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Sample records for salto pluton eastern

  1. ‘Diffuse faulting’ in the Machu Picchu granitoid pluton, Eastern Cordillera, Peru

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    Mazzoli, Stefano; Vitale, Stefano; Delmonaco, Giuseppe; Guerriero, Vincenzo; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele

    2009-11-01

    A series of batholiths, forming part of the 'roots' of a Permo-Liassic rift system, are exposed in the high Eastern Cordillera of central Peru as a result of tectonic inversion. Shortening of the Machu Picchu granitoid pluton was accommodated by widespread shear reactivation of primary joints, by a process termed here 'diffuse faulting'. Fault-like reactivation of precursor joint surfaces, marked by chlorite, epidote and quartz shear fibres, is locally evidenced by few centimetres offsets within apparently undeformed granite. Analysis of fault slip data indicates that shear reactivation of different joint sets was kinematically consistent with ENE oriented shortening. Less frequent mylonitic shear zones appear to have evolved from the common brittle precursors. Apart from rare phyllonitic shear zones, fluid-rock interaction along the brittle precursors was generally limited, and pluton deformation appears to be mainly controlled by the geometry and distribution of primary joints. Three main sets of reactivated joints can be recognized, characterized by oblique-slip kinematics with variable reverse and strike-slip components of motion. Theoretical modelling based on quantitative fracture analysis (scan-line data) and different displacement-length relationships applied to the main reactivated joint sets yield first-order estimates of pluton finite strain. The results suggest that bulk finite strain is oblate and essentially coaxial, and is characterized by horizontal shortening not exceeding 10%. Relatively small finite strains, integrated over the size of the pluton, still result in a few kilometres of crustal shortening.

  2. Palaeomagnetic constraints from granodioritic plutons (Jiaodong Peninsula): New insights on Late Mesozoic continental extension in Eastern Asia

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    Charles, Nicolas; Chen, Yan; Augier, Romain; Gumiaux, Charles; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Monié, Patrick; Choulet, Flavien; Wu, Fuyuan; Zhu, Rixiang; Wang, Qingchen

    2011-08-01

    Mechanism and kinematics of the Late Mesozoic continental extension event of Eastern Asia are still debated. In order to better constrain its evolution, two granodioritic plutons of the Jiaodong Peninsula have been chosen as targets for a time-constrained palaeomagnetic study. Indeed, plutons are devoid of visible deformation, did not experience rotation along horizontal axis and are precisely dated by U/Pb and 40Ar/ 39Ar methods. Multidomain (MD) magnetite has been identified as the principal magnetic remanent carrier. The interpolation of existing and new U/Pb and 40Ar/ 39Ar ages revealed that characteristic remanent magnetisation was acquired in a narrow range of 116 ± 2 Ma. Twenty out of 27 sites present stable magnetic directions calculated from high-temperature or high-coercive components. The observations of the solo normal magnetic polarity for this palaeomagnetic collection and of the magnetic remanent age consistent with the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (CNS) argue that the characteristic magnetic remanence may be considered as primary. Detailed field observations of the intrusive relationship between the plutons and country rocks and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) study reveal the absence of the subsequent deformation of plutons, or rigid rotation of plutons along a horizontal axis. Two palaeomagnetic poles have been therefore calculated from these plutons. Among 12 out 15 Cretaceous palaeomagnetic poles, including the two new poles provided by this study, from the Jiaodong Peninsula and on both sides of Tan-Lu and Muping-Jimo faults are statistically consistent. As a result, the Jiaodong Peninsula behaved as a rigid block as internal deformation appears negligible. The remaining three derived poles are probably due to the secular variation or/and the vicinity of fault zones near of the palaeomagnetic sampling site. Thus, they can not be applied to the peninsula-scaled tectonics. Comparison of these time-constrained Cretaceous

  3. Growth of a Large Composite Magma System: the EJB Pluton, Eastern California.

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    Matty, D. J.; Vervoort, J.; Dufrane, A.; Hart, G.; Student, J.; Morgan, S.

    2008-12-01

    The composite EJB pluton crops out in the White-Inyo Mountains of eastern California, and comprises the Eureka Valley monzonite (EVM), the Joshua Flat quartz monzonite (JFQM), the Beer Creek granite (BCG), and an unnamed diorite. While sometimes equivocal, field relationships suggest that the EVM was emplaced first, followed by the JFQM, and finally the BCG; the diorite predates the BCG. Sylvester and others (GSAB, 1978) reported zircon U-Pb ages of 179±2 Ma for the EVM and 174±5 Ma for the JFQM. Coleman and others (GSAB, 2003) determined a U-Pb age of 179±3 Ma (via Pb-loss trajectory) for the BCG. Because of the uncertainty in the ages and ambiguous field relations, the sequence and duration of EJB magmatism remain unclear. To understand more fully the timing of EJB magmatism, we separated zircons from 12 samples collected from each of the main EJB units. These samples were characterized using light microscopy, SEM and CL techniques. U-Pb ages were determined from individual zircons by LA-ICP-MS following the method of Chang and others (G3, 2006). For the ages reported below, the reported uncertainties are based on factors within the analysis, but do not include external factors such as sample/standard bias or other matrix effects. Overall uncertainty in LA-ICPMS U-Pb geochronology is hard to assess, but we estimate that all ages reported below are subject to a minimum 2% uncertainty. We determined a concordant U-Pb age of 180±2 Ma for the EVM, which agrees with the results of Sylvester and others (1978). The unnamed diorite produced a concordant U-Pb age of 177±3 Ma. Concordant U-Pb ages of 172±2, 172±3, 173±2, 174±2, and 175±2 Ma were determined for individual samples of the JFQM and agree with the age reported by Sylvester and others (1978) of 174±5 Ma. Concordant U-Pb ages of 168±4, 168±3, 169±1, 172±2, and 172±2 Ma were determined for individual BCG samples. Within the reported error, there is no difference in age between individual samples of

  4. Forceful emplacement of the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek composite pluton into a structural basin in eastern California; internal structure and wall rock deformation

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    Morgan, Sven; Law, Richard; de Saint Blanquat, Michel

    2013-11-01

    Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility parameters have been analyzed at 311 locations in the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek (EJB) pluton of eastern California. The large amount of data has allowed for the AMS parameters to be contoured using techniques that both reveal map-scale trends and emphasize small-scale differences. The contour maps suggest that magnetic susceptibility is dominantly controlled by composition of the magma but may also be affected by emplacement-related strain as the magma chamber inflated and forced the wall rocks outward. Pluton construction involved two major pulses of different composition magmas that were emplaced sequentially but with overlapping periods of crystallization. The magmas initially intruded as sill-like bodies into a structural basin. The magnetic foliation of the pluton cuts across internal magmatic contacts on the map scale and is parallel to local contacts between the pluton and surrounding metasedimentary wall rocks. The magnetic fabric is similar in orientation and symmetry to intense flattening strains recorded in the aureole rocks. The metasedimentary wall rocks have been shortened between 60 and 70% and this strain magnitude is approximately equal on the west, south, and east margins of the pluton. Strain in the wall rocks is dominantly flattening and concentrated into a narrow (1 km wide) inner aureole. Mapping of bedding/cleavage intersection lineations south of the pluton indicates that the magma made room for itself by translating the wall rocks outward and rotating the already inward dipping wall rocks of the structural basin to sub-vertical. Stretching of the inner aureole around an expanding magma chamber was responsible for the intense shortening. Limited data on the Marble Canyon pluton to the south of the EJB pluton indicates a very similar emplacement process.

  5. Petrology, Magnetic susceptibility, Tectonic setting and mineralization associated with Plutonic and Volcanic Rocks, Eastern Bajestan and Taherabad, Iran

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    Malihe Ghoorchi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Study area is located in district of Bajestan and Ferdows cities, NE of Iran. Structurally, this area is part of Lut block. The oldest exposed rocks, to the north of intrusive rocks and in Eastern Bajestan, are meta-chert, slate, quartzite, thin-bedded crystalline limestone and meta-argillite. The sedimentary units are: Sardar Formation (Carboniferous, Jamal Formation (Permian, Sorkh Shale and Shotori Formations (Triassic, carbonateous rocks (Cretaceous and lithostratigraphically equivalent to Kerman conglomerate (Cretaceous-Paleocene are exposed in this area. Based on relative age, magmatism in eastern Bajestan and Taherabad started after Late Cretaceous and it has been active and repeated during Tertiary time. At least, three episodes of volcanic activities are recognized in this area. The first stage was mainly volcanic flow with mafic composition and minor intermediate. The second episode was mainly intermediate in composition. The third stage was changed to acid-intermediate in composition. Since the plutonic rocks intruded the volcanic rocks, therefore they may be Oligo-Miocene age. Bajestan intrusive rocks are granite-granodiorite-quartz monzonite. Taherabad intrusive rocks are diorite-quartz diorite- monzonite-latite. Bajestan intrusive rocks are reduced type (ilmenite series and Taherabad intrusive rocks are oxidized type (magnetite series.Based on geochemical analysis including trace elements, REE and isotopic data, Bajestan intrusive rocks formed in continental collision zone and the magma has crustal origin. Taherabad intrusive rocks were formed in subduction zone and magma originated from oceanic crust. Taherabad intrusive rock has exploration potential for Cu-Au and pb.

  6. Magmatic and solid state structures of the Abu Ziran pluton: Deciphering transition from thrusting to extension in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

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    Fritz, Harald; Loizenbauer, Jürgen; Wallbrecher, Eckart

    2014-11-01

    The 606 Ma old Abu Ziran granite of the Eastern Desert of Egypt intruded the southern margin of the Meatiq dome in a sinistral shear extensional setting. Its emplacement was enabled by a system of NW-trending sinistral shears, related Riedel shears and N-S extensional shear zones and faults. Magmatic flow was east-directed and controlled by Riedel shears that progressively rotated to an orientation favourable for extension. Strain markers that document magmatic flow show eastward decreasing strain together with strain increase from pluton centre to margins. This is explained by Newtonian flow between non-parallel plates and differences in flow velocities across the pluton. Solid state fabrics including shear fabrics, orientation of late magmatic dykes and quartz tension gashes, together with quartz C-axes distributions, document southward extensional shear within the solidified pluton and adjacent host rocks. Extensional shear is correlated with exhumation of the Meatiq dome coeval and soon after pluton solidification (585 Ma). Pressure temperature evolutionary paths, derived from fluid inclusions, show a clockwise path with exhumation by isothermal decompression in the Meatiq dome. By contrast, the overlying volcanosedimentary nappes experienced an anti-clockwise path released by temperature rise due to pluton emplacement followed by isobaric cooling. Quartz fabrics indicate high-temperature coaxial N-S flow in the northern Meatiq dome and lower-temperature, non-coaxial southward flow within the overlaying superficial nappe. This is explained by the exhumation process itself that progressively localised into simple shear domains when rocks approached higher crustal levels. Late extension at ca. 580 Ma was pure shear dominated and resulted in reversal of shear, now dextral, in the western Meatiq shear zone.

  7. Geochemistry of an island-arc plutonic suite: Wadi Dabr intrusive complex, Eastern Desert, Egypt

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    Abu El-Ela, Fawzy F.

    1997-05-01

    The Wadi Dabr intrusive complex, west of Mersa-Alam, Eastern Desert, Egypt ranges in composition from gabbro to diorite, quartz diorite and tonalite. The gabbroic rocks include pyroxene-horn blend e gabbro, hornblende gabbro, quartz-hornblende gabbro, metagabbro and amphibolite. Mineral chemistry data for the gabbroic rocks indicate that the composition of clinopyroxenes ranges from diopside to augite and the corresponding magma is equivalent to a volcanic-arc basalt. Plagioclase cores range from An 75 to An 34 for the gabbroic varieties, except for the metagabbro which has An 11-18. The brown amphiboles are primary phases and classified as calcic amphiboles, which range from tschermakitic hornblende to magnesiohornblende. Green hornblende and actinolite are secondary phases. Hornblende barometry and hornblende-plagioclase themometry for the gabbroic rocks estimate crystallisation conditions of 2-5 kb and 885-716°C. The intrusive rocks cover an extensive silica range (47.86-72.54 wt%) and do not exhibit simple straight-line variation on Harker diagrams for many elements (e.g. TiO 2, Al 2O 3, FeO ∗, MgP, CaO, P 2O 5, Cr, Ni, V, Sr, Zr and Y). Most of these elements exhibit two geochemical trends suggesting two magma sources. The gabbroic rocks are relatively enriched in large ion lithophile elements (K, Rb, Sr and Ba) and depleted in high field strength elements (Nb, Zr, Ti and Y) which suggest subduction-related magma. Rare earth element (REE) data demonstrate that the gabbroic rocks have a slight enrichment of light REE [(La/Yb) N=2.67-3.91] and depletion of heavy REE ((Tb/Yb) N=1.42-1.47], which suggest the parent magma was of relatively primitive mantle source. The diorites and tonalites are clearly calc-alkaline and have negative anomalies of Nb, Zr, and Y which also suggest subduction-related magma. They are related to continental trondhjemites in terms of RbSr, KNaCa, and to volcanic-arc granites in terms of Rband NbY. The Wadi Dabr

  8. Magnetic anisotropy of the Redenção granite, eastern Amazonian craton (Brazil): Implications for the emplacement of A-type plutons

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    de Oliveira, Davis Carvalho; Neves, Sérgio Pacheco; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Mariano, Gorki; Correia, Paulo Barros

    2010-10-01

    A magnetic fabric study was performed on the Redenção pluton in an attempt to understand its emplacement history. The Redenção pluton is part of the 1.88 Ga, anorogenic, A-type Jamon suite that intruded 2.97-2.86 Ga-old Archean granitoids of the Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone Terrane in the eastern Amazonian craton (northern Brazil). Previous gravity survey indicates that the pluton is a 6 km-thick, tabular intrusion. It is characterized by a concentric distribution of facies, with rings of seriated and porphyritic granite that cut across the main facies of even-grained monzogranites. The whole set is intruded by leucogranites that occupy the center of the pluton. Petrographic examination, magnetic susceptibilities, coercivity-spectra and thermomagnetic curves indicate that the magnetic fabric is primarily carried by coarse-grained multidomain magnetite. This is reinforced by the coincidence of magnetic susceptibility and remanence anisotropy principal axes. The absence of solid-state deformation features and the low anisotropy degrees indicate that the magnetic fabric is magmatic in origin. The magnetic fabric displays a systematic pattern, with all facies, including the rings of porphyritic granite, being characterized by concentric, gently dipping foliations associated with gently plunging lineations. Only the central leucogranitic facies shows a slightly discordant pattern with steeply dipping fabrics at its northeastern sector. An emplacement model by vertical stacking of successive magma batches is proposed for the construction of the Redenção pluton, which reconciles the tabular shape of the intrusion, the petrographic and geochemical zoning, and the magnetic fabric pattern. Initially, two magma batches were emplaced as sills. First the even-grained monzogranite, then the seriated and porphyritic granites, which formed by mingling of a leucogranitic melt with the host biotite-monzogranitic magma as attested by geochemical data and field evidence. The

  9. Gravimetric, radiometric, and magnetic susceptibility study of the Paleoproterozoic Redenção and Bannach plutons, eastern Amazonian Craton, Brazil: Implications for architecture and zoning of A-type granites

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    de Oliveira, Davis Carvalho; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Corrêa da Silva, João Batista; Costa de Almeida, José Arimatéia

    2008-02-01

    The 1.88 Ga, anorogenic, A-type Redenção and Bannach granites, representative of the Jamon suite and associated dikes, are intrusive in Archean granitoids of the Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone Terrane in the eastern Amazonian Craton in northern Brazil. Petrographic and geochemical aspects associated with magnetic susceptibility and gamma-ray spectrometry data show that the Redenção and the northern part of Bannach plutons are normally zoned. They were formed by two magmatic pulses: (1) a first magma pulse was fractionated in situ after emplacement at shallow crustal level, generating a series of coarse, even-grained monzogranites with variable modal proportions of biotite and hornblende; and (2) a second, slightly younger magma pulse, located to the center of the plutons, was composed of a more evolved liquid from which even-grained leucogranites derived. Gravity modeling indicates that the Redenção and Bannach plutons are sheeted-like composite intrusions, approximately 6 and 2 km thick, respectively. These plutons follow the general power law for laccolith dimension and are similar in this respect to classical rapakivi granite plutons. Gravity data suggest that the growth of the northern part of the Bannach pluton resulted from the amalgamation of smaller sheeted-like plutons that intruded in sequence from northwest to southeast. The Jamon suite plutons were emplaced in an extensional tectonic setting, and the stress was oriented approximately NNE-SSW to ENE-WSW, as indicated by the occurrence of diabase and granite porphyry dyke swarms, orientated WNW-ESE to NNW-SSE and coeval with the Jamon suite. The 1.88 Ga A-type granite plutons and stocks of Carajás are disposed along a belt that follows the general trend defined by the dikes. The inferred tabular geometry of the studied plutons and the high contrast of viscosity between the granites and their Archean country rocks can be explained by magma transport via dikes.

  10. Salto de Vinon, Francia

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    Vié, G.

    1966-05-01

    Full Text Available The hydroelectric exploitation of the Verdon stream, which is the most important of those flowing into the Durance river, is achieved by means of the Vinon Dam, and other dams. The combined water supply from the Greoux dam and the Vinon dam provide a controlled flow for the Provence canal, which is fed through the Maurras gallery. In this Alpine zone a general study is being conducted at present to coordinate in the best possible manner the use of the torrential water, available in the various valleys, both for irrigation and power producing purposes. The most important aspects of the Vinon project are the drilling of the very long galleries. This work has been done with very modem equipment of high efficiency. The author describes this in detail. The Vinon power plant is partly underground, and has a central cylindrical section, of 19 m diameter. This power station has a Francis unit, of 27.800 kw, operated by a water supply of 40 m3/sec under a hydrostatic head of 78 m.El aprovechamiento hidroeléctrico del arroyo Verdón, afluente más importante del río Durance, se realiza por medio del salto de Vinon. Las aguas combinadas de la restitución y embalse de Gréoux suministrarán un caudal regulado al canal de Provenza, para lo cual se aprovechará la galería de Maurras. Esta zona alpina es objeto, actualmente, de un estudio general que coordinará las aguas torrenciales de las distintas cuencas afectadas para un mejor aprovechamiento, tanto hidroeléctrico como para riegos, además de asegurar una regulación de caudales. Los trabajos más importantes del salto de Vinon se centran en la perforación de galerías de gran longitud, trabajo que se ha realizado con material moderno de gran rendimiento que el autor describe. La central de Vinon, semiexterior, presenta en su núcleo central una forma cilíndrica de 19 m de diámetro. Esta central se ha equipado con un grupo Francis de 27.800 kW de potencia, dispone de un salto hidrostático de 78

  11. Salto de Miranda, Asturias

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    Vilanova Bosch, José Luis

    1964-07-01

    Full Text Available The water from the rivers Pigüeña and Somiedo is collected and conducted to the Salto de Miranda hydroelectric power station. The civil engineers Constructora Hidrocivil, S. A., carried out the project for the owners of this power station. Hidroeléctrica Cantábrica, S. A. The project is situated in the mountains, where a small dam collects the water. This is then led through a long conduit to the entry of the pressure pipes leading to the turbines. The water later flows back to the original river course. The total pressure head is 410 ms, and the mean volume of water which is exploited is 15 m3/sec. As the author is planning to publish additional articles describing specific aspects of the problem, no attempt is made here to emphasize the importance of many significant features of this project. In carrying out this project, the contractors devoted great care to the planning of the various constructional steps, in order that no delay in one particular operation should hold up the progress in the rest of the work.La entidad propietaria del Salto de Miranda es Hidroeléctrica del Cantábrico, S. A.; e Hidrocivil, S. A., participó muy activamente en la ejecución de los trabajos de obra e ingeniería civil. Fue una labor tan recia y tenaz de todos los que participaron en esta gran tarea, y tan elogioso su trabajo, su constante espíritu y voluntad de superación, que a ellos, obreros y técnicos, me debo sin reservas y con sinceridad. El éxito es suyo. Éxito basado en labor de equipo, perfecta compenetración de los binomios «hombre-hombres» «máquina-hombres». Quiero agradecer a la Compañía de Construcciones Hidráulicas y Civiles la oportunidad que me brindó de dirigir estos trabajos, que forjaron en mí una experiencia técnica y la satisfacción de una rendida colaboración. En otros números de esta revista espero poder extenderme, con mayor detalle, en otros aspectos específicos de esta importante obra.

  12. Recognition of favorable zones for uranium and thorium accumulation, at Um Ara-Um Shilman granitic pluton, south eastern desert, Egypt, using airborne spectrometric and magnetic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkattan, E.M. [Nuclear Materials Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-06-01

    The objective is aimed at identifying significant U and Th anomalies, the amount of re-mobilization of U and Th, the structural framework of the granite pluton and the distribution of spectrometric anomalies. The study revealed that the granite pluton could be represented as a single radio-lithologic unit excluding abnormal measurements exceeding Xban + 2S. It also revealed the existence of eight strong spectrometric anomalies. Observed values of eU correlate well with eTh, r=0.72 while the correlation between eU/eTh and eU is lacking, r=0.190. Meanwhile, there is a negative correlation between eU/eTh and eTh,r= -0.335. This deficiency in correlation suggests a limited or zero remobilization of uranium, which was partly governed by magmatic processes. Most of the radioactive anomalies were found within or near the major contact faults which may act as channels for mineralized fluids from the subsurface. These fluids possess increased concentrations of U and/or Th which could exist in appropriate chemical and/or structural traps. The U and Th anomalies were found to be associated with the northern and southern parts of the granite pluton respectively. The difference between the northern and southern parts of the granite pluton may be attributed to differences in radioelement content, the effect of partial and/or complete digestion of older rocks, or to different levels of erosion. (author).

  13. Subduction-related Late Carboniferous to Early Permian Magmatism in the Eastern Pontides, the Camlik and Casurluk plutons: Insights from geochemistry, whole-rock Sr-Nd and in situ zircon Lu-Hf isotopes, and U-Pb geochronology

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    Karsli, Orhan; Dokuz, Abdurrahman; Kandemir, Raif

    2016-12-01

    Late Carboniferous to early Permian granitoid rocks represent a volumetrically minor component of the Eastern Pontide lithosphere, but they preserve useful information about the region's tectonomagmatic history. The Casurluk and Camlik plutons primarily consist of gabbro, gabbroic diorite, diorite, monzogabbro, monzodiorite and monzonite, which intrude early to middle Carboniferous granitic basement rocks in the region. In this study, we use in situ zircon U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf isotopic values, whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopic values, and mineral chemistry and geochemistry of these plutons to determine petrogenesis and crustal evolution; we also discuss geodynamic implications. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of magmatic zircons from the rocks suggests that the plutons were emplaced during the late Carboniferous to early Permian (302 Ma). The metaluminous and I-type intrusive rocks belong to the high-K calc-alkaline series. In addition, they are relatively enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs); they are depleted in heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and high field strength elements (HFSEs), such as Nb and Ti. All of the samples have homogeneous initial ISr values (0.70675 to 0.70792) and low εNd (t) values (- 5.1 to - 3.3). Zircons from the rocks of both plutons have uniform negative to slightly positive εHf (t) values (- 3.5 to 1.4) and old Hf two-stage model ages (1323 to 1548 Ma), implying that they have the same source, as well as suggesting the involvement of old enriched lithospheric mantle materials during their magma genesis. These results, combined with the εHf (t) values and two-stage model ages, demonstrate that the primary magmas were derived from partial melting of old lithospheric mantle material metasomatized by subduction-related fluids. Considering other regional geological data from the Sakarya Zone where these plutons formed, we conclude that late Carboniferous to early Permian magmatism in the area

  14. Petrological and geochemical constraints on the origin of mafic dykes intruding the composite Kaçkar Pluton from the eastern Blacksea magmatic arc, NE Turkey

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    Aydin, Faruk; Oguz, Simge; Baser, Rasim; Uysal, Ibrahim; Sen, Cüneyt; Karsli, Orhan; Kandemir, Raif

    2015-04-01

    Geological, petrographical and geochemical data of mafic dykes intruding the composite Kaçkar Pluton from the eastern Blacksea magmatic arc (EBMA), NE Turkey, provide new insights into the nature of the metasomatizing agents in subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath the region during the late Mesozoic-early Tertiary. Mafic dykes from the Çaykara and Hayrat (Trabzon), and also Ikizdere (Rize) areas from the northern margin of the EBMA consist of basalts, dolerites, lamprophyres (basic member) and lesser basaltic andesites and trachyandesites (evolved member). All dykes have no deformation and metamorphism. The outcrops of these dykes vary, with thickness from 0.2 to 10 m. and visible length from 3 to 20 m. In general, the mafic dykes dip steeply and cut directly across the Kaçkar Pluton, and show NW- and NE-trending, roughly parallel to the orientations of the EBMA main faults. Most of the dyke samples display subaphyric to porphyritic texture with phenocrysts of plagioclase (up to 10%), clinopyroxene (5-20%), amphibole (5-15%), and some contain variable amount of biotite (5-20%), lesser quartz (1-2%), and minor euhedral zircon, apatite and Fe-Ti oxides. The basic members of the mafic dykes have SiO2 of 44.1-51.9%, MgO of 4.5-12.1%, and TiO2 >mostly 0.8% (up to 2.3%) with K2O+Na2O of 1.3-6.6% with mostly subalkaline character. They are relatively high in mg-number (0.45-0.73) and transition metals (V=171-376 ppm, Co=22-45 ppm, Ni=3-148 ppm, and Sc=21-49 ppm). The evolved members of the dykes exhibit relatively higher SiO2 (57.1-60.2%) and K2O+Na2O (5.6-9.0%), and lower MgO (2.2-5.9%) and TiO2 (0.5-0.8%) contents than those from the basic dykes. Also, these samples have slightly low mg-number (0.41-0.65) and transition metals (V=99-172 ppm, Co=9-22 ppm, Ni=1-43 ppm, and Sc=9-20 ppm). In the Harker diagrams, all samples of the mafic dykes form a continuous array, and exhibit similar geochemical characteristics. In general, SiO2 inversely correlates with MgO, Fe

  15. Petrology of the Plutonic Rocks of west-central Alaska

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    Miller, Thomas P.

    1970-01-01

    alkaline rocks appears to be related to regional structural features, particularly the boundary between the Mesozoic volcanogenic province of west-central Alaska and the thrust-faulted province of metamorphic-plutonic and sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic and Precambrian age that forms the eastern Seward Peninsula. This boundary may have been a zone of structural weakness along which alkaline magma was generated. Modal and chemical trends suggest that the potassium-rich magma influenced the composition of more granitic magmas forming at higher levels. The latter may have been forming as a result of anatexis of andesite and mixing of mantle-derived mafic magma. The result is the heterogeneous assemblage of generally potassium-rich plutonic rocks that forms the west end of the Hogataza plutonic belt. The loci of magmatism in west-central Alaska shifted east in Late Cretaceous time and the eastern plutons show only local signs of potassium enrichment. They are compositionally homogeneous and differences within plutons appear due to local contamination.

  16. Mineral potential of felsic plutonic rocks in the north-central Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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    Moore, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen plutons of Late Proterozoie age potentially favorable for rare-element mineralization have been identified in a geochemical and petrographic assessment of felsic plutonic rocks in the north-central Arabian Shield (lat 23°00'-25°00' N., long 40°00'-45°00' E.). The plutons are highly fractionated, leucocratic granitoids assigned to a major magmatic pulse that spanned the later stages of the Hijaz orogeny (about 610 Ma to about 550 Ma). Most of the targeted plutons are small or not deeply eroded. Two rock types are dominant: subsolvus, muscovite-bearing monzogranite or syenogranite; and hypersolvus, mieroeline perthite granite commonly containing sodic pyriboles. Enrichment in varied suites of the granitophile elements (Sn-W-NbTa-Zr-Y-Th-U) is characteristic. The plutons occupy the central part of a broad arcuate belt of geochemically specialized plutons that conforms generally to the eastern limit of exposed Proterozoic basement.

  17. Salto! / Karli Luik, Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke ; intervjueerinud Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luik, Karli, 1977-

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Kultuurkapitali 2010. a. arhitektuuri peapreemia pälvis AB Salto Eesti Maanteemuuseumi väliala ja Sõmeru keskusehoone lahenduse eest. Büroo arhitektid oma büroost, osalemiset arhitektuurivõistlustel, valminud ja käsilolevatest töödest. Valik AB Salto arhitektuurikonkursil pälvitud jt. preemiatest

  18. Salto and The Garden of Eden / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2011-01-01

    Eesti edukast arhitektuuribüroost Salto. 2004. a. loodud büroo on pälvinud 38 autasu arhitektuurikonkurssidelt. Salto arhitektide projekti järgi on valminud Sõmeru vallamaja, Maanteemuuseumi välialad, Eesti Maaülikooli spordihoone, Põhuteater, Tartu Kesklinna Kooli juurdeehitus jm.

  19. Aprovechamiento de Salto Grande Argentina – Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongiovanni, M.

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available The power harnessing of Salto Grande will be the first common project carried out by two South American Countries and this will foster greater integration of both countries. The project involves the following: — One 39 m-high dam — Two hydroelectric power plants — One international bridge — One shipping canal The benefits to be obtained from the project include: increase and improvement of the waterway network; increase of electricity production; railways and highway tie-ups between both countries; industrial development; increased availability of irrigation water; new tourist resorts; increase of fishing resources.

    El aprovechamiento hidroeléctrico de Salto Grande será el primer aprovechamiento común a dos países sudamericanos, lo que permitirá una mayor integración entre ellos. Consta de las siguientes obras: _ una presa de 39 m de altura; _ dos centrales hidroeléctricas; _ un puente internacional; _ un canal de navegación, etc. Entre los beneficios que se obtendrán destacan: aumento y mejora de la red de navegación; aumento de la producción eléctrica; enlace de las vías de ferrocarril y carreteras entre los dos países; desarrollo industrial; aumento de la disponibilidad de agua de riego; creación de zonas de turismo, e incremento de la riqueza piscícola.

  20. Velocities and joint angles during double backward stretched salto performed with stable landing and in combination with tempo salto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sadowski

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the values of velocity an joint angles obtained during performance of double salto backward stretched with a stable landing and its combination with salto tempo. Seven top level acrobats (track jumpers participated in study. Mean values of body height, mass and age had a value of: 170 cm ± 4.0 cm, 72.4 kg ± 3.6 kg, 20.4±1.7 years, respectively. The studies were conducted on a standard acrobatic path (type PTS 2000. Two digital video cameras (240 Hz and APAS 2000 (Ariel Dynamics Inc. were used during studies. Markers were placed in ankle, knee, hip, arm, elbow and wrist joints. All marker positions were tracked and reconstructed using the APAS system. Two sequences with the following elements were analysed: round-off - double salto backward stretched (A and round-off - double salto backward stretched - tempo salto (B. The highest differences between the key components describing performance of presented exercises exist for joint angles during launching and landing position, and resultant velocities during touchdown. In version A the athlete created prerequisites for “gliding” double salto backward stretched by means of the body segments motions, whereas in version B he executes faster motions of the body segments accentuating his actions upon backward rotation of the body. During the final phase of double salto backward stretched in combination with tempo salto the athlete performed courbette “under himself” (almost straight feet are placed in front of vertical line, pushes directly back and in 0,1 s executes stable arm swing upward-backward to tempo salto.

  1. Interview with Karli Luik from Salto / intervjueerinud Eero Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luik, Karli, 1977-

    2011-01-01

    2004. a. loodud arhitektuuribüroost Salto. Büroo kavandatud hoonete arhitektuurist, selle omapärast, ühiskondlike hoonete suurest osakaalust, arvestamisest keskkonnaga, Eesti varasema arhitektuuri mõjust, büroo hetkeseisust ja tulevikuplaanidest

  2. Põhuteater ehk Salto arhitektide must monoliit = Straw Theatre or the Black Monolith by the Salto Architects / Risto Kozer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kozer, Risto

    2011-01-01

    Tallinnas 2011. a. valminud NO99 Põhuteatrist. Arhitektid: Maarja Kask, Karli Luik, Ralf Lõoke, Pelle-Sten Viiburg (Salto AB). Projekt: 2010. Loodud ajaperioodiks 30.04.-01.10.2011. Skoone bastionist enne Põhuteatrit

  3. Elamuslik arhitektuur : Salto AB Sõmeru keskusehoone = Salto AB experiential architecture and the Sõmeru Community Centre / Carl-Dag Lige

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lige, Carl-Dag

    2011-01-01

    Arhitektuuribüroo Salto loomingust, mille fookus on kasutaja teenimisel ning meeleheal. 2010. a. valminud Sõmeru keskusehoonest. Arhitektid Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke, Karli Luik, kaasautorid Kristiina Arusoo, Margit Argus. Projekt: 2004

  4. Fracture controls on valley persistence: the Cairngorm Granite pluton, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A. M.; Gillespie, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    Valleys are remarkably persistent features in many different tectonic settings, but the reasons for this persistence are rarely explored. Here, we examine the structural controls on valleys in the Cairngorms Mountains, Scotland, part of the passive margin of the eastern North Atlantic. We consider valleys at three scales: straths, glens and headwater valleys. The structural controls on valleys in and around the Cairngorm Granite pluton were examined on satellite and aerial photographs and by field survey. Topographic lineaments, including valleys, show no consistent orientation with joint sets or with sheets of microgranite and pegmatitic granite. In this granite landscape, jointing is not a first-order control on valley development. Instead, glens and headwater valleys align closely to quartz veins and linear alteration zones (LAZs). LAZs are zones of weakness in the granite pluton in which late-stage hydrothermal alteration and hydro-fracturing have greatly reduced rock mass strength and increased permeability. LAZs, which can be kilometres long and >700 m deep, are the dominant controls on the orientation of valleys in the Cairngorms. LAZs formed in the roof zone of the granite intrusion. Although the Cairngorm pluton was unroofed soon after emplacement, the presence of Old Red Sandstone (ORS) outliers in the terrain to the north and east indicates that the lower relief of the sub-ORS basement surface has been lowered by 1 km of vertical erosion and for 400 Myr. This valley persistence is a combined product of regionally low rates of basement exhumation and of the existence of LAZs in the Cairngorm pluton and sub-parallel Caledonide fractures in the surrounding terrain with depths that exceed 1 km.

  5. Structural evolution of the La Paya pluton (Sierra de Cachi, NW Argentina): insights from the study of its magnetic fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranguren, Aitor; Hongn, Fernando; María Tubía, José; Vegas, Néstor

    2017-04-01

    The La Paya granite is a pluton elongated in a northerly direction that spreads over 10 km2 in the Sierra de Cachi (Eastern Cordillera of Salta, Andean belt, NW Argentina). This pluton intrudes into high-temperature and low-pressure migmatites and schists. The metamorphic evolution of the country rocks and the emplacement of the La Paya pluton took place in an extensional tectonic setting during Ordovician times (Hongn et al., 2014). Subsequently, a compressional tectonic event led to the formation of large E-verging folds with a penetrative axial planar foliation. Due to the folding event, the current metamorphic zonation is inverted and the metamorphic degree rises towards the west. The granite is concordant with the metamorphic zonation and with the country rocks foliation. Schists with biotite and andalucite (low to medium metamorphic grade) crop out in the eastern border of the pluton and schists with cordierite (high grade) in the western border. The pluton is characterized by the coexistence of magmatic and solid-state structures. The deformation is localized in shear bands concentrated in the pluton roof. Wide sectors of the pluton core preserve medium- to coarse-grained equigranular textures of magmatic origin on which we have collected samples from 28 sites in order to perform an AMS study. Susceptibility values are very low, with k ranging between 19 and 67 x 10-6 SI. The obtained anisotropy values are in agreement with the magmatic character of the analysed samples (Pj between 1,03-1,07). The magnetic foliations are concordant with the contacts of the pluton. They show northwards trends and dips to the west that are steeper close to the eastern pluton border. Magnetic lineations are concentrated in two main maxima that define a great circle parallel to the pluton elongation. The parallelism between the magnetic fabrics from areas with magmatic structures and the structures observed in domains with solid-state deformation points to a syn

  6. Genesis of felsic plutonic magmas and their igneous enclaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemens, John D.; Maas, Roland; Waight, Tod Earle

    2016-01-01

    -type Pyalong pluton was emplaced, apparently along an east-west-orientated fracture zone. Around 367 Ma, the main I-type Baynton pluton intruded as numerous shallow-dipping sheets. The last plutonic event was the intrusion of the broad, thin, flat-lying, and crosscutting sheet of the I-type Beauvallet pluton...

  7. Aumento de altura en salto en jugadores universitarios de voleibol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Quiroga Maraboli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El entrenamiento del salto es fundamental para obtener un óptimo desempeño en diversos deportes, siendo el método complejo, basado en el fenómeno de potenciación posactivación (PPA, uno de los de los más utilizados para el entrenamiento de esta cualidad. Numerosos estudios respaldan la existencia de PPA representada en las variaciones de un salto vertical, sin embargo, en la literatura no se describe un protocolo estándar de entrenamiento que genere dicho fenómeno. Este estudio piloto cuantitativo cuasi experimental tiene como objetivo determinar en cuál de las zonas de fuerza descritas por Naclerio se debe entrenar para que la PPA se exprese, en mayor medida, evidenciado en las variaciones de altura de un salto Counter Movement Jump (CMJ. Se utilizó un muestreo por conveniencia de veinticinco individuos, divididos aleatoriamente en cinco grupos, cada uno correspondiente a una zona de fuerza. Luego los sujetos fueron entrenados con sentadilla media según los parámetros de cada zona. Finalmente, se obtuvo la altura del salto basándose en la fórmula de Bosco a partir de los fotogramas de una cámara digital. Existieron dos zonas de fuerza que presentaron un aumento en la altura del salto posterior a la potenciación, la zona de fuerza potencia y explosiva, sin embargo solo la primera de estas mostró resultados significativos en dicho cambio (p < 0,05, representados como un 7 % de aumento. Pretendemos que dichos hallazgos sean útiles para el desarrollo de nuevos estudios que permitan el diseño de nuevas metodologías de entrenamiento y rehabilitación deportiva viéndose beneficiados por sus propiedades.

  8. Tectogenesis of the rocks surrounding the Winnsboro intrusive complex and reconnaissance and petrography of the Pageland pluton; South Carolina Geothermal Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourland, W.C.; Farrar, S.S.

    1978-09-29

    Major post-tectonic plutons of the easternmost Piedmont in the southern Appalachians have been of primary interest because of their high radiogenic heat production. Such heat production comes from a linear map trend including the Winnsboro, Liberty Hill, Pageland, and Lilesville plutons which parallel the proposed eastern Piedmont Fault system of Hatcher and others (1977). This study, in examining regional versus contact metamorphism and crosscutting relationships between the Winnsboro and Pageland complexes and the major folds and mylonitic zones of this area, provides a relative time framework for the tectonic and plutonic events.

  9. Petrology and radiogeology of the Stripa pluton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, H.; Flexser, S.; Andersson, L.

    1980-12-01

    Both the quartz monzonite and the metavolcanic leptite which it intruded are strongly fractured. Two stages of fracture filling are evident; an earlier stage encompassing quartz, sericite, feldspar, epidote, and chlorite, and a later stage dominated by carbonate minerals. The Stripa quartz monozite is chemically and mineralogically distinct from other plutons in the region. Muscovite is the predominant mica in the quartz monzonite; biotite has been altered to chlorite, hornblende is absent, and accessory minerals are scarce. In contrast, in other plutons in the Stripa region, biotite and hornblende are prominent mafic minerals and accessory minerals are abundant. The Stripa quartz monzonite is also considerably more radioactive than the the leptite and other plutons in the region. Uranium and thorium abundances are both approx. 30 ppM, considerably higher than in normal granitic rocks where the thorium-to-uranium ratio generally exceeds 2. Potassium-argon dating of muscovite from the Stripa quartz monzonite indicates that this rock may be older, at 1691 million years than granitic rock of the neighboring Gusselby and Kloten massifs, whose ages, based on K-Ar dating of biotite, are respectively 1604 and 1640 m.y. Heat flow and heat productivity considerations show that although Stripa quartz monzonite contains high abundances of radioelements, the pluton has little efect on the regional heat flow. If it occurs in a layered plutonic setting, it is not more than 1.5 km thick; otherwise it may comprise a stock, dike, or border phase that is relatively small compared with the large granitic plutons exposed in the region.

  10. Estudio de la capacidad de salto en inmersión

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado-Lavanant, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    El propósito de este análisis ha sido examinar los efectos del EP de la muestra de estudio seleccionada tanto en seco como en inmersión mediante el entrenamiento del salto vertical sin contramovimiento (SJ) y con contramovimiento (CMJ), el salto DJ30/50 (salto con una caída procedente de una altura de 30 ó 50 cm, del término inglés “drop jump”), el salto RJ10 (test de saltos reactivos, consistente en realizar 10 saltos de manera continua buscando la máxima altura en cada uno de ellos, del tér...

  11. Multiphase groundwater flow near cooling plutons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayba, D.O.; Ingebritsen, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate groundwater flow near cooling plutons with a computer program that can model multiphase flow, temperatures up to 1200??C, thermal pressurization, and temperature-dependent rock properties. A series of experiments examines the effects of host-rock permeability, size and depth of pluton emplacement, single versus multiple intrusions, the influence of a caprock, and the impact of topographically driven groundwater flow. We also reproduce and evaluate some of the pioneering numerical experiments on flow around plutons. Host-rock permeability is the principal factor influencing fluid circulation and heat transfer in hydrothermal systems. The hottest and most steam-rich systems develop where permeability is of the order of 10-15 m2. Temperatures and life spans of systems decrease with increasing permeability. Conduction-dominated systems, in which permeabilities are ???10-16m2, persist longer but exhibit relatively modest increases in near-surface temperatures relative to ambient conditions. Pluton size, emplacement depth, and initial thermal conditions have less influence on hydrothermal circulation patterns but affect the extent of boiling and duration of hydrothermal systems. Topographically driven groundwater flow can significantly alter hydrothermal circulation; however, a low-permeability caprock effectively decouples the topographically and density-driven systems and stabilizes the mixing interface between them thereby defining a likely ore-forming environment.

  12. Correct nomenclature for the Angadimogar pluton, Kerala ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 115; Issue 2. Correct nomenclature for the Angadimogar pluton, Kerala, southwestern India. H M Rajesh. Volume 115 Issue 2 ... Author Affiliations. H M Rajesh1. Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan.

  13. Petrology and radiogeology of the Stripa pluton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, Harold; Flexser, Steve; Andersson, Lennart

    1980-12-01

    To better define the character of the rock encompassing the thermomechanical and hydrological experiments at the Stripa mine in central Sweden, and to help determine the size of the Stripa pluton, detailed studies were conducted of the petrology and radiogeology of the quartz monzonite and adjacent rocks. Petrologic studies emphasized optical petrography, with supplementary X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and microprobe analyses. Radiogeologic investigations were based primarily on surface and underground gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of uranium, thorium and potassium, supplemented by laboratory gamma spectrometric analyses and fission-track radiographic determinations of the locations and abundance of uranium in the rock matrix. Both the quartz monzonite and the metavolcanic leptite which it intruded are strongly fractured. Two stages of fracture filling are evident; an earlier stage encompassing quartz, sericite, feldspar, epidote, and chlorite, and a later stage dominated by carbonate minerals. The Stripa quartz monzonite is chemically and mineralogically distinct from other plutons in the region. Muscovite is the predominant mica in the quartz monzonite; biotite has been altered to chlorite, hornblende is absent, and accessory minerals are scarce. In contrast, in other plutons in the Stripa region biotite and hornblende are prominent mafic minerals and accessory minerals are abundant. The Stripa quartz monzonite is also considerably more radioactive than the leptite and other plutons in the region. Uranium and thorium abundances are both- 30 ppm, considerably higher than in "normal" granitic rocks where the thorium-to-uranium ratio generally exceeds 2. Potassium-argon dating of muscovite from the Stripa quartz monzonite indicates that this rock may be older, at 1691 million years than granitic rock of the neighboring Gusselby and Kloten massifs, whose ages, based on K-Ar dating of biotite, are respectively 1604 and 1640 m.y. Heat flow and heat

  14. Subsurface profiling of granite pluton using microtremor method: southern Aravalli, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Aditya U.; Sant, Dhananjay A.; Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Rangarajan, Govindan; Limaye, Manoj A.; Mukherjee, Soumyajit; Charola, Mitesh J.; Bhatt, Meghnath N.; Mistry, Sagar P.

    2017-04-01

    We report, using the microtremor method, a subsurface granitic pluton underneath the Narukot Dome and in its western extension along a WNW profile, in proximity of eastern fringe of Cambay Rift, India. The dome and its extension is a part of the Champaner Group of rocks belonging to the Mesoproterozoic Aravalli Supergroup. The present finding elucidates development of an asymmetric double plunge along Narukot Dome. Microtremor measurements at 32 sites were carried out along the axial trace (N95°) of the dome. Fourier amplitude spectral studies were applied to obtain the ratio between the horizontal and vertical components of persisting Rayleigh waves as local ambient noise. Fundamental resonant frequencies with amplitude ≥1-sigma for each site are considered to distinguish rheological boundary. Two distinct rheological boundaries are identified based on frequency ranges determined in the terrain: (1) 0.2219-10.364 Hz recorded at 31 stations identified as the Champaner metasediment and granite boundary, and (2) 10.902-27.1119 Hz recorded at 22 stations identified as the phyllite and quartzite boundary. The proposed equation describing frequency-depth relationship between granite and overlaying regolith matches with those already published in the literature. The morphology of granite pluton highlights the rootless character of Champaner Group showing sharp discordance with granitic pluton. The findings of manifestation of pluton at a shallower depth imply a steep easterly plunge within the Champaner metasediments, whereas signature of pluton at a deeper level implies a gentle westerly plunge. The present method enables to assess how granite emplacement influences the surface structure.

  15. Formation of the Yandangshan volcanic-plutonic complex (SE China) by melt extraction and crystal accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Li; He, Zhen-Yu; Jahn, Bor-ming; Zhao, Zhi-Dan

    2016-12-01

    The association of volcanic and shallow plutonic rocks in caldera may provide important clues to the geochemical evolution of silicic magma systems. The Yandangshan caldera is a typical example of late Mesozoic volcanic-plutonic complex in SE China. It is composed of a series of rhyolitic extrusives and subvolcanic intrusions of porphyritic quartz syenites. In this work, we conducted petrological and geochemical studies, as well as zircon dating, on the coexisting volcanic and plutonic rocks from the Yandangshan caldera. The results of SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating revealed that the crystallization of the rhyolitic extrusives and subvolcanic intrusions was contemporaneous within analytical errors and in a short period (104-98 Ma). Geochemically, the volcanic rocks are characterized by high Rb/Sr and Rb/Ba ratios and depletion in Ba, Sr, P, Eu and Ti, while the shallow plutons show high K, Ba, Al, Fe and low Rb/Sr and Rb/Ba ratios with insignificant negative Eu anomalies. The volcanic and plutonic rocks have a similar range of zircon Hf isotopic compositions (εHf(t) = - 10.0 to + 1.5) and TDM2 model ages of 2.10-1.23 Ga. They also have comparable whole-rock Sr and Nd isotopic compositions ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7084-0.7090; εNd(t) = - 7.8 to - 6.5) and zircon oxygen isotopic compositions (δ18O mainly = 4.5 to 6.0‰). We argue that the volcanic-plutonic complex of the Yandangshan caldera was formed by reworking of Paleoproterozoic lower crusts in the eastern Cathaysia block, and that the complex could be linked by fractional crystallization and crystal accumulation in a shallow magma chamber. The volcanic rocks represent the highly fractionated end-member, whereas the subvolcanic intrusions of porphyritic quartz syenites could be the residual crystal mushes. This case study could have a general implication for the genetic relationship between volcanic and shallow plutonic rocks in calderas.

  16. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A., E-mail: walace@usp.br [Setor de Analises Toxicologicas. CETESB, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao com Neutrons

    2011-07-01

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  17. What Plutons Have to Say About Big Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazner, A. F.; Coleman, D. S.; Bartley, J. M.; Wohletz, K. H.

    2006-12-01

    Plutons are generally thought to be cumulates, with the rule of thumb that eruption empties 10% of a magma chamber leaving the liquid-depleted pluton behind. This view of the volcano-pluton connection predicts that large plutons were discrete magma bodies which could be the residuum of super-eruptions. However, a diverse set of observations suggests that plutonic and volcanic rocks share temporal and chemical signatures, and that plutons are better viewed as the unerupted equivalents of volcanic rocks. Field, geochronologic and geophysical data indicate that many plutons are assembled incrementally, over 5-10 m.y. - durations exceeding the thermal lifetime of a pluton-sized magma body, but comparable to the lifetime of volcanic systems. Geochemical data from typical plutonic rocks are inconsistent with significant removal of magmatic liquid. For example, most plutons in the Cretaceous Sierra Nevada of California have negative Eu anomalies (0.81 and elevated Ba and Sr. Magma recharge events under volcanic centers do not always lead directly to an eruption. Eruptions therefore must be more efficient than the long-term extrusive/intrusive ratio, and eruption efficiencies greater than 10% must be common. Between recharge events, upper-crustal magma solidifies to yield incremental growth of intrusions. Growth of a dominantly liquid magma body requires the ratio M = q/ρLV to be less than unity (q = heat flux out the top, ρ = density, L = latent heat of crystallization, and V = magma addition rate). Super-eruptions may result from transient decreases in M with short durations compared to pluton growth, e.g., owing to drying climate or decreasing wall-rock permeability that suppress hydrothermal convection. Only a fraction of a pluton may represent the residuum of a large eruption, the rest having either solidified before the eruption or been added afterward, and many large plutons probably are unrelated to large eruptions.

  18. Memories of silence. Literature in Caribbean and Central America, by Graciela Salto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Perilli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed book:SALTO, Graciela. Memorias del silencio. Literaturas en el Caribe y en Centroamérica. Edición, compilación y prólogo de Graciela Salto. Buenos Aires: Corregidor, 2010.---Original in Spanish.

  19. Respuesta psicofisiológica en un salto táctico paracaidista HAHO: caso de estudio

    OpenAIRE

    V.J. Clemente-Suárez; R. Delgado-Moreno; B. González-Gómez; J.J. Robles-Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Esta investigación tiene por objeto analizar la respuesta psicofisiológica de un paracaidista en un salto HAHO. Se analizó a un saltador experimentado de la Brigada Paracaidista del Ejército de Tierra Español en un salto HAHO, salto a 18000 pies y apertura a 16000 pies. Antes y después del salto se evaluaron parámetros de fuerza muscular, activación cortical, creatinfosfokinasa y glucosa, percepción subjetiva de esfuerzo y habilidades motrices finas específicas. Durante el salto se e...

  20. Long term operation of nuclear power plants – IAEA SALTO peer review service and its results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivanek, Robert, E-mail: r.krivanek@iaea.org

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • SALTO peer review service is designed for reviewing of ageing management and NPPs’ preparedness LTO. • It has been established as an effective tool to review the compliance with IAEA safety standards. • The important issues for safe LTO are being identified by SALTO missions. • Analysis of those issues is provided in the paper. • This peer review service is strongly recommended for NPPs prior to entering LTO period. - Abstract: This paper presents main IAEA activities for safe long term operation (LTO) which includes establishment of IAEA Safety Standards and other LTO related documents, fostering information exchange and establishing databases and provision of SALTO (Safety Aspects of Long Term Operation) peer review service. This paper provides insights into IAEA SALTO peer review service objectives, scope and methodology. The SALTO peer review service was designed to assist nuclear power plant (NPP) operators in adopting a proper approach to LTO of their plants and in implementing complete and appropriate activities to ensure that plant safety will be maintained during the LTO period. The SALTO peer review service can also support regulators in establishing or improving regulatory and licensing strategies for LTO of NPPs. Issues derived from 19 SALTO missions and 2 LTO modules of OSART (Operational Safety Review Team) missions conducted during the period of 2005 to March 2014 are also analyzed in this paper.

  1. Long term operation of nuclear power plants – IAEA SALTO missions observations and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivanek, Robert, E-mail: r.krivanek@iaea.org [Operational Safety Section, Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna 1400 (Austria); Havel, Radim, E-mail: Radim.Havel@gmail.com [RESCO, Nitranska 894/8, 10100 Praha 10 (Czech Republic)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • During the period 2005–mid 2015, 22 SALTO peer review missions and 2 LTO modules of OSART missions were conducted. • Analysis of these mission results and main trends observed are gathered in this paper. • The main task of the assessment performed was to evaluate and give a weight to the evaluation. • Results of SALTO follow-up missions as well as OSART follow-up missions with LTO module are summarized. • The SALTO peer review service is strongly recommended for NPPs prior to entering LTO period. - Abstract: This paper builds on paper “Long term operation of nuclear power plants – IAEA SALTO peer review service and its results”, NED8070, presented in Nuclear Engineering and Design in September 2014. This paper presents the analysis of SALTO mission results and main trends observed so that all the most important results of SALTO missions are gathered in one paper. The paper also includes the results of LTO module reviews performed in the frame of OSART missions where applicable as well as follow-up missions. This paper is divided in three main Sections. Section 1 provides brief introduction to SALTO peer review service. Section 2 provides overview of performed SALTO missions and LTO modules of OSART missions performed between 2005 and mid-2015. Section 3 summarizes the most significant observations and trends resulting from the missions between 2005 and mid-2015. Section 4 summarizes the results of SALTO follow-up missions as well as OSART follow-up missions.

  2. O significado do uso do salto alto no ambiente de trabalho

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    Suzie Terci Kaetsu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca identificar aspectos simbólicos relacionados ao consumo dos sapatos de salto alto por mulheres em seu ambiente de trabalho. A metodologia foi pautada em design exploratório e contou com realização de grupo focal. Os resultados apontam o uso do salto alto no trabalho como uma forma de expressão pessoal e uma imagem de profissional respeitosa.

  3. Relationship of voluminous ignimbrites to continental arc plutons: Petrology of Jurassic ignimbrites and contemporaneous plutons in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohey-Breting, N. K.; Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.K.; Carter, C.A.; Schermer, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Volcanism was broadly associated in both space and time with Mesozoic plutonism in the Cordillera continental margin arc, but the precise petrogenetic relationships between volcanic rocks and adjacent zoned plutons are not known. Igneous rocks in a tilted crustal section in California include four laterally extensive Jurassic ash flow tuffs from 550 to >1100 m thick underlain at deeper structural levels by Jurassic plutons. Zircon geochronology confirms previous correlations of individual tuffs, suggesting ignimbrites with eruptive volumes up to 800 km3 were deposited both during the apparent Early Jurassic plutonic lull as well as contemporaneous with solidification of regionally widespread Middle and Late Jurassic plutons. The tuffs are weakly to strongly porphyritic (5 to 55% phenocrysts) monotonous intermediate porphyritic dacite to low-silica rhyolite and show strong bulk rock chemical affinity to contemporaneous plutons. Trace element compositions of zircons from the tuffs and contemporaneous plutonic rocks record large and consistent differences in Hf/Zr and REE over similar ranges in Ti abundances, supporting bulk compositional similarities and illuminating similarities and variations in thermal histories despite the effects of hydrothermal alteration. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiscale magmatic cyclicity, duration of pluton construction, and the paradoxical relationship between tectonism and plutonism in continental arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Blanquat, Michel; Horsman, Eric; Habert, Guillaume; Morgan, Sven; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Law, Richard; Tikoff, Basil

    2011-03-01

    The close relationship between crustal magmatism, an expression of heat dissipation, and tectonics, an expression of stress dissipation, leads to the question of their mutual relationships. Indeed, the low viscosity of magmas and the large viscosity contrast between magmas and surrounding rocks favor strain localization in magmas, and then possible "magmatic" initiation of structures at a wide range of scales. However, new data about 3-d pluton shape and duration of pluton construction perturb this simple geological image, and indicate some independence between magmatism and tectonics. In some cases we observe a direct genetic link and strong arguments for physical interactions between magmas and tectonics. In other cases, we observe an absence of these interactions and it is unclear how magma transfer and emplacement are related to lithospheric-plate dynamics. A simple explanation of this complexity follows directly from the pulsed, incremental assembly of plutons and its spatial and temporal characteristics. The size of each pluton is related to a magmatic pulsation at a particular time scale, and each of these coupled time/space scales is related to a specific process: in small plutons, we can observe the incremental process, the building block of plutons; in larger plutons, the incremental process is lost, and the pulsation, which consists of a cycle of injections at different timescales, must be related to the composition and thermal regime of the source region, itself driving magmatic processes (melting, segregation, and transfer) that interact with tectonic boundary conditions. The dynamics of pulsed magmatism observed in plutonic systems is then a proxy for deep lithospheric and magmatic processes. From our data and a review of published work, we find a positive corelation between volume and duration of pluton construction. The larger a pluton, the longer its construction time. Large/fast or small/slow plutons have not been identified to date. One

  5. Geophysical modeling and structure of Ushuaia Pluton, Fuegian Andes, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroni, Javier Ignacio; Tassone, Alejandro Alberto; Menichetti, Marco; Cerredo, María Elena

    2009-10-01

    Within the area of Ushuaia Bay (Tierra del Fuego, southernmost South America) the deformed Lower Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of Yahgán Formation host the Ushuaia Pluton. The intrusive body is oval in map view; it is compositionally varied with rocks ranging from the ultrabasic to the mesosiliceous realm. The emplacement time is constrained within the Albian-Cenomanian span by new amphibole K/Ar data. Meso- and microstructures of Ushuaia Pluton and its host indicate a synkinematic emplacement with a dominant extensional component. A set of transcurrent and normal faults related to the sinistral strike-slip Beagle Channel Fault System affects the pluton and its host. On the basis of aeromagnetic data combined with field information, a new model is presented for the Ushuaia Pluton. Modeling results fit well with a laccolithic body with an estimated volume of around 111 km 3. The model pluton cross-section displays a central zone with an average thickness of 2000 m which progressively thins toward the margins (˜ 500 m) and a southern root which reaches 5000 m deep. The combined structural and geophysical model supports a transtensive scenario for the Ushuaia Pluton emplacement at Early-Late Cretaceous boundary.

  6. Efecto de la intensidad del contramovimiento sobre el rendimiento del salto vertical

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    Marcos Gutiérrez-Dávila

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de esta investigación ha sido comprobar el efecto de la intensidad del contramovimiento sobre el rendimiento del salto vertical. Para el control de la intensidad se han utilizado tres protocolos de saltos verticales con participación de brazos: a saltos verticales partiendo desde la posición de erguidos (CMJ + S; b partiendo de un salto previo donde la altura de caída estaba regulada por el participante (DJ-AR, y c partiendo de un salto previo máximo (DJ-M. Han participado 28 deportistas practicantes de modalidades deportivas donde el salto vertical constituye una habilidad básica. Se ha utilizado una plataforma de fuerza, operando a 500 Hz, sincronizada temporalmente a una cámara de vídeo, que registraba a 210 Hz el plano sagital de los saltos realizados sobre la plataforma. La aceleración vertical del CM se determinó a partir de la fuerza neta vertical y la masa del saltador. A continuación, los sucesivos registros de la velocidad vertical y las posiciones de componente vertical adoptadas por el CM se determinaron mediante integración de las componentes verticales de las funciones de aceleración-tiempo y velocidad-tiempo, respectivamente. Las constantes de integración se determinaron mediante imágenes de vídeo (2D. Los resultados han puesto de manifiesto que, cuando se realizan saltos con alturas de caída superiores a 0,39 ± 0,05 m, el pico de potencia durante la fase propulsiva (PP(propulsiva, el impulso vertical de propulsión (Iv(propulsión., y la altura de salto (Ycm vuelo, se reducen de forma significativa (p < 0,001, lo que nos permite afirmar que se reduce el rendimiento durante la fase propulsiva.

  7. Efectos agudos de las vibraciones mecánicas sobre el salto vertical

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Pardo, Esmeraldo; Carrasco Páez, Luis; Alcaraz Ramón, Pedro Emilio; Brunet Gómez, Antonio; Nadal Soler, Carolina

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el efecto agudo de una exposición a vibraciones mecánicas sobre la fuerza desarrollada en un salto vertical. Un total de 15 sujetos sanos y activos (11 hombres y 4 mujeres) se sometieron a 60 s de estimulación sobre una plataforma vibratoria que indujo oscilaciones verticales (frecuencia: 50 Hz; amplitud: 2 mm). Antes del periodo de estimulación vibratoria así como 30 s y 2 min después del mismo, los sujetos realizaron un salto vertical (squat j...

  8. The influences of incremental pluton growth on magma crystallinity and aureole rheology: numerical modeling of growth of the Papoose Flat pluton, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanying; Nabelek, Peter I.

    2017-10-01

    The Papoose Flat pluton in the White-Inyo Range, California, is one of the best examples of forcefully emplaced plutons within an arc crust, having internal fabrics and a contact aureole that deformed in a ductile manner. A 2-D numerical model for the thermo-rheological evolution of the pluton-wall rock system is proposed. We explore how the frequency of magma input, from instantaneous, episodic to continuous, affects magma chamber crystallinity and rheology of both the pluton and its contact aureole. We model pluton growth in the depth range of 10-13 km, which is at the brittle-ductile transition of the crust, and in the 7-4 km depth range, where the host rocks are initially brittle. For incremental growth (episodic and continuous), the pluton begins as a sill. With subsequent injections to the bottom, the pluton grows into a laccolith. Results of mid-crustal models show that the ductile region above the Papoose Flat pluton is related to thermal weakening. The ductile region during incremental growth is 100-150 m thick, matching the observed thickness. It is ten times thinner than in the instantaneous growth model. In episodic and continuous models, the upper part of the pluton is fully or quasi-crystalline throughout growth. During continuous growth, it is likely to remain ductile with potential for the development of solid-state fabrics. During episodic growth, strain rates within the pluton during each injection may become sufficiently high to cause embrittlement of magma. In no case a ductile aureole develops above the pluton at the upper-crustal level, but may develop below the pluton, which serves as thermal insulator. Thus, the pluton's floor may sag. During incremental growth, most of the pluton is below the solidus and brittle. The results suggest that large volcanic eruptions are unlikely to occur by slow pressurization of magma chambers; instead they require rapid injections of large melt volumes.

  9. Análisis de variables medidas en salto vertical relacionadas con el rendimiento deportivo y su aplicación al entrenamiento

    OpenAIRE

    P. Jiménez-Reyes; V. Cuadrado-Peñafiel; J.J. González-Badillo

    2011-01-01

    Uno de los indicadores de la condición física de los atletas es la potencia. La altura del salto es un buen predictor de la potencia muscular, y, por tanto, varios tipos de saltos verticales se han empleado como tests estandarizados del rendimiento deportivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la relación entre la capacidad de salto y la capacidad de aceleración en velocistas. Participaron 36 velocistas de nivel nacional e internacional y realizaron los saltos Squat Jump (SJ), el Salto ...

  10. El salto generacional y el discurso social en El Graduado

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    Díaz Martín, Marcos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En español: El Graduado es una de las películas más representativas del movimiento cinematográfico denominado New Hollywood dado en Estados Unidos a finales de la década de los sesenta y principios de los setenta por varios motivos: la gran audiencia y repercusión mediática que cosechó durante su exposición cinematográfica, la diversidad que originó en el terreno de la crítica especializada y el estatus icónico que desde entonces mantiene. Basándonos en la teoría del cine de temática contemporánea como representante más o menos fiel de los acontecimientos históricos y sociales que le rodean, en este artículo analizamos la suficiencia del filme de Mike Nichols como evidencia del cambio cultural y el salto generacional dado en la época y analizamos su carácter de película revolucionaria -haciendo hincapié tanto en su relación con la contracultura como en su controvertido final- desde el punto de vista ideológico y de la caracterización de los personajes. In english: The Graduate is one of the most representative films of late sixties and early seventies cinema movement New Hollywood in the United States for several reasons: the large audience and media impact during its showing, the disagreements in the specialized criticism and the iconic status it has since then. Based on the theory of films as representations of their contemporary historical and social events, in this paper we analyze the value of Mike Nichols film as evidence of the cultural change and generation gap of the period. We analyze its revolutionary character -paying attention both to its relation with counterculture and to its controversial ending- from the ideological and character description points of view.

  11. CAPACIDAD DE SALTO EN NIÑAS PREPÚBERES QUE PRACTICAN GIMNASIA RÍTMICA

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    R. Arteaga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Estudiamos el rendimiento en el salto vertical y como podría verse afectado por lacomposición corporal en 13 niñas que practicaban gimnasia rítmica (GR; 10.4 ± 0.9 años y13 niñas control (CO; 9.9 ± 0.7 años. La composición corporal fue determinada medianteantropometría y DXA. Se realizaron saltos con y sin contramovimiento (CMJ y SJ sobre unaplataforma de fuerza analizándose entre otras variables la altura de vuelo (AV, velocidad dedespegue (VD, velocidad vertical máxima del centro de masas (Vimax, la potencia media(Pm, el impulso mecánico positivo (Ipos, tiempo de fuerza máxima (Tfmax y potenciainstantánea máxima (Pimax. Las gimnastas consiguieron una AV, VD, Ipos y Vimax mayoren ambos saltos y una Pm, Tfmax y Pimax mayores en el CMJ que las control (p<0.05. Enconclusión, prácticar gimnasia rítmica 10 h·sem-1 se asocia a un mayor rendimiento en elsalto vertical.

    Palabras claves: gimnasia rítmica, entrenamiento de fuerza, capacidad de salto.

  12. Onset of Grain Boundary Migration and Drastic Weakening of Quartzite during increasing grade of Metamorphism in the Contact Aureole surrounding the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek pluton, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, S. S.; Student, J. J.; Jakeway, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek (EJB) pluton in eastern California is surrounded by a ~1.3 km wide intensely deformed concordant aureole of metasedimentary rocks. South of the pluton, the Harkless Quartzite can be mapped from where it is located outside the aureole, with its regional strike through the transition into the aureole and concordancy with the pluton. The transition into concordancy, which is fairly abrupt, occurs over a distance of less than 100 m. Across this transition the bedding rotates close to 90° to become subvertical. Here the metasedimentary formations in the aureole have undergone 65% shortening. A suite of Harkless Quartzite samples was collected starting at 2.3 km south of the pluton, across the transition into concordancy at 1.3 km, and to within 450m from the pluton contact. Microstructurally, the transition is defined by changes in the dominant recrystallization mechanisms. At 2.3 km from the pluton, subgrain rotation recrystallization (SGR) plus grain boundary migration (GBM) operate together and many sedimentary grains (rounded grain boundaries) exist. As the pluton is approached, SGR decreases, GBM increases, and rounded grain boundaries slowly disappear. The abrupt transition into concordancy is marked by the final disappearance of SGR and rounded grain boundaries and extensive GBM. The transition is not completely smooth, and other variables such as pinning and amount of fluid inclusions seem to have a strong local affect on the dominant recrystallization mechanism. We suspect that the onset of extensive GBM allows for the diffusion of water into the crystal lattice which results in the drastic weakening and rotation of metasedimentary formations into concordancy.

  13. Proyecto de bibliobús para el departamento de Salto: una realidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Lluveras

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan las características principales del Servicio de Bibliobús inaugurado el 16 de setiembre de 1996 en el Depto. de Salto y se transcribe el texto de su reglamento. Este servicio ha sido pensado para cubrir las necesidades bibliotecológicas de una población potencialmente lectora, ayudando a crear y fomentar el hábito de lectura en barrios alejados del centro de la ciudad.

  14. Análisis de salto vertical repetido en jugadores de baloncesto

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    Raúl Josué Nájera Longoria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de analizar los cambios de la fuerza máxima explosiva en relación a la ejecución de series de salto vertical repetido (SVR con periodos cortos de recuperación pasiva en jugadores de baloncesto, se evaluaron 12 deportistas en un protocolo de cuatro series (S de 15-s de saltos verticales con 10-s de recuperación entre S. Se midieron la altura de salto inicial (ASI y final (ASF de cada S; se utilizó ANOVA de una vía con post hoc de Bonferroni para el análisis de las diferencias ASF-ASI por S y una prueba t de Student para analizar el índice de fatiga (IF por serie. Se encontró que la diferencia ASF-ASI fue progresivamente incremental desde la S1 hasta la S4 (-2,8 ±6,2 cm, -6,8 ±4,9 cm, -8,4 ±5,6 cm y -9,3 ±5,9 cm, respectivamente, aunque la diferencia fue mayor solo en S4 con respecto a S1 (p=0,014. Es posible que los períodos de recuperación entre cada S influyeron en el mantenimiento de la fuerza muscular explosiva (FME durante los primeros 45-s de saltos, sin embargo, la suma de estas ejecuciones generó un aumento de la fatiga al final de la prueba. La FME puede ser afectada por la suma de ejecuciones de SVR aun con la inclusión de períodos cortos de recuperación entre series. La relación trabajo-recuperación en baloncesto es un factor que debe considerarse para planificar el entrenamiento en jugadores de baloncesto.

