as etched dimensions or electrical parameters. Automating CD-SEM recipes at the early stages of process development can accelerate technology characterization, segmentation of variance and process improvements. This leverages the engineering effort, reduces development costs and helps to manage the risks inherent in new technology. Automating CD-SEM for manufacturing enables efficient operations. Novel SEM Alarm Time Indicator (SATI) makes this task manageable. SATI pulls together data mining, trend charting of the key recipe and Operations (OPS) indicators, Pareto of OPS losses and inputs for root cause analysis. This approach proved natural to our FAB personnel. After minimal initial training, we applied new methods in 65nm FLASH manufacture. This resulted in significant lasting improvements of CD-SEM recipe robustness, portability and automation, increased CD-SEM capacity and MT productivity.

  7. SEM-EBSP能知道些什么

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张唯敏

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 SEM-EBSP是什么 所谓SEM-EBSP是指采用在扫描电子显微镜(SEM)镜体中的反射电子菊池线衍射的结晶方位分析.被称为菊池图形的衍射图形可因结晶的稍许倾斜而大大地改变其位置,因此,通过解析菊池图形就能正确地知道结晶方位.

  8. Improvement of geometrical measurements from 3D-SEM reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Horsewell, Andy

    2009-01-01

    The quantification of 3D geometry at the nanometric scale is a major metrological challenge. In this work geometrical measurements on cylindrical items obtained with a 3D-SEM were investigated. Two items were measured: a wire gauge having a 0.25 mm nominal diameter and a hypodermic needle having...... that the diameter estimation performed using the 3D-SEM leads to an overestimation of approx. 7% compared to the reference values obtained using a 1-D length measuring machine. Standard deviation of SEM measurements performed on the wire gauge is approx. 1.5 times lower than the one performed on the hypodermic...

  9. Improvement of CD-SEM mark position measurement accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasa, Kentaro; Fukuhara, Kazuya

    2014-04-01

    CD-SEM is now attracting attention as a tool that can accurately measure positional error of device patterns. However, the measurement accuracy can get worse due to pattern asymmetry as in the case of image based overlay (IBO) and diffraction based overlay (DBO). For IBO and DBO, a way of correcting the inaccuracy arising from measurement patterns was suggested. For CD-SEM, although a way of correcting CD bias was proposed, it has not been argued how to correct the inaccuracy arising from pattern asymmetry using CD-SEM. In this study we will propose how to quantify and correct the measurement inaccuracy affected by pattern asymmetry.

  10. Relación entre la fuerza máxima en squat y acciones de salto, sprint y golpeo de balón. (Relationship among maximal strength in squat exercise, jump, sprint and kicking ball performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Arija Blázquez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar las posibles relaciones entre la fuerza máxima en squat y accionesexplosivas de salto, sprint y golpeo de balón. Para ello, se contó con una muestra formada por estudiantes de Ciencias del Deporte (N= 16; 19,6 ± 1,7 años de sexo masculino (con escasa experiencia en el entrenamiento de fuerza, que llevaron a cabo un test de 1RM en squat (calculándose el peso levantado, la fuerza media total y la fuerza dinámica máxima, tests de salto vertical (SJ, CMJ y CMJa, un test de sprint de 20 m (con mediciones de tiempo cada 5 m, y un test de golpeo con el pie donde se calculaba la velocidad del balón. Se encontraron coeficientes de correlación moderados (entre 0,52 y 0,67 y significativos de las medidas de fuerza máxima y las alturas de salto, mientras que los coeficientes obtenidos entre los tiempos de sprint y dichas medidas de fuerza máxima se situaron entre -0,06 y -0,32, no siendo ninguno de ellos significativo; al igual que tampoco fueron significativos los coeficientes de correlación de las medidas de fuerza máxima y la velocidad de tiro, se situaron entre 0,25 y 0,34. Por tanto, la relación entre la fuerza máxima en squat y la altura de salto en sujetos con escasa experiencia en el entrenamiento de fuerza resultó moderada, mientras que no parece existir relación con el tiempo de sprint y la velocidad de tiro.AbstractThe purpose of the present study was to analyze the possible relationships between maximal strength insquat exercise and jump, sprint and kicking ball actions. Sixteen males sport science students (19,6 ± 1,7years, with little experience in strength training, performed a 1RM in squat exercise (from which liftedweight, the total average- and maximal-dynamic strength was assessed, vertical jump (SJ, CMJ and CMJa, a 20 m sprint test (with time measurement every 5 m, and a kicking ball test where the velocity of the ball was calculated. Moderate (0,52 - 0,67 and

  11. Equilíbrio e retração muscular em jovens estudantes usuárias de calçado de salto alto Equilibrium and muscle retraction in young female students users of high-heeled shoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dernival Bertoncello

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Verifica-se precocidade na utilização de calçado de salto alto, mas não há muitos estudos identificando suas conseqüências. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar alterações de equilíbrio e eventual retração muscular em estudantes universitárias habituadas a utilizar salto alto diariamente. Foram avaliadas 30 jovens (média de 20 anos de idade que anotaram, durante duas semanas, o tempo diário em que permaneciam com o calçado. Foram avaliadas quanto a desvios posturais, quanto às retrações musculares da cadeia posterior, pelo teste de alcance horizontal, e quanto ao equilíbrio, pelo teste de Romberg. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente. A média de estatura foi 1,63 m e a de massa corporal, 58,5 kg. O tempo médio de uso dos sapatos de salto alto foi de 34 h por semana. Ao relacionar o alcance horizontal com o tempo semanal de uso do salto alto, verificou-se forte correlação negativa (r=-0,8692; pPrecocity has been noticed in the use of high-heeled shoes. However, there are not many studies on its consequences. The aim of this work was to search for equilibrium alterations in young women used to daily wearing high-heeled shoes. Thirty female undergraduates (mean aged 20 years old were asked to write down, for two weeks, the number of hours per day they remained with the shoes on. They were then assessed as to posture deviations, as to muscle retractions of the posterior chain by means of the sit and reach test, and as to equilibrium by the Romberg test. Results were statistically analysed. Mean volunteers' height was 1.63 m and mean body mass, 58.5 kg. A negative, strong correlation (r=-0.8692; p<0.0001 was noticed between reach range and weekly time (in hours of high-heeled shoe wearing. No correlation was found between reach range and time of high-heel use in years. Seventeen out of the 30 volunteers presented positive test for loss of equilibrium when barefoot with closed eyes. A weak, negative correlation (r

  12. Coleópteros acuáticos y semiacuáticos del Parque Provincial Salto Encantado y Valle del Cuñá Pirú (Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana A. FERNÁNDEZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de la recolección de coleópteros acuáticos y semiacuáticos del Parque Provincial Salto Encantado y Valle del Cuñá Pirú, con el objeto de contribuir al conocimiento de la biodiversidad del área protegida mencionada, de la provincia de Misiones. Los sitios de muestreo incluyeron ambientes lóticos y lénticos. Se registraron 74 especies de coleópteros, distribuidas en 44 géneros y 14 familias: Haliplidae, Noteridae, Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Hydrochidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, Staphylinidae, Scirtidae, Psephenidae, Limnichidae, Lutrochidae, Dryopidae y Elmidae. Se mencionan nuevas citas para la provincia y para la Argentina, así como la presencia de especies nuevas para la ciencia.

  13. Infrared spectra, Raman laser, XRD, DSC/TGA and SEM ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    cussed and the X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) ... acetamide as a simple organic compound at high tempera- ture has less ..... properties of selenium surface, AFM-microscopy tapping.

  14. Novel field emission SEM column with beam deceleration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiruše, Jaroslav; Havelka, Miloslav; Lopour, Filip

    2014-11-15

    A novel field-emission SEM column has been developed that features Beam Deceleration Mode, high-probe current and ultra-fast scanning. New detection system in the column is introduced to detect true secondary electron signal. The resolution power at low energy was doubled for conventional SEM optics and moderately improved for immersion optics. Application examples at low landing energies include change of contrast, imaging of non-conductive samples and thin layers. - Highlights: • A novel field-emission SEM column has been developed. • Implemented beam deceleration improves the SEM resolution at 1 keV two times. • New column maintains high analytical potential and wide field of view. • Detectors integrated in the column allow gaining true SE and BE signal separately. • Performance of the column is demonstrated on low energy applications.

  15. Role of scanning electron microscope )SEM) in metal failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaiful Rizam Shamsudin; Hafizal Yazid; Mohd Harun; Siti Selina Abd Hamid; Nadira Kamarudin; Zaiton Selamat; Mohd Shariff Sattar; Muhamad Jalil

    2005-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a scientific instrument that uses a beam of highly energetic electrons to examine the surface and phase distribution of specimens on a micro scale through the live imaging of secondary electrons (SE) and back-scattered electrons (BSE) images. One of the main activities of SEM Laboratory at MINT is for failure analysis on metal part and components. The capability of SEM is excellent for determining the root cause of metal failures such as ductility or brittleness, stress corrosion, fatigue and other types of failures. Most of our customers that request for failure analysis are from local petrochemical plants, manufacturers of automotive components, pipeline maintenance personnel and engineers who involved in the development of metal parts and component. This paper intends to discuss some of the technical concepts in failure analysis associated with SEM. (Author)

  16. Quantitative approach on SEM images of microstructure of clay soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施斌; 李生林; M.Tolkachev

    1995-01-01

    The working principles of Videolab Image Processing System (VIPS), the examining methods of orientation of microstructural units of clay soils and analysing results on SEM images of some typical microstructures of clay soils using the VIPS are introduced.

  17. semPLS: Structural Equation Modeling Using Partial Least Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Monecke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Structural equation models (SEM are very popular in many disciplines. The partial least squares (PLS approach to SEM offers an alternative to covariance-based SEM, which is especially suited for situations when data is not normally distributed. PLS path modelling is referred to as soft-modeling-technique with minimum demands regarding mea- surement scales, sample sizes and residual distributions. The semPLS package provides the capability to estimate PLS path models within the R programming environment. Different setups for the estimation of factor scores can be used. Furthermore it contains modular methods for computation of bootstrap confidence intervals, model parameters and several quality indices. Various plot functions help to evaluate the model. The well known mobile phone dataset from marketing research is used to demonstrate the features of the package.

  18. Novel field emission SEM column with beam deceleration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiruše, Jaroslav; Havelka, Miloslav; Lopour, Filip

    2014-01-01

    A novel field-emission SEM column has been developed that features Beam Deceleration Mode, high-probe current and ultra-fast scanning. New detection system in the column is introduced to detect true secondary electron signal. The resolution power at low energy was doubled for conventional SEM optics and moderately improved for immersion optics. Application examples at low landing energies include change of contrast, imaging of non-conductive samples and thin layers. - Highlights: • A novel field-emission SEM column has been developed. • Implemented beam deceleration improves the SEM resolution at 1 keV two times. • New column maintains high analytical potential and wide field of view. • Detectors integrated in the column allow gaining true SE and BE signal separately. • Performance of the column is demonstrated on low energy applications

  19. DETECTION OF DELAMINATION IN A COMPOSITE PLATE BY SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A numerical method of integration of Green's functi ons of strip element method (SEM) is proposed. The response of ultrasonic sourc e generated by a transducer on the surface of a multi-ply composite plate conta ining a delamination is analyzed by the use of SEM. The numerical results show that the scanning features of the ultrasonic waves may be used to identify the d elamination inside the composite plate .

  20. A methodological basis for SEM autoradiography: biosynthesis and radioligand binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, G.; Hodges, G.M.; Trejdosiewicz, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described for scanning electron microscope (SEM) autoradiography whereby preservation of high resolution cell surface details is retained together with degelatination of the emulsion without gross loss or redistribution of silver grains. This method should provide a convenient medium-sized marker for SEM (using secondary, backscattered electron and X-ray imaging) topographic studies of biosynthesized molecules, and of cell surface receptors and antigens, using indirect or direct labelling procedures with radio-labelled ligands. (author)

  1. FIB-SEM cathodoluminescence tomography: practical and theoretical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, D A M; Lebbink, M N; Wiggers De Vries, D F; Post, J A; Drury, M R

    2011-09-01

    Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) tomography is a powerful application in obtaining three-dimensional (3D) information. The FIB creates a cross section and subsequently removes thin slices. The SEM takes images using secondary or backscattered electrons, or maps every slice using X-rays and/or electron backscatter diffraction patterns. The objective of this study is to assess the possibilities of combining FIB-SEM tomography with cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging. The intensity of CL emission is related to variations in defect or impurity concentrations. A potential problem with FIB-SEM CL tomography is that ion milling may change the defect state of the material and the CL emission. In addition the conventional tilted sample geometry used in FIB-SEM tomography is not compatible with conventional CL detectors. Here we examine the influence of the FIB on CL emission in natural diamond and the feasibility of FIB-SEM CL tomography. A systematic investigation establishes that the ion beam influences CL emission of diamond, with a dependency on both the ion beam and electron beam acceleration voltage. CL emission in natural diamond is enhanced particularly at low ion beam and electron beam voltages. This enhancement of the CL emission can be partly explained by an increase in surface defects induced by ion milling. CL emission enhancement could be used to improve the CL image quality. To conduct FIB-SEM CL tomography, a recently developed novel specimen geometry is adopted to enable sequential ion milling and CL imaging on an untilted sample. We show that CL imaging can be manually combined with FIB-SEM tomography with a modified protocol for 3D microstructure reconstruction. In principle, automated FIB-SEM CL tomography should be feasible, provided that dedicated CL detectors are developed that allow subsequent milling and CL imaging without manual intervention, as the current CL detector needs to be manually retracted before a slice can be milled

  2. Sparsity-Based Super Resolution for SEM Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiper, Shahar; Dicker, Or; Kaizerman, Idan; Zohar, Zeev; Segev, Mordechai; Eldar, Yonina C

    2017-09-13

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is an electron microscope that produces an image of a sample by scanning it with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons interact with the atoms in the sample, which emit secondary electrons that contain information about the surface topography and composition. The sample is scanned by the electron beam point by point, until an image of the surface is formed. Since its invention in 1942, the capabilities of SEMs have become paramount in the discovery and understanding of the nanometer world, and today it is extensively used for both research and in industry. In principle, SEMs can achieve resolution better than one nanometer. However, for many applications, working at subnanometer resolution implies an exceedingly large number of scanning points. For exactly this reason, the SEM diagnostics of microelectronic chips is performed either at high resolution (HR) over a small area or at low resolution (LR) while capturing a larger portion of the chip. Here, we employ sparse coding and dictionary learning to algorithmically enhance low-resolution SEM images of microelectronic chips-up to the level of the HR images acquired by slow SEM scans, while considerably reducing the noise. Our methodology consists of two steps: an offline stage of learning a joint dictionary from a sequence of LR and HR images of the same region in the chip, followed by a fast-online super-resolution step where the resolution of a new LR image is enhanced. We provide several examples with typical chips used in the microelectronics industry, as well as a statistical study on arbitrary images with characteristic structural features. Conceptually, our method works well when the images have similar characteristics, as microelectronics chips do. This work demonstrates that employing sparsity concepts can greatly improve the performance of SEM, thereby considerably increasing the scanning throughput without compromising on analysis quality and resolution.

  3. An electron moiré method for a common SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.M.Xing; S.Kishimoto; Y.R.Zhao

    2006-01-01

    In the electron moiré method,a high-frequency grating is used to measure microscopic deformation,which promises significant potential applications for the method in the microscopic analysis of materials.However,a special beam scanning control device is required to produce a grating and generate a moiré fringe pattern for the scanning electron microscope (SEM).Because only a few SEMs used in the material science studies are equipped with this device,the use of the electron moiré method is limited.In this study,an electron moiré method for a common SEM without the beam control device is presented.A grating based on a multi-scanning concept is fabricated in any observing mode.A real-time moiré pattern can also be generated in the SEM or an optical filtering system.Without the beam control device being a prerequisite,the electron moiré method can be more widely used.The experimental results from three different types of SEMS show that high quality gratings with uniform lines and less pitch error can be fabricated by this method,and moiré patterns can also be correctly generated.

  4. SEM facility for examination of reactive and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downs, G.L.; Tucker, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) facility for the examination of tritium-containing materials is operational at Mound Laboratory. The SEM is installed with the sample chamber incorporated as an integral part of an inert gas glovebox facility to enable easy handling of radioactive and pyrophoric materials. A standard SEM (ETEC Model B-1) was modified to meet dimensional, operational, and safety-related requirements. a glovebox was designed and fabricated which permitted access with the gloves to all parts of the SEM sample chamber to facilitate director and accessory replacement and repairs. A separate console combining the electron optical column and specimen chamber was interfaced to the glovebox by a custom-made, neoprene bellows so that the vibrations normally associated with the blowers and pumps were damped. Photomicrographs of tritiated pyrophoric materials show the usefulness of this facility. Some of the difficulties involved in the investigation of these materials are also discussed. The SEM is also equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray detector (ORTEC) and a Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (3M) attachments. This latter attachment allows analysis of secondary ions with masses ranging from 1-300 amu. (Auth.)

  5. Recent advances in 3D SEM surface reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Alavi, Zahrasadat; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2015-11-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM), as one of the most commonly used instruments in biology and material sciences, employs electrons instead of light to determine the surface properties of specimens. However, the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface attributes, we need to restore the 3D shape model from the SEM images. 3D surface reconstruction is a longstanding topic in microscopy vision as it offers quantitative and visual information for a variety of applications consisting medicine, pharmacology, chemistry, and mechanics. In this paper, we attempt to explain the expanding body of the work in this area, including a discussion of recent techniques and algorithms. With the present work, we also enhance the reliability, accuracy, and speed of 3D SEM surface reconstruction by designing and developing an optimized multi-view framework. We then consider several real-world experiments as well as synthetic data to examine the qualitative and quantitative attributes of our proposed framework. Furthermore, we present a taxonomy of 3D SEM surface reconstruction approaches and address several challenging issues as part of our future work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A methodology for extending domain coverage in SemRep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemblat, Graciela; Shin, Dongwook; Kilicoglu, Halil; Sneiderman, Charles; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2013-12-01

    We describe a domain-independent methodology to extend SemRep coverage beyond the biomedical domain. SemRep, a natural language processing application originally designed for biomedical texts, uses the knowledge sources provided by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS©). Ontological and terminological extensions to the system are needed in order to support other areas of knowledge. We extended SemRep's application by developing a semantic representation of a previously unsupported domain. This was achieved by adapting well-known ontology engineering phases and integrating them with the UMLS knowledge sources on which SemRep crucially depends. While the process to extend SemRep coverage has been successfully applied in earlier projects, this paper presents in detail the step-wise approach we followed and the mechanisms implemented. A case study in the field of medical informatics illustrates how the ontology engineering phases have been adapted for optimal integration with the UMLS. We provide qualitative and quantitative results, which indicate the validity and usefulness of our methodology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. SemGroup acquisition of central Alberta midstream : case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, T.

    2005-01-01

    A case study of SemGroup's acquisition of Central Alberta Midstream was presented. SemCAMS specializes in providing more efficient supply, storage, and distribution assets and services. Seminole Canada Gas is a leading independent natural gas marketing and energy asset management company that currently markets 369 MMbtu per day. The company purchases natural gas in western Canada for fee-based marketing services while also managing firm transportation contracts and providing gas storage for third party customers. SemCAMS owns the largest sour gas processor in Alberta as well as 3 sour gas processing plants, 600 miles of gathering pipeline, and a sweet gas processing plant. the company is also planning increased drilling and production activities and is now pursuing aggressive land acquisition policies. Over 25,000 square miles of land have been acquired. It was concluded that midstream companies should be customer-focused, provide reliability and guarantees, infrastructure investment and optimization. tabs., figs

  8. Critical factors in SEM 3D stereo microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinello, F.; Bariano, P.; Savio, E.

    2008-01-01

    This work addresses dimensional measurements performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using 3D reconstruction of surface topography through stereo-photogrammetry. The paper presents both theoretical and experimental investigations, on the effects of instrumental variables and measure......This work addresses dimensional measurements performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using 3D reconstruction of surface topography through stereo-photogrammetry. The paper presents both theoretical and experimental investigations, on the effects of instrumental variables...... factors are recognized: the first one is related to the measurement operation and the instrument set-up; the second concerns the quality of scanned images and represents the major criticality in the application of SEMs for 3D characterizations....

  9. Annual International DIC Society Conference and SEM Fall Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Reu, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    This collection represents a single volume of technical papers presented at the Annual International DIC Society Conference and SEM Fall Conference organized by the Society for Experimental Mechanics and Sandia National Laboratories and held in Philadelphia, PA, November 7-10, 2016. The volume presents early findings from experimental, standards development and various other investigations concerning digital image correlation - an important area within Experimental Mechanics. The area of Digital Image Correlation has been an integral track within the SEM Annual Conference spearheaded by Professor Michael Sutton from the University of South Carolina. In 2016, the SEM and Sandia joined their collaborative strengths to launch a standing fall meeting focusing specifically on developments in the area of Digital Image Correlation. The contributed papers within this volume span numerous technical aspects of DIC including standards development for the industry. .

  10. SemVisM: semantic visualizer for medical image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landaeta, Luis; La Cruz, Alexandra; Baranya, Alexander; Vidal, María.-Esther

    2015-01-01

    SemVisM is a toolbox that combines medical informatics and computer graphics tools for reducing the semantic gap between low-level features and high-level semantic concepts/terms in the images. This paper presents a novel strategy for visualizing medical data annotated semantically, combining rendering techniques, and segmentation algorithms. SemVisM comprises two main components: i) AMORE (A Modest vOlume REgister) to handle input data (RAW, DAT or DICOM) and to initially annotate the images using terms defined on medical ontologies (e.g., MesH, FMA or RadLex), and ii) VOLPROB (VOlume PRObability Builder) for generating the annotated volumetric data containing the classified voxels that belong to a particular tissue. SemVisM is built on top of the semantic visualizer ANISE.1

  11. SEM based overlay measurement between resist and buried patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Osamu; Okagawa, Yutaka; Hasumi, Kazuhisa; Shao, Chuanyu; Leray, Philippe; Lorusso, Gian; Baudemprez, Bart

    2016-03-01

    With the continuous shrink in pattern size and increased density, overlay control has become one of the most critical issues in semiconductor manufacturing. Recently, SEM based overlay of AEI (After Etch Inspection) wafer has been used for reference and optimization of optical overlay (both Image Based Overlay (IBO) and Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO)). Overlay measurement at AEI stage contributes monitor and forecast the yield after formation by etch and calibrate optical measurement tools. however those overlay value seems difficult directly for feedback to a scanner. Therefore, there is a clear need to have SEM based overlay measurements of ADI (After Develop Inspection) wafers in order to serve as reference for optical overlay and make necessary corrections before wafers go to etch. Furthermore, to make the corrections as accurate as possible, actual device like feature dimensions need to be measured post ADI. This device size measurement is very unique feature of CDSEM , which can be measured with smaller area. This is currently possible only with the CD-SEM. This device size measurement is very unique feature of CD-SEM , which can be measured with smaller area. In this study, we assess SEM based overlay measurement of ADI and AEI wafer by using a sample from an N10 process flow. First, we demonstrate SEM based overlay performance at AEI by using dual damascene process for Via 0 (V0) and metal 1 (M1) layer. We also discuss the overlay measurements between litho-etch-litho stages of a triple patterned M1 layer and double pattern V0. Second, to illustrate the complexities in image acquisition and measurement we will measure overlay between M1B resist and buried M1A-Hard mask trench. Finally, we will show how high accelerating voltage can detect buried pattern information by BSE (Back Scattering Electron). In this paper we discuss the merits of this method versus standard optical metrology based corrections.

  12. Protons, ions, electrons and the future of the SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D C

    2010-01-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is the most widely used high performance microscope in all fields of science but it is now reaching the theoretical limits of its performance. While advances in sources, optics, and detectors, can result in some improvement in performance the ultimate resolution is limited by fundamental physical constraints. One potential alternative is a scanning microscope utilizing light ions such as H+ and He+ . Such an instrument shares all of the benefits of the conventional SEM but is free from the constraints encountered when using electrons and could significantly extend the scope and success of scanning microscopy.

  13. What Determines Lean Manufacturing Implementation? A CB-SEM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Ching Ng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to ascertain the determinants of effective Lean Manufacturing (LM. In this research, Covariance-based Structural Equation Modeling (CB-SEM analysis will be used in order to analyze the determinants. Through CB-SEM analysis, the significant key determinants can be determined and the direct relationships among determinants can be analyzed. Thus, the findings of this research can act as guidelines for achievement of LM effectiveness, not only providing necessary steps for successful implementation of lean, but also helping lean companies to achieve higher level of lean cost and time savings.

  14. A Data-Driven Approach to SEM Development at a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirius, Landon K.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores implementation of strategic enrollment management (SEM) at a two-year college and why SEM is critical to the long-term viability of an institution. This article also outlines the five initial steps needed to implement SEM, including identifying SEM leadership, building a SEM committee, developing a common understanding of…

  15. Cuticle scale measurement of animal fibers by SEM and AFM

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Notayi, M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available -1 51st Microscopy Society of Southern Africa (MSSA) Conference, Farm Inn, Pretoria, 3-6 December 2013 Cuticle scale measurement of animal fibers by SEM and AFM Notayi M, Engelbrechts JAA, Lee ME, Goosen WE, Hunter L and Botha AF Abstract...

  16. Estudo comparativo entre histerectomia abdominal e vaginal sem prolapso uterino

    OpenAIRE

    Lisboa, Vânio Cardoso

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências da Saúde. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas. Objetivo: Comparar a histerectomia abdominal e vaginal sem prolapso uterino.

  17. SEM based CARMA time series modeling for arbitrary N

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, J.H.L.; Völkle, M.C.; Driver, C.C.

    2018-01-01

    This article explains in detail the state space specification and estimation of first and higher-order autoregressive moving-average models in continuous time (CARMA) in an extended structural equation modeling (SEM) context for N = 1 as well as N > 1. To illustrate the approach, simulations will be

  18. DSS1/Sem1, a multifunctional and intrinsically disordered protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Birthe Brandt; Schenstrøm, Signe Marie; Rebula, Caio A.

    2016-01-01

    DSS1/Sem1 is a versatile intrinsically disordered protein. Besides being a bona fide subunit of the 26S proteasome, DSS1 associates with other protein complexes, including BRCA2-RPA, involved in homologous recombination; the Csn12-Thp3 complex, involved in RNA splicing; the integrator, involved...

  19. The principle of electron microscopy; SEM and TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauzi, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    The article reviews the principle of electron microscopy which is used in scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). These instruments are important for the examination and analysis of the microstructural properties of solid objects. Relevance physical concept lies behind the devices are given. The main components of each device are also discussed

  20. Continuous time modeling of panel data by means of SEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, J.H.L.; Delsing, M.J.M.H.; Montfort, C.A.G.M.; Oud, J.H.L.; Satorra, A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief history of continuous time modeling and its implementation in panel analysis by means of structural equation modeling (SEM), the problems of discrete time modeling are discussed in detail. This is done by means of the popular cross-lagged panel design. Next, the exact discrete model

  1. Processing a Biological Tissue from Cryo-SEM to Replica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaškovicová, Naděžda; Hrubanová, Kamila; Krzyžánek, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, S3 (2016), s. 236-237 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Cryo-SEM * ACE600 Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  2. A combined optical, SEM and STM study of growth spirals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some novel results of a combined sequential study of growth spirals on the basal surface of the richly polytypic CdI2 crystals by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are presented and discussed. In confirmation of the known structural data, the STM pictures ...

  3. SEM Analysis of Surface Impact on Biofilm Antibiotic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Luciana Calheiros; Mergulhão, Filipe José

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate the effect of ampicillin treatment on Escherichia coli biofilms formed on two surface materials with different properties, silicone (SIL) and glass (GLA). Epifluorescence microscopy (EM) was initially used to assess biofilm formation and killing efficiency on both surfaces. This technique showed that higher bacterial colonization was obtained in the hydrophobic SIL than in the hydrophilic GLA. It has also shown that higher biofilm inactivation was attained for GLA after the antibiotic treatment (7-log reduction versus 1-log reduction for SIL). Due to its high resolution and magnification, SEM enabled a more detailed analysis of the antibiotic effect on biofilm cells, complementing the killing efficiency information obtained by EM. SEM micrographs revealed that ampicillin-treated cells have an elongated form when compared to untreated cells. Additionally, it has shown that different materials induced different levels of elongation on cells exposed to antibiotic. Biofilms formed on GLA showed a 37% higher elongation than those formed on SIL. Importantly, cell elongation was related to viability since ampicillin had a higher bactericidal effect on GLA-formed biofilms. These findings raise the possibility of using SEM for understanding the efficacy of antimicrobial treatments by observation of biofilm morphology.

  4. SEM Investigation of Superheater Deposits from Biomass-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming; Hansen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    , mature superheater deposit samples were extracted from two straw-fired boilers, Masnedø and Ensted, with fuel inputs of 33 MWth and 100 MWth, respectively. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) images and EDX (energy dispersive X-ray) analyses were performed on the deposit samples. Different strategies...

  5. Correlative SEM SERS for quantitative analysis of dimer nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, F J; Lenferink, A T M; van Wolferen, H A G M; Otto, C

    2016-11-14

    A Raman microscope integrated with a scanning electron microscope was used to investigate plasmonic structures by correlative SEM-SERS analysis. The integrated Raman-SEM microscope combines high-resolution electron microscopy information with SERS signal enhancement from selected nanostructures with adsorbed Raman reporter molecules. Correlative analysis is performed for dimers of two gold nanospheres. Dimers were selected on the basis of SEM images from multi aggregate samples. The effect of the orientation of the dimer with respect to the polarization state of the laser light and the effect of the particle gap size on the Raman signal intensity is observed. Additionally, calculations are performed to simulate the electric near field enhancement. These simulations are based on the morphologies observed by electron microscopy. In this way the experiments are compared with the enhancement factor calculated with near field simulations and are subsequently used to quantify the SERS enhancement factor. Large differences between experimentally observed and calculated enhancement factors are regularly detected, a phenomenon caused by nanoscale differences between the real and 'simplified' simulated structures. Quantitative SERS experiments reveal the structure induced enhancement factor, ranging from ∼200 to ∼20 000, averaged over the full nanostructure surface. The results demonstrate correlative Raman-SEM microscopy for the quantitative analysis of plasmonic particles and structures, thus enabling a new analytical method in the field of SERS and plasmonics.

  6. Revolving SEM images visualising 3D taxonomic characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkari, Nesrine; Cheung, David Koon-Bong; Enghoff, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    images taken consecutively while rotating the SEM stage 360°, which allows the structure in question to be seen from all angles of view in one plane. Seven new species of the genus Ommatoiulus collected in Tunisia are described: O. chambiensis, O. crassinigripes, O. kefi, O. khroumiriensis, O. xerophilus...

  7. Creation and Validation of Chronojump-Boscosystem: A Free Tool to Measure Vertical Jumps. (Creación y validación de Chronojump-Boscosystem: un instrumento libre para la medición de saltos verticales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis López del Amo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the height of the vertical jump is an indicator of the strength and power of the lower body. The technological tools available to measure the vertical jump are black boxes and are not open to third-party verification or adaptation. We propose the creation of a measurement system called Chronojump-Boscosystem, consisting of open hardware and free software. Methods: A microcontroller was created and validated using a square wave generator and an oscilloscope. Two types of contact platforms were developed using different materials. These platforms were validated by the minimum pressure required for activation at different points by a strain gauge, together with the on/off time of our platforms in respect of the Ergojump-Boscosystem platform by a sample of 8 subjects performing submaximal jumps with one foot on each platform. Agile methodologies were used to develop and validate the software. Results: All the tools fall under the free software / open hardware guidelines and are, in that sense, free. The microcontroller margin of error is 0.1%. The validity of the fiberglass platform is 0.95 (ICC. The management software contains nearly 113.000 lines of code and is available in 7 languages.ResumenLa medición de la altura del salto vertical es un indicador de la fuerza y potencia del tren inferior. Los instrumentos electrónicos disponibles para medir este salto son cajas negras que no permiten la verificación ni la adaptación por parte de terceros. Proponemos la creación de un sistema de medición llamado Chronojump-Boscosystem, que consiste en un hardware abierto y un software libre. Métodos: Se ha creado un microcontrolador y se ha validado usando un generador de ondas cuadradas y un osciloscopio. Se han desarrollado dos tipos de plataformas usando materiales distintos. Las plataformas se han validado determinando su sensibilidad en distintos puntos por medio de una célula de carga, y por comparación con la plataforma de contactos

  8. Determinación de frecuencia cardiaca, frecuencia respiratoria, lactato deshidrogenasa, creatinkinasa y ácido láctico en caballos durante competencia de salto en la Sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andrea Guerrero Nieto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio presenta los primeros resultados de investigación en variables fisiológicas y sus cambios por el ejercicio en equinos en competencia de salto en el país. Se utilizaron 24 ejemplares de las razas Silla Argentina, PSI y mestizo de la Escuela de Equitación del Ejército Nacional de Colombia, que participaron en pruebas de salto (1,10 – 1,20 m en diferentes centros ecuestres de la Sabana de Bogotá. Se determinó frecuencia cardiaca, frecuencia respiratoria y enzimas musculares (creatinquinasa (CK, lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH y el ácido láctico.. Se tomaron tres muestras: reposo, inmediatamente después del ejercicio y a las 6 horas posejercicio. Para la frecuencia cardiaca se utilizó un monitor POLAR S625; la frecuencia respiratoria se determinó mediante fonendoscopio; y las enzimas y el ácido láctico se analizaron en laboratorio. Se utilizó el método estadístico ANAVA para enzimas musculares y acido láctico y estadística descriptiva para frecuencia cardiaca y respiratoria. En los resultados se encontró un comportamiento estadísticamente significativo (p < 0.05 del ácido láctico y la enzima creatinkinasa, a diferencia del comportamiento de la enzima lactato deshidrogenasa, que fue no significativo. Las frecuencias cardiaca y respiratoria se elevaron de manera significativa posejercicio y regresaron a lo normal alrededor de las 6 seis horas. El ácido láctico se incrementó posejercicio y disminuyó a las 6 horas, contrario a lo reportado por otros autores. Se concluye que una vez analizadas estas variables, hay diferencias con los valores obtenidos por otros autores, que pueden deberse a la altitud, al tipo y tiempo de ejercicio realizado. Por tanto es indispensable continuar haciendo estudios en este campo.

  9. Análisis comparativo de la capacidad de salto en gimnastas de trampolín españoles. (Comparative analysis of the jumping capacity in Spanish trampoline gymnasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Vernetta Santana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe realizó un estudio para analizar la capacidad de salto en gimnastas de trampolín españoles y comparar distintas categorías entre sí, mediante un diseño descriptivo y transversal.La muestra estuvo compuesta por 60 gimnastas de trampolín pertenecientes a la élite nacional, agrupados según su grupo de edad y categoría competitiva, diferenciando en total 4 grupos: grupo de edad Sub-15 masculino (GM1, n = 23; 11,95 ± 1,79 años y femenino (GF1, n = 9; 11,44 ± 1,23 años; grupo de edad Absoluto masculino (GM2, n = 18; 20,72 ± 4,66 años y femenino (GF2, n = 10; 16,1 ± 2,02 años. Para evaluar la capacidad de salto se midió la altura en el SJ y CMJ, mediante plataforma de contacto; además se estimó la potencia mecánica según la fórmula de Sayers et al. (1991.Las diferencias significativas (pAbstractA study was conducted to analyze the jump capacity jump in Spanish trampoline gymnasts and compare different categories with each other, through a descriptive cross-sectional design.The sample consisted of 60 trampoline gymnasts belonging to the national elite, grouped by age and sex in different competitive categories, differentiating finally 4 groups: age group male Under-15 (GM1 n = 23; 11,95 ± 1,79 years and female (GF1 n = 9; 11,44 ± 1,23 years; age group male Absolute (GM2 n = 18; 20,72 ± 4,66 years and female (GF2 n = 10; 16,1 ± 2,02 years.To assess the jump capacity was measured height in the SJ and CMJ, through contact platform; additionally mechanical power was estimated according to the formula of Sayers et al. (1991.Significant differences were found (p

  10. FIB/SEM and SEM/EDS microstructural analysis of metal-ceramic and zirconia-ceramic interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimi, F; Merlati, G; Sebastiani, M; Battaini, P; Menghini, P; Bemporad, E

    2012-01-10

    Recently introduced FIB/SEM analysis in microscopy seems to provide a high-resolution characterization of the samples by 3D (FIB) cross-sectioning and (SEM) high resolution imaging. The aim of this study was to apply the FIB/SEM and SEM/EDS analysis to the interfaces of a metal-ceramic vs. two zirconia-ceramic systems. Plate samples of three different prosthetic systems were prepared in the dental lab following the manufacturers' instructions, where metal-ceramic was the result of a ceramic veneering (porcelain-fused-to-metal) and the two zirconia-ceramic systems were produced by the dedicated CAD-CAM procedures of the zirconia cores (both with final sintering) and then veneered by layered or heat pressed ceramics. In a FIB/SEM equipment (also called DualBeam), a thin layer of platinum (1 μm) was deposited on samples surface crossing the interfaces, in order to protect them during milling. Then, increasingly deeper trenches were milled by a focused ion beam, first using a relatively higher and later using a lower ion current (from 9 nA to 0.28 nA, 30KV). Finally, FEG-SEM (5KV) micrographs (1000-50,000X) were acquired. In a SEM the analysis of the morphology and internal microstructure was performed by 13KV secondary and backscattered electrons signals (in all the samples). The compositional maps were then performed by EDS probe only in the metal-ceramic system (20kV). Despite the presence of many voids in all the ceramic layers, it was possible to identify: (1) the grain structures of the metallic and zirconia substrates, (2) the thin oxide layer at the metal-ceramic interface and its interactions with the first ceramic layer (wash technique), (3) the roughness of the two different zirconia cores and their interactions with the ceramic interface, where the presence of zirconia grains in the ceramic layer was reported in two system possibly due to sandblasting before ceramic firing.

  11. Three dimensional rock microstructures: insights from FIB-SEM tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Martyn; Pennock, Gill; de Winter, Matthijs

    2016-04-01

    Most studies of rock microstructures investigate two-dimensional sections or thin slices of three dimensional grain structures. With advances of X-ray and electron tomography methods the 3-D microstructure can be(relatively) routinely investigated on scales from a few microns to cm. 3D studies are needed to investigate the connectivity of microstructures and to test the assumptions we use to calculate 3D properties from 2D sections. We have used FIB-SEM tomography to study the topology of melts in synthetic olivine rocks, 3D crystal growth microstructures, pore networks and subgrain structures. The technique uses a focused ion beam to make serial sections with a spacing of tens to hundreds of nanometers. Each section is then imaged or mapped using the electron beam. The 3D geometry of grains and subgrains can be investigated using orientation contrast or EBSD mapping. FIB-SEM tomography of rocks and minerals can be limited by charging of the uncoated surfaces exposed by the ion beam. The newest generation of FIB-SEMs have much improved low voltage imaging capability allowing high resolution charge free imaging. Low kV FIB-SEM tomography is now widely used to study the connectivity of pore networks. In-situ fluids can also be studied using cryo-FIB-SEM on frozen samples, although special freezing techniques are needed to avoid artifacts produced by ice crystallization. FIB-SEM tomography is complementary, in terms of spatial resolution and sampled volume, to TEM tomography and X-ray tomography, and the combination of these methods can cover a wide range of scales. Our studies on melt topology in synthetic olivine rocks with a high melt content show that many grain boundaries are wetted by nanometre scale melt layers that are too thin to resolve by X-ray tomography. A variety of melt layer geometries occur consistent with several mechanisms of melt layer formation. The nature of melt geometries along triple line junctions and quadruple points can be resolved

  12. Critical factors in SEM 3D stereo microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinello, F; Savio, E; Bariani, P; Horsewell, A; De Chiffre, L

    2008-01-01

    This work addresses dimensional measurements performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using 3D reconstruction of surface topography through stereo-photogrammetry. The paper presents both theoretical and experimental investigations, on the effects of instrumental variables and measurement parameters on reconstruction accuracy. Investigations were performed on a novel sample, specifically developed and implemented for the tests. The description is based on the model function introduced by Piazzesi and adapted for eucentrically tilted stereopairs. Two main classes of influencing factors are recognized: the first one is related to the measurement operation and the instrument set-up; the second concerns the quality of scanned images and represents the major criticality in the application of SEMs for 3D characterizations

  13. Three dimensional imaging of surface geometry in SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slowko, W.

    1997-01-01

    A great advantage of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is its ability of the surface topography in the way as a human eye is accustomed to see lights and shadows on macroobjects. However, SEM's can hardly display vertical dimensions of the structures. One of possible solutions is reconstruction of the surface profiles by directional detection of secondary electrons and proper signal processing. However, the surface profile still gives two dimensional information and the method should be extended to obtain fully three dimensional imaging. The extension consists in a simultaneous reconstruction of the surface profiles in two perpendicular directions (x and y) and their superposition. The solution proposed is based on a quadrupole detector system and a computer or analogue system for signal processing. Quantitative data of the surface topography can be displayed in many manners in the system of two or three co-ordinates with use of pseudo-colour for the altitude coding. (author)

  14. SEM and Raman studies of CNT films on porous Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belka, R.; Keczkowska, J.; Suchańska, M.; Firek, P.; Wronka, H.; Kozłowski, M.; Radomska, J.; Czerwosz, E.; Craciunoiu, F.

    2017-08-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) films deposited on different porous silica substrates were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Raman Spectroscopy (RS). The films samples were prepared by a two-step method consisting of PVD and CVD processes. In the first step the nanocomposite Ni-C film was obtained by evaporation in dynamic vacuum from two separated sources of fullerenes and nickel acetate. Those films were deposited on porous silica and DLC/porous silica substrates. Analysis of SEM imaging showed that the obtained film are composed of carbon nanotubes, the distribution, size and quality of which depend on the type of substrate. The CNT films were studied by RS method to determine the influence of the substrate type on disordering of carbonaceous structure and quality of CNT in deposited films.

  15. Repetitive Observation of Coniferous Samples in ESEM and SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tihlaříková, Eva; Neděla, Vilém

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, S3 (2015), s. 1695-1696 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22777S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : SEM * ESEM * biological samples * repetitive observation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2015

  16. Characterization of some biological specimens using TEM and SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Smith, Don W.

    2009-05-01

    The advent of novel techniques using the Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes improved observation on various biological specimens to characterize them. We studied some biological specimens using Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes. We followed negative staining technique with Phosphotungstic acid using bacterial culture of Bacillus subtilis. Negative staining is very convenient technique to view the structural morphology of different samples including bacteria, phage viruses and filaments in a cell. We could observe the bacterial cell wall and flagellum very well when trapped the negative stained biofilm from bacterial culture on a TEM grid. We cut ultra thin sections from the fixed root tips of Pisum sativum (Garden pea). Root tips were pre fixed with osmium tetroxide and post fixed with uranium acetate and placed in the BEEM capsule for block making. The ultrathin sections on the grid under TEM showed the granular chromatin in the nucleus. The protein bodies and large vacuoles with the storage materials were conspicuous. We followed fixation, critical point drying and sputter coating with gold to view the tissues with SEM after placing on stubs. SEM view of the leaf surface of a dangerous weed Tragia hispida showed the surface trichomes. These trichomes when break on touching releases poisonous content causing skin irritation. The cultured tissue from in vitro culture of Albizia lebbeck, a tree revealed the regenerative structures including leaf buds and stomata on the tissue surface. SEM and TEM allow investigating the minute details characteristic morphological features that can be used for classroom teaching.

  17. Surface characteristics of isopod digestive gland epithelium studied by SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millaku, Agron; Leser, Vladka; Drobne, Damjana; Godec, Matjaz; Torkar, Matjaz; Jenko, Monika; Milani, Marziale; Tatti, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    The structure of the digestive gland epithelium of a terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber has been investigated by conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), and light microscopy in order to provide evidence on morphology of the gland epithelial surface in animals from a stock culture. We investigated the shape of cells, extrusion of lipid droplets, shape and distribution of microvilli, and the presence of bacteria on the cell surface. A total of 22 animals were investigated and we found some variability in the appearance of the gland epithelial surface. Seventeen of the animals had dome-shaped digestive gland "normal" epithelial cells, which were densely and homogeneously covered by microvilli and varying proportions of which extruded lipid droplets. On the surface of microvilli we routinely observed sparsely distributed bacteria of different shapes. Five of the 22 animals had "abnormal" epithelial cells with a significantly altered shape. In three of these animals, the cells were much smaller, partly or completely flat or sometimes pyramid-like. A thick layer of bacteria was detected on the microvillous border, and in places, the shape and size of microvilli were altered. In two animals, hypertrophic cells containing large vacuoles were observed indicating a characteristic intracellular infection. The potential of SEM in morphological investigations of epithelial surfaces is discussed.

  18. Analysis of microtraces in invasive traumas using SEM/EDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, E J; Zoon, P D; Chang, S B C G; Keereweer, I; Pieterman, R; Gerretsen, R R R

    2012-01-10

    Scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) is a proven forensic tool and has been used to analyze several kinds of trace evidence. A forensic application of SEM/EDS is the examination of morphological characteristics of tool marks that tools and instruments leave on bone. The microtraces that are left behind by these tools and instruments on the bone are, however, often ignored or not noticed at all. In this paper we will describe the use of SEM/EDS for the analysis of microtraces in invasive sharp-force, blunt-force and bone-hacking traumas in bone. This research is part of a larger multi-disciplinary approach in which pathologists, forensic anthropologists, toolmark and microtrace experts work together to link observed injuries to a suspected weapon or, in case of an unknown weapon, to indicate a group of objects that could have been used as a weapon. Although there are a few difficulties one have to consider, the method itself is rather simple and straightforward to apply. A sample of dry and clean bone is placed into the SEM sample chamber and brightness and contrast are set such that bone appears grey, metal appears white and organic material appears black. The sample is then searched manually to find relevant features. Once features are found their elemental composition is measured by an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). This method is illustrated using several cases. It is shown that SEM/EDS analysis of microtraces in bone is a valuable tool to get clues about an unknown weapon and can associate a specific weapon with injuries on the basis of appearance and elemental composition. In particular the separate results from the various disciplines are complementary and may be combined to reach a conclusion with a stronger probative value. This is not only useful in the courtroom but above all in criminal investigations when one have to know for what weapon or object to look for. Copyright © 2011

  19. Classification and printability of EUV mask defects from SEM images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Wonil; Price, Daniel; Morgan, Paul A.; Rost, Daniel; Satake, Masaki; Tolani, Vikram L.

    2017-10-01

    Classification and Printability of EUV Mask Defects from SEM images EUV lithography is starting to show more promise for patterning some critical layers at 5nm technology node and beyond. However, there still are many key technical obstacles to overcome before bringing EUV Lithography into high volume manufacturing (HVM). One of the greatest obstacles is manufacturing defect-free masks. For pattern defect inspections in the mask-shop, cutting-edge 193nm optical inspection tools have been used so far due to lacking any e-beam mask inspection (EBMI) or EUV actinic pattern inspection (API) tools. The main issue with current 193nm inspection tools is the limited resolution for mask dimensions targeted for EUV patterning. The theoretical resolution limit for 193nm mask inspection tools is about 60nm HP on masks, which means that main feature sizes on EUV masks will be well beyond the practical resolution of 193nm inspection tools. Nevertheless, 193nm inspection tools with various illumination conditions that maximize defect sensitivity and/or main-pattern modulation are being explored for initial EUV defect detection. Due to the generally low signal-to-noise in the 193nm inspection imaging at EUV patterning dimensions, these inspections often result in hundreds and thousands of defects which then need to be accurately reviewed and dispositioned. Manually reviewing each defect is difficult due to poor resolution. In addition, the lack of a reliable aerial dispositioning system makes it very challenging to disposition for printability. In this paper, we present the use of SEM images of EUV masks for higher resolution review and disposition of defects. In this approach, most of the defects detected by the 193nm inspection tools are first imaged on a mask SEM tool. These images together with the corresponding post-OPC design clips are provided to KLA-Tencor's Reticle Decision Center (RDC) platform which provides ADC (Automated Defect Classification) and S2A (SEM

  20. A simplified method for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahar, A.; Lasher, R.

    1980-01-01

    The combination of autoradiography with SEM provides a valuable tool for the study of labeled biological materials, but the previously described methods are complicated because they call first for the removal of gelatin from the film emulsion and this is then followed by deposition of gold vapor on the specimen. The authors describe a much simpler method which can easily be adapted to routine examination of cell cultures. In this method, gelatin is not removed; the film is coated with vaporized carbon only. This procedure permits visualization of both cellular image and distribution of silver grains. (Auth.)

  1. La semántica en la Web

    OpenAIRE

    Roger, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es presentar la motivación de nuestra línea de investigación, metas y desarrollos futuros. Fundamentalmente, nuestro interés se centrará en poder capturar el potencial de las técnicas y paradigmas basadas en conocimiento semántico para la representación de conocimiento, la localización, compartición e integración de recursos a mediante la WWW.

  2. XRD and SEM study of alumina silicate porcelain insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duddi, Dharmender; Singh, G. P.; Kalra, Swati; Shekhawat, M. S.; Tak, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    Higher strength electrical porcelain is a requirement of industry. This will be achieved by a specific composition of raw materials, which is consisted of clays and feldspars. Water absorption, particle size and insulating properties are of special interest now a day. China clay, Ball clay and Quartz are widely used by ceramic industries in Bikaner district of Rajasthan. Sample for present study were prepared by mixing of above clay, feldspar with MnO2, then shrinkage is observed. Bar shaped samples were prepared and heated up to a temperature of about 1185° C to observe shrinkage. For phase study of XRD and SEM are observed.

  3. Developing 3D SEM in a broad biological context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, A; Lippens, S; Bartunkova, S; Asselbergh, B; Blanpain, C; Fendrych, M; Goossens, A; Holt, M; Janssens, S; Krols, M; Larsimont, J-C; Mc Guire, C; Nowack, MK; Saelens, X; Schertel, A; Schepens, B; Slezak, M; Timmerman, V; Theunis, C; Van Brempt, R; Visser, Y; GuÉRin, CJ

    2015-01-01

    When electron microscopy (EM) was introduced in the 1930s it gave scientists their first look into the nanoworld of cells. Over the last 80 years EM has vastly increased our understanding of the complex cellular structures that underlie the diverse functions that cells need to maintain life. One drawback that has been difficult to overcome was the inherent lack of volume information, mainly due to the limit on the thickness of sections that could be viewed in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). For many years scientists struggled to achieve three-dimensional (3D) EM using serial section reconstructions, TEM tomography, and scanning EM (SEM) techniques such as freeze-fracture. Although each technique yielded some special information, they required a significant amount of time and specialist expertise to obtain even a very small 3D EM dataset. Almost 20 years ago scientists began to exploit SEMs to image blocks of embedded tissues and perform serial sectioning of these tissues inside the SEM chamber. Using first focused ion beams (FIB) and subsequently robotic ultramicrotomes (serial block-face, SBF-SEM) microscopists were able to collect large volumes of 3D EM information at resolutions that could address many important biological questions, and do so in an efficient manner. We present here some examples of 3D EM taken from the many diverse specimens that have been imaged in our core facility. We propose that the next major step forward will be to efficiently correlate functional information obtained using light microscopy (LM) with 3D EM datasets to more completely investigate the important links between cell structures and their functions. Lay Description Life happens in three dimensions. For many years, first light, and then EM struggled to image the smallest parts of cells in 3D. With recent advances in technology and corresponding improvements in computing, scientists can now see the 3D world of the cell at the nanoscale. In this paper we present the

  4. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM): Comparing Patterns of Sexual Arousal to SEM and Sexual Self-Evaluations and Satisfaction Across Gender and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Lange, Theis

    2018-03-01

    Investigations of patterns of sexual arousal to certain groups of sexually explicit media (SEM) in the general population in non-laboratory settings are rare. Such knowledge could be important to understand more about the relative specificity of sexual arousal in different SEM users. (i) To investigate whether sexual arousal to non-mainstream vs mainstream SEM contents could be categorized across gender and sexual orientation, (ii) to compare levels of SEM-induced sexual arousal, sexual satisfaction, and self-evaluated sexual interests and fantasies between non-mainstream and mainstream SEM groups, and (iii) to explore the validity and predictive accuracy of the Non-Mainstream Pornography Arousal Scale (NPAS). Online cross-sectional survey of 2,035 regular SEM users in Croatia. Patterns of sexual arousal to 27 different SEM themes, sexual satisfaction, and self-evaluations of sexual interests and sexual fantasies. Groups characterized by sexual arousal to non-mainstream SEM could be identified across gender and sexual orientation. These non-mainstream SEM groups reported more SEM use and higher average levels of sexual arousal across the 27 SEM themes assessed compared with mainstream SEM groups. Only few differences were found between non-mainstream and mainstream SEM groups in self-evaluative judgements of sexual interests, sexual fantasies, and sexual satisfaction. The internal validity and predictive accuracy of the NPAS was good across most user groups investigated. The findings suggest that in classified non-mainstream SEM groups, patterns of sexual arousal might be less fixated and category specific than previously assumed. Further, these groups are not more judgmental of their SEM-related sexual arousal patterns than groups characterized by patterns of sexual arousal to more mainstream SEM content. Moreover, accurate identification of non-mainstream SEM group membership is generally possible across gender and sexual orientation using the NPAS. Hald GM

  5. Sem-edx and ftir studies of chlorinated rubber coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, H.; Khan, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Anticorrosive performance of chlorinated rubber coating has been investigated by visual examination, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. After surface preparation, commercially available coating system based on chlorinated rubber (primer)/chlorinated rubber (topcoat) formulation was applied on mild steel test panels (10cm x 15cm sizes). Prepared coated panels were exposed at marine, industrial and urban test sites located in Karachi, Pakistan according to ISO 8565 norm. Accelerated testing was performed by using a salt spray chamber (ASTM B117 norm). Accelerated weathering methods are the methods in which the factors responsible for the degradation of coatings are artificially intensified in order to achieve the rapid degradation of coatings. Visual examination of blistering and rusting as well as SEM micrographs indicated a more severe degradation of the coating surface characteristics at natural exposure testing sites (particularly at marine test site) than for accelerated (salt spray) testing. EDX determination of the Oxygen/Carbon (O/C) ratios also indicated increased degradation at natural test sites compared to the accelerated (salt spray) testing. Photooxidation of the binder results in the formation of carbonyl compounds as revealed by FTIR spectroscopy which also indicated dehydrochlorination. (author)

  6. Comparative SEM analysis of nine F22 aligner cleaning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Luca; Martini, Marco; Cervinara, Francesca; Spedicato, Giorgio Alfredo; Oliverio, Teresa; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    The orthodontics industry has paid great attention to the aesthetics of orthodontic appliances, seeking to make them as invisible as possible. There are several advantages to clear aligner systems, including aesthetics, comfort, chairside time reduction, and the fact that they can be removed for meals and oral hygiene procedures. Five patients were each given a series of F22 aligners, each to be worn for 14 days and nights, with the exception of meal and brushing times. Patients were instructed to clean each aligner using a prescribed strategy, and sections of the used aligners were observed under SEM. One grey-scale SEM image was saved per aligner in JPEG format with an 8-bit colour depth, and a total of 45 measurements on the grey scale ("Value" variable) were made. This dataset was analysed statistically via repeated measures ANOVA to determine the effect of each of the nine cleaning strategies in each of the five patients. A statistically significant difference in the efficacy of the cleaning strategies was detected. Specifically, rinsing with water alone was significantly less efficacious, and a combination of cationic detergent solution and ultrasonication was significantly more efficacious than the other methods (p aligners.

  7. Diferenciador semántico: bipolaridad del espacio semántico, un problema de medida del significado

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez C., Ramiro

    2012-01-01

    En relación con el supuesto de bipolaridad y su aspecto recíprocamente antagónico, Osgood y otros (1957) han ligado su modelo de espacio semántico a la teoría del aprendizaje. Plantean la hipótesis de que cierto estimulo externo, o signo, desencadena un proceso mediacional interno (nn) el cual se constituye en emisor de estímulos (rm 15m). Este es el rm mediacional que contendría el significado del signo. La teoría de mediación la relacionan con el supuesto de bipolaridad en los siguientes té...

  8. Comparing the detection of iron-based pottery pigment on a carbon-coated sherd by SEM-EDS and by Micro-XRF-SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Michael W; Washburn, Dorothy K; Ellis, E Ann; Pendleton, Bonnie B

    2014-03-01

    The same sherd was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and a micro X-ray fluorescence tube attached to a scanning electron microscope (Micro-XRF-SEM) to compare the effectiveness of elemental detection of iron-based pigment. To enhance SEM-EDS mapping, the sherd was carbon coated. The carbon coating was not required to produce Micro-XRF-SEM maps but was applied to maintain an unbiased comparison between the systems. The Micro-XRF-SEM analysis was capable of lower limits of detection than that of the SEM-EDS system, and therefore the Micro-XRF-SEM system could produce elemental maps of elements not easily detected by SEM-EDS mapping systems. Because SEM-EDS and Micro-XRF-SEM have been used for imaging and chemical analysis of biological samples, this comparison of the detection systems should be useful to biologists, especially those involved in bone or tooth (hard tissue) analysis.

  9. Effect of the delay of the second foot on the total impulse in a vertical jump with run Efecto del retraso del segundo apoyo sobre el impulso en la batida del salto vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Campos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper aims to identify the influence that the delay of the second foot in a vertical jump with run up approach, has on the total impulse, impulse absorption, impulse acceleration, and on the percentage participation of each foot during the takeoff phase. Twenty three physical education undergraduates students participated in the study recruited among university basketball and volleyball players (mean height: 179 ± 6.1 cm; mean mass: 70.96 ± 8.82 kg. Two force platforms were used, one for each foot support (Dinascan – IBV at 250 Hz frequency and time-synchronized to one another and to a high speed video camera (Redlake Motion Space 1000 S. Results showed that the lower the time between the first and second contact foot, the lesser the takeoff time (p<0.001, although this reduction is only attributed to the negative period. The impulse of acceleration was not affected by the delay of the second foot, so that there would not be advantages regarding jump height. There is a bigger reduction of the horizontal velocity when the time between the first and the second contact foot is increased (p<0.01.

     

    El propósito de este trabajo ha sido determinar la importancia que tiene el retraso del segundo apoyo en la batida del salto vertical cuando se realiza una carrera previa, sobre las componentes del impulso total, impulso de frenado e impulso de aceleración, así como su relación con el porcentaje de participación ejercido por cada apoyo durante las fases que determinan la batida. Han participado 23 estudiantes de educación física, especialistas en voleibol y baloncesto (talla media: 179 ± 6.1 cm.; masa media: 70.96 ± 8.82 kg. Para el registro de los datos se han utilizado dos plataformas de fuerza, (Dinascan – IBV, una para cada apoyo, a una frecuencia de 250 Hz y sincronizadas temporalmente a una cámara de v

  10. Avaliação da resistência de força explosiva em voleibolistas através de testes de saltos verticais Assessment of explosive strength-endurance in volleyball players through vertical jumping test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Eduardo Hespanhol

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo foi verificar a existência de diferenças entre o teste de salto vertical com natureza contínua de 60 segundos (TSVC e o teste de salto vertical com natureza intermitente de quatro séries de 15 segundos (TSVI. Os dados foram obtidos através de amostra composta por 10 voleibolistas do sexo masculino (19,01 ± 1,36 anos; 191,5 ± 5,36cm; e 81,74 ± 7,45kg, todos com participação voluntária. As variáveis estudadas foram: as estimativas do pico de potência (PP, potência média (PM e o índice de fadiga (IF. O desempenho estimado através dos testes TSVC, com duração de 60 segundos, e o TSVI foi determinado em quatro séries de 15 segundos, com 10 segundos de recuperação entre cada série. Os dados foram determinados através da estatística descritiva e do teste de Wilcoxon; o nível de significância utilizado foi de p The aim of this study was to verify the differences between the continuous jump test of 60 seconds (CJ60 sec and the intermittent jump test of 4 sets of 15 seconds (IJ4x15 sec. The sample was composed of 10 male volleyball players with 19.01 ± 1.36 years, 191.5 ± 5.36 cm height and 81.74 ± 7.45 of body mass, who participated in this research as volunteers. The variables studied were estimated as the peak power (PP, mean power (MP and fatigue index (FI. These performances were measured through tests of vertical jump with duration the 60 seconds and with the performance of 4 sets of 15 seconds with 10 seconds of recovery between the sets. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon test. The significance level was of p < 0.05. It was possible to analyze that the continuous and the intermittent jump test presented significant differences in MP (p < 0.05, FI (p < 0.01, and in the number of the vertical jump in 60 seconds (p < 0.01, and the height in 60 seconds exercise (p < 0.05. The MP found in IJ4x15sec was significantly higher than in the CJ60 sec in volleyball

  11. SEM investigation of incandescent lamp mantle structure on durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerneke, D.; Lang, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The incandescent mantle as used on pressure and non-pressure liquid fuel lamps has been in use for over 100 years. What remains unexplained is the way in which the resistance to mechanical shock and the decline in tensile strength with usage is experienced. It has been suggested that to improve durability it is necessary to continuously burn a new mantle for the first two to three hours. The known factors in mantle durability and mechanical strength are chemical composition and fabric weave. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of burning time and temperature on thorium oxide mantles. The operating temperature of mantles on a range of kerosene pressure lamps was measured and found to be between 800 and 1100 deg C. Heat treatments of thorium based Coleman mantles were carried out in a laboratory furnace within these ranges of temperatures for periods ranging from 2 minutes to 2 hours. The mantles were then viewed in a LEO S440 analytical SEM. Results at 800 deg C show a distinct change in surface morphology with increasing exposure time. At the shorter times (2-5 minutes) the surface was relatively smooth. With increased time periods (15 - 120 minutes) the surface was observed to have a large lumpy structure. At 1100 deg C the difference in surface morphology was not apparent between the shortest and longest times. The surface appears much smoother and no lumpy structure was observed. This suggests that when a mantle is operated at the higher temperature of 1100 deg C the structure of the Thorium oxide is quickly transformed into the known stronger amorphous form. This is taken as the observed smooth structure seen in the SEM images of the 1100 deg C samples. Thus the mantle is expected to be more resistant to mechanical shock and have increased durability. Practical field test results confirm these observations. The mantle on a lamp that is operating efficiently, burns brightly, will far outlast a mantle on an inefficient lamp which bums

  12. Fatores interferentes na taxa de adesão à farmacoterapia em idosos atendidos na rede pública de saúde do Município de Salto Grande – SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roque Obreli Neto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a taxa de adesão à farmacoterapia e identificar os fatores que interferem nesta taxa em pacientes idosos atendidos em uma Unidade Básica de Saúde (UBS no município de Salto Grande, São Paulo. Foram recrutados 120 pacientes idosos para participar de estudo transversal, desenvolvido no período de maio a setembro de 2009. Foi aplicado questionário para determinar a taxa de adesão (MMAS-8 e identificar as características sócio-econômicas, de saúde autorreferidas, da farmacoterapia utilizada e da satisfação dos pacientes com os serviços de saúde da UBS estudada. Um total de 102 pacientes completo o estudo, sendo que a maioria dos indivíduos apresentou taxa de adesão insatisfatória (14,7% alta adesão, 48,0% adesão média e 37,3% baixa adesão. Apresentaram forte correlação com adesão, satisfação com os serviços de saúde (r= 0,884; p < 0,0001 e o Índice de Complexidade da Farmacoterapia (ICFT (r= - 0,705; p < 0,001. O número de medicamentos consumidos (r= - 0,604; p < 0,001, número de doenças relatadas (r = - 0,604; p < 0,001 e número de moradores por residência (r= 0,428; p < 0,001 apresentaram correlação intermediária com adesão. Foi encontrada uma correlação fraca entre adesão e escolaridade (r= 0,263; p < 0,001, raça (r= 0,090; p < 0,001, sexo (r= 0,080; p < 0,001, renda familiar (r= 0,054; p < 0,001 e idade (r= -0,090; p < 0,001. Esses resultados indicam que a população estudada não adere adequadamente à farmacoterapia, com forte influência da satisfação dos pacientes com os serviços de saúde e ICFT nesses resultados. Palavras-chave: Saúde do Idoso. Uso de Medicamentos. Adesão. ABSTRACT Factors interfering with the medication adherence rate of elderly patients in the public health system in the town of Salto Grande, São Paulo State, Brazil The aim of this study was to determine the rate of adherence to pharmacotherapy and to identify the factors that

  13. Cultivo sem solo do morangueiro Strawberry soilless cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Giménez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O morangueiro é uma cultura importante em vários países, principalmente nos Estados Unidos e na Europa, por suas características sensoriais, propriedades nutritivas e por sua rentabilidade. O cultivo comercial sem solo de morangueiro está bem desenvolvido na Europa, onde tem permitido um aumento da produtividade e qualidade da produção assim como a ampliação da oferta do produto ao longo do ano. Predomina o sistema aberto, em sacolas ou vasos com diferentes tipos de substratos, utilizando-se densidades de 8 a 12plantas m-2. As produtividades obtidas estão entre 5 e 10kg m-2. Para isolar as plantas do solo e facilitar o manejo da cultura, os vasos ou sacolas são suspensos a uma altura entre 0,8 e 1m da superfície do solo. A composição da solução nutritiva é variável, refletindo as diferentes condições produtivas. As mudas são produzidas principalmente em bandejas com substrato, a partir de pontas de estolões obtidas da multiplicação de plantas matrizes provenientes da propagação in vitro. No Brasil, o cultivo sem solo de morangueiro é ainda incipiente e os resultados produtivos e econômicos têm sido insatisfatórios, principalmente por falta de informações de pesquisas capazes de indicar sistemas apropriados de cultivo para as condições locais. É necessário desenvolver sistemas sustentáveis, preferencialmente fechados, combinando alta produtividade e elevada eficiência de utilização da água e dos nutrientes. No presente trabalho, são revisados os principais aspectos da produção em sistemas de cultivo sem solo de mudas e fruta de morangueiro. São descritos a produção de mudas, os sistemas e as soluções nutritivas empregadas em diferentes países. Ao final, são feitas inferências sobre a possibilidade de adoção e geração do sistema de cultivo sem solo apropriado para as condições brasileiras.Strawberry is a very important crop in Europe and USA due to its nutritional and sensorial

  14. Filler segmentation of SEM paper images based on mathematical morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Kbir, M; Benslimane, Rachid; Princi, Elisabetta; Vicini, Silvia; Pedemonte, Enrico

    2007-07-01

    Recent developments in microscopy and image processing have made digital measurements on high-resolution images of fibrous materials possible. This helps to gain a better understanding of the structure and other properties of the material at micro level. In this paper SEM image segmentation based on mathematical morphology is proposed. In fact, paper models images (Whatman, Murillo, Watercolor, Newsprint paper) selected in the context of the Euro Mediterranean PaperTech Project have different distributions of fibers and fillers, caused by the presence of SiAl and CaCO3 particles. It is a microscopy challenge to make filler particles in the sheet distinguishable from the other components of the paper surface. This objectif is reached here by using switable strutural elements and mathematical morphology operators.

  15. Elevated temperature transmission Kikuchi diffraction in the SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanta, Alice Bastos; Todeschini, Matteo; Burrows, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    heating associated with this system enables reliable TKD measurements at elevated temperatures without notable disturbance from infrared radiation. The dewetting of an Au thin film into Au nanoparticles upon heating is followed with orientation mapping in a temperature range between 20 °C and 900 °C....... The local thickness variation associated with the dewetting is observed qualitatively by observing the intensity of the transmitted beam, which decreases as the film thickness increases locally. The results of this study reveal that TKD is a well suited technique to study thin-film stability and solid state...... dewetting. Moreover, the outcome of this methodological study provides a baseline for further in-situ crystallographic studies of electron transparent samples in the SEM....

  16. Afasia global sem hemiparesia: AVC ou transtorno conversivo?

    OpenAIRE

    Negreiros,Daniel Philippi de; Fregni,Felipe; Scalco,Andréia Zavaloni

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXTO: A realização de diagnóstico neurológico e psiquiátrico em ambiente de emergência hospitalar com freqüência é uma tarefa complexa e exige colaboração interdisciplinar. Um dos diagnósticos diferenciais de doenças neurológicas é o transtorno conversivo, cuja característica principal é a presença de sintomas afetando funções motoras ou sensoriais, que sugerem desordem clínica ou neurológica, porém sem doença orgânica subjacente que explique o quadro. RELATO DE CASO: Os autores relatam o...

  17. SEM-EDX--a useful tool for forensic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadora, G.; Brozek-Mucha, Z.

    2003-01-01

    There are two main aims of forensic examination of the physical evidences. The first aim is comparison of the evidence with the reference material (called discrimination). The task is to find out whether they could have come from the same object. The second aim, when there is no comparative material available, is a classification of the evidence sample into a group of objects taking into account its specific chemical and physical properties. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) is a powerful tool for forensic scientists to classify and discriminate evidence material because they can simultaneously examine the morphology and the elemental composition of objects. Moreover, the obtained results could be enhanced using some methods of chemometric analysis. A few examples of problems related to the classification and discrimination of selected types of microtraces are presented

  18. Análisis de la capacidad de salto antes, durante y después de la competición en jugadores internacionales junior de baloncesto. (Analysis of jumping capacity before, during and after competition in international junior basketball players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime San Román Quintana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue valorar la disminución de la altura de salto en el test CMJ antes, durante y después de la competición en nueve jóvenes jugadores internacionales de baloncesto. Del mismo modo, se analizó la relación entre los minutos que cada jugador permanecía en cancha y la disminución de la capacidad de salto. Para ello, se evaluó la altura de salto mediante el CMJ en 8 momentos diferentes (antes y después del calentamiento, durante el descanso, inmediatamente después del partido y en los minutos 1’, 3’, 5’ y 7’ tras la finalización del encuentro utilizando una plataforma de contacto. Para estimar la presencia de diferencias significativas entre los momentos se utilizó el análisis de la varianza (ANOVA de una cola. Los resultados demuestran que la capacidad de salto empeoró progresivamente durante la competición (F = 89.29, p = 0, descendiendo durante el descanso de 52.7 cm a 50.2 cm (p abstract The main aim of this study was to assess the decrease in jump height in CMJ test before, during and after competition in international youth basketball. Equally, we examined the relationship between minutes played and the decline in jump capacity during the course of the match. To do this, we evaluated the jump height in CMJ by eight different times (before and after warm up, at rest, immediately after the game and within minutes 1', 3', 5 'and 7' after completion of the competition using a contact platform. To estimate the presence of significant differences between the times we used a one – way analysis of variance (ANOVA. The results showed, that the jumping capacity decreased during competition (F = 89.29, p = 0, decrease during the rest of 52.7 cm to 50.2 cm (p

  19. Efectos de diferentes intensidades relativas, volúmenes, tiempos de recuperación entre repeticiones y pérdida de velocidad en la serie sobre el rendimiento en sprint, salto vertical con cargas y sin cargas y la fuerza de las extremidades inferiores

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Custodio, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte En la presente tesis doctoral se llevaron a cabo cuatro estudios y tuvo como objetivo analizar los efectos producidos por diferentes configuraciones del entrenamiento de fuerza sobre el rendimiento en sprint, salto vertical y la fuerza máxima. En el Estudio I se analizó el efecto producido por dos programas de entrenamiento de fuerza equivalentes en todas sus variables excepto en la intensidad relativa (Cargas bajas 40...

  20. Comparative SEM analysis of nine F22 aligner cleaning strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lombardo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The orthodontics industry has paid great attention to the aesthetics of orthodontic appliances, seeking to make them as invisible as possible. There are several advantages to clear aligner systems, including aesthetics, comfort, chairside time reduction, and the fact that they can be removed for meals and oral hygiene procedures. Methods Five patients were each given a series of F22 aligners, each to be worn for 14 days and nights, with the exception of meal and brushing times. Patients were instructed to clean each aligner using a prescribed strategy, and sections of the used aligners were observed under SEM. One grey-scale SEM image was saved per aligner in JPEG format with an 8-bit colour depth, and a total of 45 measurements on the grey scale (“Value” variable were made. This dataset was analysed statistically via repeated measures ANOVA to determine the effect of each of the nine cleaning strategies in each of the five patients. Results A statistically significant difference in the efficacy of the cleaning strategies was detected. Specifically, rinsing with water alone was significantly less efficacious, and a combination of cationic detergent solution and ultrasonication was significantly more efficacious than the other methods (p < 0.05. Conclusions Of the nine cleaning strategies examined, only that involving 5 min of ultrasonication at 42 k Hz combined with a 0.3% germicidal cationic detergent was observed to be statistically effective at removing the bacterial biofilm from the surface of F22 aligners.

  1. Willis PM 10-2.5 Precision Results, pdf has summary table and SEM images

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Precision data from the SEM and SEM images from the samples. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Peters, T., E. Sawvel, R. Willis, R. West,...

  2. Modelo de web semántica para universidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Abad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A raíz del estudio de estado actual de micrositios y repositorios en la Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena se encontró que su información carecía de semántica óptima y adecuada. Bajo estas circunstancias, se plantea entonces la necesidad de crear un modelo de estructura de web semántica para Universidades, el cual posteriormente fue aplicado a micrositios y repositorio digital de la UPSE, como caso de prueba. Parte de este proyecto incluye la instalación de módulos de software con sus respectivas configuraciones y la utilización de estándares de metadatos como DUBLIN CORE, para la mejora del SEO (optimización en motores de búsqueda; con ello se ha logrado la generación de metadatos estandarizados y la creación de políticas para la subida de información. El uso de metadatos transforma datos simples en estructuras bien organizadas que aportan información y conocimiento para generar resultados en buscadores web. Al culminar la implementación del modelo de web semántica es posible decir que la universidad ha mejorado su presencia y visibilidad en la web a través del indexamiento de información en diferentes motores de búsqueda y posicionamiento en la categorización de universidades y de repositorios de Webometrics (ranking que proporciona clasificación de universidades de todo el mundo.   Abstract After examining the current microsites and repositories situation in University, Peninsula of Santa Elena´s, it was found that information lacked optimal and appropriate semantic. Under these circumstances, there is a need to create a semantic web structure model for Universities, which was subsequently applied to UPSE´s microsites and digital repositories, as a test study case. Part of this project includes the installation of software modules with their respective configurations and the use of metadata standards such as DUBLIN CORE, to improve the SEO (Search Engine Optimization; with these applications, it was

  3. Multiple-Group Analysis Using the sem Package in the R System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evermann, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    Multiple-group analysis in covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) is an important technique to ensure the invariance of latent construct measurements and the validity of theoretical models across different subpopulations. However, not all SEM software packages provide multiple-group analysis capabilities. The sem package for the R…

  4. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM: Comparing Patterns of Sexual Arousal to SEM and Sexual Self-Evaluations and Satisfaction Across Gender and Sexual Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Martin Hald, PhD

    2018-03-01

    Hald GM, Stulhofer A, Lange T, et al. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM: Comparing Patterns of Sexual Arousal to SEM and Sexual Self-Evaluations and Satisfaction Across Gender and Sexual Orientation. Sex Med 2018;6:30–38.

  5. Quality control of clinker products by SEM and XRF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziad Abu Kaddourah; Khairun Azizi

    1996-01-01

    The microstructure and chemical properties of industrial Portland cement clinkers have been examined by SEM and XRF methods to establish the nature of the clinkers and how variations in the clinker characteristics can be used to control the clinker quality. The clinker nodules were found to show differences in the chemical composition and microstructure between the inner and outer parts of the clinker nodules. Microstructure studies of industrial Portland cement clinker have shown that the outer part of the nodules are enriched in silicate more than the inner part. There is better crystallization and larger alite crystal size in the outer part than in the inner part. The alite crystal size varied between 16.2 -46.12 μ m. The clinker chemical composition was found to affect the residual >45 μ m, where a higher belite content causes an increase in the residual >45 μ m in the the cement product and will cause a decrease in the concrete strength of the cement product. The aluminate and ferrite crystals and the microcracks within the alite crystal are clear in some clinker only. The quality of the raw material preparation, burning and cooling stages can be controlled using the microstructure of the clinker product

  6. Semáforo de habilidad digital para estudiantes universitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Organista Sandoval

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El vertiginoso cambio tecnológico y el creciente uso de dispositivos portátiles en el entorno educativo universitario han propiciado una carga importante de mediación tecnológica del proceso educativo. Ante este contexto, el reto es lograr que los estudiantes aprovechen el potencial pedagógico que ofrecen estas herramientas. Para ello, el estudiante debe contar con las habilidades digitales para utilizar eficientemente las tecnologías digitales. Se parte de la identificación de las habilidades en torno al manejo de comunicación, información, organización y dispositivos con una orientación educativa. Los resultados mostraron que 68% de los estudiantes tienen un nivel aceptable de habilidad digital, 25% regular y un 7% insuficiente. El instrumento utilizado identifica las habilidades digitales que requieren mejorarse y se muestran mediante una señalización similar a la de un semáforo. En la medida en que se identifiquen las habilidades digitales que se requieran mejorar, se espera que la comunidad académica se apropie y aplique la tecnología digital en la educación, de cara a los desafíos de la formación de recursos humanos que la sociedad actual demanda.

  7. stainless steel by SEM-XRD and image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Constanzo-R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar un análisis cualitativ o de la distribución de un electrodepósito de cobre en el inter ior de electrodos porosos (EP de acero inoxidable y carbono grafito. Para ello, se reali zaron pruebas de electrodepositación de cobre a nivel de labora torio, con un posterior análisis de cortes de muestras de acero y grafito vía Microscopía Estereoscópica, Microscopía SEM-DRX y Análisis de Imagen, los cuales mostraron que el cobre no se deposita en forma uniforme al interior del electrodo. En el electrodo de acero, la penetra ción del depósito en el espesor fue alrededor de 50%, mientras que para el grafito a lrededor de 90%. En forma general, se observó un aumento de la cantidad de depósito hacia el extremo frente al ánodo y con sitios de difer ente crecimiento en depósito de cobre. Esto demuestra una distr ibución de corriente y potencial, función de parámetros físicos de electrodo y de la s características fisicoquímicas e hidrodinámicos del electroli to.

  8. SEM Based CARMA Time Series Modeling for Arbitrary N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Johan H L; Voelkle, Manuel C; Driver, Charles C

    2018-01-01

    This article explains in detail the state space specification and estimation of first and higher-order autoregressive moving-average models in continuous time (CARMA) in an extended structural equation modeling (SEM) context for N = 1 as well as N > 1. To illustrate the approach, simulations will be presented in which a single panel model (T = 41 time points) is estimated for a sample of N = 1,000 individuals as well as for samples of N = 100 and N = 50 individuals, followed by estimating 100 separate models for each of the one-hundred N = 1 cases in the N = 100 sample. Furthermore, we will demonstrate how to test the difference between the full panel model and each N = 1 model by means of a subject-group-reproducibility test. Finally, the proposed analyses will be applied in an empirical example, in which the relationships between mood at work and mood at home are studied in a sample of N = 55 women. All analyses are carried out by ctsem, an R-package for continuous time modeling, interfacing to OpenMx.

  9. Automated SEM Modal Analysis Applied to the Diogenites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, L. E.; Spilde, M. N.; Papike, James J.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of volume proportions of minerals, or modal analysis, is routinely accomplished by point counting on an optical microscope, but the process, particularly on brecciated samples such as the diogenite meteorites, is tedious and prone to error by misidentification of very small fragments, which may make up a significant volume of the sample. Precise volume percentage data can be gathered on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizing digital imaging and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). This form of automated phase analysis reduces error, and at the same time provides more information than could be gathered using simple point counting alone, such as particle morphology statistics and chemical analyses. We have previously studied major, minor, and trace-element chemistry of orthopyroxene from a suite of diogenites. This abstract describes the method applied to determine the modes on this same suite of meteorites and the results of that research. The modal abundances thus determined add additional information on the petrogenesis of the diogenites. In addition, low-abundance phases such as spinels were located for further analysis by this method.

  10. Simulation of FIB-SEM images for analysis of porous microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prill, Torben; Schladitz, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Focused ion beam nanotomography-scanning electron microscopy tomography yields high-quality three-dimensional images of materials microstructures at the nanometer scale combining serial sectioning using a focused ion beam with SEM. However, FIB-SEM tomography of highly porous media leads to shine-through artifacts preventing automatic segmentation of the solid component. We simulate the SEM process in order to generate synthetic FIB-SEM image data for developing and validating segmentation methods. Monte-Carlo techniques yield accurate results, but are too slow for the simulation of FIB-SEM tomography requiring hundreds of SEM images for one dataset alone. Nevertheless, a quasi-analytic description of the specimen and various acceleration techniques, including a track compression algorithm and an acceleration for the simulation of secondary electrons, cut down the computing time by orders of magnitude, allowing for the first time to simulate FIB-SEM tomography. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. GAGG:ce single crystalline films: New perspective scintillators for electron detection in SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, Jan; Lalinský, Ondřej; Hanuš, Martin; Onderišinová, Zuzana; Kelar, Jakub; Kučera, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Single crystal scintillators are frequently used for electron detection in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We report gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (GAGG:Ce) single crystalline films as a new perspective scintillators for the SEM. For the first time, the epitaxial garnet films were used in a practical application: the GAGG:Ce scintillator was incorporated into a SEM scintillation electron detector and it showed improved image quality. In order to prove the GAGG:Ce quality accurately, the scintillation properties were examined using electron beam excitation and compared with frequently used scintillators in the SEM. The results demonstrate excellent emission efficiency of the GAGG:Ce single crystalline films together with their very fast scintillation decay useful for demanding SEM applications. - Highlights: • First practical application of epitaxial garnet films demonstrated in SEM. • Improved image quality of SEM equipped with GAGG:Ce single crystalline thin film scintillator. • Scintillation properties of GAGG:Ce films compared with standard bulk crystal scintillators.

  12. Efecto de un trabajo de técnica de desplazamiento y de un trabajo de cuestas sobre el desplazamiento en defensa y la capacidad de salto en voleibol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Ávila Gandía

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue comprobar el efecto de un trabajo de técnica de desplazamiento combinado o no con un trabajo de cuestas sobre la capacidad de desplazamiento general y específico y sobre la capacidad de alcance en jugadores de voleibol en periodo de formación. La muestra objeto de estudio fueron 36 jugadores de voleibol en formación (grupo A estuvo formado por 18 jugadores masculinos, y grupo B y C por nueve jugadoras cada uno. Se realizó un diseño cuasi-experimental intersujeto con una prueba pre, post, y re-test. La variable independiente fue el tipo de trabajo realizado para mejorar la capacidad de desplazamiento (nueve sesiones. Se distinguieron dos niveles de intervención: a realización de un trabajo de desplazamientos específicos (grupos A y B; y b realización de un trabajo de desplazamientos específicos y de un trabajo de fuerza en cuestas ascendentes (grupo C. Las variables dependientes fueron: la técnica y el tiempo de desplazamiento en bloqueo, y en defensa en campo, el tiempo en realización del test de 9-3-3-9, y la altura de alcance en un salto con y sin carrera de aproximación. El trabajo de técnica de desplazamientos mejora la calidad de ejecución de los desplazamientos específicos. En categoría masculina, el trabajo de técnica de desplazamiento mejora los tiempos de ejecución de los desplazamientos genéricos y de los desplazamientos específicos. En categoría femenina, el trabajo de técnica de desplazamiento no mejoró los tiempos de ejecución de los desplazamientos genéricos y de los desplazamientos específicos. En categoría femenina, el trabajo de técnica de desplazamiento realizado de forma conjunta con el trabajo de cuestas parece mejorar los tiempos de ejecución de los desplazamientos genéricos y de los desplazamientos específicos. El trabajo de técnica de desplazamiento con o sin el trabajo de cuestas no mejora la capacidad de alcance de los jugadores.

  13. Prolongamentos na fala de adultos com e sem gagueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmila Bento da Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: realizar uma análise quantitativa e qualitativa dos prolongamentos de adultos com e sem gagueira. Métodos: os participantes foram divididos em: Grupo de Pesquisa (GP, 15 adultos com gagueira e Grupo Controle (GC, 15 fluentes. Os procedimentos utilizados foram: avaliação da fluência, Instrumento de Gravidade da Gagueira e análises quantitativa e qualitativa dos prolongamentos. Resultados: GP mostrou maior número de prolongamentos não hesitativos, enquanto que GC mostrou maior ocorrência de prolongamentos hesitativos em relação ao total das disfluências. Prolongamentos não hesitativos ocorreram com maior frequência na palavra inicial e monossilábica, bem como na posição medial da frase para GP. Em relação à tensão muscular e duração, observou-se diferença apenas para a tensão muscular nos prolongamentos não hesitativos com maior média de ocorrência para GP. Conclusão: os prolongamentos não hesitativos ocorreram com maior frequência no GP, nas palavras iniciais, monossílabos e na posição medial da frase. Qualitativamente a tensão muscular foi uma característica típica dos prolongamentos não hesitativos no GP. Com relação aos prolongamentos hesitativos houve semelhança entre os adultos dos dois grupos quanto à frequência em relação ao total da fala, a posição dos prolongamentos nas palavras e nas frases e nos aspectos qualitativos, relacionados a tensão muscular e duração.

  14. CD-SEM real time bias correction using reference metrology based modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukraintsev, V.; Banke, W.; Zagorodnev, G.; Archie, C.; Rana, N.; Pavlovsky, V.; Smirnov, V.; Briginas, I.; Katnani, A.; Vaid, A.