  15. Improved dengue fever prevention through innovative intervention methods in the city of Salto, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, César; García da Rosa, Elsa; Romero, Sonnia; González, Cristina; Lairihoy, Rosario; Roche, Ingrid; Caffera, Ruben M; da Rosa, Ricardo; Calfani, Marisel; Alfonso-Sierra, Eduardo; Petzold, Max; Kroeger, Axel; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2015-02-01

    Uruguay is located at the southern border of Aedes aegypti distribution on the South American sub-continent. The reported dengue cases in the country are all imported from surrounding countries. One of the cities at higher risk of local dengue transmission is Salto, a border city with heavy traffic from dengue endemic areas. We completed an intervention study using a cluster randomized trial design in 20 randomly selected 'clusters' in Salto. The clusters were located in neighborhoods of differing geography and economic, cultural and social aspects. Entomological surveys were carried out to measure the impact of the intervention on vector densities. Through participatory processes of all stakeholders, an appropriate ecosystem management intervention was defined. Residents collected the abundant small water holding containers and the Ministry of Public Health and the Municipality of Salto were responsible for collecting and eliminating them. Additional vector breeding places were large water tanks; they were either altered so that they could not hold water any more or covered so that oviposition by mosquitoes could not take place. The response from the community and national programme managers was encouraging. The intervention evidenced opportunities for cost savings and reducing dengue vector densities (although not to statistically significant levels). The observed low vector density limits the potential reduction due to the intervention. A larger sample size is needed to obtain a statistically significant difference. © The author 2015. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  16. Magnetic fabrics in sub-caldera plutons recording magma ascent and fault-caldera interactions, the Etiavnica volcano-plutonic complex, Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomek, Filip; Žák, Jiří

    2013-04-01

    The Štiavnica volcano-plutonic complex in the Western Carpatians exposes a spectacular section through middle Miocene stratovolcano (50 km in diameter) built on Variscan basement and late Paleozoic to Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The stratovolcano consists of early andesite lava flows, extrusive domes, and pyroclastic flow deposits intruded by andesite and andesite porphyry sills and laccoliths. At around 14.5-15.5 Ma, the pre-volcanic basement beneath the central portion of the stratovolcano was intruded by a diorite stock and a voluminous bell-jar granodiorite pluton followed by quartz diorite to granodiorite porphyry dikes and stocks. The pluton emplacement led to the development of a 20 km wide collapse caldera associated with late andesite and dacite extrusive domes, dome flows, pyroclastic deposits, and quartz-diorite porphyry dikes and sills. Subsequently, the central domain underwent resurgence accompanied by intrusion of small rhyolitic and granite porphyry bodies. The present-day exposure with significant vertical relief cuts through all these units including the sub-caldera plutons and their flat roof which represents the volcano basement. The sub-caldera plutons exhibit contrasting magnetic fabrics as revealed by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). The diorite is characterized by very low degree of magnetic anisotropy (less than 10 %) and both prolate and oblate AMS ellipsoids. Magnetic foliations are mostly sub-parallel to the nearby pluton roof margin and are associated with steep lineations. In contrast, the younger granodiorite shows slightly higher degree of magnetic anisotropy (up to 12 %) and chiefly oblate susceptibility ellipsoids for the same magnetic mineralogy (both plutons are ferromagnetic, with the AMS carried predominantly by magnetite). Unlike fabric in the diorite, magnetic foliations are homogeneously oriented and dip moderately to the W to WNW whereas magnetic lineations vary from down-dip to subhorizontal. We interpret

  17. Efeito de diferentes durações do alongamento no desempenho de saltos unipodais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Marchetti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A prática de exercícios de alongamento é muito comum como parte do aquecimento em diversas modalidades esportivas, porém, esta prática pode ser negativa para aqueles que desejam o aprimoramento da força e potência muscular, consequentemente, o rendimento dos saltos pode ficar reduzido após exercícios de alongamento, que depende do tempo de duração e intensidade do mesmo. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do tempo de permanência no exercício alongamento sobre o desempenho do drop jump unilateralmente (unipodal. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta por 16 adultos jovens hígidos, com larga experiência em saltos. O protocolo de teste consistiu em realizar três drop jumps unipodais máximos a partir de uma plataforma de 15 cm sobre um tapete de salto (Hidrofit(r, antes e após duas durações (i.e. uma série 3 min. de um lado, e 6 min. para outro, a escolha foi de forma aleatória de alongamento dos músculos tríceps sural, utilizando uma intensidade entre 70-90% da percepção subjetiva de desconforto. A análise de variância ANOVA (2x2 foi utilizada para verificar diferenças para a altura de salto, tempo de contato e flexibilidade, utilizando um nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Apresentaram diferenças significativas entre condições pré e pós-alongamento para as durações de 3 e 6 minutos (P=0,002 e P=0,001, respectivamente, com a diminuição na altura máxima do salto. O tempo de contato foi maior apenas para a duração de 6 minutos (P=0,039. CONCLUSÃO: A realização de exercícios de alongamento do músculo tríceps sural por 3 ou 6 minutos de duração resulta na queda do desempenho do drop jump unipodal, diminuição da altura do salto vertical (para 3 e 6 min. de duração e tempo de contato (apenas 6' min., reforçando a necessidade de mais debates na área sobre exercícios de alongamento antes daqueles de potência.

  18. Repercussões do uso do calçado de salto alto na postura corporal de adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anniele Martins Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar estudos referentes às repercussões do uso de calçado com salto alto na postura corporal de adolescentes. FONTES DE DADOS: Pesquisa realizada nas bases de dados Scopus, SciELO e PubMed entre 1980 e 2011, incluindo artigos escritos em inglês e português. Foram utilizados os descritores: "postura", "centro de gravidade" e "calçado de salto alto". Foram encontrados 55 artigos, independentemente do desenho do estudo, incluindo-se 20 relacionados à postura da coluna vertebral e membros inferiores, à localização do centro de gravidade e às repercussões do uso do calçado de salto alto no sistema musculoesquelético em adolescentes. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O uso frequente do calçado de salto alto acarreta modificação do centro de gravidade e do equilíbrio corporal, podendo ocasionar mudança no alinhamento dos segmentos corporais. Isso traz repercussões negativas ao desenvolvimento motor das adolescentes, pois nessa fase há a necessidade de manutenção da postura fisiológica para que ocorra o crescimento e o desenvolvimento do sistema musculoesquelético. CONCLUSÕES: O uso do calçado de salto alto por adolescentes pode favorecer o aparecimento de distúrbios posturais, dentre os quais se destacam anteriorização da cabeça, hiperlordose lombar, anteversão pélvica e joelho em valgo. Identificou-se que a altura e a largura do salto são as características do calçado que mais influenciam no surgimento de alterações posturais e desequilíbrio corporal.

  19. Percentiles de salto con contramovimiento en escolares de Bogotá, Colombia: Estudio FUPRECOL

    OpenAIRE

    Ferro Vargas, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la distribución por percentiles de salto con contramovimiento (CMJ) en una población escolar de Bogotá, Colombia, perteneciente al estudio Fuprecol. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado entre 2846 niños y 2754 adolescentes, entre 9 a 17 años de edad, pertenecientes a 18 instituciones educativas oficiales de Bogotá, Colombia. Se evaluó el CMJ, de acuerdo, con lo establecido por la batería de condición física, Fuprecol. Se calcularon, los percentiles (P3, P...

  20. Efeito do treinamento sobre a cinemática de equinos no salto de obstáculos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Schlup

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do treinamento sobre as variáveis da cinemática de equinos jovens da raça Brasileiro de Hipismo no salto em liberdade. Foram utilizados 14 equinos da raça Brasileiro de Hipismo com idade de 40 a 42 meses, peso vivo de 436,3±11,6kg e 448,2±12,7kg e altura na cernelha de 1,57±0,03m e 1,58±0,03m ao início e ao final do experimento, respectivamente. Os equinos realizaram dois protocolos de avaliação de salto, um antes e outro após o treinamento. O treinamento teve a duração de cinco meses e consistiu em 50 minutos de atividade física por dia, montados, sendo dois dias de flexionamento, dois dias de condicionamento físico e dois dias de trabalho específico de salto de obstáculos. Nos protocolos de avaliação, foram filmados cinco saltos em liberdade sobre um obstáculo oxer, com o primeiro e o segundo elemento na altura de 0,90m e 1,00m de altura, respectivamente, e 0,90m de largura. Foram fixados marcadores reflexivos nos equinos em pontos anatômicos utilizados como pontos de referência para a avaliação das características cinemáticas no salto. As filmagens foram realizadas com câmera de 100Hz, e as imagens, processadas no Simi Reality Motion Systems (r. Os resultados das variáveis avaliadas foram comparados com o teste de t pareado (P0,05. Conclui-se que o treinamento específico para salto com cinco meses de duração altera algumas variáveis cinemáticas dos equinos no salto de obstáculo proporcionando melhoria, principalmente, na trajetória do salto.

  1. The application of mathematical transformation in order to define edges of pluton Valja Strž

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Snežana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Timok Magmatic Complex (TMC belongs to the East Serbian and is the largest volcanic area in our country. The largest pluton in this area is Valja Strž. This pluton is situated in the northwestern part of the complex. Applying different methods of mathematical transformation on aeromagnetic data facilitated outlining of pluton edges in subsurface of surrounding rocks. In this paper we used mathematical transformation on anomaly values of the magnetic field, obtained from processing of aeromagnetic data. In order to detect the edges of pluton Valja Strž we used following set of mathematical transformation: first vertical derivative, the total horizontal derivative, tilt derivative, upward continuation, and combination of upward continuation and tilt derivative. Results of application of mathematical transformation showed that outspread of the pluton Valja Strž in the subsurface is larger than its extend on the surface.

  2. Evidence of recent plutonic magmatism beneath Northeast Peloponnesus (Greece) and its relationship to regional tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanis, A.; Efstathiou, A.; Chailas, S.; Stamatakis, M.

    2018-03-01

    This work reports evidence of recent tectonically controlled plutonic magmatism related to Neogene volcanism in a broad area of Northeast Peloponnesus (Greece) that is straddled by the Hellenic Volcanic Arc and comprises the Argolid, the Argolic and Saronic gulfs and eastern Corinthia including the province of Crommyonia at the western half of Megaris peninsula (western Attica). We assess the contemporary stress field based on formal inversion of well-constrained crustal earthquake focal mechanisms and determine that it is principally extensional and NE-SW oriented, with σ1 strike and plunge being N64° and 77°, respectively and σ3 strikes and plunge N210° and 10°. This generates WNW-ESE and NW-SE faults, the former being dominant in the Saronic Gulf and the latter in the Argolic. In addition, the analysis predicts E-W and N330° faults with non-trivial right- and left-lateral heave, respectively, which are consistent with the R and R΄ directions of Riedel shear theory and explain a number of observed earthquake focal mechanisms and earthquake epicentre alignments. We also present a semi-quantitative analysis of observed aeromagnetic anomalies by performing numerical modelling of the radially averaged power spectrum with an efficient anomaly separation scheme based on a new type of 2-D Fourier domain filter introduced herein, the Radial Extended Meyer Window. This analysis identifies an extensive complex of magnetized rock formations buried at depths greater than 3 km which, given the geology and geotectonic setting of the area, can hardly be explained with anything other than calc-alkaline intrusions (plutons). At northeastern Corinthia and Crommyonia, this type of intrusive activity is unexceptional, mainly concentrated in the Gulf of Megara-Sousaki areas and consistent with the low-intensity, small-scale Pliocene dacitic volcanism observed therein. Conversely, large-scale elongate anomalies of E-W and N330° orientation have been identified in the Argolid

  3. Petrology of the shoshonitic Çambaşı pluton in NE Turkey and implications for the closure of the Neo-Tethys Ocean: Insights from geochemistry, geochronology and Sr-Nd isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdamar, Şenel; Roden, Michael F.; Billor, Mehmet Z.

    2017-07-01

    The Eastern Pontide Orogenic Belt (EPOB) is one of the well-preserved continental magmatic arcs in the Alpine-Himalayan Belt and consists of Paleozoic to Miocene plutonic bodies. This paper presents new geological, bulk-rock major and trace element analyses, biotite Ar-Ar ages and Sr-Nd isotope data on representative samples from the Çambaşı granitic body exposed in the northwestern part of the EPOB. Although the majority of the plutons in the EPOB show calc-alkaline affinity and I-type character, the Çambaşı pluton has a shoshonitic affinity and an I-type, metaluminous signature. The pluton is composed of mainly monzonite, quartz monzonite and granite bodies including monzo-dioritic mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs). Excluding the MMEs, these rocks have 57.7-70.2 wt.% SiO2, 13.1-17.5 wt.% Al2O3, 3.06-3.64 wt.% Na2O, 3.66-5.92 wt.% K2O, 0.33-3.3 wt.% MgO and Mg# Neo-Tethys Ocean in Lutetian time on the northern margin of Gondwanaland.

  4. Efectos de saltos inesperados en el gasto público y variables demográficas en el crecimiento económico. El caso mexicano con un enfoque GARCH con saltos (1936-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Estrella Castillo-Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo desarrolla un modelo estocástico macroeconómico útil para explicar los efectos que tienen los saltos inesperados en el gasto de gobierno per cápita y en variables demográficas en el crecimiento económico per cápita. Para ello se supone que las dinámicas estocásticas del gasto público y de la población son conducidas por procesos de difusión con saltos modulados por una cadena de Markov. Los resultados más importantes son que los saltos bruscos e inesperados en el gasto público per cápita y en el crecimiento de la población impactan negativamente la tasa de crecimiento per cápita del producto. En particular, si hay un salto brusco y repentino en la tasa de crecimiento de la población, entonces el capital per cápita disminuye repentinamente impactando con ello negativamente el producto per cá- pita. Por último, los resultados teóricos encontrados se complementan con eviden- cia empírica del caso mexicano obtenida mediante un modelo que toma en cuenta tanto la volatilidad de las tasas de crecimiento de la población y del gasto público per cápita así como las sorpresas en la intensidad de los saltos en esas variables.

  5. Kuldne Salto: Ralf Lõoke, Maarja Kask ja Karli Luik / Ralf Lõoke, Maarja Kask, Karli Luik ; intervjueerinud Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõoke, Ralf, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    Arhitektuurivõistlustel edukalt esinenud büroo Salto arhitektid buumiajast, kui tööd oli meeletult palju, tööde skaalast, reisimisest, oma tööst ja meeskonnatööst, konkurssidel osalemisest, projektist "Gaasitoru", Tallinnast, unistuste kodust. Konkursivõite 2004-2009

  6. Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area, northern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulow, Matthew J.; Hanson, Richard E.; Girty, Gary H.; Girty, Melissa S.; Harwood, David S.

    1998-01-01

    The northernmost occurrences of extensive, glaciated exposures of the Sierra Nevada batholith occur in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area of the northern Sierra Nevada. The plutonic rocks in this area, which are termed here the Castle Valley plutonic assemblage, crop out over an area of 225 km2 and for the most part are shown as a single undifferentiated mass on previously published geological maps. In the present work, the plutonic assemblage is divided into eight separate intrusive units or lithodemes, two of which each consist of two separate plutons. Compositions are dominantly granodiorite and tonalite, but diorite and granite form small plutons in places. Spectacular examples of comb layering and orbicular texture occur in the diorites. U-Pb zircon ages have been obtained for all but one of the main units and range from ~120 to 114 Ma, indicating that the entire assemblage was emplaced in a narrow time frame in the Early Cretaceous. This is consistent with abundant field evidence that many of the individual phases were intruded penecontemporaneously. The timing of emplacement correlates with onset of major Cretaceous plutonism in the main part of the Sierra Nevada batholith farther south. The emplacement ages also are similar to isotopic ages for gold-quartz mineralization in the Sierran foothills west of the study area, suggesting a direct genetic relationship between the voluminous Early Cretaceous plutonism and hydrothermal gold mineralization.

  7. Origen y evoluci??n de las actividades de ca??da. Paracaidismo y Salto Base = Origin and evolution of the activities fall. Skydiving and Base Jumping

    OpenAIRE

    Llama Abascal, Iv??n

    2016-01-01

    La evoluci??n de las actividades de ca??da desde los primeros momentos hasta hoy en d??a ha sido muy grande. Desde los primeros modelos de Leonardo Da Vinci cuyo objetivo era simplemente sobrevivir al salto, hasta los modelos comerciales actuales, que nos permiten no solo realizar el salto, sino hacerlo con total seguridad y experimentar sensaciones ??nicas, han permitido el nacimiento de una cultura por los deportes a??reos en los que se incluyen tanto el paracaidismo como el salto base. ...

  8. INFLUÊNCIA DOS SALTOS VERTICAIS NA PERCEPÇÃO DA CARGA INTERNA DE TREINAMENTO NO VOLEIBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Andrade Goulart Horta

    Full Text Available RESUMO Introdução: No voleibol, o salto vertical é considerado um elemento de extrema importância no treinamento, pois é necessário durante as ações de levantamento, saque, bloqueio e ataque, condicionando a obtenção de importantes vantagens nas ações ofensivas (ataque e defensivas (bloqueio, elementos fundamentais para a conquista dos pontos no jogo. Objetivo: Analisar a influência do salto vertical na quantificação da carga de treinamento no voleibol por meio do método da percepção subjetiva do esforço (PSE da sessão. Métodos: Participaram do estudo 15 atletas do sexo masculino de uma equipe de voleibol. Foi realizada a quantificação dos saltos e da PSE de 30 sessões de treinamento. Resultados: Na análise por posição, a PSE apresentou correlação positiva com o número de saltos e se mostrou mais forte nos opostos (r = 0,44; p = 0,001; n = 57, seguida pelos ponteiros (r = 0,34; p < 0,001; n = 109 e centrais (r = 0,18; p = 0,03; n = 141. Conclusão: Conclui-se que o salto vertical de ataque exerce maior influência no valor final de PSE apontado pelos atletas nas sessões de treinamento.

  9. Bedrock geologic map of the Knox Mountain pluton area, Marshfield and Peacham, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital Data from VG08-3 Kim, J., Charnock, R., Chow, D. and Springston, G., 2008, Bedrock geologic map of the Knox Mountain pluton area, Marshfield and Peacham,...

  10. Tertiary plutonic rocks of southern Serbia Vardar Zone as dimension stone

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    Kurešević Lidja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three granitoid plutons of south-Serbian part of the Vardar Zone, of Tertiary age were studied in order to establish their potential for utilization as dimension stone. These rocks vary in composition from quartzmonconite to quartzdiorite. Field study aimed at establishing the geological factors - presence of fractures, harmful minerals, alterations, jointing type and fabric homogeneity in order to determine the possibility of obtaining large size blocks of stone from the plutons. Laboratory examinations comprised petrological analyses and testing of technical properties. Stone from these plutons has shown favourable results in both field and laboratory examinations. Evaluation of the rock based on obtained laboratory testing results is performed according to technical requirements of the Serbian standard B.B3.200. It has shown that rocks from these plutons can be used as dimension stone for the production of slabs for the exterior and interior paving and cladding. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI176016

  11. "A un salto por donde se despena el arroyo de chillo" o la concepcion estetica del paisaje americano como medio aleccionador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ochoa Roa, Ana Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Este articulo propone un examen del romance "A un salto por donde se despena el arroyo de Chillo", propuesta estetica de Hernando Dominguez Camargo, como parte de la concepcion de este poeta criollo...

  12. Petrological imaging of an active pluton beneath Cerro Uturuncu, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Duncan D.; Blundy, Jon D.; Hutchinson, Michael C.; Rust, Alison C.

    2014-03-01

    Uturuncu is a dormant volcano in the Altiplano of SW Bolivia. A present day ~70 km diameter interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) anomaly roughly centred on Uturuncu's edifice is believed to be a result of magma intrusion into an active crustal pluton. Past activity at the volcano, spanning 0.89 to 0.27 Ma, is exclusively effusive and almost all lavas and domes are dacitic with phenocrysts of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, biotite, ilmenite and Ti-magnetite plus or minus quartz, and microlites of plagioclase and orthopyroxene set in rhyolitic groundmass glass. Plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions (MI) are rhyolitic with major element compositions that are similar to groundmass glasses. H2O concentrations plotted versus incompatible elements for individual samples describe a trend typical of near-isobaric, volatile-saturated crystallisation. At 870 °C, the average magma temperature calculated from Fe-Ti oxides, the average H2O of 3.2 ± 0.7 wt% and CO2 typically biotite phenocrysts and apatite microlites. That Fe-Ti oxide temperatures vary by ~50-100 °C in a single thin section indicates that magmas were not homogenised effectively prior to eruption. Phenocryst contents do not correlate with calculated magmatic temperatures, consistent with crystal entrainment from the mush during magma ascent and eruption. Microlites grew during ascent from the magma storage region. Variability in the proportion of microlites is attributed to differing ascent and effusion rates with faster rates in general for lavas >0.5 Ma compared to those mineral compositions, and the presence of mafic enclaves in lavas demonstrate that intrusion of more mafic magmas into the evolving, shallow plutonic mush also occurred further amplifying local temperature fluctuations. Crystallisation and resorption of accessory phases, particularly ilmenite and apatite, can be detected in MI and groundmass glass trace element covariation trends, which are oblique to WRs. Marked variability of Ba, Sr

  13. Diferencias entre jugadores de fútbol de distintas edades en la capacidad de aceleración, cambio de dirección y salto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los principales objetivos de este estudio fueron ana- lizar la capacidad de aceleración, capacidad de cambio de dirección (CODA, salto vertical (VJ y salto horizontal (HJ en futbolistas cadetes y juveniles y determinar las diferencias en estas cualidades en función de la catego- ría. La muestra total ( n = 34 fue dividida en dos grupos, atendiendo a la categoría en la que competían. El grupo 1 (CAD, n = 17 competía en la Liga Vasca Cadete (15.12 ± 0.70 años, mientras que el grupo 2 (JUV, n = 17 lo hacía en la Liga Nacional Juvenil (16.94 ± 0.90 años. En el presente estudio se encontraron diferencias signifi- cativas entre categorías (cadete y juvenil en la capaci- dad de aceleración ( p 0.05, d = 0.3, bajo. Con respecto a la capacidad de salto, los jugado- res juveniles obtuvieron una mayor capacidad de salto horizontal ( p 0.8, alto. Sin embargo, estas diferencias no se observaron en todos los tipos de salto vertical. En el test de salto vertical sin contra movimien- to (VSJ los resultados fueron similares (p > 0.05, d = 0.3, bajo entre jugadores de distintas edades. Sin embargo, se obtuvieron diferencias significativas en el IE ( p 0.05, d = 0.6 y en el VCMJAS ( p > 0.05, d = 0.9. Atendiendo a estos resultados podría ser inte- resante utilizar los test de aceleración, salto vertical con ciclo estiramiento-acortamiento y salto horizontal para analizar el rendimiento en jóvenes futbolistas.

  14. O efeito do “FIFA 11+” na performance de saltos verticais em atletas de futebol

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    José Raphael Leandro Costa Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n6p733   O objetivo do estudo foi verificar o efeito do treinamento de nove semanas de um programa de aquecimento “FIFA 11+” na performance de saltos verticais (SV de jogadores de futebol. Participaram do estudo 20 atletas da categoria sub-20 de uma equipe da série A do campeonato brasileiro (idade: 18,3 ± 1,6 anos; tempo de prática 8,2 ± 1,3 anos; massa corporal de 74,0 ± 7,1 kg; estatura 177,8 ± 6,5 cm e percentual de gordura 10,7 ± 1,9 %, separados em grupo intervenção (G11+; n=10 e grupo controle (GC; n=10. Os Atletas foram avaliados antes (Pré e após (Pós a intervenção por meio dos saltos Countermoviment Jump (CMJ e Squat Jump (SJ, realizados em uma plataforma de força, sendo os valores máximos da altura dos saltos adotados para análise. Foi realizada uma ANOVA modelo-misto para verificar os possíveis efeitos tempo x grupo. Nível de significância adotado de p < 0,05. Ambos os grupos foram submetidos à mesma rotina de treinamento (físico, técnico e tático, diferindo apenas o aquecimento proposto, que foi realizado três vezes por semana para o G11+. O GC não apresentou alteração significativa na performance dos saltos, porém o G11+ apresentou melhora significativa para ambos os tipos de saltos (CMJ: F= 26,23, p<0,01; %mudança= 11,3; SJ: F= 23,16, p<0,01, %mudança= 9,8. Desta forma, as nove semanas de intervenção com o programa de aquecimento “FIFA 11+” na rotina de treinamento promoveu um aumento significativo no desempenho dos saltos.

  15. The Hydrogeochemistry Of Fractured Plutonic Rocks In The Canadian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoyne, M.; Kamineni, D. C.

    1994-02-01

    The composition of groundwater has been determined in selected granitic, gabbroic and gneissic plutons in the Canadian Shield as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. A similar geochemical evolution of the groundwater is seen with increasing depth or with flow along the hydraulic gradient, irrespective of rock type. This pattern is comparable to that seen in mine groundwaters from throughout the Canadian Shield. Near-surface groundwaters are typically dilute, slightly alkaline and Ca-(Na)-HCO3 in composition. They evolve to higher pH, Na-(Ca)-HCO3 compositions along the flow path because of interaction with plagioclase, calcite precipitation and ion exchange on clay minerals. At greater depths (>≈200 m), groundwater salinity increases as a result of the dissolution of Cl-rich salts in the rock matrix and, in certain areas, mixing with Na-Cl brines from seawater or basinal formation water. Stable and radioactive isotopic data for the groundwaters help to interpret these characteristics and indicate high residence times for the deeper, saline groundwater.

  16. Relaciones entre el salto vertical y la velocidad de mae-geri en karatecas de nivel internacional, especialidad kata

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    Víctor Martínez-Majolero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo persiguió dos objetivos: (1 describir la capacidad de salto vertical y la velocidad y el tiempo de ejecución de la técnica de pierna frontal mae-geri en karatecas de nivel internacional y (2 analizar el grado de covariación entre dichas variables. Los participantes fueron 13 karatecas españoles masculinos de nivel internacional, estilo shito-ryu y especialidad de katas. El estudio siguió un diseño descriptivo y correlacional. Las variables analizadas fueron: salto vertical CMJ, medido con una plataforma de infrarrojos Optojump, y velocidad y tiempo de ejecución de patada mae-geri, medida con una cámara de alta velocidad (Casio EXFC-100. Los datos registrados fueron: altura media de salto de 48,7 ± 0,12 cm; velocidad media de mae-geri de 19,8 ± 1,9 km/h y de 19,6 ± 1,4 km/h, y tiempo de ejecución de dicha patada de 264,85 ± 28,14 ms y de 274,69 ± 18,4 ms, pierna dominante y no dominante respectivamente. Las intensidades de correlación se situaron entre r = 0,72 y r = –0,80. El salto vertical mantuvo una relación alta y estadísticamente significativa con la velocidad y el tiempo de ejecución de la patada mae-geri, técnica de gran importancia en las katas de competición en karate. Esta información puede ser valiosa tanto para planificar el entrenamiento mediante pruebas simples y de bajo coste como para detectar talentos.

  17. Remarkable isotopic and trace element trends in potassic through sodic Cretaceous plutons of the Yukon-Koyukuk Basin, Alaska, and the nature of the lithosphere beneath the Koyukuk terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arth, Joseph G.; Criss, Robert E.; Zmuda, Clara C.; Foley, Nora K.; Patton, W.W.; Miller, T.P.

    1989-01-01

    During the period from 110 to 80 m.y. ago, a 450-km-long magmatic belt was active along the northern margin of Yukon-Koyukuk basin and on eastern Seward Peninsula. The plutons intruded Upper Jurassic(?) and Lower Cretaceous volcanic arc rocks and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks in Yukon-Koyukuk basin and Proterozoic and lower Paleozoic continental rocks in Seward Peninsula. Within Yukon-Koyukuk basin, the plutons vary in composition from calc-alkalic plutons on the east to potassic and ultrapotassic alkalic plutons on the west. Plutons within Yukon-Koyukuk basin were analyzed for trace element and isotopic compositions in order to discern their origin and the nature of the underling lithosphere. Farthest to the east, the calc-alkalic rocks of Indian Mountain pluton are largely tonalite and sodic granodiorite, and have low Rb (average 82 ppm), high Sr (>600 ppm), high chondrite-normalized (cn) Ce/Yb (16–37), low δ18O (+6.5 to +7.1), low initial 87Sr/86Sr (SIR) (0.704), and high initial 143Nd/144Nd (NIR) (0.5126). These rocks resemble those modelled elsewhere as partial melts and subsequent fractionates of basaltic or gabbroic metaigneous rocks, and may be products of melting in the deeper parts of the Late Jurassic(?) and Early Cretaceous volcanic arc. Farthest to the west, the two ultrapotassic bodies of Selawik and Inland Lake are high in Cs (up to 93 ppm), Rb (up to 997 ppm), Sr, Ba, Th, and light rare earth elements, have high (Ce/Yb)cn (30, 27), moderate to low δ18O (+8.4, +6.9), high SIR (0.712, 0.710), and moderate NIR (0.5121–0.5122). These rocks resemble rocks of Australia and elsewhere that were modelled as melts of continental mantle that had been previously enriched in large cations. This mantle may be Paleozoic or older. The farthest west alkalic pluton of Selawik Hills is largely monzonite, quartz monzonite, and granite; has moderate Rb (average 284 ppm), high Sr (>600 ppm), high (Ce/Yb)cn (15–25), moderate δ18O (+8.3 to +8.6), high SIR (0.708

  18. Geochemistry and isotopic signatures of Paleogene plutonic and detrital rocks of the Northern Andes of Colombia: A record of post-collisional arc magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Camilo; Cardona, Agustín; Archanjo, Carlos J.; Bayona, Germán; Lara, Mario; Valencia, Victor

    2017-04-01

    Between the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene, the Northern Andes experienced subduction and collision due to the convergence between the oceanic Caribbean Plate and the continental margin of Ecuador and Colombia. Subduction-related calc-alkaline plutonic rocks form stocks of limited areal expression or local batholiths that consist mostly of diorites and granodiorites. We investigated two stocks (Hatillo and Bosque) exposed in the Central Cordillera of Colombia that had U-Pb zircon crystallization ages between 60 and 53 Ma. Relatively low radiogenic Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes from selected samples account for a heterogeneous crustal source, whereas negative anomalies of Nb and Ti, high LREE/HREE and Sr/Y > 28 ratios indicate that the magmas were emplaced in a continental magmatic arc setting. ƐHf(i) values of the dated zircons were between - 4 and + 7 and suggest some contamination of the magmas during their ascent through the crust. The high Sr/Y ratios recorded both in the investigated plutons as well as in other Paleogene plutons in the Central Cordillera suggest that the magmas differentiate in high-pressure conditions (garnet stability field). This differentiation probably occurred at the base of a thickened crust through the Mesozoic subduction and accretion of oceanic arcs to the continental margin during the Lower Cretaceous and Paleocene. The existence of other Paleogene granitoids with evidence of shallower differentiation signatures may be also an inheritance of along strike variations in the Northern Andean continental crust due to Cretaceous to Paleogene oblique convergence. The Hf isotope results from Paleogene detrital zircons from volcanoclastic rocks of the eastern Colombian basins reinforce the possibility of a distal magmatic focus.

  19. Mesozoic thermal history and timing of structural events for the Yukon-Tanana Upland, east-central Alaska: 40Ar/39Ar data from metamorphic and plutonic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; Lanphere, M.A.; Sharp, W.D.; Layer, P.W.; Hansen, V.L.

    2002-01-01

    We present new 40Ar/39Ar ages for hornblende, muscovite, and biotite from metamorphic and plutonic rocks from the Yukon-Tanana Upland, Alaska. Integration of our data with published 40Ar/39Ar, kinematic, and metamorphic pressure (P) and temperature (T) data confirms and refines the complex interaction of metamorphism and tectonism proposed for the region. The oldest metamorphic episode(s) postdates Middle Permian magmatism and predates the intrusion of Late Triassic (215-212 Ma) granitoids into the Fortymile River assemblage (Taylor Mountain assemblage of previous papers). In the eastern Eagle quadrangle, rapid and widespread Early Jurassic cooling is indicated by ???188-186 Ma 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages for hornblende from plutons that intrude the Fortymile River assemblage, and for metamorphic minerals from the Fortymile River assemblage and the structurally underlying Nasina assemblage. We interpret these Early Jurassic ages to represent cooling resulting from northwest-directed contraction that emplaced the Fortymile River assemblage onto the Nasina assemblage to the north as well as the Lake George assemblage to the south. This cooling was the final stage of a continuum of subduction-related contraction that produced crustal thickening, intermediate- to high-P metamorphism within both the Fortymile River assemblage and the structurally underlying Lake George assemblage, and Late Triassic and Early Jurassic plutonism in the Fortymile River and Nasina assemblages. Although a few metamorphic samples from the Lake George assemblage yield Jurassic 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages, most yield Early Cretaceous 40Ar/39Ar ages: hornblende ???135-115 Ma, and muscovite and biotite ???110-108 Ma. We interpret the Early Cretaceous metamorphic cooling, in most areas, to have resulted from regional extension and exhumation of the lower plate, previously tectonically thickened during Early Jurassic and older convergence.

  20. Unusual transition in quartzite dislocation creep regimes and crystal slip systems in the aureole of the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek pluton, California: a case for anhydrous conditions created by decarbonation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sven S.; Law, Richard D.

    2004-06-01

    Microstructures and quartz c-axis fabrics were analyzed in five quartzite samples collected across the eastern aureole of the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek composite pluton. Temperatures of deformation are estimated to be 740±50 °C based on a modified c-axis opening angle thermometer of Kruhl (J. Metamorph. Geol. 16 (1998) 142). In quartzite layers located closest (140 m) to the pluton-wall rock contact, flattened detrital grains are plastically deformed and partially recrystallized. The dominant recrystallization process is subgrain rotation (dislocation creep regime 2 of Hirth and Tullis (J. Struct. Geol. 14 (1992) 145)), although grain boundary migration (dislocation creep regime 3) is also evident. Complete recrystallization occurs in quartzite layers located at a distance of ˜240 m from the contact, and coincides with recrystallization taking place dominantly through grain boundary migration (regime 3). Within the quartzites, strain is calculated to be lowest in the layers closest to the pluton margin based on the aspect ratios of flattened detrital grains. The c-axis fabrics indicate that slip operated within the quartzites closest to the pluton-wall rock contact and that with distance from the contact the operative slip systems gradually switch to prism [ c] slip. The spatial inversion in microstructures and slip systems (apparent "high temperature" deformation and recrystallization further from the pluton-contact and apparent "low temperature" deformation and recrystallization closer to the pluton-contact) coincides with a change in minor phase mineral content of quartzite samples and also in composition of the surrounding rock units. Marble and calc-silicate assemblages dominate close to the pluton-wall rock contact, whereas mixed quartzite and pelite assemblages are dominant further from the contact. We suggest that a thick marble unit located between the pluton and the quartzite layers acted as a barrier to fluids emanating from the pluton

  1. Diferencias de género en salto de altura según categorías de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Bermejo Frutos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue determinar los parámetros biomecánicos del salto de altura en los que se producen diferencias entre saltadores y saltadoras en diferentes categorías de edad. La muestra analizada estuvo formada por 69 saltadores de élite, 37 hombres (13-15 años, n = 11; 17-18 años, n = 13, y 18-34 años, n = 13 y 32 mujeres (13-14 años, n = 11; 17-18 años, n = 9; y 15-33 años, n = 12. A través de fotogrametría 3D se analizó el mejor salto del Campeonato de España en pista cubierta 2009. Se calcularon 46 variables durante las fases de ante-salto, batida, y paso del listón. Para determinar diferencias entre géneros se aplicó la prueba t-test para muestras independientes. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que al subir de categoría de edad las diferencias entre los valores registrados por los hombres y los registrados por las mujeres aumentan. Esta diferencia se produce en mayor medida en las variables madurativas que en las antropométricas y técnicas.

  2. Relaciones entre pruebas de velocidad, tests de salto y dinamometría isométrica en velocistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sabido Solana

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de las habilidades deportivas, la capacidad de producir fuerza lo más rápidamente posible, o fuerza explosiva, juega el papel más importante en la optimización de dichas habilidades. Zatsiorsky (1995 la define como “la habilidad para desarrollar la máxima fuerza en la menor cantidad de tiempo”. Las correlaciones existentes entre pruebas de velocidad y tests de salto han sido ampliamente observadas. Sin embargo, las correlaciones entre pruebas de velocidad y tests isométricos están menos estudiadas. Una muestra de 24 velocistas de categoría junior fue sometida a pruebas de velocidad específica, tests de salto con contramovimiento y en profundidad, así como a un test isométrico máximo para la musculatura extensora del tobillo. Los resultados muestran fuertes relaciones entre los tests de carrera y los de salto, así como de estos últimos con los de dinamometría. Por otro lado, sólo con el test de 20 metros se obtienen correlaciones con variables del test isométrico, sin que se encuentren correlaciones con la marca en 100 metros lisos. La principal conclusión de nuestros datos es que las variables medidas en un test isométrico van a tener alta relación con la primera fase de la carrera en pruebas de velocidad.

  3. Late magmatic stage of the zoned Caleu pluton (Central Chile): insights from zircon crystallization conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, P. G.; Parada, M.; Gutierrez, F. J.; Chang-Qiang, M.; Jianwei, L.; Yuanyuan, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Caleu pluton consists of three N-S elongated lithological zones: Gabbro-Diorite Zone (GDZ), Tonalite Zone (TZ) and Granodiorite Zone (GZ); western, middle and eastern portions of the pluton, respectively. The zones are thought to be previously differentiated in a common, isotopically depleted (Sr-Nd), subjacent magma reservoir at a 4 kbar equivalent depth. The emplacement should have occurred at the climax of the Cretaceous rifting. We present preliminary results of U238/Pb206 zircon geochronology; zircon saturation, Tsat(Zrn), and crystallization temperatures (Ti-in-Zrn); as well as relative oxidation states at time of crystallization, based on: (i) the sluggish REE and HFSE subsolidus diffusivities in zircon; (ii) the behavior of Ti4+↔Si4+ and Ce4+↔Zr4+ isovalent replacement, in addition to a constrained TiO2 activity in almost all typical crustal rocks; and (iii) relative oxidation states at time of crystallization, respectively. The latter are obtained by interpolation of the partition coefficients of trivalent (REE) and tetravalent (HFSE) curves in Onuma diagrams for each zircon, and then estimating relative Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ratios. Results obtained from 4 samples (a total of 77 zircon grains) collected from the three mentioned lithological zones indicate U/Pb ages of approximately 99.5 ±1.5 Ma, 96.8 ±0.6 Ma, and 94.4 +2.2 -0.8 Ma; and Ti-in Zrn ranges of ca. 720-870°C, ca. 680-820°C and ca. 750-840°C, for the GDZ, TZ and GZ samples, respectively. On the other hand Tsat(Zrn) of ca. 750-780°C in the TZ, and ca. 830-890°C in the GZ, were obtained. As expected saturation temperatures are similar or higher than Ti-in-Zrn obtained in zircon grains of TZ and GZ, respectively. Cathodoluminiscence images in zircon suggest a magmatic origin, due to absence of complex zoning patterns and fairly well conserved morphologies. Exceptionally the GDZ sample zircons show evidence of inheritance, indicating a xenocrystic and/or antecrystic origin. A relative Ce

  4. Magnetic properties of ilmenite-hematite single crystals from the Ecstall pluton near Prince Rupert, British Columbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownlee, Sarah J.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Kasama, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    and hematite, the primary paleomagnetic recorder in the Ecstall pluton. Measurements of hysteresis properties, low-temperature remanence, and room temperature isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition and observations from magnetic force microscopy and off-axis electron holography indicate that samples...... fall into three groups. The groups are defined by the presence of mineral microstructures that are related to distance from the Quotoon plutonic complex. The two groups closest to the Quottoon Pluton contain magnetite within hematite and ilmenite lamellae. Reheating of the Ecstall pluton led...

  5. Immediate effect on vertical jumping ability after the completion of trampoline jumping Efecto inmediato sobre la capacidad de salto vertical después de la realización de saltos en cama elástica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fernández del Olmo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of this study was to value the immediate effect on the capacity of vertical jump, caused by the execution of continuous jumps in a trampoline. Nine subjects (23,4 ± 2.83 years, males and sportsmen with prior experience in the execution of countermovement jump (CMJ, they carried out a series of continuous vertical jumps on a trampoline during 60 seconds, being valued the capacity of jump in platform of contacts before and after this activity. The electromyographic (EMG activity was registered of five muscles of the right leg (gluteus, biceps femoris, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis and soleus in all the CMJ. The height of jump diminished significantly (p <0.01 after the execution of the jumps in the trampoline, being recovered in a brief period of time. Themselves differences were not observed in the EMG for the root mean squared (RMS or in the amplitude in none of the muscles, neither in the phase of impulse, neither in the 50 ms previous to start of the jump. In the neuromuscular pattern, in spite of the great variability existing inter and intraindividual, a significant delay was identified (p<0.05 in the activation of the biceps femoris immediately after the trampoline. Keeping in mind these results, seems probably that the smaller height of the vertical jump reached after the trampoline be more attributable to a modification in the temporary characteristics and sequence of activation of the muscles that to a decrease in the activation of the same.
    KEY WORDS: Vertical Jump, Neuromuscular pattern, Sprung surface, Electromyography.

     

    El propósito de este estudio fue valorar el efecto inmediato sobre la capacidad de salto vertical, provocado por la realización de saltos continuos en una cama elástica. Nueve sujetos (23,4 ± 2,83 años, varones y deportistas con experiencia previa en la ejecución del

  6. Short-term Clinical and Radiographic Results of the Salto Mobile Total Ankle Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dong Dong; Choi, Woo Jin; Shim, Dong Woo; Hwang, Yeokgu; Park, Yoo Jung; Lee, Jin Woo

    2017-11-01

    The mobile-bearing Salto total ankle prosthesis has been reported to have promising outcomes. However, clinical reports on this prosthesis are few, and most have been published by the inventors and disclosed consultants. We retrospectively reviewed 59 patients who received Salto prosthesis unilaterally. The average follow-up was 35.9 (range, 6-56) months. Clinical and radiologic results were evaluated. Clinical results were evaluated according to visual analog scale (VAS), American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot score, Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale (AOS) pain and disability score, and ankle range of motion (ROM) in dorsiflexion/plantarflexion. In the radiographic evaluation, we measured the tibial angle (TA), talar angle (TAL), tibial slope, and talocalcaneal angle (TCA) on weightbearing radiographs. By the last follow-up, 7 of 59 patients (11.9%) had undergone reoperation, and 3 of 59 implants (5.1%) had been removed. The prosthesis survival was 94.9% (95% CI, 89.1%-100%). With any reoperation as the endpoint of follow-up, the clinical success rate was 88.1% (95% CI, 79.4%-96.9%). The mean postoperative visual analog scale score, AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score, and Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale pain and disability score improved significantly ( P < .001). The ankle range of motion also improved from preoperative 33.4 ± 16.6 to 40.3 ± 15.5 postoperatively ( P < .001); however, there was no statistically significant change in plantarflexion ( P = .243). Radiolucent areas and osteolysis were found in 28 (47.5%) and 27 (45.8%) patients, respectively. Heterotopic ossification was observed in 13 patients (22.0%). In this series, early clinical and radiographic outcomes of this prosthesis were promising. We believe the early radiolucent lines were probably due to the gap at the implant and bone interface, and they disappeared at the time of osseous integration. However, longer follow-up is necessary to determine the long-term durability and survivorship

  7. Lateral extrusion of a thermally weakened pluton overburden (Campiglia Marittima, Tuscany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzoni, Simone; Rocchi, Sergio; Dini, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    The ascent and emplacement of magmas in the upper crust modify the local pre-existing thermal and rheological settings. Such changes have important effects in producing anomalous structures, mass extrusion, rock fracturing, and in some conditions, hydrothermal mineralizations. In the Campiglia Marittima area, detailed field mapping led to the reconstruction of a local deformation history that overlaps, chronologically and spatially, with regional extension. This local deformation was triggered at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary by the intrusion of a monzogranitic pluton beneath a carbonate sedimentary sequence. The emplacement of the pluton produced a perturbation in the rheological behaviour of the carbonate host rocks, producing transient ductile conditions in the very shallow crust. The carbonate rocks were thermally weakened and flowed laterally, accumulating downslope of the pluton roof, mainly toward the east. As the thermal anomaly was decaying, the brittle-ductile boundary moved progressively back towards the pluton, and large tension gash-shaped volumes of fractured marble were generated. These fractured volumes were exploited by rising hydrothermal fluids generating sigmoidal skarn bodies and ore shoots. This work presents the Campiglia Marittima case study as a prime example of structural interference between regional extensional structures and local, lateral mass extrusion in a transient ductile rheological regime triggered by pluton emplacement.

  8. From “this country has no solution”... to Salto a la gloria* (1959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseo Carrascal Marino

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Salto a la Gloria recounts the life of the eminent Spanish histologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal from his childhood in Petilla de Aragón (Navarra, Spain. until the awarding of the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine. Without avoiding stereotypes (the mischievous child, the absentminded scientist dedicated exclusively to science and archetypes surrounding the scientist at that time, the film moulds a biography both entertaining and decidedly close to reality. It includes moral messages specific to the historical moment in which it was filmed, and humor scenes clever not only in content, but also in their placement throughout the film. The director utilizes well-implemented sharp contrasts in order to unite the events of Cajal’s life: his rural childhood, his participation in Cuba’s war of independence or his admission into Zaragoza’s School of Medicine (Spain. From a current mentality, and in light of the true knowledge of Cajal’s life, scenes that attempt to emphasize his greatness seem comical, like the cabaret scene where the only thing that remains for him to say is “sin, sin....” In short, a good movie considering the financial resources provided and the time in which it was filmed.

  9. THE USE OF GEOTECHNOLOGY IN ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS IN SALTO VENTOSO (FARROUPILHA/RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Teixeira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the outcome of a survey on environmental impacts due to visitors in a tourist attraction, using geotechnology as a tool. The study was carried out at Salto Ventoso, Farroupilha, Rio Grande do Sul State (Brazil, a tourist attraction with major importance for the region. At the site, a private area, the attraction is a 60 meters (197 feet height cascade and its scenic landscape. Visitors can also hike through the trail that goes behind the waterfall. The trail was mapped using GPS (Global Positioning System and theodolite, and divided into twelve sections, which were evaluated on the issues of declivity, width, damage to natural resources and infrastructure, drainage problems, number of unofficial trails and amount of waste. The results showed that the site presents a series of environmental impacts resulting from both lack of planning and great amount of visitors. Some strategies for managing the site would be the installation of safety and signing infrastructure, as well as a work on environmental awareness of the visitors and their impacts on site.

  10. TIEMPOS Y RENDIMIENTOS DEL APROVECHAMIENTO FORESTAL EN EL SALTO, DURANGO, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Abel Nájera-Luna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron las operaciones de aprovechamiento forestal en cuatro ejidos de la región de El Salto, Durango, México, mediante un estudio de tiempos y movimientos para conocer la productividad operacional en los procesos de apeo o derribo manual, desrame, troceo, arrastre y carga mecanizados. Se utilizaron los cronometrajes de 704 ciclos de derribo, 900 de arrastre mecanizado y 1,294 de carga mecanizada. Los resultados indicaron que el rendimiento operacional en el ciclo de derribo es de 28.67 m3·h-1 El arrastre con grúa se estableció en 19.83 m3·h-1 y una distancia promedio de 43.13 m. El rendimiento en la carga mecanizada fue de 35.27 m3·h-1. Los rendimientos mostraron ser sensibles a las variaciones en el diámetro y el largo de los árboles y trozas, así como a las distancias encontradas en los ciclos de trabajo analizados.

  11. Granitoid emplacement during syn-convergent transtension: An example from the Huamenlou pluton in North Qinling, central China

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    Yang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Huamenlou pluton, is an elongated granite intrusion with high aspect ratio, emplaced within the southern margin of the North Qinling (central China. Here we investigate this pluton through multiple techniques including the fabric study, microstructural observation and zircon geochronology. Our zircon U–Pb data confirm that the granite crystallized at ca. 462 Ma which is consistent with the ages of other linear plutons in North Qinling. Microstructural observations of the Huamenlou granites illustrate that the pluton has undergone superimposed deformation during its emplacement, from magmatic to high-temperature solid state conditions. The internal fabric obtained by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS and shape preferred orientation (SPO show similar results. The fabrics are relatively concordant and generally vary from NE–SW to NEE–SWW which are roughly oblique to the trend of the pluton elongation and the regional structures. Meanwhile, scalar parameters reflect two completely different strain regimes for the pluton and its host rocks, i.e., the fabrics within host rocks are mainly oblate while the central part of the intrusion displays mainly prolate fabrics. It is inferred that the structural pattern recorded in this pluton was caused by local dextral transtension in consequence of oblique convergence between the South and North China Blocks. We propose that the local transtension in convergence setting probably evolved from vertical extrusion tectonics that provided room for the magma emplacement and imparted prolate fabrics in the Huamenlou pluton.

  12. Valuación de opciones arcoíris sobre canastas de activos bajo procesos de difusión con saltos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Zambrano Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia la valuación de opciones sobre el máximo o el mínimo (precio o rendimiento de 2 activos riesgosos, conocidas como opciones arcoíris. Se extiende la valuación de estos contratos al caso en que los activos presentan difusiones combinadas con saltos. Los parámetros de los procesos de saltos son estocásticos, y específicamente el tama ̃ no del salto sigue una distribución normal, lo cual hace necesario recurrir a los procesos de Lévy. Se desarrolla una metodología numérica con MATLAB para valuar una opción cesta (o canasta de venta, y un put sobre el máximo y en el mínimo de 2 activos riesgosos; los resultados se pueden extender para el caso de n activos.

  13. Emplacement and deformation of the Cerro Durazno Pluton delineates stages of the lower Paleozoic tectono-magmatic evolution in NW-Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongn, F.; Riller, U.

    2003-04-01

    Regional-scale transpression and transtension are considered to be important in the lower Paleozoic tectono-magmatic evolution of metamorphic and granitoid basement rocks of the southern central Andes. In order to test whether such kinematic changes affected Paleozoic basement rocks on the local scale, i.e. in the Eastern Cordillera of NW-Argentina, we performed a detailed field-based structural analysis of the 456 Ma granitoid Cerro Durazno pluton (CDP). The results of our analysis point to the following stages in the geodynamic evolution of this area: (1) Metamorphism and deformation of Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic basement rocks occurred at high T and low to medium P prior to emplacement of the CDP. This lead to the formation of schists and migmatites characterized by pervasive planar and linear mineral shape fabrics and the growth of andalusite, cordierite and fibrolite. (2) Magmatic foliation in the CDP is defined by the shape-preferred orientation of euhedral feldspar phenocrysts and microgranitoid enclaves. These fabrics are concordant to the NE-SW striking intrusive contact with migmatitic host rocks. The lack of submagmatic or high-T solid-state fabrics in the CDP may indicate that cooling and solidification of granitoid magma was not accompanied by regional deformation. Alternatively, emplacement of granitoid magma may have been facilitated by the creation of open space at mid-crustal level induced by regional deformation. (3) Ductile deformation under greenschist metamorphic conditions overprinted magmatic fabrics of the CDP. This is evident by NW-SE striking metamorphic foliation surfaces transecting magmatic shape fabrics at high angles. During this deformation, the pluton was thrust on a SW-dipping shear zone toward the NE over low-grade metamorphic host rocks which lead to a condensation of metamorphic isograds in the host rocks. Ages of strained pegmatitic dikes indicate that this deformation occurred at about 430 Ma. In summary, the difference in age

  14. Diferencias en Tests Isométricos de Fuerza y Tests de Salto entre Jugadores de Baloncesto Profesionales y Amateurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Díaz Hellín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo estudia las diferencias en cuanto a niveles fuerza y acciones explosivas de salto existentes entre jugadores de baloncesto profesionales y amateurs con el fin de conocer qué variables discriminan el nivel de rendimiento en la capacidad de salto. Se valoró una muestra de jugadores de baloncesto (n = 26, tanto profesionales (n = 14, como amateurs (n = 12. Se registró la producción de fuerza de manera isométrica en diferentes ángulos tanto de la musculatura flexora (90º y 170º como extensora (90º y 120º de la rodilla, mediante una célula de carga, modelo SSM-AJ-5000N. La fuerza explosiva dinámica fue valorada a través de la batería de saltos propuesta por Bosco (1983. Se han obtenido diferencias significativas entre categorías para las variables altura y potencia para distintas variables. También se encontraron diferencias en cuanto a la producción de fuerza explosiva en la musculatura extensora de la rodilla en 90º. Por otro lado, se han observado diferentes correlaciones en función de la categoría, correlacionando más las variables de tiempo en categoría profesional y de ratio de producción de fuerza en categoría amateur. De esta forma, podemos concluir que existen diferencias entre categorías, no solo en el valor de las variables, sino en la correlación de estas, por lo que las variables a controlar en el entrenamiento y a desarrollar podrían ser diferentes en función de dicha categoría.

  15. Salto de Miranda. Trabajos de excavación de la galería

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    Vilanova Bosch, José Luis

    1964-12-01

    Full Text Available The first article of this series was published in issue N.° 162 of «Informes de la Construcción», under the title «Salto de Miranda». The present article deals with the work of excavating the gallery. Modern practice requires that to do this type of work successfully the auxiliary material should be most carefully studied beforehand. N.° 164 of the this magazine has included a paper entitled «Recent progress in the auxiliary material for underground gallery excavation», summarising the most recent type of machinery now available in the market. Since the Grand Coulee Dam was built by the Bureau of Reclamation, where essentially new techniques were introduced, including minimum times for maximum progress, these new procedures and equipment have been generally adopted throughout the world. To this must be added the urgent and increasing demands for electric power, and the vast amounts of money involved in these hydroelectric projects, which explain the rapid adoption of automatic procedures in this kind of work. In this paper the author explains how, using the means available to him, he sought to coordinate the various constructional tasks, to get as near as possible to the most economic working cycle. Underground ventilation is an acute problem, and involves the safety of those working inside the tunnel. The author explains, in simple terms, how the theory of fluids and air circulation can affect the rational and practical solution of providing adequate air supply for the health and comfort of the underground worker. To attain this end, however, a considerable mechanical and economic investment is necessary.En el número 163 de Informes de la Construcción se publicó el primer trabajo de esta serie, con el título de «Salto de Miranda». En éste se trata de la ejecución de la excavación en galería, para cuyo éxito las técnicas modernas exigen un depurado estudio del mater ial auxiliar. En el número 164 apareció también un art

  16. Análisis de variables medidas en salto vertical relacionadas con el rendimiento deportivo y su aplicación al entrenamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jiménez-Reyes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los indicadores de la condición física de los atletas es la potencia. La altura del salto es un buen predictor de la potencia muscular, y, por tanto, varios tipos de saltos verticales se han empleado como tests estandarizados del rendimiento deportivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la relación entre la capacidad de salto y la capacidad de aceleración en velocistas. Participaron 36 velocistas de nivel nacional e internacional y realizaron los saltos Squat Jump (SJ, el Salto con Contramovimiento (CMJ y el CMJ con cargas progresivas (CMJc, además de carreras de 20 m y 30 m. En nuestro caso, obtuvimos relaciones significativas entre el CMJ (r=-0,65, p<0,01 y el CMJ con aquella carga que permite generar la máxima potencia en el test de CMPc (r=-0,56, p<0,01, dándose las mayores relaciones para el tramo lanzado de 20 m a 30 m. En conclusión, el tiempo en distancias lanzadas sería la mejor referencia para comprobar la evolución del rendimiento, aconsejando que el control de los cambios producidos por el entrenamiento en la velocidad en la fase de aceleración debería evaluarse en un tramo lanzado. Además, la carga con la que se alcanza la máxima potencia en el salto (CMJMP debe utilizarse para controlar la evolución de la condición física del deportista en cualquier momento del ciclo de entrenamiento.

  17. Diferencias biomecánicas entre jugadores principiantes y de alto rendimiento en el lanzamiento en salto en baloncesto

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas, F J; A. Sánchez(); Cepero, M.; V. M. Soto; Gutiérrez, M.

    2000-01-01

    La valoración y el aprendizaje de la técnica del lanzamiento en salto en baloncesto están relacionados con el conocimiento de la diferencias existentes en la ejecución técnica de este gesto entre jugadores con diferente nivel de rendimiento. Las diferencias obtenidas en las variables biomecánicas, entre los tres niveles de rendimiento establecido, ha aportado los aspectos claves en los que debemos focalizar nuestra atención durante la ejecución de este gesto. La muestra que se ha ...

  18. Diferencias de género en la estabilización de rodilla en aterrizajes de salto

    OpenAIRE

    Feria Madueño, Adrian; Hoyo Lora, Moisés del; Fernández Roldán, Kevin; Romero Boza, Sergio; Mateo Cortés, Jesús; Sañudo Corrales, Francisco de Borja

    2014-01-01

    Los aterrizajes monopodales representan situaciones de riesgo de lesión de rodilla. Entre los factores para su determinación, se encuentranla flexión de rodilla y el tiempo de estabilización, los cuales parecen jugar un papel fundamental en el desencadenamiento de alguna lesión. Nuestroobjetivo fue determinar las diferencias de género sobre la estabilización de rodilla tras el aterrizaje de saltos en sujetos físicamente activos. La muestraestuvo constituida por cuarenta sujetos (M=20; H=20; 2...

  19. Acciones humanas: análisis experimental y ajuste numérico de saltos. Desarrollo de base de datos

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Hernández, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Este Trabajo Fin de Grado se desarrolla dentro de un proyecto de investigación del Plan Nacional (Prognosis y Análisis Integrado de las Vibraciones Inducidas por el Hombre en Estructuras (PROVIBEST), referencia BIA2014-59321-C2-1-R), cuyo objetivo general es la caracterización de las acciones humanas sobre estructuras. Entre las distintas tareas del proyecto de investigación se encuentra la creación de una base de datos de saltos a partir de la recopilación de datos experimentales y el aj...

  20. Relaciones entre pruebas de velocidad, tests de salto y dinamometría isométrica en velocistas

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Sabido Solana; Juan Gómez Navarrete; David Barbado Murillo; Juan Miguel Gómez-Valadés Horrillo

    2010-01-01

    Dentro de las habilidades deportivas, la capacidad de producir fuerza lo más rápidamente posible, o fuerza explosiva, juega el papel más importante en la optimización de dichas habilidades. Zatsiorsky (1995) la define como “la habilidad para desarrollar la máxima fuerza en la menor cantidad de tiempo”. Las correlaciones existentes entre pruebas de velocidad y tests de salto han sido ampliamente observadas. Sin embargo, las correlaciones entre pruebas de velocidad y tests isométricos están men...

  1. Desenvolvimento de um método de familiarização individualizado para saltos verticais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gustavo Claudino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Propor um método de familiarização individualizado para saltos verticais e verificar o seu efeito na variabilidade intrassujeito. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta e três homes (média ± DP; idade 23,5 ± 3,3 anos; estatura 1,76 ± 0,08 m; massa 72,8 ± 8,6 kg; percentual de gordura 12,9 ± 5,2% realizaram sucessivos saltos até atingir o nível de estabilidade proposto. Após 48 h este processo era repetido e a estabilidade entre dias era verificada, se necessário, mais sessões eram realizadas. O nível de estabilidade foi determinado por um teste z, com intervalo de confiança de 95%. Após o processo de familiarização, duas sessões experimentais adicionais foram realizadas para determinar a confiabilidade do desempenho no salto agachado (SA e no salto com contramovimento (SCM. O coeficiente de variação e o erro padrão de medida foram determinados individualmente (CVi e EPMi. Um teste t pareado foi realizado para verificar diferenças no CVi e EPMi antes e depois do processo de familiarização. RESULTADOS: O CVi apresentou uma redução significativa após o processo de familiarização (p < 0,001, alterando de 5,01 ± 2,40% para 2,95 ± 0,89% no SA e de 4,50 ± 2,19% para 2,58 ± 0,81% no SCM. O mesmo ocorreu para o EPMi variando de 1,29± 0,53 cm para 0,83 ± 0,25 cm no SA e de 1,35 ± 0,51 cm para 0,83 ± 0,26 cm no SCM. CONCLUSÃO: o método de familiarização individualizado proposto reduziu significativamente a variação intrassujeito, permitindo maior poder estatístico em estudos experimentais e maior sensibilidade para ferramentas de monitoramento do desempenho.

  2. The Lac-Croche plutonic complex, Quebec: basement of Grenville paragneisses?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijver, K.

    1969-01-01

    A concordant body of presumably igneous, but deformed and at least partly recrystallized rocks, the Lac-Croche Plutonic Complex, consists of leuconoritic and mangeritic gneisses, and of monzonitic and granitic rocks. It is surrounded by gneisses, at least partly of sedimentary origin. Inclusions of

  3. Using micro-scale evidence to understand regional-scale hydrothermal alteration of plutonic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plümper, O.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/37155960X; King, H. E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411261088; Putnis, A.

    2009-01-01

    Subsolidus re-equilibration of plutonic feldspars induced by hydrothermal fluids provides a valuable record of fluid-rock interactions that affect large volumes of the Earth's continental crust (Taylor, 1977). The effect of hydrothermal fluids has important implications for the interpretation of the

  4. COMPARACIÓN DE DOS TÉCNICAS DE SALTO CON CAÍDA, PARA MEJORAR EL RENDIMIENTO DE LA POTENCIA DE PIERNAS EN JUGADORES DE BALONCESTO

    OpenAIRE

    Jessenia Hernández Elizondo; Wálter Salazar Rojas

    2001-01-01

    El propósito de este estudio fue comparar cuál técnica de salto con caída (piernas flexionadas o extendidas), produce mayores beneficios en la ejecución del salto vertical. Los participantes, n=34 de sexo masculino, con una edad promedio de 16 años seleccionados de Baloncesto Colegial, con aproximadamente 4 años de experiencia en este deporte, fueron divididos en dos grupos experimentales de ejercicio pliométrico, con un volumen de trabajo de 3 sesiones por semana, durante 8 semanas, realizan...

  5. Geochemical constraints on the link between volcanism and plutonism at the Yunshan caldera complex, SE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lili; He, Zhenyu; Beier, Christoph; Klemd, Reiner

    2018-01-01

    The Yunshan caldera complex is part of a larger scale, ca. 2000-km-long volcanic-plutonic complex belt in the coastal region of SE China. The volcanic rocks in the caldera complex are characterized by high-silica peraluminous and peralkaline rhyolites associated with an intracaldera porphyritic quartz monzonite pluton. In this study, we present zircon U-Pb, Hf and stable O isotopes along with geochemical data of both volcanic and plutonic rocks to evaluate the potential petrogenetic link between volcanism and plutonism in the Yunshan caldera complex. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb geochronology of both volcanic and plutonic rocks yields almost identical ages ranging from 95.6 to 93.1 Ma. The peraluminous and peralkaline rhyolites show negative anomalies of Sr, P, Ti and Ba and to a lesser extent negative Nb and Ta anomalies, along with positive Rb anomalies and `seagull-like' rare earth element (REE) patterns with negative Eu anomalies and low (La/Yb)N ratios. The intracaldera porphyritic quartz monzonite displays minor negative Rb, Nb, Ta, Sr, P and Ti anomalies and a positive Ba anomaly with REE patterns characterized by relatively high (La/Yb)N ratios and lack significant Eu anomalies. The peraluminous and peralkaline rhyolites and the porphyritic quartz monzonite exhibit consistent ɛ Nd( t) of - 3.7 to - 2.2 and display zircon ɛ Hf( t) values of - 2.1 to 3.7. They further have similar, mantle-like, zircon oxygen isotopic compositions (δ18OVSMOW mainly = 4.63 to 5.76‰). We interpret these observations to be in agreement with a crystal mush model in which the parental magma of the volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Yunshan caldera complex was likely produced by interaction of asthenosphere melts with subduction-influenced enriched mantle wedge. The peralkaline rhyolites are interpreted to represent the most differentiated magma that has subsequently experienced significant fluid-melt interactions, whereas the porphyritic quartz monzonite may be representative of the

  6. A prediction of an optimal performance of the handspring 1 1/2 front salto longhorse vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, P

    1994-01-01

    The handspring 1 1/2 front salto vault in the tucked position is deemed to be an important high-level vault. It was the compulsory vault of the 1988 Olympics and is a building block for more advanced skills in the handspring family. The purpose of this study was to predict an individual's optimal performance of a handspring 1 1/2 front salto vault. An assessment of the athlete's present performance ability was determined using cinematographical analysis of three trials. These trials were judged as being typical high-level performances of the vault. Secondly, an objective function was identified based on the performance result of points awarded. The objective function was composed of those performance variables that, if maximized, would result in minimal deductions. Postflight height and distance were identified as those variables. Angular momentum was included in a penalty function form to ensure that sufficient angular momentum was present for successful completion of the skill. A Lagrangian approach was used to derive the equations of motion and a Rayleigh-Ritz procedure, using fifth-degree polynomials, was used to represent and discretize the state variables. The predicted optimal performance of the skill displayed greater virtuosity in postflight height, distance and angular momentum when compared to the individual's best trial performance. The results of this study generally fall within the limits observed for elite vaulters.

  7. Análisis del volumen de entrenamiento pliométrico para la mejora del salto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Copoví Lanusse

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de diferentes volúmenes de entrenamiento sobre la mejora del salto vertical. Método: se realizó una búsqueda de información en las bases de datos PubMed, MedLine y SportsDiscus donde se identificaron 59 artículos que cumplían los siguientes criterios: a Estudios que incluyan programas de entrenamiento pliométrico de miembros inferiores, b Que contengan programas experimentales y medidas válidas y seguras. Aquellos programas con un volumen de entrenamiento de 8 a 12 semanas con una frecuencia de 2 a 3 sesiones semanales, en las cuales se realizan de 1 a 3 ejercicios con un total de 3 a 8 series por sesión y en las que se den una media de 70 a 100 saltos, parece ser la mejor combinación.

  8. Tourmaline occurrences within the Penamacor-Monsanto granitic pluton and host-rocks (Central Portugal): genetic implications of crystal-chemical and isotopic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, I. Ribeiro; Mourão, C.; Récio, C.; Guimarães, F.; Antunes, I. M.; Ramos, J. Farinha; Barriga, F. J. A. S.; Palmer, M. R.; Milton, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    Tourmalinization associated with peraluminous granitic intrusions in metapelitic host-rocks has been widely recorded in the Iberian Peninsula, given the importance of tourmaline as a tracer of granite magma evolution and potential indicator of Sn-W mineralizations. In the Penamacor-Monsanto granite pluton (Central Eastern Portugal, Central Iberian Zone), tourmaline occurs: (1) as accessory phase in two-mica granitic rocks, muscovite-granites and aplites, (2) in quartz (±mica)-tourmaline rocks (tourmalinites) in several exocontact locations, and (3) as a rare detrital phase in contact zone hornfels and metapelitic host-rocks. Electron microprobe and stable isotope (δ18O, δD, δ11B) data provide clear distinctions between tourmaline populations from these different settings: (a) schorl-oxyschorl tourmalines from granitic rocks have variable foititic component (X□ = 17-57 %) and Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratios (0.19-0.50 in two-mica granitic rocks, and 0.05-0.19 in the more differentiated muscovite-granite and aplites); granitic tourmalines have constant δ18O values (12.1 ± 0.1 ‰), with wider-ranging δD (-78.2 ± 4.7 ‰) and δ11B (-10.7 to -9.0 ‰) values; (b) vein/breccia oxyschorl [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.31-0.44] results from late, B- and Fe-enriched magma-derived fluids and is characterized by δ18O = 12.4 ‰, δD = -29.5 ‰, and δ11B = -9.3 ‰, while replacement tourmalines have more dravitic compositions [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.26-0.64], close to that of detrital tourmaline in the surrounding metapelitic rocks, and yield relatively constant δ18O values (13.1-13.3 ‰), though wider-ranging δD (-58.5 to -36.5 ‰) and δ11B (-10.2 to -8.8 ‰) values; and (c) detrital tourmaline in contact rocks and regional host metasediments is mainly dravite [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.35-0.78] and oxydravite [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.51-0.58], respectively. Boron contents of the granitic rocks are low (Monsanto pluton, either as direct tourmaline precipitation in cavities and fractures crossing the

  9. The rapakivi granite plutons of Bodom and Obbnäs, southern Finland: petrography and geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosunen, P.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Obbnäs and Bodom granite plutons of southernmost Finland show the typical petrographic and geochemical features of the Proterozoic rapakivi granites in Finland and elsewhere: they cut sharply across the 1900 Ma Svecofennian metamorphic bedrock and have the geochemical characteristics of subalkaline A-type granites. The Bodom pluton is composed of porphyritic granites (hornblende-, hornblende-biotite-, and biotite-bearing varieties and an even-grained granite that probably represent two separate intrusive phases. This lithologic variation does not occur in the Obbnäs pluton, which is almost entirely composed of porphyritic hornblende-biotite granite that gradually becomes more mafic to the southwest. Three types of hybrid granitoids resulting from magma mingling and mixing occur on the southwestern tip of the Obbnäs peninsula. The Bodom granites are syenogranites, whereas the composition of the Obbnäs granite varies from syeno- to monzogranite. The main silicates of both the Bodom and Obbnäs granites are quartz, microcline, plagioclase (An1541, biotite (siderophyllite, and generally also amphibole (ferropargasite or hastingsite. Plagioclase-mantled alkali feldspar megacrysts are absent or rare. The accessory minerals are fluorite, allanite, zircon, apatite, and iron-titanium oxides; the Obbnäs granite also contains titanite. The Bodom and Obbnäs granites are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, with average A/CNK of 1.00 and 1.05, respectively, have high Fe/Mg (average FeOtot/[FeOtot+MgO] is 0.94 for the Bodom and 0.87 for the Obbnäs granites, and high Ga/Al (3.78 to 5.22 in Bodom and 2.46 to 4.18 in Obbnäs. The REE contents are high with LREE-enriched chondrite-normalized patterns and moderate (Obbnäs to relatively strong (Bodom negative Eu-anomalies. The Obbnäs granite is enriched in CaO, TiO2, MgO, and FeO, and depleted in SiO2 and K2O compared to the Bodom granites. Also, there are differences in the Ba, Rb, and Sr contents of

  10. The Granite Aqueduct and Advection of Water and Heat Through Plutonic Terranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazner, A. F.; Bartley, J. M.; Law, B.; Coleman, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    Although water plays a critical role in the genesis and movement of magma, it is largely lost from rocks upon crystallization. Observation of active volcanoes, analysis of magmatic inclusions, and experimental petrology indicate that intermediate magmas in subduction zones are water-rich, containing 5 wt% or more H2O. Carmichael (2002) wrote of the "andesite aqueduct" that conveys copious amounts of water from magma source regions in subduction zones to the surface and atmosphere. We suggest that this water plays a significant role in the thermal and textural history of the plutonic rocks through which it passes. A dacite magma with 5 wt% H2O crystallizes to granodiorite with ~0.5 wt% H2O, releasing >100 kg of H2O per m3. Field and geochronological data indicate that many sheet-like plutons are constructed from the top down, typically over 1 m.y. or more, likely bathing earlier pulses in ascending water released from later pulses. For a 5 km thick pluton, this release amounts to a condensed-water equivalent depth of ~500 m per unit of horizontal area, a truly vast amount. Plutons preserve abundant evidence for late-stage fluid transfer via a "granite aqueduct." For example, the Tuolumne Intrusive Suite of California is cut by myriad hydrothermally altered pipes that are typically found within or near aplite-pegmatite dikes (Mustart & Horrigan, 2000). The pipes attest to focused fluid flow, and the dikes themselves are the crystallized remnants of late-stage magmatic liquids. Upward advection of heat through dikes and pipes transfers thermal energy from newly crystallizing magma increments to older ones above much more efficiently and rapidly than thermal conduction, and could account for the widespread and profound recrystallization that produces the large grain size and low-temperature mineral assemblages of many granitic rocks. Although the concept that plutons represent the frozen record of huge, highly liquid magma chambers is losing favor, some recent studies

  11. COMPARACIÓN DE DOS TÉCNICAS DE SALTO CON CAÍDA, PARA MEJORAR EL RENDIMIENTO DE LA POTENCIA DE PIERNAS EN JUGADORES DE BALONCESTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessenia Hernández Elizondo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue comparar cuál técnica de salto con caída (piernas flexionadas o extendidas, produce mayores beneficios en la ejecución del salto vertical. Los participantes, n=34 de sexo masculino, con una edad promedio de 16 años seleccionados de Baloncesto Colegial, con aproximadamente 4 años de experiencia en este deporte, fueron divididos en dos grupos experimentales de ejercicio pliométrico, con un volumen de trabajo de 3 sesiones por semana, durante 8 semanas, realizando en promedio 40 saltos por sesión. El tratamiento consistió en caer desde una grada de 35 cm y rebotar lo mas alto posible, el grupo experimental 1 que trabajó con las piernas flexionadas (n = 17 al caer de la grada, rebotaban llevando las rodillas al pecho (PF, y el grupo experimental 2 (n = 17 que, al caer de la grada, rebotaba con las piernas extendidas. Para determinar el efecto del tratamiento en los sujetos se utilizaron tres tipos de pruebas: la prueba de salto vertical con contramovimiento (SVCC, salto vertical sin impulso (SVSI y salto largo sin impulso (SLSI. Los datos fueron analizados por medio de una ANOVA de 2 x 2 (grupos X mediciones para cada una de las pruebas realizadas, análisis de efectos simples, omega cuadrado y porcentaje de cambio. Los resultados indican que en todas las pruebas realizadas, ambos grupos experimentales (experimental 1 y 2 tuvieron un cambio en centímetros de aproximadamente 9 cm, 7 cm, y 18 cm, para las pruebas de SVCC, SVSI y SLSI respectivamente, mejoraron significativamente sus resultados entre pre test y post test. En cuanto al análisis de los tratamientos, en la prueba de salto largo SLSI, se presentó una interacción significativa, lo cuál indica que el grupo que trabajó con piernas flexionadas PF, mejoró significativamente(p < 0.05 su rendimiento.

  12. Map showing the distribution and characteristics of plutonic rocks in the Tonopah 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonic rocks, mostly granite and granodiorite, are widely distributed in the west two-thirds of the Tonopah 1 degree by 2 degree quadrangle, Nevada. These rocks were systematically studied as part of the Tonopah CUSMAP project. Studies included field mapping, petrographic and modal analyses, geochemical studies of both fresh and altered plutonic rocks and altered wallrocks, and K-Ar and Rb-Sr radiometric dating. Data collected during this study were combined with previously published data to produce a 1:250,000-scale map of the Tonopah quadrangle showing the distribution of individual plutons and an accompanying table summarizing composition, texture, age, and any noted hydrothermal alteration and mineralization effects for each pluton.

  13. Petrogenesis of Post-collisional high Ba-Sr granitoids: the Solarya Pluton, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Alp; Kamaci, Omer; Altunkaynak, Safak

    2015-04-01

    In NW Turkey, the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene phase of post-collisional magmatism is characterized by widespread granitic pluton emplacements straddling the continental collision zone marked by the Izmir-Ankara suture zone (IASZ). This granitic magmatism produced both low Ba-Sr- and high Ba-Sr granitoids with distinct geochemical properties. One of the major plutons emplaced to the north of İzmir-Ankara suture zone, the Solarya pluton is representative of high Ba-Sr granitoids. We present here whole-rock chemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-O isotopic compositions, as well as 40Ar/39Ar ages of the Solarya pluton to evaluate the timing, nature and genesis of potassic, high Ba-Sr granites. The Solarya pluton consists of three coeval granitic members (K-Feldspar megacrystalline granodiorite, fine grained granodiorite and haplogranite) and associated mafic magmatic enclaves/dykes of gabbroic diorite to dioritic in composition. K-feldspar megacrystalline granodiorite, fine grained granodiorite and haplogranite are high K calc-alkaline in character whereas low silica mafic magmatic enclaves and dykes are mildly alkaline and display shoshonitic affinity. Both granitic members and mafic enclaves/dykes are characterized by high Ba (710-2489 ppm), Sr (305-708ppm), low Y and HREE contents and lack of significant negative Eu anomalies. They are metaluminous and display enrichment in LILE and depletion in P, Ta, Nb and Ti. Sr-Nd-Pb and O isotope compositions of mafic enclaves and dykes are similar to their host granitoids. They have initial 87Sr/86Sr values of 0.70702- 0.70805 and 143Nd/144Nd values of 0.51235-0.51250 and their ɛNd values range between -4,9 and -2,05. 206Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204 Pb isotopic values vary from 18,75 to 18,88 and 15,68 to 15,73, respectivelly. Whole rock and quartz 18O isotopic ratios range between 8 and 10,6. All these isotopic characteristics and major-trace element compositions of Solarya pluton and associated mafic enclaves/dykes suggest a subcontinental

  14. River Valley pluton, Ontario - A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, Lewis D.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic data indicating a late-Archean/early-Proterozoic age for the River Valley anorthositic pluton of the southwestern Grenville Province of Sudbury, Ontario. Pb-Pb isotopic data on 10 whole-rock samples ranging in composition from anorthosite to gabbro yield an age of 2560 + or - 155 Ma. The River Valley pluton is thus the oldest anorthositic intrusive yet recognized within the Grenville Province. The Sm-Nd isotopic system records an age of 2377 + or - 68 Ma. High Pb-208/Pb-204 of deformed samples relative to igneous-textured rocks implies Th introduction and/or U loss during metamorphism in the River Valley area. Rb-Sr data from igneous-textured and deformed samples and from mineral separates give an age of 2185 + or - 105 Ma, indicating substantial disturbance of the Rb-Sr isotopic system.

  15. Thermal modification of hematite-ilmenite intergrowths in the Ecstall pluton, British Columbia, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownlee, S.J.; Feinberg, J.M.; Harrison, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examine the effects of reheating on finely exsolved hematite-ilmenite intergrowths from the similar to 91 Ma Ecstall pluton using reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As a result of the emplacement of the you......In this study, we examine the effects of reheating on finely exsolved hematite-ilmenite intergrowths from the similar to 91 Ma Ecstall pluton using reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As a result of the emplacement...... of the younger adjacent similar to 52 Ma Quottoon pluton, samples closer to a thermal boundary have experienced greater degrees of thermal alteration. Five main microstructural features characterize hematite-ilmenite intergrowths from the Ecstall: (I) exsolution lamellae of hematite and ilmenite; (II) oxidation...... of ilmenite to form hematite, rutile, and other Ti-rich phases; (III) 20-50 nm magnetite precipitates in hematite; (IV) rutile blitz texture; and (V) exsolution of hematite in rutile. Based on spatial relationships, textures I I through V appear to be related to reheating of the Ecstall by the Quottoon...

  16. Confiabilidade do teste de salto vertical com 4 séries de 15 segundos Fiabilidad de la prueba de salto vertical con 4 serie de 15 segundos Reliability of the four series 15-second vertical jumping test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Eduardo Hespanhol

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a confiabilidade do teste e reteste do teste salto vertical com quatro séries de 15 segundos (TSVI. MÉTODO: Dezoito atletas do sexo masculino, divididos em 11 handebolistas (25,74 ± 4,71 anos; 85,84 ± 7,63kg; 182,14 ± 3,46cm e sete basquetebolistas (18,60 ± 0,77 anos; 83,32 ± 10,02kg; 188,14 ± 5,76cm foram os voluntários desse estudo. As variáveis estudadas para o teste e reteste foram o pico de potência (PP, potência média (PM, índice de fadiga (IF. Os desempenhos dessas variáveis foram mensurados através do teste de salto vertical com quatro séries de 15 segundos com 10 segundos de recuperação entre as séries. O tratamento estatístico foi realizado através da técnica descritiva e do coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstraram um alto CCI nas medidas repetidas em dias diferentes para todas as variáveis: PP (R = 0,992; p = 0,0360; PM (R = 0,993; p = 0,0107 e IF (R = 0,981; p = 0,0556; além disso, indicaram altos coeficientes de correlações entre teste e reteste para os indicadores de qualidade nas medidas da técnica de salto vertical com contramovimento sem auxílio dos membros superiores (CMJ (R = 0,991; p = 0,0800, nos números de saltos em um trabalho de 15 e 60 segundos (NSV15s, R = 0,936; p = 0,0062 e NSV60s, R = 0,978; p = 0,0139 e na altura saltada, em um trabalho de 15 e 60 segundos (SV15s, R = 0,993; p = 0,0467; e SV60s, R = 0,988; p = 0,0014. CONCLUSÃO: A análise dos dados aponta para a existência de uma medida confiável do TSVI na estimativa da resistência de força explosiva através das variáveis PM e IF.OBJETIVO: El objetivo de este estudio era verificar la fiabilidad de la prueba y retesteo de la prueba el salto vertical con cuatro series de 15 segundos (TSVI. MÉTODO: Dieciocho atletas varones, divididos en once handbolistas (25,74 ± 4,71 años; 85,84 ± 7,63 kg; 182,14 ± 3,46 centímetros y siete

  17. Biomechanics analysis of competition exercise «2/4 salto Front Layout» of skilled sportsmen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batieieva N.P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The biomechanics analysis of competition exercise is presented in acrobatic rock-and-roll. The trajectory of moving of general centre of gravity (GCG of body of partner, parameters of motion of GCG of partner, is rotined on a vertical line. Certain and described phases of implementation of competition exercise "2/4 salto Front Layout to catch". Sportsmen - Champions of Ukraine of 2011 took part in an experiment. The trajectories of motion of body of sportsman are built in the supporting and unsupported phases of motion. Developed and offered method of implementation of competition exercise. The features of sportsmans and partner are formulated for the improvement of technique of implementation of exercise. This method is also recommended for the improvement of sense of partner and partner in forming of technique of motion of implementation of catch.

  18. Repetición de esprints y salto vertical en jugadores jóvenes de baloncesto y fútbol de élite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La capacidad de repetir esprints y saltos verticales son variables de gran importancia en deportes como fútbol o baloncesto. Sin embargo, no conocemos estudios que describan la capacidad de repetir esprints y saltos verticales, así como la relación entre dichas variables, en jugadores masculinos y femeninos jóvenes de fútbol y baloncesto de élite. Para ello, 37 jugadoras (N = 37, edad = 15 ± 0,5 años, altura=167,7 ± 9,5cm, peso = 55,8 ± 8,0 kg y 40 jugadores (N = 40, edad = 15 ± 0,5 años, altura = 176,4 ± 11,1, peso = 69,5 ± 10,1 kg de fútbol y baloncesto del máximo nivel competitivo tomaron parte en este estudio. Se midió el Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST y el salto con contramovimiento (CMJ antes y después del RAST, y los valores del mejor esprint, el índice de fatiga y la potencia producida en el RAST y la pérdida de salto vertical después del RAST fueron analizados mediante el análisis de la varianza múltiple (MANOVA y el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Los resultados muestran, por un lado, diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre especialidades deportivas en el esprint (p  0,05. Además, la pérdida de salto vertical correlacionó significativamente con el índice de fatiga en el RAST (r = 0,293, p < 0,05. Estos resultados muestran por primera vez las relaciones, diferencias y el perfil descriptivo del rendimiento en el RAST y en el salto vertical en jugadores y jugadoras jóvenes de baloncesto y fútbol de élite.

  19. The Transition From Effusive to Explosive Volcanism, Crustal Recycling and Granitic Plutonism in the Paleocene Sifton Range Complex, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskovic, A.; Francis, D.

    2004-05-01

    The uplifted plutons of the eastern Coast Plutonic Complex (CPC) of the northern Canadian Cordillera are in contact with coeval volcanic suites of the early Tertiary Sloko-Skukum Group, and offer a unique opportunity for addressing the relationship between continental calc-alkaline volcanic sequences and subduction-related granitoid suites. The Sifton Range complex (SRC) is the Yukon's largest Paleogene erosional remnant (240 km2), comprising 900 m of volcanic stratigraphy, and is intruded by the CPC granites dated at 57.2 Ma. It displays a classic subduction-related geochemical signature with depletions in HFSE relative to LILE. The volcanic rocks range between medium and high-K orogenic suites, and display a transitional calc-alkaline to tholeiitic fractionation trend. The epizonal two-feldspar granites are chemically indistinguishable from the evolved SRC lavas and are characterized by highly elevated LREE (La/Sm N ch = 5-11), and Th (12-18 ppm) concentrations. Furthermore, the complex exhibits a striking relationship between rock compositions and styles of eruption, such that a reduction in abundance of lavas with increasing SiO2 is correlated with the appearance of evolved pyroclastic rocks and granitic plutonism. Crystal fractionation models of the compositional interval between basaltic andesite and andesite (52-62 wt.% SiO2) using the thermodynamic algorithms Melts of Ghiorso and Sack (1995), and Xstaln (Francis) are consistent with evolution at moderately wet (1.5 wt.% H2O), upper crustal (1.5 kb) conditions with fO2 close to the QFM buffer. Two-step, assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC) models are required to explain the anomalous Th concentrations of the evolved rocks, and involve contamination by the enriched SRC rhyolite of up to 33 % by mass over the dacite range, followed by assimilation of over 150 % by mass beyond rhyodacite compositions (> 67 wt.% SiO2). The unrealistically high contamination parameter (r > 2.5, De Paolo, 1981) of the

  20. Helmintos parasitos de peixes das usinas hidreléticas da Eletrosul (Brasil. II: Reservatórios de Salto Osório e de Salto Santiago, Bacia do Rio Iguaçu Helminth parasites of fishes from the hydroelectric power station of Eletrosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kohn

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available Na Usina Hidrelátrica Salto Osório foram examinados 88 peixes, dos quais 24 (27,3% encontravam-se parasitados por oito espécies de nematóides: Capillaria sp., formas imaturas de Contracoecum sp., Procamallanus peraccuratus Pinto et al., 1976, Procamallanus petterae Kohn & Fernandes, 1988, Raphidascaris sp., Spirocamallanus intermedius Pinto et al., 1974, Spirocamallanus pintoi Kohn & Fernandes, 1988 e Spirocamallanus sp., além de uma forma imatura de cestóide. Na Usina Hidrelétrica de Salto Santiago, dos 83 peixes examinados, 32 (38,5% apresentaram-se parasitados por três espécies de nematóides: Contracoecum sp. (forma larvar, Procamallanus peraccuratus e Raphydascaris sp., e uma especie de cestóide (forma larvar.Eight species of nematodes and one larval cestode were recovered from 88 specimens of 12 species of fishes captured in the reservoir of "Salto Osório". Capillaria sp., Contracoecum sp., (larval forms, Procamallanus peraccuratus pinto et al., 1976, Procamallanus petterae Kohn & Fernandes, 1988, Raphidascaris sp., Spirocamallanus intermedius Pinto et al., 1974 and Spirocamallanus pintoi Kohn & Fernandes, 1988. From 83 specimens of 12 species of fishes from the reservoir of "Salto Santiago", only one species of cestode and three species of nematodes were recovered: Contracoecum sp. (larval forms, procamallanus peraccuratus and Raphidascaris sp. Pimelodus ortmanni is a new host record for P. peraccurants and S. intermedius.

  1. Respostas neuromusculares dos membros inferiores durante protocolo intermitente de saltos verticais em voleibolistas Neuromuscular responses of the lower limb muscles during vertical jumping in volleyball athletes

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    Caroline Tosini Felicissimo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o desempenho e as respostas eletromiográficas dos músculos Reto Femoral, Bíceps Femoral e Gastrocnêmio Medial durante protocolo de saltos verticais. Participaram 13 voleibolistas do sexo feminino (15,6 ± 0,9 anos. Inicialmente foi realizado um protocolo de potência máxima (três saltos máximos, seguido do protocolo de resistência de saltos (ciclos de três saltos máximos em aproximadamente 10 segundos (s - um salto a cada três s, com recuperação de 15 s. O tempo de duração do protocolo de resistência foi de 20 minutos. Foi usada a técnica do salto com contramovimento sem ajuda dos braços, sobre tapete de contato. Para tratamento dos dados os saltos foram divididos em quatro períodos com 12 ciclos cada um. Os resultados mostraram queda na altura dos saltos de aproximadamente 1,3cm entre os períodos de 1 a 4, sendo que, essa queda foi mais significativa nos 3º e 4º períodos em comparação ao 1º e 2º. Entretanto, com relação às variáveis RMS e FM, não ocorreu alteração nas respostas eletromiográficas entre músculos e períodos. Concluiu-se, assim, que a fadiga pode depender de variáveis psicofisiológicas, ao nível do SNC, que também influem no desempenho.The purpose of this study was to analyze the performance and the electromyographic responses of the muscles Rectus Femoris, Biceps Femoris and Gastrocnemius Medialis during vertical jumping protocol. Participated 13 female volleyball players (15,6 ± 0,9 years. Initially was performed a protocol of maximum power (three maximum jumps, followed by resistance jumps protocol (cycles of three maximum jumps in about 10 seconds (s - one jump every three s, with recovery of 15s. The duration of resistance protocol was 20 minutes. Technique used was countermovement jump without the aid of arms on a mat of contact. The data collected during the jumps were divided into four periods containing 12 cycles each. The results showed a

  2. River Valley pluton, Ontario: A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwal, L.D. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX (USA)); Wooden, J.L. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1989-03-01

    The River Valley pluton is a ca. 100 km{sup 2} body of anorthositic and gabbroic rocks located about 50 km northeast of Sudbury, Ontario. The pluton is situated entirely within the Grenville Province, but its western margin is a series of imbricate thrust faults associated with the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone. It is dominated by coarse leuconorite and leucogabbro, with lesser anorthosite, gabbro, and rare ultramafics. Igneous textured rocks are abundant and consist of plagioclase (An{sub 60-70}) charged with Fe-Ti oxide inclusions, low Ca pyroxene (orthopyroxene and/or inverted pigeonite) and augite. The most unfractionated rocks are minor olivine gabbros with Fo{sub 70-80}. A variety of deformed and recrystallized equivalents of the igneous-textured rocks is also present, and these are composed largely of calcic plagioclase and hornblende. An Sm-Nd isochron from 3 igneous-textured leucogabbros and an augite mineral separate gives 2,377 {plus minus} 68 Ma, implying slight disturbance of the Sm-Nd whole-rock-mineral system during later metamorphism. The Rb-Sr system has been substantially disturbed, giving an age of 2,185 {plus minus} 105 Ma, which is similar to internal Pb-Pb isochron ages of 2,165 {plus minus} 130 Ma and 2,100 {plus minus} 35 Ma for two igneous-textured rocks. Initial isotopic ratios for the River Valley pluton correspond to single-stage model parameters of {mu} = 8.06, {epsilon}{sub Nd} = O to {minus}3, and I{sub Sr} = 0.7015 to 0.7021. Collectively, these suggest either an enriched mantle source or crustal contamination of a mantle-derived magma. The crustal component involved must have been older and more radiogenic than the majority of rocks exposed at the surface in the nearby Superior Province.

  3. Textural history of recent basaltic-andesites and plutonic inclusions from Merapi volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwan, Froukje M.; Chadwick, Jane P.; Troll, Valentin R.

    2013-07-01

    Mt. Merapi in Central Java is one of the most active stratovolcanoes on Earth and is underlain by a multistage plumbing system. Crystal size distribution analyses (CSD) were carried out on recent Merapi basaltic-andesites and co-eruptive magmatic and plutonic inclusions to characterise the crystallisation processes that operate during storage and ascent and to obtain information on respective time scales. The basaltic-andesites exhibit log-linear, kinked-upwards CSD curves for plagioclase and clinopyroxene that can be separated into two main textural populations. Large plagioclase phenocrysts (≥1.6 mm) make up one population, but correspond to crystals with variable geochemical composition and reflect a period of crystal growth at deep to mid-crustal levels. This population was subsequently influenced by crystal accumulation and the onset of crustal assimilation, including the incorporation of high-Ca skarn-derived xenocrysts. Textural re-equilibration is required for these crystals to form a single population in CSD. A second episode of crystal growth at shallower levels is represented by chemically homogenous plagioclase crystals <1.6 mm in size. Crustal assimilation is indicated by, for example, oxygen isotopes and based on the CSD data, crystallisation combined with contamination is likely semi-continuous in these upper crustal storage chambers. The CSD data observed in the basaltic-andesite samples are remarkably consistent and require a large-volume steady state magmatic system beneath Merapi in which late textural equilibration plays a significant role. Plagioclase CSDs of co-eruptive magmatic and plutonic inclusions may contain a third crystal population (<1 mm) not found in the lavas. This third population has probably formed from enhanced degassing of portions of basaltic-andesite magma at shallow crustal levels which resulted in increased crystallinity and basaltic-andesite mush inclusions. A suite of coarse plutonic inclusions is also present that

  4. Petrology of upper Eocene-Oligocene plutonic rocks of Moalleman Damghan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohansal, Reza; Zolfaghari, Seddigheh; Hashem Emami, Mohammad

    2010-05-01

    The plutonic rocks of this area include cryptodoms, hypoabyssal plutonic bodies and dikes which intruded in to the late Lutetian- late Eocene rocks. The hypoabyssal plutonic rocks in Moalleman are classified in to two main groups: - Acidic rocks, including microgranite to microgranodiorite. - Intermediate rocks, including microquartzmonzodiorite to microquartzdiorite of hypoabyssal type. Presence of fine-grained mafic xenoliths with abundant biotite, amphibole and pyroxene in the intermediate rocks may be considered as an evidence of the role of mantle melting occurrence in the formation of these rocks. Occurrence of a felsitic texture, showing a high differentiation coefficient and existence of large quarts which are embayed, rounded and infiltered by material, and finally turmalinization in the acidic rocks due to Boron metasomatism suggest the role of crust in the formation of afore mentioned rocks as well. In some acidic rocks plagioclases show oscillatory zoning. This phenomenon along with the fact that biotite granites in these rocks crystallized before crystallization of quarts and after crystallization of alkali feldspar suggest that the crystallization of these rocks accomplished in the presence of 2 percent water, pertitic texture in some feldspars of the intermediate rocks this conclusion. Supports on the basis of the geochemical studies most of the hypoabyssal rocks of Moalleman area fall in subalkaline- calcoalkaline fields. Variation of immobile incompatible trace elements versus differentiation coefficient and the situation of samples in winkler diagram show the role of crustal- melting in the formation of acidic rocks. Trace element content of some rocks (e.g. Cu and Sm) with in this group show mantle specification, while some other rocks (e.g. Zr, Th, Hf) show crustal specification. The intermediate rocks of the study area therefore, indicate a hybridization of magmas from both the mantle and crust. Study of the temperature and water vapour

  5. Geochemistry of uranium and thorium and natural radioactivity levels of the western Anatolian plutons, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Argyrios; Altunkaynak, Şafak; Koroneos, Antonios; Ünal, Alp; Kamaci, Ömer

    2017-10-01

    Seventy samples from major plutons (mainly granitic) of Western Anatolia (Turkey) have been analyzed by γ-ray spectrometry to determine the specific activities of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K (Bq/kg). Τhe natural radioactivity ranged up to 264 Bq/kg for 238U, 229.62 Bq/kg for 226Ra, up to 207.32 Bq/kg for 232Th and up to 2541.95 Bq/kg for 40K. Any possible relationship between the specific activities of 226Ra, 238U, 232Th and 40K and some characteristics of the studied samples (age, rock-type, colour, grain size, occurrence, chemical and mineralogical composition) was investigated. Age, major and trace element geochemistry, color, pluton location and mineralogical composition are likely to affect the concentrations of the measured radionuclides. The range of the Th/U ratio was large (0.003-11.374). The latter, along with 226Ra/238U radioactive secular disequilibrium, is also discussed and explained by magmatic processes during differentiation.

  6. River Valley pluton, Ontario: A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, L.D.; Wooden, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The River Valley pluton is a ca. 100 km2 body of anorthositic and gabbroic rocks located about 50 km northeast of Sudbury, Ontario. The pluton is situated entirely within the Grenville Province, but its western margin is a series of imbricate thrust faults associated with the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone. It is dominated by coarse leuconorite and leucogabbro, with lesser anorthosite, gabbro, and rare ultramafics. Igneous textured rocks are abundant and consist of plagioclase (An60-70) charged with Fe-Ti oxide inclusions, low Ca pyroxene (orthopyroxene and/or inverted pigeonite) and augite. The most unfractionated rocks are minor olivine gabbros with Fo70-80. A variety of deformed and recrystallized equivalents of the igneous-textured rocks is also present, and these are composed largely of calcic plagioclase and hornblende. Ten samples, including both igneous and deformed lithologies give a Pb-Pb whole-rock isochron of 2560??155Ma, which is our best estimate of the time of primary crystallization. The River Valley pluton is thus the oldest anorthositic intrusive yet reported from the Grenville Province, but is more calcic and augitic than typical massifs, and lacks their characteristic Fe-Ti oxide ore deposits. The River Valley body may be more akin to similar gabbro-anorthosite bodies situated at the boundary between the Archean Superior Province and Huronian supracrustal belt of the Southern Province west of the Grenville Front. An Sm-Nd isochron from 3 igneous-textured leucogabbros and an augite mineral separate gives 2377 ?? 68 Ma, implying slight disturbance of the Sm-Nd whole-rock-mineral system during later metamorphism. The Rb-Sr system has been substantially disturbed, giving an age of 2185 ?? 105 Ma, which is similar to internal Pb-Pb isochron ages of 2165 ?? 130 Ma and 2100 ?? 35 Ma for two igneous-textured rocks. It is uncertain whether these ages correspond to a discrete event at this time or represent a partial resetting of the Rb-Sr and Pb

  7. Ativação e co-contração dos músculos gastrocnêmio e tibial anterior na marcha de mulheres utilizando diferentes alturas de saltos

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    Cláudia Tarragô Candotti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ativação e a co-contração muscular dos músculos tibial anterior (TA e gastrocnêmio lateral (GL durante a marcha, utilizando diferentes calçados. Nove mulheres caminharam sobre uma esteira elétrica com velocidade de 3,5 Km/h em três situações: sem calçado, com salto baixo (6 cm e com salto alto (9 cm, sendo simultaneamente registrados sinais eletromiográficos do TA e GL. Os principais resultados encontrados no presente estudo demonstraram que: (1 independente da altura do salto houve maior ativação do GL (p<0,05, em comparação com o TA; (2 o músculo GL apresentou maior ativação (p<0,05 com o calçado de salto alto, em comparação a situação com os pés descalços; e (3 quanto maior a altura do salto, maiores percentuais de co-contração muscular foram encontrados (p<0,05.

  8. U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions of zircons in plutonic rocks from the central Famatinian arc, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otamendi, Juan E.; Ducea, Mihai N.; Cristofolini, Eber A.; Tibaldi, Alina M.; Camilletti, Giuliano C.; Bergantz, George W.

    2017-07-01

    The Famatinian arc formed around the South Iapetus rim during the Ordovician, when oceanic lithosphere subducted beneath the West Gondwana margin. We present combined in situ U-Th-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses for zircon to gain insights into the origin and evolution of Famatinian magmatism. Zircon crystals sampled from four intermediate and silicic plutonic rocks confirm previous observations showing that voluminous magmatism took place during a relatively short pulse between the Early and Middle Ordovician (472-465 Ma). The entire zircon population for the four plutonic rocks yields coherent εHf negative values and spreads over several ranges of initial εHf(t) units (-0.3 to -8.0). The range of εHf units in detrital zircons of Famatinian metasedimentary rocks reflects a prolonged history of the cratonic sources during the Proterozoic to the earliest Phanerozoic. Typical tonalites and granodiorites that contain zircons with evolved Hf isotopic compositions formed upon incorporating (meta)sedimentary materials into calc-alkaline metaluminous magmas. The evolved Hf isotope ratios of zircons in the subduction related plutonic rocks strongly reflect the Hf isotopic character of the metasedimentary contaminant, even though the linked differentiation and growth of the Famatinian arc crust was driven by ascending and evolving mantle magmas. Geochronology and Hf isotope systematics in plutonic zircons allow us understanding the petrogenesis of igneous series and the provenance of magma sources. However, these data could be inadequate for computing model ages and supporting models of crustal evolution.

  9. Syntectonic granites in thrust and strike slip regimes: the history of the Carmo and Cindacta plutons (southeastern Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanner, Bernd G.; Kruhl, Jörn H.

    2002-09-01

    The Carmo and Cindacta plutons (SE Brazil) represent syntectonic intrusions during the late-Proterozoic Brasiliano orogeny (700-500 Ma) in the southern Ribeira belt. A first magma pulse (the Carmo pluton) intruded as a thin lenticular body along a low-angle WSW-directed overthrust plane, which probably formed during the collision of the Congo and São Francisco cratons. The magma crystallized at a depth of ˜22 km. In a later stage of the Brasiliano orogeny, large-scale strike-slip shear zones developed. Along these zones, two successive compositionally different magma pulses (the Cindacta pluton) intruded. The first of these pulses probably intruded into a pull-apart structure, and the second was emplaced parallel to a strike-slip shear zone at a depth of ˜19 km. Both magmas cooled under the same deformation regime to the lower amphibolite facies. The two plutons exemplify the sheet-like intrusions of granitic magmas during thrust and strike-slip tectonics under conditions of continent collision.

  10. Geochemistry of the Topuk Pluton associated with the Kozbudaklar W-skarn deposit (Western Anatolia, Turkey): Implication for crystallization conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ayşe; Demirbilek, Mehmet; Mutlu, Halim

    2017-06-01

    The Kozbudaklar scheelite-bearing skarn deposit in the Tavşanlı Zone, western Turkey, occurs at the contact between Eocene Topuk pluton and Triassic İnönü marble of calcic character. The Topuk pluton is medium-coarse grained, granodiorite in composition and has a hypidiomorphic equigranular texture. The host rock contains mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) of monzodiorite-monzogabbro composition and is interrupted by porphyritic granodiorite and granite-aplite vein rocks. The pluton is calk-alkaline, metaluminous and composed of I-type melt character. δ18O and δD compositions of silicate minerals from granodioritic host rock are 5.9-10.6‰ and -77.0 to -71.4‰ and conformable with the range of unaltered I-type granites. Trace element contents indicate that pluton is crystallized from mantle-derived magma interacted with continental crust in a volcanic arc or subduction related setting. Major and trace element concentrations of Topuk pluton are quite consistent with geochemical patterns of Cu-skarn granitoids. Results of mineral chemistry analysis of the pluton yield that plagioclases are of oligoclase-andesine, amphiboles are of magnesio-hornblende and biotites are of ferro-magnesian composition. Amphiboles and biotites of granodioritic host rock are represented by calc-alkaline, I-type melt composition evolved in a subduction environment. Based on the results of plagioclase-Al in hornblende and amphibole chemistry data from the pluton, two different stages are proposed for the magma crystallization. The first stage was developed in a relatively deeper environment (>15 km) under high pressure (>4 kbar) and low log ƒO2 (>-17.6) conditions which reflect fractional crystallization and magma-mixing depth of basaltic magma and these conditions are not correlated with scheelite mineralization. The second crystallization stage of magma which proceeded at shallow depths (emperature (788-854 °C), relatively high pressure (1.20-1.62 kbar), shallow depth (5-6 km

  11. Exploring the plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge:new drilling at Hess Deep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillis, Kathryn M. [Univ. of Victoria, BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences; Snow, Jonathan E. [Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States). Earth & Atmospheric Sciences; Klaus, Adam [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). United States Implementing Organization.; Guerin, Gilles [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Borehole Research Group; Abe, Natsue [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokosuka (Japan). Inst. for Research on Earth Evolution (IFREE); Akizawa, Norikatsu [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Ceuleneer, Georges [Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees (UMS 831), CNRS; Cheadle, Michael J. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Adriao, Alden de Brito [Federal Univ. of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil). Geology Inst. (IGEO); Faak, Kathrin [Ruhr Univ., Bochum (Germany). Geological Inst.; Falloon, Trevor J. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS (Australia). Inst. for Marine and Antarctic Studies; Friedman, Sarah A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Godard, Marguerite M. [Univ. Montpellier II (France). Geosciences Montpellier-UMR 5243; Harigane, Yumiko [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Marine Geology Dept.; Horst, Andrew J. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Earth Science; Hoshide, Takashi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Science; Ildefonse, Benoit [Univ. Montpellier II (France). Lab. de Tectonophysique; Jean, Marlon M. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology and Environmental Geosciences; John, Barbara E. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Koepke, Juergen H. [Univ. of Hannover (Germany). Inst. of Mineralogy; Machi, Sumiaki [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Maeda, Jinichiro [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Natural History Sciences; Marks, Naomi E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Chemistry and Material Sciences Dept.; McCaig, Andrew M. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). School of Earth and Environment; Meyer, Romain [Univ. of Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Earth Science and Centre for Geobiology; Morris, Antony [Univ. of Plymouth (United Kingdom). School of Earth, Ocean & Environmental Sciences; Nozaka, Toshio [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Python, Marie [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Saha, Abhishek [Indian Inst. of Science (IISC), Bangalore (India). Centre for Earth Sciences; Wintsch, Robert P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    2013-02-28

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hess Deep Expedition 345 was designed to sample lower crustal primitive gabbroic rocks that formed at the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) in order to test models of magmatic accretion and the intensity of hydrothermal cooling at depth. The Hess Deep Rift was selected to exploit tectonic exposures of young EPR plutonic crust, building upon results from ODP Leg 147 as well as more recent submersible, remotely operated vehicle, and near-bottom surveys. The primary goal was to acquire the observations required to test end-member crustal accretion models that were in large part based on relationships from ophiolites, in combination with mid-ocean ridge geophysical studies. This goal was achieved with the recovery of primitive layered olivine gabbros and troctolites with many unexpected mineralogical and textural relationships, such as the abundance of orthopyroxene and the preservation of delicate skeletal olivine textures.

  12. Spatially controlled Fe and Si isotope variations: an alternative view on the formation of the Torres del Paine pluton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajos, Norbert A.; Lundstrom, Craig C.; Taylor, Alexander H.

    2016-11-01

    We present new Fe and Si isotope ratio data for the Torres del Paine igneous complex in southern Chile. The multi-composition pluton consists of an approximately 1 km vertical exposure of homogenous granite overlying a contemporaneous 250-m-thick mafic gabbro suite. This first-of-its-kind spatially dependent Fe and Si isotope investigation of a convergent margin-related pluton aims to understand the nature of granite and silicic igneous rock formation. Results collected by MC-ICP-MS show a trend of increasing δ56Fe and δ30Si with increasing silica content as well as a systematic increase in δ56Fe away from the mafic base of the pluton. The marginal Torres del Paine granites have heavier Fe isotope signatures (δ56Fe = +0.25 ± 0.02 2se) compared to granites found in the interior pluton (δ56Fe = +0.17 ± 0.02 2se). Cerro Toro country rock values are isotopically light in both Fe and Si isotopic systems (δ56Fe = +0.05 ± 0.02 ‰; δ30Si = -0.38 ± 0.07 ‰). The variations in the Fe and Si isotopic data cannot be accounted for by local assimilation of the wall rocks, in situ fractional crystallization, late-stage fluid exsolution or some combination of these processes. Instead, we conclude that thermal diffusion or source magma variation is the most likely process producing Fe isotope ratio variations in the Torres del Paine pluton.

  13. EL TIPO DE PLATAFORMA DE CONTACTO INFLUYE EN EL REGISTRO DE LA ALTURA DE SALTO VERTICAL ESTIMADA A PARTIR DEL TIEMPO DE VUELO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. García-López

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    RESUMEN

    Registrar el tiempo de vuelo (Tv en una plataforma de contacto es una metodología muy utilizada para estimar la altura del salto vertical. Los objetivos del trabajo son: a-analizar si el tipo de plataforma de contacto influye en el Tv, y b-comprobar la validez y fiabilidad de una nueva plataforma de contacto de tipo optoeléctrico. 89 estudiantes realizaron 3 saltos verticales máximos registrados simultáneamente en una Plataforma de Fuerzas (PF y dos plataformas de contacto: ErgoJump Plus (EJ y SportJump System Pro (SJ, en los sentidos longitudinal y transversal respecto a PF. EJ subestimó el Tv en 50.8 ms, mientras que SJ lo subestimó en 10.6 ms. La altura del salto no influyó en estas diferencias, aunque fueron mayores para EJ cuando se saltó en sentido transversal. La relación PF-EJ (r=0.6597 fue menos alta que PF-SJ (r=0.9992. El coeficiente de variación fue mayor en EJ (6.61±4.81%* que en SJ (1.21±0.81% y PF (1.19±0.78%. El tipo de plataforma de contacto (optoeléctrica vs. mecánica influye sustancialmente en el Tv y la altura del salto vertical, por lo que estos dispositivos deberían ser validados antes de ser utilizados en estudios científicos. El nuevo sistema SJ que incorpora tecnología láser, ha resultado válido y fiable para medir saltos verticales.
    Palabras Clave: biomecánica, instrumentación, salto vertical, plataforma de contacto.

     

    ABSTRACT

    Measuring flight time (Ft on a contact mat is a common methodology to estimate vertical jump height. The aims of this study were: a-to analyze the influence of the contact mat technology on Ft, and b-to verify the validity and reliability of a new optoelectronic contact mat

  14. Contribución segmentaria de los saltos con contramovimiento en vertical y en horizontal. [Segmental contribution on countermovement vertical and horizontal jumps].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gutiérrez-Dávila

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El propósito ha sido realizar un análisis dinámico y cinemático sobre los saltos verticales (SV y horizontales (SH y cuantificar la aportación de los segmentos corporales al desplazamiento del centro de masa (CM durante la fase de propulsión. Han participado 28 deportistas practicantes de modalidades deportivas donde el salto vertical constituye una habilidad básica. Se ha utilizado una plataforma de fuerza, operando a 500 Hz, sincronizada temporalmente a una cámara de vídeo a 210 Hz que registraba el plano sagital de los saltos. Los saltos han sido considerados como un movimiento simétrico que se desarrolla en un plano, compuesto por un modelo mecánico coordinado simplificado de ocho segmentos. En la condición SV, los participantes debían de realizar un salto vertical máximo partiendo de una posición erguida sobre la plataforma de fuerza. En la condición SH, los participantes debían realizar un salto máximo en horizontal desde la misma posición. El tiempo de batida ha sido superior en SH con respecto a SV, (0.898 vs 1.056 s, constatándose una estrategia de rotación-extensión para SH. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que la fuerza neta ejercida durante el impulso de frenado es mayor para SV debido a la mayor velocidad radial al inicio del impulso de frenado (-1.166 vs -0.992 m/s. Existe una mayor participación de las articulaciones del tobillo y la cadera plasmada en la mayor contribución del tronco en SH durante toda la batida, además de constatarse una mayor contribución de las extremidades superiores al desplazamiento vertical del CM en SV. Abstract The main aim of this research was a dynamics and kinematics analysis of vertical (SV and horizontal (SH jumps and quantify the body segments’ contribution to center of mass, CM, displacement during the propulsion phase. 28 athletes from different sport modalities where the vertical jump is a basic skill have participated. We used a force platform, operating at 500 Hz

  15. Sensibilidade e especificidade do diagnóstico de desempenho da força por diferentes testes de saltos verticais em futebolistas e voleibolistas na puberdade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Eduardo Hespanhol

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a sensibilidade e a especificidade de diferentes protocolos de medida dos testes de saltos verticais para o diagnóstico da força explosiva em futebolistas e voleibolistas na puberdade. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com população não probabilística de 110 jovens atletas do sexo masculino (60 futebolistas e 50 voleibolistas na faixa etária de 13 a 18 anos pertencentes a clubes da região metropolitana de Campinas, SP, Brasil. Os participantes tiveram sua maturação biológica avaliada por dois métodos: autoavaliação e medida clínica. Após essa avaliação, foram incluídos os classificados como púberes (25 futebolistas e 23 voleibolistas. Foram coletados dados antropométricos (massa corporal, estatura e dobras cutâneas e testes de saltos verticais: squat jump (SJ, counter movement jump (CMJ, drop jump (DJ; 40 cm height e saltos verticais contínuos com cinco segundos de duração (CJ5s. Foram calculadas as medidas de desempenho diagnóstico: sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia. O nível de significância adotado foi 5% para todos os testes. RESULTADOS: As forças explosivas estimadas pelos métodos de SJ e CMJ apresentaram sensibilidades equivalentes, enquanto o SJ apresentou maior especificidade do que os três métodos, e a acurácia do SJ foi diferente dos outros métodos, a qual foi alta (superior a 80%. CONCLUSÃO: O diagnóstico da força explosiva como teste SJ apresentou sensibilidade e especificidade elevadas, com seu valor preditivo alto na puberdade.

  16. Molecular epidemiology of group A rotavirus among children admitted to hospital in Salto, Uruguay, 2011-2012: first detection of the emerging genotype G12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tort, Luis Fernando López; Victoria, Matías; Lizasoain A, Andrés; Castells, Matías; Maya, Leticia; Gómez, Mariela Martínez; Arreseigor, Edit; López, Patricia; Cristina, Juan; Leite, Jose Paulo Gagliardi; Colina, Rodney

    2015-05-01

    Group A rotavirus (RVA) is the most important etiologic agent of infant acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. Detection and molecular characterization of RVA in Salto department, Northwestern region of Uruguay, was conducted on 175 clinical samples, being 153 stool and 22 vomit samples, collected from hospitalized children with AGE, between 0-15 years old, from two hospitals of Salto city during 2011 and 2012. RVA was detected and genotyped by seminested multiplex RT-PCR in order to determine G- and P-genotypes. Positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were carried out in order to determine lineages and sub-lineages. RVA were detected in 64 (37%) of the samples and the G and P genotypes observed were: 6% G1P[8], 23% G2P[4]/G2P[X]/GXP[4], 23% G3P[8]/G3P[X], 14% G12P[8]/G12P[X], 16% GXP[8], 1,5% G12P[9], 3% G2P[4]/[8], and 16% non-typeable. VP7 and VP4 genotypes related to DS-1 like gene constellation were prevalent during 2011 and those VP7 and VP4 genotypes related to Wa-like constellation were prevalent during 2012 (mainly represented by G3P[8]). Interestingly, RVA was detected in vomit samples in a high prevalence (41%). RVA was observed mainly in the age group between 1 and 5 years old (75% of the cases), and seasonality with a high detection rate in winter season was observed for the two consecutive years of surveillance. To our knowledge, this study represents the first detection and molecular characterization of RVA in Salto department, Northwestern region of Uruguay; and the first identification of the emerging genotype G12 in the country. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Arquitectura multi-controlador con transferencia sin salto para procesos con conmutación de modos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagore Iriondo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Los sistemas con conmutación de modos se definen como aquéllos que pueden exhibir diferente comportamiento dinámico en función del estado en que se encuentran. Pueden por tanto ser descritos por un conjunto finito de subsistemas dinámicos y una lógica que rige la conmutación entre ellos. Una alternativa para su control es la arquitectura multi-controlador con supervisión ya que permite utilizar controladores de modo diferentes y alcanzar así múltiples objetivos de control. Pero la conmutación de controladores suele tener como consecuencia la aparición de saltos o transitorios derivados que pueden ser inaceptables. Este tipo de sistemas y problemática son frecuentes en diferentes áreas de aplicación industrial, en donde la tecnología de control más utilizada es el Controlador Lógico Programable (PLC. Es por ello que el objetivo de este trabajo es presentar un método de diseño e implementación de un mecanismo de transferencia sin salto (BT en una arquitectura multi-modo y multi-bucle para sistemas con conmutación de modos, en PLC y en conformidad con el estándar IEC 61131-3. La estrategia BT se basa en que controladores de modos candidatos a conmutar realicen un seguimiento a los controladores activos, siendo la detección del estado de operación actual y de los posibles estados siguientes, clave en la definición de la forma de ejecución de los algoritmos de control que componen la arquitectura. Se presentan también los pasos del diseño de la arquitectura completa así como resultados experimentales que validan la arquitectura. Abstract: Switched mode systems are defined as those represented by a finite set of linear subsystems and a set of logic rules orchestrating the switching among them. A set of dynamic subsystems together with a logical system that orchestrates the switching among them could be used in order to describe it. An alternative to control them is a supervisory multi-mode controller architecture

  18. Diet of a catfish before and after damming of the salto caxias reservoir, iguaçu river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilene Luciana Delariva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the diet of Pimelodus sp., before and after damming of Salto Caxias, (waterfall in the Iguaçu river, as well spatial and ontogenetic diet shift. Surveys were carried out from March 1997 to February 1998 (before damming and from April 1999 to January 2000 (after damming inside the reservoir and adjacent tributaries. Stomach contents analysis of 682 specimens revealed omnivory with high degree of trophic opportunism to this species. Analysis of variance (three way ANOVA for scores produced from Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA yielded a significant interaction between the damming phases and size of the individuals (juveniles and adults (F = 4.68; P = 0.04. After damming, adults exploited mainly fish, whereas the juveniles fed mostly on plants, dipterans larvae and scales at different sites. From significant differences in the ordination among the factors considered, it could be inferred that the diet of Pimelodus sp. was influenced by the formation of the reservoir and this depended on the life stage considered. Position of the sites (feeding grounds did not lead to significant alterations in diet.Esse estudo avaliou a dieta de Pimelodus sp., antes e após o represamento de Salto Caxias, no rio Iguaçu, bem como variações espaciais e ontogenéticas na dieta da espécie. As amostragens foram realizadas antes do represamento (março/97 a fevereiro/98 e no período posterior (abril/99 a janeiro/00, no corpo principal do reservatório e tributários adjacentes. A análise de conteúdos estomacais de 682 exemplares revelou que esta espécie é onívora com elevado oportunismo trófico. Após o represamento, indivíduos adultos exploraram principalmente peixes, enquanto que os juvenis consumiram especialmente plantas, larvas de Diptera e escamas em diferentes locais de coleta. A análise de variância (ANOVA trifatorial aplicada sobre os escores da análise de correspondência com remoção do efeito do arco (DCA, mostrou

  19. The Fazenda Gavião granodiorite and associated potassic plutons as evidence for Palaeoproterozoic arc-continent collision in the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Felipe G.; Oliveira, Elson P.; McNaughton, Neal J.

    2011-08-01

    Several granitic plutons have intruded the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, São Francisco craton, Brazil, in the time interval 2163-2080 Ma, but their tectonic significance is poorly understood. The Fazenda Gavião granodiorite (FGG) is one of a set of plutons emplaced along the western boundary of the greenstone belt with Archaean migmatite-gneiss basement. The pluton is mostly composed of hornblende granodiorite, occasionally crosscut by syn-plutonic mafic dykes. The FGG is metaluminous, medium- to high-K calc-alkaline with relatively constant silica abundances (SiO2 ˜ 63-66 wt%), high Sr (900-800 ppm) and high Ba (1000-1500 ppm). The associated mafic dykes are ultrapotassic, with high abundances of Ba, Sr, MgO, Ni, Cr, and light rare earth elements, suggesting derivation from partial melts of an enriched mantle source. The FGG originated probably by fractional crystallization from a primitive K-rich mafic magma that interacted with crustal melts. Its zircon U-Pb SHRIMP age of 2106 ± 6 Ma indicates that the FGG is younger than the early (2163-2127 Ma) tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) and calc-alkaline arc plutons of the greenstone belt, and is closely related in time and space with potassic to ultrapotassic plutons (ca. 2110-2105 Ma). The negative ɛNd(t) of FGG and coeval K-rich plutons of the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt contrasts markedly with the positive ɛNd(t) of the older arc plutons, indicating a major change of isotope signatures in granites of the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt with time. This isotope shift may be related to magma contamination with older continental material and/or derivation of the parental potassic magma from enriched lithospheric mantle sources. We suggest that the K-rich plutons were emplaced during or shortly after Palaeoproterozoic arc-continent collision.

  20. Efecto del kinesiotaping con y sin tensión aplicado en cuadríceps sobre la capacidad de salto en deportistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayerly Carolina Anaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Estudios previos han encontrado que la técnica del Kinesiotaping (KT reduce la intensidad y duración del dolor y la inflamación, incrementa la fuerza muscular y estabiliza las articulaciones. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre su efecto para mejorar las capacidades físicas a través de la estimulación muscular en deportistas. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto del KT aplicado en el cuadríceps sobre la capacidad de salto vertical en deportistas sanos, ajustado por el porcentaje de coordinación y elasticidad, edad e Índice de Masa Corporal. Metodología: Estudio experimental realizado en 24 voleibolistas, aleatorizados en dos grupos: (1 12 sujetos (21.3 ± 3.4 años, 75.6 ± 13.9Kg, con aplicación del KT en cuádriceps femoral con tensión; (2 12 sujetos (20.5± 2.9 años, 71.8 ± 6.8 Kg con aplicación del KT en cuádriceps femoral sin tensión. Resultados: Los datos no mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la aplicación del KT con y sin tensión; se encontró asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el porcentaje de coordinación y la altura del salto alcanzado en la prueba de Abalakov (p=0,006, cuando el KT tenía tensión y ajustado por edad e IMC. Discusión y conclusiones: La técnica KT no mejora del desempeño del salto en deportistas sanos. No se debería aplicar KT en el cuadríceps femoral con el único objetivo de mejorar el salto en jugadores de voleibol saludables masculinos.

  1. La preactivación neuromuscular durante la maniobra evasiva de salto lateral no se asocia con alteraciones posturales en atletas de ultimate: un estudio transversal

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Jaime Alberto; García, José David; Duque, José Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Introducción Un patrón de preactivación neuromuscular anormal durante la maniobra evasiva de salto lateral (MESL) ha sido relacionado con la lesión del ligamento cruzado anterior. Sin embargo, se desconoce si dicho patrón neuromuscular está asociado con alteraciones posturales y anatómicas. Objetivo Describir la frecuencia del patrón neuromuscular anormal durante la MESL y explorar su asociación con características posturales y anatómicas en deportistas de ultimate. Ma...

  2. Do grande salto para frente à grande fome: China de 1958-1962 From the great leap forward to the great famine: China from 1958 to 1962

    OpenAIRE

    Shu Chang-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    O Grande Salto para Frente foi um programa econômico e sóciopolítico lançado pelo Presidente Mao Zedong, do Partido Comunista Chinês, entre 1958 e 1960, para transformar a China de um país agrário e atrasado em um país industrial, avançado e verdadeiramente socialista. Por falta de planejamento e coordenação, por causa da resistência dos camponeses e de uma s&ea...

  3. Respuesta psicofisiológica en un salto táctico paracaidista a gran altitud. A propósito de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente Suárez, Vicente Javier; Robles Pérez, José Juan; Montáñez Toledo, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    El estudio de las diversas facetas del combate a las que el soldado tiene que hacer frente ha sido poco investigado en la literatura científica, aunque en los últimos años varios estudios han mostrado la alta respuesta orgánica del combatiente debido al estrés en situaciones de combate simétrico, asimétrico, a corta distancia y en combate cuerpo a cuerpo, pero sigue sin haber estudios centrados en situaciones límite previas al combate como los saltos paracaidistas, especialmente en s...

  4. Estudio experimental de la influencia del estrato rocoso en la forma del foso de erosión producida por jet en salto de esquí

    OpenAIRE

    Cid Solé, Jordi

    2004-01-01

    Esta tesina trata sobre la forma del foso de erosión local producida por jet en salto de esquí y la influencia del estrato rocoso sobre ella. En primer lugar se realiza una búsqueda bibliográfica sobre el tema. En segundo lugar se desarrolla un nuevo método de medida en laboratorio del foso de erosión y su duna basado en la fotogrametría, estableciendo los pasos para su realización, el software necesario y la estimación de la magnitud del error. En tercer lugar tratamos la evolución tempor...

  5. Determinación de plaguicidas en la cuenca de Salto Grande : Incidencia de los procesos de potabilización sobre los niveles residuales

    OpenAIRE

    Williman, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Los problemas de calidad de agua en los lagos y embalses de Argentina se han incrementado por las actividades agrícolas, deforestación, explotación forestal, cría de animales, actividades mineras, escurrimiento urbano y descargas de aguas residuales no tratadas. La región aledaña al embalse Salto Grande, presenta un importante desarrollo agrícola, donde se utilizan numerosos tipos de plaguicidas. Estos compuestos generan contaminación ambiental, ya sea por deriva y/o acumulación en ...

  6. Alternativa ecológica en la evaluación del salto de longitud de atletas paralímpicos

    OpenAIRE

    Torralba Jordán, Miguel Ángel; Padullés Riu, José María; Losada López, José Luis; López del Amo, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Los Juegos Paralímpicos constituyen el máximo exponente a nivel mundial del deporte de competición practicado por personas con discapacidad. En este trabajo exponemos la investigación realizada en los Juegos Paralímpicos de Londres 2012, analizando las acciones de los atletas ciegos en el salto de longitud. Para la toma de datos se utilizaron 4 cámaras Exilim F1 (Casio, Japan), grabando 2 en alta velocidad (512x384 píxeles a 300 Hz) y 2 en alta definicón (1280x720 pixeles a ...

  7. Adaptaciones a un entrenamiento integrado de fuerza, potencia y propiocepción del tren inferior sobre estabilidad y el salto vertical en baloncesto masculino.

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez González, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: Los jugadores de baloncesto son individuos con características peculiares, en donde, la fuerza, la potencia y la propiocepción son elementos naturales e imprescindibles para el éxito deportivo. Durante la práctica del baloncesto se dan situaciones muy variadas y con repetición de gestos: aceleraciones y desaceleraciones bruscas, desplazamientos laterales, saltos, carreras, etc. La literatura ha demostrado que el aumento de la fuerza y la potencia sobre una estructura anatómica d...

  8. La habilidad motriz del salto en el 2º ciclo de Educación Primaria en Educación Física

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla San Martín, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    El salto es una habilidad motriz que se puede llevar a cabo en el segundo ciclo de Primaria porque al realizarlos se consigue desarrollar la coordinación, el equilibrio y la fuerza, además de otros factores debido a que lo podemos considerar un movimiento global. También nos sirve para enseñar nuevos patrones de movimiento y crear nuevos enlaces y combinaciones que les serán muy útiles para aprender nuevas formas de moverse y conocerse a ellos mismos y relacionarse con los demás. Grado en ...

  9. Efecto del kinesiotaping con y sin tensión aplicado en cuadríceps sobre la capacidad de salto en deportistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayerly Carolina Anaya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Estudios previos han encontrado que la técnica del Kinesiotaping (KT reduce la intensidad y duración del dolor y la inflamación, incrementa la fuerza muscular y estabiliza las articulaciones. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre su efecto para mejorar las capacidades físicas a través de la estimulación muscular en deportistas. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto del KT aplicado en el cuadríceps sobre la capacidad de salto vertical en deportistas sanos, ajustado por el porcentaje de coordinación y elasticidad, edad e Índice de Masa Corporal. Metodología: Estudio experimental realizado en 24 voleibolistas, aleatorizados en dos grupos: (1 12 sujetos (21.3 ± 3.4 años, 75.6 ± 13.9Kg, con aplicación del KT en cuádriceps femoral con tensión; (2 12 sujetos (20.5± 2.9 años, 71.8 ± 6.8 Kg con aplicación del KT en cuádriceps femoral sin tensión. Resultados: Los datos no mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la aplicación del KT con y sin tensión; se encontró asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el porcentaje de coordinación y la altura del salto alcanzado en la prueba de Abalakov (p=0,006, cuando el KT tenía tensión y ajustado por edad e IMC. Discusión y conclusiones: La técnica KT no mejora del desempeño del salto en deportistas sanos. No se debería aplicar KT en el cuadríceps femoral con el único objetivo de mejorar el salto en jugadores de voleibol saludables masculinos.

  10. Efeitos agudos no desempenho do salto vertical após o agachamento com banda elástica de joelho

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Willy Andrade; Silva, Josinaldo Jarbas da; Soares, Enrico Gori; Serpa, Erica Paes; Corrêa, Daniel Alves; Vilela Junior, Guanis de Barros; Lopes, Charles Ricardo; Marchetti, Paulo Henrique

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A banda elástica pode afetar o desempenho durante exercícios de alta intensidade, reduzindo a ativação muscular, o que pode influenciar o efeito de potencialização pós-ativação, que depende de alta intensidade para o exercício subsequente que visa potência. Objetivo: Verificar os efeitos agudos no desempenho do salto com contramovimento (SCM) após o agachamento em alta intensidade com e sem o uso da banda elástica de joelhos em sujeitos treinados em força.MÉTODOS: Participaram do ...

  11. Efecto del kinesiotaping con y sin tensión aplicado en cuadríceps sobre la capacidad de salto en deportistas

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya, Mayerly Carolina; Díaz, Ingrid Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: Estudios previos han encontrado que la técnica del Kinesiotaping (KT) reduce la intensidad y duración del dolor y la inflamación, incrementa la fuerza muscular y estabiliza las articulaciones. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre su efecto para mejorar las capacidades físicas a través de la estimulación muscular en deportistas. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto del KT aplicado en el cuadríceps sobre la capacidad de salto vertical en deportistas sanos, ajustado por el porcentaje de coordi...

  12. Erosión en lecho no cohesivo debido al impacto de un chorro a la salida de un vertedero con salto de ski.

    OpenAIRE

    Minaya Espinoza, Elsa Victoria; Minaya Espinoza, Elsa Victoria

    2005-01-01

    La mayoría de los estudios acerca del proceso de erosión en suelos no cohesivos debido al impacto de un chorro, a la salida de un vertedero de una presa, en el lecho del cuenco son empíricos, debido a la complejidad de los procesos físicos involucrados en este fenómeno. En el presente estudio se ha utilizado un modelo físico consistente en un chorro de agua que sale de un vertedero en rápida con una estructura terminal tipo salto de ski (el ángulo de despegue del ski es de 35º), que ...

  13. Determinación de frecuencia cardiaca, frecuencia respiratoria, lactato deshidrogenasa, creatinkinasa y ácido láctico en caballos durante competencia de salto en la Sabana de Bogotá

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Andrea Guerrero Nieto

    2009-01-01

    El estudio presenta los primeros resultados de investigación en variables fisiológicas y sus cambios por el ejercicio en equinos en competencia de salto en el país. Se utilizaron 24 ejemplares de las razas Silla Argentina, PSI y mestizo de la Escuela de Equitación del Ejército Nacional de Colombia, que participaron en pruebas de salto (1,10 – 1,20 m) en diferentes centros ecuestres de la Sabana de Bogotá. Se determinó frecuencia cardiaca, frecuencia respiratoria y enzimas musculares (creatinq...

  14. Tectono-metamorphic evolution and magmatic processes in the thermo-metamorphic aureole of the Monte Capanne pluton (Elba Island, Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, M.; Pandeli, E.; Principi, G.

    2003-04-01

    main foliation. Both at the meso- and micro-scale few generations of syn-/inter-kinematic and static thermo-metamorphic blasteses (e.g. biotite, wollastonite, garnet, epidote etc.) are evident. Finally weak local folding and faulting affected the Monte Capanne thermo-metamorphic aureole during the uplift of the cooled pluton. Along the coast of Spartaia (north-eastern side of Monte Capanne) the meta-sedimentary upper portion of the Punta Nera Unit crops out and it is represented by alternating marbles and phyllites with rare meta-arenites. Here, the relationships between tectono-metamorphic and thermo-metamorphic structures, and intrusive magmatic bodies are particularly evident. D_1M_1: is recognizable at the meso-scale only as rare relics of intrafolial isoclinal rootless hinges and locally as a transposed foliation (S1). At the microscope a relic fine-spaced foliation, locally preserved by the following re-crystallization and parallel to the original lithological partitions, is evident. The original mineral associations is often replaced by HT/LP mimetic and syn-kinematic or static blasteses. D_2M_2 is the most evident structural fabric pre-dating the thermo-metamorphic events. It is represented by tight to isoclinal folds with N-S trending axes and easternward vergence. At the microscope the S2 foliation deformed the previously S1 and at the fold hinges a variously penetrative discrete crenulation cleavage (S2) is recognizable. M_3 is the first thermo-metamorphic event. It is associated to the intrusions of the Capo Bianco, San Martino and Portoferraio laccoliths (between ca. 8 and 7.2 Ma, Rocchi et alii, 2002) along pre-existing tectonic and lithological discontinuity. The laccoliths clearly crosscut the tectono-metamorphic fabric of the Punta Nera Unit. At this first magmatic event is associated a HT/LP blastesis of static garnet, wollastonite and epidote. Close to the contact between the magmatic intrusive bodies the country rocks are strongly re

  15. Aplicação de um teste de saltos com pesos crescentes para avaliar a relação entre força-velocidade e potência = Application of a Jump test with Increasing Weights to Evaluate the Relation between Strength-Speed and Potency = Aplicación de un Test de Saltos con Pesos Crecientes para Evaluar la Relación entre Fuerza-Velocidad y Potencia.

    OpenAIRE

    Naclerio Ayllón, Fernando; Rodríguez Romo, Gabriel; Colado, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo do estudo foi analisar as diferenças entre as alturas ou potências produzidas em um teste de saltos com pesos crescentes utilizando diferentes porcentagens de uma Repetição Máxima (1RM), assim como identifi car as zonas de pesos onde se alcançam as potências altas e aquelas onde não é possível saltar. Materiais e Métodos: 14 esportistas de diferentes especialidades realizaram um teste de saltos com pesos crescentes, determinando o nível de sobrecarga com base no valor de 1RM, medid...

  16. EFECTO DE DIFERENTES MÉTODOS DE ENTRENAMIENTO DE CONTRASTE PARA LA MEJORA DE LA FUERZA DE IMPULSIÓN EN UN SALTO VERTICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Padial

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    RESUMEN

    La finalidad del presente estudio es conocer el efecto de dos tipos de entrenamiento de contraste de fuerza en los que se combinan cargas ligeras (multisaltos con cargas pesadas (sentadillas al 70% del 1RM sobre las distintas manifestaciones de la fuerza dinámica. La muestra seleccionada se extrajo del Ejercito Español de Tierra, divididos en dos grupos experimentales (n=30: 15 en cada grupo, varones, 22 ± 4 años de edad, sin que existiera para ello grupo control. La razón de este diseño, sin grupo control, es porque está suficientemente comprobado por la literatura científica que el entrenamiento de contraste de fuerza produce ganancias significativas en la altura del salto. La variable independiente manipulada es la forma de combinación de las cargas: en el grupo 1 la combinación de cargas se realiza en la misma serie (grupo de contraste en la serie –CSR- y en el grupo 2 la combinación de cargas se realiza en la misma sesión (grupo de contraste en la sesión – CSS-.Por lo tanto, lo que se trata de determinar es qué método de contraste, de los dos empleados, es más eficaz. Procedimiento: Ambos grupos experimentales entrenaron 3 veces a la semana, durante 8 semanas consecutivas. La intensidad del entrenamiento y la carga fue la misma para los dos grupos. Se realizaron controles, mediante una alfombra de contacto, al inicio y en la 4ª y 8ª semana de la experimentación. Se evaluó la altura de salto siguiendo el protocolo de Bosco: salto sin contramomivimiento (SJ, salto con controamovimiento (CMJ, salto sin contramovimiento con el 50% de peso corporal (SJ50, salto sin contramovimiento con el 100% de peso corporal (SJ100 y la fuerza máxima del tren inferior mediante una repetición máxima -1RM en sentadilla-. Resultados: Tras el correspondiente an

  17. Geochemistry of mylonitic tourmaline-bearing granite- gneiss pluton in the northeast of June mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Moradi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Studied mylonitic granite-gneiss body is located in the Northwest of the Azna region in the Lorestan province close to the June dimension stone mine. It is a part of the metamorphic- magmatic complex including granite-gneiss, amphibolite, marble and schist. The crystalline basement is attributed to late-Neoproterozoic and it indicates a Panafrican basement, which yields a laser-ablation ICP–MS U–Pb zircon ages of 608 ± 18 Ma and 588 ± 41 Ma (Shakerardakani et al., 2015. There are two granite-gneiss plutons in the complex that are Galeh– Dezh (Shabanian et al., 2009, and June plutons. The Galeh-Doz pluton are previously proposed as syn-deformation pluton with a major S-shaped bend which has been imparted during dextral shearing with a Late Cretaceous (Mohajjel and Fergusson, 2000. However, new age dating on the pluton using U–Pb in the magmatic zircon produced the late-Neoproterozoic dates (Nutman et al., 2014; Shakerardakani et al., 2015. The granite-gneiss plutons show mylonitic fabrics and microstructures (Shabanian et al., 2010. The geochemical characteristics of mylonitic granite-gneiss body near June mine in NW Azna, is in the focus of our research. Materials and methods Petrographic investigations of 30 thin sections were made. Then eight samples were selected and analyzed for whole rock major, trace and REE compositions by ICP-emission spectrometry and ICP-mass spectrometry using natural rock standards as reference samples for calibration at the ACME Analytical Laboratories in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Results The studied gneiss- granitic body has lepido-granoblastic texture as its major texture. It variably shows evidence of dynamic deformation from ultramylonite to protomylonite. The gneiss- granite consists of quartz, alkali feldspar (mostly as perthite, plagioclase, biotite, white mica (muscovite and phengitic muscovite. Accessory phases in the granitoid include, tourmaline, zircon, magmatic epidote

  18. Norite and charnockites from the Venda Nova Pluton, SE Brazil: Intensive parameters and some petrogenetic constraints

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    Julio Cezar Mendes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Venda Nova Pluton (VNP is a zoned ring structure emplaced in the southern portion of the Neoproterozoic Araçuai Belt, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. It is a slightly westward tilted cylinder-like intrusion, with an almost circular horizontal section. In the center of this structure, an off-centered gabbro-noritic core, surrounded by syeno-monzonitic rocks, intrudes an outer ring of charnockites and norite. These envelop the syeno-monzonitic and gabbro-noritic center, as a narrow discontinuous belt. While, in the core intrusion, mingling and mixing processes are widespread and well documented in the literature, in the outer ring, the norite and charnockite layers show predominantly homogeneous and isotropic internal structures. Nevertheless, smaller interaction zones between charnockites and norite denote a comparatively more restricted mingling process. The norite is a fine-grained rock with hypidiomorphic granular to intergranular texture. The charnockites are medium-grained and made up of: (a orthopyroxene-tonalite, (b orthopyroxene-quartz-diorite, and (c orthopyroxene-granodiorite with hypidiomorphic granular to porphyritic textures. In all lithotypes both ortho- and clinopyroxene are replaced by hornblende and biotite. Two contrasting compositional sequences have been recognized, based on whole rock geochemistry: (1 a basic, with tholeiitic affinities (norite and, (2 an intermediate, medium-K calc-alkaline, comprising the charnockites. Estimated crystallization temperatures, which have been calculated from micro-probe analysis of pyroxenes, range from 915 ± 25 °C to 960 ± 50 °C. Re-equilibration temperature (ilmenite-magnetite calibration is around 600 ± 50 °C. This indicates oxygen fugacities four order of magnitude below the FMQ-buffer and a reduced environment. Coeval pressure conditions estimated from the Al-content in hornblende range from 5.5 ± 0.6 kbar. Data obtained for the norite point toward an evolution from

  19. The Jeffers Brook diorite-granodiorite pluton: style of emplacement and role of volatiles at various crustal levels in Avalonian appinites, Canadian Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pe-Piper, Georgia; Piper, David J. W.

    2017-09-01

    Small appinite plutons ca. 610 Ma outcrop in the peri-Gondwanan Avalon terrane of northern Nova Scotia, with different structural levels exposed. Field mapping shows that the Jeffers Brook pluton is a laccolith emplaced along an upper crustal thrust zone, likely in a dilational jog in a regional dextral strike-slip system. The oldest rocks are probably mafic sills, which heated the area facilitating emplacement of intermediate magmas. Cross-cutting relationships show that both mafic and intermediate magmas were supplied throughout the history of pluton emplacement. The modal composition, mineral chemistry, and bulk chemistry of gabbro, diorite, tonalite, granodiorite, and granite have been studied in the main plutonic phases, dykes, and sills, and mafic microgranular enclaves. As with the type appinites in the Scottish Caledonides, the pluton shows evidence of high water content: the dominance of hornblende, locally within pegmatitic texture; vesicles and irregular felsic patches in enclaves; and late aplite dykes. Analyzed mafic microgranular enclaves are geochemically similar to larger diorite bodies in the pluton. Tonalite-granodiorite is distinct from the diorite in trace-element geochemistry and radiogenic isotopes. Elsewhere to the east, similar rocks of the same age form vertically sheeted complexes in major shear zones; hornblende chemistry shows that they were emplaced at a deeper upper crustal level. This implies that little of the observed geochemical variability in the Jeffers Brook pluton was developed within the pluton. The general requirements to form appinites are proposed to be small magma volumes of subduction-related magmas that reach the upper crust because of continual heating by mafic magmas moving through strike-slip fault pathways and trapping of aqueous fluids rather than venting through volcanic activity.