    2018-03-01

    Accuracy of patterning impacts yield, IC performance and technology time to market. Accuracy of patterning relies on optical proximity correction (OPC) models built using CD-SEM inputs and intra die critical dimension (CD) control based on CD-SEM. Sub-nanometer measurement uncertainty (MU) of CD-SEM is required for current technologies. Reported design and process related bias variation of CD-SEM is in the range of several nanometers. Reference metrology and numerical modeling are used to correct SEM. Both methods are slow to be used for real time bias correction. We report on real time CD-SEM bias correction using empirical models based on reference metrology (RM) data. Significant amount of currently untapped information (sidewall angle, corner rounding, etc.) is obtainable from SEM waveforms. Using additional RM information provided for specific technology (design rules, materials, processes) CD extraction algorithms can be pre-built and then used in real time for accurate CD extraction from regular CD-SEM images. The art and challenge of SEM modeling is in finding robust correlation between SEM waveform features and bias of CD-SEM as well as in minimizing RM inputs needed to create accurate (within the design and process space) model. The new approach was applied to improve CD-SEM accuracy of 45 nm GATE and 32 nm MET1 OPC 1D models. In both cases MU of the state of the art CD-SEM has been improved by 3x and reduced to a nanometer level. Similar approach can be applied to 2D (end of line, contours, etc.) and 3D (sidewall angle, corner rounding, etc.) cases.

  15. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate rapidly remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107, and SEM2(49-107 seminal amyloid fibrils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Castellano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Semen harbors amyloid fibrils formed by proteolytic fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286 and PAP85-120 and semenogelins (SEM1 and SEM2 that potently enhance HIV infectivity. Amyloid but not soluble forms of these peptides enhance HIV infection. Thus, agents that remodel these amyloid fibrils could prevent HIV transmission. Here, we confirm that the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, slowly remodels fibrils formed by PAP248-286 termed SEVI (semen derived enhancer of viral infection and also exerts a direct anti-viral effect. We elucidate for the first time that EGCG remodels PAP85-120, SEM1(45-107, and SEM2(49-107 fibrils more rapidly than SEVI fibrils. We establish EGCG as the first small molecule that can remodel all four classes of seminal amyloid. The combined anti-amyloid and anti-viral properties of EGCG could have utility in preventing HIV transmission.

  16. A Proposal on the Quantitative Homogeneity Analysis Method of SEM Images for Material Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Jong Woo; Shin, Chang Ho [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jung-Hoon; Cho, In-Hak; Park, Hwan Seo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a method to inspect the surface microstructure of materials. The SEM uses electron beams for imaging high magnifications of material surfaces; therefore, various chemical analyses can be performed from the SEM images. Therefore, it is widely used for the material inspection, chemical characteristic analysis, and biological analysis. For the nuclear criticality analysis field, it is an important parameter to check the homogeneity of the compound material for using it in the nuclear system. In our previous study, the SEM was tried to use for the homogeneity analysis of the materials. In this study, a quantitative homogeneity analysis method of SEM images is proposed for the material inspections. The method is based on the stochastic analysis method with the information of the grayscales of the SEM images.

  17. The Antiphagocytic Activity of SeM of Streptococcus equi Requires Capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, John F; Suther, Pranav; Velineni, Sridhar; Artiushin, Sergey C

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to phagocytosis is a crucial virulence property of Streptococcus equi (Streptococcus equi subsp. equi; Se), the cause of equine strangles. The contribution and interdependence of capsule and SeM to killing in equine blood and neutrophils were investigated in naturally occurring strains of Se. Strains CF32, SF463 were capsule and SeM positive, strains Lex90, Lex93 were capsule negative and SeM positive and strains Se19, Se1-8 were capsule positive and SeM deficient. Phagocytosis and killing of Se19, Se1-8, Lex90 and Lex93 in equine blood and by neutrophils suspended in serum were significantly (P ≤ 0.02) greater compared to CF32 and SF463. The results indicate capsule and SeM are both required for resistance to phagocytosis and killing and that the anti-phagocytic property of SeM is greatly reduced in the absence of capsule.

  18. A Proposal on the Quantitative Homogeneity Analysis Method of SEM Images for Material Inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Jong Woo; Shin, Chang Ho; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Cho, In-Hak; Park, Hwan Seo

    2015-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a method to inspect the surface microstructure of materials. The SEM uses electron beams for imaging high magnifications of material surfaces; therefore, various chemical analyses can be performed from the SEM images. Therefore, it is widely used for the material inspection, chemical characteristic analysis, and biological analysis. For the nuclear criticality analysis field, it is an important parameter to check the homogeneity of the compound material for using it in the nuclear system. In our previous study, the SEM was tried to use for the homogeneity analysis of the materials. In this study, a quantitative homogeneity analysis method of SEM images is proposed for the material inspections. The method is based on the stochastic analysis method with the information of the grayscales of the SEM images

  19. Application of SEM and EDX in studying biomineralization in plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Kirilak, Yaowanuj

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes protocols using formalin-acetic acid-alcohol (FAA) to fix plant tissues for studying biomineralization by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and qualitative energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). Specimen preparation protocols for SEM and EDX mainly include fixation, dehydration, critical point drying (CPD), mounting, and coating. Gold-coated specimens are used for SEM imaging, while gold- and carbon-coated specimens are prepared for qualitative X-ray microanalyses separately to obtain complementary information on the elemental compositions of biominerals. During the specimen preparation procedure for SEM, some biominerals may be dislodged or scattered, making it difficult to determine their accurate locations, and light microscopy is used to complement SEM studies. Specimen preparation protocols for light microscopy generally include fixation, dehydration, infiltration and embedding with resin, microtome sectioning, and staining. In addition, microwave processing methods are adopted here to speed up the specimen preparation process for both SEM and light microscopy.

  20. Comparison of SEM and VPSEM imaging techniques with respect to Streptococcus mutans biofilm topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kathryn; Delben, Juliana; Bromage, Timothy G; Duarte, Simone

    2014-01-01

    The study compared images of mature Streptococcus mutans biofilms captured at increasing magnification to determine which microscopy method is most acceptable for imaging the biofilm topography and the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). In vitro S. mutans biofilms were imaged using (1) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which requires a dehydration process; (2) SEM and ruthenium red (SEM-RR), which has been shown to support the EPS of biofilms during the SEM dehydration; and (3) variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM), which does not require the intensive dehydration process of SEM. The dehydration process and high chamber vacuum of both SEM techniques devastated the biofilm EPS, removed supporting structures, and caused cracking on the biofilm surface. The VPSEM offered the most comprehensive representation of the S. mutans biofilm morphology. VPSEM provides similar contrast and focus as the SEM, but the procedure is far less time-consuming, and the use of hazardous chemicals associated with SEM dehydration protocol is avoided with the VPSEM. The inaccurate representations of the biofilm EPS in SEM experimentation is a possible source of inaccurate data and impediments in the study of S. mutans biofilms. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fratura supracondiliana do fêmur durante salto após reconstrução artroscópica do ligamento cruzado anterior Supracondylar emur fracture during jump after anterior cruciate ligament arthroscopic reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Yukio Fukuda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A fratura distal do fêmur é uma das possíveis complicações no período pós-operatório de reconstrução de LCA, porém, de incidência rara. RELATO DE CASO: Descreve-se o caso de um atleta de 34 anos, gênero masculino, no quinto mês de pós-operatório de reconstrução de LCA. O caso evoluía normalmente de acordo com o protocolo estabelecido; o paciente apresentava bom controle e estabilidade sensoriomotora, quando sofreu fratura supracondiliana do fêmur ao realizar um salto durante atendimento fisioterápico. A reconstrução ligamentar foi realizada com enxerto dos músculos flexores do joelho e a fratura, ocasionada posteriormente, reduzida e fixada com placa e parafuso. Dez meses após a redução aberta e fixação interna da fratura, apresenta função regular na escala Lysholm, amplitude de movimento normal e força muscular grau V em flexores e extensores da coxa. DISCUSSÃO: Poucos relatos de caso semelhantes ao presente foram encontrados na literatura; a maioria apresentou fratura do fêmur após a reconstrução do LCA com tendão patelar. Este caso mostra-se relevante pela associação da fratura supracondiliana do fêmur com reconstrução ligamentar com tendões dos flexores, visto que apenas um trabalho seguiu tal direção. Dentre as prováveis causas dessa fratura, destacam-se uma fragilidade óssea por desuso e túnel ósseo femoral de diâmetro maior que o padrão, apesar de não haver consenso em relação a essas alterações. Uma hipótese sugerida pelos autores deste relato é de que o túnel ósseo de fixação do enxerto pode ter sido um intensificador de estresse sobre o local da fratura.BACKGROUND: Distal femoral fracture is one of the possible complications on the post operative period of the ACL reconstruction; however, with rare incidence. CASE REPORT: This study reports a male 34 year-old athlete, five months after ACL reconstruction surgery. The case developed normally in accordance

  2. Torque excêntrico do quadril, joelho e tornozelo em indivíduos com e sem tendinopatia patelar

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Luisa Granado Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A tendinopatia patelar (TP) é uma lesão por sobreuso, mas não se sabe ao certo quais são os fatores que contribuem para a sobrecarga no tendão. A alta prevalência dessa doença em atletas saltadores pode estar relacionada a uma diminuição da utilização dos músculos extensores do quadril e flexores plantares do tornozelo, e consequente uso preferencial do músculo quadríceps para absorver as forças de impacto que atuam no membro inferior durante as aterrissagens de saltos, possivelme...

  3. QEM*SEM: a necessary tool in the metallurgical evaluation of ore bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creelman, R.A.; Gottlieb, P.; Sutherland, D.; Jackson, R.

    1989-01-01

    The QEM*SEM system for automated image analysis of mineral samples is described. Details of the equipment are given together with information on the methods of measurement. Finally some practical applications are described where QEM*SEM has been used for the solution of metallurgical problems. 14 refs., 1 fig

  4. Strategic Enrolment Management (SEM) in Self-Financed Higher Education of Hong Kong: Evaluation and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Peggy; Galbraith, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how the dimensions of strategic enrolment management (SEM) tie to the success metrics in the area of enrolment, retention and graduation from senior and programme management perspectives of a self-financed institution in Hong Kong. The literature on SEM has demonstrated that managing enrolment is a global…

  5. Shocked quartz in the SEM: Distinction between amorphous and healed PDFs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, M.F.; Pennock, G.M.; Drury, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Combined SEM techniques show that different CL signatures of PDFs are related to fresh and healed microstructures of PDFs and host quartz. This is confirmed by TEM results. A combination of SEM techniques can give the same type of information as TEM

  6. In-Situ tensile testing of propellants in SEM: influence of temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Benedetto, G.L.; Ramshorst, M.C.J.; Duvalois, W.; Hooijmeijer, P.; Heijden, A. van der

    2017-01-01

    A tensile module system placed within a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was utilized to conduct insitu tensile testing of propellant samples. The tensile module system allows for real-time in-situ SEM analysis of the samples to determine the failure mechanism of the propellant material under

  7. Quantitative roughness characterization and 3D reconstruction of electrode surface using cyclic voltammetry and SEM image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhillon, Shweta; Kant, Rama, E-mail: rkant@chemistry.du.ac.in

    2013-10-01

    Area measurements from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and image from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize electrode statistical morphology, 3D surface reconstruction and its electroactivity. SEM images of single phased materials correspond to two-dimensional (2D) projections of 3D structures, leading to an incomplete characterization. Lack of third dimension information in SEM image is circumvented using equivalence between denoised SEM image and CV area measurements. This CV-SEM method can be used to estimate power spectral density (PSD), width, gradient, finite fractal nature of roughness and local morphology of the electrode. We show that the surface morphological statistical property like distribution function of gradient can be related to local electro-activity. Electrode surface gradient micrographs generated here can provide map of electro-activity sites. Finally, the densely and uniformly packed small gradient over the Pt-surface is the determining criterion for high intrinsic electrode activity.

  8. From patterns to causal understanding: Structural equation modeling (SEM) in soil ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Powell, Jeff R; Grace, James B.; Bowker, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    In this perspectives paper we highlight a heretofore underused statistical method in soil ecological research, structural equation modeling (SEM). SEM is commonly used in the general ecological literature to develop causal understanding from observational data, but has been more slowly adopted by soil ecologists. We provide some basic information on the many advantages and possibilities associated with using SEM and provide some examples of how SEM can be used by soil ecologists to shift focus from describing patterns to developing causal understanding and inspiring new types of experimental tests. SEM is a promising tool to aid the growth of soil ecology as a discipline, particularly by supporting research that is increasingly hypothesis-driven and interdisciplinary, thus shining light into the black box of interactions belowground.

  9. Two novel approaches to study arthropod anatomy by using dualbeam FIB/SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, Andrea; Muzzi, Maurizio

    2018-03-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has always been the conventional method to study arthropod ultrastructure, while the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was mainly devoted to the examination of the external cuticular structures by secondary electrons. The new generation field emission SEMs are capable to generate images at sub-cellular level, comparable to TEM images employing backscattered electrons. The potential of this kind of acquisition becomes very powerful in the dual beam FIB/SEM where the SEM column is combined with a Focused Ion Beam (FIB) column. FIB uses ions as a nano-scalpel to slice samples fixed and embedded in resin, replacing traditional ultramicrotomy. We here present two novel methods, which optimize the use of FIB/SEM for studying arthropod anatomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative roughness characterization and 3D reconstruction of electrode surface using cyclic voltammetry and SEM image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhillon, Shweta; Kant, Rama

    2013-01-01

    Area measurements from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and image from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize electrode statistical morphology, 3D surface reconstruction and its electroactivity. SEM images of single phased materials correspond to two-dimensional (2D) projections of 3D structures, leading to an incomplete characterization. Lack of third dimension information in SEM image is circumvented using equivalence between denoised SEM image and CV area measurements. This CV-SEM method can be used to estimate power spectral density (PSD), width, gradient, finite fractal nature of roughness and local morphology of the electrode. We show that the surface morphological statistical property like distribution function of gradient can be related to local electro-activity. Electrode surface gradient micrographs generated here can provide map of electro-activity sites. Finally, the densely and uniformly packed small gradient over the Pt-surface is the determining criterion for high intrinsic electrode activity.

  11. GAGG:ce single crystalline films: New perspective scintillators for electron detection in SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Jan; Lalinský, Ondřej; Hanuš, Martin; Onderišinová, Zuzana; Kelar, Jakub; Kučera, Miroslav

    2016-04-01

    Single crystal scintillators are frequently used for electron detection in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We report gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (GAGG:Ce) single crystalline films as a new perspective scintillators for the SEM. For the first time, the epitaxial garnet films were used in a practical application: the GAGG:Ce scintillator was incorporated into a SEM scintillation electron detector and it showed improved image quality. In order to prove the GAGG:Ce quality accurately, the scintillation properties were examined using electron beam excitation and compared with frequently used scintillators in the SEM. The results demonstrate excellent emission efficiency of the GAGG:Ce single crystalline films together with their very fast scintillation decay useful for demanding SEM applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tillandsia stricta Sol (Bromeliaceae) leaves as monitors of airborne particulate matter-A comparative SEM methods evaluation: Unveiling an accurate and odd HP-SEM method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Martha Lima; de Melo, Edésio José Tenório; Miguens, Flávio Costa

    2016-09-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has been included among the most important air pollutants by governmental environment agencies and academy researchers. The use of terrestrial plants for monitoring PM has been widely accepted, particularly when it is coupled with SEM/EDS. Herein, Tillandsia stricta leaves were used as monitors of PM, focusing on a comparative evaluation of Environmental SEM (ESEM) and High-Pressure SEM (HPSEM). In addition, specimens air-dried at formaldehyde atmosphere (AD/FA) were introduced as an SEM procedure. Hydrated specimen observation by ESEM was the best way to get information from T. stricta leaves. If any artifacts were introduced by AD/FA, they were indiscernible from those caused by CPD. Leaf anatomy was always well preserved. PM density was determined on adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermis for each of the SEM proceedings. When compared with ESEM, particle extraction varied from 0 to 20% in air-dried leaves while 23-78% of particles deposited on leaves surfaces were extracted by CPD procedures. ESEM was obviously the best choice over other methods but morphological artifacts increased in function of operation time while HPSEM operation time was without limit. AD/FA avoided the shrinkage observed in the air-dried leaves and particle extraction was low when compared with CPD. Structural and particle density results suggest AD/FA as an important methodological approach to air pollution biomonitoring that can be widely used in all electron microscopy labs. Otherwise, previous PM assessments using terrestrial plants as biomonitors and performed by conventional SEM could have underestimated airborne particulate matter concentration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Characterisation of nanoparticles by means of high-resolution SEM/EDS in transmission mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodoroaba, V-D; Rades, S; Mielke, J; Ortel, E; Salge, T; Schmidt, R

    2016-01-01

    Advances in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) enable the high-resolution imaging of single nanoparticles (NPs) with sizes well below 10 nm. The SEM analysis in transmission mode (T-SEM) of NPs on thin film supports has many benefits when compared to the analysis of NPs on bulk substrates. The enhanced material (mass - thickness) contrast of the T-SEM imaging mode is well suited for in-depth and, particularly valuable, to very accurate, traceable, lateral dimensional measurements of NPs. Compared to samples prepared on bulk substrates, T-SEM with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) achieves a drastically improved spatial resolution of the emitted X-rays. The poor signal-to-noise ratio of the X-ray spectra emitted by a single nanoparticle (NP) can be improved by the use of high-sensitivity (high collection solid angle) silicon drift (SDD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS). The EDS spectral imaging of a single NP with a spatial resolution below 10 nm has become possible. This is demonstrated by means of various examples of nanostructures. Advanced data processing of T-SEM/EDS results sets the stage for the automated classification of NPs by feature analysis. This method combines the detection of morphological structures of interest by image processing of T-SEM micrographs with the chemical classification by EDS. (paper)

  14. Inter-operator and inter-device agreement and reliability of the SEM Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendenin, Marta; Jaradeh, Kindah; Shamirian, Anasheh; Rhodes, Shannon L

    2015-02-01

    The SEM Scanner is a medical device designed for use by healthcare providers as part of pressure ulcer prevention programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inter-rater and inter-device agreement and reliability of the SEM Scanner. Thirty-one (31) volunteers free of pressure ulcers or broken skin at the sternum, sacrum, and heels were assessed with the SEM Scanner. Each of three operators utilized each of three devices to collect readings from four anatomical sites (sternum, sacrum, left and right heels) on each subject for a total of 108 readings per subject collected over approximately 30 min. For each combination of operator-device-anatomical site, three SEM readings were collected. Inter-operator and inter-device agreement and reliability were estimated. Over the course of this study, more than 3000 SEM Scanner readings were collected. Agreement between operators was good with mean differences ranging from -0.01 to 0.11. Inter-operator and inter-device reliability exceeded 0.80 at all anatomical sites assessed. The results of this study demonstrate the high reliability and good agreement of the SEM Scanner across different operators and different devices. Given the limitations of current methods to prevent and detect pressure ulcers, the SEM Scanner shows promise as an objective, reliable tool for assessing the presence or absence of pressure-induced tissue damage such as pressure ulcers. Copyright © 2015 Bruin Biometrics, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. A brief discussion about image quality and SEM methods for quantitative fractography of polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, L R O; Campos, K A; Caltabiano, P C R O; Kostov, K G

    2013-01-01

    The methodology for fracture analysis of polymeric composites with scanning electron microscopes (SEM) is still under discussion. Many authors prefer to use sputter coating with a conductive material instead of applying low-voltage (LV) or variable-pressure (VP) methods, which preserves the original surfaces. The present work examines the effects of sputter coating with 25 nm of gold on the topography of carbon-epoxy composites fracture surfaces, using an atomic force microscope. Also, the influence of SEM imaging parameters on fractal measurements is evaluated for the VP-SEM and LV-SEM methods. It was observed that topographic measurements were not significantly affected by the gold coating at tested scale. Moreover, changes on SEM setup leads to nonlinear outcome on texture parameters, such as fractal dimension and entropy values. For VP-SEM or LV-SEM, fractal dimension and entropy values did not present any evident relation with image quality parameters, but the resolution must be optimized with imaging setup, accompanied by charge neutralization. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Three-Dimensional (3D) Nanometrology Based on Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Stereophotogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondare, Vipin N; Villarrubia, John S; Vlada R, András E

    2017-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of a sample surface from scanning electron microscope (SEM) images taken at two perspectives has been known for decades. Nowadays, there exist several commercially available stereophotogrammetry software packages. For testing these software packages, in this study we used Monte Carlo simulated SEM images of virtual samples. A virtual sample is a model in a computer, and its true dimensions are known exactly, which is impossible for real SEM samples due to measurement uncertainty. The simulated SEM images can be used for algorithm testing, development, and validation. We tested two stereophotogrammetry software packages and compared their reconstructed 3D models with the known geometry of the virtual samples used to create the simulated SEM images. Both packages performed relatively well with simulated SEM images of a sample with a rough surface. However, in a sample containing nearly uniform and therefore low-contrast zones, the height reconstruction error was ≈46%. The present stereophotogrammetry software packages need further improvement before they can be used reliably with SEM images with uniform zones.

  17. Sobre la estructura semántica de las palabras autosemánticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Ascencio Bernardo

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A partir de los conceptos de semema o estructura semémica y de los conceptos tradicionales de afijos y los accidentes gramaticales se plantea una supuesta estructura semántica profunda de la palabra, análoga a la de la oración en el modelo de la gramática de casos. Con base en este supuesto se reinterpretan algunas funciones semánticas de los afijos (particularmente de los sufijos, entre otras, como formas de la expresión de la modalidad léxica; se plantea una correlación entre rasgos semánticos específicos y las relaciones semánticas de caso. Por último se deducen algunas consideraciones pertinentes y se demuestra un isomorfismo entre la estructura profunda de la oración y la supuesta estructura semántica profunda de las palabras auto  semánticas.

  18. Diversity of seM in Streptococcus equi subsp. equi isolated from strangles outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libardoni, Felipe; Vielmo, Andréia; Farias, Luana; Matter, Letícia Beatriz; Pötter, Luciana; Spilki, Fernando Rosado; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2013-03-23

    Strangles is the main upper respiratory tract disease of horses. There are currently no studies on the changes in alleles of the M protein gene (seM) in Brazilian isolates of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi (S. equi). This study aimed to analyze and differentiate molecularly S. equi isolates from equine clinical specimens from southern Brazil, between 1994 and 2010. seM alleles were analyzed in 47 isolates of S. equi obtained from clinical cases of strangles (15 Thoroughbred horses, 29 Crioulo breed horses and three Brasileiro de Hipismo--BH). seM alleles characterization was performed by comparing variable region sequences of the seM gene. The alleles were also phylogenetically grouped by Neighbor-joining analysis, which demonstrated the geographic distribution of those in properties from southern Brazil. Fifteen alleles of the gene seM were found among the 47 S. equi isolates analyzed. Among these, only one allele (seM-61), which was identified in seven isolates (14.9%), was found in the database PubMLST-seM. Within the new alleles, allele seM-115 was the most prevalent, having been found in 13 isolates (27.7%), followed by allele seM-117 in 10 isolates (21.3%). In the Brazilian horse population studied, there is greater diversity of M protein alleles in S. equi isolates compared to worldwide data deposited in PubMLST-seM. Among the 15 seM alleles identified, only one allele sequence was previously published. The alleles identification is important to control the disease by guiding selection of strains for the manufacture of commercial and autogenous vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of Focused Ion Beam technique for high speed steel 3D-SEM artefact fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo; MacDonald, A. Nicole; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2009-01-01

    The work describes preliminary manufacture by grinding, followed by machining on a Focused Ion Beam (FIB), of a high speed steel step artefact for 3D-SEM calibration. The FIB is coupled with a SEM in the so called dual beam instrument. The milling capabilities of FIB were checked from a qualitative...... point of view, using the dual beam SEM imaging, and quantitatively using a reference stylus instrument, to establish traceability. A triangular section having a depth of about 10 μm was machined, where the 50 μm curvature radius due to grinding was reduced to about 2 μm by FIB milling...

  20. The SEM description of interaction of a transient electromagnetic wave with an object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, L. W.; Wilton, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    The singularity expansion method (SEM), proposed as a means for determining and representing the transient surface current density induced on a scatterer by a transient electromagnetic wave is described. The resulting mathematical description of the transient surface current on the object is discussed. The data required to represent the electromagnetic scattering properties of a given object are examined. Experimental methods which were developed for the determination of the SEM description are discussed. The feasibility of characterizing the surface current induced on aircraft flying in proximity to a lightning stroke by way of SEM is examined.

  1. In-line CD metrology with combined use of scatterometry and CD-SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masafumi; Ikeda, Takahiro; Koike, Toru; Abe, Hideaki

    2006-03-01

    Measurement characteristics in scatterometry and CD-SEM for lot acceptance sampling of inline critical dimension (CD) metrology were investigated by using a statistical approach with Monte Carlo simulation. By operation characteristics curve analysis, producer's risk and consumer's risk arising from sampling were clarified. Single use of scatterometry involves a higher risk, such risk being particularly acute in the case of large intra-chip CD variation because it is unable to sufficiently monitor intra-chip CD variation including local CD error. Substituting scatterometry for conventional SEM metrology is accompanied with risks, resulting in the increase of unnecessary cost. The combined use of scatterometry and SEM metrology in which the sampling plan for SEM is controlled by scatterometry is a promising metrology from the viewpoint of the suppression of risks and cost. This is due to the effect that CD errors existing in the distribution tails are efficiently caught.

  2. Mathematical model of the seismic electromagnetic signals (SEMS) in non crystalline substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, L. C. C.; Yahya, N.; Daud, H.; Shafie, A. [Electromagnetic cluster, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    The mathematical model of seismic electromagnetic waves in non crystalline substances is developed and the solutions are discussed to show the possibility of improving the electromagnetic waves especially the electric field. The shear stress of the medium in fourth order tensor gives the equation of motion. Analytic methods are selected for the solutions written in Hansen vector form. From the simulated SEMS, the frequency of seismic waves has significant effects to the SEMS propagating characteristics. EM waves transform into SEMS or energized seismic waves. Traveling distance increases once the frequency of the seismic waves increases from 100% to 1000%. SEMS with greater seismic frequency will give seismic alike waves but greater energy is embedded by EM waves and hence further distance the waves travel.

  3. SEM-668-G2(日东科技)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    SEM-668-G2比SEM-668在视觉技术上更加精湛,采用美国AGILENT(安提伦)LASER 5519A及HP的双重频率技术,加强运动;隹确性。在智能化印刷头上,SEM-668-G2印刷质量更加均匀、稳定,操作界面更加简易、更加人性化。在综合性能上更加卓越,保证实现现代化的生产效率。产品体具性能如下:SEM-668-G2视觉全自动印刷机

  4. Mathematical model of the seismic electromagnetic signals (SEMS) in non crystalline substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, L. C. C.; Yahya, N.; Daud, H.; Shafie, A.

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical model of seismic electromagnetic waves in non crystalline substances is developed and the solutions are discussed to show the possibility of improving the electromagnetic waves especially the electric field. The shear stress of the medium in fourth order tensor gives the equation of motion. Analytic methods are selected for the solutions written in Hansen vector form. From the simulated SEMS, the frequency of seismic waves has significant effects to the SEMS propagating characteristics. EM waves transform into SEMS or energized seismic waves. Traveling distance increases once the frequency of the seismic waves increases from 100% to 1000%. SEMS with greater seismic frequency will give seismic alike waves but greater energy is embedded by EM waves and hence further distance the waves travel.

  5. Assessment of Paint Layers by FE-SEM and EDS Examination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harris, Donovan

    2004-01-01

    .... The approach was to remove free-film samples from each panel, fracture the films, and then examine at high magnification the cross sections using a field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM...

  6. Corrigendum to: Bayesian evaluation of informative hypotheses in SEM using Mplus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Schoot, R.; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Hoijtink, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper corrects: van de Schoot, R., Verhoeven, M., & Hoijtink, H. (2013). Bayesian evaluation ofinformative hypotheses in SEM using Mplus: A black bear story. EuropeanJournal of Developmental Psychology, 10, 81 –98.

  7. Automated CD-SEM recipe creation technology for mass production using CAD data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Toshikazu; Yoshida, Masamichi; Tanaka, Masashi; Ido, Sanyu; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Naokaka; Abe, Yuichi; Nagatomo, Wataru

    2011-03-01

    Critical Dimension Scanning Electron Microscope (CD-SEM) recipe creation needs sample preparation necessary for matching pattern registration, and recipe creation on CD-SEM using the sample, which hinders the reduction in test production cost and time in semiconductor manufacturing factories. From the perspective of cost reduction and improvement of the test production efficiency, automated CD-SEM recipe creation without the sample preparation and the manual operation has been important in the production lines. For the automated CD-SEM recipe creation, we have introduced RecipeDirector (RD) that enables the recipe creation by using Computer-Aided Design (CAD) data and text data that includes measurement information. We have developed a system that automatically creates the CAD data and the text data necessary for the recipe creation on RD; and, for the elimination of the manual operation, we have enhanced RD so that all measurement information can be specified in the text data. As a result, we have established an automated CD-SEM recipe creation system without the sample preparation and the manual operation. For the introduction of the CD-SEM recipe creation system using RD to the production lines, the accuracy of the pattern matching was an issue. The shape of design templates for the matching created from the CAD data was different from that of SEM images in vision. Thus, a development of robust pattern matching algorithm that considers the shape difference was needed. The addition of image processing of the templates for the matching and shape processing of the CAD patterns in the lower layer has enabled the robust pattern matching. This paper describes the automated CD-SEM recipe creation technology for the production lines without the sample preparation and the manual operation using RD applied in Sony Semiconductor Kyusyu Corporation Kumamoto Technology Center (SCK Corporation Kumamoto TEC).

  8. Understanding the Online : Jewellery Retail Market : an integrated model to conduct SEM

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yihong

    2013-01-01

    Research into e-commerce is becoming more and more popular; however the jewellery industry is somewhat special. There are very few studies having adapted a strategic marketing perspective on the online jewellery retail market. This study suggested an integrated online marketing strategy which focuses on the search engine marketing (SEM) approach. A detailed procedure of conducting search engine marketing (SEM) is introduced. Through the method of online questionnaires, with the help of soc...

  9. Why semicarbazide (SEM) is not an appropriate marker for the usage of nitrofurazone on agricultural animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Richard H; Verzegnassi, Ludovica; Seefelder, Walburga; Racault, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive global database on semicarbazide (SEM) in foodstuffs and food ingredients is presented, with over 4000 data collected in foods such as seafood (crustaceans, fish powders), meat (beef, chicken powders), dairy products (e.g. raw milk, milk powders, whey, sweet buttermilk powder, caseinate, yoghurt, cheese), honey and other ingredients. The results provide evidence that the presence of SEM in certain dairy ingredients (whey, milk protein concentrates) is a by-product of chemical reactions taking place during the manufacturing process. Of the dairy ingredients tested (c. 2000 samples), 5.3% showed traces of SEM > 0.5 µg/kg. The highest incidence of SEM-positive samples in the dairy category were whey (powders, liquid) and milk protein concentrates (35% positive), with up to 13 µg/kg measured in a whey powder. Sweet buttermilk powder and caseinate followed, with 27% and 9.3% positives, respectively. SEM was not detected in raw milk, or in yoghurt or cheese. Of the crustacean products (shrimp and prawn powders) tested, 44% were positive for SEM, the highest value measured at 284 µg/kg. Fish powders revealed an unexpectedly high incidence of positive samples (25%); in this case, fraudulent addition of shellfish shells or carry-over during processing cannot be excluded. Overall, the data provide new insights into the occurrence of SEM (for dairy products and fish powders), substantially strengthening the arguments that SEM in certain food categories is not a conclusive marker of the use of the illegal antibiotic nitrofurazone.

  10. Information or resolution: Which is required from an SEM to study bulk inorganic materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Q

    2016-11-01

    Significant technological advances in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been achieved over the past years. Different SEMs can have significant differences in functionality and performance. This work presents the perspectives on selecting an SEM for research on bulk inorganic materials. Understanding materials demands quantitative composition and orientation information, and informative and interpretable images that reveal subtle differences in chemistry, orientation/structure, topography, and electronic structure. The capability to yield informative and interpretable images with high signal-to-noise ratios and spatial resolutions is an overall result of the SEM system as a whole, from the electron optical column to the detection system. The electron optical column determines probe performance. The roles of the detection system are to capture, filter or discriminate, and convert signal electrons to imaging information. The capability to control practical operating parameters including electron probe size and current, acceleration voltage or landing voltage, working distance, detector selection, and signal filtration is inherently determined by the SEM itself. As a platform for various accessories, e.g. an energy-dispersive spectrometer and an electron backscatter diffraction detector, the properties of the electron optical column, specimen chamber, and stage greatly affect the performance of accessories. Ease-of-use and ease-of-maintenance are of practical importance. It is practically important to select appropriate test specimens, design suitable imaging conditions, and analyze the specimen chamber geometry and dimensions to assess the overall functionality and performance of an SEM. For an SEM that is controlled/operated with a computer, the stable software and user-friendly interface significantly improve the usability of the SEM. SCANNING 38:864-879, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The relationship between cost estimates reliability and BIM adoption: SEM analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, N. A. A.; Idris, N. H.; Ramli, H.; Rooshdi, R. R. Raja Muhammad; Sahamir, S. R.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the usage of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach in analysing the effects of Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology adoption in improving the reliability of cost estimates. Based on the questionnaire survey results, SEM analysis using SPSS-AMOS application examined the relationships between BIM-improved information and cost estimates reliability factors, leading to BIM technology adoption. Six hypotheses were established prior to SEM analysis employing two types of SEM models, namely the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) model and full structural model. The SEM models were then validated through the assessment on their uni-dimensionality, validity, reliability, and fitness index, in line with the hypotheses tested. The final SEM model fit measures are: P-value=0.000, RMSEA=0.0790.90, TLI=0.956>0.90, NFI=0.935>0.90 and ChiSq/df=2.259; indicating that the overall index values achieved the required level of model fitness. The model supports all the hypotheses evaluated, confirming that all relationship exists amongst the constructs are positive and significant. Ultimately, the analysis verified that most of the respondents foresee better understanding of project input information through BIM visualization, its reliable database and coordinated data, in developing more reliable cost estimates. They also perceive to accelerate their cost estimating task through BIM adoption.

  12. Raman-in-SEM, a multimodal and multiscale analytical tool: performance for materials and expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Guillaume; Bourrat, Xavier; Maubec, Nicolas; Lahfid, Abdeltif

    2014-12-01

    The availability of Raman spectroscopy in a powerful analytical scanning electron microscope (SEM) allows morphological, elemental, chemical, physical and electronic analysis without moving the sample between instruments. This paper documents the metrological performance of the SEMSCA commercial Raman interface operated in a low vacuum SEM. It provides multiscale and multimodal analyses as Raman/EDS, Raman/cathodoluminescence or Raman/STEM (STEM: scanning transmission electron microscopy) as well as Raman spectroscopy on nanomaterials. Since Raman spectroscopy in a SEM can be influenced by several SEM-related phenomena, this paper firstly presents a comparison of this new tool with a conventional micro-Raman spectrometer. Then, some possible artefacts are documented, which are due to the impact of electron beam-induced contamination or cathodoluminescence contribution to the Raman spectra, especially with geological samples. These effects are easily overcome by changing or adapting the Raman spectrometer and the SEM settings and methodology. The deletion of the adverse effect of cathodoluminescence is solved by using a SEM beam shutter during Raman acquisition. In contrast, this interface provides the ability to record the cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum of a phase. In a second part, this study highlights the interest and efficiency of the coupling in characterizing micrometric phases at the same point. This multimodal approach is illustrated with various issues encountered in geosciences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Feature evaluation of complex hysteresis smoothing and its practical applications to noisy SEM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Oho, Eisaku

    2013-01-01

    Quality of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image is strongly influenced by noise. This is a fundamental drawback of the SEM instrument. Complex hysteresis smoothing (CHS) has been previously developed for noise removal of SEM images. This noise removal is performed by monitoring and processing properly the amplitude of the SEM signal. As it stands now, CHS may not be so utilized, though it has several advantages for SEM. For example, the resolution of image processed by CHS is basically equal to that of the original image. In order to find wide application of the CHS method in microscopy, the feature of CHS, which has not been so clarified until now is evaluated correctly. As the application of the result obtained by the feature evaluation, cursor width (CW), which is the sole processing parameter of CHS, is determined more properly using standard deviation of noise Nσ. In addition, disadvantage that CHS cannot remove the noise with excessively large amplitude is improved by a certain postprocessing. CHS is successfully applicable to SEM images with various noise amplitudes. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Performance of SEM scintillation detector evaluated by modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Jan; Schauer, Petr

    2014-01-01

    In the paper, the SEM detector is evaluated by the modulation transfer function (MTF) which expresses the detector's influence on the SEM image contrast. This is a novel approach, since the MTF was used previously to describe only the area imaging detectors, or whole imaging systems. The measurement technique and calculation of the MTF for the SEM detector are presented. In addition, the measurement and calculation of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of the spatial frequency for the SEM detector are described. In this technique, the time modulated e-beam is used in order to create well-defined input signal for the detector. The MTF and DQE measurements are demonstrated on the Everhart-Thornley scintillation detector. This detector was alternated using the YAG:Ce, YAP:Ce, and CRY18 single-crystal scintillators. The presented MTF and DQE characteristics show good imaging properties of the detectors with the YAP:Ce or CRY18 scintillator, especially for a specific type of the e-beam scan. The results demonstrate the great benefit of the description of SEM detectors using the MTF and DQE. In addition, point-by-point and continual-sweep e-beam scans in SEM were discussed and their influence on the image quality was revealed using the MTF. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. SEM Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Expectations of higher education leaders are high, varied, and numerous. Leaders are expected not only to be visionary, decisive, and articulate, but also to share information, purposes, commitments, and struggles. Effective leaders must know and understand their faculty and staff; insist on realism; set clear goals and priorities; follow through;…

  16. The Effectiveness of Self-Expandable Metallic Stent Insertion in Treating Right-Sided Colonic Obstruction: A Comparison between SEMS and Decompression Tube Placement and an Investigation of the Safety and Difficulties of SEMS Insertion in Right Colons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rintaro Moroi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS is widely used to treat malignant colonic obstruction. However, most reports about SEMS insertion have concentrated on the left colon. This study aimed to (1 investigate the effectiveness of SEMS insertion compared with conventional decompression tube for right-sided colonic obstruction and (2 compare the safety and technical success of SEMS insertion between left- and right-sided colonic obstructions. Methods. The data from thirty-seven patients who underwent SEMS or conventional decompression tube placement for malignant colonic obstruction in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Technical and clinical success, complications, and technical difficulties were analyzed. We compared the results between SEMS insertion and decompression tube placement in right colons and the outcomes of SEMS insertion between right- and left-sided colonic obstructions. Results. For right colons, the clinical success rate of SEMS insertion (100% was significantly higher than that of decompression tube placement (55.9%. Concerning SEMS insertion, the technical difficulty and safety of SEMS insertion were similar between right- and left-sided colonic obstructions. Conclusion. SEMS insertion for right-sided colon is significantly more effective than conventional decompression tube placement, and this procedure was safer and less technically challenging than expected. SEMS insertion should be considered for treating right-sided malignant colonic obstruction.

  17. Recent improvement of a FIB-SEM serial-sectioning method for precise 3D image reconstruction - application of the orthogonally-arranged FIB-SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Toru

    2014-11-01

    IntroductionWe installed the first "orthogonally-arranged" FIB-SEM in 2011. The most characteristic point of this instrument is that the FIB and SEM columns are perpendicularly mounted; this is specially designed to obtain a serial-sectioning dataset more accurately and precisely with higher contrast and higher spatial resolution compare to other current FIB-SEMs [1]. Since the installation in 2011, we have developed the hardware and methodology of the serial-sectioning based on this orthogonal FIB-SEM. In order to develop this technique, we have widely opened this instrument to every researcher of all fields. In the presentation, I would like to introduce some of application results that are obtained by users of this instrument. The characteristic points of the orthogonal systemFigure 1 shows a difference between the standard and the orthogonal FIB-SEM systems: In the standard system, shown in Fig.1(a), optical axes of a FIB and a SEM crosses around 60deg., while in the orthogonal system (Fig.1(b)), they are perpendicular to each other. The standard arrangement (a) is certainly suitable for TEM lamellae preparation etc. because the FIB and the SEM can see the same position simultaneously. However, for a serial-sectioning, it is not to say the best arrangement. One of the reasons is that the sliced plane by the FIB is not perpendicular to the electron beam so that the background contrast is not uniform and observed plane is distorted. On the other hand, in case of the orthogonally-arranged system,(b), these problems are resolved. In addition, spatial resolution can keep high enough even in a low accelerating voltage (e.g. 500V) because a working distance is set very small, 2mm. From these special design, we can obtain the serial-sectioning dataset from rather wide area (∼100um) with high spatial resolution (Max. 2×2×2nm). As this system has many kinds of detectors: SE, ET, Backscatter Electron(Energy-selective), EDS, EBSD, STEM(BF&ADF), with Ar+ ion-gun and a

  18. A combined SEM, CV and EIS study of multi-layered porous ceramic reactors for flue gas purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Zeming; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm; Nygaard, Frederik Berg

    2013-01-01

    The effect of sintering temperature of 12-layered porous ceramic reactors (comprising 5 cells) was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The difference in microstructures of the reactors was evaluated by SEM...

  19. In-situ SEM microchip setup for electrochemical experiments with water based solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, E.; Købler, C.; Jensen, P.S.; Mølhave, K.