  20. Inventário arbóreo-urbano do município de Salto de Pirapora, SP

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    Daniele Porto Benatti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo realizar o inventário arbóreo-urbano em 24 bairros do Município de Salto de Pirapora, SP, por meio da avaliação quali-quantitativa. Para tanto, foram obtidas informações relacionadas à: espécie arbórea, situação da copa e do tronco, orientação do tronco, fitossanidade, interceptação das raízes no passeio, necessidade de tratos silviculturais, altura total e altura da primeira bifurcação, assim como características do espaço viário. Foram registrados 868 indivíduos, dos quais 679 foram catalogados em 71 espécies arbóreas. A espécie de maior frequência foi Caesalpinia pluviosa, representando 13,6% do total, seguida de Ficus benjamin (10,4%, Lagerstroemia indica (5,0% e Terminalia catappa (4,8%. Quanto à condição do tronco, 68,8% dos indivíduos arbóreos não apresentaram problemas; 85,7% das árvores observadas possuíam orientação simpodial adequada; poucas árvores apresentavam danos relacionados à fitossanidade que poderiam interferir em sua integridade e, ou, longevidade; 69,6% não interferiam, de forma direta, na calçada; 32,8% das árvores necessitavam de podas por estarem acima da fiação elétrica; 0,5% necessitava de substituição; e 5,7% precisavam ser removidas. Com relação à altura total das árvores, 63,0% apresentavam crescimento menor que 5 m; e 65,3% com altura da primeira bifurcação do tronco inferior a 1,80 m. O Bairro Primavera destacou-se pelo maior número de árvores em sua urbanização. Em contrapartida, o Jardim Amélia apresentou apenas um indivíduo. Dessa forma, observou-se que cada bairro possuía sua particularidade, e ações de manutenção e enriquecimento, tanto relacionadas ao número de espécies quanto à quantidade de indivíduos, deveriam ser consideradas no planejamento urbano-arbóreo daquele município.

  1. Longitudinal processes in Salto Grande reservoir (Americana, SP, Brazil and its influence in the formation of compartment system

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    L. H. ZANATA

    Full Text Available Studies on the longitudinal processes in reservoirs, involving physical, chemical and biological processes have been thoroughly appraised, suggesting the existence of a longitudinal organization controlled by the entrance and circulation of water which inserts modifications in the structuring of the system. To evaluate this effect, the Salto Grande reservoir (Americana, SP was analyzed in 11 sampling stations in its longitudinal axis, in the rainy and dry seasons of 1997 considering the physical chemical and biological variables. Analyzing the results in agreement with the declining concentration degree of the river--barrage direction, a more significant correlation was verified in the dry period for total phosphorus (r² = 0.86, dissolved total phosphate (r² = 0.83, nitrite (r² = 0.93, inorganic phosphate (r² = 0.89, ammonium (r² = 0.84 and suspended material (r² = 0.85. In the rainy period, only nitrite (r² = 0.90 and conductivity (r² = 0.89 presented correlation with the distance of the dam, which demonstrates the effects of precipitation and the operational mechanism of the dam, as well as the distinction among the physical (sedimentation, chemical (oxidation and biological (decomposition processes in spatial heterogeneity of the system. These factors were decisive in the organization of these communities, with higher occurrence of rotifers and copepods in relation to cladocerans, the first ones being more abundant in the entrance of the Atibaia river, decreasing towards the dam direction, while copepods presented an inverse pattern. A distribution pattern similar to Copepoda was also verified for the Cladocera, evidencing a tendency to increase the density of organisms in the stations distant to the entrance of the Atibaia river, not being registered, however, a distribution gradient in the longitudinal axis, as observed for rotifers and copepods. In relation to the trophic degree a longitudinal gradient was also verified from

  2. Longitudinal processes in Salto Grande reservoir (Americana, SP, Brazil and its influence in the formation of compartment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZANATA L. H.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the longitudinal processes in reservoirs, involving physical, chemical and biological processes have been thoroughly appraised, suggesting the existence of a longitudinal organization controlled by the entrance and circulation of water which inserts modifications in the structuring of the system. To evaluate this effect, the Salto Grande reservoir (Americana, SP was analyzed in 11 sampling stations in its longitudinal axis, in the rainy and dry seasons of 1997 considering the physical chemical and biological variables. Analyzing the results in agreement with the declining concentration degree of the river--barrage direction, a more significant correlation was verified in the dry period for total phosphorus (r² = 0.86, dissolved total phosphate (r² = 0.83, nitrite (r² = 0.93, inorganic phosphate (r² = 0.89, ammonium (r² = 0.84 and suspended material (r² = 0.85. In the rainy period, only nitrite (r² = 0.90 and conductivity (r² = 0.89 presented correlation with the distance of the dam, which demonstrates the effects of precipitation and the operational mechanism of the dam, as well as the distinction among the physical (sedimentation, chemical (oxidation and biological (decomposition processes in spatial heterogeneity of the system. These factors were decisive in the organization of these communities, with higher occurrence of rotifers and copepods in relation to cladocerans, the first ones being more abundant in the entrance of the Atibaia river, decreasing towards the dam direction, while copepods presented an inverse pattern. A distribution pattern similar to Copepoda was also verified for the Cladocera, evidencing a tendency to increase the density of organisms in the stations distant to the entrance of the Atibaia river, not being registered, however, a distribution gradient in the longitudinal axis, as observed for rotifers and copepods. In relation to the trophic degree a longitudinal gradient was also verified from

  3. Eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, R.G.; Roliff, W.A.; Sealey, R.; Palonen, P.A.

    1981-10-01

    Uncertainty of increased taxation of petroleum revenues proposed under the Canadian national energy program effected a minor slowdown of the rapid exploration in 1980. Total numbers of wells drilled in eastern Canada were: Ontario, 224; Quebec, 3; Nova Scotia, 1; and the Atlantic offshore, 13. Much of the Ontario drilling, 123 wells, was for development purposes. The success ratio on exploratory drilling in Ontario was 34.7, while all Quebec and Nova Scotia wells were dry. Production of oil and gas declined by 16.8% and 18.5% in New Brunswick. Oil production in Ontario increased by 1.2%. The increase in gas production of 14.3% to almost 443,535.5 x 10/sup 3/m/sup 3/ was due almost entirely to development of known fields underlying Lake Erie. The exploration of offshore eastern Canada continued at a stable rate, with 12 wells completed. Of these, 2 were in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 3 on the Grand Banks, 6 on the Labrador Shelf, and 1 in Davis Strait. All wells were abandoned or suspended at year end, although discoveries of hydrocarbon were made in Davis Strait and the Grand Banks. The early exploration stage, combined with record water depths, prevented any of these wells from being put into production, although testing will be continued on the most promising shows. Seismic exploration increased to approximately 30,000 km in the Atlantic offshore areas. In addition, 1,420.94 km was shot in Lake Erie. Onshore seismic exploration accounted for 1,078.67 km in Ontario, 350 km in Nova Scotia and 242.76 km in Quebec. 3 figures, 8 tables.

  4. Geochemical and Isotopic Data for Oligocene Ignimbrites, Calderas, and Granitic Plutons, Southern Stillwater Range and Clan Alpine Mountains: Insights into the Volcanic-Plutonic Connection and Crustal Evolution in Western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, D. A.; Colgan, J. P.; Watts, K. E.; Henry, C.; Cousens, B.

    2015-12-01

    Oligocene calderas and underlying plutons in the southern Stillwater Range (SSR) and Clan Alpine Mountains (CAM) in western Nevada were tilted (40->90°) by large-magnitude Miocene extension and unconformably overlain by 15-13 Ma intermediate and mafic lava flows. New geologic mapping, geochemistry, and Ar-Ar and U-Pb dating document 2 brief periods of magmatism resulting in 5 nested calderas and related plutons in sections locally ≥9 km thick. Early magmatism at ~29 Ma included the Deep Canyon caldera in CAM, and in the SSR, pre-caldera rhyolites, ~5 km of pre- and post-collapse intermediate lavas and rhyolite tuff that filled Job Canyon caldera (JC, ~29.4 to 28.8 Ma), and the >4-5 km thick IXL pluton (~28.5 Ma) that intruded JC and is compositionally similar to the tuff and lava flows. The second period included 3 ignimbrite units in 3 calderas: small-volume tuff of Louderback Mountains (LM, low-silica rhyolite; ≥600 m thick; ~25.3 Ma); multiple cooling units of tuff of Poco Canyon (PC, high-silica rhyolite; ≤4.5 km thick; ~25.3 Ma); and ≥2500 km3 of tuff of Elevenmile Canyon (EC, trachydacite to rhyolite; ≤4.5 km thick; 25.1 Ma) that covers ~1600 km2 and extends east from SSR to the northern Desatoya Mountains. The composite Freeman Creek pluton (granodiorite, ~25.0 Ma; granite, ~24.8 Ma) and Chalk Mountain rhyolite porphyry (~25.2 Ma) and granite (~24.8 Ma) plutons intruded LM, PC and EC calderas. Radiogenic isotopes in all caldera units are similar (Sri~0.7050, ΕNd~0.0), while oxygen isotope compositions are variable (δ18Oquartz=5.7-8.4‰, δ18Ozircon=4.1-6.3‰), corresponding to a magmatic range of 5.6-7.6‰, including 2-5 km) underlie compositionally and temporally related caldera-filling ignimbrites, (2) caldera-forming cycles are isotopically variable, requiring temporally and spatially distinct magma sources, and (3) caldera magmas have a strong mantle affinity and overlap isotopically (Sr, Nd, and O) with regional Late Cenozoic basalts.

  5. The intrusive complexof the Island of Giglio: geomagnetic characteristics of plutonic facies with low susceptibility contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cavallini

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Two main plutonic facies characterize the intrusive complex of the Island of Giglio, and the trend of their contact at depth has been modelled using a 2D½ analysis based on a detailed geomagnetic survey in order to verify the geological hypothesis of the subsurface geometry of this contact. The magnetic anomaly connected with the discontinuity is quite low, due to the small difference between the magnetic susceptibilities of the two granitic facies. Development of this model of inversion of the magnetic field, which is in good agreement with the geological interpretation, was made possible by: 1 accurate control of the geomagnetic time variations and consequent temporal reduction, 2 a very low level of the artificial magnetic noise, 3 high density of the magnetic survey, 4 detailed knowledge of the mapped geologic contact between facies and of their petrologic characteristics, and 5 direct local measurements of the magnetic susceptibilities of the key lithologies. The model shows the trends of the geological contact, as projected in three E-W sections, that dips eastward in the range between 210 and 540, supporting the geologic hypothesis that the Pietrabona facies represents an external shell of the shallowly emplaced Giglio monzogranite intrusion.

  6. Relação dos saltos vertical, horizontal e sêxtuplo com a agilidade e velocidade em crianças Relationship of vertical, horizontal and sextuple jumps with agility and speed in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Henrique Constantino Coledam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente estudo foram: 1 verificar a relação dos saltos vertical, horizontal e sêxtuplo com a agilidade e velocidade de 5, 10 e 25 m; 2 verificar a capacidade desses saltos em predizer o desempenho da agilidade e velocidade de 5, 10 e 25 m em crianças. Vinte e oito meninos (9,47 ± 0,64 anos e 30 meninas (9,69 ± 0,70 anos foram avaliados. Os valores de correlação entre a agilidade, velocidade de 5, 10 e 25 m foram, respectivamente, r = 0,63, 0,51, 0,44 e 0,64 com o salto vertical, r = 0,68, 0,62, 0,28 e 0,62 com o salto sêxtuplo, e r = 0,60, 0,50, 0,26 e 0,57 com o salto horizontal. O salto vertical e o salto sêxtuplo foram capazes de predizer o desempenho da agilidade e da velocidade de 25 m (p The aim of the present study were: 1 To verify the relationship of vertical, horizontal and sextuple jumps with agility and velocity of 5, 10 and 25 m; 2 To verify the capacity of these jumps to predict the agility and 5, 10 and 25 m velocity performance in children. Twenty eight boys (9.47 ± 0.64 years and thirty girls (9.69 ± 0.70 years were evaluated. The correlation values between agility and velocity on 5, 10 and 25 m velocity were, respectively, r = 0.63, 0.51, 0.44 and 0.64 with vertical jump, r = 0.68, 0.62, 0.28 and 0.62 with sextuple jump, and r = 0.60, 0.50, 0.26 and 0.57 with horizontal jump. The vertical and sextuple jumps were able to predict the agility and 25 m velocity performance (p < 0.05. Furthermore, they demonstrated capacity to predict 5 and 10 m velocity, respectively (p < 0.05. The vertical and sextuple jump tests may be used for assessment and control of training with children practicing activities that require agility and velocity, since both jumps predicted the agility and velocity performance, which did not occur with the horizontal jump.

  7. Efeitos agudos no desempenho do salto vertical após o agachamento com banda elástica de joelho

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    Willy Andrade Gomes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A banda elástica pode afetar o desempenho durante exercícios de alta intensidade, reduzindo a ativação muscular, o que pode influenciar o efeito de potencialização pós-ativação, que depende de alta intensidade para o exercício subsequente que visa potência. Objetivo: Verificar os efeitos agudos no desempenho do salto com contramovimento (SCM após o agachamento em alta intensidade com e sem o uso da banda elástica de joelhos em sujeitos treinados em força.MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 14 homens (idade: 24 ± 4 anos, estatura: 176 ± 6 cm, massa corporal: 81 ± 11 kg, 1RM: 107 ± 30 kgf, treinados em força (>3 anos. Foram realizados três SCM antes e após três meio-agachamentos a 90% de 1RM nas condições com e sem a banda elástica de joelhos. Durante o SCM foram avaliados ativação muscular (IEMG do vasto lateral (VL, glúteo máximo (GM, tempo de salto (TS e impulso (IMP por meio da força vertical de reação do solo (FRSv.RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que para o TS foi verificada diferença significante entre as condições pós-meio-agachamento (com e sem banda (P= 0,044, TE = 1,02, sendo que os maiores valores foram observados para a condição sem banda. Para a IEMG de VL foi verificada diferença significante entre as condições pré e pós o meio-agachamento (com banda (P= 0,029, TE = 1,68, sendo que os maiores valores foram observados para a IEMG com banda. Para a IEMG de GM e para o IMP não foram verificadas diferenças significantes entre as condições.CONCLUSÃO: Após a utilização da banda elástica de joelhos durante o exercício agachamento, ocorreu uma redução na participação do vasto lateral durante o salto com contramovimento, afetando o tempo de contato, mas não a produção de impulso, e consequente desempenho.

  8. Comentarios al Salto Social

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    Facultad de Ciencias Económicas

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available 1. El Plan considera que la política social es un componente central de la estrategia macroeconómica. A diferencia de la administración Gaviria, lo social ha dejado de ser un asunto marginal, es consustancial al desarrollo y, por tanto, se le confiere una dimensión cualitativamente diferente.

  9. Cinemática del Modelo Técnico de Rendimiento del Salto de Altura en Función de la Edad

    OpenAIRE

    Bermejo Frutos, Javier

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la técnica del salto de altura. Se realizó un análisis biomecánico, a través de fotogrametría tridimensional (3D), durante las finales de los Campeonatos de España (2009) de las categorías cadete, junior, y senior. La muestra seleccionada fueron 37 modelos técnicos individuales masculinos (11 de categoría cadete, 13 juniors, y 13 absolutos) y 32 femeninos (11 de categoría cadete, nueve juniors, y 13 absolutos). Estas ejecuciones técnicas comprendían la...

  10. Mosquito-producing containers, spatial distribution, and relationship between Aedes aegypti population indices on the southern boundary of its distribution in South America (Salto, Uruguay).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, César; Caffera, Ruben M; García da Rosa, Elsa; Lairihoy, Rosario; González, Cristina; Norbis, Walter; Roche, Ingrid

    2012-12-01

    A study was conducted in the city of Salto, Uruguay, to identify mosquito-producing containers, the spatial distribution of mosquitoes and the relationship between the different population indices of Aedes aegypti. On each of 312 premises visited, water-filled containers and immature Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were identified. The containers were counted and classified into six categories. Pupae per person and Stegomyia indices were calculated. Pupae per person were represented spatially. The number of each type of container and number of mosquitoes in each were analyzed and compared, and their spatial distribution was analyzed. No significant differences in the number of the different types of containers with mosquitoes or in the number of mosquitoes in each were found. The distribution of the containers with mosquito was random and the distribution of mosquitoes by type of container was aggregated or highly aggregated.

  11. Mosquito-Producing Containers, Spatial Distribution, and Relationship between Aedes aegypti Population Indices on the Southern Boundary of its Distribution in South America (Salto, Uruguay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, César; Caffera, Ruben M.; García da Rosa, Elsa; Lairihoy, Rosario; González, Cristina; Norbis, Walter; Roche, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted in the city of Salto, Uruguay, to identify mosquito-producing containers, the spatial distribution of mosquitoes and the relationship between the different population indices of Aedes aegypti. On each of 312 premises visited, water-filled containers and immature Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were identified. The containers were counted and classified into six categories. Pupae per person and Stegomyia indices were calculated. Pupae per person were represented spatially. The number of each type of container and number of mosquitoes in each were analyzed and compared, and their spatial distribution was analyzed. No significant differences in the number of the different types of containers with mosquitoes or in the number of mosquitoes in each were found. The distribution of the containers with mosquito was random and the distribution of mosquitoes by type of container was aggregated or highly aggregated. PMID:23128295

  12. Indoor radon risk associated to post-tectonic biotite granites from Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton, northern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, L M O; Gomes, M E P; Teixeira, R J S; Pereira, A J S C; Neves, L J P F

    2016-11-01

    At Vila Pouca de Aguiar area, northern Portugal, crops out a post-tectonic Variscan granite pluton, related with the Régua-Vila Real-Verín fault zone, comprising three types of biotite granites. Among these granites, PSG granite yield the highest average contents of U, probably due to its enrichment in accessory U-bearing minerals such as zircon. In the proximity of faults and joints, these granites are often affected by different degrees of hydrothermal alteration, forming reddish altered rocks, commonly known as "episyenites". These altered rocks are probably associated to the occurrence of hydrothermal processes, which led to uranium enrichment in the most advanced stages of episyenitization. In these granites, both average gamma absorbed dose rates in outdoor and indoor air are higher than those of the world average. Furthermore, even in the worst usage scenario, all these granites can be used as a building material, since their annual effective doses are similar to the limit defined by the European Commission. The geometric mean of radon activity of 91 dwellings located at the Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton is 568Bqm(-3), exceeding that of other northern Portuguese granites. Measurements carried out during a winter season, indicate that 62.6% of the analysed dwellings yield higher indoor radon average values than the Portuguese legislation limit (400Bqm(-3)), and annual effective doses due higher than the world's average value (1.2mSvy(-1)). The interaction of geogenic, architectural and anthropogenic features is crucial to explain the variance in the geometric mean of radon activity of dwellings from Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton, but the role of geologic faults is probably the most important decisive factor to increase the indoor radon concentration in dwellings. Hence, the development of awareness campaigns in order to inform population about the incurred radiological risks to radon exposure are highly recommended for this specific area. Copyright © 2016

  13. Coleópteros acuáticos y semiacuáticos del Parque Provincial Salto Encantado y Valle del Cuñá Pirú (Misiones, Argentina Aquatic and semiaquatic Coleoptera from Salto Encantado y Valle del Cuñá Pirú Provincial Park (Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana A. Fernández

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de la recolección de coleópteros acuáticos y semiacuáticos del Parque Provincial Salto Encantado y Valle del Cuñá Pirú, con el objeto de contribuir al conocimiento de la biodiversidad del área protegida mencionada, de la provincia de Misiones. Los sitios de muestreo incluyeron ambientes lóticos y lénticos. Se registraron 74 especies de coleópteros, distribuidas en 44 géneros y 14 familias: Haliplidae, Noteridae, Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Hydrochidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, Staphylinidae, Scirtidae, Psephenidae, Limnichidae, Lutrochidae, Dryopidae y Elmidae. Se mencionan nuevas citas para la provincia y para la Argentina, así como la presencia de especies nuevas para la ciencia.This paper presents a list of aquatic and semiaquatic Coleoptera collected during a biodiversity study carried out in Salto Encantado and Valle del Cuñá Pirú Provincial Park. This study aims to improve the knowledge of this protected area located in Misiones Province. Permanent and semi-permanent lotic and lentic habitats were sampled. Seventy-four species of beetles in 44 genera and 14 families were recorded: Haliplidae, Noteridae, Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Hydrochidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, Staphylinidae, Scirtidae, Psephenidae, Limnichidae, Lutrochidae, Dryopidae and Elmidae. New records for the province and for Argentina are listed, and the presence of new species is mentioned.

  14. Characteristics of Young Rhyolites at Taupo, New Zealand: Implications for the Sub-Surface Plutonic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. J.; Charlier, B. L.

    2007-12-01

    The young history of Taupo volcano captures the growth and destruction in the 26.5 ka ca. 530 km3 Oruanui eruption of a large rhyolitic magma body, together with the subsequent rejuvenation of magma sources below the volcano. Integration of field information with petrological and isotopic studies at the whole-pumice and single- crystal scales provide a picture of this history. Several important contrasts are inferred to exist between Taupo and comparably-sized, long-lived silicic foci such at Long Valley and in the Bishop Tuff. At Taupo the following are demonstrable. 1. Even in crystal-poor rhyolites like the Oruanui, many grains are inherited antecrysts or xenocrysts. The Oruanui crystal-poor rhyolite body was an open system, with influxes of crystals (plus melt) from remobilised older crystal mush, melted metasedimentary country rocks and plutonics, and crystal-poor basaltic to andesitic magmas. 2. All the Taupo rhyolites were well mixed prior to eruption, and there are no gradients in the eruption products to suggest that the holding chamber(s) were stratified to any extent. 3. Mafic magmas rose into, interacted with, and ponded on the floors of crystal-poor rhyolite in the Oruanui and Waimihia (3.5 ka) examples, again implying that the chamber floor was sharply defined, not a gradual progression down into a more crystal- rich root zone. 4. Pre-Oruanui activity involved contrasting magma types being generated simultaneously, but erupting from geographically separated vents. Post-Oruanui activity has seen (subtly) contrasting magma groups being erupted from vents in the same geographic area, but separated in time. The Oruanui and post-Oruanui magmas are different and do not appear to be related by consanguinity or by mixing - the Oruanui eruption effectively destroyed its magma body. These features are consistent with rhyolite magma generation at Taupo that is exceptionally fast, driven by high fluxes of mafic magmas into a highly heterogeneous crustal melange

  15. Evolution of the fluid in the REE-rich pegmatites of the Strange Lake pluton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyukova, O.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    Five types of aqueous inclusions are observed in the Mid-proterozoic peralkaline granites and pegmatites of the Strange Lake pluton (Québec-Labrador, Canada). From earliest to latest they are: primary aqueous inclusions associated with melt inclusions (type 1), with CH4 inclusions (types 2 a and b enriched in H2 and higher hydrocarbons respectively), and CO2 inclusions (type 3), primary aqueous inclusions, which show no apparent association with any gas-rich fluid (type 4) and secondary aqueous inclusions associated with mineral pseudomorphs (type 5). The salinity of the fluid decreases from the earliest type 1 (24.1 wt.% NaCl eq.) to type 2 a and b (21.2 and 14.2 wt.% NaCl eq. respectively), to type 3 (10.1 wt.% NaCl eq.) and type 4 inclusions (8.2 wt.% NaCl eq.). The salinity of type 5 inclusions is high, i.e., 16.6 wt.% NaCl eq.. The gas composition changes systematically from CH4 ± H2 in type 1 and 2a to CH4 + higher hydrocarbons in type 2b and to CO2 dominant type 3 inclusions. Most of the inclusions show re-equilibration texures ('implosion' halos). Another typical feature is a tendency to decrepitate at temperatures higher than 140-150 °C. The fluid evolution started with the exsolution of a saline aqueous liquid (~25 wt.% NaCl eq.) from the pegmatitic melt at a temperature of about 400 °C and a pressure around 1100 bars. Further evolution occurred due to cooling (isobaric) and oxidation of the fluid. Early initial oxidation led to formation of higher hydrocarbons by oxidative coupling of methane, and later, full-blown oxidation led to the production of CO2. The CO2 reacted with Na-rich fluid to form nahcolite, which caused a significant decrease in the apparent salinity down to a critical level, below which further oxidation led to an increase in the CO2/CH4 ratio and eventual disappearance of CH4. Isobaric cooling continued down to at least 150-170 °C, at which temperature the CO2 component was consumed to form REE-rich flurocarbonates. Nahcolite

  16. 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb Ages and Isotopic Data for Oligocene Ignimbrites, Calderas, and Granitic Plutons, Southern Stillwater Range and Clan Alpine Mountains: Insights into the Volcanic-Plutonic Connection and Crustal Evolution in Western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, D. A.; Watts, K. E.; Henry, C.; Colgan, J. P.; Cousens, B.

    2014-12-01

    Calderas in the southern Stillwater Range (SSR) and Clan Alpine Mountains (CAM) were formed during the mid-Tertiary ignimbrite flareup and subsequently tilted (40->90°) by large-magnitude extension. New geologic mapping, geochemistry, and 40Ar/39Ar and SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating document 2 periods of magmatism resulting in 4 nested calderas and related granitoid plutons in sections up to 10 km thick. The first period included pre-caldera rhyolite lava domes (30(?) Ma), ~5 km of pre- and post-collapse intermediate lavas and rhyolite tuff that filled the Job Canyon caldera (~29.4 to 28.8 Ma), and the >4-5 km thick, geochemically similar IXL pluton (28.9±0.4 Ma) that intruded the Job Canyon caldera. The second period included pre-caldera rhyolite lava domes and dikes (~25.5 Ma) and 3 ignimbrite units in 3 calderas: tuff of the Louderback Mountains (low-silica rhyolite; ≥600 m thick; ~25.2 Ma); tuff of Poco Canyon (high-silica rhyolite; up to 4.3 km thick; 25.27±0.05 Ma); and ≥2000 km3 tuff of Elevenmile Canyon (trachydacite to rhyolite; up to 4.5 km thick; 25.12±0.01 Ma). The composite Freeman Creek pluton (granite, 24.8±0.4 Ma; granodiorite, 25.0±0.2 Ma) and Chalk Mountain rhyolite porphyry (25.2±0.2 Ma) and granite (24.8±0.3 Ma) plutons intruded the Poco Canyon and Elevenmile Canyon calderas. Early (30 Ma) rhyolites have the least radiogenic compositions (Sri~0.7040), whereas other units are relatively homogeneous (Sri~0.7050, ENd~0.0). Oxygen isotope compositions for SSR and CAM calderas are highly variable (d18Oquartz=5.6-8.2‰, d18Osanidine=5.5-7.0‰, d18Ozircon= 4.1-6.3‰), corresponding to a magmatic range of 5.7-7.9‰. U-Pb dating of zircons indicates homogeneous age populations and few/no xenocrysts and antecrysts. These data show that (1) thick plutons (>2-5 km) underlie compositionally and temporally related caldera-filling ignimbrites, (2) caldera-forming cycles are isotopically variable, requiring divergent magmatic sources in relatively

  17. On the reliability of AMS in ilmenite-type granites: an insight from the Marimanha pluton, central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Urcia, B.; Casas, A. M.; Ramón, M. J.; Leiss, B.; Mariani, E.; Román-Berdiel, T.

    2012-04-01

    The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) at room temperature has been used for decades to obtain the petrofabric orientation in granites as a kinematic marker to establish models explaining the emplacement of plutons. To assess the significance of AMS in terms of mineral orientation, we have performed a multidisciplinary study at five sites of an ilmenite-type pluton (Marimanha, central Pyrenees) with significant facies changes. To test the reliability of AMS measurements at room temperature, the following methods were applied: low temperature AMS; image analyses and X-ray texture goniometry (XTG) of biotites; and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) to obtain c-axes directions of quartz. The total (para-, ferro- and dia-)magnetic fabric analysed by AMS is compared with the paramagnetic fabric (low-T AMS), mica orientation (with image analyses and XTG) and the diamagnetic fabric (EBSD). Results indicate that weakly oriented paramagnetic minerals can give well-defined magnetic fabrics (AMS at room and low temperatures). Furthermore, the AMS ellipsoid is the result of composite biotite fabrics resulting from both orientation and spatial distribution of crystals, as demonstrated by 2-D mathematical models presented in this study. AMS is the most effective technique for quickly measuring composite fabrics. In addition, the advantage of using AMS analyses is twofold: (1) it is a fast way of analysing standard samples that can give clues for subsequent image/mineral orientation analysis and (2) it is a volume-related method that gives a picture of the rock fabric as a whole.

  18. The link between volcanism and plutonism in epizonal magma systems; high-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology from the Organ Mountains caldera and batholith, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Matthew; Farmer, G. Lang; Bowring, Samuel A.; Wooton, Kathleen M.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Coleman, Drew S.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2016-02-01

    The Organ Mountains caldera and batholith expose the volcanic and epizonal plutonic record of an Eocene caldera complex. The caldera and batholith are well exposed, and extensive previous mapping and geochemical analyses have suggested a clear link between the volcanic and plutonic sections, making this an ideal location to study magmatic processes associated with caldera volcanism. Here we present high-precision thermal ionization mass spectrometry U-Pb zircon dates from throughout the caldera and batholith, and use these dates to test and improve existing petrogenetic models. The new dates indicate that Eocene volcanic and plutonic rocks in the Organ Mountains formed from ~44 to 34 Ma. The three largest caldera-related tuff units yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates of 36.441 ± 0.020 Ma (Cueva Tuff), 36.259 ± 0.016 Ma (Achenback Park tuff), and 36.215 ± 0.016 Ma (Squaw Mountain tuff). An alkali feldspar granite, which is chemically similar to the erupted tuffs, yielded a synchronous weighted mean 206Pb/238U date of 36.259 ± 0.021 Ma. Weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates from the larger volume syenitic phase of the underlying Organ Needle pluton range from 36.130 ± 0.031 to 36.071 ± 0.012 Ma, and the youngest sample is 144 ± 20 to 188 ± 20 ka younger than the Squaw Mountain and Achenback Park tuffs, respectively. Younger plutonism in the batholith continued through at least 34.051 ± 0.029 Ma. We propose that the Achenback Park tuff, Squaw Mountain tuff, alkali feldspar granite and Organ Needle pluton formed from a single, long-lived magma chamber/mush zone. Early silicic magmas generated by partial melting of the lower crust rose to form an epizonal magma chamber. Underplating of the resulting mush zone led to partial melting and generation of a high-silica alkali feldspar granite cap, which erupted to form the tuffs. The deeper parts of the chamber underwent continued recharge and crystallization for 144 ± 20 ka after the final eruption. Calculated magmatic

  19. Volcanic-plutonic connections and metal fertility of highly evolved magma systems: A case study from the Herberton Sn-W-Mo Mineral Field, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanbo; Spandler, Carl; Chang, Zhaoshan; Clarke, Gavin

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the connection between the highly evolved intrusive and extrusive systems is essential to explore the evolution of high silicic magma systems, which plays an important role in discussions of planetary differentiation, the growth of continents, crustal evolution, and the formation of highly evolved magma associated Sn-W-Mo mineral systems. To discern differences between "fertile" and "non-fertile" igneous rocks associated with Sn-W-Mo mineralization and reveal the genetic links between coeval intrusive and extrusive rocks, we integrate whole rock geochemistry, geochronology and Hf isotope signatures of igneous zircons from contemporaneous plutonic and volcanic rocks from the world-class Herberton Mineral Field of Queensland, Australia. The 310-300 Ma intrusive rocks and associated intra-plutonic W-Mo mineralization formed from relatively oxidized magmas after moderate degrees of crystal fractionation. The geochemical and isotopic features of the coeval volcanic succession are best reconciled utilizing the widely-accepted volcanic-plutonic connection model, whereby the volcanic rocks represent fractionated derivatives of the intrusive rocks. Older intrusions emplaced at 335-315 Ma formed from relatively low fO2 magmas that fractionated extensively to produce highly evolved granites that host Sn mineralization. Coeval volcanic rocks of this suite are compositionally less evolved than the intrusive rocks, thereby requiring a different model to link these plutonic-volcanic sequences. In this case, we propose that the most fractionated magmas were not lost to volcanism, but instead were effectively retained at the plutonic level, which allowed further localized build-up of volatiles and lithophile metals in the plutonic environment. This disconnection to the volcanism and degassing may be a crucial step for forming granite-hosted Sn mineralization. The transition between these two igneous regimes in Herberton region over a ∼30 m.y. period is attributed to

  20. Microstructures and magnetic fabrics of the Ngaoundéré granite pluton (Cameroon): Implications to the late-Pan-African evolution of Central Cameroon Shear Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawaï, Daouda; Tchameni, Rigobert; Bascou, Jérome; Awe Wangmene, Salomon; Fosso Tchunte, Périclex Martial; Bouchez, Jean-Luc

    2017-05-01

    The Ngaoundéré granite pluton, in Central-North Cameroon, located near the Central Cameroon Shear zone (CCSZ), and previously studied for its petrography and geochemistry, is characterized by the absence of macroscopic markers of deformation. In this study, we report microstructures and magnetic fabrics (AMS) of this pluton and discuss the relationship with the Pan-African evolution of the CCSZ. The pluton consists of a porphyritic Hbl-Bt-monzogranite at its rim and a porphyritic biotite-granite at its core, a petrographic distribution denoting a normal zoning pattern, i.e. more silicic toward the centre. As expected, magnetic susceptibilities values also exhibit a zoning pattern in agreement with petrographic zonation. Thermomagnetic data indicate that this pluton is dominantly ferromagnetic in behaviour. As indicated by its microstructures, the pluton has suffered a continuum of deformation from the magmatic state to the high temperature solid-state during magma crystallization and solidification. The magnetic foliations dominantly strike NE-SW and dip moderately to steeply and the lineations mostly plunge shallowly to the NE or SW, roughly parallel to NE-to ENE-trending Central Cameroun Shear Zone (CCSZ). The foliation poles define a girdle pattern with a zone axis (52°/11°) rather close to the best line of the lineations (44°/21°). These fabrics correlate with the structures of the country rocks ascribed by several workers to a regional transpression. Toward the margins of the pluton, particularly the northern one, the lineations tend to rotate from NE to N in azimuth. This change is interpreted as due to strain partitioning, simple shearing with NE-SW extension being relayed by compression toward the northern pluton border. This new magnetic fabric study suggests that the Ngaoundéré pluton (poorly dated at c. 575 Ma) was emplaced during the late stages of the CCSZ dextral transpressive movement. It also provides some more constraints on the correlation

  1. Petrochemical evolution of the White Mfolozi Granite pluton: Evidence for a late Palaeoarchaean A-type granite from the SE Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Saumitra; Reinhardt, Jürgen; Wilson, Allan H.

    2017-08-01

    One of the major limitations in understanding the geochemical evolution of the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa, is the scarcity of whole rock trace element data of the granitoid and other rocks compared to the vastness of this cratonic block. Here we present new XRF major oxide and ICP-MS trace element analyses of the White Mfolozi Granitoid (WMG) pluton, SE Kaapvaal Craton, which suggest that the 3.25 Ga (U-Pb zircon age) old WMG pluton is a peraluminous A-type granite and could be equivalent to the intrusive potassic granite phase of the Anhalt Granitoid suite, occurring to the North of the WMG pluton. The pluton was generated by batch partial melting of a pre-existing TTG source in two major phases under relatively anhydrous conditions, and the heat of partial melting could have been provided by a voluminous mantle-derived mafic magma, which intruded into mid-crustal levels (c. 17 km), perhaps during a period of crustal extension. The estimated pressure and temperature of generation of the WMG parent magma with average molar [or/(or + ab)] 0.48 could be 500 MPa and close to 1000 °C, respectively, when compared with the results of experimental petrology. Interstitial occurrence of relatively iron-rich biotite [Mg/(Mg + Fe) 0.41-0.45] suggests that the final temperature of crystallization of the pluton was close to 800 °C. An important magmatic event following the main phase of partial melting was limited mixing between the intrusive mafic magma and co-existing newly generated granitic melt. This magma mixing resulted in distinct variations in SiO2 and a low initial Sr isotopic ratio (0.7013) of the WMG pluton. Although both the models of partial melting of quartzo-feldspathic sources and fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas with or without crustal assimilation have been proposed for the origin of A-type granites, the model of magmatic evolution of the WMG pluton presented here can also be an alternative model for the generation of A-type granites. In

  2. Localized rejuvenation of a crystallizing pluton recorded in zircon from the Lassen Volcanic Center, southern Cascade Range, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetti, E. W.; Clynne, M. A.; Ring, M.; Bertolett, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Lassen Volcanic Center (LVC) in northern California produced the only eruption in the Cascades other than Mount St. Helens over the past century with its activity in 1914-17. The LVC dates back to ~825 ka and has produced ~215 km3 of dominantly andesite to rhyodacite (with minor basaltic andesite and rhyolite) lava and tephra over that period with activity since 90 ka divided into the Twin Lakes (~90 to 0.01 ka) and Eagle Peak sequences (~66 to 1.1 ka). The Twin Lakes sequences has a higher proportion of basaltic input relative to the Eagle Peak sequence, however both sequence show extensive evidence of magma mixing and mingling. Examining the age spectra and composition of zircon from representative eruptions in the LVC can illuminate the petrologic conditions of the underlying magmatic system. We collected (via SHRIMP-RG) the first 238U-230Th model ages and trace-element compositions of zircon from one Twin Lakes sequence eruption (1915 dacite of Lassen Peak) and three Eagle Peak sequence eruptions (the rhyodacite of Chaos Crags, the 27 ka dacite of Lassen Peak and the 66 ka rhyodacite of Eagle Peak). Zircon age spectra from the rhyodacite of Chaos Crags and 1915 and 27 ka dacites of Lassen Peak (62 zircon analyses) are similar, with a range of 25 ka to secular equilibrium (~350 ka) with no crystals within error of their host eruption age. The dominant period of zircon crystallization falls between 190-90 ka. This is a period of volcanic quiescence in the LVC and this zircon bloom represents the crystallization of a proto-pluton following the end of the Bumpass Sequence (350-193 ka). Surface analyses of zircons from the analyzed eruptions range from 25 ka to 74 ka; none of which is within error of the eruption age of the host lava. This suggests that zircon crystallization effectively ended at ~25-30 ka. The host lavas, when erupted, were zircon undersaturated, so zircon preservation is likely due to inclusion in other phases. Overall, the zircon from these

  3. EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO DE CONTAMINACIÓN POR METAMIDOFOS EN LA MICROCUENCA EL SALTO DEL MUNICIPIO DE EL SANTUARIO, ANTIOQUIA

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    David Horacio Ramírez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo de investigación, que se desarrolló en la microcuenca El Salto del municipio de El Santuario, se estimó la presencia del Metamidofos, en plantas de repollo (Brassica oleraceae y en el suelo y su riesgo de contaminación en aguas para el consumo humano. En el repollo el nivel de concentración del Metamidofos sobrepasó los límites máximos permisibles establecidos para esta planta por el Codex Alimentarius; en el suelo no se encontraron residuos del producto, pero sí en el agua de escorrentía y en dos sitios del cauce de la quebrada El Salto localizados aguas arriba de la bocatoma del acueducto municipal; no se detectó Metamidofos en la muestra de agua de la bocatoma del acueducto ni en la red de distribución del acueducto municipal. En la estimación cualitativa del riesgo de contaminación se utilizaron como variables de vulnerabilidad y amenaza la precipitación, la escorrentía, el coeficiente de escorrentía, el tiempo de concentración, la erosión, algunas propiedades físicas, químicas y biológicas del suelo y la pendiente de los terrenos. Se observó que el riesgo se presenta por la alta cantidad de insecticida utilizado y su frecuencia de utilización, que se incrementa según la distribución e intensidad de las lluvias y del potencial de erosión y este, a su vez, por el uso y manejo no adecuado del suelo. En la parcela experimental y en un terreno aledaño sembrado con pasto kikuyo (Pennisetum clandestinum, se calculó la población por unidad de área de la lombriz de tierra (Lumbricus terrestris. La ausencia de este organismo en la parcela cultivada con repollo (Brassica oleraceae se puede considerar como indicador biológico por la contaminación de este insecticida en el suelo.This investigation was done in El Salto watershed basin located in the municipality of El Santuario. It was examined the presence of Metamidofos in plants of cabbage, in soils, with risk of contamination in waters for the human

  4. A avaliação do método “Salto Triplo” aplicado a estudantes do curso de Medicina

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    Isaac Farias Cansanção

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to report an experience of tutors in performing a triple jump by evaluating the methodology of Problem-Based Learning (PBL in a group of 37 students of the second period of a medical school of the Federal University of São Francisco Valley - UNIVASF, campus Paulo Afonso, Bahia, Brazil.The "triple jump" occurred in a daylight period, and was divided into three tutorial groups of nine students, a group of ten students and eight tutors. The problem situation was prepared by the tutors involved and all students were previously informed about the methodology applied. The assessment was divided into three stages (1-presentation of the problem; 2- individualized study; 3- Oral Presentation. In the end of the triple jump , it was applied an evaluative questionnaire and the 27 students had consented previously to fill them out. The students who participated in this application were able to quickly identify the learning objectives (94.6%. However, a small part of the participants (about 5% suggested modifications on the time used to complete all the steps of the “Triple Jump”.The reported experience consolidate this evaluative tool has formative character and effective way in the measuring the teaching-learning process of students in health care in PBL methodby improving their educational background. O presente artigo tem como objetivo relatar a experiência vivenciada por tutores na realização de um salto triplo avaliando a metodologia de Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas (ABP em um grupo de 37 estudantes do segundo período do curso de medicina da Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco-UNIVASF, campus de Paulo Afonso, Bahia, Brasil. O “salto triplo” ocorreu em um período diurno, e foi dividida em três grupos de tutoria de nove alunos, um grupo com dez alunos e oito docentes. A situação-problema foi elaborada pelos tutores envolvidos e todos os estudantes foram previamente informados sobre a metodologia

  5. Composite Sunrise Butte pluton: Insights into Jurassic–Cretaceous collisional tectonics and magmatism in the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth H.; Schwartz, J.J.; Žák, Jiří; Verner, Krystof; Barnes, Calvin G.; Walton, Clay; Wooden, Joseph L.; Wright, James E.; Kistler, Ronald W.

    2015-01-01

    The composite Sunrise Butte pluton, in the central part of the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon, preserves a record of subduction-related magmatism, arc-arc collision, crustal thickening, and deep-crustal anatexis. The earliest phase of the pluton (Desolation Creek unit) was generated in a subduction zone environment, as the oceanic lithosphere between the Wallowa and Olds Ferry island arcs was consumed. Zircons from this unit yielded a 206Pb/238U age of 160.2 ± 2.1 Ma. A magmatic lull ensued during arc-arc collision, after which partial melting at the base of the thickened Wallowa arc crust produced siliceous magma that was emplaced into metasedimentary rocks and serpentinite of the overthrust forearc complex. This magma crystallized to form the bulk of the Sunrise Butte composite pluton (the Sunrise Butte unit; 145.8 ± 2.2 Ma). The heat necessary for crustal anatexis was supplied by coeval mantle-derived magma (the Onion Gulch unit; 147.9 ± 1.8 Ma).The lull in magmatic activity between 160 and 148 Ma encompasses the timing of arc-arc collision (159–154 Ma), and it is similar to those lulls observed in adjacent areas of the Blue Mountains Province related to the same shortening event. Previous researchers have proposed a tectonic link between the Blue Mountains Province and the Klamath Mountains and northern Sierra Nevada Provinces farther to the south; however, timing of Late Jurassic deformation in the Blue Mountains Province predates the timing of the so-called Nevadan orogeny in the Klamath Mountains. In both the Blue Mountains Province and Klamath Mountains, the onset of deep-crustal partial melting initiated at ca. 148 Ma, suggesting a possible geodynamic link. One possibility is that the Late Jurassic shortening event recorded in the Blue Mountains Province may be a northerly extension of the Nevadan orogeny. Differences in the timing of these events in the Blue Mountains Province and the Klamath–Sierra Nevada Provinces suggest that

  6. Polytopic Vector Analysis (PVA) modelling of whole-rock and apatite chemistry from the Karkonosze composite pluton (Poland, Czech Republic)

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    Lisowiec, Katarzyna; Słaby, Ewa; Förster, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-08-01

    This study presents a novel approach for analysing the magma evolution path in composite plutons, applying the so-termed Polytopic Vector Analysis (PVA) to whole-rock and apatite chemistry. As an example of a multiphase magmatic body the Karkonosze granitoid pluton was chosen, which formed by a combination of magma mixing and fractional crystallization of two distinct melts - granitic crust-derived and lamprophyric mantle-derived. The goal was to model end-member magma compositions recorded by apatite and to estimate to what extent these end-members interacted with each other. Although using single minerals as proxies to magma compositions is tricky, the studied apatite well reflects the compositional trends within the magma (e.g., decreasing LREE/Y ratios, varying halogen content, increasing Mn and Na concentrations). The results of PVA simulations for whole-rock geochemistry demonstrate a model similar to that constrained from previous studies. Apart from the main trend of mixing between a felsic ( 80 wt.% SiO2) and a mafic ( 53 wt.% SiO2) end-member (EM), an additional process has been recognized, representing most probably the continuous evolution of the mafic end-member, responsible for the compositional diversity of some rocks. One felsic (REE-poor, Mn-F-rich) and one mafic (Cl-Sr-Si-REE-rich) apatite end-members were recognized, whereas the third one represents most probably a fluid component (enriched in Si, Y, Ce and Nd), present at all magmatic stages, however, most prominent during the late stage. The widest range of EM proportions and the highest contribution of the mafic EM are displayed by apatites from the early stage. During the middle and late stages, the apatites present a narrow range of EM proportions, with almost all apatites bearing a felsic signature. This pattern reflects the progressive homogenization of the system. Although the PVA method applied to mineral chemistry poses some limitations, it may provide a more detailed image of the

  7. Pastura natural de salto (Uruguay: relación con la variabilidad climática y análisis de contextos futuros de cambio climático Natural pasture in salto (Uruguay: relationship with climate variability and analysis in the context of future climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Bettolli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluó objetivamente la relación entre la variabilidad del rendimiento de la pastura en el departamento de Salto (Uruguay y la variabilidad climática. Se analizaron también las posibles implicancias del cambio climático futuro. Se utilizaron datos diarios y mensuales de la estación meteorológica Salto en el período 1961-1990 y un registro de datos experimentales de crecimiento de pastura en el período 1980-1994. Adicionalmente, se emplearon salidas diarias de reanálisis del NCEP y de los Modelos de Circulación General HadCM3 y CSIRO-Mk2 para los escenarios A2 y B2. Las correlaciones simples entre las variables climáticas y la pastura confirmaron en términos cuantitativos la sensibilidad de la pastura a la variabilidad climática, explicando entre el 20% y 58% de la varianza en los rendimientos. Las mayores asociaciones se encontraron en otoño (principalmente con las variables relacionadas con la precipitación y verano. En invierno no se observaron asociaciones significativas. El efecto conjunto de las variables climáticas explicó entre el 36% y 86% de la variabilidad en el crecimiento de la pastura. Para los escenarios estudiados, los incrementos proyectados en las temperaturas mínima y máxima permitirían reducir las probabilidades de ocurrencia de temperaturas por debajo del umbral mínimo considerado para la pastura (10ºC y aumentar las probabilidades de estrés térmico durante el verano. La precipitación presentaría incrementos que podrían aumentar la incidencia de excedentes hídricos en invierno. Los incrementos proyectados para el verano no compensarían los aumentos de la demanda hídrica atmosférica por mayores temperaturas.This work aimed to evaluate the relationship between natural pasture yield and climate variability in the district of Salto (Uruguay, and to analyze the possible implications of future climate change. Daily and monthly data from Salto meteorological station for the period

  8. Identidades naufragadas: o impacto das organizações na (reconstrução do universo simbólico dos ribeirinhos de Salto Santiago Shipwrecked identities: the impact of organizations in the symbolic universe (reconstruction of riparian people from Salto Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Vinholi Rampazo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Para a construção da Usina Hidrelétrica Salto Santiago, localizada na região centro-sul do Paraná na década de 1970, foi necessário deslocar os ribeirinhos que ali viviam para dar lugar ao seu reservatório. Este artigo tem por objetivo analisar o papel de diferentes organizações na (reconstrução da identidade dos ribeirinhos deslocados compulsoriamente de seus territórios para dar lugar a esse reservatório. Para tanto, leva-se em conta que a identidade é construída e reconstruída dentro do espaço social a partir do desejo do Outro que, ao ser reconhecido pelo sujeito como legítimo, internaliza suas práticas, ações e visão de mundo e, portanto, seu habitus. Em termos metodológicos, foi conduzido um estudo qualitativo que envolveu levantamento documental e entrevistas semiestruturadas utilizando as técnicas da história oral com os ribeirinhos e com os representantes das principais organizações presentes hoje no local. Os dados coletados foram interpretados a partir das regras da hermenêutica filosófica de Gadamer, interligando o individual ao geral, e vice-versa, assim como o objetivo com o subjetivo. Por fim, em termos de conclusões, com base na história contada pelos ribeirinhos e pelos representantes das organizações pesquisadas, mostra-se como se deu a (reconstrução das identidades dos ribeirinhos naquele espaço. Assim, foi possível constatar como a construção da Usina Salto Santiago e o consequente deslocamento de parte dos ribeirinhos produziu, devido à entrada de novas organizações naquele território, modificações em suas identidades.For constructing the Salto Santiago Hydroelectric Power Plant, located at the central-southern state of Parana, Brazil, in the 1970s, there was a need to displace the riparian people who lived there to make way for the reservoir. This paper aims to analyze the role of different organizations in the identity (reconstruction of the riparian people compulsorily

  9. Time-scales of assembly and thermal history of a composite felsic pluton: constraints from the Emerald Lake area, northern Canadian Cordillera, Yukon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Ian M.; Villeneuve, Mike E.; Dipple, Gregory M.; Duncan, Robert A.; Russell, James K.; Mortensen, James K.

    2002-05-01

    Knowledge of the time-scales of emplacement and thermal history during assembly of composite felsic plutons in the shallow crust are critical to deciphering the processes of crustal growth and magma chamber development. Detailed petrological and chemical study of the mid-Cretaceous, composite Emerald Lake pluton, from the northern Canadian Cordillera, Yukon Territory, coupled with U-Pb and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology, indicates that this pluton was intruded as a series of magmatic pulses. Intrusion of these pulses produced a strong petrological zonation from augite syenite, hornblende quartz syenite and monzonite, to biotite granite. Our data further indicate that multiple phases were emplaced and cooled to below the mineral closure temperatures over a time-scale on the order of the resolution of the 40Ar/ 39Ar technique (˜1 Myr), and that emplacement occurred at 94.3 Ma. Simple thermal modelling and heat conduction calculations were used to further constrain the temporal relationships within the intrusion. These calculations are consistent with the geochronology and show that emplacement and cooling were complete in less than 100 kyr and probably 70±5 kyr. These results demonstrate that production, transport and emplacement of the different phases of the Emerald Lake pluton occurred essentially simultaneously, and that these processes must also have been closely related in time and space. By analogy, these results provide insights into the assembly and petrogenesis of other complex intrusions and ultimately lead to an understanding of the processes involved in crustal development.

  10. A influência postural do salto alto em mulheres adultas: análise por biofotogrametria computadorizada Postural influence of high heels among adult women: analysis by computerized photogrammetry

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    DH Iunes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Em nossa sociedade, temos observado uma oferta cada vez maior de modelos, cores, estilos, altura e diversos tipos de salto. OBJETIVO: Avaliar se o uso de calçados de salto alto influencia nas alterações posturais com base em um conjunto de variáveis mensuradas por meio da fotogrametria computadorizada. MÉTODOS: Vinte indivíduos que utilizam salto alto com freqüência (grupo 1 e 20 indivíduos que utilizam salto alto esporadicamente (grupo 2 foram fotografados no plano frontal anterior e sagital em três momentos: a sem utilização de calçado, b utilizando salto agulha e c utilizando salto plataforma, sendo estas fotografias aleatorizadas e analisadas por um experimentador cego por meio da fotogrametria. A análise estatística foi realizada a partir da análise de variância em esquema fatorial 2x3, ou seja, comparando-se a freqüência do uso de salto com o tipo de calçado, com 5% de significância. RESULTADOS: Apenas o ângulo protrusão da cabeça apresentou diferença quando comparados grupo 1 e 2 (pINTRODUCTION: In our society, it is observed an increasing number of models, colors, styles, heights and types of high heels. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the use of high heel shoes results in postural changes, based on a set of variables measured through computerized photogrammetry. METHODS: Twenty individuals who often used high heels (group 1 and 20 individuals who only used high heels sporadically (group 2 were photographed in the frontal and sagittal planes at three conditions: a without using footwear; b using stiletto heels; and c using high platform heels. These photographs were randomized and analyzed by a blinded examiner, by means of photogrammetry. Statistical analysis was performed, using a 2x3 factorial analysis of variance to compare the frequency of high heel use with the type of shoe, at the 5% significance level. RESULTS: Only the head protrusion angle showed a difference between groups 1 and 2 (p<0

  11. There's more than one way to build a caldera magma chamber: Evidence from volcanic-plutonic relationships at three faulted Rio-Grande-rift calderas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerer, M. J.; McIntosh, W. C.

    2011-12-01

    The temporal and chemical relationships of volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Questa (NM), Mt. Aetna (CO), and Organ caldera (NM) complexes were investigated to establish the origin of these silicic magmas. Rio Grande Rift faulting at these systems has exposed both intracaldera sequences and subvolcanic plutons. Ar/Ar and U/Pb ages reveal the timing of volcanic activity and pluton emplacement and cooling. We observe a link between ignimbrite zoning patterns and the temporal-chemical relationship of volcanic and plutonic rocks. The Questa caldera erupted the high-SiO2 peralkaline Amalia Tuff (AT) at 25.4 Ma. Volumetrically minor phases of two resurgent plutons and a ring dike are compositionally similar to the AT. The age of the ring dike (25.4 Ma) is indistinguishable to AT, suggesting that the peralkaline intrusions are nonerupted AT. The remaining pluton ages are 100 ka to 6.1 Ma younger than AT and are too young to be the AT residual crystal mush. The Mt. Princeton batholith and nested Mt. Aetna caldera are interpreted to be the sources for the 37.3 Ma, low-SiO2 rhyolitic Wall Mountain Tuff (WMT) and the 34.3 Ma, dacitic Badger Creek Tuff (BCT). U/Pb and Ar/Ar ages of Mt. Princeton batholith (36.5 to 35.1 Ma) indicate that it was emplaced and rapidly cooled during the interval between the WMT and BCT eruptions, and that any WMT age intrusions are now eroded. During the eruption of the BCT, the fully crystallized Mt. Princeton batholith collapsed into the Mt. Aetna caldera. Intrusions along the margins of the Mt. Aetna caldera are compositionally identical the BCT and contain zircons 100 to 500 ka older than the tuff, suggesting that the BCT magma chamber was incrementally emplaced prior to caldera eruption. The Organ caldera complex erupted three ignimbrites: a basal high-silica 36.5 Ma rhyolite, a middle intermediate-silica 36.2 Ma rhyolite, and an upper 36.0 Ma low-silica rhyolite. The intracaldera sequence is intruded by the Organ Needle pluton. U/Pb zircon

  12. Aprovechamiento del salto de Bourg-Lés-Valence. La Presa de la Roche de Glun-Drôme – Francia

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    Française d´Enterprise, Compagnie

    1971-05-01

    Full Text Available To take the fullest advantage of the hydroelectric and agricultural usefulness of the Rhône, the Compagnie Nationale du Rhône has divided the river into a number of sections, and these have been separately developed. The hydraulic gradient at La Roche de Glun, at the end of the central section, involves a hydraulic system consisting of a reservoir, a dam and dykes, a canal, a power station, an overflow canal and drainage works in the , surrounding zones. This project has been carried out by the Compagnie Française d'Enterprises.Para explotar al máximo las posibilidades hidroeléctricas y agrícolas del Ródano, la Compagnie Nationale du Rhône ha dividido dicho río en una serie de tramos para proceder a su distribución. El salto de La Roche de Glun, último del tramo central, forma un complejo hidráulico que consta de: un embalse cerrado por diques, una presa, un canal de alimentación, una central, una esclusa, un canal de descarga y unas obras anejas de drenaje para evitar inundaciones en las ciudades próximas. Las obras han sido realizadas por la Compagnie Française d'Entreprises.

  13. Diet and trophic ecomorphology of the silverside, Odontesthes bonariensis, of the Salto Caxias reservoir, rio Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Aparecida da Silva Cassemiro

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the diet and trophic ecomorphology of Odontesthes bonariensis, relating these features with species' abundance in the natural environment and in the Salto Caxias reservoir (at Iguaçu river after the reservoir's formation. The samples were carried out before (from March 1997 to February 1998- pre and after (from October 1998 to February 2001 - post 1 and 2 the damming. The stomach contents of 218 individuals were analyzed by occurrence and volumetric methods. O. bonariensis' diet is based on insects, scales, plants and detritus. Microcrustaceans (Cladocera and Copepoda were the main items, allowing the characterization of the species as zooplanktivore. The species has a superior position and protractible mouth, with small teeth, creating a serrated pattern, uniformly lined side by side. There are many gill rakers, that are long and close together (typical of filtering fishes; the stomach is ill defined and the intestine is short. There was a gradual increase of O. bonariensis' abundance during the period of field study, mainly after the second year of damming. This fact seems to be closely related with the high abundance and availability of zooplankton in the dammed environment, and also with the ability of the species to exploit this resource.

  14. Valuación con opciones reales de proyectos con flujos correlacionados con fundamentales económicos y con saltos extremos Viabilidad del caso COMERCI UCB

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    Sergio Mendoza Sandoval

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo extiende el método de flujos de efectivo desconta - dos para valuar proyectos de inversión a través de la incorpo - ración de opciones reales. Se supone que los flujos de efectivo generados por la empresa están correlacionados con fundamen - tales macroeconómicos, particularmente con la tasa de interés; asimismo, se supone que presentan saltos cuyo tamaño está dado por una distribución de valores extremos. Estos flujos son vistos como un portafolio de opciones reales, que surgen de un proceso de optimización dinámica estocástica donde el inversionista (el empresario busca maximizar su utilidad total descontada, sujeto a la riqueza que posee. Esta riqueza incluye el proyecto de inversión, un bono libre de riesgo de incumpli - miento y un conjunto de opciones reales asociadas al proyecto.

  15. AJUSTE DE ECUACIONES DE BIOMASA PARA Pinus durangensis (Martínez M. EN LA REGIÓN DE EL SALTO, DURANGO

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    E. Montes de Oca-Cano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue ajustar ecuaciones lineales y no lineales para estimar biomasa por componente de hojas, ramas, fuste y total, para árboles con edades entre tres y diez años, en la región de El Salto, Dgo. Los resultados indican que las ecuaciones se ajustan mejor a nivel individual, el componente total muestra los mejores estadísticos de ajuste, mientras que las mayores variaciones se detectan en las ramas y en el fuste. Adicionalmente se analizan porcentajes de biomasa por componente donde se observa que el fuste aporta 46.9 % de la biomasa, las hojas 35.6 % y las ramas solamente 17.3 % de la biomasa total. Así mismo, dentro del rango de edad analizado, la biomasa en el fuste aumenta anualmente 2.96 %; la biomasa en las hojas disminuye 3.13 % y la biomasa en las ramas aumenta 0.17 %.

  16. Tyramine functions as a toxin in honey bee larvae during Varroa-transmitted infection by Melissococcus pluton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbar, G; Engels, W; Nicholson, G J; Hertle, R; Winkelmann, G

    2004-05-01

    From wounds of honey bee pupae, caused by the mite Varroa destructor, coccoid bacteria were isolated and identified as Melissococcus pluton. The bacterial isolate was grown anaerobically in sorbitol medium to produce a toxic compound that was purified on XAD columns, gelfiltration and preparative HPLC. The toxic agent was identified by GC-MS and FTICR-MS as tyramine. The toxicity of the isolated tyramine was tested by a novel mobility test using the protozoon Stylonychia lemnae. A concentration of 0.2 mg/ml led to immediate inhibition of mobility. In addition the toxicity was studied on honey bee larvae by feeding tyramine/water mixtures added to the larval jelly. The lethal dosis of tyramine on 4-5 days old bee larvae was determined as 0.3 mg/larvae when added as a volume of 20 microl to the larval food in brood cells. Several other biogenic amines, such as phenylethylamine, histamine, spermine, cadaverine, putrescine and trimethylamine, were tested as their hydrochloric salts for comparison and were found to be inhibitory in the Stylonychia mobility test at similar concentrations. A quantitative hemolysis test with human red blood cells revealed that tyramine and histamine showed the highest membranolytic activity, followed by the phenylethylamine, trimethylamine and spermine, while the linear diamines, cadaverine and putrescine, showed a significantly lower hemolysis when calculated on a molar amine basis. The results indicate that tyramine which is a characteristic amine produced by M. pluton in culture, is the causative agent of the observed toxic symptoms in bee larvae. Thus this disease, known as European foulbrood, is possibly an infection transmitted by the Varroa destructor mite.

  17. Eastern Redcedar Seedling Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Eastern redcedar tree seedling growth in response to various soil, nitrogen, and photosynthetic radiation characteristics. This dataset is associated with the...

  18. Influência de implementos para o tornozelo nas respostas biomecânicas do salto e aterrissagem no basquete Influencia de los implementos para el tobillo en las respuestas biomecanicas del salto y el aterrizaje en el basquetbol Influence of ankle devices in the jump and landing biomechanical responses in basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel de C.N. Sacco

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS E OBJETIVO: O segmento mais freqüentemente lesado no basquetebol é o tornozelo, sendo a entorse por inversão a lesão mais comum. Para evitá-la, é comum o uso de implementos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a força reação do solo (FRS em jogadores de basquete durante execução do salto em três situações: uso de tênis, bandagem e tênis, e tênis e órtese tipo Aircast. MÉTODOS: Oito atletas foram analisados durante o salto, através de uma plataforma de força, nas três situações citadas, para análise das componentes vertical e horizontal médio-lateral da FRS. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre as três situações na componente vertical da FRS durante o salto, embora o uso de bandagem tenda a apresentar, na impulsão, maiores valores do pico de força vertical (3,10 ± 0,46PC; 3,01 ± 0,39PC; 3,03 ± 0,41PC e do gradiente de crescimento (GC (12,33 ± 12,21PC; 8,16 ± 3,89PC; 8,46 ± 3,85PC, e durante a aterrissagem, menores valores de pico de força vertical (5,18 ± 1,35PC; 5,56 ± 1,31PC; 5,49 ± 1,44PC e do GC (88,83 ± 33,85PC; 95,63 ± 42,64PC; 94,53 ± 31,69PC. Durante a impulsão, a força medial do salto com Aircast foi significativamente menor que com tênis (p = 0,0249 e apresentou valor semelhante ao do uso da bandagem, enquanto a força lateral foi significativamente maior com a bandagem do que com tênis (p = 0,0485 e tendeu a ser maior do que o Aircast. Na aterrissagem o componente médio-lateral da FRS ficou inalterado nas três situações. Concluiu-se que a bandagem potencializou a força direcionada ao salto vertical durante a impulsão, porém não estabilizou tanto quanto o Aircast os movimentos de inversão e eversão do pé. Durante a aterrissagem, os implementos não foram efetivos para reduzir a força médio-lateral, mas com a bandagem, houve um tempo maior para absorção do impacto.FUNDAMENTOS Y OBJETIVO: EL segmento mas frecuentemente

  19. The evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of the Nasrand Plutonic complex by using mineral composition

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    Fatemeh Sarjoughian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mineral composition is sensitive to variations in the composition of the magma and can be used to characterize the physical conditions of crystallization such as temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity and water content. The studies have demonstrated that geobarometery by amphibole provides a tool for determining the depth of crystallization and knowledge of the depth of crystallization of hornblende through to solidification of calc-alkaline plutons (Anderson and Smith, 1995. The composition of pyroxene can be used as crystallization pressure and temperature indicators of pyroxene too. Anlytical methods The mineral compositions of the Nasrand intrusion were determined by electron microprobe, with special emphasis on the amphibole, feldspar, and pyroxene at the Naruto University, Japan, the EPMA (Jeol- JXA-8800R was used at operating conditions of 15 kV, 20 nA acceleration voltage and 20s counting time. Results The Nasrand intrusion (33°13'–33°15' N, 52°33'–52°34'E with an outcrop area of about 40 km2 is situated in the Urumieh–Dokhtar magmatic belt, SE of Ardestan. It is composed of granite and granodiorite and various dikes of diorite and gabbro which are intruded in it. It is intruded into Eocene volcanic rocks, including andesite, rhyolite, and dacite. The petrographical studies indicate that the granitic and granodioritic rocks contain major minerals such as quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, and amphibole, which are in an approximate equilibrium state. The gabbroic-dioritic dikes usually show microgranular porphyric texture. They mainly consist of plagioclase, amphibole, and pyroxene. The plagioclase shows variable composition from albite to oligoclase in the granitoid rocks and from oligoclase to bytownite in dioritic and gabbroic dikes (Deer et al., 1991. The amphiboles are calcic and their composition varies from hornblende to actinolite, whereas the composition of the basic dikes is inclined to hastingsite (Leake et

  20. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  1. The Eastern Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili

    2014-01-01

    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the Ea...

  2. Petrogenesis of the middle Jurassic appinite and coeval granitoids in the Eastern Hebei area of North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenbo; Jiang, Neng; Xu, Xiyang; Hu, Jun; Zong, Keqing

    2017-05-01

    An integrated study of zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopic compositions, whole rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry was conducted on three lithologically diverse middle Jurassic plutons from the Eastern Hebei area of the North China Craton (NCC), in order to reveal both their petrogenesis and possible tectonic affinity. The three plutons have consistent magmatic zircon U-Pb ages from 167 ± 1 Ma to 173 ± 1 Ma. The Nianziyu pluton has typical characteristics of appinite with low SiO2 (43.7-52.6%), high Ca, Mg, Fe and H2O contents. It possesses subduction-related trace element patterns, enriched Nd-Hf isotopic signatures as well as elevated zircon δ18O values (6.2-7.2‰), arguing for an enriched mantle source metasomatized by fluids related to subduction. The Shuihutong monzogranites have high silica (SiO2 = 75.4-75.9%) and alkali contents, low Ca contents and striking negative Ba, Sr and Eu anomalies. Samples from the pluton have more evolved Nd-Hf isotopic values and are considered to be most likely derived from anatexis of ancient lower continental crust. Hybridization between mantle- and ancient lower crust-derived magmas is proposed for the mafic microgranular enclave-bearing Baijiadian granitoids, which are characterized by variable εNd (t) and εHf(t) values. Integrated with the regional geologic history, we suggest that the formation of the three middle Jurassic plutons were related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific ocean plate beneath the NCC. Their petrogenetic differences reflect complex magmatic processes in subduction settings involving melting of multiple sources, possible partly facilitated by fluid metasomatism and water-rich magma injection, accompanied with various degrees of magma mixing. The appearance of middle Jurassic appinitic rocks leads us to propose that the NCC destruction and lithosphere thinning were facilitated and controlled by the weakening of the lithospheric mantle after hydration because of the subduction of the

  3. Geochemistry of intrusive rocks associated with the Latir volcanic field, New Mexico, and contrasts between evolution of plutonic and volcanic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.M.; Czamanske, G.K.; Lipman, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    Plutonic rocks associated with the Latir volcanic field comprise three groups: 1) ???25 Ma high-level resurgent plutons composed of monzogranite and silicic metaluminous and peralkaline granite, 2) 23-25 Ma syenogranite, and alkali-feldspar granite intrusions emplaced along the southern caldera margin, and 3) 19-23 Ma granodiorite and granite plutons emplaced south of the caldera. Major-element compositions of both extrusive and intrusive suites in the Latir field are broadly similar; both suites include high-SiO2 rocks with low Ba and Sr, and high Rb, Nb, Th, and U contents. Moreover, both intermediateto siliciccomposition volcanic and plutonic rocks contain abundant accessory sphene and apatite, rich in rare-earth elements (REE), as well as phases in which REE's are essential components. Strong depletion in Y and REE contents, with increasing SiO2 content, in the plutonic rocks indicate a major role for accessory mineral fractionation that is not observed in volcanic rocks of equivalent composition. Considerations of the rheology of granitic magma suggest that accessory-mineral fractionation may occur primarily by filter-pressing evolved magmas from crystal-rich melts. More limited accessory-mineral crystallization and fractionation during evolution of the volcanic magmas may have resulted from markedly lower diffusivities of essential trace elements than major elements. Accessory-mineral fractionation probably becomes most significant at high crystallinities. The contrast in crystallization environments postulated for the extrusive and intrusive rocks may be common to other magmatic systems; the effects are particularly pronounced in highly evolved rocks of the Latir field. High-SiO2 peralkaline porphyry emplaced during resurgence of the Questa caldera represents non-erupted portions of the magma that produced the Amalia Tuff during caldera-forming eruption. The peralkaline porphyry continues compositional and mineralogical trends found in the tuff. Amphibole

  4. SHRIMP U-Pb dating and geochemistry of the Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the Korean Peninsula: A new tectonic model of the Cretaceous Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won; Kwon, Sanghoon; Park, Seung-Ik; Lee, Changyeol; Cho, Deung-Lyong; Lee, Hong-Jin; Ko, Kyoungtae; Kim, Sook Ju

    2016-10-01

    The Cretaceous tectonomagmatism of the Korean Peninsula was examined based on geochemical and geochronological data of the Cretaceous plutonic rocks, along with distribution of volcano-sedimentary nonmarine N- to NE-trending fault bounded sedimentary basins. We conducted sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock geochemical compositions of 21 Cretaceous plutonic rocks, together with previously published data, from the central to southern Korean Peninsula. Four age groups of plutonic rocks were identified: Group I (ca. 119-106 Ma) in the northern to central area, Group II (ca. 99-87 Ma) in the central southern area, Group III (ca. 85-82 Ma) in the central to southern area, and Group IV (ca. 76-67 Ma) in the southernmost area. These results indicate a sporadic trenchward-younging trend of the Cretaceous magmatism in the Korean Peninsula. The Group I, II, and III rocks are dominated by high-K calc-alkaline I-type rocks with rift-related A-type granitoids. In contrast, the Group IV rocks are high-K calc-alkaline I-type plutonic rocks with no A-type rocks. The geochemical signatures of the entire groups indicated LREEs (light rare earth elements) enrichments and negative Nb, Ta, and Ti anomalies, indicating normal arc magmatism. A new tectonic model of the Cretaceous Korean Peninsula was proposed based on temporal and spatial distribution of the Cretaceous plutons represented by four age groups; 1) magmatic quiescence throughout the Korean Peninsula from ca. 160 to 120 Ma, 2) intrusions of the I- and A-type granitoids in the northern and central Korean Peninsula (Group I plutonic rocks from ca. 120 to 100 Ma) resulted from the partial melting of the lower continental crust due to the rollback of the Izanagi plate expressed as the conversion from flat-lying subduction to normal subduction. The Gyeongsang nonmarine sedimentary rift basin in the Korean Peninsula and adakite magmatism preserved in the present-day Japanese Islands

  5. Evidence for multiple mechanisms of crustal contamination of magma from compositionally zoned plutons and associated ultramafic intrusions of the Alaska Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, P.W.; Nelson, B.K.; Nelson, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    Models of continental crustal magmagenesis commonly invoke the interaction of mafic mantle-derived magma and continental crust to explain geochemical and petrologic characteristics of crustal volcanic and plutonic rocks. This interaction and the specific mechanisms of crustal contamination associated with it are poorly understood. An excellent opportunity to study the progressive effects of crustal contamination is offered by the composite plutons of the Alaska Range, a series of nine early Tertiary, multiply intruded, compositionally zoned (peridotite to granite) plutons. Large initial Sr and Nd isotopic contrasts between the crustal country rock and likely parental magmas allow evaluation of the mechanisms and extents of crustal contamination that accompanied the crystallization of these ultramafic through granitic rocks. Three contamination processes are distinguished in these plutons. The most obvious of these is assimilation of crustal country rock concurrent with magmatic fractional crystallization (AFC), as indicated by a general trend toward crustal-like isotopic signatures with increasing differentiation. Second, many ultramafic and mafic rocks have late-stage phenocryst reaction and orthocumulate textures that suggest interaction with felsic melt. These rocks also have variable and enriched isotopic compositions that suggest that this felsic melt was isotopically enriched and probably derived from crustal country rock. Partial melt from the flysch country rock may have reacted with and contaminated these partly crystalline magmas following the precipitation and accumulation of the cumulus phenocrysts but before complete solidification of the magma. This suggests that in magmatic mush (especially of ultramafic composition) crystallizing in continental crust, a second distinct process of crustal contamination may be super-imposed on AFC or magma mixing involving the main magma body. Finally, nearly all rocks, including mafic and ultramafic rocks, have (87Sr

  6. Implications for Rodinia reconstructions for the initiation of Neoproterozoic subduction at ~ 860 Ma on the western margin of the Yangtze Block: Evidence from the Guandaoshan Pluton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lilin; Guo, Jinghui; Nutman, Allen P.; Wyman, Derek; Geng, Yuansheng; Yang, Chonghui; Liu, Fulai; Ren, Liudong; Zhou, Xiwen

    2014-05-01

    Neoproterozoic igneous rocks are widespread along the western margin of the Yangtze Block, but their petrogenesis and tectonic setting is debated. The Guandaoshan pluton is located at the southwestern margin of the Yangtze Block and is mainly composed of diorite and subordinate gabbro, with quartz diorite in its margin. Hornblende is an ubiquitous mineral in different phases of the pluton. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating of quartz diorite, gabbroic diorite, and gabbro from the pluton yielded 206Pb/238U ages of 857 ± 7 Ma, 856 ± 6 Ma, and 856 ± 8 Ma, respectively. Guandaoshan pluton samples show a large range of SiO2 (47.02-67.66%), MgO (1.12-7.5%), Fe2O3T (2.8-12.22%) and CaO (2.95-11.88%), low rare earth element (REE) contents from 22 to 49 ppm, and enrichment of Sr, Ba and Rb and depletion of Nb, Zr and Ti with characteristics of island arc magma. They also exhibit low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.7030-0.7033, and positive ɛNd(t) values from + 4.8 to + 5.2. These features suggest that the parental magma of the Guandaoshan pluton originated at a convergent plate boundary from a depleted mantle source modified by slab fluids, and underwent the fractional crystallization of amphibole and magnetite, without significant crustal assimilation, during the formation from gabbro-diorite to quartz diorite. Neoproterozoic magmas with age of 860-740 Ma are abundant on the western Yangtze Block, and there is a gap of magmatism in early Neoproterozoic (from about 1000 Ma to 870 Ma). Therefore, it can be deduced that the ~ 860 Ma Guandaoshan pluton and the contemporary magmatism represent initial subduction at the western margin of the Yangtze Block. Based on the Neoproterozoic paleomagnetic data, detrital zircon ages, magmas with low δ18O values in South China and our new data, we prefer that the South China Block was located at the margin of Rodinia in the Neoproterozoic, and not at the center of the supercontinent.

  7. A influência do treinamento de força especial explosiva pliométrica para membros inferiores em saltos e velocidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Alves Gonçalves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O futsal, esporte muito praticado em escolas no Brasil e que se utiliza força explosiva de membros inferiores e a velocidade de seus praticantes. A fim de conseguir melhor rendimento de seus atletas, professores e treinadores de futsal, podem criar métodos de treinamento bastante eficientes para esta determinada modalidade, que enfoquem a força explosiva de membros inferiores e a velocidade, em virtude disso este estudo tem como objetivo verificar a influência do treinamento de força especial explosiva de membros inferiores, em saltos e velocidade, que estão sempre presentes em jogos de futsal. Para realizar o estudo foram utilizados vinte alunos do sexo masculino do Colégio Marista de Ribeirão Preto com idade média de 16  1 ano, que treinam futsal duas vezes na semana. Os vinte indivíduos foram submetidos aos testes de Corrida de 50 Metros, Sargen´t Jump Test Adaptado e o de Salto Longitudinal; após as avaliações os alunos foram subdivididos em dois grupos de dez alunos cada, sendo os grupos A e B. O grupo A foi submetido a oito semanas de treinamento pliométrico com cones, o grupo B não teve nenhum tipo de treinamento físico. Após este período de treinamento os grupos A e B foram reavaliados. Assim conclui pelos resultados apresentados pelo grupo A e grupo B, que o Grupo A, que treinou, obteve uma melhora significativa em relação aos valores obtidos antes do treinamento e sobre o grupo B, que não realizaram nenhum tipo de treinamento físico. Sendo que o grupo B, sem fazer treinamento físico algum, também obteve melhora no seu pós-teste, mas o grupo A teve rendimento superior ao grupo B no pós-teste. ABSTRACT The influence of special explosive plyometric strength training for lower limbs in heels and speed The futsal, sport very practiced at schools in Brazil and that is used explosive force of inferior members and your apprentices' speed. In order to get your athletes' better revenue, teachers and futsal trainers

  8. Control de la carga de entrenamiento a través del CMJ en pruebas de velocidad y saltos para optimizar el rendimiento deportivo en atletismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jiménez-Reyes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la dosificación de la carga siempre ha suscitado controversias y no está resuelta cuál es la carga óptima de entrenamiento para alcanzar el mayor rendimiento. La mayoría de estudios analizan los efectos agudos del entrenamiento y las relaciones entre las variables del entrenamiento de manera sincrónica, sin que exista, en muchos casos, una evidencia científica sobre las cargas más adecuadas y su efecto en el rendimiento. Nuestro objetivo fue proporcionar una información relevante y útil para poder controlar y organizar el entrenamiento de manera racional en atletismo, obteniendo una información más completa y real de los efectos del proceso de entrenamiento. Participaron 24 sujetos que realizaron un seguimiento del control del entrenamiento a través del "Salto con Contramovimiento" (CMJ y la carga de entrenamiento durante 71 semanas. Destacamos la evolución del CMJ y la carga de entrenamiento en las cuatro semanas previas a la competición en la que se obtenía el mejor rendimiento durante las 71 semanas de seguimiento. En conclusión, si se realiza un exhaustivo control de la carga de entrenamiento y su relación con el rendimiento físico y deportivo, permitiría ajustar las cargas de entrenamiento adecuadamente, proporcionando una información relevante y útil para poder organizar el entrenamiento de manera racional.

  9. Efecto del entrenamiento combinado de pliometría y electroestimulación en salto vertical. (Effect of combined plyometric and electrostimulation training on vertical jump.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Benito Martínez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En este estudio se han analizado los efectos del entrenamiento combinado de pliometría y electroestimulación en un entrenamiento de fuerza muscular de los miembros inferiores. El estudio incluyó tres grupos experimentales, que trabajaron ambos métodos en orden diferente y de forma simultánea, y uno de control. Participaron 78 atletas, 40 mujeres y 38 hombres, de disciplinas de velocidad (100 y 200 m lisos y 100 y 110 m vallas, con una edad de 17,94 ± 1,44 años y una masa de 58,53 ± 8,05 kg. El programa incluyó dos días / sem de entrenamiento pliométrico y dos sesiones utilizando un electroestimulador Megasonic 313-P4. Tras dos meses de entrenamiento, se midió con plataforma de contacto ORGANISER PSION 2 la altura de salto vertical y potencia del tren inferior en test de Abalakov y Drop Jump. Las mayores diferencias pre/post test (p Abstract This paper analyses the effects of combined electrostimulation and plyometric training on lower body strength training. The training programme was applied to three experimental groups and one control group. The experimental groups used both methods simultaneously but in different order. The participants were 78 sprinters (100m and 200m, and 100m and 110m hurdles, 38 male and 40 female. Their average age was 15,9 ± 1,4 years and their average weight was 58,53 ± 8,05kg. The training programme consisted in two days a week of plyometric training and two sessions with a Megasonic 313-P4 electrostimulation unit. After two months training, vertical jump height and lower body power were measured in Abalakov test and Drop Jump test with PSION ORGANISER II. The most significant pre- and post-test (p

  10. The amphiboles of the REE-rich A-type peralkaline Strange Lake pluton - fingerprints of magma evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Karin; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.; van Hinsberg, Vincent J.

    2017-09-01

    Major and trace element compositions of amphibole in igneous environments commonly reflect evolving magma compositions. In this study, we use the amphibole-group minerals from the Strange Lake, REE-enriched peralkaline granitic pluton to gain insights into the evolution of the magma. This 1240 Ma old pluton consists of two main intrusive facies, an early hypersolvus granite, which occurs as separate northern and southern intrusions, and a more evolved transsolvus granite. In the hypersolvus granite the amphibole is a late interstitial phase, whereas in the transsolvus granite, it is present as phenocrysts. The amphibole compositions vary from calcic-sodic (ferro-ferri-katophorite) in the southern hypersolvus granite to sodic (arfvedsonite, ferro-ferri-leakeite) in the other, more evolved granitic units. High Na, Si, Li, and low Al and Ca concentrations in the amphibole phenocrysts of the transsolvus granite indicate formation from a more evolved magma compared to the hypersolvus granite, despite the fact that these crystals formed early. We interpret the increasing Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios in the amphibole of the hypersolvus granite to reflect crystal chemical effects (Na/Ca-ratio) and increasingly oxidizing conditions in the magma, whereas in the phenocrysts of the transsolvus granite, the increasing ratio was the product of increasing proportions of F- and OH- in the melt. The amphiboles of all the granite units have elevated Nb, Zr, Hf and REE concentrations compared to the bulk rock, suggesting that these elements are compatible in amphibole. By contrast the much lower Ti concentration was due to saturation of the magma in sodium-titanosilicates. The amphibole REE concentrations vary greatly among the granite units. Amphibole of the southern and northern hypersolvus granite contains 0.16 and 0.07 wt.% ∑ REE + Y, on average, respectively, and in the transsolvus granite, the average ∑ REE content is only 0.01 wt.%, despite the more evolved nature of its host

  11. Evolución y relación de la capacidad de salto y amortiguación en gimnastas de rítmica de alto nivel

    OpenAIRE

    Grande Rodriguez, Ignacio; Sampedro Molinuevo, Javier; Rivilla García, Jesús; Bofill Rodenas, Ana; Hontoria Galan, Monica

    2010-01-01

    La capacidad de salto (Di Cagno et al., 2008; Ferro, 1998; Ferro et al., 1999; Grande et al, 2009; Hutchinson et al., 1998; Kums et al., 2005; Miletíc, Sekulic & Wolf-Cvitak, 2004; Pérez-Gómez at al., 2006; Yi & Kwon, 2005). y amortiguación (Sabick et al., 2006; Mills et al., 2008; Mills et al., 2009) ha sido evaluada en gimnastas. Todas las gimnastas del equipo nacional senior de GR (n=8) fueron evaluadas en dos ocasiones durante el proceso de preparación del campeonato del Mundo de 200...

  12. Biomechanical analysis of countermovement jump in people with cerebral palsy Análisis biomecánico del salto vertical con contramovimiento en personas con parálisis cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gianikellis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the patterns of the developed ground reaction forces in the two – legged countermovement jumping, performed by persons affected by tetraparesis with ataxia, tetraparesis with athetosis, tetraparesis with spasticity, diplegia with spasticity, right and left hemiplegia and, finally, right and left hemiparesis. After twenty subjects jumped on the surface of a force plate analysis of the ground reaction force – time trend took place. The obtained results confirm the accomplishment of the biomechanical principle of the initial force as in the case of persons not affected by neurological disorders. Finally the calculated ratio between the breaking impulse and the acceleration impulse is very near to optimum values.
    KEY WORDS: cerebral palsy, biomechanics, countermovement jump.

     

    El valor óptimo del impulso de aceleración en el salto vertical con contra -movimiento, es aproximadamente tres veces superior al impulso de “frenaje”. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido investigar el modo de actuación de la cadena biocinemática del tren inferior en el salto vertical con contra -movimiento para personas afectadas por parálisis cerebral, concretamente, tetraparesia con ataxia, tetraparesia con atetosis, tetraparesia con espasticidad, diplegia con espasticidad, hemiplegia izquierda y derecha, y finalmente, hemiparesia izquierda y derecha. Para ello, se han analizado las fuerzas de reacción de veintitrés sujetos que han realizado saltos con contramovimiento sobre una plataforma de fuerzas. El hallazgo de un valor medio de la ratio entre el impulso de “frenaje” y el de aceleración muy próximo al valor teórico para los veintitrés sujetos con diferentes síntomas de parálisis cerebral, confirma el principio de la fuerza inicial mientras que el alto coeficiente de variación de los parámetros utilizados en este estudio confirma la esperada

  13. Evaluación de la capacidad de salto y estado ponderal en estudiantes de danza clásica de la escuela del Teatro Colón en Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Bazán, Nelio; Bruzzese, Martín Fernando; Laiño, Fernando A.; Ghioldi, Marcelo; Santa María, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Introducción El objetivo fue estudiar la capacidad de salto, el peso corporal y la talla, en estudiantes de la escuela de danza clásica del Teatro Colón de Buenos Aires.Material y métodos Cincuenta estudiantes femeninos (10 a 21 años) y 16 masculinos (10 a 26 años). Variables: estatura (m), peso (kg), índice de masa corporal, altura (cm) del squat jump (SJ) y countermouvement jump (CMJ), índice de elasticidad (IE) (%).Resultados Bajo peso 38% de mujeres y 6,3% de varones. En mujeres, se ejecu...

  14. Importancia de la velocidad de salida del balón y de la precisión como parámetros de eficacia en el lanzamiento en salto a distancia en balonmano

    OpenAIRE

    Párraga Montilla, Juan A.; Párraga Montilla, Juan A.; Oña Sicilia, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    En este estudio se analiza la velocidad de salida del balón y la precisión, en su localización en la portería, como parámetros determinantes de la eficacia del lanzamiento en salto a distancia a en balonmano. Se realiza un estudio fotogramétrico bidimensional (2D) para calcular la velocidad del balón, en el momento de perder contacto con la mano ejecutora, y se contrastan los resultados con los obtenidos en estudios similares. Igualmente, se analiza la precisión del balón teniendo en cuenta q...

  15. Aeolus or Pluton?; Eole ou pluton?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-07-01

    In the next years the french government will have to take great decisions in matter of energy and specifically electric power. This report aims to give an estimation of wind power channel in France supposing financial possibilities equivalent to those implemented for the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) channel. After a presentation of the electric power industry in France, the two channels are compared. (A.L.B.)

  16. Incremental growth of an upper crustal, A-type pluton, Argentina: Evidence of a re-used magma pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasino, Pablo H.; Larrovere, Mariano A.; Rocher, Sebastián; Dahlquist, Juan A.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Memeti, Valbone; Paterson, Scott; Galindo, Carmen; Macchioli Grande, Marcos; da Costa Campos Neto, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Carboniferous igneous activity in the Sierra de Velasco (NW Argentina) led to the emplacement of several magmas bodies at shallow levels (< 2 kbar). One of these, the San Blas intrusive complex formed over millions of years (≤ 2-3 m.y.) through three periods of magma additions that are characterized by variations in magma sources and emplacement style. The main units, mostly felsic granitoids, have U-Pb zircon crystallization ages within the error range. From older to younger (based on cross-cutting relationships) intrusive units are: (1) the Asha unit (340 ± 7 Ma): a tabular to funnel-shaped intrusion emplaced during a regional strain field dominated by WSW-ENE shortening with contacts discordant to regional host-rock structures; (2) the San Blas unit (344 ± 2 Ma): an approximate cylindrical-shaped intrusion formed by multiple batches of magmas, with a roughly concentric fabric pattern and displacement of the host rock by ductile flow of about 35% of shortening; and (3) the Hualco unit (346 ± 6 Ma): a small body with a possible mushroom geometry and contacts concordant to regional host-rock structures. The magma pulses making up these units define two groups of A-type granitoids. The first group includes the peraluminous granitic rocks of the Asha unit generated mostly by crustal sources (εNdt = - 5.8 and εHft in zircon = - 2.9 to - 4.5). The second group comprises the metaluminous to peraluminous granitic rocks of the youngest units (San Blas and Hualco), which were formed by a heterogeneous mixture between mantle and crustal sources (εNdt = + 0.6 to - 4.8 and εHft in zircon = + 3 to - 6). Our results provide a comprehensive view of the evolution of an intrusive complex formed from multiple non-consanguineous magma intrusions that utilized the same magmatic plumbing system during downward transfer of host materials. As the plutonic system matures, the ascent of magmas is governed by the visco-elastic flow of host rock that for younger batches include

  17. Ti Mobility in Quartzite from the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek Pluton (EJB) Aureole in California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Student, J. J.; Morgan, S.

    2015-12-01

    The EJB pluton intruded into Paleozoic sandstone during the Jurassic leaving a well-exposed aureole. Quartzite was collected from the contact outward to investigate the response of Ti in sedimentary quartz to varying grades of metamorphism using EPMA and CL imaging. TitaniQ and Zr in rutile thermobarometers were applied to rutile bearing quartzite at 225, 500, and 1540 meters from the contact. Comparison CL images, including those of Harkless sandstone collected 15 km away and Harkless quartzite in the aureole reveal significant Ti mobility and a general smoothing of the Ti distribution in the quartzite. The CL images also reveal that the redistribution of Ti in the quartzite was incomplete. Discounting this, TitaniQ was applied using a Ti activity of 1.0 and a pressure of 2.75 kbars based on previous studies. In an effort to establish possible peak conditions, Ti was measured in the brightest CL quartz grain interiors, and the Zr was measured in surrounding rutile grains. The temperature calculations are inconsistent. At 225 meters, the Zr in rutile resulted in a temperature range from 662-762 °C (n=31) compared to a maximum temperature of 595 °C based on Ti in quartz. At 500 meters, rutile resulted in a range from 635-720 °C (n=44) compared to quartz at 525 °C. At 1540 meters, the rutile ranged from 650-710 °C (n=55) compared to quartz at 547 °C. The thermometric results may suggest that the aureole was extensively heated to above 500 °C even at 1.5 km from the pluton contact. This is supported by previous studies using other thermometers, thermal modeling, quartz deformation fabrics, and evidence of partial melting-type textures. In all likelihood though, the thermometric results in this study reflect components of inheritance of the original grains, lack of complete Ti re-equilibration due to sluggish diffusion of Ti during metamorphism, and the varying effects of water availability as related to the formation of distinct deformation textures.

  18. PLUTON: Three-group neutronic code for burnup analysis of isotope generation and depletion in highly irradiated LWR fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemehov, Sergei E; Suzuki, Motoe [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-08-01

    PLUTON is a three-group neutronic code analyzing, as functions of time and burnup, the change of radial profiles, together with average values, of power density, burnup, concentration of trans-uranium elements, plutonium buildup, depletion of fissile elements, and fission product generation in water reactor fuel rod with standard UO{sub 2}, UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, inhomogeneous MOX, and UO{sub 2}-ThO{sub 2}. The PLUTON code, which has been designed to be run on Windows PC, has adopted a theoretical shape function of neutron attenuation in pellet, which enables users to perform a very fast and accurate calculation easily. The present code includes the irradiation conditions of the Halden Reactor which gives verification data for the code. The total list of trans-uranium elements included in the calculations consists of {sub 92}U{sup 233-239}, {sub 93}Np{sup 237-239}, {sub 94}Pu{sup 238-243}, {sub 95}Am{sup 241-244} (including isomers), and {sub 96}Cm{sup 242-245}. Poisoning fission products are represented by {sub 54}Xe{sup 131,133,135}, {sub 48}Cd{sup 113}, {sub 62}Sm{sup 149,151,152}, {sub 64}Gd{sup 154-160}, {sub 63}Eu{sup 153,155}, {sub 36}Kr{sup 83,85}, {sub 42}Mo{sup 95}, {sub 43}Tc{sup 99}, {sub 45}Rh{sup 103}, {sub 47}Ag{sup 109}, {sub 53}I{sup 127,129,131}, {sub 55}Cs{sup 133}, {sub 57}La{sup 139}, {sub 59}Pr{sup 141}, {sub 60}Nd{sup 143-150}, {sub 61}Pm{sup 147}. Fission gases and volatiles included in the code are {sub 36}Kr{sup 83-86}, {sub 54}Xe{sup 129-136}, {sub 52}Te{sup 125-130}, {sub 53}I{sup 127-131}, {sub 55}Cs{sup 133-137}, and {sub 56}Ba{sup 135-140}. Verification has been performed up to 83 GWd/tU, and a satisfactory agreement has been obtained. (author)

  19. Updated paleomagnetic pole from Cretaceous plutonic rocks of the Sierra Nevada, California: Tectonic displacement of the Sierra Nevada block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, John W.; Gromme, Sherman

    2011-01-01

    We report remanent magnetization measurements from 13 sites in Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the northern Sierra Nevada (38°N–39.5°N). By increasing the number of available paleomagnetic sites, the new data tighten constraints on the displacement history of the Sierra Nevada block and its pre-extensional position relative to interior North America. We collected samples in freshly exposed outcrops along four highway transects. The rocks include diorite, granodiorite, and tonalite with potassium-argon ages (hornblende) ranging from 100 Ma to 83 Ma. By combining our results with previous paleomagnetic determinations from the central and southern Sierra Nevada (excluding sites from the rotated southern tip east of the White Wolf–Kern Canyon fault system), we find a mean paleomagnetic pole of 70.5°N, 188.2°E, A95 = 2.6° (N = 26, Fisher concentration parameter, K = 118). Thermal demagnetization indicates that the characteristic remanence is generally unblocked in a narrow range within 35 °C of the Curie temperature of pure magnetite. Small apparent polar wander during the Cretaceous normal-polarity superchron, plus prolonged acquisition of remanence at the site level, may account for the low dispersion of virtual geomagnetic poles and relatively large K value. Tilt estimates based on overlapping sediments, stream gradients, and thermochronology of the Sierra Nevada plutons vary from 0° to 3° down to the southwest. Without tilt correction, the mean paleomagnetic pole for the Sierra Nevada is essentially coincident with the North American reference pole during the Cretaceous stillstand (125 Ma to 80 Ma). At 95% confidence, the apparent latitude shift is 1.1° ± 3.0° (positive northward), and the apparent rotation is negligible, 0.0° ± 4.7°. Correcting for each degree of tilt, which is limited to 3° on geologic evidence, increases the rotation anomaly 2.2° counterclockwise, while the apparent latitude shift remains unchanged.

  20. Shoshonitic liquid line of descent from diorite to granite: the Late Precambrian post-collisional Tismana pluton (South Carpathians, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Jean-Clair; Berza, Tudor; Liégeois, Jean-Paul; Vander Auwera, Jacqueline

    1998-12-01

    The post-collision late-kinematic Tismana pluton belongs to the shoshonitic series. It is part of a Late Precambrian basement within the Alpine Danubian nappes of the South Carpathians (Romania). This pluton displays an exceptionally complete range of compositions from ultramafic to felsic rocks (granites). Widespread mingling/mixing relationships at all scales give rise to a variety of facies. A liquid line of descent from the diorites to the granites is reconstructed by considering the variation in major and trace elements (REE, Sr, Rb, Ba, Nb, Zr, Hf, Zn, V, Co, Cr, U, Th, Ga, Pb) from 33 selected samples as well as mineral/melt equilibrium relationships. The first step of fractional crystallization is the separation from a monzodioritic parent magma of a peridotitic cumulate similar to the ultramafic rock found in the massif. A possible contamination by lower crustal mafic component takes place at this stage. The second step marks the appearance of apatite and Fe-Ti oxide minerals as liquidus phases, and the third step, saturation of zircon. Mixing by hybridisation of magmas produced at different stages of the evolution along the liquid line of descent is also operating (endo-hybridisation). As depicted by Nd and Sr isotopes, fractional crystallization was combined to an important early contamination by a mafic lower crust in a deep-seated magma chamber and to a later and mild contamination by a felsic medium crust in an intermediate chamber. The mingling essentially occurred during the final emplacement in the high-level magma chamber. The monzodioritic parent magma, identified by major and trace element modelling, is shown by Sr and Nd isotopes to have its source in the lithospheric mantle or in a juvenile mafic lower crust derived from it. The necessarily recent enrichment in K 2O and associated elements of the lithospheric mantle is likely to be related to the preceding Pan-African subduction period. The partial melting of this newly formed deep source has

  1. The link between volcanism and plutonism in epizonal magma systems; high-precision U–Pb zircon geochronology from the Organ Mountains caldera and batholith, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Matthew; Farmer, Lang; Bowring, Samuel; Wooton, Kathleen M.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Coleman, Drew S.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    The Organ Mountains caldera and batholith expose the volcanic and epizonal plutonic record of an Eocene caldera complex. The caldera and batholith are well exposed, and extensive previous mapping and geochemical analyses have suggested a clear link between the volcanic and plutonic sections, making this an ideal location to study magmatic processes associated with caldera volcanism. Here we present high-precision thermal ionization mass spectrometry U–Pb zircon dates from throughout the caldera and batholith, and use these dates to test and improve existing petrogenetic models. The new dates indicate that Eocene volcanic and plutonic rocks in the Organ Mountains formed from ~44 to 34 Ma. The three largest caldera-related tuff units yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates of 36.441 ± 0.020 Ma (Cueva Tuff), 36.259 ± 0.016 Ma (Achenback Park tuff), and 36.215 ± 0.016 Ma (Squaw Mountain tuff). An alkali feldspar granite, which is chemically similar to the erupted tuffs, yielded a synchronous weighted mean 206Pb/238U date of 36.259 ± 0.021 Ma. Weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates from the larger volume syenitic phase of the underlying Organ Needle pluton range from 36.130 ± 0.031 to 36.071 ± 0.012 Ma, and the youngest sample is 144 ± 20 to 188 ± 20 ka younger than the Squaw Mountain and Achenback Park tuffs, respectively. Younger plutonism in the batholith continued through at least 34.051 ± 0.029 Ma. We propose that the Achenback Park tuff, Squaw Mountain tuff, alkali feldspar granite and Organ Needle pluton formed from a single, long-lived magma chamber/mush zone. Early silicic magmas generated by partial melting of the lower crust rose to form an epizonal magma chamber. Underplating of the resulting mush zone led to partial melting and generation of a high-silica alkali feldspar granite cap, which erupted to form the tuffs. The deeper parts of the chamber underwent continued recharge and crystallization for 144 ± 20 ka after the

  2. The Phillips pluton, Maine, USA: evidence of heterogeneous crustal sources and implications for granite ascent and emplacement mechanisms in convergent orogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Rachel A.; Brown, Michael

    1999-03-01

    The Phillips pluton (age of 403.8±1.3 Ma) was assembled at a crustal level below the contemporary brittle-plastic transition during regional dextral-reverse transpressive deformation. The pluton is composed dominantly of medium- to coarse-grained leucogranite sensu lato (s.l.), but within its bounds includes decametric massive outcrop of fine- to medium-grained granodiorite (s.l.). In places, the leucogranite contains centimetric enclaves apparently of the granodiorite. Granodiorite is host to more biotite than muscovite, and more calcic, oscillatory-zoned plagioclase, compared to the leucogranite. Pegmatitic granite and composite pegmatite-aplite occur as metric sheets within the pluton and as larger bodies outside the pluton to the SW. Magmatic fabrics, defined by biotite schlieren, occur locally in the leucogranite; the attitude of these fabrics and layering within the leucogranite are concordant with the NE-striking, steeply-dipping country rock foliation. K 2O contents, Rb/Sr ratios, Rb, Sr and Ba covariations, and chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns of leucogranite are consistent with high-to-moderate a(H 2O) muscovite dehydration equilibrium eutectic melting of a predominantly pelite source similar to metasedimentary rocks of the surrounding central Maine belt (CMB). The REE patterns and Rb/Sr ratios of granodiorite also suggest derivation from a metasedimentary source, but more likely by moderate-to-low a(H 2O) (muscovite-) biotite dehydration equilibrium eutectic to non-eutectic (minimum) melting of a protolith dominated by greywacke in which garnet and plagioclase were residual phases. Both granite (s.l.) types have heterogeneous initial Nd isotope compositions. Samples of granodiorite define a range in ɛNd (404 Ma) of -1.8 to +0.1 (±0.3 2 σ uncertainty), and samples of leucogranite define a range in ɛNd (404 Ma) of -8.0 to -5.3 (±0.3 2 σ uncertainty). This bimodal distribution suggests that melts were derived from a minimum of

  3. Micro-structural and compositional variations of hydrothermal epidote-group minerals from a peralkaline granite, Corupá Pluton, Graciosa Province, South Brazil, and their petrological implications

    OpenAIRE

    VLACH, SILVIO R. F.

    2012-01-01

    Epidote-group minerals, together with albite, quartz, fluorite, Al-poor and Fe-rich phyllosilicates, zircon, and minor oxides and sulphides, are typical hydrothermal phases in peralkaline alkali-feldspar granites from the Corupá Pluton, Graciosa Province, South Brazil. The epidote-group minerals occur as single crystals and as aggregates filling in rock interstices and miarolitic cavities. They display complex recurrent zoning patterns with an internal zone of ferriallanite-(Ce), followed by ...

  4. Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-O isotope composition of granitoids of the Early Cretaceous Copiapó plutonic complex (27°30'S), Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschik, Robert; Fontignie, Denis; Chiaradia, Massimo; Voldet, Pia

    2003-10-01

    Early Cretaceous plutonic rocks exposed south of Copiapó form part of the Coastal Batholith of northern Chile. These rocks intrude arc-derived volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks and marine limestones that were deposited in the Early Cretaceous Atacama backarc basin. The Copiapó plutonic complex consists mainly of calc-alkaline, medium- to coarse-grained diorite, granodiorite, tonalite, monzodiorite, and quartz monzonite. The plutonic rocks are subalkaline to alkaline, metaluminous, magnetite-series, volcanic arc, I-type granitoids. Batholithic magmas are a heat, potential fluid, metal, and sulphur source for the hydrothermal iron oxide-rich Cu-Au mineralization in the Candelaria-Punta del Cobre district. Ore-related hydrothermal alteration affected large portions of the Copiapó complex. The least altered batholithic rocks have initial 87Sr/ 86Sr of 0.703070-0.703231; initial 143Nd/ 144Nd of 0.512733-0.512781; and 206Pb/ 204Pb, 207Pb/ 204Pb, and 208Pb/ 204Pb of 18.428-18.772, 15.550-15.603, and 38.127-38.401, respectively. The δ18O values for these rocks range from +6.9 to +8.6‰. Isotope signatures and trace element distributions suggest that the magmas are mantle derived. A subduction fluid-modified mantle source may explain the geochemical characteristics of the Copiapó complex. The ascent of magmas occurred along deep-rooted structures without significant crustal contamination, though minor contamination by relatively young (e.g. Jurassic) igneous rocks during ascent is possible. Intrusive rocks with high-K to shoshonitic characteristics probably represent residual liquids of less evolved magmas. The regional geologic context suggests that the plutons of the Copiapó complex were emplaced at a relatively shallow crustal level of 2-3 km.

  5. Low-sulfide PGE ore in the Volchetundra gabbro-anorthosite pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chashchin, V. V.; Petrov, S. V.

    2013-09-01

    The internal structure of the Volchetundra gabbro-anorthosite massif is considered, including localization of low-sulfide PGE mineralization and its mineralogy. The Volchetundra massif 24 km long and 0.5-4.0 km wide occupies the middle part of the Main Range complex, which extends for 75 km in the nearly meridional direction. The main and marginal zones are distinguished in the massif. The marginal zone 20-400 m wide extends along the entire eastern contact of the massif and is primarily composed of mediumgrained meso- and leucocratic norite, gabbronorite, plagioclasite, and less fequent orthopyroxenite. The main zone consists of coarse-grained leucogabbro and gabbronorite with an anorthosite zone in the axial part of the massif. The PGE mineralization of the Volchetundra massif is distinctly subdivided into two types substantially differing in localization, mineralogy, geochemistry, and economic importance. Mineralization of the first type is localized in the marginal zone and characterized by the highest resource potential. Mineralization hosted in the main zone belongs to the second type. The PGE ore of marginal zone is spatially and genetically related to the pyrite-pentlandite-chalcopyrite-pyrrhotite sulfide mineralization (1-5%) in the form of fine inequigranular interstitial disseminations, and less frequent larger grains and pockets localized within two ore zones each up to 2 km in extent. The thickness of separate mineralized layers varies from 0.5 to 3.0 m and up to 45 m in bulges. The average Pt + Pd grade is 1.37 gpt at Pd/Pt = 3.1. The mineralization of the second type has been penetrated by boreholes. Separate intersections do not correlate with one another and are limited in extent both along the strike and down the dip. The PGE mineralization is related to finely dispersed pentlandite-pyrite-pyrrhotite-chalcopyrite sulfides, sulfide emulsions, and less abundant stringer-disseminated sulfide ore. The orebodies vary from 2 to 7 m in thickness. The

  6. Discussion of ``Is there a close spatial relationship between faults and plutons?'' by S.R. Paterson and K.L. Schmidt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jeremy P.

    2001-12-01

    Paterson and Schmidt (1999) and Schmidt and Paterson (2000) presented statistical analyses of spatial relationships between faults and plutons from which they ;see no evidence that magma is channeled along faults; (Paterson and Schmidt, 1999, p. 1140). If anything, they conclude, there is an antithetic relationship. As an economic geologist familiar with intrusion-related hydrothermal ore deposits, I was at first surprised by these statements and the bold title of the EOS article: ;Analyses fail to find coupling between deformation and magmatism.; However, after reading the articles I came to understand that these conclusions applied only to plutons emplaced within compressional orogenic belts. Fortunately, most hypabyssal plutons related to magmatic hydrothermal ore deposits are emplaced in tensional or transtensional arc environments, albeit perhaps within a broadly compressional regime. In such settings, structural controls on the localization of ore-forming magmatism are evident, as illustrated by the restriction of several of the world's largest porphyry copper deposits to a single ∼30 km×∼1000 km fault belt (the West Fissure Zone) in northern Chile and southern Peru (Fig. 1; Baker and Guilbert, 1987; Richards et al., 1999, 2001), and more specifically to lineament intersections along its length (Salfity, 1985; Richards, 2000; Richards et al., 2001). Other examples have been provided by Rehrig and Heidrick (1972), Seraphim and Hollister (1976), Titley (1981), Heidrick and Titley (1982), Sylvester and Linke (1993), Sapiie and Cloos (1995), and Cornejo et al. (1997).

  7. Post-orogenic shoshonitic magmas of the Yzerfontein pluton, South Africa: the `smoking gun' of mantle melting and crustal growth during Cape granite genesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J. D.; Buick, I. S.; Frei, D.; Lana, C.; Villaros, A.

    2017-09-01

    The post-orogenic Yzerfontein pluton, in the Saldania Belt of South Africa was constructed through numerous injections of shoshonitic magmas. Most magma compositions are adequately modelled as products of fractionation, but the monzogranites and syenogranites may have a separate origin. A separate high-Mg mafic series has a less radiogenic mantle source. Fine-grained magmatic enclaves in the intermediate shoshonitic rocks are autoliths. The pluton was emplaced between 533 ± 3 and 537 ± 3 Ma (LA-SF-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon), essentially synchronously with many granitic magmas of the Cape Granite Suite (CGS). Yzerfontein may represent a high-level expression of the mantle heat source that initiated partial melting of the local crust and produced the CGS granitic magmas, late in the Saldanian Orogeny. However, magma mixing is not evident at emplacement level and there are no magmatic kinships with the I-type granitic rocks of the CGS. The mantle wedge is inferred to have been enriched during subduction along the active continental margin. In the late- to post-orogenic phase, the enriched mantle partially melted to produce heterogeneous magma batches, exemplified by those that formed the Yzerfontein pluton, which was further hybridised through minor assimilation of crustal materials. Like Yzerfontein, the small volumes of mafic rocks associated with many batholiths, worldwide, are probably also low-volume, high-level expressions of crustal growth through the emplacement of major amounts of mafic magma into the deep crust.

  8. The Oulad Ouaslam Variscan granitic pluton (Jebilets Massif, Southwestern Moroccan Meseta): A forcibly emplaced laccolithic intrusion characterized by its magnetic and magmatic fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boummane, M. H.; Olivier, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    The study of the magmatic fabrics of the Oulad Ouaslam Variscan granitic pluton, based on the Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility technique, allows us to propose that this 30 km long laccolith corresponds to a forcibly emplaced intrusion which proceeded from west to east into its country rock of Carboniferous metapelites. The fact that the magmatic fabrics measured in this pluton are obliquely cut, in the southwestern part, by solid-state structures (cleavage, shear bands) related to the regional main phase of deformation shows that the pluton was emplaced before this phase. Consequently, the tectonic control of this emplacement appears to have been much less important than it was suggested in the previous interpretations which considered, on the basis of the study of the solid-state fabrics, a syn-tectonic emplacement of this granite, possibly linked to a sinistral NNW-SSE shear zone. Our results contribute to the definition of a new framework for the tectonic history of this part of the Variscan chain.

  9. Mineral growth in melt conduits as a mechanism for igneous layering in shallow arc plutons: mineral chemistry of Fisher Lake orbicules and comb layers (Sierra Nevada, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Anders; Müntener, Othmar

    2017-07-01

    Different processes have been proposed to explain the variety of igneous layering in plutonic rocks. To constrain the mechanisms of emplacement and crystallization of ascending magma batches in shallow plutons, we have studied comb layers and orbicules from the Fisher Lake Pluton, Northern Sierra Nevada. Through a detailed study of the mineralogy and bulk chemistry of 70 individual layers, we show that comb layers and orbicule rims show no evidence of forming through a self-organizing, oscillatory crystallization process, but represent crystallization fronts resulting from in situ crystallization and extraction of evolved melt fractions during decompression-driven crystallization, forming a plagioclase-dominated cres-cumulate at the mm- to m-scale. We propose that the crystal content of the melt and the dynamics of the magmatic system control the mechanisms responsible for vertical igneous layering in shallow reservoirs. As comb layers crystallize on wall rocks, the higher thermal gradients will increase the diversity of comb layering, expressed by inefficient melt extraction, thereby forming amphibole comb layers and trapped apatite + quartz saturated evolved melt fractions. High-An plagioclase (An90-An97.5) is a widespread phase in Fisher lake comb layers and orbicule rims. We show that a combination of cooling rate, latent heat of crystallization and pressure variations may account for high-An plagioclase in shallow melt extraction zones.

  10. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bite of an infected mosquito. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare illness in humans, and only ... EEEV have no apparent illness. Severe cases of EEE (involving encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain) begin ...

  11. Neutron activation and other analytical data for plutonic rocks from North America and Africa. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, V.; Fay, W.M.; Cook, J.R.

    1982-09-01

    The objective of this report is to retrieve the elements of an analytical study of granites and associated other plutonic rocks which was begun as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. A discussion of the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) neutron activation analysis system is given so that a user will understand the linmitations of the data. Enough information is given so that an experienced geochemist can clean up the data set to the extent required by any project. The data are generally good as they are presented. It is intended that the data be read from a magnetic tape written to accompany this report. Microfiche tables of the data follow the text. These tables were prepared from data on the tape, and programs which will read the tape are presented in the section THE DATA TAPE. It is our intent to write a later paper which will include a thoroughly scrubbed data set and a technical discussion of results of the study. 1 figure.

  12. The impact of geology on the migration of fluorides in mineral waters of the Bukulja and Brajkovac pluton area, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papić Petar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the hydrogeochemical parameters that classify groundwater as mineral water is the content of fluoride ions. Their concentration is both important and limited for bottled mineral waters. Hydrochemical research of mineral waters in the surrounding area of Bukulja and Brajkovac pluton, in central Serbia, was conducted in order to define the chemical composition and genesis of these waters. They are carbonated waters, with content of fluoride ranging from 0.2 up to 6.6 mg/L. Since hydrochemical analyses showed variations in the major water chemistry, it was obvious that, apart from hydrochemical research, some explorations of the structure of the regional terrain would be inevitable. For these purposes, some additional geological research was performed, creating an adequate basis for the interpretation of the genesis of these carbonated mineral waters. The results confirmed the significance of the application of hydrochemical methods in the research of mineral waters. The work tended to emphasize that “technological treatment” for decreasing the concentration of fluoride in mineral waters occurs in nature, indicating the existence of natural defluoridization. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43004

  13. O papel da Crabi no assentamento dos ribeirinhos atingidos pela construção da hidrelétrica de Salto Caxias no estado do Paraná El papel del Crabi en el asentamiento de los ribereños afectados por la construcción de la represa de Salto Caxias en el estado de Paraná The role of the Crabi riverine settlement of affected by the construction of the dam of Salto Caxias in the state of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Derrosso

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir a forma com que o movimento social Comissão Regional dos Atingidos por Barragens do Rio Iguaçu (Crabi atuou no assentamento dos sujeitos deslocados pela construção da hidrelétrica de Salto Caxias. Mediante entrevistas e dados secundários foi investigada a ampla participação da população neste movimento, o que se refletiu em melhores condições para o assentamento. O senso de luta coletiva fomentado pela criação e mobilização da Crabi permeou os processos de reconstrução da vida dos sujeitos deslocados pela Usina, e a efetiva participação deles fez com que fossem conquistadas melhores condições de enfrentamento da situação vivida.Este artículo tiene como objetivo discutir cómo el movimiento social Comisión Regional de los Atingidos por Presas del río Iguazú (Crabi se presentó en el asentamiento de personas desplazadas por la construcción de la represa de Salto Caxias. A través de entrevistas y datos secundarios se determinó la amplia participación de la gente en este movimiento, que se tradujo en mejores condiciones para el asentamiento. El sentido de la lucha colectiva fomentado la creación y movilización de Crabi impregnaba el proceso de reconstrucción de las vidas de las personas desplazadas por la presa, con la participación efectiva de ellos conquistaron mejor posición para hacer frente a la situación vivenciada.This article aims to discuss how the social movement Regional Commission of Dam Iguassu River (Crabi served on the settlement of individuals displaced by the construction of the dam of Salto Caxias. Through interviews and secondary data we investigated the wide participation of the people in this movement, which resulted in better conditions for settlement. The sense of collective struggle fostered the creation and mobilization of Crabi permeated the process of rebuilding the lives of individuals displaced by the plant, with the effective participation of

  14. Prediction of vertical jump height. Role of mechanical impulse and leg muscle mass Predicción de la altura de salto vertical. Importancia del impulso mecánico y de la masa muscular de las extremidades inferiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arteaga

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this study was to find out if it is possible to predict the height of the vertical jump from kinematic, dynamometric and anthropometric variables using a multiple linear regression model. Fifty-three subjects, 21 male and 9 female volleyball players of first National categories (First National League and First League, as well as 23 Physical Education students (12 males and 11 females participated in this study. First, the height of the flight during the performance of a "squat jump" (SJ and "countermovement jump" (CMJ was determined. Then, the maximal isometric strength in the squat position was assessed with the knees bent at 90º, 120º and 140º while the electromyographic activity was simultaneously recorded on the vastus lateralis with surface electrodes. The muscle mass of the lower limbs was obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. The positive mechanical impulse explained on its own 77% of jumping height variability. Prediction power was increased to 82% by including in the model the percentage of body mass represented by de muscle mass of the lower limbs. The inclusion of the muscle mass of the lower limbs, as a third variable, raised the prediction power to 98% of jumping height variability. The same variables allowed for a similar level of prediction during the squat jumps.
    KEY WORDS: Vertical jump, DEXA, muscle mass, strength.

    El objetivo de este estudio ha sido determinar si es posible predecir la altura de vuelo en el salto vertical a partir de variables cinemáticas, dinamométricas y antropométricas, mediante un modelo de regresión múltiple lineal. Participaron en el estudio 53 sujetos, 21 hombres jugadores de voleibol de categorías nacionales (División de Honor y Primera División y 9 mujeres jugadoras de voleibol de División de Honor, así como 23 estudiantes de Educación Física, de los cuales 12 eran hombres y 11

  15. O salto qualitativo em Theodosius Dobzhansky: unindo as tradições naturalista e experimentalista A quality leap in Theodosius Dobzhansky: uniting naturalistic and experimental traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Mellender de Araújo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Em alta durante quase todo o século XIX, o prestígio dos naturalistas caiu nas últimas décadas do mesmo século, na medida em que o enfoque dos estudos biológicos transitava do histórico para o funcional. A redescoberta dos trabalhos de Mendel, em 1900, e a emergência da genética aceleraram este processo, onde a atividade do experimentalista substituía a anterior. Ao mesmo tempo, o darwinismo também declinava e os primeiros anos do século XX caracterizam o chamado "eclipse do darwinismo". Theodosius Dobzhansky, russo radicado nos Estados Unidos a partir de 1927, é o pesquisador que irá reunir as duas tradições, a naturalista e a experimentalista. No desempenho de suas atividades, ele realiza um verdadeiro salto qualitativo nos estudos de evolução em populações naturais, que pela primeira vez podem ser efetuados através do método experimental, auxiliados por um rigoroso planejamento teórico. Este artigo narra algumas etapas desta história.The high prestige naturalists had during most of the 19th century began to decrease in the last decades of that century, as the focus in biological studies switched from historical to functional. The rediscovering of Mendel's works in 1900 and the emerging of genetics made the process move faster and caused experimentalist activities to take over. Simultaneously, Darwinism was also losing ground and the first years of the 20th century were characterized by the so-called 'eclipse of Darwinism'. Theodosius Dobzhansky, a Russian researcher who moved to the United States in 1927, joined the two different traditional approaches, the naturalistic and the experimental ones. Through his activities, he accomplishes a quality leap for the study of evolution in natural populations, which can for the first time be carried out through experimental methods guided by thorough theoretical planning. This article narrates some of the steps of this story.

  16. Efecto de un calentamiento con estiramientos estáticos y dinámicos sobre el salto horizontal y la capacidad para repetir esprint con cambio de dirección. [Effect of warm-up with static and dynamic stretching on the horizontal jump and repeated sprint ability with changes of direction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sánchez-Sánchez, Javier; Rodríguez-Fernández, Alejandro; Villa-Vicente, J. Gerardo; Petisco-Rodríguez, Cristina; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    ... aeróbico sin estiramiento (CAE), con estiramiento estático (CAES) y con estiramiento dinámico (CAED). Se estudió el efecto agudo de cada calentamiento sobre el rendimiento en una prueba de salto horizontal...

  17. The role of pegmatites and acid fluids for REE/HFSE mobilization in the Strange Lake peralkaline granitic pluton, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysi, A. P.; Williams-Jones, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Strange Lake pluton in Canada is a mid-Proterozoic peralkaline granitic intrusion that is host to a world-class rare earth element (REE), yttrium (Y) and high-field strength element (HFSE) deposit containing more than 50 Mt ore at >1.5 wt.% REE and >3 wt.% Zr. The highest REE/HFSE concentrations are found in pegmatite-rich zones characterized by intense alteration. Previous studies of Strange Lake and other peralkaline and alkaline intrusions, such as Khan Bogd (Mongolia) and Tamazeght (Morocco) plutons have shown that hydrothermal alteration may play an important role in the mobility of the REE/HFSE. However, the fluid chemistry and conditions of alteration (i.e., P, T, pH, fO2, ligand activity) in these systems still need to be constrained to evaluate the importance and scale of such hydrothermal mobilization. We present new data from the B-zone, a pegmatite-rich zone located in NW Strange Lake. The pegmatites are generally zoned and form two main types. The border-type pegmatites consist of quartz, K-feldspar and hematized aegirine, whereas volatile-rich pegmatites consist of hydrothermal quartz and fluorite. Transitions between both types were also observed, with the K-feldspar being partly altered and replaced by Al-Si-rich phyllosilicates. The heavy (H)REE and Zr were primarily concentrated in zirconosilicates such as elpidite, now pseudomorphed by zircon or gittinsite, whereas light (L)REE and Y were concentrated in REE-F-(CO2)-minerals such as fluocerite and bastnäsite. Textural and mineralogical observations indicate that these minerals are primary and were partly to completely leached upon fluid-rock interaction in the pegmatites. Secondary phases include Ca-F-Y-rich minerals, mainly hydrothermal fluorite, that fill vugs and replaced primary REEHFSE minerals. The presence of hydrothermal fluorite veins, micro-veins, vugs and micro-breccia in the most altered parts of the B-zone are interpreted to reflect interaction of the rocks with a F-rich fluid

  18. Pretectonic tholeiitic volcanism and related transitional plutonism in the Kidal assemblage (Iforas Pan-African Belt, Mali)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterrier, J.; Bertrand, J. M.

    The Kidal assemblage corresponds to a high-grade tectonometamorphic unit situated beneath the IGU granulitic nappe. Pretectonic magmatic rocks of intermediate to ultrabasic compositions form more than 60% of the volume and were intensely foliated during the D1 event. Four groups have been defined: (i) alkaline leptynites associated with aluminous quartzites and dated at 1837 + 17/-9 Ma (Caby and Andreopoulous-Renaud 1983, J. Afr. Earth Sci.1, 193-197); (ii) metadiorites-metatonalite plutons, far the most abundant; (iii) amphibolite bands, locally associated with metaconglomerates (O. Bourhessa), lying directly upon the quartzites and marbles attributed to the Upper Proterozoic; (iv) narrow lenes and large bodies of metagabbros associated with metaperidotites and some meta-anorthosites. The amphibolites show T. MORB affinities (low alkali and incompatible element contents and almost flat REE patterns), and this suggests a spreading environment. The gabbroic suite magmas, with various cumulates, are distributed between three end-members (olivine peridotites, pyroxenites, anorthosites). The fine grained gabbros show a close chemical similarity with the amphibolites and this suggests a direct genetic relationship between the two suites. The chemical characters of the metadiorite-metatonalite suite conform to typical diorite-tonalite-trondhjemite continental suites in a spreading environment. The magmatic units of the Kidal assemblage show significant lithological and geochemical similarities with the supracrustal basic volcanics and intrusive complexes of Archean high-grade belts. The postulated extensional behaviour of the Kidal assemblage may be considered to have indirectly induced the high-strain and dominantly rotational tectonic regime evidenced in this domain.

  19. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  20. Magmatic-hydrothermal fluids and volatile metals in the Spirit Lake pluton and Margaret Cu-Mo porphyry system, SW Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveson, Alexander A.; Webster, James D.; Rowe, Michael C.; Neill, Owen K.

    2016-03-01

    The halogen-bearing minerals tourmaline, amphibole, and biotite formed during magmatic-hydrothermal processes associated with the late-stage cooling of the Spirit Lake granitoid pluton (Mt. St. Helens, WA) and with the younger sulphide-mineralised rocks of the Margaret Cu-Mo porphyry deposit located entirely within the pluton. Major- and trace-element discrimination suggests that one tourmaline population crystallised from fractionated late-stage melt pockets in granodiorite-monzogranitic dykes of the pluton. These coarse, euhedral, oscillatory, and complexly sector-zoned uvite tourmalines span a limited range in Mg/(Mg + Fe) [Mg#] space (0.4-0.7 apfu) and show the highest Ti, Ca, F, Nb, and Ta contents, and low X-site vacancies (0.6 apfu), lower Ca and F contents, and the highest Li, As, and HREE contents (>80 ppm Li, >1200 ppm As). This population appears to record direct, rapid crystallisation from magmatic ± meteoric fluid(s) bearing the signature of the breakdown of primary feldspars and pyroxenes, with fluid exsolution from fractionated melt patches likely triggered by the formation of the previous generation of tourmaline. Mineralised porphyry deposit tourmaline compositions from the stockwork span a much larger range in Mg# space (0.05-0.9 apfu) and are almost entirely Ca-free. X-sites of these schorl tourmalines are dominated by Na or vacancies, and the Y-sites are strongly Fe enriched. The highest Mn and Zn concentrations (>4000 and >1000 ppm, respectively) potentially reflect the composition of mineralising fluids during ore deposition. A number of boron isotopic analyses yield predominantly heavy boron, but δ11B values range from -5.2 to 6.2 ‰ and average 1.4 ‰. Whilst most plutonic tourmalines conform to reported a- and c-sector element partitioning models, those from the mineralised porphyry show large and variable sector fractionation differences, suggesting that external controls may also be important. Wider evidence for late-stage pervasive

  1. Thermochronology of a convergent orogen: Constraints on the timing of thrust faulting and subsequent exhumation of the Maladeta Pluton in the Central Pyrenean Axial Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, James R.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Muñoz, Josep-Anton

    2009-10-01

    The Pyrenees Mountains of Spain and France are a collisional orogen cored by a south-vergent antiformal stack of Paleozoic basement thrust sheets (the Axial Zone). Thrusting accommodated shortening due to convergence between Iberia and Europe. Granitic plutons, intruded during the Hercynian orogeny, form an important component of the basement units. Thermochronology of granodioritic samples collected from a vertical [age-elevation] profile from the south-central Maladeta pluton provide new constraints on the timing of thrust faulting and rock exhumation of the Pyrenean orogen. The Maladeta massif lies within the Orri thrust sheet, presently occupying the immediate footwall of the Gavarnie thrust, a major Axial Zone Alpine-age thrust fault. New biotite and K-feldspar 40Ar/ 39Ar and apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) data combined with previous apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology and structural studies of the Maladeta pluton constrain the thermal evolution of this massif. Biotite weighted mean plateau and K-feldspar maximum 40Ar/ 39Ar ages from the highest elevations of the Maladeta pluton (2850 m) are ˜ 280 Ma, close to the age of intrusion, and are interpreted to date the timing of rapid cooling in the Hercynian. Subsequently the Maladeta massif remained close to the surface as indicated by the presence of unconformable Triassic continental sediments. K-feldspar 40Ar/ 39Ar multiple diffusion domain thermal models from two samples at lower elevations (1780 m and 1400 m) indicate heating initiated at ˜ 65 Ma, reaching maximum temperatures of 270 to 280 °C. These data are interpreted to record thrust burial of the Maladeta pluton to depths of ˜ 6-10 km in the footwall of the Gavarnie thrust. Burial and heating were followed by a period of relatively rapid cooling beginning at ˜ 50 Ma, recorded in three K-feldspar thermal models from samples at different elevations (2850 m, 1780 m, and 1400 m). AFT thermal models, in conjunction with the AFT and apatite AHe age

  2. Influência da altura do salto de sapatos na função venosa da mulher jovem Influence of shoe heel height on venous function in young women

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    Wagner Tedeschi Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A influência da altura do salto de sapatos na função venosa é ainda assunto controverso na literatura mundial. A importância da ergonomia na qualidade de vida é um fator consagrado e situações que a prejudiquem como permanência prolongada na posição supina, qualidade dos calçados e condições do local de trabalho podem interferir na saúde do indivíduo. OBJETIVO: Estudar a influência da altura do salto do sapato na drenagem venosa dos membros inferiores, utilizando-se a pletismografia a ar (PGA. MÉTODO: Quinze mulheres, com idade média de 24,6 anos, assintomáticas, utilizando calçados de tamanhos apropriados, foram examinadas em três momentos: descalças (0 cm, salto médio (3,5 cm e alto (7 cm. Apresentavam índice de massa corporal BACKGROUND: The influence of shoe heel height on venous function is still a controversial subject in the international literature. The importance of ergonomics for quality of life is a universally accepted factor, and situations that impair it, such as prolonged permanence in the supine position, shoe quality and workplace conditions may interfere with the individual"s health. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of shoe heel height on lower limb venous drainage using air plethysmography. METHOD: Fifteen asymptomatic women with mean age of 24.6 years, wearing shoes of appropriate size were examined in three different situations: barefoot (0 cm, medium heels (3.5 cm and high heels (7 cm. Body mass index was < 25 and the subjects were classified according to the CEAP International Classification based on clinical (C0 or C1, etiologic (Ep, anatomic (As and physiopathological (Pr criteria. The values of venous filling index (VFI, ejection fraction (EF and residual volume fraction (RVF were divided into three categories according to heel height and compared to one another by repeated means analysis of variance (ANOVA. RESULTS: EF was decreased and RVF was increased in the high heel group

  3. Um salto para a performatividade: sentidos atribuídos à qualidade da educação Un salto hacia la performatividad: sentidos atribuidos a la calidad de la educación A jump for performativity: meanings attributed to the quality of education

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    Talita Vidal Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo procuramos discutir os efeitos da instauração da cultura da performatividade (BALL, 2004 nas escolas da rede municipal de ensino na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, a partir da implementação do Projeto "Salto de Qualidade na Educação Carioca". Trata-se de um projeto de intervenção que envolve múltiplas ações desenvolvidas ao longo de 2009 e que tem como objetivo a melhoria da qualidade do ensino oferecido às crianças. Com base na teoria do discurso (LACLAU; MOUFFE, 2004 procuramos problematizar os sentidos atribuídos à qualidade. A análise foi desenvolvida a partir das declarações dos gestores da administração municipal, que através da mídia impressa procuram impor os sentidos que atribuem à educação de qualidade. Analisamos também os relatos colhidos em entrevistas em uma escola da rede envolvida no projeto.Este artículo tiene por objeto discutir los efectos de la instauración de la cultura de la performatividad (BALL, 2004 en las escuelas municipales de la ciudad de Río de Janeiro, a partir de la implementación del Proyecto denominado SALTO DE CALIDAD EN LA EDUCACIÓN CARIOCA. Se trata de un proyecto de intervención que involucra múltiples acciones desarrolladas a lo largo de 2009 y que tiene como objetivo la mejora de la calidad de la enseñanza ofrecida a los alumnos. Con base en la teoría del discurso (LACLAU y MOUFFE, 2004 se busca problematizar los sentidos atribuidos a la calidad. El análisis se desarrolló a partir de las declaraciones de los gestores de la administración municipal, que a través de los medios impresos buscan imponer los sentidos que le atribuyen a la educación de calidad. Se analizan también los relatos recogidos a través de entrevistas hechas en una escuela de la red que participa en el proyecto.In this article we seek to argue the effects of introducing the culture of performativity (BALL, 2004 in the municipal schools of the city of Rio de Janeiro, with the implementation

  4. Treinamento de força com uso de correntes e potencialização pós-ativação do salto vertical Entrenamiento de fuerza con cadenas y la potenciación post-activación del salto vertical Chain resistance training and vertical jump post-activation potentiation

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    Jéderson Nunes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A Potencialização Pós-Ativação (PPA é estratégia para melhora do desempenho com uso de carga fixa (RF, definida no ponto de falha mecânica (PFM. Por outro lado, o uso de correntes (CRT é estímulo com resistência variável (RV. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos do CRT na altura e tempo de voo do salto vertical com contramovimento (CMJ. A partir de estudo de intervenção, 15 sujeitos foram avaliados quanto à carga máxima no agachamento (1RM e altura CMJ. Após isto, executaram três tipos de intervenções: i RF com 85% de 1RM; ii RV com 85% de 1RM posicionado no PFM (RV-TF e, iii RV com 85% de 1RM posicionado na maior extensão dos joelhos (RV-TV. Observou-se incremento do CMJ para RV-TF e RV-TV, mas não para RF. Conclui-se que houve PPA com os dois estímulos de CRT.La potenciación post-activación (PAP es estrategia para mejorar el rendimiento, utilizando una carga fija (RF, que se define en el punto de falla mecánica (PFM. Además, el uso de cadenas (CRT es estimulo con resistencia variable (RV. Así, el objetivo fue evaluar los efectos de la CRT en el salto vertical con contramovimiento (CMJ. Con estudio de intervención, 15 sujetos fueron evaluados acerca de la carga máxima en la sentadilla (1RM y altura en el CMJ. Después de eso, se realizaron tres tipos de intervenciones: i RF con el 85% de 1RM; ii RV con el 85% de 1RM en el PFM (RV-TF, y iii la RV en 1RM 85% situado en la mayor extensión de las rodillas (RV-TV. Se observó aumento de lo CMJ para RV-TF y RV-TV, pero no para la RF. Se concluye que existe PPA con los dos estímulos de RV.The Post-Activation Potentiation (PAP is a strategy to improve performance, using a fixed load (RF, defined at the sticking point (PFM. Moreover, the use of chains (CRT is an effort with variable resistance (RV. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the effects of CRT in the countermovement jump (CMJ. With an intervention study, 15 subjects were evaluated for the maximum squat load (1

  5. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  6. Early Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages for the Copiapó plutonic complex and implications for the IOCG mineralization at Candelaria, Atacama Region, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschik, Robert; Söllner, Frank

    2006-12-01

    Four of the major plutons in the vicinity of the Candelaria mine (470 Mt at 0.95% Cu, 0.22 g/t Au, 3.1 g/t Ag) and a dike-sill system exposed in the Candelaria open pit have been dated with the U-Pb zircon method. The new geochronological data indicate that dacite magmatism around 123 Ma preceded the crystallization of hornblende diorite (Khd) at 118 ± 1 Ma, quartz-monzonite porphyry (Kqm) at 116.3 ± 0.4 Ma, monzodiorite (Kmd) at 115.5 ± 0.4 Ma, and tonalite (Kt) at 110.7 ± 0.4 Ma. The new ages of the plutons are consistent with field relationships regarding the relative timing of emplacement. Plutonism temporally overlaps with the iron oxide Cu-Au mineralization (Re-Os molybdenite ages at ˜115 Ma) and silicate alteration (ages mainly from 114 to 116 and 110 to 112 Ma) in the Candelaria-Punta del Cobre district. The dated dacite porphyry and hornblende diorite intrusions preceded the ore formation. A genetic link of the metallic mineralization with the quartz-monzonite porphyry and/or the monzodiorite is likely. Both of these metaluminous, shoshonitic (high-K) intrusions could have provided energy and contributed fluids, metals, and sulfur to the hydrothermal system that caused the iron oxide Cu-Au mineralization. The age of the tonalite at 110.7 Ma falls in the same range as the late alteration at 110 to 112 Ma. Tonalite emplacement may have sustained existing or driven newly developed hydrothermal cells that caused this late alteration or modified 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar systematic in some areas.

  7. Age and isotopic fingerprints of some plutonic rocks in the Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith with special reference to the dark wiborgite of the Ristisaari Island

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    Rämö, O.T.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mid-Proterozoic, locus classicus Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith of southeastern Finland and adjacent Russia comprises a varying, bimodal (silicic-basic sequence of plutonic, subvolcanic, and volcanic rocks. At the current level of erosion silicic rocks are dominant, the most prominent of which are wiborgites and dark wiborgites (that have been considered to mark the main build-up stage of the batholith and pyterlites. New observations and optical microscopy data from the dark wiborgite-dominated Ristisaari Island in the southern, off-shore part of the Wiborg batholith show that dark plagioclase megacrysts in dark wiborgite are calcic xenocrysts. They were probably incorporated into wiborgite magma from consanguineous massiftype anorthosite magmas in the course of the evolution of the bimodal magmatic system. Our new ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon age of the Ristisaari Island dark wiborgite, 1627±3 Ma, is the youngest isotopic age so far determined for the plutonic rocks of the Wiborg batholith. This, combined with preexisting U-Pb zircon data, implies a minimum duration of 12 m.y. (1642–1630 Ma for the emplacement of the plutonic rocks of the batholith. Combined with data on highlevel dike rocks, a window of at least 20 m.y. (1642–1622 Ma is implied. Furthermore, as the batholith grew, the overall locus of magmatism may have shifted southwards. New whole-rock Nd isotope data on the dark wiborgite of the Ristisaari Island and three further granites of the batholith, as well as Nd (whole-rock and Sr (whole-rock, plagioclase isotope data on a spectrolite massif-type anorthosite from the east-central part of the batholith, are also presented. These data suggest that the lithosphere across the Wiborg batholith area in the southeastern part of the Svecofennian orogen may vary slightly in overall mantle separation age.

  8. Processes involved in the formation of magnesian-suite plutonic rocks from the highlands of the Earth's Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.

    1995-01-01

    The earliest evolution of the Moon likely included the formation of a magma ocean and the subsequent development of anorthositic flotation cumulates. This primary anorthositic crust was then intruded by mafic magmas which crystallized to form the lunar highlands magnesian suite. The present study is a compilation of petrologic, mineral-chemical, and geochemical information on all pristine magnesian-suite plutonic rocks and the interpretation of this data in light of 18 'new' samples. Of these 18 clasts taken from Apollo 14 breccias, 12 are probably pristine and include four dunites, two norites, four troctolites, and two anorthosites. Radiogenic isotopic whole rock data also are reported for one of the 'probably pristine' anorthositic troctolites, sample 14303,347. The relatively low Rb content and high Sm and Nd abundances of 14303,347 suggest that this cumulate rock was derived from a parental magma which had these chemical characteristics. Trace element, isotopic, and mineral-chemical data are used to interpret the total highlands magnesian suite as crustal precipitates of a primitive KREEP (possessing a K-, rare earth element (REE)-, and P-enriched chemical signature) basalt magma. This KREEP basalt was created by the mixing of ascending ultramafic melts from the lunar interior with urKREEP (the late, K-, REE-, and P-enriched residuum of the lunar magma ocean). A few samples of the magnesian suite with extremely elevated large-ion lithophile elements (5-10x other magnesian-suite rocks) cannot be explained by this model or any other model of autometasomatism, equilibrium crystallization, or 'local melt-pocket equilibrium' without recourse to an extremely large-ion lithophile element-enriched parent liquid. It is difficult to generate parental liquids which are 2-4 x higher in the REE than average lunar KREEP, unless the liquids are the basic complement of a liquid-liquid pair, i.e., the so-called 'REEP-fraction,' from the silicate liquid immiscibility of ur

  9. Crystallization and eruption ages of Breccia Museo (Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy) plutonic clasts and their relation to the Campanian ignimbrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Samantha K.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Pappalardo, Lucia; Stockli, Daniel F.; Lovera, Oscar M.