    2013-01-01

    Studying electrochemical (EC) processes with electron microscopes offers the possibility of achieving much higher resolution imaging of nanoscale processes in real time than with optical microscopes. We have developed a vacuum sealed liquid sample electrochemical cell with electron transparent windows, microelectrodes and an electrochemical reference electrode. The system, called the EC-SEM Cell, is used to study electrochemical reactions in liquid with a standard scanning electron microscope (SEM). The central component is a microfabricated chip with a thin (50 nm) Si-rich silicon nitride (SiNx) window with lithographically defined platinum microelectrodes. We show here the design principles of the EC-SEM system, its detailed construction and how it has been used to perform a range of EC experiments, two of which are presented here. It is shown that the EC-SEM Cell can survive extended in-situ EC experiments. Before the EC experiments we characterized the beam current being deposited in the liquid as this will affect the experiments. The first EC experiment shows the influence of the electron-beam (e-beam) on a nickel solution by inducing electroless nickel deposition on the window when increasing the current density from the e-beam. The second experiment shows electrolysis in EC-SEM Cell, induced by the built-in electrodes. - Highlights: • New in-situ SEM system for electrochemistry. • In-situ Beam current measurements through liquid. • In-situ SEM E-beam-induced electroless deposition of Ni. • In-situ electrolysis

  20. In-situ SEM microchip setup for electrochemical experiments with water based solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, E., E-mail: eric.jensen@nanotech.dtu.dk [DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, Building 345E, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); DTU CEN, Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej, Building 307, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Købler, C., E-mail: carsten.kobler@nanotech.dtu.dk [DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, Building 345E, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); DTU CEN, Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej, Building 307, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Jensen, P.S., E-mail: psj@kemi.dtu.dk [DTU Kemi, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Building 207, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Mølhave, K., E-mail: kristian.molhave@nanotech.dtu.dk [DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, Building 345E, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2013-06-15

    Studying electrochemical (EC) processes with electron microscopes offers the possibility of achieving much higher resolution imaging of nanoscale processes in real time than with optical microscopes. We have developed a vacuum sealed liquid sample electrochemical cell with electron transparent windows, microelectrodes and an electrochemical reference electrode. The system, called the EC-SEM Cell, is used to study electrochemical reactions in liquid with a standard scanning electron microscope (SEM). The central component is a microfabricated chip with a thin (50 nm) Si-rich silicon nitride (SiNx) window with lithographically defined platinum microelectrodes. We show here the design principles of the EC-SEM system, its detailed construction and how it has been used to perform a range of EC experiments, two of which are presented here. It is shown that the EC-SEM Cell can survive extended in-situ EC experiments. Before the EC experiments we characterized the beam current being deposited in the liquid as this will affect the experiments. The first EC experiment shows the influence of the electron-beam (e-beam) on a nickel solution by inducing electroless nickel deposition on the window when increasing the current density from the e-beam. The second experiment shows electrolysis in EC-SEM Cell, induced by the built-in electrodes. - Highlights: • New in-situ SEM system for electrochemistry. • In-situ Beam current measurements through liquid. • In-situ SEM E-beam-induced electroless deposition of Ni. • In-situ electrolysis.

  1. The importance of scanning electron microscopy (sem in taxonomy and morphology of Chironomidae (Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Kownacki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the value of scanning electron microscopy (SEM in the taxonomy and morphology of Chironomidae. This method has been relatively rarely used in Chironomidae studies. Our studies suggest that the SEM method provides a lot of new information. For example, the plastron plate of the thoracic horn of Macropelopia nebulosa (Meigen under light microscopy is visible as points, while under SEM we have found that it consists of a reticular structure with holes. By using SEM a more precise picture of the body structure of Chironomidae can be revealed. It allows researchers to explain inconsistencies in the existing descriptions of species. Another advantage of the SEM method is obtaining spatial images of the body and organs of Chironomidae. However, the SEM method also has some limitations. The main problem is dirt or debris (e.g. algae, mud, secretions, mucus, bacteria, etc., which often settles on the external surface of structures, especially those which are uneven or covered with hair. The dirt should be removed after collection of chironomid material because if left in place it can become chemically fixed to various surfaces. It unnecessarily remains at the surface and final microscopic images may contain artifacts that obscure chironomid structures being investigated. In this way many details of the surface are thus unreadable. The results reported here indicate that SEM examination helps us to identify new morphological features and details that will facilitate the identification of species of Chironomidae and may help to clarify the function of various parts of the body. Fast development of electron microscope technique allows us to learn more about structure of different organisms.

  2. Evaluation of depth of field in SEM images in terms of the information-passing capacity (IPC) and contrast gradient in SEM image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Mitsugu; Ishitani, Tohru; Watanabe, Shunya; Nakagawa, Mine

    2004-01-01

    The depth of field (DoF) in scanning electron microscope (SEM) images has been determined by estimating the change of image sharpness or resolution near the exact focus position. The image sharpness or resolution along the optical axis is determined by calculating the information-passing capacity (IPC) of an optical system taking into account the effect of pixel size of the image. The change of image sharpness near the exact focus position is determined by measuring the slope gradient of the line profile in SEM images obtained at various focal positions of beam. The change of image sharpness along the optical axis determined by the IPC agrees well with those determined by the slope gradient of line profiles in SEM images when a Gaussian distribution having radius 0.86L p (L p : pixel size in image) at which the intensity has fallen to 1/e of the maximum is applied to the IPC calculation for each pixel intensity. The change of image sharpness near the exact focus position has also been compared with those determined by the CG (Contrast-to-Gradient) method. The CG method slightly underestimates the change of image sharpness compared with those determined by the IPC method

  3. Experimental investigation on 3D-SEM reconstructions of a wire gauge using stereo-pair technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo; Genta, G.; Cantatore, Angela

    2011-01-01

    In this work an experimental investigation is addressed concerning 3D-SEM reconstructions obtained from the so-called stereo-pair technique. Three-dimensional topography of an object can be derived from two SEM images acquired from two different angles, through item rotation by means of the SEM...

  4. A Teoria dos Blocos Semânticos em revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Machado

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A Teoria dos Blocos Semânticos ocupa lugar significativo nos trabalhos mundiais em Semântica, Argumentação e Enunciação, dentre outros. Por isso sua pertinência para a Linguística reclama uma reflexão. O presente trabalho pretende refletir algumas reformulações na Teoria dos Blocos Semânticos nas últimas duas décadas, a saber: (a polifonia, (b bloco semântico, e (c quadrado argumentativo. Especificamente, trataremos das seguintes relações: (a’ da Teoria Polifônica da Enunciação à Teoria Argumentativa da Polifonia; (b’ do bloco semântico ao semi-bloco; e (c’ do quadrado argumentativo ao cubo argumentativo. A necessidade deste trabalho é duplamente justificada: (i devido à constante revisão teórica do arcabouço teórico deste saber, sobretudo na sua última década, característica de Marion Carel e de Oswald Ducrot; e (ii pela falta de tradução/circulação no Brasil de obras fundamentais no que tange à re-elaboração das noções chaves desta teoria.

  5. SEM-REV: A sea test site for Marine Energy Converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berhault, Christian; Le Crom, Izan; Le Bihan, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Thanks to a main funding of Region des Pays de la Loire, the sea test site SEM-REV has been developed by Ecole Centrale de Nantes since 2007 to test both Wave Energy Converters and Floating Wind Turbine in real sea conditions. The sea test site is equipped with a set of oceanographic sensors and with an electric cable of 8 MW, connected to the French grid. The project is located close to Le Croisic, Western coast of France. SEM-REV is one of the main test facilities operated by Ecole Centrale de Nantes to support MRE technologies development. After presenting the initial motivations of the SEM-REV development, the paper describes, in parts 1 and 2, the complete administrative and technical processes that were followed to reach SEM-REV commissioning in 2014. The third part is focused on the exploitation process, including technical and contractual specifications imposed to the MRE developers for installation, tests and decommissioning phases. Some words are given also on the R and D projects using the SEM-REV in-situ monitoring system: prediction of environmental conditions, bio-fooling, acoustic impact. Even if operational phase is not started, expected extensions of the tests site are listed. (authors)

  6. The use of SEM/EDS method in mineralogical analysis of ordinary chondritic meteorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda Mirtič

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersiveX-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS for determination of mineral phases according to their stoichiometry and assessment of mineral composition of ordinary chondritic meteorite. For the purposes of this study, H3 type ordinary chondritic meteorite Abbott was selected. SEM/EDS allows identification and characterisation of mineralphases, whose size is below the resolution of an optical microscope. Mineral phases in chondrules and interstitial matrix were located in backscattered electron (BSE mode and were assessed from atomic proportions of constituent elements, obtained by the EDS analysis. SEM/EDS analyses of mineral phases showed that Abbott meteorite is characterised by Fe-rich (Fe, Ni-alloy kamacite, Fe-sulphide troilite or pyrrhotite, chromite, Mg-rich olivine, orthopyroxene bronzite or hypersthene, clinopyroxene Al-diopside, acid plagioclase oligoclase, accessory mineral chlorapatite and secondary minerals Fe-hydroxides (goethite or lepidocrocite. Results of semi-quantitative analyses confirmed that most of analysed mineralphases conform well to stoichiometric minerals with minor deviations of oxygen from stoichiometric proportions. Comparison between mineral phases in chondrules and interstitial matrix was also performed, however it showed no significant differences in elemental composition.Differences in chemical composition between minerals in interstitial matrix and chondrules are sometimes too small to be discernedby the SEM/EDS, therefore knowledge of SEM/EDS capabilities is important for correct interpretation of chondrite formation.

  7. In Situ Characterization of Boehmite Particles in Water Using Liquid SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Juan; Arey, Bruce W; Yang, Li; Zhang, Fei; Komorek, Rachel; Chun, Jaehun; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2017-09-27

    In situ imaging and elemental analysis of boehmite (AlOOH) particles in water is realized using the System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface (SALVI) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). This paper describes the method and key steps in integrating the vacuum compatible SAVLI to SEM and obtaining secondary electron (SE) images of particles in liquid in high vacuum. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) is used to obtain elemental analysis of particles in liquid and control samples including deionized (DI) water only and an empty channel as well. Synthesized boehmite (AlOOH) particles suspended in liquid are used as a model in the liquid SEM illustration. The results demonstrate that the particles can be imaged in the SE mode with good resolution (i.e., 400 nm). The AlOOH EDX spectrum shows significant signal from the aluminum (Al) when compared with the DI water and the empty channel control. In situ liquid SEM is a powerful technique to study particles in liquid with many exciting applications. This procedure aims to provide technical know-how in order to conduct liquid SEM imaging and EDX analysis using SALVI and to reduce potential pitfalls when using this approach.

  8. New airtight transfer box for SEM experiments: Application to lithium and sodium metals observation and analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephant, Nicolas; Grissa, Rabeb; Guillou, Fanch; Bretaudeau, Mickaël; Borjon-Piron, Yann; Guillet, Jacques; Moreau, Philippe

    2018-04-18

    The surface of some materials reacts very quickly on contact with air, either because it is oxidized or because it gets humidity from the air. For the sake of original surface observation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we conceived an airtight transfer box to keep the samples under vacuum from the place of manufacturing to the SEM chamber. This object is designed to fit in all the models of SEM including those provided with an airlock chamber. The design is voluntarily simplified to allow the manufacturing of the object by a standard mechanical workshop. The transfer box can be easily opened by gravity inside the SEM and allows the preservation of the best vacuum inside, before opening. SEM images and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) analyses of metallic lithium and sodium samples are presented prior and after exposure to the air. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of all samples are also discussed in order to investigate the chemical environments of the detected elements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Orientation mapping by transmission-SEM with an on-axis detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundenberger, J.J.; Bouzy, E.; Goran, D.; Guyon, J.; Yuan, H.; Morawiec, A.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional orientation mapping in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a valuable technique for characterizing crystalline materials, but its application to ultrafine or nano-grain materials is limited by its spatial resolution. The resolution can be increased by collecting transmission diffraction patterns in SEM. In previous works, such patterns were collected using off-axis detectors in nearly vertical position. To avoid some drawbacks of such arrangement, a new configuration was devised in which the scintillator is located underneath the thin foil on the optical axis of the microscope, and the light is reflected towards the camera by a mirror. This simple configuration gives intense patterns even at very low probe currents, and can be potentially used for collecting maps of relatively high spatial resolution. Example maps reveal details with dimensions of about 5 nm. Because of its resolution and geometric simplicity, the proposed configuration will open new opportunities in SEM-based characterization of nanocrystalline materials. - Highlights: • New experimental configuration for SEM-based orientation mapping is presented. • The geometry of recording transmission Kikuchi patterns in SEM is simplified. • The new configuration allows for reaching relatively high spatial resolution.

  10. Surgery on spinal epidural metastases (SEM) in renal cell carcinoma: a plea for a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Nicolaas A; Coppes, Maarten H; Vergeer, Rob A; Kuijlen, Jos M A; Groen, Rob J M

    2014-09-01

    Prediction models for outcome of decompressive surgical resection of spinal epidural metastases (SEM) have in common that they have been developed for all types of SEM, irrespective of the type of primary tumor. It is our experience in clinical practice, however, that these models often fail to accurately predict outcome in the individual patient. To investigate whether decision making could be optimized by applying tumor-specific prediction models. For the proof of concept, we analyzed patients with SEM from renal cell carcinoma that we have operated on. Retrospective chart analysis 2006 to 2012. Twenty-one consecutive patients with symptomatic SEM of renal cell carcinoma. Predictive factors for survival. Next to established predictive factors for survival, we analyzed the predictive value of the Motzer criteria in these patients. The Motzer criteria comprise a specific and validated risk model for survival in patients with renal cell carcinoma. After multivariable analysis, only Motzer intermediate (hazard ratio [HR] 17.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.82-166, p=.01) and high risk (HR 39.3, 95% CI 3.10-499, p=.005) turned out to be significantly associated with survival in patients with renal cell carcinoma that we have operated on. In this study, we have demonstrated that decision making could have been optimized by implementing the Motzer criteria next to established prediction models. We, therefore, suggest that in future, in patients with SEM from renal cell carcinoma, the Motzer criteria are also taken into account. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Soft tissue digestion of Paradiplozoon vaalense for SEM of sclerites and simultaneous molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Q M; Avenant-Oldewage, A

    2015-02-01

    Classification of most monogeneans is primarily based on size, shape, and arrangement of haptoral sclerites. These structures are often obscured or misinterpreted when studied using light microscopy, leading to confusion regarding defining characters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has predominantly been used to study haptoral sclerites in smaller monogeneans, focusing on hooks and anchors. In the Diplozoidae, SEM has not been used to study haptoral sclerites. Using new and modified techniques, the sclerites of diplozoids collected in South Africa were successfully studied using SEM. The digestion buffer from a DNA extraction kit was used to digest the surrounding tissue, and Poly-L-lysine-coated and concavity slides were employed to limit the movement and loss of sclerites, with the latter being more user-friendly. In addition to the success of visualizing the sclerites using SEM, the digested tissue from as little as half of the haptor provided viable genetic material for molecular characterization. From the results presented here, the study of the sclerites of larger monogeneans using SEM, including those bearing clamps, is a viable possibility for future research. Also, this method may be beneficial for the study of other, non-haptoral sclerites, such as cirri in other families of monogeneans. During this study, Labeo capensis was noted as a valid host of Paradiplozoon vaalense in a region of the Vaal River where the type host, Labeo umbratus, appears to be absent.

  12. SEM/EDS and optical microscopy analyses of microplastics in ocean trawl and fish guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Min; Wagner, Jeff; Ghosal, Sutapa; Bedi, Gagandeep; Wall, Stephen

    2017-12-15

    Microplastic particles from Atlantic and Pacific Ocean trawls, lab-fed fish guts and ocean fish guts have been characterized using optical microscopy and SEM/EDS in terms of size, morphology, and chemistry. We assessed whether these measurements could serve as a rapid screening process for subsequent identification of the likely microplastic candidates by micro-spectroscopy. Optical microscopy enabled morphological classification of the types of particles or fibers present in the sample, as well as the quantification of particle size ranges and fiber lengths. SEM/EDS analysis was used to rule out non-plastic particles and screen the prepared samples for potential microplastic, based on their element signatures and surface characteristics. Chlorinated plastics such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) could be easily identified with SEM/EDS due to their unique elemental signatures including chlorine, as could mineral species that are falsely identified as plastics by optical microscopy. Particle morphology determined by optical microscopy and SEM suggests the fish ingested particles contained both degradation fragments from larger plastic pieces and also manufactured microplastics. SEM images of microplastic particle surfaces revealed characteristic cracks consistent with environmental exposure, as well as pigment particles consistent with manufactured materials. Most of the microplastic surfaces in the fish guts and ocean trawls were covered with biofilms, radiolarians, and crustaceans. Many of the fish stomachs contained micro-shell pieces which visually resembled microplastics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Minimal resin embedding of multicellular specimens for targeted FIB-SEM imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieber, Nicole L; Machado, Pedro; Markert, Sebastian M; Stigloher, Christian; Schwab, Yannick; Steyer, Anna M

    2017-01-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) is a powerful tool to perform ultrastructural analysis of targeted tissues or cells. The large field of view of the light microscope (LM) enables quick and efficient surveys of the whole specimen. It is also compatible with live imaging, giving access to functional assays. CLEM protocols take advantage of the features to efficiently retrace the position of targeted sites when switching from one modality to the other. They more often rely on anatomical cues that are visible both by light and electron microscopy. We present here a simple workflow where multicellular specimens are embedded in minimal amounts of resin, exposing their surface topology that can be imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). LM and SEM both benefit from a large field of view that can cover whole model organisms. As a result, targeting specific anatomic locations by focused ion beam-SEM (FIB-SEM) tomography becomes straightforward. We illustrate this application on three different model organisms, used in our laboratory: the zebrafish embryo Danio rerio, the marine worm Platynereis dumerilii, and the dauer larva of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we focus on the experimental steps to reduce the amount of resin covering the samples and to image the specimens inside an FIB-SEM. We expect this approach to have widespread applications for volume electron microscopy on multiple model organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Refinement of Monte Carlo simulations of electron-specimen interaction in low-voltage SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieft, Erik; Bosch, Eric

    2008-01-01

    A Monte Carlo tool is presented for the simulation of secondary electron (SE) emission in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tool is based on the Geant4 platform of CERN. The modularity of this platform makes it comparatively easy to add and test individual physical models. Our aim has been to develop a flexible and generally applicable tool, while at the same time including a good description of low-energy (<50 eV) interactions of electrons with matter. To this end we have combined Mott cross-sections with phonon-scattering based cross-sections for the elastic scattering of electrons, and we have adopted a dielectric function theory approach for inelastic scattering and generation of SEs. A detailed model of the electromagnetic fields from an actual SEM column has been included in the tool for ray tracing of secondary and backscattered electrons. Our models have been validated against experimental results through comparison of the simulation results with experimental yields, SE spectra and SEM images. It is demonstrated that the resulting simulation package is capable of quantitatively predicting experimental SEM images and is an important tool in building a deeper understanding of SEM imaging.

  15. Electromyographic preactivation pattern of the gluteus medius during weight-bearing functional tasks in women with and without anterior knee pain Padrão de pré-ativação eletromiográfica do glúteo médio durante atividades funcionais com descarga de peso em mulheres com e sem dor anterior do joelho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa H. Nakagawa

    2011-02-01

    ão foram conclusivos; assim, há necessidade de estudar a pré-ativação do GM durante atividades funcionais. OBJETIVO: Comparar o padrão de pré-ativação eletromiográfica (EMG do GM durante a caminhada, descida de degraus e salto unipodal entre mulheres com e sem DAJ. MÉTODOS: Nove mulheres com diagnóstico clínico de DAJ e dez mulheres sem história de lesão no joelho participaram do estudo. Avaliou-se a envoltória linear do sinal EMG do GM antes do contato do pé no solo, durante caminhada; o tempo de ativação do GM e a envoltória linear do sinal EMG durante descida de degraus e salto unipodal. Utilizou-se o teste Mann-Whitney para determinar a diferença intergrupos no padrão de pré-ativação EMG do GM. RESULTADOS: Não se encontrou nenhuma diferença intergrupos na envoltória linear do GM durante caminhada (P=0.41, no tempo de ativação e na envoltória linear, durante descida de degraus (P=0.17 e P=0.15 e salto unipodal (P=0.81 e P=0.33. CONCLUSÕES: Mulheres com DAJ não apresentaram alterações significativas no padrão de pré-ativação do GM durante atividades funcionais. Os presentes resultados não sustentam a hipótese de que o pobre padrão de pré-ativação do GM esteja envolvido na DAJ.

  16. Diferenciação genética entre populações de Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Agassiz, 1829 (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae isoladas pelos saltos de Guaíra do rio Paraná Genetic differentiation among populations of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Agassiz, 1829 (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae isolated by the Guaíra Falls in the Paraná River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Alves Pinto Prioli

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Os saltos de Guaíra, também denominados Sete Quedas, constituíam até 1982 uma barreira para a dispersão de peixes migradores. Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar se populações de Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae eram isoladas pelos saltos de Guaíra. Amostras provenientes da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná (PL, do reservatório Itaipu (IT e de jusante de Yacyretá (YA, foram comparadas por RAPD. O FST de Lynch foi significativo entre PL e IT (0,090 e PL e YA (0,112. O fluxo gênico estimado (Nm variou de 2,0 entre PL e YA a 8,1 entre IT e YA, e a distância genética de Nei de D = 0,0638 entre PL e YA a D = 0,0174 entre IT e YA. Estes resultados indicam existência de diferenciação genética e que, possivelmente, Sete Quedas isolavam reprodutivamente as populações. Sugerem, também, a possibilidade de áreas diferentes de desova, impedindo parcialmente a homogeneização genética das populações IT e PL.Until 1982, the Guaíra Falls, also named the Seven Falls, constituted a barrier to the dispersion of migratory fish in the Paraná River. The objective of this work was to verify if populations of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae were isolated by the Guaíra Falls. Samples from the Upper Paraná River floodplain (PL, the Itaipu reservoir (IT, and downstream Yacyretá reservoir (YA were compared by RAPD markers. Lynch's FST was significant between PL and IT (0.090, and PL and YA (0.112. Estimated gene flow (Nm varied from 2.0 between PL and YA to 8.1 between IT and YA. Nei's genetic distance varied from D = 0.0638 between PL and YA to D = 0.0174 between IT and YA. These results indicate the existence of genetic differentiation and that, possibly, the Guaíra Falls isolated the populations reproductively. They also suggest the possibility of different spawning areas, partially avoiding the genetic homogenization of the IT and PL populations.

  17. Efecto de un calentamiento con estiramientos estáticos y dinámicos sobre el salto horizontal y la capacidad para repetir esprint con cambio de dirección. [Effect of warm-up with static and dynamic stretching on the horizontal jump and repeated sprint ability with changes of direction].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez-Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido comparar el efecto de tres calentamientos diferentes (calentamiento aeróbico de baja intensidad, estiramiento estático y estiramiento dinámico sobre el salto horizontal y la capacidad de repetir esprint con cambios de dirección. Diecisiete practicantes de deportes de equipo de 20.8±1.1 años realizaron 3 tipos de calentamiento (10 min: ejercicio aeróbico sin estiramiento (CAE, con estiramiento estático (CAES y con estiramiento dinámico (CAED. Se estudió el efecto agudo de cada calentamiento sobre el rendimiento en una prueba de salto horizontal (SH y un test de repetición de esprint con cambio de dirección (RSCOD. No se obtuvieron diferencias significativas (p>0,05 en ninguna de las variables en función del calentamiento realizado. El tamaño del efecto (TE indicó que probablemente el RSCODmejor sea más sensible al CAE que al CAES (TE: 0,52 y al CAED (TE: 0,44. El escaso efecto de los estiramientos estáticos sobre el rendimiento en SH y RSCOD puede ser debido a la dosis, la intensidad y el tiempo de recuperación empleado. Los estiramientos dinámicos no mejoraron el rendimiento en SH y RSCOD. Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of three different warm-ups (low intensity aerobic warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on the horizontal jump and repeated sprint ability with changes of direction. Seventeen players of team sports whose age was 20.8±1.1 years old performed three types of warm up (10 minutes: aerobic exercise without stretching (WU, with static stretching (WUSS and with dynamic stretching (WUDS. The acute effect of each warming over performance was studied in a test of horizontal jump (HJ and repeat sprint test with change of direction (RSCD. No significant differences were obtained (p>0.05 in any of the variables studied according to the warming developed. The effect size (ES indicated that probably RSCDbest was more sensitive to WU than WUDS (ES

  18. Speciation of uranium in minerals by Sem, Tem, μ-PIXE, XPS and XAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshihiko Ohnuki; Hiroshi Isobe; Tomihiro Kamiya; Takuro Sakai; Takashi Murakami

    2001-01-01

    Many kinds of electromagnetic waves and particle beams are used as analytical probes for the investigation of uranium-mineralogy and speciation. The representatives of the probes are SEM, TEM, μ-PIRE, XPS and XAFS. Each of these analytical probes has its own advantages and disadvantages. We have performed studies to compare the advantages and disadvantages on the basis of the analysis of the distribution and speciation of U containing rock samples collected at the Koongarra uranium deposit, Australia. The spatial resolutions of the probes are in the order of TEM>SEM, μ-PIXE>XFAS, XPS. The lower detection limits of the probes are in the order of μ-PIXE< TEM, SEM< XFAS, XPS. Oxidation state of U was determined by XFAS and XPS. These results indicate that combination of the above probes can give us sufficient data on U speciation not only in natural rock samples but in solid samples obtained in the laboratory. (authors)

  19. Carotene location in processed food samples measured by cryo In-SEM Raman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia; Schumm, Stephan; Pudney, Paul D A; Hazekamp, Johan

    2011-09-21

    Cryo In-SEM Raman has been used for the first time to localise carotene compounds in a food matrix. Raman spectra of lycopene and β-carotene have been obtained from sampling oil droplets and plant cell structures visualised with cryo-SEM in tomato and carrot based emulsions containing 5% oil. It was possible to identify the carotenoids in both the oil droplets and the cell walls. Furthermore our results gave some indication that the carotenoids were in the non-crystalline state. It has been suggested that a higher amount of carotenes solubilised into the oil phase of the food matrix would lead to a higher bioaccessibility, thus understanding the effect of processing conditions on micronutrients distribution in a food matrix might help the design of plant based food products with a better nutritional quality. This shows improved structural characterisation of the cryo-SEM with the molecular sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy as a promising approach for complex biological problems.

  20. The advancement of the built environment research through employment of structural equation modeling (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilah, S.; Fahmyddin, T.

    2018-03-01

    The employment of structural equation modeling (SEM) in research has taken an increasing attention in among researchers in built environment. There is a gap to understand the attributes, application, and importance of this approach in data analysis in built environment study. This paper intends to provide fundamental comprehension of SEM method in data analysis, unveiling attributes, employment and significance and bestow cases to assess associations amongst variables and constructs. The study uses some main literature to grasp the essence of SEM regarding with built environment research. The better acknowledgment of this analytical tool may assist the researcher in the built environment to analyze data under complex research questions and to test multivariate models in a single study.

  1. High resolution SEM characterization of nano-precipitates in ODS steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwik, Iwona; Strojny-Nędza, Agata; Chmielewski, Marcin; Pietrzak, Katarzyna; Kurpaska, Łukasz; Nosewicz, Szymon

    2018-05-01

    The performance of the present-day scanning electron microscopy (SEM) extends far beyond delivering electronic images of the surface topography. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel is on of the most promising materials for the future nuclear fusion reactor because of its good radiation resistance, and higher operation temperature up to 750°C. The microstructure of ODS should not exceed tens of nm, therefore there is a strong need in a fast and reliable technique for their characterization. In this work, the results of low-kV SEM characterization of nanoprecipitates formed in the ODS matrix are presented. Application of highly sensitive photo-diode BSE detector in SEM imaging allowed for the registration of single nm-sized precipitates in the vicinity of the ODS alloys. The composition of the precipitates has been confirmed by TEM-EDS. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Enhanced EDX images by fusion of multimodal SEM images using pansharpening techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, G; Angulo, J; Moreaud, M; Sorbier, L

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the potential interest of image fusion in the context of multimodal scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. In particular, we aim at merging the backscattered electron images that usually have a high spatial resolution but do not provide enough discriminative information to physically classify the nature of the sample, with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) images that have discriminative information but a lower spatial resolution. The produced images are named enhanced EDX. To achieve this goal, we have compared the results obtained with classical pansharpening techniques for image fusion with an original approach tailored for multimodal SEM fusion of information. Quantitative assessment is obtained by means of two SEM images and a simulated dataset produced by a software based on PENELOPE. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  3. Development of an Economical Interfacing Circuit for Upgrading of SEM Data Printing System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnachaiya, S.; Thong-Aram, D.

    2002-01-01

    The operating conditions of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) i.e., magnification, accelerating voltage, micron mark and film identification labeling, are very important for the accurate interpretation of a micrograph picture. In the old model SEM, the built-in data printing system for film identification can be inputted only the numerical number. This will be made a confusing problems when various operating conditions were applied in routine work. An economical interfacing circuit, therefore, was developed to upgrade the data printing system for capable of alphanumerical labeling. The developed circuit was tested on both data printing systems of JSM-T220 and JSM-T330 (JEOL SEM). It was found that the interfacing function worked properly and easily installed

  4. Comparison of multilayered nanowire imaging by SEM and Helium Ion Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inkson, B J; Peng, Y; Jepson, M A E; Rodenburg, C; Liu, X

    2010-01-01

    The helium ion microscope (HeIM) is capable of probe sizes smaller than SEM and, with intrinsically small ion/sample interaction volumes, may therefore potentially offer higher spatial resolution secondary electron (SE) imaging of nanostructures. Here 55 nm diameter CoPt/Pt multilayered nanowires have been imaged by HeIM, SEM and TEM. It is found that there is an increased resolution of nanowire surface topography in HeIM SE images compared to SEM, however there is a reduction of materials contrast of the alternating Pt and CoPt layers. This can be attributed to the increased contribution of surface contamination layers to the ion-induced SE signal, and carbon is also observed to grow on the nanowires under prolonged HeIM scanning.

  5. Precise and economic FIB/SEM for CLEM: with 2 nm voxels through mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckner, Manja; Wanner, Gerhard

    2018-05-23

    A portfolio is presented documenting economic, high-resolution correlative focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) in routine, comprising: (i) the use of custom-labeled slides and coverslips, (ii) embedding of cells in thin, or ultra-thin resin layers for correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) and (iii) the claim to reach the highest resolution possible with FIB/SEM in xyz. Regions of interest (ROIs) defined in light microscope (LM), can be relocated quickly and precisely in SEM. As proof of principle, HeLa cells were investigated in 3D context at all stages of the cell cycle, documenting ultrastructural changes during mitosis: nuclear envelope breakdown and reassembly, Golgi degradation and reconstitution and the formation of the midzone and midbody.

  6. Encontros e desvios nos semáforos: investigando artistas em Florianópolis/SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz S. Albino

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2178-4582.2012v46n2p469 A ideia de investigar artistas que atuam em semáforos de Florianópolis/SC teve sua origem em um estranhamento que nos fez vê-los na forma de uma alteridade radical. A pesquisa etnográfica permitiu descobrir relações simbólicas de pertencimentoe de desvio entre os artistas, destacando-se a figura de um “outro”, próximo, mas perigoso, que partilha simbolicamente os semáforos: o micróbio, estrangeiro que faria confundir o artista com a marginalidade. No semáforo ocorre também, no entanto, a reafirmação, por meio das performances dos artistas, do que deles é esperado: a comicidade, o virtuosismo, a aparência adequada.

  7. PAT and SEM study of porous silicon formed by anodization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jian; Wei Long; Wang Huiyao; Ma Chuangxin; Wang Baoyi

    2000-01-01

    The porous silicon formed by anodization of crystal silicon was studied by positron annihilation technique (PAT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The PAT experiments showed that the mean life and vacancy defects increased with the increasing anodization time. While the intensities of the longest lifetime, several ns-tens ns (ortho-positronium) dropped down. Small single-crystal Si spheres with mean radius of a few μm were observed by SEM after anodization. Pits with mean radius of a few μm from the divorcement of single-crystal spheres were also observed after further anodization. The increases of vacancy defects might be that the extension of structures of porous silicon towards inner layer with anodization time and caused more vacancy defects in inner layer. The SEM observation presented another possibility of the increase of density of vacancy defects in surface layer induced by the change of structures

  8. SEM studies of the structure of the gels prepared from untreated and radiation modified potato starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieśla, Krystyna; Sartowska, Bożena; Królak, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Potato starch was irradiated with a 60 Co gamma rays using doses of 5, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. Gels containing ca. 9.1% of starch were prepared by heating the starch suspensions in the heating chamber stabilized at 100 °C. Four procedures were applied for preparation of the samples in regard to SEM studies and the ability to observe the radiation effect by SEM was assessed for each method. Differences were observed between the SEM images recorded for the non-irradiated samples prepared using all the methods, and those irradiated. Images of the non-irradiated gels indicate generally a honey-comb structure, while smooth areas but with oriented fractures has appeared after irradiation. Modification of gel structure corresponds to the applied dose. The results were related to the process of gel formation (as observed by means of the hot stage microscope) to decrease in swelling power of the irradiated starch and to decreased viscosity of the resulting gels. It can be concluded that the differences in structural properties of gels shown by SEM result probably due to the better homogenization of the gels formed after radiation induced degradation. - Highlights: • Four procedures of the preservation of starch gels for SEM studies were applied. • The ability to observe the radiation effect by SEM was assessed for each method. • Dose dependent changes in the gel structure were discovered. • It was related to decrease in the swelling power and decreased viscosity of the gels. • A hot-stage microscope was applied in order to follow the gelatinization process

  9. A SEM-correlation of the anatomy of the vitreous body: making visible the invisible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongebloed, W L; Humalda, D; Worst, J F

    1986-12-30

    The naked human vitreous (sclera, iris and cornea removed) suspended in water does not reveal inner structures. After ink injection into the vitreous, the presence of different compartments and the existence of cisterns becomes evident. A concept of the internal system of cisterns is given on the basis of stereoscopic-lightmicroscopic images. An attempt is made to correlate images of the complete vitreous body, obtained with a stereo-lightmicroscope, with images of segments of cisternal walls produced with a scanning electron-microscope (SEM). A comparison is made between SEM-images of the vitreous bodies of human and rabbit eyes.

  10. Neuropsicología de la demencia semántica

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Quintero, Luz Helena

    2012-01-01

    La Demencia Semántica causa alteraciones en la capacidad para recordar el significado de las palabras, rostros y objetos, producto de atrofia asimétrica o bilateral de los lóbulos temporales anteriores. Clínicamente se han observado múltiples síndromes clínicos superpuestos con otras enfermedades degenerativas como la Afasia Primaria Progresiva y la Demencia tipo Alzheimer. El propósito de este estudio fue identificar alteraciones lingüísticas y semánticas en un grupo de pacientes con Demenci...

  11. SEM-EDX IDENTIFICATION OF PARTICLES FROM FOG IN AN INDUSTRIALLY POLLUTED REGION OF CZECH REPUBLIC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stoyanova, V.; Shoumkova, A.; Fišák, Jaroslav; Tsacheva, Ts.

    Vol. II - BUA32, č. 1 (2010), s. 269-276 ISSN 1314-2704. [International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2010 /10./. Albena, 20.06.2010-26.06.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : SEM-EDX * solid atmospheric pollutants * trace elements * heavy metals * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.ipc.bas.bg/PPages/Shoumkova/Publications/Articles/2010%20SEM-EDX%20identification%20of%20FP.pdf

  12. SEM examination and analysis of the interface character in surface modified aramid-epoxy composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.; Khan, M.B.; Hussain, R.

    2011-01-01

    The surface of Kevlar fibers is chemically modified by treatment with Phthalic anhydride (PA) and the effect is examined by SEM for the laser cut, three point bending and interlaminar shear delaminated surfaces. The surface modification improved the adhesion to epoxy resin that clearly leads to cohesive fracture as opposed to interfacial failure in the untreated specimen. SEM reveals marginal surface roughening of fibers without compromising their strength. The interface modification technique described in this paper is attractive thermodynamically as it does not compromise surface free energy of the polymer matrix or that of the fiber itself to enhance wet ability. (author)

  13. El adjetivo en el Nuevo Testamento: clasificación semántica

    OpenAIRE

    Romero González, Dámaris

    2011-01-01

    El adjetivo ha sido estudiado habitualmente desde el punto de vista del sustantivo, como una subclase de éste, ya que ambos poseen una morfología similar. Semánticamente, la mayoría de las gramáticas los clasifican según su capacidad para calificar o determinar al sustantivo, denominándolo calificativo y determinativo respectivamente. Dentro de esta clasificación, se han establecido subgrupos basados en criterios semánticos. Por tanto, el propósito de esta tesis es esbozar una nueva...

  14. SEM analysis of ionizing radiation effects in linear integrated circuits. [Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, A. G.; Gauthier, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    A successful diagnostic technique was developed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) as a precision tool to determine ionization effects in integrated circuits. Previous SEM methods radiated the entire semiconductor chip or major areas. The large area exposure methods do not reveal the exact components which are sensitive to radiation. To locate these sensitive components a new method was developed, which consisted in successively irradiating selected components on the device chip with equal doses of electrons /10 to the 6th rad (Si)/, while the whole device was subjected to representative bias conditions. A suitable device parameter was measured in situ after each successive irradiation with the beam off.

  15. Wi-Fi Salvador: mapeamento colaborativo e redes sem fio no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, André; Pastor, Leonardo; Oliveira, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    O trabalho faz uma breve demonstração de políticas públicas para inclusão digital por meio da disponibilização do acesso à internet por meio de redes sem fio e discute a forma como as pessoas se relacionam com os lugares, de acordo com a existência ou inexistência de acessibilidade à internet. O objetivo é discutir o acesso à internet pelas redes sem fio no Brasil e, mais especificamente, na cidade de Salvador. Este trabalho é fruto de pesquisa realizada no âmbito do Grupo de Pesquisa em Cibe...

  16. Mapping the Complex Morphology of Cell Interactions with Nanowire Substrates Using FIB-SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Rafal; Købler, Carsten; Jensen, Mikkel Ravn Boye

    2013-01-01

    Using high resolution focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) we study the details of cell-nanostructure interactions using serial block face imaging. 3T3 Fibroblast cellular monolayers are cultured on flat glass as a control surface and on two types of nanostructured scaffold...... substrates made from silicon black (Nanograss) with low- and high nanowire density. After culturing for 72 hours the cells were fixed, heavy metal stained, embedded in resin, and processed with FIB-SEM block face imaging without removing the substrate. The sample preparation procedure, image acquisition...

  17. STEM mode in the SEM for the analysis of cellular sections prepared by ultramicrotome sectioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondow, N; Harrington, J; Brydson, R; Brown, A

    2012-01-01

    The use of the dual imaging capabilities of a scanning electron microscope fitted with a transmitted electron detector is highlighted in the analysis of samples with importance in the field of nanotoxicology. Cellular uptake of nanomaterials is often examined by transmission electron microscopy of thin sections prepared by ultramicrotome sectioning. Examination by SEM allows for the detection of artefacts caused by sample preparation (eg. nanomaterial pull-out) and the complementary STEM mode permits study of the interaction between nanomaterials and cells. Thin sections of two nanomaterials of importance in nanotoxicology (cadmium selenide quantum dots and single walled carbon nanotubes) are examined using STEM mode in the SEM.

  18. Marginal adaptation of a low-shrinkage silorane-based composite: A SEM-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Malene; Bindslev, Preben Hørsted; Poulsen, Sven

    2012-01-01

    shrinkage, has been marketed. Objective. To investigate whether reduced polymerization shrinkage improves the marginal adaptation of composite restorations. Material and methods. A total of 156 scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures (78 baseline, 78 follow-up) of the occlusal part of Class II......-casts of the restorations were used for SEM pictures at x 16 magnification. Pictures from baseline and follow-up (398 days, SD 29 days) were randomized and the examiner was blinded to the material and the age of the restoration. Stereologic measurements were used to calculate the length and the width of the marginal...

  19. Separating topographical and chemical analysis of nanostructure of polymer composite in low voltage SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Q; Plenderleith, R A; Claeyssens, F; Rodenburg, C; Dapor, M; Rimmer, S

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of separating the topographical and chemical information in a polymer nano-composite using low-voltage SEM imaging is demonstrated, when images are acquired with a Concentric Backscattered (CBS) detector. This separation of chemical and topographical information is based on the different angular distribution of electron scattering which were calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation based on angular restricted detection was applied to a semi-branched PNIPAM/PEGDA interpenetration network for which a linear relationship of topography SEM contrast and feature height data was observed. (paper)

  20. Cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM)-in-SEM for Bio- and Organo-Mineral Interface Characterization in the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Guillaume; Hellal, Jennifer; Ollivier, Patrick; Richard, Annie; Burel, Agnes; Jolly, Louis; Crampon, Marc; Michel, Caroline

    2017-12-01

    Understanding biofilm interactions with surrounding substratum and pollutants/particles can benefit from the application of existing microscopy tools. Using the example of biofilm interactions with zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI), this study aims to apply various approaches in biofilm preparation and labeling for fluorescent or electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) microanalysis for accurate observations. According to the targeted microscopy method, biofilms were sampled as flocs or attached biofilm, submitted to labeling using 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindol, lectins PNA and ConA coupled to fluorescent dye or gold nanoparticles, and prepared for observation (fixation, cross-section, freezing, ultramicrotomy). Fluorescent microscopy revealed that nZVI were embedded in the biofilm structure as aggregates but the resolution was insufficient to observe individual nZVI. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations showed nZVI aggregates close to bacteria, but it was not possible to confirm direct interactions between nZVI and cell membranes. Scanning transmission electron microscopy in the SEM (STEM-in-SEM) showed that nZVI aggregates could enter the biofilm to a depth of 7-11 µm. Bacteria were surrounded by a ring of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) preventing direct nZVI/membrane interactions. STEM/EDS mapping revealed a co-localization of nZVI aggregates with lectins suggesting a potential role of EPS in nZVI embedding. Thus, the combination of divergent microscopy approaches is a good approach to better understand and characterize biofilm/metal interactions.