    2014-01-01

    The Campi Flegrei volcanic district (Naples region, Italy) is a 12-km-wide, restless caldera system that has erupted at least six voluminous ignimbrites during the late Pleistocene, including the >300 km3 Campanian ignimbrite (CI) which originated from the largest known volcanic event of the Mediterranean region. The Breccia Museo (BM), a petrologically heterogeneous and stratigraphically complex volcanic deposit extending over 200 km2 in close proximity to Campi Flegrei, has long remained contentious regarding its age and stratigraphic relation to the CI. Here, we present crystallization and eruption ages for BM plutonic ejecta clasts that were determined via uranium decay series and (U-Th)/He dating of zircon, respectively. Despite mineralogical and textural heterogeneity of these syenitic clasts, their U-Th zircon rim crystallization ages are indistinguishable with an average age of 49.7 ± 2.5 ka (2σ errors; mean square of weighted deviates MSWD = 1.2; n = 34). A subset of these crystals was used to obtain disequilibrium-corrected (U-Th)/He zircon ages which average 41.7 ± 1.8 ka (probability of fit P = 0.54; n = 15). This age closely overlaps with published CI 40Ar/39Ar eruption ages (40.6 ± 0.1 ka) after recalibration to recently revised flux monitor ages. Concordant eruption ages for BM and CI agree with previous chemostratigraphic and paleomagnetic correlations, suggesting their origin from the same eruption. However, they are at variance with recalibrated 40Ar/39Ar ages which have BM postdate CI by 3 ± 1 ka. BM syenites show similar geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopical features of pre-caldera rocks erupted between 58 and 46 ka, but are distinctive from subsequent caldera-forming magmas. Energy-constrained assimilation and fractional crystallization modeling of Nd-Sr isotopic data suggests that pre-caldera magmas formed a carapace of BM-type intrusions in a mid-crust magma chamber (≥8 km depth) shielding the younger CI magma from contamination by

  10. CARACTERIZACIÓN FISONÓMICA Y ORDENACIÓN DE LA VEGETACIÓN EN EL ÁREA DE INFLUENCIA DE EL SALTO, DURANGO, MÉXICO

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    L. M. Valenzuela Nuñez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available De acuerdo a la caracterización sinecológica de la vegetación en el área aledaña de El Salto, Durango. Se reportan ocho unidades de vegetación y mediante perfil semirrealista y danserogramas se describen las características fisonómicas de cada una, así como la lista florística, estableciendo su ordenación y clasificación numérica, mostrando que los gradientes latitudinales y topográficos influyen en la composición florística del área de estudio.

  11. Análise do arco longitudinal medial em adolescentes usuárias de calçados de salto alto Analysis of the medial longitudinal arch in adolescents users of high heeled shoes

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    Sílvia Maria Amado João

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a influência do calçado de salto alto no arco longitudinal medial (ALM do pé de adolescentes. Fizeram parte do estudo 82 adolescentes entre 13 e 20 anos, sendo 54 não usuárias (grupo controle - GC e 28 usuárias (grupo experimental - GE de calçado de salto alto. Foram obtidas as impressões plantares de ambos os pés para análise do ALM, antes e depois do uso de um calçado de salto alto padronizado por um período de 30 minutos. As impressões plantares foram avaliadas pelo índice de Chippaux-Smirak (ICS e pelo arco de Cavanagh & Rodgers (ICR. O teste de Shapiro-Wilks foi utilizado para a verificação da normalidade dos dados. Variáveis paramétricas pareadas foram tratadas com o Teste t de Student pareado e as não-paramétricas com o teste de Wilcoxon. As comparações não-pareadas foram realizadas com o teste t de Student para as variáveis paramétricas e o de Mann-Withney para as não-paramétricas, com nível de significância de 0,05. Houve diferença no ALM entre os lados direito e esquerdo apenas no GC antes do uso do calçado. Na comparação entre antes e depois do uso do sapato, notou-se diferença apenas no pé esquerdo do GC pelo ICS. Já entre GC e GE, não houve diferença. Apesar dos resultados não evidenciarem alterações no ALM, deve-se lembrar que esta é uma medida estática, sendo necessários estudos do componente dinâmico e do uso do calçado de salto crônico para correlacionar com os achados deste trabalho.The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of high heeled shoes in foot´s medial longitudinal arch in adolescents. Eighty two female adolescents between 13 and 20 years old participated, being 54 non-users of high heleed shoes (control group - GC and 28 usuaries (experimental group - GE. The footprints of both feet were collected to analyse the medial longitudinal arch (ALM, before and after 30 minutes using a shoe with heel high given by the examiner, an then

  12. Equilíbrio e retração muscular em jovens estudantes usuárias de calçado de salto alto Equilibrium and muscle retraction in young female students users of high-heeled shoes

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    Dernival Bertoncello

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Verifica-se precocidade na utilização de calçado de salto alto, mas não há muitos estudos identificando suas conseqüências. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar alterações de equilíbrio e eventual retração muscular em estudantes universitárias habituadas a utilizar salto alto diariamente. Foram avaliadas 30 jovens (média de 20 anos de idade que anotaram, durante duas semanas, o tempo diário em que permaneciam com o calçado. Foram avaliadas quanto a desvios posturais, quanto às retrações musculares da cadeia posterior, pelo teste de alcance horizontal, e quanto ao equilíbrio, pelo teste de Romberg. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente. A média de estatura foi 1,63 m e a de massa corporal, 58,5 kg. O tempo médio de uso dos sapatos de salto alto foi de 34 h por semana. Ao relacionar o alcance horizontal com o tempo semanal de uso do salto alto, verificou-se forte correlação negativa (r=-0,8692; pPrecocity has been noticed in the use of high-heeled shoes. However, there are not many studies on its consequences. The aim of this work was to search for equilibrium alterations in young women used to daily wearing high-heeled shoes. Thirty female undergraduates (mean aged 20 years old were asked to write down, for two weeks, the number of hours per day they remained with the shoes on. They were then assessed as to posture deviations, as to muscle retractions of the posterior chain by means of the sit and reach test, and as to equilibrium by the Romberg test. Results were statistically analysed. Mean volunteers' height was 1.63 m and mean body mass, 58.5 kg. A negative, strong correlation (r=-0.8692; p<0.0001 was noticed between reach range and weekly time (in hours of high-heeled shoe wearing. No correlation was found between reach range and time of high-heel use in years. Seventeen out of the 30 volunteers presented positive test for loss of equilibrium when barefoot with closed eyes. A weak, negative correlation (r

  13. Coleópteros acuáticos y semiacuáticos del Parque Provincial Salto Encantado y Valle del Cuñá Pirú (Misiones, Argentina

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    Liliana A. FERNÁNDEZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de la recolección de coleópteros acuáticos y semiacuáticos del Parque Provincial Salto Encantado y Valle del Cuñá Pirú, con el objeto de contribuir al conocimiento de la biodiversidad del área protegida mencionada, de la provincia de Misiones. Los sitios de muestreo incluyeron ambientes lóticos y lénticos. Se registraron 74 especies de coleópteros, distribuidas en 44 géneros y 14 familias: Haliplidae, Noteridae, Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Hydrochidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, Staphylinidae, Scirtidae, Psephenidae, Limnichidae, Lutrochidae, Dryopidae y Elmidae. Se mencionan nuevas citas para la provincia y para la Argentina, así como la presencia de especies nuevas para la ciencia.

  14. Caracterização das propriedades biomecânicas do tríceps sural correlacionadas com atividade funcional de salto em escolares com sobrepeso e obesidade

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira Lima Souza, Thaysa

    2011-01-01

    Introdução: A obesidade representa um dos mais importantes problemas de saúde pública, sendo o excesso de peso corporal um fator de risco que contribui para doenças em todo o mundo. Sujeitos obesos têm mudanças morfológicas e funcionais no músculo esquelético. Objetivo: Caracterizar as propriedades biomecânicas do músculo esquelético em crianças com excesso de peso e investigar a correlação entre estas propriedades e o desempenho no salto vertical. Materiais e Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo d...

  15. Efeito do Uso do Estabilizador Active Ankle System® na Altura do Salto Vertical em Jogadores de Voleibol Effect of the Use of the Active Ankle System Stabilizer in The Vertical Jump Height in Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Túlio Saldanha dos Anjos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVO: Na prática do voleibol, as entorses de tornozelo representam 25 a 50% das lesões agudas. Medidas preventivas, como estabilizadores dinâmicos de tornozelo (EDT, são frequentemente utilizadas, porém, há controvérsias se esse dispositivo pode ou não interferir no desempenho esportivo. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o efeito do EDT Active Ankle System® (AAS na altura do salto vertical em jogadoras de voleibol. MÉTODOS: Selecionou-se uma amostra de conveniência de 14 atletas entre 14 e 18 anos de idade, do gênero feminino. Estas foram instruídas a saltar simulando o gesto esportivo do ataque e do bloqueio com e sem o EDT, sobre placas de contato conectadas a um computador portátil que, através de um programa, calculava a altura do salto vertical. Previamente, foi feito um estudo-piloto para determinação do coeficiente de correlação intraclasse para as quatro condições de teste (n = 4, no qual os valores encontrados foram: ataque com EDT, 0,95; ataque sem EDT, 0,76; bloqueio com EDT, 0,92; bloqueio sem EDT, 0,89. Os dados de altura de cada tipo de salto vertical nas condições com e sem EDT foram comparadas através de testes t de Student para amostras pareadas. RESULTADOS: Para um nível de significância de α = 0,05, não foi encontrada diferença significativa entre os saltos do ataque com o EDT (0,41 + 0,073m e sem o EDT (0,41 + 0,086m, p = 0,517. Também não foi encontrada diferença significativa para os saltos do bloqueio com o EDT (0,31 ± 0,048m e sem o EDT (0,32 ± 0,050m, p = 0,06. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados do presente estudo apontam para não interferência do uso do EDT AAS no desempenho do salto vertical em atletas de voleibol.INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: In volleyball practice, ankle sprains represent 25 to 50% of the acute injuries. Preventive measures such as dynamic ankle bracing (DAB are very often used; however, there is controversy on whether this would affect athletic

  16. The Aguilar pluton (23°12‧ S-65°40‧ W; NW Argentina): Petrological implications on the origin of the Late Jurassic intraplate magmatism in the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarini, Ricardo H.; Gioncada, Anna; Vezzoli, Luigina; Mazzuoli, Roberto; Cristiani, Chiara; Sureda, Ricardo J.

    2013-11-01

    The Late Jurassic Aguilar pluton is located in NW Argentina, about 300-400 Km east of the Tarapacá basin, representing the backarc basin linked to the Jurassic volcanic arc. This small-size and compositionally heterogeneous pluton intruded the metasedimentary rocks of the Ordovician Santa Victoria Group, along the Cobres-Salinas Grandes lineament. A revision of published geochemical data in the light of new field and petrological results, allows us to propose a model concerning the petrogenesis and emplacement mechanisms of Aguilar pluton and to discuss its geodynamic setting. The pluton is mainly composed of metaluminous and nearly peraluminous granitoids, showing the geochemical characteristics of ferroan granites. The volumetrically subordinate mafic rocks are both ne- and hy-normative, and their primary magmas were generated by partial melting of a pristine Proterozoic mantle. Aguilar rocks display a rather limited range in (87Sr/86Sr)i, compared to the entire rift-related plutonic suite, i.e., 0.703198-0.704601, and ɛNdt from -1.06 to 3.82, calculated at 149 Ma. Fractional crystallization of mantle-derived magmas and crustal contamination processes explain the evolution to produce strongly silica-oversaturated magmas, which emplaced in the continental crust. The petrological data indicate that magma emplacement and cooling occurred at rather shallow depth. Multiple injections of magma batches into the magma chamber caused mingling and mixing processes early in the crystallization history. The Aguilar pluton is one of the several igneous complexes whose formation was associated with the extensional tectonics active during Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous in NW Argentina. Based on the geological position and the igneous rocks affinity, we exclude that the Late Jurassic magmatism was generated in an orogenic setting and envisage that it was linked to the early extensional phase that preceded the Cretaceous continental rifting, related to the break-up of the South

  17. Evaluating the controls on Tourmaline Crystallization in the mylonitic granite-gneiss pluton in the Northeastern of Jan mine (Lorestan province

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    Arezoo Moradi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study area is a part of the Sanandaj- Sirjan zone that is located in the NW of Azna city and NE of the dimension stone mine of Jan between 49° 11' 41"and 49° 16' 07" E longitude and 33° 36'35" and 33° 38'12" N latitude., A pluton of mylonitic granite-gneiss is exposed in the area which contains abundant tourmalines as black and patchy or subgrain association. Geochemically, the studied granite-gneiss is A-type, peraluminous to slightly metaluminous and calc – alkaline to slightly alkaline (Moradi et al., 7. The electron microprobe analyses of the tourmalines display shorl-dravite in composition with more tendency to shorl (Moradi et al., 2015. In this paper we try to study the petrological sites of tourmaline formation with associated minerals, controller factors of crystallization using mineral chemistry of tourmaline, comprehensive behavior of trace elements in the tourmaline, synthetic phase diagrams and finally relationships between the associated minerals. Materials and methods The results of trace-element and major-element analyses were obtained from one polished thin section including 2 tourmaline grains. Major-element analyses of tourmaline were obtained at Oklahama City University of America using the JEOL 8200 electron microprobe with a spot size of 5 μm and trace-element analyses were performed on just a sample by Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS a 193nm ArF excimer laser ablation system (MicroLas GeoLas 200Q in combination with a quadrupole ICP-MS (Micromass Platform ICP at Utrecht University of Netherland. Representative EMP and LA-ICP-MS analyses of tourmaline samples are presented in Tables1 and 2. Results The results of LA-ICP-MS on tourmalines of Jan mine in the North east of mylonitic granite-gneiss body show that distribution and diffusion of trace elements during the growth of tourmaline trend is positive on the plots of binary Mn versus Fetot / (Fetot +Mg and it

  18. Parallel Extension Tectonics (PET): Early Cretaceous tectonic extension of the Eastern Eurasian continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junlai; Ji, Mo; Ni, Jinlong; Guan, Huimei; Shen, Liang

    2017-04-01

    The present study reports progress of our recent studies on the extensional structures in eastern North China craton and contiguous areas. We focus on characterizing and timing the formation/exhumation of the extensional structures, the Liaonan metamorphic core complex (mcc) and the Dayingzi basin from the Liaodong peninsula, the Queshan mcc, the Wulian mcc and the Zhucheng basin from the Jiaodong peninsula, and the Dashan magmatic dome within the Sulu orogenic belt. Magmatic rocks (either volcanic or plutonic) are ubiquitous in association with the tectonic extension (both syn- and post-kinematic). Evidence for crustal-mantle magma mixing are popular in many syn-kinematic intrusions. Geochemical analysis reveals that basaltic, andesitic to rhyolitic magmas were generated during the tectonic extension. Sr-Nd isotopes of the syn-kinematic magmatic rocks suggest that they were dominantly originated from ancient or juvenile crust partly with mantle signatures. Post-kinematic mafic intrusions with ages from ca. 121 Ma to Cenozoic, however, are of characteristic oceanic island basalts (OIB)-like trace element distribution patterns and relatively depleted radiogenic Sr-Nd isotope compositions. Integrated studies on the extensional structures, geochemical signatures of syn-kinematic magmatic rocks (mostly of granitic) and the tectono-magmatic relationships suggest that extension of the crust and the mantle lithosphere triggered the magmatisms from both the crust and the mantle. The Early Cretaceous tectono-magmatic evolution of the eastern Eurasian continent is governed by the PET in which the tectonic processes is subdivided into two stages, i.e. an early stage of tectonic extension, and a late stage of collapse of the extended lithosphere and transformation of lithospheric mantle. During the early stage, tectonic extension of the lithosphere led to detachment faulting in both the crust and mantle, resulted in the loss of some of the subcontinental roots, gave rise to

  19. Igneous evolution of a complex laccolith-caldera, the Solitario, Trans-Pecos Texas: Implications for calderas and subjacent plutons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, C.D.; Kunk, M.J.; Muehlberger, W.R.; McIntosh, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    laccocaldera followed this sequence of events, our field and 40Ar/39Ar data demonstrate that it developed through repeated, episodic magma injections, separated by 0.4 to 0.6 m.y. intervals of little or no activity. This evolution requires a deep, long-lived magma source, well below the main laccolith. Laccoliths are commonly thought to be small, shallow features that are not representative of major, silicic magmatic systems such as calderas and batholiths. In contrast, we suggest that magma chambers beneath many ashflow calderas are tabular, floored intrusions, including laccoliths. Evidence for this conclusion includes the following: (1) many large plutons are recognized to be laccoliths or at least tabular, (2) the Solitario and several larger calderas are known to have developed over laccoliths, and (3) magma chambers beneath calderas, which are as much as 80 km in diameter, cannot be as deep as they are wide or some would extend into the upper mantle. The Solitario formed during a tectonically neutral period following Laramide deformation and preceding Basin and Range extension. Therefore, space for the main laccolith was made by uplift of its roof and possibly subsidence of the floor, not by concurrent faulting. Laccolith-type injection is probably a common way that space is made for magma bodies of appreciable areal extent in the upper crust.

  20. Strategy Formation in Eastern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    2008-01-01

      In Eastern Jutland a strategy formation process has been initiated with the aim of developing a strategic spatial plan for the city region.  An organisation has been set up to deal with the first phase of the process, which is to carry out three functional analyses and prepare a common vision...... for Eastern Jutland.  This process relies on the municipalities in Eastern Jutland reaching consensus on a common vision for the city region.   The key issue in spatial planning in Eastern Jutland is a conflict between preserving the high quality of landscape and maintaining the divide between the countryside...

  1. Influência do calçado de salto alto na atividade eletromiográfica do músculo quadríceps em mulheres com e sem síndrome da dor femoropatelar durante a tarefa de levantar e sentar

    OpenAIRE

    Batista,Laísla da Silva Paixão; Oliveira, Valéria Mayaly Alves de; Souza,Lucas Pereira Lopes de; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Araújo,Rodrigo Cappato De

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a influência do calçado de salto alto na atividade eletromiográfica (EMG) do músculo quadríceps durante a tarefa de sentar e levantar. Participaram deste estudo 10 voluntárias assintomáticas com 20,2±3,0 anos e 10 voluntárias com síndrome da dor femoropatelar (SDFP) com 21,3±3,4 anos. As voluntárias executaram a tarefa de sentar e levantar em 3 diferentes condições: descalças, com tênis e com calçado de salto de 10 cm. A atividade EMG do vasto medial oblíquo ...

  2. Aplicación en el ámbito del rendimiento deportivo de un método de análisis biomecánico para valorar la ejecución técnica del salto zancada de gimnasia rítmica

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Galán, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    La capacidad de ejecutar una buena técnica es un factor importante en deportes de alto componente estético como es la Gimnasia Rítmica. Los saltos específicos de este deporte son elementos que lo caracterizan, debido a la muestra de flexibilidad y belleza estética que aportan a la gimnasta. Pero el qué nos hace tener una técnica de ejecución óptima para lograr la máxima calidad de salto es algo que se puede descubrir mediante el estudio y el análisis de la técnica que nos pr...

  3. Volcanism in Eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauthen, Clay; Coombs, Cassandra R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1891, the Virunga Mountains of Eastern Zaire were first acknowledged as volcanoes, and since then, the Virunga Mountain chain has demonstrated its potentially violent volcanic nature. The Virunga Mountains lie across the Eastern African Rift in an E-W direction located north of Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyamuragira and Mt. Nyiragongo present the most hazard of the eight mountains making up Virunga volcanic field, with the most recent activity during the 1970-90's. In 1977, after almost eighty years of moderate activity and periods of quiescence, Mt. Nyamuragira became highly active with lava flows that extruded from fissures on flanks circumscribing the volcano. The flows destroyed vast areas of vegetation and Zairian National Park areas, but no casualties were reported. Mt. Nyiragongo exhibited the same type volcanic activity, in association with regional tectonics that effected Mt. Nyamuragira, with variations of lava lake levels, lava fountains, and lava flows that resided in Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyiragongo, recently named a Decade volcano, presents both a direct and an indirect hazard to the inhabitants and properties located near the volcano. The Virunga volcanoes pose four major threats: volcanic eruptions, lava flows, toxic gas emission (CH4 and CO2), and earthquakes. Thus, the volcanoes of the Eastern African volcanic field emanate harm to the surrounding area by the forecast of volcanic eruptions. During the JSC Summer Fellowship program, we will acquire and collate remote sensing, photographic (Space Shuttle images), topographic and field data. In addition, maps of the extent and morphology(ies) of the features will be constructed using digital image information. The database generated will serve to create a Geographic Information System for easy access of information of the Eastem African volcanic field. The analysis of volcanism in Eastern Africa will permit a comparison for those areas from which we have field data. Results from this summer's work will permit

  4. Eastern equine encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Daniel; Gilani, Ahmed I; Grewal, Amrit K; Fowkes, Mary

    2017-10-01

    We describe a patient who died from a fulminant presentation of encephalitis. After an exhaustive search, we found no treatable cause. Postmortem PCR analysis of brain tissue led to a diagnosis of eastern equine encephalitis. We have identified several clinical pearls that may assist others in making the diagnosis earlier in the disease course. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Comparison of U-Th and U-Pb zircon ages from erupted plutonic clasts and 40Ar/39Ar eruption ages from Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, K. M.; Stelten, M. E.; Leech, M. L.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The magmatic plumbing systems of Quaternary volcanoes are poorly understood due to insufficient uplift and erosion to expose their intrusive roots. These intrusive bodies remained in the plumbing system for longer timescales than the eruptive melt; therefore, plutonic rocks record a more extensive history of the entire magmatic system. Occasionally, large-scale eruptions can expose regions of the plumbing system and/or erupt plutonic clasts (EPC) to the surface. We are investigating EPCs found within Newberry ash flow tuffs and hydrothermal drill cores to understand subsurface processes occurring within the magmatic plumbing system. Newberry Volcano is a large shield-shaped composite volcano located in central Oregon that has experienced recurrent volcanism from ca. 500 ka to 1,300 ybp. This study uses the EPC ages to link the intrusive rocks inferred to be representative of the Newberry magmatic plumbing system, and to discern a systematic relationship with volcanism. SHRIMP U-Th disequilibrium and U-Pb zircon ages were analyzed from six EPCs and two hydrothermal granitoids from separate drill cuttings. We compare these new SHRIMP ages to existing 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of Newberry volcanic strata. Three EPCs have unimodal zircon ages of 140 ka, two EPCs display ages of 300 ka, and one has three distinct zircon age populations of 120 ka, 200 ka, and 300 ka. Zircons from separate drill cuttings have ages of 350 ka and 1.9 Ma. All the EPC zircon ages are less than 500 kyr, implying that these clasts are related to the Newberry magmatic system. The granitoid with 1.9 Myr zircons was penetrated by drilling at 2.6 km depth, and could be related to Newberry magmatism and represent an earlier phase of intrusive activity. The 140 kyr zircons record a single crystallization event that took place during a period of frequent volcanism, while the three remaining age populations represent multiple periods of growth that overlap with timeframes of waning activity. Combining

  6. Geochemistry of the Serifos calc-alkaline granodiorite pluton, Greece: constraining the crust and mantle contributions to I-type granitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouraiti, C.; Baziotis, I.; Asimow, P. D.; Downes, H.

    2017-11-01

    The Late Miocene (11.6-9.5 Ma) granitoid intrusion on the island of Serifos (Western Cyclades, Aegean Sea) is composed of syn- to post-tectonic granodiorite with quartz monzodiorite enclaves, cut by dacitic and aplitic dikes. The granitoid, a typical I-type metaluminous calcic amphibole-bearing calc-alkaline pluton, intruded the Cycladic Blueschists during thinning of the Aegean plate. Combining field, textural, geochemical and new Sr-Nd-O isotope data presented in this paper, we postulate that the Serifos intrusion is a single-zoned pluton. The central facies has initial 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70906 to 0.7106, ɛNd(t) = - 5.9 to - 7.5 and δ18Οqtz = + 10 to + 10.6‰, whereas the marginal zone (or border facies) has higher initial 87Sr/86Sr = 0.711 to 0.7112, lower ɛ Nd(t) = - 7.3 to - 8.3, and higher δ18Οqtz = + 10.6 to + 11.9‰. The small range in initial Sr and Nd isotopic values throughout the pluton is paired with a remarkable uniformity in trace element patterns, despite a large range in silica contents (58.8 to 72 wt% SiO2). Assimilation of a crustally derived partial melt into the mafic parental magma would progressively add incompatible trace elements and SiO2 to the evolving mafic starting liquid, but the opposite trend, of trace element depletion during magma evolution, is observed in the Serifos granodiorites. Thermodynamic modeling of whole-rock compositions during simple fractional crystallization (FC) or assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC) processes of major rock-forming minerals—at a variety of pressure, oxidation state, and water activity conditions—fails to reproduce simultaneously the major element and trace element variations among the Serifos granitoids, implying a critical role for minor phases in controlling trace element fractionation. Both saturation of accessory phases such as allanite and titanite (at SiO2 ≥ 71 wt%)(to satisfy trace element constraints) and assimilation of partial melts from a metasedimentary component (to

  7. Sample-scale zircon geochemical and geochronological heterogeneities as indicators of residual liquid infiltration events in the incrementally assembled Caleu Pluton, Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, P. G.; Parada, M. A.; Gutiérrez, F. J.; Ma, C.; Li, J.; Liu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Upper Cretaceous metaluminous Caleu Pluton is emplaced at a depth equivalent of 2kbar and consists of four lithological zones: the Gabbro-Dioritic Zone (GDZ), the Quartz-Monzodioritic Zone (QMDZ), the Granodioritic Zone (GZ) and the Monzogranitic Zone (MGZ). The zones would have been fed from a deeper magma reservoir emplaced at a 4 kbar. U238/Pb206 LA-ICP-MS geochronology of zircon grains of the four lithological zones (82 analyzed spots, 4 samples) indicates a maximum zircon crystallization range of ca. 106-91 Ma for the pluton as a whole. The U-Pb zircon age distribution of the four samples shows three inflection points at about 101, 99 and 96 Ma, separating four zircon crystallization events with the following weighted average ages and 2σ confidence intervals: 103.×1.6 Ma (n=4), 100.3×0.68 Ma (n=14), 97.49×0.49 Ma (n=25) and 94.66×0.44 Ma (n=30). The GDZ sample records the first three events, the GZ and QMDZ samples record the last three events while the MGZ only have zircons formed during the last two events. It is interesting to note that the youngest event of zircon formation coincide with the Ar/Ar cooling ages (95-93 Ma) previously obtained in hornblende, biotite and plagioclase of the four lithological zones, as a consequence of a rapid pluton exhumation. Temperatures of zircon crystallization (Ti-in-Zrn) obtained in each sample are variable and roughly lower than the zircon saturation temperatures. Most of the Ti-in-Zrn temperatures indicate late-stage crystallization conditions, consistent with the calculated melt composition from which zircons would have crystallized and the observed coexistence of zircons with quartz-orthoclase symplectites, hornblende and interstitial anhedral biotite. There are variable and overlapped total incompatible element concentrations in zircons of the four lithological zones regardless its age and Ti-in-Zrn temperatures, indicating that the melts from which zircon crystallized at different moments, were equivalent

  8. Efecto agudo de la técnica Active Isolated Stretching y del reposo sobre la capacidad de salto. [Acute effect of Active Isolated Stretching technique and of rest on the jumping capacity].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús López-Bedoya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el efecto agudo de la técnica de estiramiento active isolated stretching (AIS y el efecto del reposo en sedestación sobre la altura de salto registrada mediante el test Squat Jump (SJ y Counter Movement Jump (CMJ. Un total de 22 varones con un rango de edad entre 21 y 24 años (edad 22,9 ± 2,03 años; masa corporal 69,7 ± 5,60 kg; altura 173,6 ± 7,37cm completaron el estudio. Se utilizó un diseño intragrupo pretest-postest con dos situaciones experimentales (estiramiento y reposo en sedestación. A los sujetos del grupo de estiramiento se les evaluó la altura de salto en SJ y CMJ antes e inmediatamente después de aplicar el AIS (15 s después en el cuádriceps femoral y tríceps sural en una única sesión de entrenamiento. Se realizaron 4 series de 12 repeticiones alternando la extremidad inferior izquierda y derecha con el siguiente orden: tríceps sural derecho, tríceps sural izquierdo, cuádriceps femoral derecho y cuádriceps femoral izquierdo. El tiempo de estiramiento total de cada grupo muscular fue de 96 s, con un tiempo total de trabajo de aproximadamente 15 min. A los sujetos del grupo de reposo se les evaluó la altura de salto en SJ y CMJ antes e inmediatamente después de un reposo en sedestación de 15 min. Tras la aplicación de AIS, los resultados mostraron pérdidas agudas de altura de salto de 2,14 cm (-7,13% en SJ y de 2,65 cm (-7,22% en CMJ. Después del reposo, las pérdidas producidas en la altura registrada fueron de 1,90 cm (-6,41% en SJ y de 2,38 cm (-6,46% en CMJ. Por tanto, la utilización de un protocolo de estiramientos utilizando la técnica del AIS o de un periodo de reposo en sedestación influye de forma negativa en la capacidad de salto. Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the acute effect of stretching technique Active Isolated Stretching (AIS and repose sitting with the lower extremities raised of rest over on the high jump in Squat Jump (SJ and

  9. Geochronology of plutonic rocks and their tectonic terranes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, southeast Alaska: Chapter E in Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, David A.; Tellier, Kathleen E.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Nielsen, Diane C.; Smith, James G.; Sonnevil, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    We have identified six major belts and two nonbelt occurrences of plutonic rocks in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve and characterized them on the basis of geologic mapping, igneous petrology, geochemistry, and isotopic dating. The six plutonic belts and two other occurrences are, from oldest to youngest: (1) Jurassic (201.6–145.5 Ma) diorite and gabbro of the Lituya belt; (2) Late Jurassic (161.0–145.5 Ma) leucotonalite in Johns Hopkins Inlet; (3) Early Cretaceous (145.5–99.6 Ma) granodiorite and tonalite of the Muir-Chichagof belt; (4) Paleocene tonalite in Johns Hopkins Inlet (65.5–55.8 Ma); (5) Eocene granodiorite of the Sanak-Baranof belt; (6) Eocene and Oligocene (55.8–23.0 Ma) granodiorite, quartz diorite, and granite of the Muir-Fairweather felsic-intermediate belt; (7) Eocene and Oligocene (55.8–23.0 Ma) layered gabbros of the Crillon-La Perouse mafic belt; and (8) Oligocene (33.9–23.0 Ma) quartz monzonite and quartz syenite of the Tkope belt. The rocks are further classified into 17 different combination age-compositional units; some younger belts are superimposed on older ones. Almost all these plutonic rocks are related to Cretaceous and Tertiary subduction events. The six major plutonic belts intrude the three southeast Alaska geographic subregions in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, from west to east: (1) the Coastal Islands, (2) the Tarr Inlet Suture Zone (which contains the Border Ranges Fault Zone), and (3) the Central Alexander Archipelago. Each subregion includes rocks assigned to one or more tectonic terranes. The various plutonic belts intrude different terranes in different subregions. In general, the Early Cretaceous plutons intrude rocks of the Alexander and Wrangellia terranes in the Central Alexander Archipelago subregion, and the Paleogene plutons intrude rocks of the Chugach, Alexander, and Wrangellia terranes in the Coastal Islands, Tarr Inlet Suture Zone, and Central Alexander Archipelago subregions.

  10. Plutonic-squishy lid and beyond: implications of intrusive magmatism and characterization of a new global-tectonic regime on Earth-like planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louro Lourenço, Diogo; Rozel, Antoine; Ballmer, Maxim; Tackley, Paul

    2017-04-01

    It is now well established that compositional variations in the lithosphere can alter the stress state and greatly influence the likelihood of plate tectonics. Mechanisms that have been found to facilitate plate tectonics include: water circulation [Regenauer-Lieb et al., Science 2001; Dymkova and Gerya, GRL 2013], presence of continents [Rolf and Tackley, GRL 2011], and melting [Korenaga, GJI 2009; Armann and Tackley, JGR 2012]. In a recent work by Lourenço et al. [EPSL 2016], it has been shown that Earth-like plate tectonics is more likely to occur in planets that can produce a crust of variable thickness and density through melt extraction from the mantle. The authors employed a first-order approximation by assuming that all magmatism was extrusive. However, volumes of intruded magmas are observed to be around 4- 9 times more present on Earth than erupted magmas [Crisp, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 1984]. Therefore, intrusive magmatism is thought to play a role in the dynamics of the lithosphere on Earth [Cawood et al., Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 2013] and other Earth-like planets. We extend the work of Lourenço et al. [2016] by taking into account intrusive magmatism, and systematically investigate the effect of plutonism, in conjugation with eruptive volcanism. We present a set of 2D spherical annulus simulations of thermo-compositional global mantle convection using StagYY [Tackley, PEPI 2008], which uses a finite-volume discretization of the governing compressible anelastic Stokes equations. Tracers are used to track composition and to allow for the treatment of partial melting and crustal formation. A direct solver is employed to obtain a solution of the Stokes and continuity equations, using the PETSc toolkit. The heat equation is solved in two steps: advection is performed using the MPDATA scheme and diffusion is then solved implicitly using a PETSc solver. Results show that three common convection regimes are usually reached in simulations when using a visco

  11. Petrological and geochemical characterization of the plutonic rocks of the Sierra de La Aguada, Province of San Luis, Argentina: Genetic implications with the Famatinian magmatic arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cristofolini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a synthesis on the geology of the crystalline complex that constitute the Sierra de la Aguada, San Luis province, Argentine, from an approach based on field relations, petrologic and structural features and geochemical characteristic. This mountain range exposes a basement dominated by intermediate to mafic calcalkaline igneous rocks and peraluminous felsic granitoids, both emplaced in low to medium grade metamorphic rocks stabilized under low amphibolite facies. All this lithological terrane has been grouped in the El Carrizal-La Aguada Complex. Field relations, petrographic characterization and geochemical comparison of the plutonic rocks from the study area with those belonging to the Ordovician Famatinian suit exposed in the Sierra Grande de San Luis, suggest a genetic and temporal relation linked to the development of the Famatinian magmatic arc.

  12. Creation and Validation of Chronojump-Boscosystem: A Free Tool to Measure Vertical Jumps. (Creación y validación de Chronojump-Boscosystem: un instrumento libre para la medición de saltos verticales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis López del Amo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the height of the vertical jump is an indicator of the strength and power of the lower body. The technological tools available to measure the vertical jump are black boxes and are not open to third-party verification or adaptation. We propose the creation of a measurement system called Chronojump-Boscosystem, consisting of open hardware and free software. Methods: A microcontroller was created and validated using a square wave generator and an oscilloscope. Two types of contact platforms were developed using different materials. These platforms were validated by the minimum pressure required for activation at different points by a strain gauge, together with the on/off time of our platforms in respect of the Ergojump-Boscosystem platform by a sample of 8 subjects performing submaximal jumps with one foot on each platform. Agile methodologies were used to develop and validate the software. Results: All the tools fall under the free software / open hardware guidelines and are, in that sense, free. The microcontroller margin of error is 0.1%. The validity of the fiberglass platform is 0.95 (ICC. The management software contains nearly 113.000 lines of code and is available in 7 languages.ResumenLa medición de la altura del salto vertical es un indicador de la fuerza y potencia del tren inferior. Los instrumentos electrónicos disponibles para medir este salto son cajas negras que no permiten la verificación ni la adaptación por parte de terceros. Proponemos la creación de un sistema de medición llamado Chronojump-Boscosystem, que consiste en un hardware abierto y un software libre. Métodos: Se ha creado un microcontrolador y se ha validado usando un generador de ondas cuadradas y un osciloscopio. Se han desarrollado dos tipos de plataformas usando materiales distintos. Las plataformas se han validado determinando su sensibilidad en distintos puntos por medio de una célula de carga, y por comparación con la plataforma de contactos

  13. Crustal structure beneath Eastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiche, Sönke; Thybo, H.; Kaip, G.

    2011-01-01

    The conjugate Atlantic passive margins of western Norway and eastern Greenland are characterized by the presence of coast-parallel mountain ranges with peak elevations of more than 3.5 km close to Scoresby Sund in Eastern Greenland. Knowledge about crustal thickness and composition below these mo...

  14. Forest industries of eastern Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Wall; Donald R. Gedney; Robert B. Forster

    1966-01-01

    A sawmill, built in 1872, marked the beginning of the forest industry in eastern Washington -- almost half a century after the emergence of the lumber industry in western Washington. Since then, this industry has increased in importance to eastern Washington's economy, now furnishing about one-fifth of the total manufacturing employment and wages paid—in...

  15. Eastern Sources of Invitational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryback, David

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical perspective suggesting that invitational theory shares many beliefs with ancient Eastern philosophies. Submits that teachers and other educators who embrace the invitational perspective may benefit from an understanding of Eastern principles. Briefly describes Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and their relevance to…

  16. Age and thermal history of the Geysers plutonic complex (felsite unit), Geysers geothermal field, California: A 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, G.B.; Grove, M.; Lovera, O.M.; Harrison, T.M.; Hulen, J.B.; Lanphere, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Sixty-nine ion microprobe spot analyses of zircons from four granite samples from the plutonic complex that underlies the Geysers geothermal field yield 207Pb/206Pb vs. 238U/206Pb concordia ages ranging from 1.13 ?? 0.04 Ma to 1.25 ?? 0.04 (1??) Ma. The weighted mean of the U/Pb model ages is 1.18 ?? 0.03 Ma. The U-Pb ages coincide closely with 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum plateau and 'terminal' ages from coexisting K-feldspars and with the eruption ages of overlying volcanic rocks. The data indicate that the granite crystallized at 1.18 Ma and had cooled below 350??C by ~0.9-1.0 Ma. Interpretation of the feldspar 40Ar/39Ar age data using multi-diffusion domain theory indicates that post-emplacement rapid cooling was succeeded either by slower cooling from 350??to 300??C between 1.0 and 0.4 Ma or transitory reheating to 300-350??C at about 0.4-0.6 Ma. Subsequent rapid cooling to below 260??C between 0.4 and 0.2 Ma is in agreement with previous proposals that vapor-dominated conditions were initiated within the hydrothermal system at this time. Heat flow calculations constrained with K-feldspar thermal histories and the present elevated regional heat flow anomaly demonstrate that appreciable heat input from sources external to the known Geysers plutonic complex is required to maintain the geothermal system. This requirement is satisfied by either a large, underlying, convecting magma chamber (now solidified) emplaced at 1.2 Ma or episodic intrusion of smaller bodies from 1.2 to 0.6 Ma.

  17. An autochthonous Avalonian basement source for the latest Ordovician Brenton Pluton in the Meguma terrane of Nova Scotia: U-Pb-Hf isotopic constraints and paleogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan Keppie, J.; Gregory Shellnutt, J.; Dostal, Jaroslav; Fraser Keppie, D.

    2017-06-01

    The Ediacaran-Ordovician Meguma Supergroup was thrust over Avalonia basement prior to the intrusion of post-Acadian, ca. 370 Ma, S-type granitic batholiths. This has led to two main hypotheses regarding the original location of the Meguma terrane, a continental rise prism bordering either NW Africa or Avalonia. On the other hand, the pre-Acadian, ca. 440 Ma Brenton pluton has yielded the following U/Pb LA-ICP-MS zircon data: (1) 448 ± 3 Ma population peak inferred to be the intrusive age and (2) ca. 550 and 700 Ma inherited ages common to both Avalonia and NW Africa. In contrast, Hf isotopic analyses of zircon yielded model ages ranging from 814 to 1127 Ma with most between 940 and 1040 Ma: such ages are typical of Avalonia and not NW Africa. The ages of the inherited zircons found within the Brenton pluton suggest that it was probably derived by partial melting of sub-Meguma, mid-crustal Avalonian rocks, upon which the Meguma Supergroup was deposited. Although Avalonia is commonly included in the peri-Gondwanan terranes off NW Africa or Amazonia, paleomagnetic data, faunal provinciality, and Hf data suggest that, during the Ediacaran-Early Cambrian, it was an island chain lying near the tropics (ca. 20-30 °S) and was possibly a continuation of the Bolshezemel volcanic arc accreted to northern Baltica during the Ediacaran Timanide orogenesis. This is consistent with the similar derital zircon population in the Ediacaran-Cambrian Meguma Supergroup and the Dividal Group in northeastern Baltica.

  18. Análisis comparativo de la capacidad de salto en gimnastas de trampolín españoles. (Comparative analysis of the jumping capacity in Spanish trampoline gymnasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Vernetta Santana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe realizó un estudio para analizar la capacidad de salto en gimnastas de trampolín españoles y comparar distintas categorías entre sí, mediante un diseño descriptivo y transversal.La muestra estuvo compuesta por 60 gimnastas de trampolín pertenecientes a la élite nacional, agrupados según su grupo de edad y categoría competitiva, diferenciando en total 4 grupos: grupo de edad Sub-15 masculino (GM1, n = 23; 11,95 ± 1,79 años y femenino (GF1, n = 9; 11,44 ± 1,23 años; grupo de edad Absoluto masculino (GM2, n = 18; 20,72 ± 4,66 años y femenino (GF2, n = 10; 16,1 ± 2,02 años. Para evaluar la capacidad de salto se midió la altura en el SJ y CMJ, mediante plataforma de contacto; además se estimó la potencia mecánica según la fórmula de Sayers et al. (1991.Las diferencias significativas (pAbstractA study was conducted to analyze the jump capacity jump in Spanish trampoline gymnasts and compare different categories with each other, through a descriptive cross-sectional design.The sample consisted of 60 trampoline gymnasts belonging to the national elite, grouped by age and sex in different competitive categories, differentiating finally 4 groups: age group male Under-15 (GM1 n = 23; 11,95 ± 1,79 years and female (GF1 n = 9; 11,44 ± 1,23 years; age group male Absolute (GM2 n = 18; 20,72 ± 4,66 years and female (GF2 n = 10; 16,1 ± 2,02 years.To assess the jump capacity was measured height in the SJ and CMJ, through contact platform; additionally mechanical power was estimated according to the formula of Sayers et al. (1991.Significant differences were found (p

  19. Determinación de frecuencia cardiaca, frecuencia respiratoria, lactato deshidrogenasa, creatinkinasa y ácido láctico en caballos durante competencia de salto en la Sabana de Bogotá

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    Paula Andrea Guerrero Nieto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio presenta los primeros resultados de investigación en variables fisiológicas y sus cambios por el ejercicio en equinos en competencia de salto en el país. Se utilizaron 24 ejemplares de las razas Silla Argentina, PSI y mestizo de la Escuela de Equitación del Ejército Nacional de Colombia, que participaron en pruebas de salto (1,10 – 1,20 m en diferentes centros ecuestres de la Sabana de Bogotá. Se determinó frecuencia cardiaca, frecuencia respiratoria y enzimas musculares (creatinquinasa (CK, lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH y el ácido láctico.. Se tomaron tres muestras: reposo, inmediatamente después del ejercicio y a las 6 horas posejercicio. Para la frecuencia cardiaca se utilizó un monitor POLAR S625; la frecuencia respiratoria se determinó mediante fonendoscopio; y las enzimas y el ácido láctico se analizaron en laboratorio. Se utilizó el método estadístico ANAVA para enzimas musculares y acido láctico y estadística descriptiva para frecuencia cardiaca y respiratoria. En los resultados se encontró un comportamiento estadísticamente significativo (p < 0.05 del ácido láctico y la enzima creatinkinasa, a diferencia del comportamiento de la enzima lactato deshidrogenasa, que fue no significativo. Las frecuencias cardiaca y respiratoria se elevaron de manera significativa posejercicio y regresaron a lo normal alrededor de las 6 seis horas. El ácido láctico se incrementó posejercicio y disminuyó a las 6 horas, contrario a lo reportado por otros autores. Se concluye que una vez analizadas estas variables, hay diferencias con los valores obtenidos por otros autores, que pueden deberse a la altitud, al tipo y tiempo de ejercicio realizado. Por tanto es indispensable continuar haciendo estudios en este campo.

  20. Primary factors affecting water quality and quantity in four watersheds in Eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program, four small watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico were monitored to identify and evaluate the effects of geology, landcover, atmospheric deposition, and other factors on stream water quality and quantity. Two catchments are located on coarse-grained granitic plutonic rocks, which weather to quartz- and clay-rich, sandy soils, and two are located on fine-grained volcanic rocks and volcaniclastic sediments, which weather to quartz-poor, fine-grained soils. These differing soil materials result in different hydrologic regimes. Soils on the granitic rocks have greater permeability than those developed on the volcaniclastic rocks, allowing more water infiltration and potentially greater landslide erosion rates. For each bedrock type, one catchment was covered with mature rainforest, and the other catchment was affected by agricultural practices typical of eastern Puerto Rico. These practices led to the erosion of much of the original surface soil in the agricultural watersheds, which introduced large quantities of sediment to stream channels. The agricultural watersheds are undergoing natural reforestation, like much of Puerto Rico. Eastern Puerto Rico receives large atmospheric inputs of marine salts, pollutants from the Northern Hemisphere, and Saharan Desert dust. Marine salts contribute over 80 percent of the ionic charge in precipitation, with peak inputs in January. Intense storms, mostly hurricanes, are associated with exceptionally high chloride concentrations in stream waters. Temperate pollution contributes nitrate, ammonia, and sulfate, with maximum inputs during northern cold fronts in January, April, and May. Pollution inputs have increased through time. Desert dust peaks in June and July, during times of maximum dust transport from the Saharan Desert across the Atlantic Ocean.

  1. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borucki, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-05

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses. In North America, EEEV infection has a very high mortality rate in humans, and survivors often suffer severe neurological sequelae. Interestingly, EEEV infections from South American isolates are generally subclinical. Although EEEV is divided into two antigenic varieties and four lineages, only eleven isolates have been sequenced and eight of these are from the North American variety (Lineage I). Most sequenced strains were collected from mosquitoes and only one human isolate has been sequenced. EEEV isolates exist from a variety of hosts, vectors, years, and geographical locations and efforts should focus on sequencing strains that represent this diversity.

  2. Fé, razão e salto no escuro: uma comparação entre Plantinga e Swinburne = Faith, reason and leap in the dark: a comparison between Plantinga and Swinburne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portugal, Agnaldo Cuoco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo pretende avaliar criticamente o conceito de fé e o modo como a fé cristã é racionalmente justificada por Alvin Plantinga em sua principal obra Warranted Christian Belief (2000. Para tanto, o texto parte de uma comparação com a proposta de Richard Swinburne. Após discutir brevemente a epistemologia geral de Plantinga, o texto expõe a sua aplicação à crença em Deus e à fé cristã. A tese de Plantinga de que a fé não constitui um “salto no escuro” e que o seu componente não-teórico é semelhante ao amor erótico é comparada com a visão de Swinburne, segundo a qual a fé firme pode comportar elementos de incerteza na crença e supõe uma decisão voluntária, sendo, por isso mesmo, meritória. A comparação sugerirá que as diferenças indicam uma possibilidade de complementaridade entre as duas concepções

  3. Eastern and Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdler-brown, B

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration and the spread of HIV/AIDS in Eastern and Southern Africa. It includes Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The literature focuses separately on AIDS or migration. HIV/AIDS is widespread and prevalent in these regions. The major concern is that migrants are at risk due to their migration and HIV infection is spread after a return to their home countries. Populations at risk include rural-to-urban migrants, displaced persons in the Sudan and in the Horn of Africa, refugees crossing borders, and pastoralists moving within rural areas. In 1997, there were an estimated 1.3 million refugees in east African countries and 5 million internally displaced due to conflicts in Angola, Mozambique, and South Africa. Risk factors among migrant groups include high rates of partner change, unprotected sexual intercourse, nonuse of condoms, prior sexually transmitted diseases, IV drug use, and residence in a high HIV-prevalence community. Confounding factors may be age, gender, occupation, and mobility. Health services for migrants vary between countries. There are successful models for prevention of HIV. 13 targeted interventions are identified.

  4. Survey report: Eastern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, N

    1991-01-01

    Over 1 million people live on 8 small islands in the Eastern Caribbean: St. Kitts-Nevis, Montserrat, Grenada, St. Vincent, Antigua, Barbados, St. Lucia, and Dominica. Starting in 1985 the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region has carried out a series of contraceptive prevalence surveys in these countries. Current information is provided by these surveys in the areas of fertility levels and preferences, contraceptive knowledge and use. Also, socioeconomic, historical and demographic background and analysis such as fertility patterns, desire for additional children, and breastfeeding data; contraceptive awareness including family planning methods and sources; contraceptive use by method, source, and timing, satisfaction, and male attitudes are provided in the surveys, but not in the report abstracted here. The total fertility rate (TFR) and the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) for the 8 islands are as follows: St. Kitts-Nevis (1984) 2.9 TFR, 40.6 CPR; St. Vincent (1988) 2.9 TFR, 58.3 CPR; Antigua (1988) 1.8 TFR, 52.6 CPR; Barbados (1988) not given, 55.0 CPR; St. Lucia (1988) 3.2 TFR, 47.3 CPR; Dominica (1987) 3.2 TFR, 49.8 CPR. The islands have unusual demographic patterns related to extensive out-migration.

  5. Thermal effects of the Santa Eulália Plutonic Complex (southern Portugal on the meta-igneous and metasedimentary host rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz, C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Santa Eulália Plutonic Complex (SEPC is a late-Variscan granitic body located in the northern part of the Ossa Morena Zone, a inner zone of the Variscan Iberian Massif. The SEPC host rocks are composed of meta-igneous and metasedimentary units, from Upper Proterozoic to Paleozoic ages, with a NW-SE structure, cross-cut by the SEPC. The SEPC host rocks, with low grade metamorphism show well preserved primary sedimentary or igneous mineralogical, textural and structural features. The thermal effect induced by the SEPC is restricted to the roof pendants. At N and NE of the SEPC, textures and paragenesis resulting from thermal metamorphism, are not related to the SEPC intrusion but to a previous magmatism, controlled by the NW-SE regional anisotropies. The restriction of the thermal effects to the pluton roof may be caused by a combination of several interrelated factors: higher volume of granitic mass, thermal effect by advection of fluids and longer period of prevalence of high thermal conditions. The geochemical study of SEPC host rocks shows the heterogeneous character and diversity of metasedimentary, igneous and meta-igneous rocks. The whole rock geochemical data indicate that all the metasedimentary lithologies derived from an upper continental crustal source and the igneous and meta-igneous rocks show no evidence of metasomatic effects by the SEPC emplacement.El Complejo Plutónico de Santa Eulalia (CPSE es un cuerpo granítico tardi-Varisco situado en la parte norte de la Zona de Ossa Morena, en la zona interior del Macizo Ibérico Varisco. Las rocas encajantes del CPSE están compuestas por unidades meta-ígneas y metasedimentarias, de edades que van desde el Proterozoico Superior hasta el Paleozoico, con una estructura de dirección NW-SE, cortada por el CPSE. Las rocas encanjantes del CPSE, con metamorfismo de bajo grado conservan estructuras, mineralogía y textura primarias. El efecto térmicoinducido por el CPSE se limita a los

  6. Compositional zonation of the shallow La Gloria pluton (Central Chile) by late-stage extraction/redistribution of residual melts by channelization: Numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, A.; Gutiérrez, F. J.; Parada, M. A.; Payacán, Í.; Bachmann, O.; Poblete, F.

    2017-07-01

    The origin of highly evolved magmas (e.g. rhyolites) has been a long-standing controversy in earth sciences. They are commonly thought to be generated in the upper crust by melt extraction from mush zones, but due to the rapid cooling of magma reservoirs in such shallow and typically cold environments, high magma emplacement rates of intermediate magmas are thought to be necessary to maintain large silicic mushes above the solidus long enough for the high-SiO2 melts extraction to occur. Late-stage redistribution of interstitial melts (i.e. heat and mass) by channels/dikes within those mushes has been invoked as a mechanism to preserve silicic mushes above their solidi for longer periods (i.e. delaying their final crystallization), but the nature of this process and its implications on plutons zonation are still poorly understood. Here, using time-dependent numerical modeling, we study the feasibility of late-stage interstitial melt extraction/redistribution by channels/dikes from a crystalline mush. Our model accounts for magma fluid dynamics, extraction of residual melts and thermal evolution of the crystallizing magma system and its hosting rocks, considering the thermal effect of the redistributing material. The model was applied to explain the anatomy of the well-documented La Gloria pluton (LGP, Central Chile), which exhibits increasing contents of SiO2 and abundant leucocratic dikes toward the margins, interpreted as trapped residual melts generated elsewhere in the magma chamber. Our results suggest that favorable conditions for extracting late-stage residual melts are reached at temperatures of 750 °C (60 vol% crystallinity), at least for compositions similar to LGP dikes. Simulations correspond to 30 kyr of reservoir cooling, when the concentric compositional zonation of LGP is reproduced after a short period of extraction (extracted mass fraction of up to 0.17. An inward growing crystal-dominated domain is the main source of interstitial melts. A total

  7. Zircon petrochronology reveals the temporal link between porphyry systems and the magmatic evolution of their hidden plutonic roots (the Eocene Coroccohuayco deposit, Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelle-Michou, Cyril; Chiaradia, Massimo; Ovtcharova, Maria; Ulianov, Alexey; Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik

    2014-06-01

    We present zircon geochronologic (LA-ICPMS and ID-TIMS), trace element and Hf isotopic evidence for a complex evolution of the plutonic roots of the Eocene Coroccohuayco porphyry system, southern Peru. LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating has initially been carried out to optimize grain selection for subsequent high-precision ID-TIMS dating and to characterize crustal assimilation (xenocrystic cores). This combined in-situ and whole-grain U-Pb dating of the same grains has been further exploited to derive a robust temporal interpretation of the complex magmatic system associated with the Coroccohuayco porphyry-skarn deposit. Our data reveal that a heterogeneous gabbrodioritic complex was emplaced at ca. 40.4 Ma and was followed by a nearly 5 Ma-long magmatic lull until the emplacement of dacitic porphyry stocks and dykes associated with the mineralizing event at ca. 35.6 Ma. However, at the sample scale, zircons from the porphyries provide insight into a 2 Ma-long lived “hidden” magmatism (probably at 4-9 km paleodepth) prior to porphyry intrusion and mineralization for which no other evidence can be found on the surface today. These dates together with zircon trace element analysis and Hf isotopes argue for the development of a long-lived magmatic system dominated by amphibole fractionation with an increasing amount of crustal assimilation and the development of a large and sustained thermal anomaly. The system was probably rejuvenated at an increasing rate from 37.5 to 35.6 Ma with injection of fresh and oxidized magma from the lower crust, which caused cannibalism and remelting of proto-plutons. The porphyry intrusions at Coroccohuayco were emplaced at the peak thermal conditions of this upper crustal magma chamber, which subsequently cooled and expelled ore fluids. Zircon xenocrysts and Hf isotopes in the porphyritic rocks suggest that this large upper crustal system evolved at stratigraphic levels corresponding to Triassic sediments similar to the Mitu group that may be

  8. Distinct 238U/235U ratios and REE patterns in plutonic and volcanic angrites: Geochronologic implications and evidence for U isotope fractionation during magmatic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, François L. H.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Grove, Timothy L.

    2017-09-01

    Angrites are differentiated meteorites that formed between 4 and 11 Myr after Solar System formation, when several short-lived nuclides (e.g., 26Al-26Mg, 53Mn-53Cr, 182Hf-182W) were still alive. As such, angrites are prime anchors to tie the relative chronology inferred from these short-lived radionuclides to the absolute Pb-Pb clock. The discovery of variable U isotopic composition (at the sub-permil level) calls for a revision of Pb-Pb ages calculated using an ;assumed; constant 238U/235U ratio (i.e., Pb-Pb ages published before 2009-2010). In this paper, we report high-precision U isotope measurement for six angrite samples (NWA 4590, NWA 4801, NWA 6291, Angra dos Reis, D'Orbigny, and Sahara 99555) using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry and the IRMM-3636 U double-spike. The age corrections range from -0.17 to -1.20 Myr depending on the samples. After correction, concordance between the revised Pb-Pb and Hf-W and Mn-Cr ages of plutonic and quenched angrites is good, and the initial (53Mn/55Mn)0 ratio in the Early Solar System (ESS) is recalculated as being (7 ± 1) × 10-6 at the formation of the Solar System (the error bar incorporates uncertainty in the absolute age of Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions - CAIs). An uncertainty remains as to whether the Al-Mg and Pb-Pb systems agree in large part due to uncertainties in the Pb-Pb age of CAIs. A systematic difference is found in the U isotopic compositions of quenched and plutonic angrites of +0.17‰. A difference is also found between the rare earth element (REE) patterns of these two angrite subgroups. The δ238U values are consistent with fractionation during magmatic evolution of the angrite parent melt. Stable U isotope fractionation due to a change in the coordination environment of U during incorporation into pyroxene could be responsible for such a fractionation. In this context, Pb-Pb ages derived from pyroxenes fraction should be corrected using the U isotope composition

  9. Zircon U-Pb age, Lu-Hf isotope, mineral chemistry and geochemistry of Sundamalai peralkaline pluton from the Salem Block, southern India: Implications for Cryogenian adakite-like magmatism in an aborted-rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renjith, M. L.; Santosh, M.; Li, Tang; Satyanarayanan, M.; Korakoppa, M. M.; Tsunogae, T.; Subba Rao, D. V.; Kesav Krishna, A.; Nirmal Charan, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Sundamalai peralkaline pluton is one among the Cryogenian alkaline plutons occurring in the Dharmapuri Rift Zone (DRZ) of the Salem Block in the Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT) of India. Here we present zircon U-Pb age and Lu-Hf isotopic composition, mineral chemistry and geochemistry of the pluton to explore the petrogenesis and geodynamic implications. Systematic modal variation of orthoclase, Na-plagioclase, Ca-amphibole (ferro-edenite and hastingsite) and quartz developed quartz-monzonite and granite litho units in the Sundamalai pluton. Thermometry based on amphibole-plagioclase pair suggests that the pluton was emplaced and solidified at around 4.6 kbar pressure with crystallization of the major phases between 748 and 661 °C. Estimated saturation temperature of zircon (712-698 °C) is also well within this range. However, apatite saturation occurred at higher temperatures between 835 and 870 °C, in contrast with monazite saturation (718-613 °C) that continued up to the late stage of crystallization. Estimated oxygen fugacity values (log fO2: -14 to -17) indicate high oxidation state for the magma that stabilized titanite and magnetite. The magmatic zircons from Sundamalai pluton yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 832.6 ± 3.2 Ma. Geochemically, the Sundamalai rocks are high-K to shoshonitic, persodic (Na2O/K2O ratio > 1), silica-saturated (SiO2:65-72 wt.%), and peralkaline in composition (aluminum saturation index, ASI peralkaline as result of fractional crystallization (plagioclase effect) controlled differentiation between quartz-monzonite and granite. Both rock types have high content of Na2O (5.1-6.3 wt.%), Ba (350-2589 ppm) and Sr (264-1036 ppm); low content of Y (8.7-17 ppm) and Yb (0.96-1.69 ppm); elevated ratios of La/Yb (11-46) and Sr/Y (46-69) and are depleted in Ti, with a positive Sr anomaly suggesting an adakite-like composition and garnet controlled melting of a plagioclase-poor source. The low content of MgO (zircon ε

  10. Petrology, geochemistry and thermobarometry of the northern area of the Flamenco pluton, Coastal Range batholith, northern Chile. A thermal approach to the emplacement processes in the Jurassic andean batholiths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Natalia; Díaz-Alvarado, Juan; Rodríguez, Carmen; Riveros, Karl; Fuentes, Paulina

    2016-04-01

    The Flamenco pluton is part of a N-S alignment of Late Triassic to Early Jurassic intrusive belt comprising the westernmost part of the Coastal Range batholith in northern Chile. The Jurassic-Cretaceous voluminous magmatism related to subduction in the western active continental margin of Gondwana is emplaced in the predominantly metasedimentary Paleozoic host-rocks of the Las Tórtolas formation, which in the northern area of the Flamenco pluton present an intense deformation, including the Chañaral mélange. Geochemically, the Flamenco pluton shows a wide compositional variability (SiO2 between 48wt % and 67wt %). Gabbros, Qtz-diorites and tonalites, mesocratic and leucocratic granodiorites are classified as calc-alkaline, calcic, magnesian and metaluminous magmatism. Flamenco granitoids define cotectic linear evolution trends, typical of magmatic fractionation processes. Geochemical trends are consistent with magmas evolved from undersaturated and low-pressure melts, even though the absence of transitional contacts between intrusive units precludes in-situ fractionation. Although some granodioritic samples show crossed geochemical trends that point to the compositional field of metasediments, and large euhedral prismatic pinnite-biotite crystals, typical Crd pseudomorph, are observed in contact magmatic facies, geochemical assimilation processes are short range, and the occurrence of host-rocks xenoliths is limited to a few meters from the pluton contact. A thermal approach to the emplacement process has been constrained through the thermobarometric results and a 2D thermo-numerical model of the contact aureole. Some Qtz-diorites and granodiorites located in the north area of the pluton exhibit granulitic textures as Hbl-Pl-Qtz triple junctions, poikiloblastic Kfs and Qtz recrystallization. The Hbl-Pl pairs have been used for the thermobarometric study of this metamorphic process, resulting granoblastic equilibrium temperatures between 770 and 790 °C, whereas

  11. A deposit model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide deposits related to Proterozoic massif anorthosite plutonic suites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Fey, David L.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide (Fe-Ti-oxide) deposits hosted by Proterozoic age massif-type anorthosite and related rock types presents their geological, mineralogical, geochemical, and geoenvironmental attributes. Although these Proterozoic rocks are found worldwide, the majority of known deposits are found within exposed rocks of the Grenville Province, stretching from southwestern United States through eastern Canada; its extension into Norway is termed the Rogaland Anorthosite Province. This type of Fe-Ti-oxide deposit dominated by ilmenite rarely contains more than 300 million tons of ore, with between 10- to 45-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), 32- to 45-percent iron oxide (FeO), and less than 0.2-percent vanadium (V). The origin of these typically discordant ore deposits remains as enigmatic as the magmatic evolution of their host rocks. The deposits clearly have a magmatic origin, hosted by an age-constrained unique suite of rocks that likely are the consequence of a particular combination of tectonic circumstances, rather than any a priori temporal control. Principal ore minerals are ilmenite and hemo-ilmenite (ilmenite with extensive hematite exsolution lamellae); occurrences of titanomagnetite, magnetite, and apatite that are related to this deposit type are currently of less economic importance. Ore-mineral paragenesis is somewhat obscured by complicated solid solution and oxidation behavior within the Fe-Ti-oxide system. Anorthosite suites hosting these deposits require an extensive history of voluminous plagioclase crystallization to develop plagioclase-melt diapirs with entrained Fe-Ti-rich melt rising from the base of the lithosphere to mid- and upper-crustal levels. Timing and style of oxide mineralization are related to magmatic and dynamic evolution of these diapiric systems and to development and movement of oxide cumulates and related melts. Active mines have developed large open pits with extensive waste-rock piles, but

  12. Fault-related controls on hydrothermal flows in Eastern Pyrénées (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillefer, Audrey; Soliva, Roger; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Le Goff, Elisabeth; Martin, Guillaume

    2017-04-01

    The way faults control upward fluid flow in extensive hydrothermal systems without an abnormal heat source such as volcanic or plutonic activity is still unclear. In the Eastern Pyrénées, an alignment of 29 hot springs (from 29°C to 73°C) along the Têt normal Fault offers the opportunity to study this process. Using an integrated multi-scale geological approach including mapping, remote sensing, macro and microscopic analyses of fault zones, we show that hot springs locate close to high topographic reliefs related to fault throw and segmentation. Emergences are always in crystalline rocks at gneiss-metasediments contacts, mostly in the Têt Fault footwall. In more details, they localize either (1) in brittle fault damage zones at the intersection between the Têt Fault and subsidiary faults, and (2) into hercynian ductile faults where dissolution cavities run along shear zones. Using these observations and 2D preliminary numerical simulations, we propose a hydrogeological model of upward hydrothermal flow. Meteoric fluids infiltrate at high altitude in the fault footwall relief where they acquire temperature because of the geothermal gradient. Hydraulic gradient and buoyancy forces allow them to upflow along fault-related permeability anisotropies. The identification and prioritization of the features controlling this kind of system have important implications for geothermal exploration and for the understanding of fluid-flow into the brittle Earth's crust in general.

  13. Early Paleozoic blueschist from the schist of Skookum Gulch, eastern Klamath Mountains, northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotkin, S.J. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States)); Cotkin, M.L. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)); Armstrong, R.L. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    1992-05-01

    Late Ordovician blueschist from the schist of Skookum Gulch, eastern Klamath Mountains, California, is the oldest known blueschist in California and one of the oldest in North America. Lawsonite-bearing glaucophane schist occurs as lenses intimately interlayered with chlorite schist, quartz-albite schist, and dolomite marble. Detailed investigation of a portion of the Skookum Gulch schist demonstrates that these rock types share a common deformational and metamorphic history. The first deformation occurred during blueschist metamorphism and produced similar-style isoclinal folds and an axial-planar foliation. During subsequent deformations, parallel-style open to tight folds and local kink bands deformed foliation but produced no recognizable recrystallization. A phengite Rb-Sr date of 447 {plus minus} 9 Ma (Late Ordovician) is statistically indistinguishable from previously published K-Ar dates and is interpreted as the time of blueschist-facies metamorphism. Mineral separates from one rock yield a date of 353 {plus minus} 18 Ma, suggesting resetting during a Devonian to Early Mississippian thermal event. The schist of Skookum Gulch is a critical component of the Middle Ordovician to Early Silurian Callahan event, which included volcanism, plutonism, metamorphism, deformation, and sedimentation and occurred in response to collisional tectonics. Paleontological and provenance information indicate that the Callahan event occurred relatively close to the North American continental margin. In this regard, features produced by the Callahan event record the earliest period of Phanerozoic plate convergence recognized within the US Cordillera.

  14. Fission track ages and Exhumation mechanisms of the Tauern Window, Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Audrey; Rosenberg, Claudio; Garcia, Sebastian

    2010-05-01

    units in the core of the TW and that orogen-parallel extension played a subordinate role during unroofing. New fission track ages, complementing the published ones, will be used to obtain a detailed 3D pattern of cooling, especially in the central TW. This pattern, combined with a thermal model, will allow us to discuss the relative importance of the afore mentioned two end-members exhumation mechanisms and to relate them to the temporal evolution of the exhumation processes. References Behrmann, J. H., 1988, Crustal-scale extension in a convergent orogen: The Sterzing-Steinach mylonite zone in the Eastern Alps. Geodynamica Acta, 2, 63-73. Foster, D. A., Schafer, C., Fanning, M.C., and Hyndmann D. W., 2001, Relationships between crustal partial melting, plutonism, orogeny, and exhumation: Idaho-Bitterroot batholith. Tectonophysics, 342, 313-350. Genser, J. and Neubauer, F., 1989, Low angle normal faults at the eastern margin of the Tauern window (Eastern Alps). Mitteilungen der Österreichische Geologische Gesellschaft, 81, 233-243. Rosenberg, C. L., Brun, J.-P., and Gapais, D., 2004, An indentation model of the Eastern Alps and the origin of the Tauern Window. Geology, 32, 997-1000. Selverstone, J., 1988, Evidence for East-West crustal extension in the eastern Alps: implications for the unroofing history of the Tauern Window. Tectonics, 7, 87-105. Selverstone, J., Franz, G., Thomas, S., Getty, S., 1992. Fluid variability in 2 GPa eclogites as an indicator of fluid behavior during subduction. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 112, 341-357.

  15. Area Studies and Eastern Europe: How Eastern Europe Collapsed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kasapović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part, the author outlines the development of area studies in contemporary comparative politics, and points to their importance for the development of political science. In the second part, she examines the methodology – research design and methods – of regional comparatistics, paying particular attention to the problem of defining the region as a central category in this field of comparative politics. The third and central part is focused on the emergence of Eastern Europe as a historical-political and socio-cultural region in the course of history, especially after World War II, and on its dissolution in the processes of democratic transformation of communist regimes in the last two decades. The dissolution of Eastern Europe has resulted in restoration of a tripartite political geography in the area which it used to take up, made up of Central Europe, Southeast Europe and the proper Eastern Europe.

  16. Geochemistry and Nd-Sr isotopic signatures of the Pensamiento Granitoid Complex, Rondonian-San Ignacio Province, eastern precambrian shield of Bolivia: petrogenetic constraints for a mesoproterozoic magmatic arc setting;Geoquimica e assinaturas Nd-Sr do Complexo Granitoide Pensamiento, provincia Rondoniana-San Ignacio, pre-cambriano de Bolivia Oriental: caracterizacao petrogenetica de um arco magmatico no mesoproterozoico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Ramiro, E-mail: rmatoss@igc.usp.b [Universidad Mayor de San Andre (UMSA), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of). Inst. de Investigaciones Geologicas y del Medio Ambiente; Teixeira, Wilson; Bettencourt, Jorge Silva, E-mail: wteixeir@usp.b, E-mail: jsbetten@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IGC/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica; Geraldes, Mauro Cesar, E-mail: geraldes@uerj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FG/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Geologia

    2009-07-01

    The Pensamiento Granitoid Complex (PGC), located in the northern part of the eastern Precambrian shield of Bolivia, is tectonically assigned to the Rondonian-San Ignacio Province (1.55 - 1.30 Ga) of the Amazonian Craton that is made up by Archean and Proterozoic provinces. The Proterozoic ones result from accretionary orogens that become successively younger south westwards, such as the Rondonian/San Ignacio (1.37 - 1.32 Ga) and the Sunsas orogenies (1.20 - 1.00 Ga). The PGC crops out mainly on the 'Paragua craton' bounded to the south by the Sunsas belt, and composed of granites and subvolcanic terms, and subordinately of syenites, granodiorites, tonalites, trondhjemites and diorites as orogenic representatives of the Rondonian/San Ignacio Orogeny, intrusive into the Lomas Maneches (ca. 1.68 Ga) and Chiquitania (ca. 1.7 Ga) complexes. Thirteen whole rock chemical analyses for major, trace and REE elements were performed for the La Junta, San Martin, Diamantina, Porvernir, San Cristobal, Piso Firme plutons of the PGC. The negative trends of MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO contents with increasing SiO{sub 2} suggest that fractional crystallization played an important role in the petrogenesis of the investigated rocks. The data also indicate a mainly peraluminous, sub-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline composition, and fractionated LREE/HREE patterns are consistent with a magmatic arc character for these plutons. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of the La Junta and San Martin syn- to late-kinematic plutons are 1347 {+-} 21 Ma and 1373 {+-} 20 Ma respectively, and the Sm-Nd T{sub DM} model ages are between 1.9 to 2.0 Ga, while {epsilon}{sub Nd(1330)} values range from +1.8 to -4.3, respectively. In addition, the late- to post-kinematic Diamantina pluton yields SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 1340 {+-} 20 Ma, and variable Sm-Nd T{sub DM} model ages (1.6 to 1.9 Ga) and {epsilon}{sub Nd(1330)} values (+0.4 to -1.2) that are comparable with previous results found for other coeval

  17. Effect of the delay of the second foot on the total impulse in a vertical jump with run Efecto del retraso del segundo apoyo sobre el impulso en la batida del salto vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Campos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper aims to identify the influence that the delay of the second foot in a vertical jump with run up approach, has on the total impulse, impulse absorption, impulse acceleration, and on the percentage participation of each foot during the takeoff phase. Twenty three physical education undergraduates students participated in the study recruited among university basketball and volleyball players (mean height: 179 ± 6.1 cm; mean mass: 70.96 ± 8.82 kg. Two force platforms were used, one for each foot support (Dinascan – IBV at 250 Hz frequency and time-synchronized to one another and to a high speed video camera (Redlake Motion Space 1000 S. Results showed that the lower the time between the first and second contact foot, the lesser the takeoff time (p<0.001, although this reduction is only attributed to the negative period. The impulse of acceleration was not affected by the delay of the second foot, so that there would not be advantages regarding jump height. There is a bigger reduction of the horizontal velocity when the time between the first and the second contact foot is increased (p<0.01.