  1. 3D SEM for surface topography quantification – a case study on dental surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glon, F; Flys, O; Lööf, P-J; Rosén, B-G

    2014-01-01

    3D analysis of surface topography is becoming a more used tool for industry and research. New ISO standards are being launched to assist in quantifying engineering surfaces. The traditional optical measuring instrumentation used for 3D surface characterization has been optical interferometers and confocal based instrumentation. However, the resolution here is limited in the lateral dimension to the wavelength of visible light to about 500 nm. The great advantage using the SEM for topography measurements is the high flexibility to zoom from low magnifications and locating interesting areas to high magnification of down to nanometer large surface features within seconds. This paper presents surface characterization of dental implant micro topography. 3D topography data was created from SEM images using commercial photogrammetric software. A coherence scanning interferometer was used for reference measurements to compare with the 3D SEM measurements on relocated areas. As a result of this study, measurements emphasizes that the correlation between the accepted CSI measurements and the new technology represented by photogrammetry based on SEM images for many areal characterization parameters are around or less than 20%. The importance of selecting sampling and parameter sensitivity to varying sampling is high-lighted. Future work includes a broader study of limitations of the photogrammetry technique on certified micro-geometries and more application surfaces at different scales

  2. Latent vs. Observed Variables : Analysis of Irrigation Water Efficiency Using SEM and SUR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Jianjun; Folmer, Henk

    In this paper we compare conceptualising single factor technical and allocative efficiency as indicators of a single latent variable, or as separate observed variables. In the former case, the impacts on both efficiency types are analysed by means of structural equationmodeling (SEM), in the latter

  3. 3D reconstruction of SEM images by use of optical photogrammetry software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulitz, Mona; Reiss, Gebhard

    2015-08-01

    Reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) surface of an object to be examined is widely used for structure analysis in science and many biological questions require information about their true 3D structure. For Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) there has been no efficient non-destructive solution for reconstruction of the surface morphology to date. The well-known method of recording stereo pair images generates a 3D stereoscope reconstruction of a section, but not of the complete sample surface. We present a simple and non-destructive method of 3D surface reconstruction from SEM samples based on the principles of optical close range photogrammetry. In optical close range photogrammetry a series of overlapping photos is used to generate a 3D model of the surface of an object. We adapted this method to the special SEM requirements. Instead of moving a detector around the object, the object itself was rotated. A series of overlapping photos was stitched and converted into a 3D model using the software commonly used for optical photogrammetry. A rabbit kidney glomerulus was used to demonstrate the workflow of this adaption. The reconstruction produced a realistic and high-resolution 3D mesh model of the glomerular surface. The study showed that SEM micrographs are suitable for 3D reconstruction by optical photogrammetry. This new approach is a simple and useful method of 3D surface reconstruction and suitable for various applications in research and teaching. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hacia una visión generativista de la semántica lexical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales A. Bernardo

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Uno de los objetivos de la teoría semántica de una lengua natural es dar información satisfactoria sobre el significado de las formas lingüísticas. Consideramos que de éstas, las de mayor  importancia significativa son la palabra, la oración y el texto. La palabra, porque en virtud de su compleja estructura semántica y psicológica funciona como el principal medio para la abstracción y conformación de los conceptos destinados para la comunicación; la oración, porque es la unidad de la lengua viva que expresa relaciones de conceptos; el texto, porque es la explicitación del pensamiento en la interacción humana. Las semánticas lexical, oracional y textual son los tres grandes capítulos de la semántica lingüística.


  5. Surface topography characterization using 3D stereoscopic reconstruction of SEM images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantha Krishna, Amogh; Flys, Olena; Reddy, Vijeth V.; Rosén, B. G.

    2018-06-01

    A major drawback of the optical microscope is its limitation to resolve finer details. Many microscopes have been developed to overcome the limitations set by the diffraction of visible light. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is one such alternative: it uses electrons for imaging, which have much smaller wavelength than photons. As a result high magnification with superior image resolution can be achieved. However, SEM generates 2D images which provide limited data for surface measurements and analysis. Often many research areas require the knowledge of 3D structures as they contribute to a comprehensive understanding of microstructure by allowing effective measurements and qualitative visualization of the samples under study. For this reason, stereo photogrammetry technique is employed to convert SEM images into 3D measurable data. This paper aims to utilize a stereoscopic reconstruction technique as a reliable method for characterization of surface topography. Reconstructed results from SEM images are compared with coherence scanning interferometer (CSI) results obtained by measuring a roughness reference standard sample. This paper presents a method to select the most robust/consistent surface texture parameters that are insensitive to the uncertainties involved in the reconstruction technique itself. Results from the two-stereoscopic reconstruction algorithms are also documented in this paper.

  6. Characterisation of early medieval frescoes by {mu}-PIXE, SEM and Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchiatti, A. E-mail: zucc@ge.infn.it; Prati, P.; Bouquillon, A.; Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Migliori, A.; Cagnana, A.; Roascio, S

    2004-06-01

    We have studied the VIII-IX century frescoes of the Longobard temple of Cividale del Friuli in Italy with noninvasive sampling and, for the first time in such a context, with high chemical and spatial sensitivity techniques (PIXE, SEM and Raman). Results demonstrate richness of manufacturing details and integrate in a substantial way the historic and artistic framework of this early medieval monument.

  7. 78 FR 50079 - Information Collection Activities: Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS); Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement [Docket ID BSEE-2013-0005; OMB Control Number 1014-0017: 134E1700D2 EEEE500000 ET1SF0000.DAQ000] Information Collection Activities: Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS); Proposed Collection; Comment Request...

  8. MORPHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN LENS CAPSULES - A COMPARATIVE LM, SEM AND TEM EXAMINATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONGEBLOED, WL; KALICHARAN, D; LOS, LI; VANDERVEEN, G; WORST, JGF

    1991-01-01

    Lens capsules of patients of advanced age, obtained after extracapsular cataract surgery, were carefully prepared for a combined LM, TEM and SEM investigation, after preliminary washing and mounting onto a holder in a buffer solution. After pre-fixation with GA, samples were postfixed for LM/TEM and

  9. HUMAN CAPSULE EPITHELIAL-CELL DEGENERATION A LM, SEM AND TEM INVESTIGATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONGEBLOED, WL; KALICHARAN, D; WORST, JGF

    1993-01-01

    The degeneration of the capsule epithelium of cataractous lenses has been studied with LM, SEM on TEM with emphases on TEM. The observed degeneration of the epithelial cells can be described as follows: The cell nucleus becomes picnotic and desintegrates as result of change of the chromatin.

  10. Analysis the fatigue using pro taper rotary instruments durin instrumentation of extrated mandibular premolars. SEM observation.

    OpenAIRE

    Siragusa, Martha; Racciatti, Gabriela; García, María

    2007-01-01

    Recibido: Marzo 2007 Aceptado: Julio 2007 Siragusa, Martha; Racciatti, Gabriela y García, María. Analysis the fatigue using pro taper rotary instruments durin instrumentation of extrated mandibular premolars. SEM observation. Electronic Journal of Endodontics Rosario [Online], Volumen 2 Número 13. [octubre 2007]. http://www.endojournal.com.ar/journal/index.php/ejer/article/view/44. ISSN 1666-6143.

  11. Integration of Correlative Raman microscopy in a dual beam FIB-SEM J. of Raman Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Frank Jan; Liszka, B.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Otto, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    We present an integrated confocal Raman microscope in a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB SEM). The integrated system enables correlative Raman and electron microscopic analysis combined with focused ion beam sample modification on the same sample location. This provides new

  12. Characterisation of early medieval frescoes by μ-PIXE, SEM and Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Prati, P.; Bouquillon, A.; Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Migliori, A.; Cagnana, A.; Roascio, S.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the VIII-IX century frescoes of the Longobard temple of Cividale del Friuli in Italy with noninvasive sampling and, for the first time in such a context, with high chemical and spatial sensitivity techniques (PIXE, SEM and Raman). Results demonstrate richness of manufacturing details and integrate in a substantial way the historic and artistic framework of this early medieval monument

  13. The Great War and Remembrance in Jose Leon Machado's "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes Jose Leon Machado's novel, "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho," as a multilayered historical novel in which a war story provides a background for comments on aspects of early twentieth-century Portuguese society, such as male bonding, religion, sexual mores, and social stratification. (Contains 11 notes.)

  14. Cryo-SEM studies of latex/ceramic nanoparticle coating microstructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hui; Scriven, L E; Francis, Lorraine F

    2007-12-15

    Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was used to investigate microstructure development of composite coatings prepared from dispersions of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles (approximately 30 nm) or indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles (approximately 40 nm) and latex particles (polydisperse, D(v): approximately 300 nm). Cryo-SEM images of ATO/latex dispersions as-frozen show small clusters of ATO and individual latex particles homogeneously distribute in a frozen water matrix. In contrast, cryo-SEM images of ITO/latex dispersions as-frozen show ITO particles adsorb onto latex particle surfaces. Electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged ATO and negatively charged latex particles stabilizes the ATO/latex dispersion, whereas in ITO/latex dispersion, positively charged ITO particles are attracted onto surfaces of negatively charged latex particles. These results are consistent with calculations of interaction potentials from past research. Cryo-SEM images of frozen and fractured coatings reveal that both ceramic nanoparticles and latex become more concentrated as drying proceeds; larger latex particles consolidate with ceramic nanoparticles in the interstitial spaces. With more drying, compaction flattens the latex-latex particle contacts and shrinks the voids between them. Thus, ceramic nanoparticles are forced to pack closely in the interstitial spaces, forming an interconnected network. Finally, latex particles partially coalesce at their flattened contacts, thereby yielding a coherent coating. The research reveals how nanoparticles segregate and interconnect among latex particles during drying.

  15. Combination of FTIR and SEM for Identifying Freshwater-Cultured Pearls from Different Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satitkune, Somruedee; Monarumit, Natthapong; Boonmee, Chakkrich; Phlayrahan, Aumaparn; Promdee, Kittiphop; Won-in, Krit

    2016-03-01

    The freshwater-cultured pearl ( Chamberlainia hainesiana species) is an organic gemstone mainly composed of calcium carbonate mineral including calcite, aragonite and vaterite phases. Generally, the quality of freshwater-cultured pearl is based on its luster. The high luster pearl is full of the aragonite phase without vaterite phase. On the other hand, the low luster pearl consists of aragonite and vaterite phases. These data could be proved by the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As the results, the high luster pearl similarly shows the FTIR spectrum of aragonite phase, and also, it shows the hexagonal shape of aragonite for the SEM image. On the other hand, the FTIR spectrum of low luster pearl has been pointed to the mixture component among aragonite and vaterite phases, and based on the SEM image; the irregular form is also interpreted to the mixture of aragonite and vaterite phases. This research concludes that the quality of freshwater-cultured pearls can be identified by the combination data of FTIR spectra and SEM images. These techniques are suitable for applied gemology.

  16. MICROORGANISMS FOUND IN SECONDARY CATARACT MATERIAL OF ECCE PATIENTS, A STUDY WITH SEM AND TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KALICHARAN, D; JONGEBLOED, WL; LOS, LI; WORST, JGF

    1993-01-01

    Globular secondary cataract material, removed from 24 patients with ECCE after ophthalmic cleaning of the anterior capsule, were investigated with SEM and TEM. Besides spherical, somewhat oval shaped bodies of various shape and size comparable with those found in cataractous lenses, (an)aerobic

  17. (AN)AEROBIC BACTERIA FOUND IN SECONDARY-CATARACT MATERIAL - A SEM/TEM STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KALICHARAN, D; JONGEBLOED, WL; LOS, LI; WORST, JGF

    1992-01-01

    Twentyfour patients, who had marked reduction of vision due to secondary-cataract developed after an ECCE, were treated by surgical cleaning of the posterior lens capsule. During this procedure globular secondary-cataract material was removed and collected for morphological examination by SEM and

  18. Controlled dehydration of a biological sample using an alternative form of environmental SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neděla, Vilém

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 237, č. 1 (2010), s. 7-11 ISSN 0022-2720 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : biological sample * dehydration * environmental SEM * AQUASEM II * hydration system Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.872, year: 2010

  19. Fractionation of Pb in Soil of Abandoned Pb Mine by SEM-EDX and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX) were used for the identification of fractional forms of Pb that are liable to leach out/down from the soil matrix of the abandoned mine site to surface-andunderground water bodies of the nearby localities, and to determine ...

  20. A Comparative SEM-EDS Elemental Composition of Mud in Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed to understand the comparative abundance and source of elemental constituents in mud of four coastal shrimp farming areas, Vunh Tau (VT), Nha Trang (NT), Da Nang (DN) and Hue (HU) in Viet Nam using SEM-EDS analysis. Mud samples were collected from shrimp farming coastal zones ...

  1. Recent Advances on In Situ SEM Mechanical and Electrical Characterization of Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenchen Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM has become a powerful technique for the experimental study of low-dimensional (1D/2D nanomaterials, since it can provide unprecedented details for individual nanostructures upon mechanical and electrical stimulus and thus uncover the fundamental deformation and failure mechanisms for their device applications. In this overview, we summarized recent developments on in situ SEM-based mechanical and electrical characterization techniques including tensile, compression, bending, and electrical property probing on individual nanostructures, as well as the state-of-the-art electromechanical coupling analysis. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of in situ SEM tests were also discussed with some possible solutions to address the challenges. Furthermore, critical challenges were also discussed for the development and design of robust in situ SEM characterization platform with higher resolution and wider range of samples. These experimental efforts have offered in-depth understanding on the mechanical and electrical properties of low-dimensional nanomaterial components and given guidelines for their further structural and functional applications.

  2. A Sandwich-Type Standard Error Estimator of SEM Models with Multivariate Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangjian; Chow, Sy-Miin; Ong, Anthony D.

    2011-01-01

    Structural equation models are increasingly used as a modeling tool for multivariate time series data in the social and behavioral sciences. Standard error estimators of SEM models, originally developed for independent data, require modifications to accommodate the fact that time series data are inherently dependent. In this article, we extend a…

  3. Are the evidences of forensic entomology preserved in ethanol suitable for SEM studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Esclapez, Raquel; García, María-Dolores; Arnaldos, María-Isabel; Presa, Juan José; Ubero-Pascal, Nicolás

    2014-07-01

    In forensic practice, the use of arthropod evidences to estimate the postmortem interval is a very good approach when the elapsed time from death is long, but it requires the correct identification of the specimens. This is a crucial step, not always easy to achieve, in particular when dealing with immature specimens. In this case, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) can be useful, but the techniques used to preserve specimens in forensic practice are usually different from those used to prepare specimens for SEM studies. To determine whether forensic evidences preserving techniques are also compatible with SEM analysis, we have compared specimens of all the immature stages of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Diptera, Calliphoridae) preserved in 70% ethanol, with others prepared with aldehydic fixative techniques that are more appropriate for SEM studies. At the same time, two drying techniques have also been compared with both fixative techniques, the critical point drying and air-drying following with hexamethyldisilizane treatment (HMDS). Our results indicate that there are not basis against recommending the use of ethanol to preserve forensic entomological evidences and that both drying methods appear to offer good results for second and third instar larvae, although HMDS behaves better with eggs and pupae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) as an approach for nanoparticle detection inside cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havrdová, M.; Poláková, K.; Skopalík, J.; Vůjtek, M.; Mokdad, A.; Homolková, M.; Tuček, J.; Nebesářová, Jana; Zbořil, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 67, DEC 2014 (2014), s. 149-154 ISSN 0968-4328 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Field emission scanning electronmicroscopy (FE-SEM) * Stem cells * Iron oxide nanoparticles * Cellular morphology * Endosomes * Cell uptake Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.988, year: 2014

  5. Surface ultrastructural (SEM) characteristics of oropharyngeal cavity of house sparrow (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abumandour, Mohamed M A

    2018-06-01

    The focus of the present study is to provide a full morphological description of the oropharyngeal cavity of the house sparrow. The head of six birds was prepared for gross examination and by stereo and electron microscopy. The bifid lingual apex has multiple long, rostrally directed needle-like processes. The lateral border of the apex carries rostromedially directed needle-like processes. The dorsal lingual surface of the apex and body carries numerous caudomedially directed filiform papillae and many orifices of lingual salivary glands. The lingual body is divided into two parts: rostral and caudal. The caudal part is divided into two laterally elevated regions by a median groove, while the rostral part is bounded laterally by a rostrodorsally directed papillary row, which on SEM is formed from two rows. On SEM, the lingual root has many orifices of posterior salivary glands. The pharyngeal papillary row is located at the caudal border of the laryngeal mound, but this single papillary row is formed from two rows at SEM magnification. The laryngeal cleft continues caudally as a laryngeal fissure bounded by two longitudinal rows of caudally directed papillae; at high SEM magnification, this fissure is divided into two halves by a median ridge which carries caudally directed papillae on its posterior part. The choanal cleft proceeds rostrally by the median tubercle. There are a small number of orifices of palatine salivary glands. The morphological characters of the oropharyngeal cavity of the sparrow confirm its adaptation to surrounding environmental conditions and available food particles.

  6. Effects of Missing Data Methods in SEM under Conditions of Incomplete and Nonnormal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Lomax, Richard G.

    2017-01-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, this research examined the performance of four missing data methods in SEM under different multivariate distributional conditions. The effects of four independent variables (sample size, missing proportion, distribution shape, and factor loading magnitude) were investigated on six outcome variables: convergence rate,…

  7. Study of Morphological Changes of The Lime Putties During Maturing by SEM/ESEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátilová, Eva; Neděla, Vilém

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, S1 (2017), s. 2186-2187 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : SEM * ESEM * morphological changes * lime putties Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Civil engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  8. Recent Advances on In Situ SEM Mechanical and Electrical Characterization of Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chenchen; Lu, Haojian; Zhang, Hongti; Shen, Yajing; Lu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades, in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has become a powerful technique for the experimental study of low-dimensional (1D/2D) nanomaterials, since it can provide unprecedented details for individual nanostructures upon mechanical and electrical stimulus and thus uncover the fundamental deformation and failure mechanisms for their device applications. In this overview, we summarized recent developments on in situ SEM-based mechanical and electrical characterization techniques including tensile, compression, bending, and electrical property probing on individual nanostructures, as well as the state-of-the-art electromechanical coupling analysis. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of in situ SEM tests were also discussed with some possible solutions to address the challenges. Furthermore, critical challenges were also discussed for the development and design of robust in situ SEM characterization platform with higher resolution and wider range of samples. These experimental efforts have offered in-depth understanding on the mechanical and electrical properties of low-dimensional nanomaterial components and given guidelines for their further structural and functional applications.

  9. Does your SEM really tell the truth?--How would you know? Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T; Vladár, András E

    2013-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) has gone through a tremendous evolution to become a critical tool for many and diverse scientific and industrial applications. The high resolution of the SEM is especially suited for both qualitative and quantitative applications especially for nanotechnology and nanomanufacturing. Quantitatively, measurement, or metrology is one of the main uses. It is likely that one of the first questions asked before even the first scanning electron micrograph was ever recorded was: "… how big is that?" The quality of that answer has improved a great deal over the past few years especially since today these instruments are being used as a primary measurement tool on semiconductor processing lines to monitor the manufacturing processes. The well-articulated needs of semiconductor production prompted a rapid evolution of the instrument and its capabilities. Over the past 20 years or so, instrument manufacturers, through substantial semiconductor industry investment of research and development (R&D) money, have vastly improved the performance of these instruments. All users have benefited from this investment, especially where quantitative measurements with an SEM are concerned. But, how good are these data? This article discusses some of the most important aspects and larger issues associated with imaging and measurements with the SEM that every user should know, and understand before any critical quantitative work is attempted. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. SD-SEM: sparse-dense correspondence for 3D reconstruction of microscopic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaie, Ahmadreza; Tafti, Ahmad P; Owen, Heather A; D'Souza, Roshan M; Yu, Zeyun

    2017-06-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging has been a principal component of many studies in biomedical, mechanical, and materials sciences since its emergence. Despite the high resolution of captured images, they remain two-dimensional (2D). In this work, a novel framework using sparse-dense correspondence is introduced and investigated for 3D reconstruction of stereo SEM images. SEM micrographs from microscopic samples are captured by tilting the specimen stage by a known angle. The pair of SEM micrographs is then rectified using sparse scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) features/descriptors and a contrario RANSAC for matching outlier removal to ensure a gross horizontal displacement between corresponding points. This is followed by dense correspondence estimation using dense SIFT descriptors and employing a factor graph representation of the energy minimization functional and loopy belief propagation (LBP) as means of optimization. Given the pixel-by-pixel correspondence and the tilt angle of the specimen stage during the acquisition of micrographs, depth can be recovered. Extensive tests reveal the strength of the proposed method for high-quality reconstruction of microscopic samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. On some contrast reversals in SEM: Application to metal/insulator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazaux, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Contrast changes of SEM images with experimental conditions (beam energy, angle of detection, etc.) are analyzed by combining physical arguments based on secondary electron emission (SEE) to instrumental arguments involving detection. Possible occurrences of contrast reversals are explored to illustrate these changes in a striking manner. Deduced from SEE yield data, simulated SEM images show a material contrast reversal for a Pt/quartz specimen, a result partly supported by real images of a Cr/quartz integrated circuit. A shift of reversal energy with the detector's position is deduced from a difference in secondary electrons (SE) angular distributions between metals and insulators. Similarly, changes of topographic contrast with detection conditions, specimen composition and angle of tilt are investigated and a possible contrast reversal is again indicated. Finally, it is shown how charging contrast deduced from the expected evolution of SEE yield during irradiation is amplified by in-lens detection: a point illustrated by a contrast reversal of images of SiC particles. The main application concerns a proper interpretation of SEM images that is essential in the investigation of devices obtained from lithographic processes. The discussion on material contrast outlines the difficulty in generalizing the present analysis based on published data and experimental strategies based on implementing specific attachments in the SEM or on biasing the specimen holder are suggested.

  12. Human cardiac telocytes: 3D imaging by FIB-SEM tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretoiu, D; Hummel, E; Zimmermann, H; Gherghiceanu, M; Popescu, L M

    2014-11-01

    Telocyte (TC) is a newly identified type of cell in the cardiac interstitium (www.telocytes.com). TCs are described by classical transmission electron microscopy as cells with very thin and long telopodes (Tps; cellular prolongations) having podoms (dilations) and podomers (very thin segments). TCs' three-dimensional (3D) morphology is still unknown. Cardiac TCs seem to be particularly involved in long and short distance intercellular signalling and, therefore, their 3D architecture is important for understanding their spatial connections. Using focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) we show, for the first time, the whole ultrastructural anatomy of cardiac TCs. 3D reconstruction of cardiac TCs by FIB-SEM tomography confirms that they have long, narrow but flattened (ribbon-like) telopodes, with humps generated by the podoms. FIB-SEM tomography also confirms the network made by TCs in the cardiac interstitium through adherens junctions. This study provides the first FIB-SEM tomography of a human cell type. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  13. Maximum Likelihood Dynamic Factor Modeling for Arbitrary "N" and "T" Using SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkle, Manuel C.; Oud, Johan H. L.; von Oertzen, Timo; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2012-01-01

    This article has 3 objectives that build on each other. First, we demonstrate how to obtain maximum likelihood estimates for dynamic factor models (the direct autoregressive factor score model) with arbitrary "T" and "N" by means of structural equation modeling (SEM) and compare the approach to existing methods. Second, we go beyond standard time…

  14. Prescriptive Statements and Educational Practice: What Can Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Offer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal structural equation modeling (SEM) can be a basis for making prescriptive statements on educational practice and offers yields over "traditional" statistical techniques under the general linear model. The extent to which prescriptive statements can be made will rely on the appropriate accommodation of key elements of research design,…

  15. Does your SEM really tell the truth? How would you know? Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T; Vladár, András E; Purushotham, Kavuri P

    2014-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) has gone through a tremendous evolution to become indispensable for many and diverse scientific and industrial applications. The improvements have significantly enriched and augmented the overall SEM performance and have made the instrument far easier to operate. But, the ease of operation also might lead, through operator complacency, to poor results. In addition, the user friendliness has seemingly reduced the need for thorough operator training for using these complex instruments. One might then conclude that the SEM is just a very expensive digital camera or another peripheral device for a computer. Hence, a person using the instrument may be lulled into thinking that all of the potential pitfalls have been eliminated and they believe everything they see on the micrograph is always correct. But, this may not be the case. An earlier paper (Part 1), discussed some of the potential issues related to signal generation in the SEM, instrument calibration, electron beam interactions and the need for physics-based modeling to understand the actual image formation mechanisms. All these were summed together in a discussion of how these issues effect measurements made with the instrument. This second paper discusses another major issue confronting the microscopist: electron-beam-induced specimen contamination. Over the years, NIST has done a great deal of research into the issue of sample contamination and its removal and elimination and some of this work is reviewed and discussed here. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Sem-observation of developing plant organs using deep-frozen specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1982-01-01

    The SEM-observation of plant material normally requires dehydrated, dry specimens coated with carbon or metal. Unfortunately, the standard drying methods (including the critical-point-drying-technique) often cause shrinking and deformation of the specimen surface; therefore, SEMstudies on plant

  17. SEM observations of particle track membrane surfaces modificated using plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartowska, B.; Buczkowski, M.; Starosta, W.

    2003-01-01

    This work presents results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of 0.4 μm membranes after plasma treatment with different parameters. The morphology changes at the surfaces and at the pore walls were observed. The character of changes in the membrane parameters according to the process conditions was determined

  18. Trace metals in floodplain lake sediments : SEM/AVS as indicator of bioavailability and ecological effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griethuysen, van C.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis addresses the geochemical aspects of AVS (Acid Volatile Sulfide) and SEM (Simultaneously Extracted Metals) in floodplain lake sediment, its spatial distribution in floodplain lakes and dynamics over time, the link with effects on single species (bioassays), as well as the impact of

  19. Dimensional verification of high aspect micro structures using FIB-SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    -SEM) assisted by Spip®. The micro features are circular holes 10μm in diameter and 20μm deep, with a 20μm pitch. Various inspection methods were attempted to obtain dimensional information. Due to the dimension, neither optical instrument nor atomic force microscope (AFM) was capable to perform the measurement...

  20. Assessment of engineered surfaces roughness by high-resolution 3D SEM photogrammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontard, L.C., E-mail: lionelcg@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11510 (Spain); López-Castro, J.D.; González-Rovira, L. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química Inorgánica, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Laboratorio de Corrosión, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); Vázquez-Martínez, J.M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica y Diseño Industrial, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); Varela-Feria, F.M. [Servicio de Microscopía Centro de Investigación, Tecnología e Innovación (CITIUS), Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 4b, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Marcos, M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica y Diseño Industrial, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); and others

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • We describe a method to acquire a high-angle tilt series of SEM images that is symmetrical respect to the zero tilt of the sample stage. The method can be applied in any SEM microscope. • Using the method, high-resolution 3D SEM photogrammetry can be applied on planar surfaces. • 3D models of three surfaces patterned with grooves are reconstructed with high resolution using multi-view freeware photogrammetry software as described in LC Gontard et al. Ultramicroscopy, 2016. • From the 3D models roughness parameters are measured • 3D SEM high-resolution photogrammetry is compared with two conventional methods used for roughness characetrization: stereophotogrammetry and contact profilometry. • It provides three-dimensional information with high-resolution that is out of reach for any other metrological technique. - Abstract: We describe a methodology to obtain three-dimensional models of engineered surfaces using scanning electron microscopy and multi-view photogrammetry (3DSEM). For the reconstruction of the 3D models of the surfaces we used freeware available in the cloud. The method was applied to study the surface roughness of metallic samples patterned with parallel grooves by means of laser. The results are compared with measurements obtained using stylus profilometry (PR) and SEM stereo-photogrammetry (SP). The application of 3DSEM is more time demanding than PR or SP, but it provides a more accurate representation of the surfaces. The results obtained with the three techniques are compared by investigating the influence of sampling step on roughness parameters.

  1. AxiSEM3D: broadband seismic wavefields in 3-D aspherical Earth models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, K.; Nissen-Meyer, T.; Zad, K. H.; van Driel, M.; Al-Attar, D.

    2017-12-01

    Seismology is the primary tool for data-informed inference of Earth structure and dynamics. Simulating seismic wave propagation at a global scale is fundamental to seismology, but remains as one of most challenging problems in scientific computing, because of both the multiscale nature of Earth's interior and the observable frequency band of seismic data. We present a novel numerical method to simulate global seismic wave propagation in realistic 3-D Earth models. Our method, named AxiSEM3D, is a hybrid of spectral element method and pseudospectral method. It reduces the azimuthal dimension of wavefields by means of a global Fourier series parameterization, of which the number of terms can be locally adapted to the inherent azimuthal smoothness of the wavefields. AxiSEM3D allows not only for material heterogeneities, such as velocity, density, anisotropy and attenuation, but also for finite undulations on radial discontinuities, both solid-solid and solid-fluid, and thereby a variety of aspherical Earth features such as ellipticity, topography, variable crustal thickness, and core-mantle boundary topography. Such interface undulations are equivalently interpreted as material perturbations of the contiguous media, based on the "particle relabelling transformation". Efficiency comparisons show that AxiSEM3D can be 1 to 3 orders of magnitude faster than conventional 3-D methods, with the speedup increasing with simulation frequency and decreasing with model complexity, but for all realistic structures the speedup remains at least one order of magnitude. The observable frequency range of global seismic data (up to 1 Hz) has been covered for wavefield modelling upon a 3-D Earth model with reasonable computing resources. We show an application of surface wave modelling within a state-of-the-art global crustal model (Crust1.0), with the synthetics compared to real data. The high-performance C++ code is released at github.com/AxiSEM3D/AxiSEM3D.

  2. High resolution SEM imaging of gold nanoparticles in cells and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, A; Soroka, Y; Frušić-Zlotkin, M; Popov, I; Kohen, R

    2014-12-01

    The growing demand of gold nanoparticles in medical applications increases the need for simple and efficient characterization methods of the interaction between the nanoparticles and biological systems. Due to its nanometre resolution, modern scanning electron microscopy (SEM) offers straightforward visualization of metallic nanoparticles down to a few nanometre size, almost without any special preparation step. However, visualization of biological materials in SEM requires complicated preparation procedure, which is typically finished by metal coating needed to decrease charging artefacts and quick radiation damage of biomaterials in the course of SEM imaging. The finest conductive metal coating available is usually composed of a few nanometre size clusters, which are almost identical to the metal nanoparticles employed in medical applications. Therefore, SEM monitoring of metal nanoparticles within cells and tissues is incompatible with the conventional preparation methods. In this work, we show that charging artefacts related to non-conductive biological specimen can be successfully eliminated by placing the uncoated biological sample on a conductive substrate. By growing the cells on glass pre-coated with a chromium layer, we were able to observe the uptake of 10 nm gold nanoparticles inside uncoated and unstained macrophages and keratinocytes cells. Imaging in back scattered electrons allowed observation of gold nanoparticles located inside the cells, while imaging in secondary electron gave information on gold nanoparticles located on the surface of the cells. By mounting a skin cross-section on an improved conductive holder, consisting of a silicon substrate coated with copper, we were able to observe penetration of gold nanoparticles of only 5 nm size through the skin barrier in an uncoated skin tissue. The described method offers a convenient modification in preparation procedure for biological samples to be analyzed in SEM. The method provides high

  3. Evaluation of bone formation in calcium phosphate scaffolds with μCT-method validation using SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, S; Barba, A; Persson, C; Franch, J; Ginebra, M-P; Öhman-Mägi, C

    2017-10-05

    There is a plethora of calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds used as synthetic substitutes to bone grafts. The scaffold performance is often evaluated from the quantity of bone formed within or in direct contact with the scaffold. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) allows three-dimensional evaluation of bone formation inside scaffolds. However, the almost identical x-ray attenuation of CaP and bone obtrude the separation of these phases in μCT images. Commonly, segmentation of bone in μCT images is based on gray scale intensity, with manually determined global thresholds. However, image analysis methods, and methods for manual thresholding in particular, lack standardization and may consequently suffer from subjectivity. The aim of the present study was to provide a methodological framework for addressing these issues. Bone formation in two types of CaP scaffold architectures (foamed and robocast), obtained from a larger animal study (a 12 week canine animal model) was evaluated by μCT. In addition, cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were acquired as references to determine thresholds and to validate the result. μCT datasets were registered to the corresponding SEM reference. Global thresholds were then determined by quantitatively correlating the different area fractions in the μCT image, towards the area fractions in the corresponding SEM image. For comparison, area fractions were also quantified using global thresholds determined manually by two different approaches. In the validation the manually determined thresholds resulted in large average errors in area fraction (up to 17%), whereas for the evaluation using SEM references, the errors were estimated to be less than 3%. Furthermore, it was found that basing the thresholds on one single SEM reference gave lower errors than determining them manually. This study provides an objective, robust and less error prone method to determine global thresholds for the evaluation of bone formation in

  4. Macromolecular 3D SEM reconstruction strategies: Signal to noise ratio and resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, J.D.; Wepf, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional scanning electron microscopy generates quantitative volumetric structural data from SEM images of macromolecules. This technique provides a quick and easy way to define the quaternary structure and handedness of protein complexes. Here, we apply a variety of preparation and imaging methods to filamentous actin in order to explore the relationship between resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, structural preservation and dataset size. This information can be used to define successful imaging strategies for different applications. - Highlights: • F-actin SEM datasets were collected using 8 different preparation/ imaging techniques. • Datasets were reconstructed by back projection and compared/analyzed • 3DSEM actin reconstructions can be produced with <100 views of the asymmetric unit. • Negatively stained macromolecules can be reconstructed by 3DSEM to ∼3 nm resolution

  5. The application of SEM in analyzing the damage to the petroleum reservoirs caused by drilling fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Razak Ismail

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to analyze the damage to the potential oil and gas reservoirs due to the invasion of drilling fluid during drilling operation. Two types of rock samples representing low and high permeability were used to stimulate the petroleum reservoirs. Sea water based drilling fluids were used in this study. Detail observations to the rock samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results of both permeability restoration and SEM observation showed that severe permeability impairments were obtained for high permeability rock. These results indicate that the relative size of the barite particles and the pore size distribution and characteristics of the formation play an important role in determining the damage caused by the drilling fluids

  6. Inconmensurabilidad semántica y progreso científico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez, Juan

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Not available.En la primera parte del trabajo se hace una presentación de las nociones de «inconmensurabilidad», tal como han sido formuladas por Feyerabend y Kuhn; y en la segunda parte, después de analizar los presupuestos semánticos con los que indudablemente han ido asociadas, se presenta un modelo alternativo de análisis semántico de la ‘inconmensurabilidad’, que permite desligarla de las nociones de «incomunicabilidad» e «incomparabilidad» interteóricas. Con ese propósito se hace uso de una doble noción de objeto formulada por C. S. Peirce, en sus Collected Papers, y por E. Husserl, en el parágrafo 131 de las Ideas.

  7. OpenCV-Based Nanomanipulation Information Extraction and the Probe Operation in SEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjie Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the established telenanomanipulation system, the method of extracting location information and the strategies of probe operation were studied in this paper. First, the machine learning algorithm of OpenCV was used to extract location information from SEM images. Thus nanowires and probe in SEM images can be automatically tracked and the region of interest (ROI can be marked quickly. Then the location of nanowire and probe can be extracted from the ROI. To study the probe operation strategy, the Van der Waals force between probe and a nanowire was computed; thus relevant operating parameters can be obtained. With these operating parameters, the nanowire in 3D virtual environment can be preoperated and an optimal path of the probe can be obtained. The actual probe runs automatically under the telenanomanipulation system's control. Finally, experiments were carried out to verify the above methods, and results show the designed methods have achieved the expected effect.

  8. Consideraciones sobre la adquisición del adjetivo y su semántica

    OpenAIRE

    Millán Garrido, Mª del Rosario

    1988-01-01

    Con este trabajo se intenta profundizar en el adjetivo con un criterio semántico pero al ser difícil deslindarlo de sus estudios léxico y sintáctico, no vamos a excluir de él estos aspectos que se expondrán de forma breve y que nos ayudarán a sacar conclusiones más completas. Aunque la semántica ha ocupado la parte central de la investigación, ha tenido como apoyo el análisis léxico, reflejado en las gráficas, y un estudio sintáctico** previo.

  9. Minería de opiniones basada en patrones semánticos en Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Artacho Torres, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    La minería de opinión o análisis de sentimiento es un tipo de análisis de texto que pretende ayudar a la toma de decisiones a través de la extracción y el análisis de opiniones, identificando las opiniones positivas, negativas y neutras; y midiendo su repercusión en la percepción de un tópico. En este trabajo se propone un modelo de análisis de sentimiento basado en diccionarios, que a través de la semántica y de los patrones semánticos que conforman el texto a clasificar, permite obtener la ...

  10. Morphology of Poly lactide/Polycaprolactone (PLA/PCL) Nano composite by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Zulaiha Hairaldin; Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus; Norazowa Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    In this study, Octadecylamine Modified Montmorillonites (ODAMMT) were used to prepare Poly lactide/ Polycaprolactone (PLA/ PCL) nano composites. PLA and PCL mix in 90:10 ratios, using an internal mixer by melt blending technique. The other sample was blend with Natrium Montmorillonite (NaMMT) and Octadecylamine Modified Montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) to produce PLA/ PCL-NaMMT and PLA/ PCL ODAMMT. To characterize the polymer nano composites, X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and SEM analysis were conducted. Comparison of morphology were made up between PLA/ PCL, PLA/ PCL with presence of 7 % of Na-MMT and 7 % ODA-MMT respectively based on SEM micrograph by calculate the number-average diameter. (author)

  11. Optimization study of direct morphology observation by cold field emission SEM without gold coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Fu, Cheng; Xue, Zhigang

    2018-06-01

    Gold coating is a general operation that is generally applied on non-conductive or low conductive materials, during which the morphology of the materials can be examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). However, fatal deficiencies in the materials can result in irreversible distortion and damage. The present study directly characterized different low conductive materials such as hydroxyapatite, modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) fiber, and zinc oxide nanopillar by cold field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) without a gold coating. According to the characteristics of the low conductive materials, various test conditions, such as different working signal modes, accelerating voltages, electron beam spots, and working distances, were characterized to determine the best morphological observations of each sample. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cryo-FIB SEM for Characterization of the Structure of Fish Oil Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    layers. The emulsion fractures are random and impossible to control when using freeze-fracture cryo-SEM. We have previously shown that some types of emulsifiers tend to break along the interface layer, while others cause the fractures to be perpendicular to the interface layer [3]. To control the field...... of view more specifically and to ensure the access to the desired part of the sample, we propose now the use of cryo-FIB SEM. This method allows us to access the interface layers as needed, see figure 1. Emulsions with high oil content, i.e. 70%, and relatively large oil droplets, i.e. μm range, have been...

  13. A Data Matrix Method for Improving the Quantification of Element Percentages of SEM/EDX Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John

    2009-01-01

    A simple 2D M N matrix involving sample preparation enables the microanalyst to peer below the noise floor of element percentages reported by the SEM/EDX (scanning electron microscopy/ energy dispersive x-ray) analysis, thus yielding more meaningful data. Using the example of a 2 3 sample set, there are M = 2 concentration levels of the original mix under test: 10 percent ilmenite (90 percent silica) and 20 percent ilmenite (80 percent silica). For each of these M samples, N = 3 separate SEM/EDX samples were drawn. In this test, ilmenite is the element of interest. By plotting the linear trend of the M sample s known concentration versus the average of the N samples, a much higher resolution of elemental analysis can be performed. The resulting trend also shows how the noise is affecting the data, and at what point (of smaller concentrations) is it impractical to try to extract any further useful data.

  14. Contrast of Backscattered Electron SEM Images of Nanoparticles on Substrates with Complex Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kowoll

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (BSE SEM contrast of complex nanoscaled samples which consist of SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs deposited on indium-tin-oxide covered bulk SiO2 and glassy carbon substrates. BSE SEM contrast of NPs is studied as function of the primary electron energy and working distance. Contrast inversions are observed which prevent intuitive interpretation of NP contrast in terms of material contrast. Experimental data is quantitatively compared with Monte-Carlo- (MC- simulations. Quantitative agreement between experimental data and MC-simulations is obtained if the transmission characteristics of the annular semiconductor detector are taken into account. MC-simulations facilitate the understanding of NP contrast inversions and are helpful to derive conditions for optimum material and topography contrast.

  15. Contrast of Backscattered Electron SEM Images of Nanoparticles on Substrates with Complex Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowoll, Thomas; Müller, Erich; Fritsch-Decker, Susanne; Hettler, Simon; Störmer, Heike; Weiss, Carsten; Gerthsen, Dagmar

    2017-01-01

    This study is concerned with backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (BSE SEM) contrast of complex nanoscaled samples which consist of SiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) deposited on indium-tin-oxide covered bulk SiO 2 and glassy carbon substrates. BSE SEM contrast of NPs is studied as function of the primary electron energy and working distance. Contrast inversions are observed which prevent intuitive interpretation of NP contrast in terms of material contrast. Experimental data is quantitatively compared with Monte-Carlo- (MC-) simulations. Quantitative agreement between experimental data and MC-simulations is obtained if the transmission characteristics of the annular semiconductor detector are taken into account. MC-simulations facilitate the understanding of NP contrast inversions and are helpful to derive conditions for optimum material and topography contrast.

  16. Characterising palladium-silver and palladium-nickel alloy membranes using SEM, XRD and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keuler, J.N.; Lorenzen, L.; Sanderson, R.D.; Prozesky, V.; Przybylowicz, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Palladium alloy membranes were prepared by successive electroless plating steps on an alumina-zirconia support membrane. Palladium, silver and nickel were deposited in layers and then the metal films were heat treated for 5 h in a hydrogen atmosphere at 650 deg. C. The topography of the metal coatings and cross-sections of the films (before and after heating) were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD was used to determine the crystal phase of the alloy coatings. Both SEM and XRD provide only surface information and therefore micro-PIXE was used to extract depth information of the alloy coating. Concentration profiles across the thickness of the films were constructed to determine penetration of the coating into the support membrane pores during electroless plating and to investigate diffusion of coated layers during the heating step

  17. Electronic structure and optical properties of (BeTen/(ZnSem superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caid M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The structural, electronic and optical properties of (BeTen/(ZnSem superlattices have been computationally evaluated for different configurations with m = n and m≠n using the full-potential linear muffin-tin method. The exchange and correlation potentials are treated by the local density approximation (LDA. The ground state properties of (BeTen/(ZnSem binary compounds are determined and compared with the available data. It is found that the superlattice band gaps vary depending on the layers used. The optical constants, including the dielectric function ε(ω, the refractive index n(ω and the refractivity R(ω, are calculated for radiation energies up to 35 eV.

  18. Local behavior of an AISI 304 stainless steel submitted to in situ biaxial loading in SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caër, C., E-mail: celia.caer@gmail.com; Pesci, R.

    2017-04-06

    The microstructural response of a coarse grained AISI 304 stainless steel submitted to biaxial tensile loading was investigated using SEM and X-ray diffraction. The specimen geometry was designed to allow for biaxial stress state and incipient crack in the center of the active part under biaxial tensile loading. This complex loading was performed step by step by a micromachine fitting into a SEM chamber. At each loading step FSD pictures and EBSD measurements were carried out to study the microstructural evolution of the alloy, namely grain rotations and misorientations, stress-induced martensite formation and crack propagation. According to their initial orientation, grains are found to behave differently under loading. Approximately 60% of grains are shown to reorient to the [110] Z orientation under biaxial tensile loading, whereas the 40% left undergo high plastic deformation. EBSD and XRD measurements respectively performed under loading and on the post mortem specimen highlighted the formation of about 4% of martensite.

  19. XRD and SEM analysis of hydroxyapatite during immersion in stimulated physiological solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof Abdullah; Idris Besar; Rosmamuhamadani Ramli; Abd Razak Daud

    2000-01-01

    XRD and SEM techniques were used to analyse the apatite layer developed on the synthetic hydroxyapatite surface following immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF) that mimics the conditions of material experiences after implantation in the human body. Initially, the new layers formed after 7 day's incubation and increased with immersion time as crystallization of apatite phase. The XRD confirmed that the deposited layer was hydroxyapatite and crystallographically. With time, the crystal growth become more random and the intensity of the peaks decreased. During immersion, hydroxyapatite was precipitated from the SBF and coherently scattered with very small crystal. The SEM observation shows that the new precipitates were increased as well as incubation period increased. Therefore, hydroxyapatite ceramics are suggested to have very good biocompatibility. (Author)

  20. Uncertainty in the use of MAMA software to measure particle morphological parameters from SEM images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-05

    The MAMA software package developed at LANL is designed to make morphological measurements on a wide variety of digital images of objects. At LANL, we have focused on using MAMA to measure scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of particles, as this is a critical part of our forensic analysis of interdicted radiologic materials. In order to successfully use MAMA to make such measurements, we must understand the level of uncertainty involved in the process, so that we can rigorously support our quantitative conclusions.

  1. Dynamic Correction of Higher-Order Deflection Aberrations in the Environmental SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oral, Martin; Neděla, Vilém

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, S4 (2015), s. 194-199 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22777S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : environmental SEM * ESEM * shifted deflection pivot point * Higher order deflection aberrations * vignetting * dynamic focusing * dynamic stigmator * dynamic correction Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2015

  2. SEM-analysis of grain boundary porosity in three S-176 specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malen, K.; Birath, S.; Mattsson, O.

    1980-10-01

    Porosity in UO 2 -fuel has been studied in scanning electron microscope (SEM). The aim was to obtain a basis for evaluation of porosity in high burnup power reactor fuel. Three specimens have been analyzed. In the high temperature zones porosity can be seen both on grain boundaries and at grain edges. In the low temperature regions very little changes seem to have occurred during irradiation. (author)

  3. SEM/TIMS analysis trials on hotswipe samples taken from a shielded cell at Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushingham, J.; Vatter, I.; Cooke, R.

    1998-09-01

    The IAEA require advanced techniques and procedures for the detection of traces of actinides to be applied to their environmental sampling programme for nuclear safeguards as a means to detect undeclared activities. 'Swipe' samples taken from within nuclear facilities by IAEA inspectors require analysis to determine their actinide content and composition by bulk and particle measurements. The use of analytical equipment capable of analysing individual particles, particularly of actinides, is essential to optimise the IAEA's aim to monitor Member State's nuclear activities more proficiently. A trial has been undertaken at the Harwell Laboratory of AEA Technology to establish the efficacy of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) for the particle and bulk characterisation, respectively, of actinides on samples taken from within a shielded cell. These measurements were supported by γ-spectrometry and α-spectrometry. 'Hotswipe' samples taken from within a shielded cell with a well-known recent history have been prepared for particle and bulk analysis. SEM has been used to characterise individual particles from the swipe samples and the results have been related to known cell activities. Samples were prepared for SEM using a simple procedure to minimise the potential for sample contamination. The method proved to be capable of identifying 1 μm particles that contained U, Pu, Pa and Np. The measurement of U/Pu ratios was limited to particles that contained >2% Pu in U by weight. TIMS, together with alpha spectrometry, has been used to determine the bulk actinide composition of the samples whilst gamma spectrometry has been used to determine the fission product composition. Further work to improve the potential of SEM, and also secondary ionisation mass spectrometry (SIMS), for the measurement of hotswipe samples has been proposed. (author)

  4. Does your SEM really tell the truth? How would you know? part 3: vibration and drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T.; Vladár, András. E.; Cizmar, Petr

    2014-09-01

    This is the third of a series of papers discussing various causes of measurement uncertainty in scanned particle beam instruments, and some of the solutions researched and developed at NIST. Scanned particle beam instruments especially the scanning electron microscope (SEM) have gone through tremendous evolution to become indispensable tools for many and diverse scientifi c and industrial applications. These improvements have signifi cantly enhanced their performance and made them far easier to operate. But, ease of operation has also fostered operator complacency. In addition, the user-friendliness has reduced the need for extensive operator training. Unfortunately, this has led to the concept that the SEM is just another expensive digital camera or another peripheral device connected to a computer and that all of the issues related to obtaining quality data have been solved. Hence, a person (or company) using these instruments may be lulled into thinking that all of the potential pitfalls have been fully eliminated and they believe everything they see on the micrograph is always correct. But, as described in this and the earlier presentations this may not be the case. The fi rst paper in this series discussed some of the issues related to signal generation in the SEM, including instrument calibration, electron beam-sample interactions and the need for physics-based modelling to understand the actual image formation mechanisms to properly interpret SEM images. The second paper, discussed another major issue confronting the microscopist: specimen contamination and methods of contamination elimination. This third paper, discusses vibration and drift and some useful solutions.

  5. Nanomanufacturing concerns about measurements made in the SEM Part III: vibration and drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T.; Vladár, András. E.; Cizmar, Petr

    2014-08-01

    Many advanced manufacturing processes employ scanning electron microscopes (SEM) for on-line critical measurements for process and quality control. This is the third of a series of papers discussing various causes of measurement uncertainty in scanned particle beam instruments, and some of the solutions researched and developed at NIST. Scanned particle beam instruments especially the scanning electron microscope have gone through tremendous evolution to become indispensable tools for many and diverse scientifi c and industrial applications. These improvements have signifi cantly enhanced their performance and made them far easier to operate. But, ease of operation has also fostered operator complacency. In addition, the user-friendliness has reduced the need for extensive operator training. Unfortunately, this has led to the concept that the SEM is just another expensive digital camera or another peripheral device connected to a computer and that all of the issues related to obtaining quality data have been solved. Hence, a person (or company) using these instruments may be lulled into thinking that all of the potential pitfalls have been fully eliminated and they believe everything they see on the micrograph is always correct. But, as described in this and the earlier presentations this may not be the case. The fi rst paper in this series discussed some of the issues related to signal generation in the SEM, including instrument calibration, electron beam-sample interactions and the need for physics-based modelling to understand the actual image formation mechanisms to properly interpret SEM images. The second paper, discussed another major issue confronting the microscopist: specimen contamination and methods of contamination elimination. This third paper, discusses vibration and drift and some useful solutions.

  6. Methods for Additive Hydration Allowing Observation of Fully Hydrated State of Wet Samples in Environmental SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neděla, Vilém

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 2 (2007), s. 95-100 ISSN 1059-910X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0886; GA AV ČR KJB200650602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : agar * natural structure * biological specimens * environmental SEM Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.644, year: 2007

  7. A new method using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for preparation of anisopterous odonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Palacio, Alejandro; Sarmiento, Patricia Laura; Javier, Muzón

    2017-10-01

    Anisopterous odonate male's secondary genitalia is a complex of several structures, among them the vesica spermalis is the most informative with important specific characters. The observation of those characters, mostly of membranous nature, is difficult in the Scanning Electron Microscope due to dehydration and metallization processes. In this contribution, we discuss a new and low cost procedure for the observation of these characters in the SEM, compatible with the most common agents used for preserving specimens. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. GammaSem Proceedings. A Nordic seminar for users of gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straalberg, E. (ed.) (Institute for Energy Technolgy (Norway)); Berg, K. (National Institute of Radiation Protection (Denmark)); Dowdall, M. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)) (and others)

    2010-11-15

    The project GammaSem was proposed to the NKS in 2008. The aim of the project was to arrange two seminars for users of gamma spectrometry, in 2009 and 2010. The seminars were meant to provide a forum for discussions and sharing of information on practical issues concerning gamma spectrometry and initiate a network of gamma spectrometry users in the Nordic countries. Such a Nordic network should strengthen the collaboration between laboratories and improve all participants' competence in practical gamma spectrometry. Both seminars' focus was practical challenges met by the users themselves, rather than theoretical matters. Scientists and users of gamma spectrometry from all five Nordic countries were invited to the seminar, as well as scientist from the Baltic countries. A total of 65 people signed up for GammaSem 2010; representing 30 different universities, commercial companies, research institutes and authorities. The working group concept as presented at last year's GammaSem, has not worked out as intended. The reason for this is probably because most of the laboratories that signed up to join the working groups, signed up because they wanted to learn more about the different subjects. In combination with the fact that no funding was made available for the working groups, it was difficult to establish goals on what to achieve. None of the working groups applied for funding from the NKS (or elsewhere) to establish separate projects. There is a big need for more cooperation and for training within the field of gamma spectrometry. This fact has been proved through these two seminars, both by the many different topics that have been discussed, but also by the huge interest for participating in the suggested series of workshop. The GammaSem seminars have thus provided a much welcomed starting point for a broader Nordic collaboration. (Author)

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Micro-porosity of Eco-material by Using SEM Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-ru; LIU Yuan-zhi; LIU Zu-de

    2004-01-01

    Microstructure of the eco-material combining vegetation recovery with slope protection is important for determining plant-growing properties.Several techniques for analyzing the eco-material microstructure are presented,including the freeze-cut-drying method of preparing samples for scanning electronic microscopy (SEM),the SEM image processing technique and quantifying analysis method of the SEM images,and etc.The aggregates and pores in SEM images are identified using the different mathematics operators,and their effects are compared.The areas of aggregates and pores are obtained using the operator of morphology,and the influences of different thresholds in image segmentation are also discussed.The results show that the method,in which the variation of non-maximum grey-level gradient is limited,improves the effect of edge detections due to a weak distinction existing at the edge between the aggregates and pores in image.The determination of the threshold should combine the image characteristic with filling operation,so as to assure the precision of the image analysis,in which the contact-segmentation is the simplest and most effective method.The results also show that the pore areas in eco-materials are generally larger than those in the correlative soils,and their increment is large as soil fabric being fine.These differences are related to admixture of expansive perliticThe operator of morphology provides a new method for the image analysis of other porous material microstructure such as soils and concretes.

  10. Do generic strategies impact performance in higher educational institutions? A SEM-based investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlam Mohammad Alzoubi; Okechukwu Lawrence Emeagwali

    2016-01-01

    This study set out to initiate an investigation into the linkage between generic strategy and performance in higher educational institutions and the moderating effect of institution-type. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), it examined the responses of a stratified sample of academics and administrative staff (n= 333) randomly selected from eight universities in northern Cyprus. Findings suggest that while there is a weak effect of differentiation strategy on performance, a strong effec...

  11. Ontologías y Web Semántica 2005. Resumen del taller

    OpenAIRE

    Corcho, Oscar; Gómez-Pérez, A.; Fernández López, Mariano; Ramos Gargantilla, JA.

    2006-01-01

    En este artículo se resumen los resultados obtenidos en el taller “Ontologías y Web Semántica 2005”, que fue celebrado el día 14 de noviembre de 2005 en Santiago de Compostela, en el contexto de la Conferencia de la Asociación Española para la Inteligencia Artificial (CAEPIA2005).

  12. Módulos interactivos para el aprendizaje de la semántica.

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino Palacios, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Se proponen modulos interactivos para lograr el aprendizaje de la semantica en alumnos del V semestre de la Carrera de Lenguas, Literatura y Comunicacion de la Facultad de Educacion de la UNCP. Los metodos utilizados fueron el experimental y el bibliografico-documental. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron la prueba objetiva, prueba de ensayo y la prueba pedagogica. Se logró mejorar el aprendizaje de la semántica 

  13. Quantifying Golgi structure using EM: combining volume-SEM and stereology for higher throughput.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sophie; Steyer, Anna M; Mayhew, Terry M; Schwab, Yannick; Lucocq, John Milton

    2017-06-01

    Investigating organelles such as the Golgi complex depends increasingly on high-throughput quantitative morphological analyses from multiple experimental or genetic conditions. Light microscopy (LM) has been an effective tool for screening but fails to reveal fine details of Golgi structures such as vesicles, tubules and cisternae. Electron microscopy (EM) has sufficient resolution but traditional transmission EM (TEM) methods are slow and inefficient. Newer volume scanning EM (volume-SEM) methods now have the potential to speed up 3D analysis by automated sectioning and imaging. However, they produce large arrays of sections and/or images, which require labour-intensive 3D reconstruction for quantitation on limited cell numbers. Here, we show that the information storage, digital waste and workload involved in using volume-SEM can be reduced substantially using sampling-based stereology. Using the Golgi as an example, we describe how Golgi populations can be sensed quantitatively using single random slices and how accurate quantitative structural data on Golgi organelles of individual cells can be obtained using only 5-10 sections/images taken from a volume-SEM series (thereby sensing population parameters and cell-cell variability). The approach will be useful in techniques such as correlative LM and EM (CLEM) where small samples of cells are treated and where there may be variable responses. For Golgi study, we outline a series of stereological estimators that are suited to these analyses and suggest workflows, which have the potential to enhance the speed and relevance of data acquisition in volume-SEM.

  14. Nanomanufacturing Concerns about Measurements Made in the SEM Part IV: Charging and its Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T; Vladár, András E

    2015-01-01

    This is the fourth part of a series of tutorial papers discussing various causes of measurement uncertainty in scanned particle beam instruments, and some of the solutions researched and developed at NIST and other research institutions. Scanned particle beam instruments especially the scanning electron microscope (SEM) have gone through tremendous evolution to become indispensable tools for many and diverse scientific and industrial applications. These improvements have significantly enhanced their performance and made them far easier to operate. But, the ease of operation has also fostered operator complacency. In addition, the user-friendliness has reduced the apparent need for extensive operator training. Unfortunately, this has led to the idea that the SEM is just another expensive "digital camera" or another peripheral device connected to a computer and that all of the problems in obtaining good quality images and data have been solved. Hence, one using these instruments may be lulled into thinking that all of the potential pitfalls have been fully eliminated and believing that, everything one sees on the micrograph is always correct. But, as described in this and the earlier papers, this may not be the case. Care must always be taken when reliable quantitative data are being sought. The first paper in this series discussed some of the issues related to signal generation in the SEM, including instrument calibration, electron beam-sample interactions and the need for physics-based modeling to understand the actual image formation mechanisms to properly interpret SEM images. The second paper has discussed another major issue confronting the microscopist: specimen contamination and methods to eliminate it. The third paper discussed mechanical vibration and stage drift and some useful solutions to mitigate the problems caused by them, and here, in this the fourth contribution, the issues related to specimen "charging" and its mitigation are discussed relative to

  15. Elemental analyses of bulk and individual particles by PIXE and SEM-EDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Mikio; Shinoda, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Kanji; Yoshida, Kouji.

    1993-01-01

    The atmospheric aerosol samples were collected by a stacked filter method under the various environmental conditions. The elemental concentrations of aerosol particles were measured using PIXE analysis as a bulk sample. And also elemental compositions of about 200 individual particles per each sample were measured by SEM-EDX analysis. In this study, the correspondencies of analytical results measured by both analyses as well as chemical characteristics of individual and bulk aerosols were investigated. (author)

  16. SEM visualization of glycosylated surface molecules using lectin-coated microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, J.; Janer, L.; Campbell, M.

    1985-01-01

    There are several techniques currently used to localize glycosylated surface molecules by scanning electron microscopy (Grinnell, 1980; Molday, 1976; Linthicum and Sell, 1975; Nicolson, 1974; Lo Buglio, et al, 1972). A simple and rapid method, using a modification of Grinnell's technique is reported here. Essentially, microspheres coated with Concavalin A are used to bind to glycosylated regions of the palatal shelf epithelium and are visualized in the scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  17. Study of SEM induced current and voltage contrast modes to assess semiconductor reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the scanning electron microscopy study was to review the failure history of existing integrated circuit technologies to identify predominant failure mechanisms, and to evaluate the feasibility of their detection using SEM application techniques. The study investigated the effects of E-beam irradiation damage and contamination deposition rates; developed the necessary methods for applying the techniques to the detection of latent defects and weaknesses in integrated circuits; and made recommendations for applying the techniques.

  18. GammaSem Proceedings. A Nordic seminar for users of gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straelberg, E.; Berg, K.; Dowdall, M.

    2010-11-01

    The project GammaSem was proposed to the NKS in 2008. The aim of the project was to arrange two seminars for users of gamma spectrometry, in 2009 and 2010. The seminars were meant to provide a forum for discussions and sharing of information on practical issues concerning gamma spectrometry and initiate a network of gamma spectrometry users in the Nordic countries. Such a Nordic network should strengthen the collaboration between laboratories and improve all participants' competence in practical gamma spectrometry. Both seminars' focus was practical challenges met by the users themselves, rather than theoretical matters. Scientists and users of gamma spectrometry from all five Nordic countries were invited to the seminar, as well as scientist from the Baltic countries. A total of 65 people signed up for GammaSem 2010; representing 30 different universities, commercial companies, research institutes and authorities. The working group concept as presented at last year's GammaSem, has not worked out as intended. The reason for this is probably because most of the laboratories that signed up to join the working groups, signed up because they wanted to learn more about the different subjects. In combination with the fact that no funding was made available for the working groups, it was difficult to establish goals on what to achieve. None of the working groups applied for funding from the NKS (or elsewhere) to establish separate projects. There is a big need for more cooperation and for training within the field of gamma spectrometry. This fact has been proved through these two seminars, both by the many different topics that have been discussed, but also by the huge interest for participating in the suggested series of workshop. The GammaSem seminars have thus provided a much welcomed starting point for a broader Nordic collaboration. (Author)

  19. Morphological and Production Changes in Stressed Red Yeasts Monitored Using SEM and Raman Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubanová, Kamila; Samek, Ota; Haroniková, A.; Bernatová, Silvie; Zemánek, Pavel; Márová, I.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, S3 (2016), s. 1146-1147 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20012S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20645S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : SEM * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  20. SemMat: Federated Semantic Services Platform for Open materials Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    SEMMAT: FEDERATED SEMANTIC SERVICES PLATFORM FOR OPEN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING WRIGHT STATE UNIVERSITY JANUARY 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL...COVERED (From - To) JUL 2013 – JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SemMat: FEDERATED SEMANTIC SERVICES PLATFORM FOR OPEN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...models to represent materials data. This provides a data exchange scheme for materials science , which also includes provenance information to promote

  1. 3-D Analysis of Graphite Nodules in Ductile Cast Iron Using FIB-SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, Luca; Jespersen, Freja N.; MacDonald, A. Nicole

    Ductile cast iron samples were analysed in a Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscope, FIB-SEM. The focussed ion beam was used to carefully remove layers of the graphite nodules to reveal internal structures in the nodules. The sample preparation and milling procedure for sectioning graphite...... inside the nodules, their orientation in relation to the graphite and the chemistry of the inclusions is analysed and described. Formation of the structures during solidification and subsequent cooling to room temperature is discussed....

  2. Monitoring of Multilayered Bacterial Biofilm Morphology by Cryo-SEM for Raman Spectroscopy Measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubanová, Kamila; Bernatová, Silvie; Samek, Ota; Šerý, Mojmír; Zemánek, Pavel; Nebesářová, Jana; Růžička, F.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, S3 (2015), s. 187-188 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20012S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : multilayered bacterial biofilm * morphology by Cryo-SEM * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2015

  3. Fuzzy Control and Connected Region Marking Algorithm-Based SEM Nanomanipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjie Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactive nanomanipulation platform is established based on fuzzy control and connected region marking (CRM algorithm in SEM. The 3D virtual nanomanipulation model is developed to make up the insufficiency of the 2D SEM image information, which provides the operator with depth and real-time visual feedback information to guide the manipulation. The haptic device Omega3 is used as the master to control the 3D motion of the nanopositioner in master-slave mode and offer the force sensing to the operator controlled with fuzzy control algorithm. Aiming at sensing of force feedback during the nanomanipulation, the collision detection method of the virtual nanomanipulation model and the force rending model are studied to realize the force feedback of nanomanipulation. The CRM algorithm is introduced to process the SEM image which provides effective position data of the objects for updating the virtual environment (VE, and relevant issues such as calibration and update rate of VE are also discussed. Finally, the performance of the platform is validated by the ZnO nanowire manipulation experiments.

  4. Application of SEM/EBSD and FEG-TEM/CBED to determine eutectic solidification mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogita, K.; Dahle, A.K.; Drennan, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This study shows the application of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in SEM and convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) in FEG-TEM to determine eutectic nucleation and growth in hypoeutectic Al-Si foundry alloys. Because the eutectic reaction is often the final stage of solidification it can be expected to have a significant impact on the formation of casting defects, particularly porosity. Previous EBSD work by Nogita and Dahle (2001), Dahle et al (2001), has shown that the eutectic nucleates on the primary phase in the unmodified alloy, and eutectic grains are nucleated in the intergranular liquid, instead of filling the dendrite envelopes, when Sr or Sb is added. However, the orientation relationship between silicon and aluminium in the eutectic has so far not been determined because of difficulties with sample preparation for EBSD and also detection limitations of Kikuchi refraction of silicon and aluminium, particularly in modified alloys with a refined eutectic. The combination of the EBSD technique in SEM and CBED in TEM analyses can provide crystallographic orientation relationships between primary aluminium dendrites, eutectic aluminium and silicon, which are important to explicitly define the solidification mode of the eutectic in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys. These relationships are influenced, and altered, by the addition of certain elements. This paper also describes the sample preparation techniques for SEM and TEM for samples with different eutectic structures. The advantages the techniques are discussed. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  5. SEM Characterization of an Irradiated Monolithic U-10Mo Fuel Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Jue, J.F.; Robinson, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization of irradiated U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates with differing amounts of matrix Si have been reported. However, to date, no results of SEM analysis of irradiated U-Mo monolithic fuel plates have been reported. This paper describes the first SEM characterization results for an irradiated monolithic U-10Mo fuel plate. Two samples from this fuel plate were characterized. One sample was produced from the low-flux side of the fuel plate, and another was produced at the high-flux side of the fuel plate. This characterization focused on the microstructural features present at the U-10Mo foil/cladding interface, particularly the interaction zone that had developed during fabrication and irradiation. In addition, the microstructure of the foil itself was investigated, along with the morphology of the observed fission gas bubbles. It was observed that a Si-rich interaction layer was present at the U-10Mo foil/cladding interface that exhibited relatively good irradiation behavior, and within the U-10Mo foil the microstructural features differed in some respects from what is typically seen in the U-Mo powders of an irradiated dispersion fuel.

  6. Preliminary SEM Observations on the Surface of Elastomeric Impression Materials after Immersion or Ozone Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prombonas, Anthony; Yannikakis, Stavros; Karampotsos, Thanasis; Katsarou, Martha-Spyridoula; Drakoulis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Surface integrity of dental elastomeric impression materials that are subjected to disinfection is of major importance for the quality of the final prosthetic restorations. Aim The aim of this qualitative Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) study was to reveal the effects of immersion or ozone disinfection on the surface of four dental elastomeric impression materials. Materials and Methods Four dental elastomeric impression material brands were used (two vinyl polysiloxane silicones, one polyether, and one vinyl polyether silicone). Total of 32 specimens were fabricated, eight from each impression material. Specimens were immersion (0.525% sodium hypochlorite solution or 0.3% benzalkonium chloride solution) or ozone disinfected or served as controls and examined with SEM. Results Surface degradation was observed on several speci-mens disinfected with 0.525% sodium hypochlorite solution. Similar wavy-wrinkling surface structures were observed in almost all specimens, when treated either with 0.3% benzalkonium chloride solution or ozone. Conclusion The SEM images obtained from this study revealed that both immersion disinfectants and ozone show similar impression material surface alterations. Ozone seems to be non-inferior as compared to immersion disinfectants, but superior as to environmental protection. PMID:28208993

  7. Blistering and exfoliation of 304 stainless steel studied by SEM and RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, M.; Emmoth, B.; Whitton, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Blistering and exfoliation induced by helium irradiation have been studied in polycrystalline stainless steel with the aim of measuring flake or blister skin thicknesses for different implantation energies in the keV region. The authors present measurements of skin thicknesses determined both by direct SEM observations and RBS techniques. The results of the RBS studies show for all implantation energies used that the thickness measured in target atoms/unit area of a flake equals the calculated implantation range with an accuracy of about 10%. Conversely, the SEM measurements show that swelling gives rise to a geometrical skin thickness much greater than the corresponding implantation range. Thus from the SEM and RBS data swelling as a function of the implantation energy is obtained and the linear relative swelling is shown to be strongly dependent on the energy. In addition a comparison between the skin thickness of blisters and flakes has been made for the same material. Blisters were observed at low implantation temperatures and room temperature while exfoliation occurs at elevated temperatures. The result of this comparison is that within the experimental accuracy the flake and blister thicknesses are the same. (Auth.)

  8. Automated SEM and TEM sample preparation applied to copper/low k materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, R.; Shaapur, F.; Griffiths, D.; Diebold, A. C.; Foran, B.; Raz, E.

    2001-01-01

    We describe the use of automated microcleaving for preparation of both SEM and TEM samples as done by SELA's new MC500 and TEMstation tools. The MC500 is an automated microcleaving tool that is capable of producing cleaves with 0.25 μm accuracy resulting in SEM-ready samples. The TEMstation is capable of taking a sample output from the MC500 (or from SELA's earlier MC200 tool) and producing a FIB ready slice of 25±5 μm, mounted on a TEM-washer and ready for FIB thinning to electron transparency for TEM analysis. The materials selected for the tool set evaluation mainly included the Cu/TaN/HOSP low-k system. The paper is divided into three sections, experimental approach, SEM preparation and analysis of HOSP low-k, and TEM preparation and analysis of Cu/TaN/HOSP low-k samples. For the samples discussed, data is presented to show the quality of preparation provided by these new automated tools.

  9. Valores e motivações para responder sem preconceito frente a homossexuais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Veloso Gouveia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo se objetivou conhecer os correlatos valorativos das motivações interna e externa para encarar sem preconceito a homossexualidade. Foram realizados dois estudos. No Estudo 1 participaram 234 pessoas de João Pessoa, com idade média de 26 anos, que responderam à Escala de Motivações para Responder sem Precocietos Frente a Gays e ao Questionário dos Valores Básicos e perguntas demográficas. A motivação interna se correlacionou com as subfunções suprapessoal (+ e normativa (-, enquanto a motivação externa o fez com existência (+ e normativa (+. O Estudo 2 reuniu 202 pessoas da mesma população, com idade média de 25 anos. Elas responderam os mesmos instrumentos, tendo as lésbicas como grupo-alvo. As motivações interna e externa se correlacionaram com a subfunção normativa (- e +, respectivamente. Concluindo, os valores predisseram adequadamente as motivações para olhar sem preconceito a homossexualidade e os achados foram discutidos a partir do modelo dual de valores.

  10. SEM characterization of an irradiated monolithic U-10Mo fuel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Jue, J.F.; Robinson, A.B.; Finlay, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization of irradiated U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates with differing amounts of matrix Si have been reported. However, to date, no results of SEM analysis of irradiated U-Mo monolithic fuel plates have been reported. This paper describes the first SEM characterization results for an irradiated monolithic U-10Mo fuel plate. Two samples from this fuel plate were characterized. One sample was produced from the low-flux side of the fuel plate, and another was produced at the high-flux side of the fuel plate. This characterization focused on the microstructural features present at the U-10Mo foil/AA6061 cladding interface, particularly the interaction zone that had developed during fabrication and any continued development during irradiation. In addition, the microstructure of the foil itself was investigated, along with the morphology of the observed fission gas bubbles. It was observed that a Si-rich interaction layer was present at the U-10Mo foil/cladding interface that exhibited relatively good irradiation behavior, and within the U-10Mo foil the microstructural features differed in some respects from what is typically seen in the U-7Mo powders of an irradiated dispersion fuel. (author)

  11. A hybrid 3D SEM reconstruction method optimized for complex geologic material surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shang; Adegbule, Aderonke; Kibbey, Tohren C G

    2017-08-01

    Reconstruction methods are widely used to extract three-dimensional information from scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. This paper presents a new hybrid reconstruction method that combines stereoscopic reconstruction with shape-from-shading calculations to generate highly-detailed elevation maps from SEM image pairs. The method makes use of an imaged glass sphere to determine the quantitative relationship between observed intensity and angles between the beam and surface normal, and the detector and surface normal. Two specific equations are derived to make use of image intensity information in creating the final elevation map. The equations are used together, one making use of intensities in the two images, the other making use of intensities within a single image. The method is specifically designed for SEM images captured with a single secondary electron detector, and is optimized to capture maximum detail from complex natural surfaces. The method is illustrated with a complex structured abrasive material, and a rough natural sand grain. Results show that the method is capable of capturing details such as angular surface features, varying surface roughness, and surface striations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection of glass particles on bone lesions using SEM-EDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoriol, Romain; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Chantalat, Elodie; Roumiguié, Mathieu; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Payré, Bruno; Telmon, Norbert; Savall, Frédéric

    2017-09-01

    The problem of identifying the wounding agent in forensic cases is recurrent. Moreover, when several tools are involved, distinguishing the origin of lesions can be difficult. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) equipment is increasingly available to the scientific and medical community, and some studies have reported its use in forensic anthropology. However, at our knowledge, no study has reported the use of SEM-EDS in forensic cases involving glass tools, whether in case reports or experiments. We performed an experimental study on human rib fragments, on which we manually created wounds using fragments of window and mirror glass. SEM-EDS was executed on samples without any further preparation on low vacuum mode, then on the same samples after defleshing them completely by boiling them. Window and mirror glass particles were detected on experimental wounds. Both had silica in their spectra, and the opaque side of the mirror contained titanium, allowing for their identification. Boiling and defleshing the bone samples involved a loss of information in terms of the number of wounds detected as positive for glass particles and in the number of glass particles detected, for both window and mirror glass. We suggest the analysis of wounds with suspected glass particles using low vacuum mode and with no defleshment by boiling.

  13. Enhanced FIB-SEM systems for large-volume 3D imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C Shan; Hayworth, Kenneth J; Lu, Zhiyuan; Grob, Patricia; Hassan, Ahmed M; García-Cerdán, José G; Niyogi, Krishna K; Nogales, Eva; Weinberg, Richard J; Hess, Harald F

    2017-01-01

    Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM) can automatically generate 3D images with superior z-axis resolution, yielding data that needs minimal image registration and related post-processing. Obstacles blocking wider adoption of FIB-SEM include slow imaging speed and lack of long-term system stability, which caps the maximum possible acquisition volume. Here, we present techniques that accelerate image acquisition while greatly improving FIB-SEM reliability, allowing the system to operate for months and generating continuously imaged volumes > 106 µm3. These volumes are large enough for connectomics, where the excellent z resolution can help in tracing of small neuronal processes and accelerate the tedious and time-consuming human proofreading effort. Even higher resolution can be achieved on smaller volumes. We present example data sets from mammalian neural tissue, Drosophila brain, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to illustrate the power of this novel high-resolution technique to address questions in both connectomics and cell biology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25916.001 PMID:28500755

  14. In-SEM Raman microspectroscopy coupled with EDX - a case study of uranium reference particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefaniak, Elzbieta A.; Pointurier, Fabien; Marie, Olivier; Truyens, Jan; Aregbe, Yetunde

    2014-01-01

    Information about the molecular composition of airborne uranium-bearing particles may be useful as an additional tool for nuclear safeguards. In order to combine the detection of micrometer-sized particles with the analysis of their molecular forms, we used a hybrid system enabling Raman microanalysis in high vacuum inside a SEM chamber (SEM-SCA system). The first step involved an automatic scan of a sample to detect and save coordinates of uranium particles, along with X-ray microanalysis. In the second phase, the detected particles were relocated in a white light image and subjected to Raman microanalysis. The consecutive measurements by the two beams showed exceptional fragility of uranium particles, leading to their ultimate damage and change of uranium oxidation state. We used uranium reference particles prepared by hydrolysis of uranium hexafluoride to test the reliability of the Raman measurements inside the high vacuum. The results achieved by the hybrid system were verified by using a standalone Raman micro spectrometer. When deposited on exceptionally smooth substrates, uranyl fluoride particles smaller than 1000 nm could successfully be analyzed with the SEM-SCA system. (authors)

  15. Direct comparison of AFM and SEM measurements on the same set of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvallée, A; Feltin, N; Ducourtieux, S; Trabelsi, M; Hochepied, J F

    2015-01-01

    This article is the first step in the development of a hybrid metrology combining AFM and SEM techniques for measuring the dimensions of a nanoparticle population in 3D space (X,Y,Z). This method exploits the strengths of each technique on the same set of nanoparticles. AFM is used for measuring the nanoparticle height and the measurements along X and Y axes are deduced from SEM images. A sampling method is proposed in order to obtain the best deposition conditions of SiO 2 and gold nanoparticles on mica or silicon substrates. Only the isolated nanoparticles are taken into account in the histogram of size distribution. Moreover, a semi-automatic Matlab routine has also been developed to process the AFM and SEM images, measure and count the nanoparticles. This routine allows the user to exclusively select the isolated nanoparticles through a control interface. The measurements have been performed on spherical-like nanoparticles to test the method by comparing the results obtained with both techniques. (paper)

  16. Quantitative Determination of Noa (Naturally Occurring Asbestos) in Rocks : Comparison Between Pcom and SEM Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baietto, Oliviero; Amodeo, Francesco; Giorgis, Ilaria; Vitaliti, Martina

    2017-04-01

    The quantification of NOA (Naturally Occurring Asbestos) in a rock or soil matrix is complex and subject to numerous errors. The purpose of this study is to compare two fundamental methodologies used for the analysis: the first one uses Phase Contrast Optical Microscope (PCOM) while the second one uses Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The two methods, although they provide the same result, which is the asbestos mass to total mass ratio, have completely different characteristics and both present pros and cons. The current legislation in Italy involves the use of SEM, DRX, FTIR, PCOM (DM 6/9/94) for the quantification of asbestos in bulk materials and soils and the threshold beyond which the material is considered as hazardous waste is a concentration of asbestos fiber of 1000 mg/kg.(DM 161/2012). The most used technology is the SEM which is the one among these with the better analytical sensitivity.(120mg/Kg DM 6 /9/94) The fundamental differences among the analyses are mainly: - Amount of analyzed sample portion - Representativeness of the sample - Resolution - Analytical precision - Uncertainty of the methodology - Operator errors Due to the problem of quantification of DRX and FTIR (1% DM 6/9/94) our Asbestos Laboratory (DIATI POLITO) since more than twenty years apply the PCOM methodology and in the last years the SEM methodology for quantification of asbestos content. The aim of our research is to compare the results obtained from a PCOM analysis with the results provided by SEM analysis on the base of more than 100 natural samples both from cores (tunnel-boring or explorative-drilling) and from tunnelling excavation . The results obtained show, in most cases, a good correlation between the two techniques. Of particular relevance is the fact that both techniques are reliable for very low quantities of asbestos, even lower than the analytical sensitivity. This work highlights the comparison between the two techniques emphasizing strengths and weaknesses of

  17. SEM AutoAnalysis: enhancing photomask and NIL defect disposition and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kristian; Egodage, Kokila; Tabbone, Gilles; Ehrlich, Christian; Garetto, Anthony

    2017-06-01

    For defect disposition and repair verification regarding printability, AIMS™ is the state of the art measurement tool in industry. With its unique capability of capturing aerial images of photomasks it is the one method that comes closest to emulating the printing behaviour of a scanner. However for nanoimprint lithography (NIL) templates aerial images cannot be applied to evaluate the success of a repair process. Hence, for NIL defect dispositioning scanning, electron microscopy (SEM) imaging is the method of choice. In addition, it has been a standard imaging method for further root cause analysis of defects and defect review on optical photomasks which enables 2D or even 3D mask profiling at high resolutions. In recent years a trend observed in mask shops has been the automation of processes that traditionally were driven by operators. This of course has brought many advantages one of which is freeing cost intensive labour from conducting repetitive and tedious work. Furthermore, it reduces variability in processes due to different operator skill and experience levels which at the end contributes to eliminating the human factor. Taking these factors into consideration, one of the software based solutions available under the FAVOR® brand to support customer needs is the aerial image evaluation software, AIMS™ AutoAnalysis (AAA). It provides fully automated analysis of AIMS™ images and runs in parallel to measurements. This is enabled by its direct connection and communication with the AIMS™tools. As one of many positive outcomes, generating automated result reports is facilitated, standardizing the mask manufacturing workflow. Today, AAA has been successfully introduced into production at multiple customers and is supporting the workflow as described above. These trends indeed have triggered the demand for similar automation with respect to SEM measurements leading to the development of SEM AutoAnalysis (SAA). It aims towards a fully automated SEM image

  18. Enabling CD SEM metrology for 5nm technology node and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Gian Francesco; Ohashi, Takeyoshi; Yamaguchi, Astuko; Inoue, Osamu; Sutani, Takumichi; Horiguchi, Naoto; Bömmels, Jürgen; Wilson, Christopher J.; Briggs, Basoene; Tan, Chi Lim; Raymaekers, Tom; Delhougne, Romain; Van den Bosch, Geert; Di Piazza, Luca; Kar, Gouri Sankar; Furnémont, Arnaud; Fantini, Andrea; Donadio, Gabriele Luca; Souriau, Laurent; Crotti, Davide; Yasin, Farrukh; Appeltans, Raf; Rao, Siddharth; De Simone, Danilo; Rincon Delgadillo, Paulina; Leray, Philippe; Charley, Anne-Laure; Zhou, Daisy; Veloso, Anabela; Collaert, Nadine; Hasumi, Kazuhisa; Koshihara, Shunsuke; Ikota, Masami; Okagawa, Yutaka; Ishimoto, Toru

    2017-03-01

    The CD SEM (Critical Dimension Scanning Electron Microscope) is one of the main tools used to estimate Critical Dimension (CD) in semiconductor manufacturing nowadays, but, as all metrology tools, it will face considerable challenges to keep up with the requirements of the future technology nodes. The root causes of these challenges are not uniquely related to the shrinking CD values, as one might expect, but to the increase in complexity of the devices in terms of morphology and chemical composition as well. In fact, complicated threedimensional device architectures, high aspect ratio features, and wide variety of materials are some of the unavoidable characteristics of the future metrology nodes. This means that, beside an improvement in resolution, it is critical to develop a CD SEM metrology capable of satisfying the specific needs of the devices of the nodes to come, needs that sometimes will have to be addressed through dramatic changes in approach with respect to traditional CD SEM metrology. In this paper, we report on the development of advanced CD SEM metrology at imec on a variety of device platform and processes, for both logic and memories. We discuss newly developed approaches for standard, IIIV, and germanium FinFETs (Fin Field Effect Transistors), for lateral and vertical nanowires (NW), 3D NAND (three-dimensional NAND), STT-MRAM (Spin Transfer Magnetic Torque Random-Access Memory), and ReRAM (Resistive Random Access Memory). Applications for both front-end of line (FEOL) and back-end of line (BEOL) are developed. In terms of process, S/D Epi (Source Drain Epitaxy), SAQP (Self-Aligned Quadruple Patterning), DSA (Dynamic Self-Assembly), and EUVL (Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography) have been used. The work reported here has been performed on Hitachi CG5000, CG6300, and CV5000. In terms of logic, we discuss here the S/D epi defect classification, the metrology optimization for STI (Shallow Trench Isolation) Ge FinFETs, the defectivity of III-V STI Fin

  19. MODIFICACIONES DE LA CAPACIDAD DE SALTO EN LAS PRUEBAS DEL TEST DE BOSCO TRAS LA APLICACIÓN DE UN ENTRENAMIENTO DE FUERZA BASADO EN EL MÉTODO DE CONTRASTE ENTRE SUJETOS DE 50 A 70 AÑOS CON DIFERENTES NIVELES DE ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. González

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    RESUMEN

    El objetivo de este estudio fue el análisis de las modificaciones producidas en la capacidad de salto de los miembros inferiores, tras un programa de entrenamiento de fuerza realizado a través del uso de la combinación de cargas pesadas y ligeras durante 16 semanas medidas a través del test de Bosco: SJ, CMJ y DJ. 23 sujetos, 13 hombres y 10 mujeres divididos en dos grupos: deportistas(GD y físicamente activos(GND se sometieron al programa de entrenamiento. El instrumental utilizado para la medición fue la plataforma de presión (licencia Fac. Ciencias Activ. Física y Deporte Univ. Granada Se realizó un diseño experimental con un diseño de medida pretratamiento, aplicación de un tratamiento y medida post-tratamiento a dos grupos diferentes. Los resultados muestran que la fuerza explosiva, la elástico-explosiva, la explosivo-elástico-reactiva y la resistencia de fuerza rápida medidas indirectamente a través de la altura de salto son mayores en sujetos deportistas respecto a sujetos físicamente activos antes del entrenamiento de fuerza. La aplicación de un entrenamiento de fuerza basado en el método de contraste en la sesión durante 16 semanas ha mejorado significativamente en las extremidades inferiores las diferentes manifestaciones de fuerza previamente referidas en el GND y en el GD.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: entrenamiento, contraste, mayores, fuerza.

    ABSTRACT

    The aim of this study is to examine the differences of force production in 50 -70 year old athletes and active subjects, both before and after the strength training and, on the other hand the effects of such a 16 week strength training on height jump in bosco protocol (SJ, CMJ, DJ. The strength training is based on the alternative use of light and heavy leads

  20. The ITZ in concrete with natural and recycled aggregates : Study of microstructures based on image and SEM analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifazi, G.; Capobianco, G.; Serranti, S.; Eggimann, M.; Wagner, E.; Di Maio, F.; Lotfi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure of the Interfacial Transition Zone (ITZ) between cement paste and aggregate in concrete utilizing Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) in order to identify possible effects on the ITZ related to different recipes and production parameters. SEM is

  1. Helminth parasites of fishes from the hydroeletric power station of eletrosul (Brazil. I: Procamallanus petterae n. sp. and Spirocamallanus pintoi n. sp. (Nematoda, Camallanidae from the reservoir of Salto Osório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kohn

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available Procamallanus petterae n. sp. from Plecostomus albopunctarus and Spirocamallanus pintoi n. sp. from Corydoras paleatus are described. procamallanus petterae n. sp. differs from all other species of the genus by having a buccal capsule without spiral bands, with five teeth-like structures on its base and four plate-like structures near the anterior margin; length ratio of oesophagus muscular/glandular 1:1.4; spicules short, 21µ m and 16µ m long and tails ending abruptly in a sharp point, in both sexes. Spirocamallanus pintoi n. sp. is characterized by having 6 to 8 spiral thickenings in the buccal capsule of male and 9 to 10 in female, occupying 2/3 of the length of the capsule; length of glandular oesophagus more than twice the muscular; spicules short, the right 94µ m and the left 82µ m long.São descritos Procamallanus petterae n. sp. paradito de Plecostomus albopunctatus e Spirocamallanus pintoi n. sp. de Corydors paleatus. P. petterae diferencia-se das demais espécies do gênero por apresentar cápsula bucal sem estrias, com cinco estruturas em forma de dentes na base e quatro estruturas em forma de placas próximo da margem anterior; relação do comprimento do esôfago muscular/glandular 1:1,4; espículos curtos com 21 e 16 µm de comprimento respectivamente e terminação caudal afilando-se abruptamente e terminando em ponta, em ambos os sexos. S. pintoi n. sp. caracteriza-se por possuir cápsula bucal com 6 a 8 espirais no macho e 9 a 10 na fêmea, ocupando somente 2/3 do comprimento da cápsula; comprimento do esôfago glandular mais de duas vezes o muscular e espículos curtos, direito medindo 94 µm e esquerdo 82 µm de comprimento. S. pintoi n. sp. é mais próxima de S. hilarii (Vaz & Pereira, 1934 e de S. incarocai (Freitas & Ibanez, 1970, das quais se diferencia principalmente pelo menor número de espirais na cápsula bucal.