     

    El propósito de este trabajo ha sido determinar la importancia que tiene el retraso del segundo apoyo en la batida del salto vertical cuando se realiza una carrera previa, sobre las componentes del impulso total, impulso de frenado e impulso de aceleración, así como su relación con el porcentaje de participación ejercido por cada apoyo durante las fases que determinan la batida. Han participado 23 estudiantes de educación física, especialistas en voleibol y baloncesto (talla media: 179 ± 6.1 cm.; masa media: 70.96 ± 8.82 kg. Para el registro de los datos se han utilizado dos plataformas de fuerza, (Dinascan – IBV, una para cada apoyo, a una frecuencia de 250 Hz y sincronizadas temporalmente a una cámara de v

  18. Avaliação da resistência de força explosiva em voleibolistas através de testes de saltos verticais Assessment of explosive strength-endurance in volleyball players through vertical jumping test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Eduardo Hespanhol

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo foi verificar a existência de diferenças entre o teste de salto vertical com natureza contínua de 60 segundos (TSVC e o teste de salto vertical com natureza intermitente de quatro séries de 15 segundos (TSVI. Os dados foram obtidos através de amostra composta por 10 voleibolistas do sexo masculino (19,01 ± 1,36 anos; 191,5 ± 5,36cm; e 81,74 ± 7,45kg, todos com participação voluntária. As variáveis estudadas foram: as estimativas do pico de potência (PP, potência média (PM e o índice de fadiga (IF. O desempenho estimado através dos testes TSVC, com duração de 60 segundos, e o TSVI foi determinado em quatro séries de 15 segundos, com 10 segundos de recuperação entre cada série. Os dados foram determinados através da estatística descritiva e do teste de Wilcoxon; o nível de significância utilizado foi de p The aim of this study was to verify the differences between the continuous jump test of 60 seconds (CJ60 sec and the intermittent jump test of 4 sets of 15 seconds (IJ4x15 sec. The sample was composed of 10 male volleyball players with 19.01 ± 1.36 years, 191.5 ± 5.36 cm height and 81.74 ± 7.45 of body mass, who participated in this research as volunteers. The variables studied were estimated as the peak power (PP, mean power (MP and fatigue index (FI. These performances were measured through tests of vertical jump with duration the 60 seconds and with the performance of 4 sets of 15 seconds with 10 seconds of recovery between the sets. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon test. The significance level was of p < 0.05. It was possible to analyze that the continuous and the intermittent jump test presented significant differences in MP (p < 0.05, FI (p < 0.01, and in the number of the vertical jump in 60 seconds (p < 0.01, and the height in 60 seconds exercise (p < 0.05. The MP found in IJ4x15sec was significantly higher than in the CJ60 sec in volleyball

  19. Geology of the Petersburg batholith, eastern Piedmont, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Brent E.; Carter, Mark W.; Bailey, Christopher M.

    2017-01-01

    The 295-300 Ma Petersburg batholith in east-central Virginia forms one of the largest and northernmost of the Alleghanian plutonic complexes in the southern Appalachian Piedmont. The batholith is primarily composed of granite including massive and foliated (both magmatic and solid-state fabrics) varieties. The plutonic complex intruded medium-grade metamorphosed volcanic/plutonic rocks of the Roanoke Rapids terrane. The western edge of the batholith experienced right lateral transpressional deformation associated with movement on the Hylas fault zone during the Alleghanian orogeny; this was followed by normal faulting and exhumation during the development of the Triassic Richmond basin. Much of the batholith was buried by a thin veneer of primarily Cenozoic siliciclastic sediments at the western edge of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Granite rocks of the Petersburg batholith have long been quarried for both dimension and crushed stone. The purpose of this trip is to discuss the age, origin, and tectonic significance of the Petersburg batholith.

  20. Caracterización de frutas comestibles de especies nativas de uso popular en el Parque Provincial “Salto Encantado del Valle de Cuñá Pirú - Misiones”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pintaluba

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La provincia de Misiones se encuentra ubicada al noreste de la República Argentina. Su flora nativa presenta diversas especies, poco estudiadas, cuyos frutos tienen potencial utilización para consumo en fresco, industria de dulces, como medicinales, entre otros sin embargo aún falta información para el aprovechamiento de estas especies. La Reserva Natural Salto Encantado del Valle de Cuñá Pirú es un área no modificada por el hombre y donde se mantienen las características propias de las especies nativas, el Parque Provincial tiene una extensión de 13.227 has. por lo que se seleccionaron tres sitios de seguimiento representativos del mismo, ubicados a diferentes altitudes. La característica común entre los sitios fue que éstos están a la vera del arroyo principal de la reserva que es el Cuñá Pirú, el cual corre encajonado atravesando el parque. Se relevaron datos de la totalidad de especies de importancia frutícola que se encontraban en los sitios seleccionados, se realizaron seguimientos fenológicos de los mismos y se recolectaron los frutos para la realización de análisis físico-químico de calidad de fruta. Se detectaron una gran diversidad de especies nativas que son parte de la flora de la provincia, con un gran potencial para el aprovechamiento de sus frutas para consumo en fresco. Este es el primer reporte de las características físico químicas de los frutos nativos que crecen a la vera del Arroyo Cuña Pirú, provincia de Misiones, Argentina.

  1. Eastern Orthodox perspectives on violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton Saggau, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the post-communist era, the contemporary national Eastern Orthodox churches have often been accused of taking either direct or ideological part in violence across Eastern Europe. In several scholarly analyses, the churches have been linked with ethnic and national violence. They have...... thus been identified as an ideological root for a distinctive ethno-religious nationalism either blocking the way for a pluralistic society or simply defying it. These cases of violence and conflicts, as well as their subsequent analysis, only point to a practical and visible manifestation of conflicts......, and they therefore don’t answer a broader theological question, namely the question of the general position of the Eastern Orthodox churches regarding violence. This article will address this broader question of what the Orthodox churches’ position is on violence and discuss the co-relation and intersection between...

  2. Análisis de la capacidad de salto antes, durante y después de la competición en jugadores internacionales junior de baloncesto. (Analysis of jumping capacity before, during and after competition in international junior basketball players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime San Román Quintana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue valorar la disminución de la altura de salto en el test CMJ antes, durante y después de la competición en nueve jóvenes jugadores internacionales de baloncesto. Del mismo modo, se analizó la relación entre los minutos que cada jugador permanecía en cancha y la disminución de la capacidad de salto. Para ello, se evaluó la altura de salto mediante el CMJ en 8 momentos diferentes (antes y después del calentamiento, durante el descanso, inmediatamente después del partido y en los minutos 1’, 3’, 5’ y 7’ tras la finalización del encuentro utilizando una plataforma de contacto. Para estimar la presencia de diferencias significativas entre los momentos se utilizó el análisis de la varianza (ANOVA de una cola. Los resultados demuestran que la capacidad de salto empeoró progresivamente durante la competición (F = 89.29, p = 0, descendiendo durante el descanso de 52.7 cm a 50.2 cm (p abstract The main aim of this study was to assess the decrease in jump height in CMJ test before, during and after competition in international youth basketball. Equally, we examined the relationship between minutes played and the decline in jump capacity during the course of the match. To do this, we evaluated the jump height in CMJ by eight different times (before and after warm up, at rest, immediately after the game and within minutes 1', 3', 5 'and 7' after completion of the competition using a contact platform. To estimate the presence of significant differences between the times we used a one – way analysis of variance (ANOVA. The results showed, that the jumping capacity decreased during competition (F = 89.29, p = 0, decrease during the rest of 52.7 cm to 50.2 cm (p

  3. Análisis del golpeo de balón y su relación con el salto vertical en futbolistas juveniles de alto nivel. (Analysis of the soccer kick and its relationship with the vertical jump in young top-class soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Navarro Cabello

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl rendimiento en acciones explosivas como el golpeo de balón y el salto vertical es de gran relevancia en el fútbol. Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron: 1 Estudiar la secuencia del golpeo en futbolistas jóvenes de alto nivel, y, 2 analizar las posibles relaciones existentes entre el golpeo de balón y el salto vertical. 21 jugadores de alto nivel (16,1 ± 0,2 años llevaron a cabo un test de salto vertical con contramovimiento (CMJ y un test de golpeo de balón con la máxima potencia. Los datos fueron registrados mediante una plataforma de fuerzas (Dinascan IBV y un sistema de captura automática del movimiento (Vicon. Con este estudio, se aporta información sobre la cinemática del golpeo en futbolistas juveniles de alto nivel. En función de los resultados obtenidos, se puede afirmar que la secuencia temporal de máximos de velocidad sucede desde el extremo más proximal al más distal, incrementándose la velocidad. La ausencia de relación entre el golpeo y el salto sugiere el trabajo de fuerza explosiva específico para la mejora de cada una de ellas.AbstractKicking and vertical jumping performance are very important in soccer. The aims of the present study were: 1 To study the kinematical sequence of the soccer kick in young top-class soccer players, and, 2 to analyse the possible relationships among the different parameters related to the soccer kick and the vertical jump in this population. 21 top-class soccer players (16,1 ± 0,2 yr. performed a countermovement jump test (CMJ and a maximum power soccer kick test. Data was obtained from a Dinascan IBV force platform and the Vicon system of automatic capture of the movement. With this study, we added data on the kinematics of soccer kick in young top-class soccer players. With the results obtained, it is possible to deduce that the temporal sequence of maximum velocities begins from the more proximal to more distal joint, increases the velocity. The absence of relation

  4. Efecto de un calentamiento con estiramientos estáticos y dinámicos sobre el salto horizontal y la capacidad para repetir esprint con cambio de dirección. [Effect of warm-up with static and dynamic stretching on the horizontal jump and repeated sprint ability with changes of direction].

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Sánchez-Sánchez; Alejandro Rodríguez-Fernández; J. Gerardo Villa-Vicente; Cristina Petisco-Rodríguez; Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo; Oliver Gonzalo-Skok

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido comparar el efecto de tres calentamientos diferentes (calentamiento aeróbico de baja intensidad, estiramiento estático y estiramiento dinámico) sobre el salto horizontal y la capacidad de repetir esprint con cambios de dirección. Diecisiete practicantes de deportes de equipo de 20.8±1.1 años realizaron 3 tipos de calentamiento (10 min): ejercicio aeróbico sin estiramiento (CAE), con estiramiento estático (CAES) y con estiramiento dinámico (CAED). Se estudió...

  5. Efectos de diferentes intensidades relativas, volúmenes, tiempos de recuperación entre repeticiones y pérdida de velocidad en la serie sobre el rendimiento en sprint, salto vertical con cargas y sin cargas y la fuerza de las extremidades inferiores

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Custodio, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte En la presente tesis doctoral se llevaron a cabo cuatro estudios y tuvo como objetivo analizar los efectos producidos por diferentes configuraciones del entrenamiento de fuerza sobre el rendimiento en sprint, salto vertical y la fuerza máxima. En el Estudio I se analizó el efecto producido por dos programas de entrenamiento de fuerza equivalentes en todas sus variables excepto en la intensidad relativa (Cargas bajas 40...

  6. Regional Development of Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hergezelová

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The aim of the work is to provide an overview of regional development in Eastern Slovakia, where are Košice and Prešov Region. The originality of the work lies in the work of enriching the SWOT analysis from the author Eve Rajčáková, which is given in the book deals with the issue of Regional development and regional policy of the European Union and Slovakia. Research question: The conditions of life of people in eastern Slovakia. Method: For writing this contribution will be used method of analysis and statistics. Knowledge on this subject have been looking on the internet and in books and sources of information publicly available. Using the data collected, we dealt with the issue of regional development in the Košice and Prešov regions. Results: The topic was the beginning focused on the overall characteristics of eastern Slovakia. Furthermore, we are at work we dealt with social and economic phenomena in both regions of eastern Slovakia. We focused on GDP, unemployment and tourism, which is in the region is widespread. Society: It is well known that there are obviously different living conditions in eastern Slovakia as in other parts of Slovakia. People are forced to, mainly because of employment, leave their region to move or commute to work to the west. The paper point out the right of this negative phenomenon that is quite visible - high unemployment. Limitations: The limits of work are limited by problems of regional development in eastern Slovakia, mainly focusing on economic and social phenomena in the society.

  7. Petrogenesis of Oxidized Arfvedsonite Granite Gneiss from Dimra Pahar, Hazaribagh, Eastern India: Constraints from Mineral Chemistry and Trace Element Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Ankita; Goswami, Bapi

    2017-04-01

    The arfvedsonite granite gneiss of Dimra Pahar occurs along the North Purulia Shear Zone (NPSZ) which pivots the Proterozoic Chotannagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC), Eastern India. Although minerals like arfvedsonite and aegirine depict the peralkaline nature of the pluton, the geochemistry of the rock reflects its composition varying from peralkaline to mildly peraluminous. K-feldspar, quartz, arfvedsonite, albite with accessory aegirine, titaniferous iron oxides and zircon form the dominant mineralogy of this alkali feldspar granite (IUGS, 2000) gneiss. The zircon saturation temperature corresponds to 747oC-1066oC. The granitic magma contains low water content evidenced by the absence of any pegmatite associated with this pluton. Geochemically these granites are classified as ferroan and alkalic (cf. Frost et al., 2001). These highly evolved granites possess enrichment of SiO2, Na2O + K2O, FeO(t)/MgO, Ga/Al, Zr, Nb, Ga, Y, Ce and rare earth elements (REE) with low abundance of CaO, MgO, Ba and Sr which characterize their A-type nature while standard discrimination diagrams ( cf. Eby, 1992; Grebennikov, 2014) help to further discriminate them as A1 type. Tectonic discriminations diagrams (Pearce et al., 1984; Maniar and Piccoli, 1989; Batchelor and Bowden, 1985) constrain the tectonic setting of the magma to be anorogenic, within plate, rift-related one. The REE compositions show moderately fractionated patterns with (La/Yb)N 2.57-10.5 and Eu/Eu* 0.16-0.70. Multielement spider diagram and various trace element ratio together with oxidized nature (ΔNNO: +2) of these granites further suggest that these have been derived from OIB-type parental magma. The peralkaline nature of the granite and its lack of subduction- related geochemical features are consistent with an origin in a zone of regional extension. The extremely high Rb/Sr ratios combined with the extreme Sr, Ba, P, Ti and Eu depletions clearly indicate that these A-type granites were highly evolved and require

  8. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Archives: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 34 of 34 ... Archives: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Journal Home > Archives: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Neoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the Jebel Saghro and Bou Azzer - El Graara inliers, eastern and central Anti-Atlas, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gregory J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Harrison, Richard W.; Burton, William C.; Quick, James E.; Benziane, Foudad; Yazidi, Abdelaziz; Saadane, Abderrahim

    2012-01-01

    New mapping, geochemistry, and 17 U–Pb SHRIMP zircon ages from rocks of the Sirwa, Bou Azzer–El Graara, and Jebel Saghro inliers constrain the Neoproterozoic evolution of the eastern Anti-Atlas during Pan-African orogenesis. In the Sirwa inlier, Tonian quartzite from the pre Pan-African passive margin deposits of the Mimount Formation contains detrital zircon derived entirely from the West African Craton (WAC), with most grains yielding Eburnean Paleoproterozoic ages of about 2050 Ma. Cryogenian Pan-African orogenic activity (PA1) from about 760 to 660 Ma included northward-dipping subduction to produce a volcanic arc, followed by ophiolite obduction onto the WAC. In the Bou Azzer–El Graara inlier, calc-alkaline granodiorite and quartz diorite, dated at 650–646 Ma, are syn- to post-tectonic with respect to the second period of Pan-African orogenesis (PA2), arc-continent accretion, and related greenschist facies metamorphism. Slab break-off and lithospheric delimination may have provided the source for the supra-subduction calc-alkaline plutons. At about 646 Ma, quartz diorite intruded the Tiddiline formation placing an upper limit on molassic deposition. Widespread Ediacaran high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic plutonism and volcanism during the final stage of Pan-African orogenesis (PA3) occurred in a setting related to either modification of the margin of the WAC or formation of a continental volcanic arc above a short-lived southward-dipping subduction zone. In the Saghro inlier, eight plutonic rocks yield ages ranging from about 588 to 556 Ma. Sampled plutonic rocks previously considered to be Cryogenian yielded Ediacaran ages. Peraluminous rhyolitic volcanic rocks in the lower part of the Ouarzazate Supergroup, including ash-flow tuffs of the Oued Dar’a caldera, yield ages between about 574 and 571 Ma. The Oued Dar’a caldera developed in a pull-apart graben produced by a left-step in a northeast-trending, left-lateral strike-slip fault zone, and

  11. From Eastern to Western Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Margaret

    This manual is designed to provide instruction for persons who have learned well a dialect of Eastern Arabic, Levantine, and who desire to use a Western Arabic dialect, Moroccan. Special features of Western Arabic pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and social usage are listed. Attention is given to the recognition of correspondences between the…

  12. gion of the Eastern C

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Despite being known as the Wild Coast, owing to its rough seas and treacherous coastline, the Transkei re- gion of the Eastern Cape attracts both recreational and commercial skiboat fishers, who are drawn there by reports of big fish and large catches. However, unlike the adjacent regions of KwaZulu-Natal (Penney et al.

  13. Western juniper in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; David L. Azuma; Charles L. Bolsinger; Neil. McKay

    1999-01-01

    This report analyzes and summarizes a 1988 inventory of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) in eastern Oregon. This inventory, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service, was intensified to meet increased need for more information about the juniper resource than was available in previous inventories. A...

  14. Currency substitution in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, B.; Budina, N.

    1995-01-01

    Monetary instability during the transition process from a command economy to a market economy has induced a considerable increase in currency substitution in Eastern Europe. Currency substitution itself affects monetary stability since it reduces the stability of velocity. This paper investigates

  15. Eastern hemlock: a market perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore Howard; Paul Sendak; Claudia Codrescu

    2000-01-01

    Although it is an important component of the northern forest, eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) is a secondary species in its regions' markets. In this paper, we examine the markets for hemlock, analyze price trends for stumpage, and suggest implications of market forces for management of forests containing hemlock. The...

  16. Citizenship norms in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens’ definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech

  17. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  18. Micro-structural and compositional variations of hydrothermal epidote-group minerals from a peralkaline granite, Corupá Pluton, Graciosa Province, South Brazil, and their petrological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio R.F. Vlach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidote-group minerals, together with albite, quartz, fluorite, Al-poor and Fe-rich phyllosilicates, zircon, and minor oxides and sulphides, are typical hydrothermal phases in peralkaline alkali-feldspar granites from the Corupá Pluton, Graciosa Province, South Brazil. The epidote-group minerals occur as single crystals and as aggregates filling in rock interstices and miarolitic cavities. They display complex recurrent zoning patterns with an internal zone of ferriallanite-(Ce, followed by allanite-(Ce, then epidote-ferriepidote, and an external zone with allanite-(Ce, with sharp limits, as shown in BSE and X-ray images. REE patterns show decreasing fractionation degrees of LREE over HREE from ferriallanite to epidote. The most external allanite is enriched in MREE. LA-ICP-MS data indicate that ferriallanite is enriched (>10-fold in Ti, Sr and Ga, and depleted in Mg, Rb, Th and Zr relative to the host granite. Allanite has lower Ga and Mn and higher Zr, Nb and U contents as compared to ferriallanite, while epidote is enriched in Sr, U and depleted in Pb, Zr, Hf, Ti and Ga. The formation of these minerals is related to the variable concentrations of HFSE, Ca, Al, Fe and F in fluids remaining from magmatic crystallization, in an oxidizing environment, close to the HM buffer. L-MREE were in part released by the alteration of chevkinite, their main primary repository in the host rocks.Minerais do grupo do epidoto, com albita, quartzo, fluorita, filossilicatos pobres em Al e ricos em Fe, zircão e quantidades menores de óxidos e sulfetos são fases hidrotermais típicas em álcali-feldpato granitos peralcalinos do Pluton Corupá, Província Graciosa, Sul do Brasil. Os minerais do grupo do epidoto ocorrem como cristais individuais ou agregados que preenchem interstícios e cavidades miarolíticas na rocha. Mostram zonamento complexo, recorrente, descrito por uma zona interna de ferriallanita-(Ce, seguida por allanita-(Ce, epidoto-ferriepidoto e uma

  19. 30 Myr of Cenozoic magmatism along the Tethyan margin during Arabia-Eurasia accretionary orogenesis (Meghri-Ordubad pluton, southernmost Lesser Caucasus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezeau, Hervé; Moritz, Robert; Leuthold, Julien; Hovakimyan, Samvel; Tayan, Rodrik; Chiaradia, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    Three magmatic series of substantially different ages and compositions were successively emplaced to form the composite Meghri-Ordubab pluton (MOP) in the southernmost Lesser Caucasus. The protracted incremental assembly during 30 Myr, from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene, renders this location particularly suitable to characterize the petrogenetic evolution of Cenozoic magmatism during the final stage of the Neotethyan subduction. Based on whole-rock geochemistry, two main transitions tightly constrained in time are recognized. The first transition from Middle Eocene medium-K calc-alkaline to Late Eocene-Middle Oligocene shoshonitic magmatism corresponds to a marked increase in LREE and MREE and more juvenile 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios. The second transition to Late Oligocene-Early Miocene high-K calc-alkaline ;adakite-like; magmatism is coeval with a marked increase in Mg#, and Ni and Cr contents together with a depletion in MREE and HREE. Although the three differentiation series are derived from lower to mid-crustal hydrous magma fractionation, temporal variations of the magmatic source conditions are required to explain the contrasting chemistry of the parental magmas over time. Medium-K calc-alkaline parental magmas were generated by high degree of partial melting ( 15%) of a garnet lherzolite. The shoshonitic and adakitic magmatic series represent magmas produced by low degree (1-5%) of partial melting of a garnet lherzolite, but a higher amount of residual garnet is required to reproduce the "adakite-like" signature. The timing of the two main geochemical transitions in the MOP is correlated with a progressive evolution from a compressional to an extensional stress regime linked to (1) the final stage of the Neotethyan subduction followed by the Arabia-Eurasia continental collision during the Eocene-Oligocene, and (2) the transition toward post-collisional magmatism, combined with a switch toward transcurrent tectonics during the Late Oligocene

  20. Dating slate belts using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and zircon ages from crosscutting plutons: A case study from east-central Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Hind; Kunk, Michael J.; Ludman, Allan; Bish, David L.; Wintsch, Robert P.

    2016-12-01

    We report the ages of cleavage development in a normally intractable lower greenschist facies slate belt, the Central Maine-Aroostook-Matapedia belt in east-central Maine. We have attacked this problem by identifying the minimum ages of muscovite in a regional Acadian cleavage (S1) and in a local ductile fault zone cleavage (S2) using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and the ages of crosscutting plutons. Our success stems from the regional low-grade metamorphism of the rocks in which each crystallization event preserves a40Ar/39Ar crystallization age and not a cooling age. Evidence for recrystallization via a pressure solution mechanism comes from truncations of detrital, authigenic, and in some rocks S1 muscovite and chlorite grains by new cleavage-forming muscovite and chlorite grains. Low-blank furnace age spectra from meta-arkosic and slaty rocks climb from moderate temperature Devonian age-steps dominated by cleavage-forming muscovite to Ordovician age-steps dominated by a detrital muscovite component. S1- and S2-cleaved rocks were hornfelsed by granitoids of ∼407 and 377 Ma, respectively. The combination of these minimum ages with the maximum metamorphic crystallization ages establishes narrow constraints on the timing of these two cleavage-forming events, ∼410 Ma (S1) and ∼380 Ma (S2). These two events coincide in time with a change in the plate convergence kinematics from the arrival of the Avalon terrane (Acadian orogeny), to a right-lateral transpression arrival of the Meguma terrane in the Neoacadian orogeny.

  1. U-Pb ages and geochemistry of zircon from Proterozoic plutons of the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges, Colorado, U.S.A.: Implications for crustal growth of the central Colorado province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscati, Richard J.; Premo, Wayne R.; Dewitt, Ed; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2017-01-01

    A broad study of zircons from plutonic rocks of the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges of west-central Colorado (U.S.A.) was undertaken to significantly refine the magmatic chronology and chemistry of this under-studied region of the Colorado province. This region was chosen because it lies just to the north of the suspected arc-related Gunnison-Salida volcano-plutonic terrane, which has been the subject of many recent investigations—and whose origin is still debated. Our new results provide important insights into the processes active during Proterozoic crustal evolution in this region, and they have important ramifications for broader-scope crustal evolution models for southwestern North America.Twenty-four new U-Pb ages and sequentially acquired rare-earth element (REE), U, Th, and Hf contents of zircon have been determined using the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG). These zircon geochemistry data, in conjunction with whole-rock major- and trace-element data, provide important insights into zircon crystallization and melt fractionation, and they help to further constrain the tectonic environment of magma generation.Our detailed zircon and whole-rock data support the following three interpretations:(1) The Roosevelt Granite in the southern Sawatch Range was the oldest rock dated at 1,766 ± 7 Ma, and it intruded various metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. Geochemistry of both whole-rock and zircon supports the contention that this granite was produced in a magmatic arc environment and, therefore, is likely an extension of the older Dubois Greenstone Belt of the Gunnison Igneous Complex (GIC) and the Needle Mountains (1,770–1,755 Ma). Rocks of the younger Cochetopa succession of the GIC, the Salida Greenstone Belt, and the Sangre de Cristo Mountains (1,740–1,725 Ma) were not found in the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges. This observation strongly suggests that the northern edge of the Gunnison-Salida arc terrane underlies the

  2. Avaliação da coluna lombar e torácica nas situações com salto alto e com os pés descalços com o instrumento arcômetro Evaluation of the thoracic and lumbar spine in situations using high heels and barefoot with the arcometer instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo dos Santos Minossi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O salto alto há muitos anos tem sido um grande aliado das mulheres, tornando-se uma ferramenta fundamental em seu dia a dia. Contudo, a utilização indiscriminada, seja do ponto de vista da frequência de utilização ou da altura do salto, pode trazer prejuízos para a saúde do corpo, que, a busca do melhor equilíbrio, pode desencadear alterações da postura, trazendo problemas para os pés e para a coluna vertebral. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: identificar a postura das curvaturas das colunas vertebral, torácica e lombar de estudantes universitárias, a partir do conhecimento dos ângulos destas curvaturas, e comparar esta postura nas situações com salto alto e com os pés descalços. Foram avaliadas 34 estudantes do sexo feminino, com idades médias de 20±1,9 anos, utilizando o instrumento arcômetro, nas situações com salto alto de 9 cm de altura e com pés descalços. O arcômetro foi colocado sobre os processos espinhosos das vértebras T1, T12, L1 e L5, identificados por palpação, e forneceu os ângulos das curvaturas. Para verificar as diferenças dos ângulos e da postura entre as duas situações de teste, foram utilizados o teste t pareado e o do χ², respectivamente (a=0,05. Os resultados demonstraram que a utilização de salto alto não modificou significativamente os ângulos das curvaturas torácica e lombar da coluna vertebral, bem como não interferiu na classificação da postura das estudantes universitárias, as quais, em sua maioria, apresentaram postura normal da coluna vertebral.For many years, high heels have been a great ally of women becoming an important tool in their everyday lives. However, its use, especially indiscriminate in the point of view of the use frequency or heel height, can bring harm to the body, which, in the search for better balance, may favor body posture changes by bringing injuries to the feet and to the spine. The aims of this study were: to identify the curvatures position of

  3. Geology, petrology and U-Pb geochronology of Serra da Rajada Granitic Pluton: implications about ediacaran magmatic evolution in NE portion of the Rio Piranhas-Serido Domain (NE of Borborema Province); Geologia, petrologia e geocronologia U-Pb do Pluton Granitico Serra da Rajada: implicacoes sobre a evolucao magmatica ediacarana na porcao do Dominio Rio Piranhas-Serido (NE da Provincia Borborema)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Alan Pereira da; Dantas, Alexandre Ranier, E-mail: alan.costa@cprm.gov.br, E-mail: alexandre.dantas@cprm.gov.br [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Natal, RN (Brazil). Nucleo de Apoio de Natal/Superintendencia Regional de Recife; Nascimento, Marcos Antonio Leite do; Galindo, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: marcos@geologia.ufrn.br, E-mail: galindo@geologia.ufrn.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia

    2015-12-15

    The Ediacaran plutonic activity, related to the Brazilian/Pan-African orogeny, is one of the most important geological features in the Borborema Province, formed by batholiths, stocks and dikes. The Serra da Rajada Granitic Pluton (SRGP), located in the central portion of the Rio Piranhas-Serido Domain, is an example of these bodies. This site is the target of cartographic, petrographic, lithochemical and geochronological studies. Its rocks are described as monzogranites consisting of K-feldspar, plagioclase (oligoclase-An{sub 23-24%}), quartz and biotite (main mafic), having as accessory minerals opaque, titanite, allanite, apatite and zircon. Chlorite, white mica and carbonate are alteration minerals. Lithochemical data from 15 samples show quite evolved rocks (SiO{sub 2} , 69% to 75%), rich in alkalis (Na{sub 2}O + K{sub 2}O ≥ 8.0%), depleted in MgO (≤ 0.45%), CaO (≤ 1.42%) and TiO{sub 2} (≤ 0.36%), and displaying moderate levels of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} t (2.16 to 3.53%). These rocks present a transitional nature between metaluminous and peraluminous (predominance of the latter) and have subalkaline/monzonitic affinity (high-K Calc-alkaline). Harker diagrams represent negative correlations in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}t, MgO and CaO, indicating fractionation of mafic and plagioclase. The REE spectrum show enrichment of light in relation to heavy REE (LaN/YbN = 23.70 to 10.13), with negative anomaly in Eu (Eu/ Eu* = 0.70 to 10.13) suggesting fractionation or accumulation in the feldspars source (plagioclase). Data integration allows correlating the SRGP rocks with those described as Equigranular high-K Calc-alkaline Suite. The U-Pb geochronology and Sm-Nd isotope dating indicate that the biotite monzogranite have a crystallization age of 557 ± 13 Ma and TDM model age of 2.36 Ga, respectively, and ε{sub Nd} value of - 20.10 for the crystallization age, allowing to infer a crustal source for the magma generated in the Paleoproterozoic age. (author)

  4. Efecto de un trabajo de técnica de desplazamiento y de un trabajo de cuestas sobre el desplazamiento en defensa y la capacidad de salto en voleibol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Ávila Gandía

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue comprobar el efecto de un trabajo de técnica de desplazamiento combinado o no con un trabajo de cuestas sobre la capacidad de desplazamiento general y específico y sobre la capacidad de alcance en jugadores de voleibol en periodo de formación. La muestra objeto de estudio fueron 36 jugadores de voleibol en formación (grupo A estuvo formado por 18 jugadores masculinos, y grupo B y C por nueve jugadoras cada uno. Se realizó un diseño cuasi-experimental intersujeto con una prueba pre, post, y re-test. La variable independiente fue el tipo de trabajo realizado para mejorar la capacidad de desplazamiento (nueve sesiones. Se distinguieron dos niveles de intervención: a realización de un trabajo de desplazamientos específicos (grupos A y B; y b realización de un trabajo de desplazamientos específicos y de un trabajo de fuerza en cuestas ascendentes (grupo C. Las variables dependientes fueron: la técnica y el tiempo de desplazamiento en bloqueo, y en defensa en campo, el tiempo en realización del test de 9-3-3-9, y la altura de alcance en un salto con y sin carrera de aproximación. El trabajo de técnica de desplazamientos mejora la calidad de ejecución de los desplazamientos específicos. En categoría masculina, el trabajo de técnica de desplazamiento mejora los tiempos de ejecución de los desplazamientos genéricos y de los desplazamientos específicos. En categoría femenina, el trabajo de técnica de desplazamiento no mejoró los tiempos de ejecución de los desplazamientos genéricos y de los desplazamientos específicos. En categoría femenina, el trabajo de técnica de desplazamiento realizado de forma conjunta con el trabajo de cuestas parece mejorar los tiempos de ejecución de los desplazamientos genéricos y de los desplazamientos específicos. El trabajo de técnica de desplazamiento con o sin el trabajo de cuestas no mejora la capacidad de alcance de los jugadores.

  5. Rhinoplasty for Middle Eastern noses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrich, Rod J; Ghavami, Ashkan

    2009-04-01

    Rhinoplasty remains one of the most challenging operations, as exemplified in the Middle Eastern patient. The ill-defined, droopy tip, wide and high dorsum, and thick skin envelope mandate meticulous attention to preoperative evaluation and efficacious yet safe surgical maneuvers. The authors provide a systematic approach to evaluation and improvement of surgical outcomes in this patient population. A retrospective, 3-year review identified patients of Middle Eastern heritage who underwent primary rhinoplasty and those who did not but had nasal photographs. Photographs and operative records (when applicable) were reviewed. Specific nasal characteristics, component-directed surgical techniques, and aesthetic outcomes were delineated. The Middle Eastern nose has a combination of specific nasal traits, with some variability, including thick/sebaceous skin (excess fibrofatty tissue), high/wide dorsum with cartilaginous and bony humps, ill-defined nasal tip, weak/thin lateral crura relative to the skin envelope, nostril-tip imbalance, acute nasolabial and columellar-labial angles, and a droopy/hyperdynamic nasal tip. An aggressive yet nondestructive surgical approach to address the nasal imbalance often requires soft-tissue debulking, significant cartilaginous framework modification (with augmentation/strengthening), tip refinement/rotation/projection, low osteotomies, and depressor septi nasi muscle treatment. The most common postoperative defects were related to soft-tissue scarring, thickened skin envelope, dorsum irregularities, and prolonged edema in the supratip/tip region. It is critical to improve the strength of the cartilaginous framework with respect to the thick, noncontractile skin/soft-tissue envelope, particularly when moderate to large dorsal reduction is required. A multitude of surgical maneuvers are often necessary to address all the salient characteristics of the Middle Eastern nose and to produce the desired aesthetic result.

  6. Museology History of Eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia D. Firer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the aspects of the establishment of the first museums and libraries in Eastern Siberia. The author considers the role of the museum in development of culture and public education in Minusinsk, Yeniseysk, notes the valuable contribution of the activities of merchants and intelligentsia to the museum business, as well as the reflection of the present and past of museums in Siberia.

  7. Tackling pollution in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, B.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental conditions in many of the central and eastern European countries have improved since the collapse of communism, with some drastic reductions in pollution being registered. But the most important cause of these improvements has been the drop in output that came after economic restructuring. Western help has been useful in the transition to a market economy - but there are encouraging signs that the countries themselves are taking matters in hand. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. From the plutonic root to the volcanic roof of a continental magmatic arc: a review of the Neoproterozoic Araçuaí orogen, southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Leonardo; Alkmim, Fernando F.; Pedrosa-Soares, Antônio; Gonçalves, Cristiane C.; Vieira, Valter

    2018-01-01

    The Araçuaí-West Congo orogen (AWCO) is one of the various components of the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenic network generated during the amalgamation of West Gondwana. In the reconstructions of Gondwana, the AWCO, encompassing the Araçuaí orogen of South America and the West Congo belt of Southwestern Africa, appears as a tongue-shaped orogenic zone embraced by the São Francisco-Congo craton. Differing from the vast majority of the known orogens owing to its singular confined setting, the AWCO contains a large amount of orogenic igneous rocks emplaced in all stages of its tectonic evolution. We present new and revised information about the oldest Ediacaran granitic assemblage, the G1 Supersuite, which together with the Rio Doce Group defines the Rio Doce magmatic arc, and then we propose a new tectonic setting for the arc. Field relationships and mineralogical compositions of the G1 Supersuite allow us to characterize three lithofacies associations, Opx-bearing rocks, enclave-rich Tonalite-Granodiorite and enclave-poor Granite-Tonalite, suggesting different crustal levels are exposed in the central part of the Araçuaí orogen. The region is interpreted to represent a tilted crustal section, with deep arc roots now exposed along its western border. Chemically, these plutonic associations consist mostly of magnesian, metaluminous to slightly peraluminous, calc-alkaline to alkali-calcic and medium- to high-K acidic rocks. The dacitic and rhyolitic rocks of the Rio Doce Group are mainly magnesian, peraluminous, calcic to calc-alkaline, and medium- to high-K acidic rocks. Zircon U-Pb data constrain the crystallization of the granitoids between ca. 625 and 574 Ma, while the age of the metamorphosed volcanic rocks is around ca. 585 Ma. Thus, within errors, these rock associations likely belong to the same magmatic event and might represent the subduction-related, pre-collisional, evolution of the Araçuaí orogen. In addition, whole-rock Sm-Nd isotopic compositions

  9. Early paleozoic granodioritic plutons in the Shedong W-Mo ore district, Guangxi, southern China: Products of re-melting of middle Proterozoic crust due to magma underplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xingzhou; Kang, Zhiqiang; Xu, Jifeng; Feng, Zuohai; Pang, Chongjin; Fang, Guicong; Wu, Jiachang; Xiong, Songquan

    2017-06-01

    The Shedong W-Mo ore district in the south-central Dayaoshan Uplift of Guangxi, southern China hosts the Baoshan and Pingtoubei deposits, both of which occur in granodioritic plutons. Zircon U-Pb dating of granodiorites and its mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) in the Baoshan deposit yielded ages of 439.8 ± 3.2 and 441.1 ± 2.2 Ma, respectively. Granodiorites have moderate SiO2 (54.5-63.0 wt.%) and high Al2O3 (15.4-17.8 wt.%) contents, wide variations in major element ratios, significant rare earth element fractionation, and small negative Eu anomalies. They are rich in Th, U, Zr, and Hf, and depleted in Ba, Nb, and Ti. Their initial 87Sr/86Sr, εNd(t), and εHf(t) values are in the range of 0.7086-0.7091, -5.2 to -6.6 and -6.3 to +1.6, respectively. Rounded or lenticular MMEs have relatively low silica and high mafic components, depletion in Eu, Sr, and Zr, and marked negative Eu anomalies. Rb/Sr and Nb/Ta ratios, and εNd(t) and εHf(t) values of the MMEs are higher than those of host granodiorites, indicating a different magmatic source. Zircon U-Pb dating of the unexposed granodiorite porphyry in the Pingtoubei deposit yielded an age of 440.0 ± 1.7 Ma. The granodiorite porphyries have high SiO2 and low K2O, FeOT, and MgO contents, with similar trace element features to the granodiorites at the Baoshan deposit, although the former has small negative Eu anomalies. Its initial 87Sr/86Sr values range from 0.7162 to 0.7173, εNd(t) values from -8.7 to -12.3, and εHf(t) values from -7.8 to +1.3, indicative of a crustal source. Nd and Hf two-stage model ages of the granodiorites, MMEs, and granodiorite porphyries have a narrow range between 1.3 and 2.2 Ga. We propose that the granodiorites and MMEs at the Baoshan deposit were produced through re-melting of middle Proterozoic crust as a result of underplating of mantle-derived magmas in a transitional compression-to-extension tectonic setting. Mantle-derived magmas provided the heat and material for the formation

  10. Kant and Eastern Europe in Vienna 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zákutná

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The text deals with the theme of Kant and Eastern Europe at the University of Vienna in 2015. Except the section of contributions to the theme “Kant and Eastern Europe” at the 12th International Kant Congress, it focuses on other activities of the organizers connected with the theme, namely the exhibition and publication “Detours. Approaches to Immanuel Kant in Vienna, in Austria, and in Eastern Europe”.

  11. Region 1 Acoustic Bat Inventory: National Wildlife Refuges in Eastern Oregon, Eastern Washington, and Idaho

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bat species were inventoried on National Wildlife Refuges in Eastern Oregon, Eastern Washington, and Idaho using acoustic methods. Samples were collected between...

  12. Late Neoproterozoic basement rocks of Meatiq area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt: Petrography and remote sensing characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Safaa M.; El kazzaz, Yahiya A.; Taha, Maysa M. N.; Mohammad, Abdullah T.

    2017-07-01

    Meatiq dome is one of the mysteries of the basement rocks in Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt. Its mode of formation, and tectonic evolution are still controversial and not fully understood. Satellite remote sensing is a powerful tool for geologic applications, especially in inaccessible regions of the Earth's surface. In this study, three proposed Landsat-8 band ratios (6/2, 6/7, (6/4*4/3)), (6/7, 6/4, 4/2), and (7/5, 7/6, 5/3) are successfully used for detailed geological mapping of the different lithological rock units exposed in Meatiq dome area in the CED. Landsat-8 Principal component (PC) images is also used for refinement the boundaries between the widely-exposed rock units in the study area. Fourteen spectral bands of Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data are successfully used to emphasize the distribution of some rock forming minerals (i.e. muscovite, quartz, ferrous oxides, ferrous silicates and hydroxyl-bearing minerals) in the lithological rock units of Meatiq dome area. ASTER muscovite index (B7/B6) and quartz index (B14/B12), ferrous iron index (B5/B3), ferrous silicates index (B5/B4), mafic index (B12/B13) and hydroxyl-bearing minerals index ((B7/B6)*(B4/B6)) discriminate muscovite bearing rocks, Granitoids, and other felsic rocks, amphibolite and other mafic rocks. The proposed image processing methods effectively discriminates between four granitic varieties existed in Meatiq area. They are namely; Abu Ziran, Ariki, Fawakhir and Atalla Plutons. This study reveals that the applied data of ASTER and Landsat-8 enhanced images produced a modified geological map with well emphasized rock units which are verified with field observations, and petrographic study.

  13. Natural gas in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabarczyk, Ewa; McCallum, Robert; Wergeland, Tor H.

    1993-12-31

    The paper is based on Ewa Grabarczyk`s thesis ``The European Gas Market and the Former East Block Countries`` in the Master of International Business Programme at the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration. The material of Grabarczyk`s work has been split into two parts; SNF Working Papers Nos. 97/93 and 98/93. Working Paper 97/93 ``The European Gas Markets`` contains an equilibrium model of the European Gas Market employed to investigate some scenarios to the consequences of an integration of the former Soviet Union. Working Paper 98/93 ``Natural Gas in Eastern Europe`` contains descriptions of the energy sectors of former Eastern European countries and an evaluation of the potential future demand for natural gas in these nations. The paper has chapters on each country and sections on reserves, production, exports and markets, transport possibilities and technology, demand and development as well as evaluation of the present situation. 11 figs., 37 tabs., 33 refs

  14. Fratura supracondiliana do fêmur durante salto após reconstrução artroscópica do ligamento cruzado anterior Supracondylar emur fracture during jump after anterior cruciate ligament arthroscopic reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Yukio Fukuda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A fratura distal do fêmur é uma das possíveis complicações no período pós-operatório de reconstrução de LCA, porém, de incidência rara. RELATO DE CASO: Descreve-se o caso de um atleta de 34 anos, gênero masculino, no quinto mês de pós-operatório de reconstrução de LCA. O caso evoluía normalmente de acordo com o protocolo estabelecido; o paciente apresentava bom controle e estabilidade sensoriomotora, quando sofreu fratura supracondiliana do fêmur ao realizar um salto durante atendimento fisioterápico. A reconstrução ligamentar foi realizada com enxerto dos músculos flexores do joelho e a fratura, ocasionada posteriormente, reduzida e fixada com placa e parafuso. Dez meses após a redução aberta e fixação interna da fratura, apresenta função regular na escala Lysholm, amplitude de movimento normal e força muscular grau V em flexores e extensores da coxa. DISCUSSÃO: Poucos relatos de caso semelhantes ao presente foram encontrados na literatura; a maioria apresentou fratura do fêmur após a reconstrução do LCA com tendão patelar. Este caso mostra-se relevante pela associação da fratura supracondiliana do fêmur com reconstrução ligamentar com tendões dos flexores, visto que apenas um trabalho seguiu tal direção. Dentre as prováveis causas dessa fratura, destacam-se uma fragilidade óssea por desuso e túnel ósseo femoral de diâmetro maior que o padrão, apesar de não haver consenso em relação a essas alterações. Uma hipótese sugerida pelos autores deste relato é de que o túnel ósseo de fixação do enxerto pode ter sido um intensificador de estresse sobre o local da fratura.BACKGROUND: Distal femoral fracture is one of the possible complications on the post operative period of the ACL reconstruction; however, with rare incidence. CASE REPORT: This study reports a male 34 year-old athlete, five months after ACL reconstruction surgery. The case developed normally in accordance

  15. Determinación y análisis de valores de nitrógeno ureico en sangre (bun), glucosa, creatin kinasa (ck) y ácido láctico pre y post ejercicio en una población de atletas equinos de salto en Bogotá, D.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Aixa Mutis Barreto; Tania Elena Pérez Jimenez;

    2005-01-01

    Este trabajo se realizó con el fin de dar alguna información importante sobre la variación de los datos obtenidos datos pre y post ejercicio; para así poder dar un patrón de comportamiento de estos valores tanto en nuestra geografía, ambiente de trabajo y condiciones de preparación. La investigación y la recolección de las muestras se realizaron en la Escuela de Equitación del Ejército Nacional, Club los Arrayanes y CESPO en la ciudad de Bogotá. Se utilizaron 40 equinos deportistas de salto...

  16. Geophysical setting of western Utah and eastern Nevada between latitudes 37°45′ and 40°N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankinen, Edward A.; McKee, Edwin H.; Tripp, Bryce; Krahulec, Ken; Jordan, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    Gravity and aeromagnetic data refine the structural setting for the region of western Utah and eastern Nevada between Snake and Hamlin Valleys on the west and Tule Valley on the east. These data are used here as part of a regional analysis. An isostatic gravity map shows large areas underlain by gravity lows, the most prominent of which is a large semi-circular low associated with the Indian Peak caldera complex in the southwestern part of the study area. Another low underlies the Thomas caldera in the northeast, and linear lows elsewhere indicate low-density basin-fill in all major north-trending graben valleys. Gravity highs reflect pre-Cenozoic rocks mostly exposed in the mountain ranges. In the Confusion Range, however, the gravity high extends about 15 km east of the range front to Coyote Knolls, indicating a broad pediment cut on upper Paleozoic rocks and covered by a thin veneer of alluvium. Aeromagnetic highs sharply delineate Oligocene and Miocene volcanic rocks and intracaldera plutons associated with the Indian Peak caldera complex and the Pioche–Marysvale igneous belt. Jurassic to Eocene plutons and volcanic rocks elsewhere in the study area, however, have much more modest magnetic signatures. Some relatively small magnetic highs in the region are associated with outcrops of volcanic rock, and the continuation of those anomalies indicates that the rocks are probably extensive in the subsurface. A gravity inversion method separating the isostatic gravity anomaly into fields representing pre-Cenozoic basement rocks and Cenozoic basin deposits was used to calculate depth to basement and estimate maximum amounts of alluvial and volcanic fill within the valleys. Maximum depths within the Indian Peak caldera complex average about 2.5 km, locally reaching 3 km. North of the caldera complex, thickness of valley fill in most graben valleys ranges from 1.5 to 3 km thick, with Hamlin and Pine Valleys averaging ~3 km. The main basin beneath Tule Valley is

  17. Old age mortality in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danan Gu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eastern and South-Eastern Asian countries have witnessed a marked decline in old age mortality in recent decades. Yet no studies have investigated the trends and patterns in old age morality and cause-of-death in the region. Objective: We reviewed the trends and patterns of old age mortality and cause-of-death for countries in the region. Methods: We examined data on old age mortality in terms of life expectancy at age 65 and age-specific death rates from the 2012 Revision of the World Population Prospects for 14 countries in the region (China, Hong Kong, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam and data on cause-of-death from the WHO for five countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Singapore from 1980 to 2010. Results: While mortality transitions in these populations took place in different times, and at different levels of socioeconomic development and living environment, changes in their age patterns and sex differentials in mortality showed certain similarities: women witnessed a similar decline to men in spite of their lower mortality, and young elders had a larger decline than the oldest-old. In all five countries examined for cause-of-death, most of the increases in life expectancy at age 65 in both men and women were attributable to declines in mortality from stroke and heart disease. GDP per capita, educational level, and urbanization explained much of the variations in life expectancy and cause-specific mortality, indicating critical contributions of these basic socioeconomic development indicators to the mortality decline over time in the region. Conclusions: These findings shed light on the relationship between epidemiological transition, changing age patterns of mortality, and improving life expectancy in these populations.

  18. Exotic pests of eastern forests conference proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry O. Britton

    1998-01-01

    Invasive exotic pest plants, diseases, and insects, have had a dramatic impact on the health and composition of the Eastern forests for many decades. Chestnut blight was discovered in the United States in 1904. Since then, it has virtually destroyed the chestnut population, which once occupied 25 percent of the eastern forest. In the 1860's, the gypsy moth was...

  19. Petrography and Geochemistry (Trace, Ree and Pge of Pedda Cherlo Palle Gabbro-Diorite Pluton, Prakasam Igneous Province, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanyam K.S.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prakasam Igneous Province (PIP is an important geological domain in the Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC, found in the junction zone between the EDC and Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB. The Pedda Cherlo Palle (PCP gabbros are massive, leucocratic-mesocractic, and show cumulus textures with minerals plagioclase, cpx, and amphiboles. Compositionally, plagioclase is a labradorite-bytownite, cpx is diopside to augite, olivines are hyalosiderites and amphiboles are magnesiohornblendes. PCP gabbros have normal SiO2, high Al2O3, moderate to high TiO2, Na2O and medium Fe2O3, so, classified as subalkaline tholeiitic gabbros. Fractionated rare earth element (REE patterns, high abundance of large ion lithofile elements (LILE and transitional metals coupled with light REE (LREE relative enrichment over heavy REE (HREE and Nb are characteristics of partial melting of depleted mantle and melts that have undergone fractional crystalisation. These partial melts are enriched in LREE and LILE, due to the addition of slab derived sediment and fluids. PCP gabbros contain low abundance (5.1 to 24.6 ng/g of platinum group elements (PGE, and show an increase in the order Ir>Os>Pt>Ru»Pd>Rh. We propose that the subduction related intraoceanic island arc might have accreted to the southeastern margin of India to the east of Cuddapah basin in a collisional regime that took place during Ur to Rodinia amalgamations.

  20. Estrutura trófica da ictiofauna, ao longo do gradiente longitudinal do reservatório de Salto Caxias (rio Iguaçu, Paraná, Brasil, no terceiro ano após o represamento - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i1.1362 Fishfauna trophic structure across longitudinal gradient of Salto Caxias Reservoir (Iguaçu River – state of Paraná – Brazil in the third year after dam - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i1.1362

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilene Luciana Delariva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar a estrutura trófica da ictiofauna, ao longo do gradiente longitudinal do reservatório de Salto Caxias, no terceiro ano após seu represamento (pós 3. Compararam-se os dados obtidos neste trabalho com dados anteriores (pré e pós 1, a fim de verificar se as espécies que alteraram suas dietas no início do represamento voltaram a utilizar os mesmos recursos alimentares oferecidos no ambiente natural. Foram analisados conteúdos estomacais de 1527 exemplares pelo método volumétrico. A maioria das espécies apresentou dietas compostas por grande diversidade de itens alimentares, predominando, geralmente, um tipo de recurso. A ictiofauna foi organizada em oito guildas tróficas. As espécies detritívoras e piscívoras não alteraram consideravelmente seu hábito alimentar ao longo do gradiente espacial. A montante, todas as guildas estiveram distribuídas em proporção mais semelhante do que nos demais locais. Comparando-se os períodos de pré e pós 1 com o pós 3, verifica-se que poucas espécies retomaram seu hábito alimentar originalThis study aims at evaluating the fishfauna trophic structure across the longitudinal gradient of Salto Caxias reservoir, in the third year after its dam (post 3. The data obtained were compared with the previous ones (pre and post 1 to verify if the species that altered their diets in the initial phase of the dam, returned to the same food resources offered by natural environment. S(tomachal contents of 1527 fishes were analyzed, using the volumetric method. In general, fishes presented a great diversity of food items in their diets, usually with a predominant resource kind. Thus, the fishfauna was synthetized in eight trophic guilds. The detrivore and piscivore species did not alter their feeding habit across spatial gradient considerably. (A montanteUpstream, all the trophic guilds were equally distributed compared to the other sites. Comparing pre and post 1 periods

  1. Relating geodynamic setting to periods of crustal growth and reworking as illustrated by the Phanerozoic granitoids of the Eastern Cordillera of South Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsma, M.; Schaltegger, U.; Spikings, R.; Ulianov, A.; Gerdes, A.; Chiaradia, M.

    2012-04-01

    The granitoids that form the backbone of the Eastern Cordillera of Peru between 12 and 14°S, are the ideal material for a case study to relate geodynamic setting to crustal growth over the period of a Wilson cycle. Extension related plutons were emplaced in the back-arc region of the Western Gondwana margin during the Ordovician, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic and Early Jurassic. With the onset of the Andean cycle in the Middle Jurassic the South American margin was under compression, the plutonic record of this period is in the study area restricted to the Eocene and Miocene. The Ordovician to Triassic back-arc related plutons share many geochemical characteristics that point to dominant crustal reworking as the main process during their formation. These are 1) their mainly felsic and peraluminous nature; 2) the similarity of whole rock REE and trace element compositions compared to those of average continental crust; 3) the presence of negative Nb-Ta anomalies only in the more evolved samples which indicates that these excursions have been obtained by crustal melting rather than from a slab fluid and 4) the presence of significant amounts of xenocrystic cores in zircon. According to the literature the last major episode of juvenile crust formation was during the Grenvillian age Sunsas event (1.2 - 0.9 Ga) related to the collision of Laurentia and south-western Amazonia during the assembly of Rodinia. Hf-isotopes on zircons from the Ordovician, Permo-Carboniferous and Triassic plutons confirm their origin as mainly crustal melts generated by reworking of Sunsas-age crust. Under these geodynamic conditions it is mainly the crust that melts due to an elevated geothermal gradient as the result of crustal thinning. However, data from Jurassic nepheline bearing syenite and Eocene hornblende diorite and monzonite have epsilon Hfi values well above those of Sunsas crust, indicating an important mantle component in the melts. The Jurassic geodynamic setting is interpreted

  2. HOMED-Homicides Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Frisch, Morten; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Background:An introduction to a forensic medical homicide database established at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen. Content: The database contains substantial clinical and demographic data obtained in conjunction with medico-legal autopsies of victims and forensic clinical...... examinations of perpetrators in homicide cases in eastern Denmark. Validity and coverage: The database contains information on all homicide cases investigated at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen since 1971. Coverage for the catchment area of the department is assumed to be very good because...... of a medico-legal homicide autopsy rate close to 100%. Regional differences might exist however, due to the fact that the catchment area of the department is dominated by the city of Copenhagen. Conclusions: The strength of the database includes a long running time, near complete regional coverage...

  3. The late Oligocene Cevizlidere Cu-Au-Mo deposit, Tunceli Province, eastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    İmer, Ali; Richards, Jeremy P.; Creaser, Robert A.; Spell, Terry L.

    2015-02-01

    The Cevizlidere deposit, located in the Tunceli Province of eastern Anatolia, is the largest porphyry Cu-Au-Mo system in Turkey. The deposit is spatially related to a composite stock, which was emplaced into Paleozoic limestones and Paleogene andesitic rocks to the southeast of the Munzur mountains, near the southwestern margin of the Ovacık pull-apart basin. The host plutonic rocks at Cevizlidere are porphyritic, medium-K calc-alkaline diorites and granodiorites. 40Ar/39Ar incremental step-heating analysis of two igneous biotite separates obtained from syn-mineral diorite porphyry yielded late Oligocene cooling ages of 25.49 ± 0.10 and 25.10 ± 0.14 Ma, whereas hydrothermal biotite yielded an age of 24.73 ± 0.08 Ma. Re-Os ages obtained from two molybdenite separates (24.90 ± 0.10 and 24.78 ± 0.10 Ma) indicate that porphyry-style alteration and mineralization developed shortly after magma emplacement. The whole-rock geochemical composition of the Cevizlidere porphyry intrusions is consistent with derivation from partial melting of the metasomatized supra-subduction zone mantle. However, based on regional tectonic reconstructions, Oligocene magmatic activity in this area appears to be related to a major kinematic reorganization that took place at around 25 Ma, during the switch from subduction to collisional tectonics in eastern Anatolia. This kinematic switch may be attributed to break-off of the Southern Neo-Tethys oceanic slab prior to the Arabia-Eurasia continent-continent collision (~12-10 Ma) following widespread middle Eocene (50-43 Ma) arc/back-arc magmatism. In this respect, the subduction-related tectonic setting of the late Oligocene Cevizlidere porphyry deposit is similar to that of the middle Eocene Çöpler epithermal Au deposit. The late timing of Cevizlidere with respect to the Southern Neo-Tethys subduction may be comparable to some early to late Miocene porphyry-epithermal systems that lie within the contiguous Urumieh-Dokhtar belt in central

  4. A representação do feminino heróico na literatura e no cinema : uma análise das obras Quarto de despejo : diário de uma favelada (Carolina Maria de Jesus), Estamira e Estamira para todos e para ninguém (Marcos Prado), De salto alto e Tudo sobre minha mãe (Pedro Almodóvar)

    OpenAIRE

    Azeredo,Mônica Horta

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a representação da figura de heroína em cinco obras de cinema e literatura: De Salto Alto (1991) e Tudo sobre Minha Mãe (1999), filmes espanhóis de ficção dirigidos por Pedro Almodóvar; Estamira (2004) e Estamira para Todos e para Ninguém (2004), documentários brasileiros em longa-metragem e média-metragem, respectivamente, dirigidos por Marcos Prado; e Quarto de Despejo: diário de uma favelada (19601), livro brasileiro escrito por Carolina Maria de Jesus ...

  5. A deposit model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide deposits related to Proterozoic massif anorthosite plutonic suites: Chapter K in Mineral Deposit Models for Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Fey, David L.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide (Fe-Ti-oxide) deposits hosted by Proterozoic age massif-type anorthosite and related rock types presents their geological, mineralogical, geochemical, and geoenvironmental attributes. Although these Proterozoic rocks are found worldwide, the majority of known deposits are found within exposed rocks of the Grenville Province, stretching from southwestern United States through eastern Canada; its extension into Norway is termed the Rogaland Anorthosite Province. This type of Fe-Ti-oxide deposit dominated by ilmenite rarely contains more than 300 million tons of ore, with between 10- to 45-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), 32- to 45-percent iron oxide (FeO), and less than 0.2-percent vanadium (V).

  6. Structure and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of syntectonic plutons emplaced in the Pan-African Banyo-Tcholliré shear zone (central north Cameroon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomo, Emmanuel Negue; Tchameni, Rigobert; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Sun, Fenguye; Barbey, Pierre; Tekoum, Léontine; Tchunte, Periclex Martial Fosso; Eglinger, Aurélien; Fouotsa, Nicaise Alliance Saha

    2017-07-01

    The Tcholliré massif, in central north Cameroon, consists of elongated granite plutons that crop out along the Pan-African Tcholliré-Banyo shear zone (TBSZ), a potential suture zone within the Central Africa Orogenic Belt. New structural and geochronological data on these granites constrain the tectonic regime and timing of the TBSZ. The plutons consist of syntectonic granites and granodiorite containing dioritic mafic enclaves. They show an S2 sub-vertical foliation, that trends NE-SW to ENE-WSW. The related L2 lineation is subhorizontal to shallowly plunging to the SW or NE. Kinematic indicators such as asymmetric folds, sigmoidal-shape boudins, shear bands, imbricated feldspar phenocrysts along antithetic fractures point to a sinistral sense of shear. Microstructural analysis shows that structures are acquired from the submagmatic to the low temperature solid state suggesting progressive deformation of the magma during its emplacement, crystallization and cooling. U-Pb zircon dating on this massif yields emplacement ages of 719 ± 12 Ma for the biotite-amphibole granite and muscovite granite, 652.2 ± 5.4 Ma for the biotite-granite and 632 ± 13 Ma for the leucogranite. These geochronological data show in addition, Palaeoproterozoic inherited ages of 1631 ± 30 Ma on the leucogranites of this massif, and point to a Palaeoproterozoic contribution in their genesis. The range of ages (ca. 87 Ma) points to the timing of syntectonic emplacement of felsic magmas coeval with sinistral transpression along the TBSZ during the Pan-African orogeny. These results show that the TBSZ has recorded prolonged deformation associated with crustal magmatism between the Palaeoproterozoic Adamawa-Yadé domain to the southeast and the Sinassi-Mayo Kebbi Neoproterozoic magmatic arc to the Northwest.

  7. Geology and metallogeny of the Ar Rayn terrane, eastern Arabian shield: Evolution of a Neoproterozoic continental-margin arc during assembly of Gondwana within the East African orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebrich, J.L.; Al-Jehani, A. M.; Siddiqui, A.A.; Hayes, T.S.; Wooden, J.L.; Johnson, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic Ar Rayn terrane is exposed along the eastern margin of the Arabian shield. The terrane is bounded on the west by the Ad Dawadimi terrane across the Al Amar fault zone (AAF), and is nonconformably overlain on the east by Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks. The terrane is composed of a magmatic arc complex and syn- to post-orogenic intrusions. The layered rocks of the arc, the Al Amar group (>689 Ma to ???625 Ma), consist of tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basaltic to rhyolitic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks with subordinate tuffaceous sedimentary rocks and carbonates, and are divided into an eastern and western sequence. Plutonic rocks of the terrane form three distinct lithogeochemical groups: (1) low-Al trondhjemite-tonalite-granodiorite (TTG) of arc affinity (632-616 Ma) in the western part of the terrane, (2) high-Al TTG/adakite of arc affinity (689-617 Ma) in the central and eastern part of the terrane, and (3) syn- to post-orogenic alkali granite (607-583 Ma). West-dipping subduction along a trench east of the terrane is inferred from high-Al TTG/adakite emplaced east of low-Al TTG. The Ar Rayn terrane contains significant resources in epithermal Au-Ag-Zn-Cu-barite, enigmatic stratiform volcanic-hosted Khnaiguiyah-type Zn-Cu-Fe-Mn, and orogenic Au vein deposits, and the potential for significant resources in Fe-oxide Cu-Au (IOCG), and porphyry Cu deposits. Khnaiguiyah-type deposits formed before or during early deformation of the Al Amar group eastern sequence. Epithermal and porphyry deposits formed proximal to volcanic centers in Al Amar group western sequence. IOCG deposits are largely structurally controlled and hosted by group-1 intrusions and Al Amar group volcanic rocks in the western part of the terrane. Orogenic gold veins are largely associated with north-striking faults, particularly in and near the AAF, and are presumably related to amalgamation of the Ar Rayn and Ad Dawadimi terranes. Geologic, structural, and metallogenic

  8. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Jack [RePPAE LLC, Wexford, PA (United States); Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Gary [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Eastern Interconnection (EI) is one of the largest power systems in the world, and its size and complexity have historically made it difficult to study in high levels of detail in a modeling environment. In order to understand how this system might be impacted by high penetrations (30% of total annual generation) of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) during steady state operations, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS). This study investigates certain aspects of the reliability and economic efficiency problem faced by power system operators and planners. Specifically, the study models the ability to meet electricity demand at a 5-minute time interval by scheduling resources for known ramping events, while maintaining adequate reserves to meet random variation in supply and demand, and contingency events. To measure the ability to meet these requirements, a unit commitment and economic dispatch (UC&ED) model is employed to simulate power system operations. The economic costs of managing this system are presented using production costs, a traditional UC&ED metric that does not include any consideration of long-term fixed costs. ERGIS simulated one year of power system operations to understand regional and sub-hourly impacts of wind and PV by developing a comprehensive UC&ED model of the EI. In the analysis, it is shown that, under the study assumptions, generation from approximately 400 GW of combined wind and PV capacity can be balanced on the transmission system at a 5-minute level. In order to address the significant computational burdens associated with a model of this detail we apply novel computing techniques to dramatically reduce simulation solve time while simultaneously increasing the resolution and fidelity of the analysis. Our results also indicate that high penetrations of wind and PV (collectively variable generation (VG

  9. Influência do calçado de salto alto na atividade eletromiográfica do músculo quadríceps em mulheres com e sem síndrome da dor femoropatelar durante a tarefa de levantar e sentar Influencia del calzado de tacón alto en la actividad electromiográfica del músculo cuádriceps en mujeres con y sin síndrome de dolor patelofemoral durante la tarea de levantarse y sentarse Influence of high-heeled shoes on the quadriceps electromyographic activity in women with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome during the sit-to-stand task

    OpenAIRE

    Laísla da Silva Paixão Batista; Valéria Mayaly Alves de Oliveira; Lucas Pereira Lopes de Souza; Ana Carolina Rodarti Pitangui; Rodrigo Cappato Araújo

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a influência do calçado de salto alto na atividade eletromiográfica (EMG) do músculo quadríceps durante a tarefa de sentar e levantar. Participaram deste estudo 10 voluntárias assintomáticas com 20,2±3,0 anos e 10 voluntárias com síndrome da dor femoropatelar (SDFP) com 21,3±3,4 anos. As voluntárias executaram a tarefa de sentar e levantar em 3 diferentes condições: descalças, com tênis e com calçado de salto de 10 cm. A atividade EMG do vasto medial oblíquo ...

  10. Eastern Pacific Ocean Purse-seine Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vessel logbook and landings data sets from U.S.A.-flagged purse-seine vessels fishing in the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO). These purse seiners...

  11. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers...... important. Product quality comes in third followed by trustworthiness of the supplier and marketing support offered. Price and quality plus marketing support offered seem to be relatively more important to wholesalers than retailers. The majority of Eastern European retailers use central buying departments....... Only a minority combine local and central buying. Apparently, buying functions are organised differently in the Baltic countries than in the Central European countries. This seems partly to be attributable to size differentials as Baltic retail chains are smaller than Central European retailers...

  12. Petrological and geochemical study of Eastern Varnountas dolerites (Florina, W. Macedonia, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Martha; Koroneos, Antonios; Christofides, Georgios; Kilias, Adamantios; Papadopoulou, Lambrini

    2015-04-01

    Dolerites from Eastern Varnountas (Florina, W. Macedonia, Greece) are studied. They intrude the Carboniferous Varnountas plutonic complex, consisting mainly of granite, granodiorite, monzonite and quartz monzonite, as well as the metamorphic basement, consisting of ortho- and paragneisses and schists. The studied rock-samples show characteristic ophitic texture. The rock-forming minerals are plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine. Secondary minerals are amphibole, chlorite, epidote and spinel whereas titanite and rutile occur as accessory minerals. The olivine Fo-content ranges from 51 to 85, with big variations between core and rim at the same sample, and decreases with the increase of SiO2 of the rocks. Clinopyroxene is augite; its En-content ranges from 40 to 53 and remains constant with the increase of SiO2 of the rocks. The An-content of plagioclase composition ranges from An57 to An68, increasing with the increase of SiO2 of the rocks. XRF and ICP-MS-LA techniques were used for the whole-rock analysis for major and trace elements respectively. Their SiO2 content ranges from 46.8 to 49.4 wt% and the MgO from 7.6 to 11.4 wt%. The whole-rock geochemistry indicates two different groups of samples; one group (LT-HK) having low TiO2 (0.78-0.90 wt%) and high K2O (0.77-2.00 wt%) and another (HT-LK) with high TiO2 (1.02-1.34 wt%) and low K2O (0.13-0.32 wt%). The REE patterns show LREE enrichment. LREE/HREE is low ranging from 1.1 to 1.8 apart the more evolved sample L-18 (LT-HK group) having 6.0. LaCN ranges from 14.3 to 27.9 apart again of sample L-18 with LaCN=63.5. The ΣREE is lower in the LT-HK group ranging from 32.70 to 33.93 ppm (L-18=101.28 ppm), relative to the HT-LK group (42.96 to 61.24 ppm). The Eu anomaly ranges from 0.92 to 1.19 without differences between the two groups. According to the classification diagrams the samples belong to the volcanic arc tholeiitic basalts. The enrichment of REE combined with the low LREE/HREE ratio indicates that the

  13. Social Epidemiology and Eastern Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Eric; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Cable, Noriko; Honjo, Kaori; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    Social epidemiology is the field of study that attempts to understand the social determinants of health and the dynamics between societal settings and health. In the past 3 decades, large-scale studies in the West have accumulated a range of measures and methodologies to pursue this goal. We would like to suggest that there may be conceptual gaps in the science if Western research models are applied uncritically in East Asian studies of socioeconomic, gender, and ethnic inequalities in health. On one hand, there are common concerns, including population aging and gendered labor market participation. Further, international comparison must be built on shared concepts such as socioeconomic stratification in market economies. On the other hand, some aspects of health, such as common mental disorders, may have culturally specific manifestations that require development of perspectives (and perhaps novel measures) in order to reveal Eastern specifics. Exploring and debating commonalities and differences in the determinants of health in Oriental and Occidental cultures could offer fresh inspiration and insight for the next phase of social epidemiology in both regions. PMID:22790787

  14. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    The cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies are not well known. As a result, a project was initiated in 1994 to address the urgent requirement for accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of this study will be used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers are monitoring 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers involved in the project are working with representatives from Husky Oil and Talisman Energy on the sound development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over seven years indicated that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered so far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears recover very slowly from high mortality, and also considering that the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The status of the population and habitat of the grizzly bear will be assessed upon the conclusion of the field research phase in 2001. Models will be updated using the data obtained during eight years and will assist in the understanding of complex variables that affect grizzly bears.

  16. Postura do pé e classificação do arco plantar de adolescentes usuárias e não usuárias de calçados de salto alto Foot posture and classification of the plantar arch among adolescent wearers and non-wearers of high-heeled shoes

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    Patrícia A. O. Pezzan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar a postura dos pés com o arco plantar de adolescentes usuárias e não usuárias de calçados de salto alto. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas 36 adolescentes, 16 no grupo de não usuárias e 20 no grupo de usuárias, com idade entre 13 e 20 anos. A postura do pé foi analisada por fotos nas condições descalça e com calçado de salto alto tipo Anabella, previamente padronizado, após terem permanecido com ele por uma hora. Sua análise foi realizada pelo software SAPO. A impressão plantar foi realizada descalça e, a partir dela, calculado o Índice de Chipaux - Smirak para classificação do arco plantar. Para análise estatística, utilizou-se o teste t pareado para verificar igualdade entre lados direito e esquerdo. Foi realizado o teste de aderência Shapiro Wilk e, então, a análise inferencial por meio dos testes não paramétricos de Wilcoxon, o teste de Mann-Whitney e a correlação de Spearman. O nível de significância adotado foi de 0,05. RESULTADOS: Não foi encontrada correlação entre o tipo de arco plantar e a postura do pé das adolescentes estudadas. Porém, o ângulo do retropé se mostrou significativamente diferente, apresentando varo de retropé após a colocação do calçado em ambos os grupos, e o arco plantar do grupo de usuárias apresentou valores menores quanto ao Índice Chipaux - Smirak. CONCLUSÕES: Não existe correlação entre a postura do pé e o tipo de arco plantar, embora essas variáveis tenham sofrido influência do calçado de salto alto. Artigo registrado na Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR sob o número ACTRN12608000300370.OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between foot posture and plantar arch among adolescent wearers and non-wearers of high-heeled shoes. METHODS: Thirty-six female adolescents aged 13 to 20 years were selected and grouped as 16 high-heel non-wearers and 20 high-heel wearers. Foot posture was analyzed using photos, firstly

  17. Relação entre torque extensor e relação I: Q com salto unipodal triplo horizontal em jogadores profissionais de futebol Relationship between extensor torque and H: Q ratio with triple hop distance in professional soccer players

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    Luiz Fernando Approbato Selistre

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: 1 Determinar e comparar o torque extensor, relação I:Q e distância do salto triplo entre os membros; 2 identificar a relação entre o torque extensor e relação I:Q com o desempenho no salto triplo em jogadores profissionais de futebol. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 21 indivíduos, homens, idade média de 23,2 anos (± 3,6, saudáveis, sem histórico de lesões, praticantes profissionais de futebol. Os atletas foram avaliados em um dinamômetro isocinético nas velocidades de 60, 180 e 300°/s, das quais foram obtidos os picos de torque e calculada a relação I:Q nas três velocidades. Foi realizada também a avaliação funcional por meio do salto unipodal triplo horizontal, e desse foi obtida a distância saltada em metros. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre membros (dominante e não dominante para os testes (p = 0,23. Além disso, foi observada baixa correlação entre o torque extensor e teste funcional nas três velocidades (membro dominante: 60°/s_r = 0,38; 180°/s_r = 0,43*; 300°/s_r = 0,26. Membro não dominante: 60°/s_r = 0,36; 180°/s_r = 0,30; 300°/s_r = 0,48* (*p OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were: 1 to determine and compare the extensor torque, H:Q ratio and triple hop distance in functional test between lower extremities; 2 to identify the relationship between extensor torque and H:Q ratio with the performance in triple hop distance in professional soccer players. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one healthy male professional soccer players, average 23.2 (± 3.6 years old, without history of injury were selected. The athletes were assessed in an isokinetic dynamometer at three angular velocities: 60, 180 and 300°/s, and from this assessment the peak of torque and calculated H:Q ratio at the three velocities were obtained. The triple hop distance was also used to calculate the hopped distance in meters. RESULTS: No significant difference was found between the lower extremities (dominant and non

  18. Diferenciação genética entre populações de Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Agassiz, 1829 (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae isoladas pelos saltos de Guaíra do rio Paraná Genetic differentiation among populations of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Agassiz, 1829 (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae isolated by the Guaíra Falls in the Paraná River

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    Sônia Maria Alves Pinto Prioli

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Os saltos de Guaíra, também denominados Sete Quedas, constituíam até 1982 uma barreira para a dispersão de peixes migradores. Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar se populações de Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae eram isoladas pelos saltos de Guaíra. Amostras provenientes da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná (PL, do reservatório Itaipu (IT e de jusante de Yacyretá (YA, foram comparadas por RAPD. O FST de Lynch foi significativo entre PL e IT (0,090 e PL e YA (0,112. O fluxo gênico estimado (Nm variou de 2,0 entre PL e YA a 8,1 entre IT e YA, e a distância genética de Nei de D = 0,0638 entre PL e YA a D = 0,0174 entre IT e YA. Estes resultados indicam existência de diferenciação genética e que, possivelmente, Sete Quedas isolavam reprodutivamente as populações. Sugerem, também, a possibilidade de áreas diferentes de desova, impedindo parcialmente a homogeneização genética das populações IT e PL.Until 1982, the Guaíra Falls, also named the Seven Falls, constituted a barrier to the dispersion of migratory fish in the Paraná River. The objective of this work was to verify if populations of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae were isolated by the Guaíra Falls. Samples from the Upper Paraná River floodplain (PL, the Itaipu reservoir (IT, and downstream Yacyretá reservoir (YA were compared by RAPD markers. Lynch's FST was significant between PL and IT (0.090, and PL and YA (0.112. Estimated gene flow (Nm varied from 2.0 between PL and YA to 8.1 between IT and YA. Nei's genetic distance varied from D = 0.0638 between PL and YA to D = 0.0174 between IT and YA. These results indicate the existence of genetic differentiation and that, possibly, the Guaíra Falls isolated the populations reproductively. They also suggest the possibility of different spawning areas, partially avoiding the genetic homogenization of the IT and PL populations.

  19. Correlação entre o desempenho de jogadores de futebol no teste de sprint de 30m e no teste de salto vertical Correlation between performance of Soccer players in the 30-meter sprint test and in the vertical jump test

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    Daniel Barbosa Coelho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi determinar o nível de correlação entre o desempenho nos 10m iniciais, dos 20m finais e no tempo total do teste de sprint de 30m, com o do salto vertical com contra-movimento (CMJ entre jogadores de futebol. Participaram do estudo 167 jogadores das categorias profissional (N. 94 e júnior (N. 73. Foram determinadas as velocidades dos jogadores em 10m (V10, 20m (V20 e no total de 30m (V30. A habilidade de salto foi avaliada através do CMJ. Para correlacionar os dados, foi utilizado o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson com nível de significância de pThe aim of the present study was to determine the association between the results in the counter movement jump (CMJ and the results in the first 10 meters, in the final 20 meters and the in the total 30 meters of a 30-meter sprint. One-hundred and sixty seven Soccer players from the professional (N. 93 and under twenty (N. 74 categories, from a Brazilian first division Soccer club participated in the study. The sprint test consisted of a 30-meter run timed at the 10-meter and at the 30-meter marks. The jump capacity was assessed through the CMJ. Pearson's correlation (r was used to determine the association between these variables. The significance level adopted was p<.05. The U-20 players presented faster V10 and slower V20 than the professionals (p<.05. The correlation (r between CMJ and V10, V20 and V30 were .239, .370 and .408, respectively, for the U20 group and .381, .381 and .470, respectively, for the professional group. Evaluating the two categories together the correlation were; r= 0,293, 0,386 and 0,441 to V10, V20 and V30 respectively. The correlation between CMJ and V10 was weak and moderate for V20 and V30. In the professional category the correlation between CMJ and all the other parameters was moderate. It is probable that higher correlation values for CMJ and V10 for the professionals could be attributed to specific training effects.

  20. Efecto de un calentamiento con estiramientos estáticos y dinámicos sobre el salto horizontal y la capacidad para repetir esprint con cambio de dirección. [Effect of warm-up with static and dynamic stretching on the horizontal jump and repeated sprint ability with changes of direction].

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    Javier Sánchez-Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido comparar el efecto de tres calentamientos diferentes (calentamiento aeróbico de baja intensidad, estiramiento estático y estiramiento dinámico sobre el salto horizontal y la capacidad de repetir esprint con cambios de dirección. Diecisiete practicantes de deportes de equipo de 20.8±1.1 años realizaron 3 tipos de calentamiento (10 min: ejercicio aeróbico sin estiramiento (CAE, con estiramiento estático (CAES y con estiramiento dinámico (CAED. Se estudió el efecto agudo de cada calentamiento sobre el rendimiento en una prueba de salto horizontal (SH y un test de repetición de esprint con cambio de dirección (RSCOD. No se obtuvieron diferencias significativas (p>0,05 en ninguna de las variables en función del calentamiento realizado. El tamaño del efecto (TE indicó que probablemente el RSCODmejor sea más sensible al CAE que al CAES (TE: 0,52 y al CAED (TE: 0,44. El escaso efecto de los estiramientos estáticos sobre el rendimiento en SH y RSCOD puede ser debido a la dosis, la intensidad y el tiempo de recuperación empleado. Los estiramientos dinámicos no mejoraron el rendimiento en SH y RSCOD. Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of three different warm-ups (low intensity aerobic warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on the horizontal jump and repeated sprint ability with changes of direction. Seventeen players of team sports whose age was 20.8±1.1 years old performed three types of warm up (10 minutes: aerobic exercise without stretching (WU, with static stretching (WUSS and with dynamic stretching (WUDS. The acute effect of each warming over performance was studied in a test of horizontal jump (HJ and repeat sprint test with change of direction (RSCD. No significant differences were obtained (p>0.05 in any of the variables studied according to the warming developed. The effect size (ES indicated that probably RSCDbest was more sensitive to WU than WUDS (ES

  1. A Neoarchean subduction recorded by the Eastern Hebei Precambrian basement, North China Craton: Geochemical fingerprints from metavolcanic rocks of the Saheqiao-Shangying-Qinglong supracrustal belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rongrong; Liu, Shuwen; Bai, Xiang; Wang, Wei

    2017-03-01

    The Saheqiao-Shangying-Qinglong supracrustal belt (SSQB) in the northern Eastern Hebei Precambrian basement (EHPB) is located in the northern margin of the Eastern Block (EB) of the North China Craton (NCC). The Shangying terrane constitutes the middle segment of the SSQB and contains primarily metamorphic volcanics and plutonic tonalitic gneisses. The metamorphic volcanics mainly consist of pyroxene plagioclase amphibolites, garnet plagioclase amphibolites, biotite plagioclase amphibole gneisses, and amphibole plagioclase gneisses. Zircon U-Pb-Lu-Hf isotopic analyses reveal that the metavolcanic rocks from the Shangying terrane crystallized at ∼2506-2613 Ma with TDM (Hf) values of ∼2541-2944 Ma. These metamorphic volcanic rocks are subdivided into four groups based on their lithological and chemical features. Group I consists chiefly of tholeiites that are characterized by slightly light rare earth element (LREE) depleted patterns and flat multi-element spider diagrams, which are similar to back-arc basin basalt (BABB)-like rocks and were derived from the partial melting of the depleted mantle. The tholeiites in Group II have slightly fractionated rare earth element (REE) patterns without Nb anomalies, exhibit an affinity to Nb-enriched basalt (NEB)-like rocks, and were produced by the partial melting of HFSE-enriched mantle peridotites. Group III is composed of slightly LREE-enriched tholeiites with negative Nb-Ta anomalies that resemble island arc tholeiites. Group IV comprises calc-alkaline basalts and andesites with highly enriched LREEs and evident Nb, Ta and Ti depletions that are geochemically similar to the products of island arcs. The island arc tholeiites and calc-alkaline basalt-andesites originated from the partial melting of sub-arc mantle peridotites that were previously metasomatized by slab-derived fluids/melts with the fractional crystallization of ferromagnesian minerals. Collectively, the BABB-like rocks, the NEBs, arc tholeiites and calc

  2. Textures, trace element compositions, and U-Pb ages of titanite from the Mangling granitoid pluton, East Qinling Orogen: Implications for magma mixing and destruction of the North China Craton

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    Hu, Hao; Li, Jian-Wei; McFarlane, Christopher R. M.; Luo, Yan; McCarron, Travis

    2017-07-01

    The Mangling granitoid pluton, located along the southern margin of the North China Craton, consists mainly of monzogranite with minor amounts of diorite. The monzogranite contains abundant mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) and is intruded by numerous mafic dikes, providing an opportunity to study magma mixing and its role in the formation of the granitioid pluton. In this paper, we present in situ analysis of U-Pb isotopes and trace element compositions of titanite from the MMEs and the host monzogranite using Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry to document the role of magma mixing in the formation of the Mangling granitoid pluton. Titanite grains from the MMEs (type 1) are euhedral with patchy zoning, whereas the varieties from the closely associated host monzogranite are euhedral and consist of two types (type 2 and type 3). Type 2 titanite is more abundant and has oscillatory zoning without Fe-Ti oxide inclusions, whereas type 3 grains commonly have Fe-Ti oxide inclusions in the core that is rimmed by inclusion-free overgrowths with weak oscillatory zoning. Titanite from monzogranite without MMEs (type 4) is euhedal and has weak oscillatory zoning, with rare ilmenite inclusions in the core. Titanite from a mafic dike intruding the monzogranite (type 5) is anhedral and has sector zoning. Titanite grains from MMEs and the monzogranite (type 1, 2 and 3) have U-Pb ages that are indistinguishable (149 ± 1 Ma, 148 ± 1 Ma and 148 ± 2 Ma, respectively). These ages agree well with zircon U-Pb ages of 150 ± 1 Ma, 150 ± 1 Ma and 149 ± 1 Ma for the MMEs, host monzogranite, and mafic dike, respectively. The age consistency thus confirms coeval formation of the MMEs, the host monzogranite, and the mafic dikes, demonstrating a mafic magmatic, rather than extraneous or restitic origin for the MMEs. Titanite grains from the MMEs (type 1) and mafic dike (type 5) have much lower Al2O3, REE, Nb/Zr, Y/Zr, and Lu/Hf, but higher (Ce + Nd)/Y and La

  3. Mineralogy and ore formation conditions of the Bugdaya Au-Bearing W-Mo porphyry deposit, Eastern Transbaikal Region, Russia

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    Kovalenker, V. A.; Kiseleva, G. D.; Krylova, T. L.; Andreeva, O. V.

    2011-04-01

    The Bugdaya Au-bearing W-Mo porphyry deposit, Eastern Transbaikal Region, Russia, is located in the central part of volcanic dome and hosted in the large Variscan granitic pluton. In its characteristics, this is a Climax-type deposit, or an Mo porphyry deposit of rhyolitic subclass. The enrichment in gold is related to the relatively widespread vein and veinlet gold-base-metal mineralization. More than 70 minerals (native metals, sulfides, sulfosalts, tellurides, oxides, molybdates, wolframates, carbonates, and sulfates) have been identified in stockwork and vein ores, including dzhalindite, greenockite, Mo-bearing stolzite, Ag and Au amalgams, stromeyerite, cervelleite, and berryite identified here for the first time. Four stages of mineral formation are recognized. The earliest preore stage in form of potassic alteration and intense silicification developed after emplacement of subvolcanic rhyolite (granite) porphyry stock. The stockwork and vein W-Mo mineralization of the quartz-molybdenite stage was the next. Sericite alteration, pyritization, and the subsequent quartz-sulfide veins and veinlets with native gold, base-metal sulfides, and various Ag-Cu-Pb-Bi-Sb sulfosalts of the gold-base-metal stage were formed after the rearrangement of regional pattern of tectonic deformation. The hydrothermal process was completed by argillic (kaolinite-smectite) assemblage of the postore stage. The fluid inclusion study (microthermometry and Raman spectroscopy) allowed us to establish that the stockwork W-Mo mineralization was formed at 550-380°C from both the highly concentrated Mg-Na chloride solution (brine) and the low-density gas with significant N2 and H2S contents. The Pb-Zn vein ore of the gold-base-metal stage enriched in Au, Ag, Bi, and other rare metals was deposited at 360-140°C from a homogeneous Na-K chloride (hydrocarbonate, sulfate) hydrothermal solution of medium salinity.

  4. Mineralogic, fluid inclusion, and sulfur isotope evidence for the genesis of Sechangi lead-zinc (-copper) deposit, Eastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekzadeh Shafaroudi, Azadeh; Karimpour, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-07-01

    The Sechangi lead-zinc (-copper) deposit lies in the Lut block metallogenic province of Eastern Iran. This deposit consists of ore-bearing vein emplaced along fault zone and hosted by Late Eocene monzonite porphyry. Hydrothermal alteration minerals developed in the wall rock include quartz, kaolinite, illite, and calcite. Microscopic studies reveal that the vein contains galena and sphalerite with minor chalcopyrite and pyrite as hypogene minerals and cerussite, anglesite, covellite, malachite, hematite, and goethite as secondary minerals. Fluorite and quartz are the dominant gangue minerals and show a close relationship with sulfide mineralization. Calculated δ34S values for the ore fluid vary between -9.9‰ and -5.9‰. Sulfur isotopic compositions suggest that the ore-forming aqueous solutions were derived from magmatic source and mixed with isotopically light sulfur, probably leached from the volcanic and plutonic country rocks. Microthermometric study of fluid inclusions indicates homogenization temperatures of 151-352 °C. Salinities of ore-forming fluids ranged from 0.2 to 16.5 wt.% NaCl equivalent. The ore-forming fluids of the Sechangi deposit are medium- to low-temperature and salinity. Fluid mixing may have played an important role during Pb-Zn (-Cu) mineralization. The key factors allowing for metal transport and precipitation during ore formation include the sourcing of magmatic fluids with high contents of metallogenic elements and the mixing of these hydrothermal fluids with meteoric waters resulting in the formation of deposit. In terms of the genetic type of deposit, the Sechangi is classified as a volcanic-subvolcanic hydrothermal-related vein deposit.

  5. Mental health reforms in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, T

    2001-01-01

    To describe the background in general culture, public and professional discourse against which mental health care reform initiatives in Eastern Europe need to be seen. An account of some key aspects of sociopolitical and cultural transition in Eastern European countries is given, and core results of a research project on attitudes and needs assessment in psychiatry in six Eastern European countries are reported. In post-totalitarian cultures mental health reforms impinge on imagination in ways which are not easy to predict. Some of the reasons for this are traced to the psychiatric practices under the system of total control, e.g. dispensary care, political abuse, reification of classificatory terms. Data on a study of attitudes suggest that institutions had replaced community life in those parts of Europe. It is predicted that with time trust in the capacity of community to contain mental illness will be regained.

  6. Foggy Diaspora: Romanian Women in Eastern Serbia

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    Sorescu-Marinković Annemarie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on ethnographic and anthropological research on the Romanian communities in Eastern Serbia, this article seeks to contribute to the global scholarship on diaspora and migration. It reveals interesting differences between the well defined and intensely studied notion of “diaspora” on the one hand, and the understudied, but useful concept of “near diaspora” on the other. First, the presence of Romanians in Eastern Serbia is looked at from a gender perspective, in the wider context of feminization of international migration. Second, the paper argues that the Romanian women in Eastern Serbia adopt the strategy of living in the “social fog”, thus becoming what can be termed “foggy diaspora”.

  7. How do granitoid magmas mix with each other? Insights from textures, trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic composition of apatite and titanite from the Matok pluton (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Oscar; Zeh, Armin; Gerdes, Axel; Villaros, Arnaud; Gros, Katarzyna; Słaby, Ewa

    2017-09-01

    In plutonic systems, magma mixing is often modelled by mass balance based on whole-rock geochemistry. However, magma mixing is a chaotic process and chemical equilibration is controlled by non-linear diffusive-advective processes unresolved by the study of bulk samples. Here we present textural observations, LA-(MC-)ICP-MS trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic data of accessory apatites and titanites from a hybrid granodiorite of the Neoarchean Matok pluton (South Africa), collected in a zone of conspicuous mixing between mafic and felsic magmas. Apatite grains mostly show a pronounced zoning in CL images, corresponding to abrupt changes in REE and HFSE concentrations recording their transfer through compositionally different melt domains during mixing. These grains crystallized early, at temperatures of 950-1000 °C. Titanite grains crystallized at temperatures of 820-900 °C (Zr-in-sphene thermometry). They show limited intra-grain chemical variations but huge inter-grain compositional scatter in REE and HFSE, pinpointing crystallization within a crystal mush, from isolated melt pockets having different composition from one another owing to incomplete chemical homogenization and variable Rayleigh fractionation. These chemical-textural characteristics, in combination with partitioning models and Polytopic Vector Analysis, point to "self-mixing" between co-genetic dioritic and granodioritic/granitic magmas. Both resulted from differentiation of mantle-derived mafic melts, showing that mixing does not necessarily involve magmas from contrasted (crust vs. mantle) sources. Systematic variations in ɛNd t (-4.5 to -2.5) and 87Sr/86Sr(i) (0.703-0.707) of titanite and apatite grains/domains crystallized from the two magmas point to an isotopically inhomogeneous mantle source, which is not resolved by bulk-rock isotopic data. Interaction between the two magmas must have occurred at relatively high temperatures (ca. 900°C) so that their viscosity contrast remained low

  8. A Review on Permian to Triassic Active or Convergent Margin in Southeasternmost Gondwanaland: Possibility of Exploration Target for Tin and Hydrocarbon Deposits in the Eastern Indonesia

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    Amiruddin Amiruddin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no1.20094An active convergence of continental margin is probably generated in Gondwanaland during Permian to Triassic period which is characterized by the presence of magmatic and volcanic belts and back-arc ba- sins occupied respectively by Permian to Triassic rocks. The magmatic belt is occupied by peraluminous granitic plutons showing characteristics of S- type granite and is considered as tin-bearing granites. The back-arc basins are occupied by the Southern Papua and Galille-Bowen-Gunnedah-Sydney Basins. Those large basins are respectivelly filled by fluvial, fluvio- deltaic to marine Permian-Triassic sediments, which are unconformably overlain by the Jurrassic-Cretaceous marine succession. The paleomagnetic data, confirmed by flora content found in Australia and Papua, indicate that those areas initially belong to the Gondwanaland before part of them were drifted and rotated into the present day position. Tectonically, the presence of those Permian-Triassic magmatic-volcanic belts and back-arc basins in behind, indicates that at the time there were huge compressive activities: convergence of paleo-oceanic Pasific Plate moving westward, collided and subducted into the Southeastern Gondwana Continental Plate, moved relatively eastwards. This phenomenon resembles to the formation of Sumatera Tertiary tectonic zones producing back-arc basins, i.e. South Sumatera, Central, and North Sumatera Basins including the Tertiary Magmatic Arc. Concerning the similarity of Permian-Triassic geological condition of the magmatic arc and back-arc basins in Eastern Indonesia and Eastern Australia including paleoposition, paleotectonic setting, strati- graphic succession, and lithologic composition, it is suggested to carry out an increase in a more intens- ive tin exploration in the Eastern Indonesia, e.g. Bird Head area and Banggai Sula Island, and also for hydrocarbon target (coal, coalbed methane, oil and gas, and oil

  9. Columbite and fergusonite from rare metal granitoids, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Mabrouk; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Ahmed, Awaad F.; Mohamed, Haroun A.; Farahat, Esam S.

    2017-04-01

    The Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt, as a part of the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS) belt, hosts more than 14 rare metal granitoids plutons. The garnet bearing muscovite granite (GBMG) from Gabal Abu-Diab and alkali-feldspar granite (AFG) from Gabal El-Ineigi were selected to study their rare metal mineralization. The GBMG and AFG are a metaluminous to weakly peraluminous consists of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase and muscovite in both types with subordinate amounts of garnet in GBMG and biotite + fluorite in AFG. Columbite, zircon, thorite, rutile, ilmenite and monazite are the common accessories in both types, while fergusonite are exclusively encountered in AFG. Both granitoids are highly fractionated calc-alkaline characterized by high Rb, Nb, Y, U and many other HFSE contents, and extremely low Sr and Ba. Texturally, the columbite and fergusonite crystals occur as homogeneous disseminated grains between the major minerals phases and as inclusion in protolithonite, zircon and fluorite. In few cases, they have a well-developed normal and oscillatory zoning pattern, suggesting their primary magmatic crystallization. Compositional variation (results of electron microprobe analyses) of columbite and fergusonite from these granitoids is evaluated. Columbites from AFG are mostly represented by Ta rich columbite-(Fe) with average chemical composition of Nb2O5 (88 wt. %), Ta2O5 (up to 31 wt. %), FeO (17 wt. %) and MnO (5 wt. %). While columbites from GBMG, are classified as Ta poor columbite-(Mn) and are chemically consists of Nb2O5 (73 wt. %), Ta2O5 (6 wt. %), FeO (9 wt. %) and MnO (12 wt. %). Fergusonite-(Y) occur as homogenous crystals with an average concentration of Nb2O5 (44 wt. %), Y2O3 (24 wt. %), Ta2O5 (2.3 wt. %), UO2 (2.1 wt. %) and ThO2 (1.2 wt. %). The ΣREE2O3 dominated by HREE (Yb2O3, Er2O3, Dy2O3, Gd2O3, Lu2O3 and Tm2O3), ranges from 15.3 to 16.6 wt. % and Ce2O3 (up to 3.3 wt. %). The Metamictized fergusonite contain ubiquitous subordinate amounts

  10. Spodumene bearing pegmatites in the Austroalpine unit (Eastern Alps): Distribution and new geochronological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilickovic, Tanja; Schuster, Ralf; Mali, Heinrich; Petrakakis, Konstantin; Schedl, Albert

    2017-04-01

    In the Austroalpine unit of the Eastern Alps spodumene bearing pegmatites occur heterogeneously distributed over an E-W distance of more than 400 km. They are usually associated with barren pegmatites which crystallisized in Permian time. There a two schools of thought about the genesis of the spodumene bearing pegmatites: Economic geologists bring forward the argument that these pegmatites only develop by fractionation of granitic parent plutons, whereas metamorphic petrologists consider that the barren pegmatites and even some highly fractionated pegmatites are products of anatexis of metapelitic country rocks. In the first case the virtual absence of co-genetic fertile granites in the Austroalpine units render the model problematic, whereas in the second case the formation of suitable Li-enriched pegmatitic melts is not yet understood. A new understanding of the Austroalpine basement through geological mapping and geochronological and geochemical investigations during the past few years gives the opportunity to reinvestigate this problem: In Permian time the Austroalpine unit was affected by lithospheric extension, causing basaltic underplating, high temperature / low pressure metamorphism and intense magmatic activity. The Permian P-T-t path is characterized by heating at slightly decreasing pressure. In an ongoing project additional spodumene bearing pegmatites have been discovered and some of them show temporal and spatial relations to relatively small leucogranitic bodies. New Sm/Nd data prove a Permian age for spodumene bearing pegmatites and leucogranites supporting a genetic relation with the barren pegmatites. Mapping revealed certain relations of pegmatites and distinct country rocks. Units of migmatitic mica schists with lots of interlayed barren pegmatites represent areas with aborted melt generation. In some places the melts accumulate forming inhomogeneous leucogranitic bodies. Examples are the Martell granite (South Tyrol) as well as leucoganites

  11. Petrogenesis of the late Cretaceous Turnagöl intrusion in the eastern Pontides: Implications for magma genesis in the arc setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Kaygusuz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of Cretaceous plutons is present in the eastern Pontides of northeastern Turkey. The Turnagöl intrusion is the least studied and, thus, the least understood plutons in the orogen. This intrusion consists of hornblende-biotite granodiorites emplaced at 78 Ma based on LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating. It is of sub-alkaline affinity, belongs to the medium- to high-K calc-alkaline series, and displays features typical of I-type granites. The rocks of the intrusion are enriched in large-ion lithophile elements and light rare earth-elements with negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.69–0.82, but are deficient in high-field-strength elements. They have a small range of (87Sr/86Sri (0.7060–0.7063, ɛNdi(−2.6 to −3.1, and δ18O (+8.1 to +9.1 values. Their Pb isotopic ratios are 206Pb/204Pb = 18.63–18.65, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.62–15.63, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.53–38.55. The fractionation of plagioclase, hornblende, and Fe-Ti oxides had key functions in the evolution of the Turnagöl intrusion. The crystallization temperatures of the melts ranged from 758 to 885 °C as determined by zircon and apatite saturation thermometry. All these characteristics, combined with the low values of K2O/Na2O and (Na2O + K2O/(FeOt + MgO + TiO2, as well as the high values of (CaO + FeOt + MgO + TiO2, suggest an origin by dehydration melting from a metabasaltic lower crustal source.

  12. Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development: About this journal. Journal Home > Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal. Journal Home > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Automated mineralogy based on micro-energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence microscopy (µ-EDXRF) applied to plutonic rock thin sections in comparison to a mineral liberation analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonow, Wilhelm; Rammlmair, Dieter

    2017-10-01

    Recent developments in the application of micro-energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry mapping (µ-EDXRF) have opened up new opportunities for fast geoscientific analyses. Acquiring spatially resolved spectral and chemical information non-destructively for large samples of up to 20 cm length provides valuable information for geoscientific interpretation. Using supervised classification of the spectral information, mineral distribution maps can be obtained. In this work, thin sections of plutonic rocks are analyzed by µ-EDXRF and classified using the supervised classification algorithm spectral angle mapper (SAM). Based on the mineral distribution maps, it is possible to obtain quantitative mineral information, i.e., to calculate the modal mineralogy, search and locate minerals of interest, and perform image analysis. The results are compared to automated mineralogy obtained from the mineral liberation analyzer (MLA) of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and show good accordance, revealing variation resulting mostly from the limit of spatial resolution of the µ-EDXRF instrument. Taking into account the little time needed for sample preparation and measurement, this method seems suitable for fast sample overviews with valuable chemical, mineralogical and textural information. Additionally, it enables the researcher to make better and more targeted decisions for subsequent analyses.

  18. Automated mineralogy based on micro-energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence microscopy (µ-EDXRF applied to plutonic rock thin sections in comparison to a mineral liberation analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Nikonow

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the application of micro-energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry mapping (µ-EDXRF have opened up new opportunities for fast geoscientific analyses. Acquiring spatially resolved spectral and chemical information non-destructively for large samples of up to 20 cm length provides valuable information for geoscientific interpretation. Using supervised classification of the spectral information, mineral distribution maps can be obtained. In this work, thin sections of plutonic rocks are analyzed by µ-EDXRF and classified using the supervised classification algorithm spectral angle mapper (SAM. Based on the mineral distribution maps, it is possible to obtain quantitative mineral information, i.e., to calculate the modal mineralogy, search and locate minerals of interest, and perform image analysis. The results are compared to automated mineralogy obtained from the mineral liberation analyzer (MLA of a scanning electron microscope (SEM and show good accordance, revealing variation resulting mostly from the limit of spatial resolution of the µ-EDXRF instrument. Taking into account the little time needed for sample preparation and measurement, this method seems suitable for fast sample overviews with valuable chemical, mineralogical and textural information. Additionally, it enables the researcher to make better and more targeted decisions for subsequent analyses.

  19. Internationalisation in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    This is a unique volume among the existing variety of publications on foreign direct investment (FDI) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) because it focuses on the internationalization process taking place there. It addresses the rapid changes of the business climate in the region that have led t...

  20. Eastern forest environmental threat assessment center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Research Station. USDA Forest Service

    2010-01-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center (EFETAC) provides the latest research and expertise concerning threats to healthy forests – such as insects and disease, wildland loss, invasive species, wildland fire, and climate change – to assist forest landowners, managers and scientists throughout the East. Established in 2005, EFETAC is a joint effort of...

  1. Biomass productivity improvement for eastern cottonwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry L. Robison; Randy J. Rousseau; Jianwei Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Eastern cottonwood ( Populus deltoides Marsh.) is grown in plantations by MeadWestvaco for use at its Wickliffe Kentucky Fine Papers Mill1. Genetic and productivity research over the past two decades have led to significant increases in biomass yield while reducing production costs.Initially, genetic research identified fast growing...

  2. THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE OF SOUTH AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    POT ENTIAL FOR CASSAVA PRODUCTION IN THE BATHURST RÉGION OF. THE EASTERN CAPE ... Cassava (Manihot escrtlenta) is a minor crop in South Africa that has had periodic rises in interest since it was first cultivated in the country. Interest .... Hardened tissue culture plants were used to establish this trial due to ...

  3. Educational Film Guide for Middle Eastern Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Joseph; Joachim, Ann

    This annotated guide lists 16mm. films on the Middle East for use in grades K-12 and with adults. The Middle East refers to a vast area extending from eastern Afghanistan and the northern Caucasus to the western coast of Morocco and the southern periphery of the Sahara. The guide does not list films according to their merits. Rather, it includes…

  4. Eastern medicine approaches to male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuehui; Ma, Hongli; Ng, Ernest H Y; Wu, Xiao-Ke

    2013-07-01

    Male factor is a common cause of infertility and the male partner must be systematically evaluated in the workup of every infertile couple. Various Eastern medical strategies have been tried with variable success. This article describes the clinical effects of Eastern medicine approaches including acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, massage, yoga, tai chi, and qi gong, which could improve the sperm parameters and motility, genital inflammatory conditions, as well as immune system disorders, sexual dysfunction, and varicocele. Acupuncture reduces inflammation, increases sperm motility, improves semen parameters, modulates the immune system, and improves sexual and ejaculatory dysfunction in male infertility. The clinical effects may be mediated via activation of somatic afferent nerves innervating the skin and muscle. Chinese herbal medicines may also exert helpful effects in male infertility, and it is worth noting that some herbal drugs may result in male infertility. Massage also exerts positive effects in male infertility. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of clinical effects are unclear. Tai chi, qi gong, and yoga have not been investigated in male infertility, but it has been reported to regulate endocrine and central or autonomic nervous systems. In conclusion, Eastern medical approaches have beneficial on reproductive effects in male infertility. However, future well-designed, randomized, clinical control trials are needed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of Eastern medical approaches for male infertility. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Juniper for Streambank Stabilization in Eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy R. Sheeter; Errol W. Claire

    1989-01-01

    Cut juniper trees (Juniperous osteosperma Hook.) anchored along eroded streambanks proved beneficial in stabilizing 96 percent of the erosion on eight streams evaluated in eastern Oregon over a 14-year-period. Juniper revetment was a successful substitute for costly rock structures on straight or slightly curved banks, but failed when placed on outside curves or when...

  6. Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development (EAJRD) is now going to be jointly published by the Ugandan Agricultural Economics Association - a professional body for Agricultural Economists and those interested in agricultural economics and rural development issues - and the Department of Agricultural Economics ...

  7. Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development (EAJRD) is now going to be jointly published by the Ugandan Agricultural Economics Association - a professional body for Agricultural Economists and those interested in agricultural economics and rural development issues - and the Department of ...

  8. The Younger Dryas in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, S

    1995-01-01

    The Younger Dryas period is traced in pollen diagrams of the Eastern Mediterranean by means of radiocarbon dates. The biostratigraphy in terms of pollen assemblages is compared with the absolute time scale. The Younger Dryas as a pollen assemblage zone is at best vaguely visible in those parts that

  9. Oil Pollution and Eastern Obolo Human Ecology,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    In the environment are other organisms of flora and fauna whose importance to ... environment. The different types of rigs used to drill the exploratory wells in. Eastern Obolo include drill ships and jack-up rigs. These rigs were able to ... instance, the initial 360 spills in the 1970s released 1.426 million barrels of crude oil into ...

  10. pandemic in the eastern Mediterranean region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, infected wild birds, especially wild ducks, could migrate to other regions, such as the eastern. Mediterranean region, and spread the virus. Fourth, Guan et al. (1) reported that viral hepatitis infection, especially hepatitis B, could be a possible risk factor for influenza A(nrH7N9) infection in humans (1). Countries from the ...

  11. The eastern larch beetle in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Werner

    1986-01-01

    The eastern larch beetle (Dendroctonus simplex LeConte) exists throughout the range of tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch) in interior Alaska where it has a 1-year life cycle. Beetles overwinter as adults in the bark of the trunk below snowline in infested trees. Tamarack trees that are slow growing because of repeated...

  12. Laptop Circulation at Eastern Washington University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Doris; Malia, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    In 2001, Eastern Washington University's Libraries began a laptop circulation program with seventeen laptops. Today, there are 150 laptops in the circulation pool, as well as seventeen digital cameras, eleven digital handycams, and thirteen digital projectors. This article explains how the program has grown to its present size, the growing pains…

  13. Timber resource of Missouri's Eastern Ozarks, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton L. Essex; John S. Jr. Spencer

    1974-01-01

    The third timber inventory of Missouri's Eastern Ozarks Forest Survey Unit shows that there was a substantial gain in the volume of growing stock and smaller but sizable gain in the volume of sawtimber between 1959 and 1972; however, the area of commercial forest land declined slightly. This report gives statistical highlights and tables presenting detailed...

  14. A vegetation map for eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; van Breugel, Paulo; Graudal, Lars

    2015-01-01

    for the right place' and potential distribution maps of the useful woody species that occur in eastern Africa. To navigate this site, please use the menu on the left. For the latest news and updates, check out our Google+ page. And if you want to contact us for questions, comments or any other reason, please...

  15. Anemia among school children in eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Saroj; Gelal, Basanta; Gautam, Sharad; Tamang, Man Kumar; Shakya, Prem Raj; Lamsal, Madhab; Baral, Nirmal

    2015-06-01

    Anemia is one of the most common public health problems in developing countries like Nepal. This study was done to find the prevalence of anemia among the children aged 4-13 years in eastern Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in four districts (Morang, Udayapur, Bhojpur and Ilam) of eastern Nepal to find the prevalence of anemia among the school children of eastern Nepal. Children aged 4-13 years were selected randomly from different schools of above districts and 618 venous blood samples were collected. Hemoglobin level was estimated by using cyanmethemoglobin method. The mean hemoglobin level was 12.2 ± 1.82 gm/dl. About 37.9% (n = 234) children were found anemic. Anemia prevalence was 42.4% (n = 78), 31.6% (n = 60), 45.3% (n = 48) and 34.8% (n = 48) among school children of Morang, Udayapur, Bhojpur and Ilam district, respectively. The study finds anemia as a significant health problem among the school children of eastern Nepal. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Sawlog grades for eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myron D. Ostrander; Robert L. Brisbin; Robert L. Brisbin

    1971-01-01

    In 1957, the USDA Forest Service Log Grade Committee recommended a service-wide action program in log- and tree-grade research. Approval of the program in 1958 resulted in the establishment of five species-oriented timber-quality research projects covering several groups of commercially important timber species. The eastern softwood timber-quality project was activated...

  17. Numerical modeling of eastern connecticut's visual resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Civco

    1979-01-01

    A numerical model capable of accurately predicting the preference for landscape photographs of selected points in eastern Connecticut is presented. A function of the social attitudes expressed toward thirty-two salient visual landscape features serves as the independent variable in predicting preferences. A technique for objectively assigning adjectives to landscape...

  18. Trauma care – the Eastern Cape story

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    natural deaths in the Eastern Cape are worryingly higher than the national average, i.e. 11.6% v. 11% and 15.7% v. 10.2%, respectively. The values are in keeping with the higher levels of poverty in the province. ... The huge burden of disease, together with poor ... Prevention in South Africa: Developments and Challenges.

  19. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  20. Recovery of eastern Cape heathland after fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. F. G. Jacot Guillarmod

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available In parts of the eastern Cape, fire is increasing in frequency and intensity in heathland, due mainly to the presence of adventive exotic tree species. These adventives also smother the indigenous vegetation under a dense canopy or with leaf litter. This heathland* flora requires a long period to reach its climax and under present conditions, this is rarely attained.

  1. Undrained Triaxial Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    of frictional materials during monotonic loading. The tests conducted includes undrained and constant volume tests, starting from different initial states of stress and following various stress paths. All the tests are performed on reconstituted loose to medium dense specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand....

  2. Fire in Eastern North American Oak Ecosystems: Filling the Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian (Morgan) Varner; Mary Arthur; Stacy Clark; Daniel C. Dey; Justin Hart; Callie Schweitzer

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of Fire Ecology is focused on the fire ecology of eastern USA oak (Quercus L.) forests, woodlands, and savannas. The papers were presented as part of the Fifth Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA, in 2015. The topic of fire in eastern oak ecosystems is one that has received insufficient interest from the...

  3. Importance of the Eastern Arc Mountains for vascular plants | Lovett ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The term 'Eastern Arc' was introduced in 1985 to describe an exceptionally rich area of restricted range plant species on the crystalline mountains of eastern Tanzania and south-east Kenya. About a third of the Eastern Arc flora is composed of restricted¬-range species. Qualitative and quantitative data are used to ...

  4. U-Pb zircon and CHIME monazite dating of granitoids and high-grade metamorphic rocks from the Eastern and Peninsular Thailand - A new report of Early Paleozoic granite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, T.; Nakano, N.; Higashino, F.; Hokada, T.; Osanai, Y.; Yuhara, M.; Charusiri, P.; Kamikubo, H.; Yonemura, K.; Hirata, T.

    2014-07-01

    In order to understand the age and tectonic framework of Eastern to Peninsular Thailand from the viewpoint of basement (metamorphic and plutonic) geology, the LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating and the chemical Th-U-total Pb isochron method (CHIME) monazite dating were performed in the Khao Chao, Hub-Kapong to Pran Buri, and Khanom areas in Eastern to Peninsular Thailand. The LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating of the garnet-hornblende gneiss from the Khao Chao area gave 229 ± 3 Ma representing the crystallization age of the gabbro, and that of the garnet-biotite gneisses gave 193 ± 4 Ma representing the timing of an upper amphibolite facies metamorphism. The CHIME monazite dating of pelitic gneiss from the Khao Chao gneiss gave scattered result of 68 ± 22 Ma, due to low PbO content and rejuvenation of older monazite grains during another metamorphism in the Late Cretaceous to Tertiary time. The U-Pb ages of zircon from the Hua Hin gneissic granite in the Hub-Kapong to Pran Buri area scatter from 250 Ma to 170 Ma on the concordia. Granite crystallization was at 219 ± 2 Ma, followed by the sillimanite-grade regional metamorphism at 185 ± 2 Ma. Monazite in the pelitic gneiss from this area also preserves Early to Middle Jurassic metamorphism and rejuvenation by later contact metamorphism by non-foliated granite or by another fluid infiltration event in the Late Cretaceous to Tertiary time. The Khao Dat Fa granite from the Khanom area of Peninsular Thailand gave a U-Pb zircon age of 477 ± 7 Ma. This is the second oldest granite pluton ever reported from Thailand, and is a clear evidence for the Sibumasu block having a crystalline basement that was formed during the Pan-African Orogeny. The Khao Pret granite gives U-Pb zircon concordia age of 67.5 ± 1.3 Ma, which represents the timing of zircon crystallization from the granitic melt and accompanied sillimanite-grade contact metamorphism against surrounding metapelites and gneisses. Metamorphic rocks in the Doi Inthanon area

  5. Assessing health literacy in the eastern and middle-eastern cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar; Satish, Karthyayani Priya; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Ibrahim, Halah

    2016-08-19

    Health literacy is a term employed to assess the ability of people to meet the increasing demands related to health in a rapidly evolving society. Low health literacy can affect the social determinants of health, health outcomes and the use of healthcare services. The purpose of the study was to develop a survey construct to assess health literacy within the context of regional culture. Different socioeconomic status among the Eastern and Middle Eastern countries may restrict, health information access and utilization for those with low literacy. By employing expert panel, Delphi technique, focus group methodologies, and pre-testing using participants (N = 900) from the UAE and India, a survey construct to the Eastern-Middle Eastern cultures was developed. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's α and validity using Factor analysis. Kiaser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) sampling adequacy and Bartlett's tests were used to assess the strength of the relationship among the variables. Inclusion of non-health related items were found to be critical in the authentic assessment of health literacy in the Eastern and Middle Eastern population given the influence of social desirability. Thirty-two percentage of the original 19-item construct was eliminated by the focus group for reasons of relevance and impact for the local culture. Field pretesting participants from two countries, indicated overall construct reliability (Cronbach's α =0.85), validity and consistency (KMO value of 0.92 and Bartlett's test of sphericity was significant). The Eastern-Middle Eastern Adult Health Literacy (EMAHL13), screening instrument is brief, simple, a useful indicator of whether or not a patient can read. It assessespatients' ability to comprehend by distinguishing between health and non-health related items. The EMAHL13 will be a useful too for the reliable assessment of health literacy in countries, where culture plays a significant impact. This will be the first steptowards providing

  6. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, Brett A; Goldizen, Anne W; Thomson, Vicki A; Seddon, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales) experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  7. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A Coghlan

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus. The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  8. Ethnographies of Grey Zones in Eastern Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states’ and internationa......Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states......’ and internationally minded ‘new citizens’ has left some in poverty, unemployment and social insecurity, leading them to rely on normative coping and semi-autonomous strategies for security and social guarantees. This anthology explores how grey zones of governance, borders, relations and invisibilities affect...

  9. Drained Triaxial Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praastrup, U.; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    In the process of understanding and developing models for geomaterials, the stress-strain behaviour is commonly studied by performing triaxial tests. In the present study static triaxial tests have been performed to gain knowledge of the stress-strain behaviour of frictional materials during mono...... monotonic loading. The tests reported herein are all drained tests, starting from different initial states of stress and following various stress paths. AIl the tests are performed on reconstituted medium dense specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand....

  10. On The New Russian Eastern Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Torkunov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the new Eastern foreign policy of Russia, which has been developing since 2011, and the realization of various projects within this policy. The author posits that world is undergoing profound and dynamic changes, which boil down to two interconnected processes: 1 economic power shift towards Asia-Pacific region, which will define in the near future the shape of the world system; 2 shift of the main political, economic and military contradictions in world politics to this region. These core changes in world politics are also effected by trends in development of Russia and its near abroad. For more than a quarter of the century Russia has been pursuing a regional leadership in building among post-soviet states a mutual space for common interests open for other members of international community. This policy became known as "new Russian Eastern policy" or a policy of Eurasian integration. Its main goal is to establish Eurasian economic union by 2015 which will open boarders of the member states for unrestricted movement of goods, services, capital and workers within the emerging regional market with the total volume of 170-180 million people. Russian leaders look forward to discussing with their European partners prospects for merging Eurasian and European unions into a single economic space stretching from Lisbon to Vladivostok. Conceptually the strategy of Eurasian integration stems from a belief in unity of economic, cultural, civilizational interests of the Eurasian member states with state interests in Asia and Asia-Pacific. Realization of the new Eastern policy will be accompanied by the long awaited development of the Russian Eastern regions.

  11. Petrography, geochemistry and tectonic setting of Salmabad Tertiary volcanic rocks, southeast of Sarbisheh, eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Goodarzi

    2014-10-01

    is attributed to the mantle source, presumably metasomatized by the Sistan ocean subduction. The trace element features are consistent with the roles played by subducted sediments and fluid released from the subducted slab in magma genesis. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank reviewers for the constructive comments which greatly contributed to the improvement of the manuscript. References Berberian, F., Muir, I.D., Pankhurst, R.J. and Berberian, M., 1982. Late Cretaceous and early Miocene Andean type plutonic activity in northern Makran and Central Iran. Journal of the Geological Society, 139(5: 605-614. Camp, V.E. and Griffis, R., 1982. Character, genesis and tectonic setting of igneous rocks in the Sistan suture zone, eastern Iran. Lithos, 15(3: 221-239. Gill, R., 2010. Igneous rocks and processes. Wiley-Blackwell, Malaysia, 428 pp. Harangi, S., Downes, H., Thirlwall, M., Gmeling, K., 2007. Geochemistry, Petrogenesis and Geodynamic Relationships of Miocene Calc-alkalineVolcanic Rocks in the Western Carpathian arc, Eastern Central Europe. Journal of petrology, 48(12: 2261-2287. Jung, D., Keller, J., Khorasani, R., Marcks, Chr., Baumann, A. and Horn, P., 1983. Petrology of the Tertiary magmatic activity the northern Lut area, East of Iran. Ministry of mines and metals, Geological survey of Iran, geodynamic project (geotraverse in Iran, Tehran, Report 51, pp. 285-336. Karimpour, M.H., Stern, C.R., Farmer, L., Saadat, S. and Malekezadeh, A., 2011. Review of age, Rb-Sr geochemistry and petrogenesis of Jurassic to Quaternary igneous rocks in Lut Block, Eastern Iran. Geopersia, 1(1:19-36. Kuscu, G.G. and Geneli, F., 2010. Review of post-collisional volcanism in the central Anatolian volcanic province(Turkey, with special reference to the Tepekoy volcanic complex. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 99(3: 593-621. Richards, J.P., Spell, T., Rameh, E., Razique, A. and Fletcher T., 2012. High Sr/Y Magmas Reflect Arc Maturity,High Magmatic Water Content, and

  12. MODIFICACIONES DE LA CAPACIDAD DE SALTO EN LAS PRUEBAS DEL TEST DE BOSCO TRAS LA APLICACIÓN DE UN ENTRENAMIENTO DE FUERZA BASADO EN EL MÉTODO DE CONTRASTE ENTRE SUJETOS DE 50 A 70 AÑOS CON DIFERENTES NIVELES DE ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. González

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    RESUMEN

    El objetivo de este estudio fue el análisis de las modificaciones producidas en la capacidad de salto de los miembros inferiores, tras un programa de entrenamiento de fuerza realizado a través del uso de la combinación de cargas pesadas y ligeras durante 16 semanas medidas a través del test de Bosco: SJ, CMJ y DJ. 23 sujetos, 13 hombres y 10 mujeres divididos en dos grupos: deportistas(GD y físicamente activos(GND se sometieron al programa de entrenamiento. El instrumental utilizado para la medición fue la plataforma de presión (licencia Fac. Ciencias Activ. Física y Deporte Univ. Granada Se realizó un diseño experimental con un diseño de medida pretratamiento, aplicación de un tratamiento y medida post-tratamiento a dos grupos diferentes. Los resultados muestran que la fuerza explosiva, la elástico-explosiva, la explosivo-elástico-reactiva y la resistencia de fuerza rápida medidas indirectamente a través de la altura de salto son mayores en sujetos deportistas respecto a sujetos físicamente activos antes del entrenamiento de fuerza. La aplicación de un entrenamiento de fuerza basado en el método de contraste en la sesión durante 16 semanas ha mejorado significativamente en las extremidades inferiores las diferentes manifestaciones de fuerza previamente referidas en el GND y en el GD.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: entrenamiento, contraste, mayores, fuerza.

    ABSTRACT

    The aim of this study is to examine the differences of force production in 50 -70 year old athletes and active subjects, both before and after the strength training and, on the other hand the effects of such a 16 week strength training on height jump in bosco protocol (SJ, CMJ, DJ. The strength training is based on the alternative use of light and heavy leads

  13. Age, tectonic setting, and metallogenic implication of Phanerozoic granitic magmatism at the eastern margin of the Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic Belt, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Ren, Yunsheng; Zhao, Hualei; Yang, Qun; Shang, Qingqing

    2017-08-01

    The eastern margin of the Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic Belt is characterised by widespread Phanerozoic granitic magmatism, some of which is closely related to significant ore mineralisation. This paper presents new geochronological, petrogenetic, and tectonic data for selected intrusions. Zircon U-Pb geochronology for five granitoid plutons indicates they were emplaced during the middle-late Permian (264-255 Ma) and Cretaceous (106-94 Ma), and thus granitic magmatism occurred throughout the Phanerozoic, Permian (268-252 Ma), Early-Middle Triassic (248-240 Ma), Early Jurassic (183 Ma), and Cretaceous (112-94 Ma). The Permian granitoids consist of monzogranite, granodiorite, tonalite, and quartz diorite, characterised by enrichment in Na2O (3.60-4.72 wt.%), depletion in K2O (0.97-2.66 wt.%), and a negative correlation between P2O5 and SiO2. Together with the presence of hornblende, these geochemical features are indicative of an I-type affinity. The Permian granitic magmatism is associated with quartz-vein-type tungsten deposits (252 Ma; unpublished Sm-Nd isochron age), which formed in an active continental margin setting related to subduction of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean. The Cretaceous quartz diorites have an adakitic affinity, having relatively high Sr (374-502 ppm), low Yb (0.51-0.67 ppm) and Y (8.7-10.7 ppm), and high Sr/Y (39.4-46.8) and (La/Yb)N values (16.2-34.7), suggesting that they were related to the partial melting of subducted oceanic crust. In addition, they are associated with porphyry Au-Cu deposits. We conclude that the Cretaceous granitic rocks and associated porphyry Au-Cu mineralisation occurred in an extensional tectonic setting related to the subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate. In addition, the large-scale Early-Middle Triassic syn-collisional granite belt at the eastern margin of the Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic Belt extends from the middle of Jilin Province to the Wangqing-Hunchun region, constraining the timing of the

  14. Assessing health literacy in the eastern and middle-eastern cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Chandrasekhar Nair

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health literacy is a term employed to assess the ability of people to meet the increasing demands related to health in a rapidly evolving society. Low health literacy can affect the social determinants of health, health outcomes and the use of healthcare services. The purpose of the study was to develop a survey construct to assess health literacy within the context of regional culture. Different socioeconomic status among the Eastern and Middle Eastern countries may restrict, health information access and utilization for those with low literacy. Methods By employing expert panel, Delphi technique, focus group methodologies, and pre-testing using participants (N = 900 from the UAE and India, a survey construct to the Eastern-Middle Eastern cultures was developed. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s α and validity using Factor analysis. Kiaser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO sampling adequacy and Bartlett’s tests were used to assess the strength of the relationship among the variables. Results Inclusion of non-health related items were found to be critical in the authentic assessment of health literacy in the Eastern and Middle Eastern population given the influence of social desirability. Thirty-two percentage of the original 19-item construct was eliminated by the focus group for reasons of relevance and impact for the local culture. Field pretesting participants from two countries, indicated overall construct reliability (Cronbach’s α =0.85, validity and consistency (KMO value of 0.92 and Bartlett’s test of sphericity was significant. Conclusion The Eastern-Middle Eastern Adult Health Literacy (EMAHL13, screening instrument is brief, simple, a useful indicator of whether or not a patient can read. It assessespatients’ ability to comprehend by distinguishing between health and non-health related items. The EMAHL13 will be a useful too for the reliable assessment of health literacy in countries, where culture plays a

  15. Zircon Lu-Hf isotope systematics and U-Pb geochronology, whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopes and geochemistry of the early Jurassic Gokcedere pluton, Sakarya Zone-NE Turkey: a magmatic response to roll-back of the Paleo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsli, Orhan; Dokuz, Abdurrahman; Kandemir, Raif

    2017-05-01

    The early Mesozoic was a critical era for the geodynamic evolution of the Sakarya Zone as transition from accretion to collision events in the region. However, its complex evolutionary history is still debated. To address this issue, we present new in situ zircon U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf isotope data, whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopes, and mineral chemistry and geochemistry data of plutonic rocks to better understand the magmatic processes. The Gokcedere pluton is mainly composed of gabbro and gabbroic diorite. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating reveals that the pluton was emplaced in the early Jurassic (177 Ma). These gabbros and gabbroic diorites are characterized by relatively low SiO2 content of 47.09 to 57.15 wt% and high Mg# values varying from 46 to 75. The samples belong to the calc-alkaline series and exhibit a metaluminous I-type character. Moreover, they are slightly enriched in large ion lithophile elements (Rb, Ba, Th and K) and light rare earth elements and depleted in high field strength elements (Nb and Ti). Gabbroic rocks of the pluton have a depleted Sr-Nd isotopic composition, including low initial 87Sr/86Sr ranging from 0.705124 to 0.705599, relatively high ɛ Nd ( t) values varying from 0.1 to 3.5 and single-stage Nd model ages ( T DM1 = 0.65-0.95 Ga). In situ zircon analyses show that the rocks have variable and positive ɛ Hf ( t) values (4.6 to 13.5) and single-stage Hf model ages ( T DM1 = 0.30 to 0.65 Ga). Both the geochemical signature and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic composition of the gabbroic rocks reveal that the magma of the studied rocks was formed by the partial melting of a depleted mantle wedge metasomatized by slab-derived fluids. The influence of slab fluids is mirrored by their trace-element characteristics. Trace-element modeling suggests that the primary magma was generated by a low and variable degree of partial melting ( 5-15%) of a depleted and young lithospheric mantle wedge consisting of phlogopite- and spinel-bearing lherzolite. Heat to melt the

  16. Eastern Europe. On the centenary of the political project

    OpenAIRE

    Mezhevich Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the characteristics of Eastern Europe as a political pro-ject. The author considers the genesis of Eastern Europe as a political region and identifies several periods in its history. The author analyses key features of sover-eignization- desovereignization of the region and examines geopolitical projects of Intermarium. It is shown that Eastern Europe as such is an objective reality, whose history has not ended. At the same time, the author advances and proves the thesi...

  17. Emigration dynamics of eastern African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oucho, J O

    1995-01-01

    This examination of emigration dynamics focuses on 13 countries extending from Eritrea to Zimbabwe and Mozambique on the eastern African mainland and on 5 Indian Ocean island nations. The first part of the study looks at the temporal, spatial, and structural perspectives of emigration dynamics. Part 2 considers international migration in the region according to Appleyard's typology (permanent settlers, labor migration, refugees, and illegal migrants) with the additional category of return migration. Measurement issues in emigration dynamics are discussed in part 3, and the demographic/economic setting is the topic of part 4. The demographic factors emphasized include spatial distribution, population density, population structure, population dynamics, demographic transition, and the relationship between internal and international migration. Other major topics of this section of the study are the economic base, the human resource base, population and natural resources, the sociocultural context (emigration, chain migration, return migration, and migration linkages and networks), political factors (including human rights, minority rights and security, regional integration and economic cooperation, and the impact of structural adjustment programs), and a prediction of future emigration dynamics. It is concluded that refugee flows remain a major factor in eastern African countries but the development of human resources in the northern portion of the region indicates development of potential labor migration from this area. Data constraints have limited measurement of emigration in this region and may contribute to the seeming indifference of most eastern African countries to emigration policies. Emigration in this region has been triggered by deteriorating economic and political conditions and is expected to increase.

  18. Mapping crustal thinning beneath the Eastern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jordi; Chevrot, Sebastien; Verges, Jaume; Sylvander, Matthieu; Ruiz, Mario; Antonio-Vigil, Amanda

    2017-04-01

    The eastern termination of the Pyrenees is a complex region marked by two large tectonic events, the building of the Pyrenees during the Alpine orogeny and the Neogene extensional processes associated to the rotation of the Sardinia-Corsica block and the opening of the Valencia Trough. This complex tectonic history has left major imprints in crustal structures. Previous studies based on gravity data and active seismic profiles have documented a crustal thinning from 40-45 km about 80 km to the west of the Mediterranean coastline to less than 25 km beneath the eastern termination of the Pyrenees. To progress in the knowledge of the geometry of this transition, two passive seismic profiles have been acquired from mid 2015 to late 2016 within the OROGEN project, an academic-industrial collaboration between CNRS-Total-BRGM and CSIC. Up to 38 broad-band stations were deployed along two orthogonal lines, with an interstation spacing close to 10 km. First results of receiver function migration on the E-W profile suggest a smooth Moho thinning smoothly from 40 km beneath the western termination of the line to 23 km close to the coastline. The NNE-SSW profile shows a clearly defined Moho beneath Iberia, slightly deepening from 32 to 35 km northwards, a 28-30 km thick crust underneath the North Pyrenean Front Thrust and a complex geometry in the Axial Zone. Data from natural events located in the Gulf of Roses and near the intersecting point of the profiles have been recorded along the lines, hence allowing to produce wide angle reflection/refraction profiles providing additional constraints on the geometry of the crust/mantle boundary in the Eastern Pyrenees. These new results will be integrated with the available geophysical and geologic information for a more accurate geodynamical interpretation of the results. (Additional founding by the MISTERIOS project, CGL2013-48601-C2-1-R)

  19. Modelling the shelf circulation off eastern Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Eric C. J.; Herzfeld, Mike; Holbrook, Neil J.

    2016-11-01

    The marine waters across Tasmanian's eastern continental shelf are biologically productive and home to economically important fisheries and aquaculture industries. However, the marine climate there is poorly understood. We use a high-resolution (∼2 km in the horizontal), three-dimensional ocean model for eastern Tasmania (ETAS) to examine the simulated mean state and seasonal cycle of temperature, salinity and three-dimensional flow field, and the evaluation of daily model outputs against in situ and remote observations for the 1993-2014 period. We also use the model to examine the roles of river input and tidal forcing. The model is evaluated against remotely-sensed sea surface temperature and in-situ observations of sea level and subsurface temperature, salinity, and currents. The mean state demonstrates the influence of two well-known boundary currents (the East Australian Current, EAC, and the Zeehan Current, ZC) as well as the effects of local freshwater input from river runoff. The EAC is dominant in summer and the ZC in winter; the influence of the EAC also increases northwards and in the offshore direction. In addition, the model indicates the presence of a semi-permanent subsurface (50-100 m depth) northward flow trapped near the coast. Cool freshwater runoff from the Derwent and Huon Rivers directly impacts the temperature and salinity in their estuaries but has little influence further across the shelf. Tidal forcing impacts the mean state through tide-river interactions which flush Frederick Henry Bay and Norfolk Bay with freshwater. Tidal forcing also impacts the variability of temperature all along the coastline, most likely due to changes in the turbulent mixing near to the coast. The ETAS model output data are available as a high-resolution representation of the mean state, seasonal variations, and interannual variability of Tasmania's eastern continental shelf marine climate.

  20. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  1. Eastern Scheldt Sand, Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. T; Madsen, E. B.; Schaarup-Jensen, A. L.

    The present data report contains data from 13 drained triaxial tests, performed on two different sand types in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University in March, 1997. Two tests have been performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15, which has already ken extensively tested in the Soil Mechanics...... Laboratory. The remaining 11 triaxial tests have ben performed on Eastern Scheldt Sand, which is a material not yet investigated at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. In the first pari of this data report, the characteristics of the two sand types in question will be presented. Next, a description...

  2. Roman attempts to control Eastern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nappo, Dario

    2017-01-01

    The Roman Empire showed a very distinct interest for the Red Sea area along all its history. This was due to the crucial role played by such region in both military and commercial Roman plans to expand its own influence in the East. The first echo of a military attempt to conquer the north eastern shores of Africa beyond Egypt dates back to the age of Augustus, but it is with Trajan that such project seems to reach a new level of coherence and strategic view. Under the latter, in fect, we hav...

  3. Ethnographies of Grey Zones in Eastern Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ’ and internationally minded ‘new citizens’ has left some in poverty, unemployment and social insecurity, leading them to rely on normative coping and semi-autonomous strategies for security and social guarantees. This anthology explores how grey zones of governance, borders, relations and invisibilities affect......Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states...

  4. The "New Politics" of EU's Eastern Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    The paper gives an overview of EU's eastern enlargement and draws some theoretical conclusions. In particular, it stresses the point that the EU member states in the process of enlargement have entered a phase of "new politics", characterised by multilateralism, conditionality, help and binding...... agreements. They gained strong influence over their surroundings, and ,albeit they had to give up substantil parts of de-facto sovereingty, they are much better off than before, in particular in terms of security. EU's "new politics" are a successful alternative model to the "old politics", represented e...

  5. Parabolic dunes in north-eastern Brazil

    CERN Document Server

    Duran, O; Bezerra, L J C; Herrmann, H J; Maia, L P

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present measurements of vegetation cover over parabolic dunes with different degree of activation along the north-eastern Brazilian coast. We are able to extend the local values of the vegetation cover density to the whole dune by correlating measurements with the gray-scale levels of a high resolution satellite image of the dune field. The empirical vegetation distribution is finally used to validate the results of a recent continuous model of dune motion coupling sand erosion and vegetation growth.

  6. Wooden Calendar Sticks in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Vesselina; Koleva, Svetlana

    Wooden calendar sticks have preserved an archaic time-keeping tradition, which, during the Middle Ages, was one of the tools for establishing and disseminating Christian chronology and the liturgical calendars of the Western and Eastern Churches. The calendars vary in size and shape, type of signs, and structure of the record. Christian symbols interwoven with signs and pictograms mark days of importance in the ritual and economic year cycle. The wooden calendars are considered one of the proofs of the syncretism between the pagan tradition and Christian rites in folk cultures.

  7. Eastern and western happiness in work behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Kubátová

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to clarify what motivates East Asian work behavior. The research question is: How can a Western manager better understand work behavior and motivation in East Asian cultures? Knowledge about national culture, motivation and the concept of happiness are connected via deductive and comparative methods, while pointing out their new connections and relations. We argue that work motivation in East Asian cultures can be explained using the self-concept-based motivation meta-theory as it corresponds to the East Asian concept of face and that the East Asian self-concept originates with the Eastern concept of happiness.

  8. The role of magma mixing in the evolution of the Early Paleozoic calc-alkaline granitoid suites. Eastern magmatic belt, Puna, NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzaño, Néstor; Becchio, Raúl; Sola, Alfonso; Ortiz, Agustín; Nieves, Alexis; Quiroga, Mirta; Fuentes, Gabriela

    2017-07-01

    The outcrops of the Eastern magmatic belt in Puna, NW Argentina, offer an excellent field laboratory to study the interaction processes between magmas of contrasting composition in a plutonic environment. We evaluate the genesis of Cambrian-Ordovician intermediate to acid rocks from the Diablillos Intrusive Complex and the Cerro Bayo area, through detailed geological, petrographic, mineralogical, geochemical, and Nd isotopic analyses in combination with published data. These localities display a great variety of magmatic rocks from diorite/Qz-diorite to two-mica syenogranites with tonalite, granodiorite, monzogranite and Bt-Ttn-leucogranites as mixed products. Major, trace element and whole-rock Nd isotope modeling and petrological data, suggests that magma mixing between hydrous juvenile mantle- and crustal-derived magmas contributed significantly to the geochemical variation of these granites. The estimated proportion of mafic component 0.40-0.67 and 0.14-0.35 in the mixtures may produce the tonalite-granodiorites and monzogranites magmas. The mixing model excludes the predominant influence of fractional crystallization from a mafic magma and local assimilation-fractional-crystallization processes. Isotopic and geochemical comparison between the studied rocks and the magmatic belts in Puna and Tastil batholith suites reveals a marked resemblance. The data suggests that those rocks were probably generated by magma mixing and denotes a regionally and continuous process in a long-lasting (∼540-440 Ma) active continental margin. We propose that partial melting of the crust and magma mixing occurred in the lower crust and was possibly triggered by underplated and intraplated hydrous (4.37-5.91 wt% H2O) mafic magmas. The hybrid magmas were emplaced at shallow depth (∼8-9 km, 684-727 °C) and occasionally injected either by synplutonic-to late successive pulses of mafic magmas.

  9. Controls on the formation of Cu-rich magmas: Insights from the Late Triassic post-collisional Saishitang complex in the eastern Kunlun Orogen, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinyang; Yang, Zhibing; Zhang, Hui; Ma, Changqian; Li, Jianwei; Pan, Yuanming

    2017-05-01

    Petrogenesis of high Sr/Y andesitic to dacitic Cu-rich magmas remains highly controversial and has been attributed to be related to either particular sources or differentiation processes/conditions. This study provides a comprehensive petrological and geochemical dataset including Cu, Au and Pt systematics in the Saishitang complex in the eastern Kunlun Orogen to investigate the influence of the magmatic source and differentiation processes on Cu enrichment in a post-collisional, slab-derived magmatic system. The Saishitang complex contains a 233 Ma plutonic main body and tens of porphyritic dykes intruded at 218 Ma, and hosts skarn copper mineralization formed at 218-224 Ma. The main intrusion consists of quartz diorite, granodiorite and minor amounts of monzogranite, whereas the porphyritic dykes vary from diorite to quartz diorite, granodiorite and granite. The porphyritic diorites, with high MgO, Ni and Cr contents and moderately high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios, were most likely derived from partial melting of the subducted slab and overlying sediments and then interacted with mantle peridotite. Mineral compositions and geochemical data, as well as mass-balance, Rayleigh fractionation and isotopic mixing modeling show that the parent magmas subsequently experienced simultaneous assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) at both the lower and the mid-to-upper crustal levels, and were finally emplaced to different upper crustal levels. Systematic Cu and Au variations during the Saishitang magmatic evolution suggest that the lower crustal AFC process improved the Cu budget by approximately one order of magnitude and therefore was the most critical factor in controlling the formation of Cu-rich magmas, although other processes such as slab melting and sulfide saturation were also important.

  10. REMITTANCES AND FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT.A study of the South-Eastern and Eastern-European countries.

    OpenAIRE

    MALE, STELA

    2009-01-01

    Remittances were calculated to be approximately $318 billion in 2007, which is an