  2. SEM-microphotogrammetry, a new take on an old method for generating high-resolution 3D models from SEM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, A D; Job, P A; Walker, A E L

    2017-08-01

    The method we present here uses a scanning electron microscope programmed via macros to automatically capture dozens of images at suitable angles to generate accurate, detailed three-dimensional (3D) surface models with micron-scale resolution. We demonstrate that it is possible to use these Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images in conjunction with commercially available software originally developed for photogrammetry reconstructions from Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR) cameras and to reconstruct 3D models of the specimen. These 3D models can then be exported as polygon meshes and eventually 3D printed. This technique offers the potential to obtain data suitable to reconstruct very tiny features (e.g. diatoms, butterfly scales and mineral fabrics) at nanometre resolution. Ultimately, we foresee this as being a useful tool for better understanding spatial relationships at very high resolution. However, our motivation is also to use it to produce 3D models to be used in public outreach events and exhibitions, especially for the blind or partially sighted. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  3. The C. elegans Spalt-like protein SEM-4 functions through the SoxC transcription factor SEM-2 to promote a proliferative blast cell fate in the postembryonic mesoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qinfang; Shi, Herong; Tian, Chenxi; Ghai, Vikas; Liu, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Proper development of a multicellular organism relies on well-coordinated regulation of cell fate specification, cell proliferation and cell differentiation. The C. elegans postembryonic mesoderm provides a useful system for uncovering factors involved in these processes and for further dissecting their regulatory relationships. The single Spalt-like zinc finger containing protein SEM-4/SALL is known to be involved in specifying the proliferative sex myoblast (SM) fate. We have found that SEM-4/SALL is sufficient to promote the SM fate and that it does so in a cell autonomous manner. We further showed that SEM-4/SALL acts through the SoxC transcription factor SEM-2 to promote the SM fate. SEM-2 is known to promote the SM fate by inhibiting the expression of two BWM-specifying transcription factors. In light of recent findings in mammals showing that Sall4, one of the mammalian homologs of SEM-4, contributes to pluripotency regulation by inhibiting differentiation, our work suggests that the function of SEM-4/SALL proteins in regulating pluripotency versus differentiation appears to be evolutionarily conserved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechatronic Development and Vision Feedback Control of a Nanorobotics Manipulation System inside SEM for Nanodevice Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNT have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis. Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and <1 micro-rad rotary resolution. Four vertically installed AFM cantilevers (the axis of the cantilever tip is vertical to the axis of electronic beam of SEM served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system.

  5. Specimen's plane misaligned installation solution based on charge fluctuation inside SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haojian; Liu, Yanting; Yang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Panbing; Shen, Yajing

    2018-04-01

    Precise specimen's installation is a sticking point to ensure the characterization accuracy of the in-situ material property test. Although it is common knowledge that specimen's plane misaligned installation (PMI) would cause extra force loading during mechanical testing, there are few effective solutions available to deal with it at the current stage, especially during the in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) test. Taking into consideration the charge fluctuation phenomenon under SEM, this paper proposes a highlight area variation (HAV) method for specimen deformation judgment, i.e., the specimen deformation is defined when the highlight area changes greater than 20% of the initial value of the specimen surface. Three types of specimens with different resistivities, i.e., human hair (electrical resistivity ˜3 × 1012 Ω cm), optical fiber (electrical resistivity ˜1017 Ω cm), and magnetic wire (electrical resistivity ˜2 × 10-5 Ω cm), are chosen to verify the effectiveness of the HAV method. Furthermore, combined with the developed robot-aided alignment system, the specimen's PMI problem can also be solved. In the demonstration, the human hair specimen is installed across two specimen stages and its in-situ twisting (in 360°) test is implemented. The results clearly indicate that the HAV method and the robot-aided alignment system are practical and reliable, and the specimen can be aligned on the same plane and installed precisely with accuracy up to 3 μm. This method will benefit the in-situ SEM material mechanical property test and has a significant impact in fundamental material research.

  6. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ge investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection technique and SEM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaseen, Nazish; Bashir, Shazia; Shabbir, Muhammad Kaif; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Akram, Mahreen; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq; Haq, Faizan-ul; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif

    2016-06-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation phenomena of single crystal Ge (100) has been investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection as well as SEM analysis techniques. Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 ns, 1–10 Hz) at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm{sup −2} is employed as pump beam to ablate Ge targets. In order to evaluate in-situe ablation threshold fluence of Ge by photoacoustic deflection technique, Continuous Wave (CW) He–Ne laser (632 nm, power 10 mW) is employed as a probe beam. It travels parallel to the target surface at a distance of 3 mm and after passing through Ge plasma it causes deflection due to density gradient of acoustic waves. The deflected signal is detected by photodiode and is recorded by oscilloscope. The threshold fluence of Ge, the velocity of ablated species and the amplitude of the deflected signal are evaluated. The threshold fluence of Ge comes out to be 0.5 J cm{sup −2} and is comparable with the analytical value. In order to compare the estimated value of threshold with ex-situe measurements, the quantitative analysis of laser irradiated Ge is performed by using SEM analysis. For this purpose Ge is exposed to single and multiple shots of 5, 10, 50 and 100 at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm{sup −2}. The threshold fluence for single and multiple shots as well as incubation coefficients are evaluated. It is observed that the value of incubation co-efficient decreases with increasing number of pulses and is therefore responsible for lowering the threshold fluence of Ge. SEM analysis also reveals the growth of various features such as porous structures, non-uniform ripples and blisters on the laser irradiated Ge. It is observed that both the fluence as well as number of laser shots plays a significant role for the growth of these structures.

  7. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ge investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection technique and SEM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaseen, Nazish; Bashir, Shazia; Shabbir, Muhammad Kaif; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Akram, Mahreen; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq; Haq, Faizan-ul; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif

    2016-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation phenomena of single crystal Ge (100) has been investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection as well as SEM analysis techniques. Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 ns, 1–10 Hz) at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm"−"2 is employed as pump beam to ablate Ge targets. In order to evaluate in-situe ablation threshold fluence of Ge by photoacoustic deflection technique, Continuous Wave (CW) He–Ne laser (632 nm, power 10 mW) is employed as a probe beam. It travels parallel to the target surface at a distance of 3 mm and after passing through Ge plasma it causes deflection due to density gradient of acoustic waves. The deflected signal is detected by photodiode and is recorded by oscilloscope. The threshold fluence of Ge, the velocity of ablated species and the amplitude of the deflected signal are evaluated. The threshold fluence of Ge comes out to be 0.5 J cm"−"2 and is comparable with the analytical value. In order to compare the estimated value of threshold with ex-situe measurements, the quantitative analysis of laser irradiated Ge is performed by using SEM analysis. For this purpose Ge is exposed to single and multiple shots of 5, 10, 50 and 100 at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm"−"2. The threshold fluence for single and multiple shots as well as incubation coefficients are evaluated. It is observed that the value of incubation co-efficient decreases with increasing number of pulses and is therefore responsible for lowering the threshold fluence of Ge. SEM analysis also reveals the growth of various features such as porous structures, non-uniform ripples and blisters on the laser irradiated Ge. It is observed that both the fluence as well as number of laser shots plays a significant role for the growth of these structures.

  8. Tumor suppressor protein SMAR1 modulates the roughness of cell surface: combined AFM and SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamgain Hitesh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imaging tools such as scanning electron microscope (SEM and atomic force microscope (AFM can be used to produce high-resolution topographic images of biomedical specimens and hence are well suited for imaging alterations in cell morphology. We have studied the correlation of SMAR1 expression with cell surface smoothness in cell lines as well as in different grades of human breast cancer and mouse tumor sections. Methods We validated knockdown and overexpression of SMAR1 using RT-PCR as well as Western blotting in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293, human breast cancer (MCF-7 and mouse melanoma (B16F1 cell lines. The samples were then processed for cell surface roughness studies using atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The same samples were used for microarray analysis as well. Tumors sections from control and SMAR1 treated mice as well as tissues sections from different grades of human breast cancer on poly L-lysine coated slides were used for AFM and SEM studies. Results Tumor sections from mice injected with melanoma cells showed pronounced surface roughness. In contrast, tumor sections obtained from nude mice that were first injected with melanoma cells followed by repeated injections of SMAR1-P44 peptide, exhibited relatively smoother surface profile. Interestingly, human breast cancer tissue sections that showed reduced SMAR1 expression exhibited increased surface roughness compared to the adjacent normal breast tissue. Our AFM data establishes that treatment of cells with SMAR1-P44 results into increase in cytoskeletal volume that is supported by comparative gene expression data showing an increase in the expression of specific cytoskeletal proteins compared to the control cells. Altogether, these findings indicate that tumor suppressor function of SMAR1 might be exhibited through smoothening of cell surface by regulating expression of cell surface proteins. Conclusion Tumor suppressor

  9. Application of FE-SEM with elemental analyzer for irradiated fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shinji; Maeda, Koji; Yamada, A.

    2012-01-01

    It is important to study the irradiation behavior of the uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuels (MOX fuels) for development of fast reactor fuels. During irradiation in a fast reactor, the changes of microstructures and the changes of element distributions along radial direction occur in the MOX fuels because of a radial temperature gradient. In order to make detailed observations of microstructure and elemental analyses of fuel samples, a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) equipped with a wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (WDX) and an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) were installed in a hot laboratory. Because fuel samples have high radioactivities and emit α-particles, the instrument was modified correspondingly. The notable modified points were as follows. 1) To prevent leakage of radioactive materials, the instrument was attached to a remote control air-tight sample transfer unit between a shielded hot cell and the FE-SEM. 2) To protect operators and the instruments from radiation, the FE-SEM was installed in a lead shield box and the control unit was separately located outside the box. After the installation, the microscopy and elemental analyses were made on low burnup fuel samples. High resolution images were obtained on the fuel sample surface. The characteristic X-rays (U, Pu) emitted from the fuel sample surface measured along radial direction successfully. Thereby, it was able to grasp the change of U, Pu radial distribution after irradiation. The technique has the great advantage of being able to evaluate the changes of microstructures and the changes of element distributions of MOX fuels due to irradiation. In future work, samples of even higher radioactivity will be observed and analyzed. (author)

  10. Mechatronic Development and Vision Feedback Control of a Nanorobotics Manipulation System inside SEM for Nanodevice Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhan; Wang, Yaqiong; Yang, Bin; Li, Guanghui; Chen, Tao; Nakajima, Masahiro; Sun, Lining; Fukuda, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ) individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis). Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and SEM) served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system. PMID:27649180

  11. Is scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) quantitative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Dale E; Ritchie, Nicholas W M

    2013-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) is a widely applied elemental microanalysis method capable of identifying and quantifying all elements in the periodic table except H, He, and Li. By following the "k-ratio" (unknown/standard) measurement protocol development for electron-excited wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS), SEM/EDS can achieve accuracy and precision equivalent to WDS and at substantially lower electron dose, even when severe X-ray peak overlaps occur, provided sufficient counts are recorded. Achieving this level of performance is now much more practical with the advent of the high-throughput silicon drift detector energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SDD-EDS). However, three measurement issues continue to diminish the impact of SEM/EDS: (1) In the qualitative analysis (i.e., element identification) that must precede quantitative analysis, at least some current and many legacy software systems are vulnerable to occasional misidentification of major constituent peaks, with the frequency of misidentifications rising significantly for minor and trace constituents. (2) The use of standardless analysis, which is subject to much broader systematic errors, leads to quantitative results that, while useful, do not have sufficient accuracy to solve critical problems, e.g. determining the formula of a compound. (3) EDS spectrometers have such a large volume of acceptance that apparently credible spectra can be obtained from specimens with complex topography that introduce uncontrolled geometric factors that modify X-ray generation and propagation, resulting in very large systematic errors, often a factor of ten or more. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Adapted methods for scanning electron microscopy (SEM in assessment of human sperm morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Nussdorfer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is a widespread problem, and in some cases, the routine basic semen analysis is not sufficient to detect the cause of male infertility. The use of the scanning electron microscope (SEM could provide a detailed insight into spermatozoa morphology, but it requires specific sample preparation techniques. The purpose of this study was to select, adjust, and optimize a method for the preparation of spermatozoa samples prior to SEM analysis, and to establish the protocol required for its use in clinical practice. We examined sperm samples of 50 men. The samples were fixed with modified iso-osmolar aldehyde solution followed by osmium post-fixation. In the first method, dehydration of the cells and subsequent critical point drying (CPD were performed on a coverslip. In the second method, the samples were dehydrated in centrifuge tubes; hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS was used as a drying agent instead of CPD, and the samples were air-dried. The third procedure was based on a membrane filter. The samples were dehydrated and dried with HMDS in a Gooch crucible, continuously, without centrifugation or redispersion of the sample. Our results showed that the fixation with modified iso-osmolar aldehyde solution followed by osmium post-fixation, and combined with dehydration and CPD on a coverslip, is the most convenient procedure for SEM sample preparation. In the case of small-size samples or low sperm concentration, dehydration and drying with HMDS on the membrane filter enabled the best reliability, repeatability, and comparability of the results. The presented procedures are suitable for routine use, and they can be applied to confirm as well as to correct a diagnosis.

  13. Mechatronic Development and Vision Feedback Control of a Nanorobotics Manipulation System inside SEM for Nanodevice Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhan; Wang, Yaqiong; Yang, Bin; Li, Guanghui; Chen, Tao; Nakajima, Masahiro; Sun, Lining; Fukuda, Toshio

    2016-09-14

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ) individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis). Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and <1 micro-rad rotary resolution. Four vertically installed AFM cantilevers (the axis of the cantilever tip is vertical to the axis of electronic beam of SEM) served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system.

  14. Semântica gramatical: a significação dos pronomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildemir Ferreira de Carvalho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O estudo analisa a significação das particulas pronominais entre as quais se incluem os determinantes, os pronomes substantivos e os advérbios pronominais. Para esta análise se adota o critério dos traços constrativos (Chomsky, 2. Os resultados do trabalho mostram que as categorias semânticas dos pronomes (lato sensu se associam, de uma forma ou de outra, às nações de DEFINIDADE e PESSOA DO DISCURSO.

  15. Estudo da sintomatologia depressiva e ansiosa em crianças com e sem obesidade

    OpenAIRE

    Morgado, Joana Alexandra da Silva

    2013-01-01

    A obesidade infantil constitui um problema de saúde pública, o que motivou a sua classificação pela WHO como “epidemia do seculo XXI”. Como se não bastasse, surge sempre associada ao aumento quer da mortalidade, quer da morbilidade. Este estudo procura perceber em que medida as crianças com obesidade infantil diferem das crianças sem obesidade em termos de sintomatologia depressiva e ansiosa. O desenho do estudo é de natureza transversal e comparativa. A amostra é composta por 85 crianças, co...

  16. GAGG:ce single crystalline films: New perspective scintillators for electron detection in SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bok, Jan; Lalinský, Ondřej; Hanuš, M.; Onderišinová, Z.; Kelar, J.; Kučera, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 163, APR (2016), s. 1-5 ISSN 0304-3991 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20012S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05631S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : scintillator * GAGG:Ce * multicomponent garnet * epitaxial film * electron detection * SEM Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.843, year: 2016

  17. XPS and SEM studies of chromium oxide films chemically formed on stainless steel 316 L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanov, P.; Marinova, T.

    2000-01-01

    The structure and composition of chromium oxide films formed on stainless steel by immersion in a chromium electrolyte have been studied by SEM and XPS. Cr 2 O 3 crystallites in the range 30-150 nm are fully developed and cover the whole surface. The chemical composition in the depth and the thickness of the oxide layer have been determined by XPS sputter profiles. The oxide film can be described within the framework of a double layer consisting of a thin outer hydrated layer and an inner layer of Cr 2 O 3 . (orig.)

  18. Determination of gel content and SEM morphology for sago-PVA blends film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarada Idris; Zulkafli Ghazali; Kamarudin Hashim

    2006-01-01

    Blends of polyvinyl alcohol and sago starch have been prepared to evaluate the potential of producing biodegradable products. Glycerol was introduced in the blends to improve the flexibility of the films as plasticizer in order more flexible film. These blends have been subjected to electron beam irradiation to evaluate and characterized radiation effect on the blends. Subsequently films were produced from this blend. The gel content of un-irradiated and irradiated films as evidence of cross linking was measured and discussed. This paper also discuss the films morphology from Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM) observation. (Author)

  19. Red semántica de terremoto y maremoto en personas expuestas directa y vicariamente

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio Moyano Díaz; Katerinne Muñoz Tapia; Claudia Estrada; Marcelo Leiva-Bianchi

    2012-01-01

    Se busca identificar el significado de los conceptos 'terremoto' y 'maremoto' en dos grupos diferentemente expuestos al evento acaecido en Chile el 27/02/2010, en una muestra no probabilística intencional, compuesta por 240 personas provenientes de las ciudades de Constitución (n=104) - expuestas directamente al terremoto y maremoto -, y de Punta Arenas (n=136) expuestas vicariamente. Mediante redes semánticas naturales (R.S.) construidas ad-hoc, fue observado que terremoto y tsunami tienen s...

  20. Unveiling the Mysteries of Mars with a Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunson, J.; Gaskin, J. A.; Doloboff, I. J.; Jerman, G.

    2017-01-01

    Development of a miniaturized scanning electron microscope that will utilize the martian atmosphere to dissipate charge during analysis continues. This instrument is expected to be used on a future rover or lander to answer fundamental Mars science questions. To identify the most important questions, a survey was taken at the 47th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC). From the gathered information initial topics were identified for a SEM on the martian surface. These priorities are identified and discussed below. Additionally, a concept of operations is provided with the goal of maximizing the science obtained with the minimum amount of communication with the instrument.

  1. Application of SEM/EDS to environmental geochemistry of heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Gosar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals represent a ubiquitous constituent of the near-surface environment, present in widely varyingconcentrations that typically have little impact on human behaviour and health. However, the mining of metals anduse of these metals in industrial processes has produced significant anthropogenic inputs of metals to both localand global environments. As such, a rigorous overview of the current accumulation of heavy metals and knowledgeof mineralogy of heavy metal-bearing phases is important for understanding their stability, solubility, mobility,bioavailability and toxicity. These data are of fundamental importance for environmental risk assessment and evaluationof future scenarios. Since conventional geochemical analyses provide limited information, other analyticalmethods have to be utilized for the characterisation of heavy metal-bearing phases. Significant analytical methodfor identification and characterisation of heavy metals in environmental media is a scanning electron microscopecoupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDS, an apparatus for qualitative and semi-quantitative chemical analysis at microne level, newly introduced to Geological Survey of Slovenia. Use of SEM/EDS was already introduced to environmental studies world-wide. In Slovenia, SEM/EDS analyses of environmental media werefirstly carried out on the Meža River stream sediments and snow deposits from Ljubljana urban area.Heavy metal-bearing phases in the Meža River stream sediments were apportioned to three source areas: Mežica mining/smelting area (geogenic-technogenic origin, Ravne ironworks area (technogenic origin and the Meža River catchment area (geogenic origin, which corresponds to data obtained by conventional geochemical and multivariate statistical methods. Airborne particles, identified in urban snow deposits, were interpreted as geogenic particles, represented by fragments of heavy metal-bearing minerals, and technogenic particles that

  2. Chemical Characterization of Bed Material Coatingsby LA-ICP-MS and SEM-EDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piispanen, M. H.; Mustonen, A. J.; Tiainen, M. S.; Laitinen, R. S.

    Bed material coatings and the consequent agglomeration of bed material are main ash-related problems in FB-boilers. The bed agglomeration is a particular problem when combusting biofuels and waste materials. Whereas SEM-EDS together with automated image processing has proven to be a convenient method to study compositional distribution in coating layers and agglomerates, it is a relatively expensive technique and is not necessarily widely available. In this contribution, we explore the suitability of LA-ICP-MS to provide analogous information of the bed.

  3. SEM Characterization of Extinguished Grains from Plasma-Ignited M30 Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkennon, A.; Birk, A.; DelGuercio, M.; Kaste, P.; Lieb, R.; Newberry, J.; Pesce-Rodriguez, R.; Schroeder, M.

    2000-01-01

    M30 propellant grains that had been ignited in interrupted closed bomb experiments were characterize by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Previous chemical analysis of extinguished grains had given no indications of plasma-propellant chemical interactions that could explain the increased burning rates that had been previously observed in full-pressure closed bomb experiments. (This does not mean that there is no unique chemistry occurring with plasma ignition. It may occur very early in the ignition event and then become obscured by the burning chemistry.) In this work, SEM was used to look at grain morphologies to determine if there were increases in the surface areas of the plasma-ignited grains which would contribute to the apparent increase in the burning rate. Charges were made using 30 propellant grains (approximately 32 grams) stacked in two tiers and in two concentric circles around a plastic straw. Each grain was notched so that, when the grains were expelled from the bomb during extinguishment, it could be determined in which tier and which circle each grain was originally packed. Charges were ignited in a closed bomb by either a nickel wire/Mylar-capillary plasma or black powder. The bomb contained a blowout disk that ruptured when the pressure reached 35 MPa, and the propellant was vented into a collection chamber packed with polyurethane foam. SEM analysis of the grains fired with a conventional black powder igniter showed no signs of unusual burning characteristics. The surfaces seemed to be evenly burned on the exteriors of the grains and in the perforations. Grains that had been subjected to plasma ignition, however, had pits, gouges, chasms, and cracks in the surfaces. The sides of the grains closest to the plasma had the greatest amount of damage, but even surfaces facing the outer wall of the bomb had small pits. The perforations contained gouges and abnormally burned regions (wormholes) that extended into the web. The SEM photos indicated that

  4. Recent Optical and SEM Characterization of Genesis Solar Wind Concentrator Diamond on Silicon Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, Judith H.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Burkett, P. J.; Ross, D. K.; Gonzalez, C. P.; McNamara, K. M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the 4 Genesis solar wind concentrator collectors was a silicon substrate coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) in which to capture solar wind. This material was designed for analysis of solar nitrogen and noble gases [1, 2]. This particular collector fractured during landing, but about 80% of the surface was recovered, including a large piece which was subdivided in 2012 [3, 4, 5]. The optical and SEM imaging and analysis described below supports the subdivision and allocation of the diamond-on-silicon (DOS) concentrator collector.

  5. Three-dimensional intracellular structure of a whole rice mesophyll cell observed with FIB-SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Takao; Enomoto, Sakiko; Nakao, Tomoyo; Arai, Shigeo; Yamane, Koji; Taniguchi, Mitsutaka

    2017-07-01

    Ultrathin sections of rice leaf blades observed two-dimensionally using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) show that the chlorenchyma is composed of lobed mesophyll cells, with intricate cell boundaries, and lined with chloroplasts. The lobed cell shape and chloroplast positioning are believed to enhance the area available for the gas exchange surface for photosynthesis in rice leaves. However, a cell image revealing the three-dimensional (3-D) ultrastructure of rice mesophyll cells has not been visualized. In this study, a whole rice mesophyll cell was observed using a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM), which provides many serial sections automatically, rapidly and correctly, thereby enabling 3-D cell structure reconstruction. Rice leaf blades were fixed chemically using the method for conventional TEM observation, embedded in resin and subsequently set in the FIB-SEM chamber. Specimen blocks were sectioned transversely using the FIB, and block-face images were captured using the SEM. The sectioning and imaging were repeated overnight for 200-500 slices (each 50 nm thick). The resultant large-volume image stacks ( x = 25 μm, y = 25 μm, z = 10-25 μm) contained one or two whole mesophyll cells. The 3-D models of whole mesophyll cells were reconstructed using image processing software. The reconstructed cell models were discoid shaped with several lobes around the cell periphery. The cell shape increased the surface area, and the ratio of surface area to volume was twice that of a cylinder having the same volume. The chloroplasts occupied half the cell volume and spread as sheets along the cell lobes, covering most of the inner cell surface, with adjacent chloroplasts in close contact with each other. Cellular and sub-cellular ultrastructures of a whole mesophyll cell in a rice leaf blade are demonstrated three-dimensionally using a FIB-SEM. The 3-D models and numerical information support the hypothesis that rice mesophyll

  6. Validation of cell-free culture using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gene expression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R; Elankumaran, Y; Hijjawi, N; Ryan, U

    2015-06-01

    A cell-free culture system for Cryptosporidium parvum was analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to characterise life cycle stages and compare gene expression in cell-free culture and cell culture using HCT-8 cells. Cryptosporidium parvum samples were harvested at 2 h, 8 h, 14 h, 26 h, 50 h, 74 h, 98 h, 122 h and 170 h, chemically fixed and specimens were observed using a Zeiss 1555 scanning electron microscope. The presence of sporozoites, trophozoites and type I merozoites were identified by SEM. Gene expression in cell culture and cell-free culture was studied using reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) of the sporozoite surface antigen protein (cp15), the glycoprotein 900 (gp900), the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in both cell free and conventional cell culture. In cell culture, cp15 expression peaked at 74 h, gp900 expression peaked at 74 h and 98 h and COWP expression peaked at 50 h. In cell-free culture, CP15 expression peaked at 98 h, gp900 expression peaked at 74 h and COWP expression peaked at 122 h. The present study is the first to compare gene expression of C. parvum in cell culture and cell-free culture and to characterise life cycle stages of C. parvum in cell-free culture using SEM. Findings from this study showed that gene expression patterns in cell culture and cell-free culture were similar but in cell-free culture, gene expression was delayed for CP15 and COWP in cell free culture compared with the cell culture system and was lower. Although three life cycle stageswere conclusively identified, improvements in SEM methodology should lead to the detection of more life cycle stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fast three-dimensional nanoscale metrology in dual-beam FIB-SEM instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repetto, Luca; Buzio, Renato; Denurchis, Carlo; Firpo, Giuseppe; Piano, Emanuele; Valbusa, Ugo

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative surface reconstruction technique has been developed for the geometric characterization of three-dimensional structures by using a combined focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) instrument. A regular pattern of lines is milled at normal incidence on the sample to be characterized and an image is acquired at a large tilt angle. By analyzing the pattern under the tilted view, a quantitative estimation of surface heights is obtained. The technique has been applied to a test sample and nanoscale resolution has been achieved. The reported results are validated by a comparison with atomic force microscopy measurements.

  8. Morphological and Production Changes in Planktonic and Biofilm Cells Monitored Using SEM and Raman Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubanová, Kamila; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Samek, Ota; Skoupý, Radim; Šiler, Martin; Ježek, Jan; Obruča, S.; Zemánek, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, S1 (2017), s. 1158-1159 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20645S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12477S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-15451S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : biofilm cells * SEM * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  9. An evaluation testing technique of single event effect using Beam Blanking SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, J; Hada, T; Pesce, A; Akutsu, T; Matsuda, S [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Space Center; Igarashi, T; Baba, S

    1997-03-01

    Beam Blanking SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) testing technique has been applied to CMOS SRAM devices to evaluate the occurence of soft errors on memory cells. Cross-section versus beam current and LET curves derived from BBSEM and heavy ion testing technique, respectively, have been compared. A linear relation between BBSEM current and heavy ion LET has been found. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the application of focused pulsed electron beam could be a reliable, convenient and inexpensive tool to investigate the effects of heavy ions and high energy particles on memory devices for space application. (author)

  10. Roteamento em redes em malha sem fio com balanceamento de carga e caminhos mais curtos

    OpenAIRE

    Mello, Micael Oliveira Massula Carvalho de

    2014-01-01

    Redes em Malha Sem Fio - Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) são infraestruturas com propriedades autonômicas, como auto-organização e autorrecuperação, que podem ser implementadas com tecnologias amplamente disponíveis e de custo acessível. Além de suas aplicações atuais, como redes comunitárias e redes de acesso à Internet, as WMNs podem auxiliar na comunicação de Internet das Coisas e constituir infraestruturas robustas para redes inteligentes de energia, dentre outros usos. No en...

  11. Potenciais evocados auditivos de músicos com e sem ouvido absoluto

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Letícia Ribeiro de

    2014-01-01

    Orientador: Prof. Dr. Francisco José Fraga da Silva Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do ABC, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia da Informação, 2014. Entende-se por ouvido absoluto a capacidade de produzir e/ou identificar e dar nome à frequência de qualquer nota musical sem a necessidade de uma referência externa. O estudo do ouvido absoluto pode ser uma oportunidade única para se investigar as interações entre informações linguísticas e não-linguísticas na memória de ...

  12. Resolving Differences in Absolute Irradiance Measurements Between the SOHO/CELIAS/SEM and the SDO/EVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieman, S R; Didkovsky, L V; Judge, D L

    The Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) onboard SOHO has measured absolute extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray solar irradiance nearly continuously since January 1996. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on SDO, in operation since April of 2010, measures solar irradiance in a wide spectral range that encompasses the band passes (26 - 34 nm and 0.1 - 50 nm) measured by SOHO/SEM. However, throughout the mission overlap, irradiance values from these two instruments have differed by more than the combined stated uncertainties of the measurements. In an effort to identify the sources of these differences and eliminate them, we investigate in this work the effect of reprocessing the SEM data using a more accurate SEM response function (obtained from synchrotron measurements with a SEM sounding-rocket clone instrument taken after SOHO was already in orbit) and time-dependent, measured solar spectral distributions - i.e ., solar reference spectra that were unavailable prior to the launch of the SDO. We find that recalculating the SEM data with these improved parameters reduces mean differences with the EVE measurements from about 20 % to less than 5 % in the 26 - 34 nm band, and from about 35 % to about 15 % for irradiances in the 0.1 - 7 nm band extracted from the SEM 0.1 - 50 nm channel.

  13. Fully covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMS), partially covered SEMS and self-expandable plastic stents for the treatment of benign esophageal ruptures and anastomotic leaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boeckel, Petra G A; Dua, Kulwinder S; Weusten, Bas L A M; Schmits, Ruben J H; Surapaneni, Naveen; Timmer, Robin; Vleggaar, Frank P; Siersema, Peter D

    2012-02-29

    Benign esophageal ruptures and anastomotic leaks are life-threatening conditions that are often treated surgically. Recently, placement of partially and fully covered metal or plastic stents has emerged as a minimally invasive treatment option. We aimed to determine the clinical effectiveness of covered stent placement for the treatment of esophageal ruptures and anastomotic leaks with special emphasis on different stent designs. Consecutive patients who underwent placement of a fully covered self-expandable metal stent (FSEMS), a partially covered SEMS (PSEMS) or a self-expanding plastic stent (SEPS) for a benign esophageal rupture or anastomotic leak after upper gastrointestinal surgery in the period 2007-2010 were included. Data on patient demographics, type of lesion, stent placement and removal, clinical success and complications were collected A total of 52 patients received 83 esophageal stents (61 PSEMS, 15 FSEMS, 7 SEPS) for an anastomotic leak (n=32), iatrogenic rupture (n=13), Boerhaave's syndrome (n=4) or other cause (n=3). Endoscopic stent removal was successful in all but eight patients treated with a PSEMS due to tissue ingrowth. Clinical success was achieved in 34 (76%, intention-to-treat: 65%) patients (PSEMS: 73%, FSEMS: 83%, SEPS: 83%) after a median of 1 (range 1-5) stent and a median stenting time of 39 (range 7-120) days. In total, 33 complications in 24 (46%) patients occurred (tissue in- or overgrowth (n=8), stent migration (n=10), ruptured stent cover (all Ultraflex; n=6), food obstruction (n=3), severe pain (n=2), esophageal rupture (n=2), hemorrhage (n=2)). One (2%) patient died of a stent-related cause. Covered stents placed for a period of 5-6 weeks may well be an alternative to surgery for treating benign esophageal ruptures or anastomotic leaks. As efficacy between PSEMS, FSEMS and SEPS is not different, stent choice should depend on expected risks of stent migration (SEPS and FSEMS) and tissue in- or overgrowth (PSEMS).

  14. Automated transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM for large volume analysis at nanoscale resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Kuwajima

    Full Text Available Transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM on a field emission SEM platform was developed for efficient and cost-effective imaging of circuit-scale volumes from brain at nanoscale resolution. Image area was maximized while optimizing the resolution and dynamic range necessary for discriminating key subcellular structures, such as small axonal, dendritic and glial processes, synapses, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, microtubules, polyribosomes, and endosomes which are critical for neuronal function. Individual image fields from the tSEM system were up to 4,295 µm(2 (65.54 µm per side at 2 nm pixel size, contrasting with image fields from a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM system, which were only 66.59 µm(2 (8.160 µm per side at the same pixel size. The tSEM produced outstanding images and had reduced distortion and drift relative to TEM. Automated stage and scan control in tSEM easily provided unattended serial section imaging and montaging. Lens and scan properties on both TEM and SEM platforms revealed no significant nonlinear distortions within a central field of ∼100 µm(2 and produced near-perfect image registration across serial sections using the computational elastic alignment tool in Fiji/TrakEM2 software, and reliable geometric measurements from RECONSTRUCT™ or Fiji/TrakEM2 software. Axial resolution limits the analysis of small structures contained within a section (∼45 nm. Since this new tSEM is non-destructive, objects within a section can be explored at finer axial resolution in TEM tomography with current methods. Future development of tSEM tomography promises thinner axial resolution producing nearly isotropic voxels and should provide within-section analyses of structures without changing platforms. Brain was the test system given our interest in synaptic connectivity and plasticity; however, the new tSEM system is readily applicable to other biological systems.

  15. The Effect of Different Cleaning Protocols on Post Space: A SEM Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lo Giudice

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Purpose of the present paper is to analyze the efficiency of different post-space irrigation protocols. Methods. 28 single rooted teeth were endodontically treated. After post-space preparation every sample was assigned to one of three experimental groups and to one control group. In each group different irrigation protocols were performed as follows: EDTA (Group A, 37% orthophosphoric acid (Group B, and EDTA + 37% orthophosphoric acid with ultrasounds activation (Group C. In the control group (Group D the irrigate association was not activated by ultrasounds. Three zones (coronal, middle, and apical of each sample were analyzed by using Scan Electron Microscopy (SEM without any metallization procedures. The presence of smear layer on the canal surface was qualitatively evaluated by applying Serafino’s score with values included between 0 and 2. Results. The results of the research showed how Group C recorded the better results (0.81±0.72. Group A and Group B showed lower mean scores (1.06±0.69 and 1.08±0.77; Group D showed the lowest mean score of 1.30±0.69. The SEM observation analysis demonstrated how the smear layer presence decreased in the crown-apical direction. Conclusions. The different post-space treatments statistically determine significant differences on the dentinal surfaces cleansing. The absence of ultrasonic activation lowers the cleansing efficacy of endocanalar irrigants, showing sensible differences among each post-space zone.

  16. Improvement in the Characterization of the 2099 Al-Li Alloy by FE-SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodusch, Nicolas; Trudeau, Michel L.; Michaud, Pierre; Brochu, Mathieu; Rodrigue, Lisa; Boselli, Julien; Gauvin, Raynald

    This paper describes how state-of-the-art Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) can contribute to the characterization of the 2099 aluminum-lithium alloy, and metallic alloys in general. Investigations were carried out on bulk and thinned samples. BSE imaging at 3kV and STEM imaging at 30kV along with highly efficient microanalysis permitted to correlate experimental and expected structures. Although our results confirm previous studies, this work points out possible substitutions of Mg and Zn with Li, Al and Cu in the T1 precipitates. Zinc and magnesium are also present in "rice grain" shaped precipitates at the grain boundaries. The versatility of the FE-SEM is highlighted in that it can provide information at the macro and micro scales with relevant details. Its ability to probe the distribution of precipitates from nano-to micro-sizes throughout the matrix makes Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy a suitable technique for the characterization of metallic alloys.

  17. Marginal adaptation of newer root canal sealers to dentin: A SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polineni, Swapnika; Bolla, Nagesh; Mandava, Pragna; Vemuri, Sayesh; Mallela, Madhusudana; Gandham, Vijaya Madhuri

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated and compared the marginal adaptation of three newer root canal sealers to root dentin. Thirty freshly extracted human single-rooted teeth with completely formed apices were taken. Teeth were decoronated, and root canals were instrumented. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10) based upon the sealer used. Group 1 - teeth were obturated with epoxy resin sealer (MM-Seal). Group 2 - teeth were obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) based sealer (MTA Fillapex), Group 3 - teeth were obturated with bioceramic sealer (EndoSequence BC sealer). Later samples were vertically sectioned using hard tissue microtome and marginal adaptation of sealers to root dentin was evaluated under coronal and apical halves using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and marginal gap values were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple post hoc test. The highest marginal gap was seen in Group 2 (apical-16680.00 nm, coronal-10796 nm) and the lowest marginal gap was observed in Group 1 (apical-599.42 nm, coronal-522.72 nm). Coronal halves showed superior adaptation compared to apical halves in all the groups under SEM. Within the limitations of this study epoxy resin-based MM-Seal showed good marginal adaptation than other materials tested.

  18. Analyzing the scale of the bainitic ferrite plates by XRD, SEM and TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Mateo, Carlos; Jimenez, Jose A.; Lopez-Ezquerra, Belen; Rementeria, Rosalia; Morales-Rivas, Lucia; Kuntz, Matthias; Caballero, Francisca G.

    2016-01-01

    Since the major strengthening mechanisms in nanocrystalline bainitic steels arise from the exceptionally small size of the bainitc ferrite plate, accurate determination of this parameter is fundamental for quantitative relating the microstructure to the mechanical properties. In this work, the thickness of the bainitic ferrite subunits obtained by different bainitic heat treatments was determined in two steels, with carbon contents of 0.3 and 0.7 wt.%, from SEM and TEM micrographs. As these measurements were made on 2D images taken from random sections, the method includes some stereological correction factors to obtain accurate information. Finally, the determined thicknesses of bainitic ferrite plates were compared with the crystallite size calculated from the analysis of X-ray diffraction peak broadening. Although in some case the values obtained for crystallite size and plate thickness can be similar, this study confirms that indeed they are two different parameters. - Highlights: •Bainitic microstructure in a nanostructured and sub-micron steel •Bainitic ferrite plate thickness measured by SEM and TEM •Crystallite size determined by X-ray analysis

  19. Analyzing the scale of the bainitic ferrite plates by XRD, SEM and TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Mateo, Carlos, E-mail: cgm@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Spanish National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, Jose A.; Lopez-Ezquerra, Belen; Rementeria, Rosalia; Morales-Rivas, Lucia [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Spanish National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Kuntz, Matthias [Robert-Bosch GmbH, Materials and Process Engineering Metals, Renningen, 70465 Stuttgart (Germany); Caballero, Francisca G. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Spanish National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-12-15

    Since the major strengthening mechanisms in nanocrystalline bainitic steels arise from the exceptionally small size of the bainitc ferrite plate, accurate determination of this parameter is fundamental for quantitative relating the microstructure to the mechanical properties. In this work, the thickness of the bainitic ferrite subunits obtained by different bainitic heat treatments was determined in two steels, with carbon contents of 0.3 and 0.7 wt.%, from SEM and TEM micrographs. As these measurements were made on 2D images taken from random sections, the method includes some stereological correction factors to obtain accurate information. Finally, the determined thicknesses of bainitic ferrite plates were compared with the crystallite size calculated from the analysis of X-ray diffraction peak broadening. Although in some case the values obtained for crystallite size and plate thickness can be similar, this study confirms that indeed they are two different parameters. - Highlights: •Bainitic microstructure in a nanostructured and sub-micron steel •Bainitic ferrite plate thickness measured by SEM and TEM •Crystallite size determined by X-ray analysis.

  20. Structure and surface morphology studies of cerium oxide system using XRD and SEM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Jais Alimin; Farid Nasir Ani; Wan Azelee Wan Abu Bakar

    2000-01-01

    Conventional Precious Group Materials (PGM) catalyst systems have been using CeO 2 as an Oxygen Storage Capacity component in the catalyst washcoat. Due to the limitations of the PGM catalyst, researches are now focusing on improving or replacing this conventional system. In a previous work, the potential of a copper-ceria (Cu-Ce) oxide as a catalyst system has been identified. In this paper, the morphology and characterisation of Cu-Ce oxides analysed using XRD and SEM will be described. The Cu-Ce samples were prepared at a fixed ratio under temperatures of 400 o C and 800 o C. XRD diffractograms showed CeO 2 is in a cubic phase at 400 o C and 800 o C. At 800 o C, the CuO particle is visible, presumably has incorporated with the lattice structure of ceria, indicating an absent of solid state condition between copper and ceria. Analysis by SEM revealed significant increase in particle sizes with increasing calcination temperatures. (Author)

  1. Continuous observation of cavity growth and coalescence by creep-fatigue tests in SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Masayuki; Ogata, Takashi; Nitta, Akito

    1995-01-01

    Structural components operating at high temperatures in power plants are subjected to interaction of thermal fatigue and creep which results in creep-fatigue damage. In evaluating the life of those components, it is important to understand microscopic damage evolution under creep-fatigue conditions. In this study, static creep and creep-fatigue tests with tensile holdtime were conducted on SUS304 stainless steel by using a high-temperature fatigue machine combined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and cavity growth and coalescence behaviors on surface grain boundaries were observed continuously by the SEM. Quantitative analysis of creep cavity growth based on the observation was made for comparison with theoretical growth models. As a result, it was found that grain boundary cavities nucleate at random and grow preferentially on grain boundaries in a direction almost normal to the stress axis. Under the creep condition, the cavities grow monotonously on grain boundaries while they remain the elliptical shape. On the other hand, under the creep-fatigue condition the cavities grow with an effect of local strain distribution around the grain boundary due to cyclic loading and the micro cracks of one grain-boundary length were formed by coalescence of the cavities. Also, cavity nucleation and growth rates for creep-fatigue were more rapid than those for static creep and the constrained cavity growth model coincided well with the experimental data for creep. (author)

  2. Replica of human dentin treated with different desensitizing agents: a methodological SEM study in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Jose Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a preliminary study to determine a methodological sequence in vitro which may allow the reproduction of dentin for SEM analysis, after the use of different desensitizing agents. Dentin discs obtained from extracted human third molars were etched with 6% citric acid, an artificial smear layer was created and the surface dentin discs were divided into four quadrants. Quadrants 2, 3 and 4 of each disc were conditioned with 6% citric acid. The desensitizing agents (Oxa-Gel®, Gluma Desensitizer and an experimental agent were applied to quadrants 3 and 4. To evaluate the acid resistance of the treatment, quadrant 4 was etched again with 6% citric acid. An impression was then taken with Aquasil ULV. After a setting period of 6 min, each disc was removed from the impression and stored in a moist-free environment for 24 h at 37ºC. After that time, a low-viscosity epoxy resin (Araltec GY 1109 BR was poured into the impression and cured for 24 h. All specimens were metal-coated for SEM analysis. Comparison of the photomicrographs of dentin discs with their respective impressions and resin replicas showed that this technique can reproduce the characteristics of the dentin surface treated with desensitizing agents.

  3. Morphological, chemical and structural characterisation of deciduous enamel: SEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR and XPS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio-Ortega, C M; Contreras-Bulnes, R; Scougall-Vilchis, R J; Morales-Luckie, R A; Olea-Mejía, O F; Rodríguez-Vilchis, L E

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterise the enamel surface of sound deciduous teeth in terms of morphology, chemical composition, structure and crystalline phases. The enamel of 30 human deciduous teeth was examined by: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Chemical differences between incisors and canines were statistically evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test (p ≤ 0.05). Three enamel patterns were observed by SEM: 'mostly smooth with some groves', 'abundant microporosities' and 'exposed prisms'. The average Ca/P molar ratios were 1.37 and 1.03 by EDS and XPS, respectively. The crystallite size determined by XRD was 210.82 ± 16.78 Å. The mean ratio between Ca bonded to phosphate and Ca bonded to hydroxyl was approximately 10:1. The enamel of sound deciduous teeth showed two main patterns: 'mostly smooth with some groves' and 'abundant microporosities'. 'Exposed prisms' was a secondary pattern. There were slight variations among the Ca/P molar ratios found by EDS and XPS, suggesting differences in the mineral content from the enamel surface to the interior. The crystalline phases found in enamel were hydroxyapatite and carbonate apatite, with major type B than type A carbonate incorporation.

  4. MULTIMODALIDADE E A CONSTRUÇÃO DA IDENTIDADE DO SEM-TERRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderleiidalice J. Zacchi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a maneira como o movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (mST utiliza os diferentesmodos de produçãode significado e como, nesse processo, é construída sua identidade. A análise será efetuada principalmente a partir de textos impressos, digitais e eletrônicos produzidos pelos sem-terra. Apesar de fazer bom uso das diversas habilidades pressupostas na multimodalidade, o movimento ainda se apoia fortemente no modo linguístico tanto na autorrepresentação quanto na ação social. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: multiletramento, mST, identidade, Internet, mídia. ABSTRACT: This paper aims at analysing the identity construction of the Landless Rural Workers movement (mST by making use of different modes of meaning-construction. The data provided for analysis are based especially on printed, electronic, and digital texts produced by the movement. Although the mST uses multimodal texts extensively, it still relies heavily on the linguistic mode when engaging in both self-representation and social action. KEYWORDS: multiliteracies, landless movement, identity, Internet, media.

  5. Microstructure investigations of Ba-Sr mixed ferrites, using SEM technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amighian, J.; Mozaffari, M.

    1996-01-01

    A series of isotropic Ba-Sr mixed ferrites were prepared, using a conventional dry technique. The starting materials were hematite by product of Isfahan steel factory, strontium carbonate from Merck company and barium carbonate obtained from local source. The principle phase of the samples was chosen to have a composition in the form of (BaO) sub 1-x (SrO) sub x nFe sub 2 O sub 3, in which x varied between 0 to l and n was varied between 5 to 6. The raw materials were thoroughly mixed and fired in an electrical furnace for 2 hours. They were then milled in an vibrating ball mill, in which the optimum milling time for each sample was obtained. After annealing at 750 degree C, the powders were compacted in a cylindrical die under 5 tons/cm sup 2. The compacts were then mixed with a binder and sintered in air for 10 minutes at their optimum temperatures. Using SEM technique, the microstructure of the samples were investigated. Using a permeameter, the coercive force Hc and remanent induction Br were measured. The microstructures obtained from SEM technique can be used to control the sintering stage in ferrite fabrication

  6. Observation particle morphology of colloidal system by conventional SEM with an improved specimen preparation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Zhaosheng; Yuan, Xiaojiao; Guo, Hong

    2011-08-01

    On the basis of our previous report that polymer emulsion with different viscosity can be investigated by conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we have developed an improved specimen preparation technique for obtaining particle morphology and size of colloidal silver, collagen, glutin, and polymer microspheres. In this study, we expect to provide a means for charactering the three-dimensional surface microstructure of colloidal particles. Dilution of the samples with appropriate volatile solvent like ethanol is effective for SEM specimen preparation. At a proper ratio between sample and ethanol, the colloidal particles are dispersed uniformly in ethanol and then deposited evenly on the substrate. Different drying methods are studied to search a proper drying condition, in which the small molecule solvent is removed without destroying the natural particle morphology. And the effects of ethanol in the specimen preparation process are described by analyzing the physicochemical properties of ethanol. The specimen preparation technique is simple and can be achieved in common laboratory for charactering the particle morphology of colloidal system. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Non-oxidative and oxidative torrefaction characterization and SEM observations of fibrous and ligneous biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lu, Ke-Miao; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Liu, Shih-Hsien; Lin, Ta-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Non-oxidative and oxidative torrefaction of biomass is studied. • Two fibrous biomasses and two ligneous biomasses are tested. • SEM observations of four biomasses are provided. • Fibrous biomass is more sensitive to O 2 concentration than ligneous biomass. • The performance of non-oxidative torrefaction is better than that of oxidative torrefaction. - Abstract: Oxidative torrefaction is a method to reduce the operating cost of upgrading biomass. To understand the potential of oxidative torrefaction and its impact on the internal structure of biomass, non-oxidative and oxidative torrefaction of two fibrous biomass materials (oil palm fiber and coconut fiber) and two ligneous ones (eucalyptus and Cryptomeria japonica) at 300 °C for 1 h are studied and compared with each other. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations are also performed to explore the impact of torrefaction atmosphere on the lignocellulosic structure of biomass. The results indicate that the fibrous biomass is more sensitive to O 2 concentration than the ligneous biomass. In oxidative torrefaction, an increase in O 2 concentration decreases the solid yield. The energy yield is linearly proportional to the solid yield, which is opposite to the behavior of non-oxidative torrefaction. The performance of non-oxidative torrefaction is better than that of oxidative torrefaction. As a whole, ligneous biomass can be torrefied in oxidative environments at lower O 2 concentrations, whereas fibrous biomass is more suitable for non-oxidative torrefaction

  8. SEM-EDS Observation of Structure Changes in Synthetic Zeolites Modified for CO2 Capture Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowin, Magdalena; Panek, Rafal; Franus, Wojciech

    Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas and its amount still increase in the atmosphere. Air pollution and greenhouse effect caused by CO2 emission have become a major threat to the environment on a global scale. Carbon dioxide sequestration (i.e. capture and consequently geological storage) is the key strategy within the portfolio of actions to reduce CO2 emission to the atmosphere. The most costly stage is capture of CO2, therefore there is a need to search new solutions of this technology. For this purpose it was examined Na-X synthetic zeolites, that were silver and PEI (polyethyleneimine) activated. SEM-EDS investigation enable to find a changes in structure of this materials after treatment. Where, as a result of silver activation from EDS analysis it is seen that Ag occur in Na-X structure, what indicate a substitution of Ag2+ for Na+ ions in crystal lattice. Analysing wt% the EDS analysis has shown that zeolite Na-X after silver impregnation becomes Ag-X zeolite. For Na-X-PEI activated it is observed a distinct organic compound in the form of coatings on Na-X crystals causing a sealing of pores in tested zeolite. Further examination of these materials concern determination of surface properties and experiments of CO2 sorption. But SEM-EDS analysis enable to determine the extent of activation, what is very important in determination of optimal conditions for such treatment in order to obtain better sorbent of CO2.

  9. Using BIB-SEM to determine pore morphology and pore size distributions in coal macerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffin, S.; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal; Klaver, J.; Urai, J.L. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Structural Geology, Tectonics and Geomechanics

    2013-08-01

    The composition of coalbeds is considerably heterogeneous, affecting the transport pathways for fluids within the coal. Transport pathways include cleats and larger pores. However, only a few clues exist as the nature of these pores. This study examines the morphology and distribution of macro- and mesopores in coal samples, using broad ion beam (BIB) milling to prepare relief- and damage-free polished surfaces of coal samples for high-resolution SEM imaging. Broad ion beam milling is advantageous to focused ion beam milling in that a larger surface area can be milled. Combining that with SEM imaging results in a useful tool to study pore morphology and distributions in the size range between 10 nm and 10 {mu}m. Since BIB-sections of a few square millimeters are not large enough to be statistically representative, results cannot be easily interpreted from a coal seam standpoint. Therefore, porosity was investigated as a function of maceral type to characterize pore morphologies. Macerals from the vitrinite and inertinite groups were selected with a known relationship to bedding. BIB-sections were milled parallel to bedding and perpendicular to bedding, and the pores were evaluated in each section. The goal of this study is to (1) qualitatively describe pore morphology with respect to maceral type and (2) quantitatively characterize pore size distributions with respect to maceral and in relationship to bedding. Our results lead to a better understanding of bulk coal porosity due to the visual, spatial representation and quantification of pores in individual macerals. (orig.)

  10. Charging effects of PET under electron beam irradiation in a SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jbara, O; Rondot, S; Hadjadj, A; Patat, J M; Fakhfakh, S; Belhaj, M

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with charge trapping and charge transport of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer subjected to electron irradiation in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Measurement of displacement current and leakage current using an arrangement adapted to the SEM allows the amount of trapped charge during and after electron irradiation to be determined and the charge mechanisms regulation to be studied. These mechanisms involve several parameters related to the electronic injection, the characteristics of insulator and the effects of the trapped charge itself. The dynamic trapping properties of PET samples are investigated and the time constants of charging are evaluated for various conditions of irradiation. The determination of the trapping cross section for electrons is possible by using the trapping rate at the onset of irradiation. Many physical processes are involved in the charging and discharging mechanisms; among them surface conduction is outlined. Through the control of irradiation conditions, various types of surface discharging (flashover phenomenon) behaviour are also observed. The strength of the electric field initiating surface discharge is estimated.

  11. Enhancing nanoscale SEM image segmentation and reconstruction with crystallographic orientation data and machine learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Converse, Matthew I.; Fullwood, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Current methods of image segmentation and reconstructions from scanning electron micrographs can be inadequate for resolving nanoscale gaps in composite materials (1–20 nm). Such information is critical to both accurate material characterizations and models of piezoresistive response. The current work proposes the use of crystallographic orientation data and machine learning for enhancing this process. It is first shown how a machine learning algorithm can be used to predict the connectivity of nanoscale grains in a Nickel nanostrand/epoxy composite. This results in 71.9% accuracy for a 2D algorithm and 62.4% accuracy in 3D. Finally, it is demonstrated how these algorithms can be used to predict the location of gaps between distinct nanostrands — gaps which would otherwise not be detected with the sole use of a scanning electron microscope. - Highlights: • A method is proposed for enhancing the segmentation/reconstruction of SEM images. • 3D crystallographic orientation data from a nickel nanocomposite is collected. • A machine learning algorithm is used to detect trends in adjacent grains. • This algorithm is then applied to predict likely regions of nanoscale gaps. • These gaps would otherwise be unresolved with the sole use of an SEM

  12. Effect of two bleaching agents on enamel morphology: a SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghavam M.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Bleaching materials are able to change the surface morphology as well as mineral and organic content of tooth structure. Considering that bleaching is done for aesthetic purpose, awareness of the possible effect of these materials on hard tissue is important, because it may affect the restorative treatments. Purpose: The aim of this study was comparing the effect of two bleaching materials, Kimia and Ultradent both containing 35% H2O2, on tooth enamel by SEM. Materials and Methods: Five intact central incisors were cut into three sections vertically and each part was randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (control, without any bleaching. Group 2, bleached with Kimia 35% H2O2. Group 3, bleached with Ultradent 35% H2O2. Each tooth served as its own control. Then the samples were observed by SEM with 250 and 500 magnifications. Results: In the control group some scratches and small white grains were observed which seems to be the result of mastication trauma and pumice powder. In the other groups, morphologic changes like increased surface roughness, deepening of cracks, rod exposure and presence of new cracks were observed. The two experimental materials did not differ in these regards. Conclusion: It seems that both studied materials have limited destructive effects on tooth enamel which seems to be of no clinical importance.

  13. Tratamento da forma mucosa de leishmaniose sem resposta a glucantime, com anfotericina B liposomal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro Sampaio

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Tratamos com ambisome (2 a 5g totais de dose seis pacientes com leishmaniose mucosa sem resposta a tratamento com glucantime (20mg SbV/kg/dia. A dose diária usada foi 2 a 3mg/kg/dia, aplicada por um mínimo de 20 dias. Após 26 a 38 meses de acompanhamento, cinco pacientes estão clinicamente curados. Um recidivou aos 6 meses. Não foram observados efeitos colaterais além de cefaléia, após a injeção. O ambisome constitue uma opção terapêutica para os pacientes com leishmaniose mucosa sem resposta aos antimoniais.We treated six patients with mucosal leishmaniasis who failed to respond to glucantime (20mg/kg/day with ambisome (2-5 grams total dose. The daily dose was 2-3mg/kg/day given for a minimum of 20 days. After 26-38 months of follow up, five patients were clinically cured. One relapsed after six months. No side effects of therapy were observed apart from headache after injection. Ambisome is a therapeutic option for patients with mucosal leishmaniasis unresponsive to antimonials.

  14. SEM Evaluation of Internal Adaptation of Bases and Liners under Composite Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Dionysopoulos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the interfacial microgaps generating between different materials and between materials and dentin after polymerization of the composite restorations, using SEM. Methods: The materials investigated were a composite, an adhesive, a RMGI, and a calcium hydroxide. Thirty third molars were selected and two circular class V cavities (5 mm × 3 mm for each tooth were made. The teeth were randomly assigned into six groups and restored with a combination of the materials. The specimens were subjected to thermocycling and each tooth was sectioned mesiodistally in two halves. Each half was sectioned along the longitudinal axis through the center of the restorations to obtain a slice of 2 mm. The specimens were examined under SEM. The interfaces between the liners, the liners and dentin, and between the liners and the composite were examined for microgaps. Results: The results showed that there was not any significant difference in the mean width of microgaps in the interfaces between Dycal-dentin and Vitrebond-dentin (p>0.05. However, the width of microgaps in the interfaces between dentin-Clearfil Tri-S Bond was significantly smaller (p<0.05. The use of Clearfil Tri-S Bond reduced the possibility of microgap formation between the bonded interface and the materials tested.

  15. Mel de abelhas sem ferrão: proposta de regulamentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Costa Rodrigues de Camargo

    Full Text Available Resumo Os méis das abelhas sem ferrão são produtos únicos da biodiversidade brasileira, presentes e valorizados pela cultura popular desde os povos originais das Américas. Por ser mais ácido e apresentar maior teor de umidade, seu sabor é peculiar e sua viscosidade é menor quando comparada ao mel proveniente da espécie exótica Apis mellifera. Devido a essas diferenças, esse produto necessita do estabelecimento de parâmetros físico-químicos específicos que sejam referência tanto para controle de qualidade como para sua comercialização. Com base em pesquisas realizadas pela Embrapa, pelo Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos de Campinas e pelo levantamento bibliográfico de diversos estudos científicos realizados por outros institutos de ensino e pesquisa, esta comunicação tem como objetivo esclarecer as peculiaridades deste produto e apresentar uma proposta de Regulamento Técnico de Identidade e Padrão para o Mel das Abelhas Sem Ferrão, visando sua comercialização no Estado de São Paulo, contribuindo assim para a disponibilidade de um produto seguro e de qualidade para o consumidor final.

  16. Interpretation of secondary electron images obtained using a low vacuum SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, M.; Thiel, B.L.; Donald, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Charging of insulators in a variable pressure environment was investigated in the context of secondary electron (SE) image formation. Sample charging and ionized gas molecules present in a low vacuum specimen chamber can give rise to SE image contrast. 'Charge-induced' SE contrast reflects lateral variations in the charge state of a sample caused by electron irradiation during and prior to image acquisition. This contrast corresponds to SE emission current alterations produced by sub-surface charge deposited by the electron beam. 'Ion-induced' contrast results from spatial inhomogeneities in the extent of SE signal inhibition caused by ions in the gaseous environment of a low vacuum scanning electron microscope (SEM). The inhomogeneities are caused by ion focusing onto regions of a sample that correspond to local minima in the magnitude of the surface potential (generated by sub-surface trapped charge), or topographic asperities. The two types of contrast exhibit characteristic dependencies on microscope operating parameters such as scan speed, beam current, gas pressure, detector bias and working distance. These dependencies, explained in terms of the behavior of the gaseous environment and sample charging, can serve as a basis for a correct interpretation of SE images obtained using a low vacuum SEM

  17. A practical approach to test the scope of FIB-SEM 3D reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, M; Midgley, P A

    2010-01-01

    State-of-the-art focused ion beam (FIB) instruments have an ion column for sample modification and an electron column for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). 3D reconstruction of a sample volume can be achieved by serial sectioning using the FIB in combination with high-resolution SEM imaging of each cross-section. Usually, the resolution in the direction in which the sections are milled (z-direction) is much lower than in the plane of the cross-section (xy-direction) itself. Increased sampling in the z-direction can only be achieved by decreasing the distance between single sections. For a constant volume this is equivalent to increasing the number of sections, i.e. time and effort. To perform efficient 3D reconstructions the effect of the reduced sampling in the z-direction to the overall accuracy of the 3D reconstruction has to be known. We tested this approach with FIB conical test structures that were slice-and-view processed and subsequently reconstructed. Using a reference data set with a slice thickness (z-resolution) of 22 nm, data with z-resolutions ranging from 44 nm to 440 nm were created and reconstructed with commercial software. The calculated volumes for the simulated z-resolutions and their deviations from the reference volume are shown. Deviations of up to 35% occur and reach about 10% once the z-resolution was one fifth of the upper diameter of the conical structures.

  18. The innovation of cryo-SEM freeze-fracturing methodology demonstrated on high pressure frozen biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubanova, Kamila; Nebesarova, Jana; Ruzicka, Filip; Krzyzanek, Vladislav

    2018-04-22

    In this study we present an innovative method for the preparation of fully hydrated samples of microbial biofilms of cultures Staphylococcus epidermidis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) and high-pressure freezing (HPF) rank among cutting edge techniques in the electron microscopy of hydrated samples such as biofilms. However, the combination of these techniques is not always easily applicable. Therefore, we present a method of combining high-pressure freezing using EM PACT2 (Leica Microsystems), which fixes hydrated samples on small sapphire discs, with a high resolution SEM equipped with the widely used cryo-preparation system ALTO 2500 (Gatan). Using a holder developed in house, a freeze-fracturing technique was applied to image and investigate microbial cultures cultivated on the sapphire discs. In our experiments, we focused on the ultrastructure of the extracellular matrix produced during cultivation and the relationships among microbial cells in the biofilm. The main goal of our investigations was the detailed visualization of areas of the biofilm where the microbial cells adhere to the substrate/surface. We show the feasibility of this technique, which is clearly demonstrated in experiments with various freeze-etching times. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-scale characterization by FIB-SEM/TEM/3DAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, T; Sepehri-Amin, H; Sasaki, T T; Hono, K

    2014-11-01

    In order to improve properties of functional materials, it is important to understand the relation between the structure and the properties since the structure has large effect to the properties. This can be done by using multi-scale microstructure analysis from macro-scale to nano and atomic scale. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with focused ion beam (FIB), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and 3D atom probe (3DAP) are complementary analysis tools making it possible to know the structure and the chemistry from micron to atomic resolution. SEM gives us overall microstructural and chemical information by various kinds of detectors such as secondary electron, backscattered electron, EDS and EBSD detectors. Also, it is possible to analyze 3D structure and chemistry via FIB serial sectioning. In addition, using TEM we can focus on desired region to get more complementary information from HRTEM/STEM/Lorentz images, SAED/NBD patterns and EDS/EELS to see the detail micro or nano-structure and chemistry. Especially, combination of probe Cs corrector and split EDS detectors with large detector size enable us to analyze the atomic scale elemental distribution. Furthermore, if the specimen has a complicated 3D nanostructure, or we need to analyze light elements such as hydrogen, lithium or boron, 3DAP can be used as the only technique which can visualize and analyze distribution of all constituent atoms of our materials within a few hundreds nm area. Hence, site-specific sample preparation using FIB/SEM is necessary to get desired information from region of interest. Therefore, this complementary analysis combination works very well to understand the detail of materials.In this presentation, we will show the analysis results obtained from some of functional materials by Carl Zeiss CrossBeam 1540EsB FIB/SEM, FEI Tecnai G(2) F30, Titan G2 80-200 TEMs and locally build laser assisted 3DAP. As the one of the example, result of multi-scale characterization for

  20. Site specific SEM/FIB/TEM for analysis of lubricated sliding wear of aluminium alloy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J C; Jones, H; Rainforth, W M

    2006-01-01

    Although extensive research has been undertaken into the dry sliding wear of aluminium alloys, only limited work has been reported on lubricated wear. In this paper, the lubricated sliding wear of some powder derived aluminium alloy composites is reported. Stereo pairs of the worn surface were obtained in the SEM and digitally reconstructed to give an accurate projection of the surface topography. Analysis of the average surface roughness (R a ) along chosen sections provided quantitative information about the wear mechanism. Following this, dual beam focused ion beam (FIB) was undertaken to further explore the features revealed by the SEM surface reconstructions, with TEM sections removed from selected regions. Surface deformation was confined to a narrow layer, typically 1μm thick. Subgrain size within the subsurface layer was comparable to that found in dry sliding wear tests. Reinforcement fracture occurred in the surface particles only. The resultant fragments were often incorporated back into the surface following detachment, such that the total volume fraction reinforcement at the surface was greater than in the bulk. Thus, the dynamic surface topography was a result of three factors: surface deformation, local detachment of reinforcement and re-incorporation of the fragments back into the surface

  1. SEM and AFM studies of dip-coated CuO nanofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, V; Mahalingam, T; Ganesan, V

    2013-01-01

    Cupric oxide (CuO) semiconducting thin films were prepared at various copper sulfate concentrations by dip coating. The copper sulfate concentration was varied to yield films of thicknesses in the range of 445-685 nm by surface profilometer. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the deposited films were polycrystalline in nature with monoclinic structure of (-111) plane. The surface morphology and topography of monoclinic-phase CuO thin films were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. Surface roughness profile was plotted using WSxM software and the estimated surface roughness was about ∼19.4 nm at 30 mM molar concentration. The nanosheets shaped grains were observed by SEM and AFM studies. The stoichiometric compound formation was observed at 30 mM copper sulfate concentration prepared film by EDX. The indirect band gap energy of CuO films was increased from 1.08 to 1.20 eV with the increase of copper sulfate concentrations. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. SEM analysis of enamel surface treated by Er:YAG laser: influence of irradiation distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Gabriel, A E; Chinelatti, M A; Borsatto, M C; Pécora, J D; Palma-Dibb, R G; Corona, S A M

    2008-07-01

    Depending on the distance of laser tip to dental surface a specific morphological pattern should be expected. However, there have been limited reports that correlate the Er:YAG irradiation distance with dental morphology. To assess the influence of Er:YAG laser irradiation distance on enamel morphology, by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sixty human third molars were employed to obtain discs (approximately =1 mm thick) that were randomly assigned to six groups (n=10). Five groups received Er:YAG laser irradiation (80 mJ/2 Hz) for 20 s, according to the irradiation distance: 11, 12, 14, 16, or 17 mm and the control group was treated with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 s. The laser-irradiated discs were bisected. One hemi-disc was separated for superficial analysis without subsequent acid etching, and the other one, received the phosphoric acid for 15 s. Samples were prepared for SEM. Laser irradiation at 11 and 12 mm provided an evident ablation of enamel, with evident fissures and some fused areas. At 14, 16 and 17 mm the superficial topography was flatter than in the other distances. The subsequent acid etching on the lased-surface partially removed the disorganized tissue. Er:YAG laser in defocused mode promoted slight morphological alterations and seems more suitable for enamel conditioning than focused irradiation. The application of phosphoric acid on lased-enamel surface, regardless of the irradiation distance, decreased the superficial irregularities.

  3. Modification of the microstructure of the films formed by gamma irradiated starch examined by SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, K.; Sartowska, B.

    2016-01-01

    The paper concerns the effect of gamma irradiation carried out for starch on the microstructure of the films prepared using the starch and its composition with sodium laurate (NaLau) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Potato starch was irradiated with 60Co gamma rays applying a dose of 30 kGy. Films were prepared by the solution casting method with the addition of 30 wt% glycerol as a plasticizer. Films containing NaLau and CTAB were prepared after performing the procedure, leading to starch-surfactant complexes. Mechanical tests and wetting angle measurements were performed for the films. SEM observations were carried out for the surfaces, fractures and/or sections of the films subjected to chemical fixation and for the dried films. The films obtained using irradiated starch are characterized by a smoother and more homogeneous structure as compared to those based on the non-irradiated starch. Besides, a number of small precipitates were observed on the films surfaces after drying and the number of those precipitates seemed to be higher after irradiation. The results can be related to differences in the microstructure of gels formed on the intermediate step of the films preparation and to the presence of two phases in the system and might serve for explanation of the radiation induced improvement of the hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties, a modification of the mechanical properties of the films, as well as for the changes of those properties resulting after storage.

  4. A two-step FEM-SEM approach for wave propagation analysis in cable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songhan; Shen, Ruili; Wang, Tao; De Roeck, Guido; Lombaert, Geert

    2018-02-01

    Vibration-based methods are among the most widely studied in structural health monitoring (SHM). It is well known, however, that the low-order modes, characterizing the global dynamic behaviour of structures, are relatively insensitive to local damage. Such local damage may be easier to detect by methods based on wave propagation which involve local high frequency behaviour. The present work considers the numerical analysis of wave propagation in cables. A two-step approach is proposed which allows taking into account the cable sag and the distribution of the axial forces in the wave propagation analysis. In the first step, the static deformation and internal forces are obtained by the finite element method (FEM), taking into account geometric nonlinear effects. In the second step, the results from the static analysis are used to define the initial state of the dynamic analysis which is performed by means of the spectral element method (SEM). The use of the SEM in the second step of the analysis allows for a significant reduction in computational costs as compared to a FE analysis. This methodology is first verified by means of a full FE analysis for a single stretched cable. Next, simulations are made to study the effects of damage in a single stretched cable and a cable-supported truss. The results of the simulations show how damage significantly affects the high frequency response, confirming the potential of wave propagation based methods for SHM.

  5. Protective effects of a zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste on enamel erosion: SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Marco; Beltrami, Riccardo; Rattalino, Davide; Mirando, Maria; Chiesa, Marco; Poggio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the protective effects of a zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste against an erosive challenge produced by a soft drink (Coca-Cola) using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Forty specimens were assigned to 4 groups of 10 specimens each (group 1: no erosive challenge, no toothpaste treatment, group 2: erosive challenge, no toothpaste treatment, group 3: erosive challenge, fluoride toothpaste treatment, group 4: erosive challenge, zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste treatment). The surface of each specimen was imaged by SEM. A visual rating system was used to evaluate the condition of the enamel surface; results were analyzed by nonparametric statistical methods. Statistically significant differences were found between the samples untreated and those immersed in Coca-Cola (group 1, 2); the highest grade of damage was found in group 2, while the lowest grade was recorded in the samples of group 4. Comparing the groups, the two analyzed toothpaste tended to protect in different extend. In this study treatment of erosively challenged enamel with Zn-Hap toothpaste showed a clear protective effect. This was greater than the effect observed for a normal fluoride toothpaste and confirmed the potential benefit the Zn-HAP technology can provide in protecting enamel from erosive acid challenges.

  6. To see or not to see: Imaging surfactant coated nano-particles using HIM and SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlawacek, Gregor; Ahmad, Imtiaz; Smithers, Mark A.; Kooij, E. Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Nano-particles are of great interest in fundamental and applied research. However, their accurate visualization is often difficult and the interpretation of the obtained images can be complicated. We present a comparative scanning electron microscopy and helium ion microscopy study of cetyltrimethylammonium-bromide (CTAB) coated gold nano-rods. Using both methods we show how the gold core as well as the surrounding thin CTAB shell can selectively be visualized. This allows for a quantitative determination of the dimensions of the gold core or the CTAB shell. The obtained CTAB shell thickness of 1.0 nm–1.5 nm is in excellent agreement with earlier results using more demanding and reciprocal space techniques. - Author-Highlights: • CTAB coated gold nano-rods were imaged using high resolution imaging tools. • Selective imaging of either the gold core or CTAB shell is possible with HIM and SEM. • CTAB shell thickness measured using HIM and SEM agrees well with literature values

  7. La semántica del adjetivo y su representación mediante estructura de rasgos

    OpenAIRE

    Climent Roca, Salvador

    1995-01-01

    Por el trabajo que se describe se ha formulado un marco general de representación semántica de los adjetivos en una base de conocimiento léxica basada en estructuras de rasgos en la que operan la herencia y la unificación. Como principales aportaciones cabe destacar el propio diseño de un marco representativo suficientemente expresivo como para abarcar múltiples aspectos del significado del adjetivo, tales como orden superficial, restricciones selectivas, semántica léxica y semántica formal. ...

  8. 3D imaging of cells and tissues by focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobne, Damjana

    2013-01-01

    Integration of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) technology into a single FIB/SEM system permits use of the FIB as a nano-scalpel to reveal site-specific subsurface microstructures which can be examined in great detail by SEM. The FIB/SEM technology is widely used in the semiconductor industry and material sciences, and recently its use in the life sciences has been initiated. Samples for FIB/SEM investigation can be either embedded in a plastic matrix, the traditional means of preparation of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens, or simply dried as in samples prepared for SEM imaging. Currently, FIB/SEM is used in the life sciences for (a) preparation by the lift-out technique of lamella for TEM analysis, (b) tomography of samples embedded in a matrix, and (c) in situ site-specific FIB milling and SEM imaging using a wide range of magnifications. Site-specific milling and imaging has attracted wide interest as a technique in structural research of single eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, small animals, and different animal tissue, but it still remains to be explored more thoroughly. In the past, preparation of samples for site-specific milling and imaging by FIB/SEM has typically adopted the embedding techniques used for TEM samples, and which have been very well described in the literature. Sample preparation protocols for the use of dried samples in FIB/SEM have been less well investigated. The aim of this chapter is to encourage application of FIB/SEM on dried biological samples. A detailed description of conventional dried sample preparation and FIB/SEM investigation of dried biological samples is presented. The important steps are described and illustrated, and direct comparison between embedded and dried samples of same tissues is provided. The ability to discover links between gross morphology of the tissue or organ, surface characteristics of any selected region, and intracellular structural details on the nanometer

  9. Evaluating Neighborhoods Livability in Nigeria: A Structural Equation Modelling (SEM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Abass Iyanda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about city livability around the world and of particular concern is the aspects of the person-environment relationship which encompasses many characteristics suffice to make a place livable. Extant literature provides livability dimensions such as housing unit characteristics, neighborhood facilities, economic vitality and safety environment. These livability dimensions as well as their attributes found in the extant literature have been reported to have high reliability measurement level. Although, various methods have been applied to examine relationships among the variables however structural equation modeling (SEM has been found more holistic as a modeling technique to understand and explain the relationships that may exist among variable measurements. Structural equation modeling simultaneously performs multivariate analysis including multiple regression, path and factor analysis in the cause-effect relationships between latent constructs. Therefore, this study investigates the key factors of livability of planned residential neighborhoods in Minna, Nigeria with the research objectives of – (a to study the livability level of the selected residential neighborhoods, (b to determine the dimensions and indicators which most influence the level of livability in the selected residential neighborhoods, and (c to reliably test the efficacy of structural equation modeling (SEM in the assessment of livability. The methodology adopted in this study includes- Data collection with the aid of structured questionnaire survey administered to the residents of the study area based on stratified random sampling. The data collected was analyzed with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 22.0 software for structural equation modeling (a second-order factor. The study revealed that livability as a second-order factor is indicated by economic vitality, safety environment, neighborhood facilities

  10. Anastomose cavo-pulmonar total sem uso de material protético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdester C. PINTO Jr.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Demonstrar a viabilidade na feitura de túnel cava inferior-cava superior com retalho da parede atrial direita, evitando o emprego de material protético. Casuística e Métodos: Foram operados 2 pacientes nos quais se empregou a técnica de anastomose cavo-pulmonar total, sem uso de material protético. O primeiro caso, A.L.M., masc, 4 anos, 15 kg, era portador de atresia tricúspide (EP, com comunicação interventricular (CIV restritiva. O segundo caso, M.E.N.O., fem, 15 anos, 47 kg, tinha doença de Ebstein. O controle pós-operatório dos pacientes foi feito com ecocardiograma e cateterismo cardíaco. As operações foram realizadas com o emprego de circulação extracorpórea (CEC, e cardioplegia sangüínea como método de proteção miocárdica. A canulação das cavas foi o mais distal possível. A tunelização foi realizada com retalho de tecido atrial direito, suturado ao septo interatrial, deixando-se o seio coronariano e a comunicação interatrial (CIA para a esquerda. Resultados: Ambos os pacientes evoluíram, sem complicações, na UTI. O primeiro apresentou derrame pleural discreto à direita, e o segundo mantém-se em estimulação artificial (VVI,R. Conclusões: A tunelização intra-atrial para anastomose cavo-pulmonar total pode ser realizada sem o uso de material protético, evitando-se os riscos advindos do seu emprego (calcificação, retração, embolização.The authors describe two cases (one tricuspid atresia without TGA or pulmonary stenosis, but with a restrictive IVC: the second of an Ebstein disease of total cavo-pulmonary anastomosis using only the tissue of the atrial wall, avoiding any prosthetic material. Both cases were done under cardiopulmonary bypass and cold blood cardioplegia. A flap of the right atrial wall was used to re-direct the blood flow. Pleural effusion in one patient and complete AV block in the other were the complications found. They conclude that right intra-atrial tunneling for

  11. Experimental investigation on the influence of instrument settings on pixel size and nonlinearity in SEM image formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo; Genta, Gianfranco; Cantatore, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The work deals with an experimental investigation on the influence of three Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) instrument settings, accelerating voltage, spot size and magnification, on the image formation process. Pixel size and nonlinearity were chosen as output parameters related to image...... quality and resolution. A silicon grating calibrated artifact was employed to investigate qualitatively and quantitatively, through a designed experiment approach, the parameters relevance. SEM magnification was found to account by far for the largest contribution on both parameters under consideration...

  12. Observation of interactions between hydrophilic ionic liquid and water on wet agar gels by FE-SEM and its mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Chisato; Shirai, Takashi; Fuji, Masayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The mechanism of SEM observation of agar gel using ionic liquid was investigated. ► Weak hydrogen bond between ionic liquid and water exist even under vacuum condition. ► Ionic liquid binding ability with water is useful for observing wet material using FE-SEM. ► We could optimize the water concentrations of sample of IL and wet material mixtures. ► SEM observation of fine morphology of agar gel in optimum water content. - Abstract: In the present study, an attempt is made to understand the mechanism of field emission electron microscopy (FE-SEM) observation of wet agar gel using a typical hydrophilic ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate; [BMIM][BF 4 ]. The IL interaction with water molecules within agar gel during sample preparation condition for FE-SEM observation was investigated using Raman spectroscopy. Results showed that water molecules within agar gel form weak hydrogen bond such as BF 4 − ⋯HOH⋯BF 4 − by interaction with BF 4 − of IL, and, it remained stable even under vacuum condition at 60 °C, 24 h. This interaction was found to be helpful for IL displacement of the water molecules within agar gel. From this study, it was found that the exact morphology of gel materials in FE-SEM condition can be observed by optimization of water concentrations of IL and gel mixtures. Thus, using IL, agar gel or any other material under wet condition can be observed without drying in FE-SEM chamber, and, present result gives an insight to the mechanism of FE-SEM observation of agar gel using IL without any conducting coating.

  13. A Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM) for In-Situ Mars Surface Sample Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunson, J.; Gaskin, J. A.; Jerman, G. A.; Harvey, R. P.; Doloboff, I. J.; Neidholdt, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM) project, funded by the NASA Planetary Instrument Concepts for the Advancement of Solar System Observations (PICASSO) Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES), will build upon previous miniaturized SEM designs and recent advancements in variable pressure SEM's to design and build a SEM to complete analyses of samples on the surface of Mars using the atmosphere as an imaging medium. This project is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), electron gun and optics manufacturer Applied Physics Technologies, and small vacuum system manufacturer Creare. Dr. Ralph Harvery and environmental SEM (ESEM) inventor Dr. Gerry Danilatos serve as advisors to the team. Variable pressure SEMs allow for fine (nm-scale) resolution imaging and micron-scale chemical study of materials without sample preparation (e.g., carbon or gold coating). Charging of a sample is reduced or eliminated by the gas surrounding the sample. It is this property of ESEMs that make them ideal for locations where sample preparation is not yet feasible, such as the surface of Mars. In addition, the lack of sample preparation needed here will simplify the sample acquisition process and allow caching of the samples for future complementary payload use.

  14. Investigation of hidden periodic structures on SEM images of opal-like materials using FFT and IFFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephant, Nicolas; Rondeau, Benjamin; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Cody, Jason A; Fritsch, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a method to use fast Fourier transformation (FFT) and inverse fast Fourier transformation (IFFT) to investigate hidden periodic structures on SEM images. We focused on samples of natural, play-of-color opals that diffract visible light and hence are periodically structured. Conventional sample preparation by hydrofluoric acid etch was not used; untreated, freshly broken surfaces were examined at low magnification relative to the expected period of the structural features, and, the SEM was adjusted to get a very high number of pixels in the images. These SEM images were treated by software to calculate autocorrelation, FFT, and IFFT. We present how we adjusted SEM acquisition parameters for best results. We first applied our procedure on an SEM image on which the structure was obvious. Then, we applied the same procedure on a sample that must contain a periodic structure because it diffracts visible light, but on which no structure was visible on the SEM image. In both cases, we obtained clearly periodic patterns that allowed measurements of structural parameters. We also investigated how the irregularly broken surface interfered with the periodic structure to produce additional periodicity. We tested the limits of our methodology with the help of simulated images. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Mapa de energia baseado em predição para redes de sensores sem fio

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Aparecida de Freitas Mini

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é construir o mapa de energia de uma rede de sensores sem fio utilizando técnicas de predição. Em mapas de energia baseados em predição, cada nó sensor utiliza algoritmos de predição para modelar sua dissipação de energia com o objetivo de prever seu consumo de energia no futuro. Nesta situação, ao invés de enviar para o nó sorvedouro apenas sua quantidade de energia disponível, cada sensor envia também os parâmetros do modelo que descreve seu consumo de energia. O n...

  16. UV laser ablation of intraocular lenses: SEM and AFM microscopy examination of the biomaterial surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyratou, E.; Asproudis, I.; Tsoutsi, D.; Bacharis, C.; Moutsouris, K.; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Several new materials and patterns are studied for the formation and etching of intraocular lenses (IOLs), in order to improve their optical properties, to reduce the diffractive aberrations and to decrease the incidence of posterior capsular opacification. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of UV (λ = 266 nm) laser pulses to ablate the intraocular lenses materials, and thus to provide an alternative to conventional surface shaping techniques for IOLs fabrication. Ablation experiments were conducted using various polymer substrates of hydrophobic acrylic IOLs and PMMA IOLs. We investigated the ablation efficiency and the morphology of the ablated area by imaging the surface modification with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The morphological appearance of IOL samples reveals the effect of a photochemical and photothermal ablation mechanism.

  17. The influence of different skin types on GSR sampling by tape lifting for SEM analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, İlker

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the change in the amounts the gunshot residues (GSR) collected by the "swab" method from shooter's right hand was analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) to test dependency on various conditions (such as skin color of the shooter, various physical properties, hair density of hands, size of the hands, sweaty or creamy (oiliness) hands). As a result of the analysis, there was no significant difference in the amount of GSR according to skin color, however, there was a change in the amount of GSR depending on the physical characteristics of the shooter. These results thought to have practical benefits for the experts performing GSR analysis using the swab technique to assess the incidence. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Assessment of engineered surfaces roughness by high-resolution 3D SEM photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontard, L C; López-Castro, J D; González-Rovira, L; Vázquez-Martínez, J M; Varela-Feria, F M; Marcos, M; Calvino, J J

    2017-06-01

    We describe a methodology to obtain three-dimensional models of engineered surfaces using scanning electron microscopy and multi-view photogrammetry (3DSEM). For the reconstruction of the 3D models of the surfaces we used freeware available in the cloud. The method was applied to study the surface roughness of metallic samples patterned with parallel grooves by means of laser. The results are compared with measurements obtained using stylus profilometry (PR) and SEM stereo-photogrammetry (SP). The application of 3DSEM is more time demanding than PR or SP, but it provides a more accurate representation of the surfaces. The results obtained with the three techniques are compared by investigating the influence of sampling step on roughness parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. SEM and XPS study of layer-by-layer deposited polypyrrole thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigois-Landureau, E.; Nicolau, Y. F.; Delamar, M.

    1996-01-01

    Layer-by-layer deposition of thin films (a few nm) of polypyrrole was carried out on various substrates such as silver, platinum, electrochemically oxidized aluminum and pretreated glass. SEM micrographs showed that the deposited layers nucleate by an island-type mechanism on hydrated alumina and KOH-pretreated (hydrophilic) glass before forming a continuous film. However, continuous thin films are obtained on chromic acid pretreated (hydrophobic) glass and sputtered Ag or Pt on glass after only 3-4 deposition cycles. The mean deposition rate evaluated by XPS for the first deposition cycles on Ag and Pt is 3 and 4 nm/cycle, respectively, in agreement with previous gravimetric determinations on thicker films, proving the constancy of the deposition rate. The XPS study of the very thin films obtained by a few deposition cycles shows that the first polypyrrole layers are dedoped by hydroxydic (basic) substrate surfaces.

  20. SEM and XPS study of layer-by-layer deposited polypyrrole thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigois-Landureau, E.; Nicolau, Y.F.; Delamar, M.

    1996-01-01

    Layer-by-layer deposition of thin films (a few nm) of polypyrrole was carried out on various substrates such as silver, platinum, electrochemically oxidized aluminum and pretreated glass. SEM micrographs showed that the deposited layers nucleate by an island-type mechanism on hydrated alumina and KOH-pretreated (hydrophilic) glass before forming a continuous film. However, continuous thin films are obtained on chromic acid pretreated (hydrophobic) glass and sputtered Ag or Pt on glass after only 3 endash 4 deposition cycles. The mean deposition rate evaluated by XPS for the first deposition cycles on Ag and Pt is 3 and 4 nm/cycle, respectively, in agreement with previous gravimetric determinations on thicker films, proving the constancy of the deposition rate. The XPS study of the very thin films obtained by a few deposition cycles shows that the first polypyrrole layers are dedoped by hydroxydic (basic) substrate surfaces. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics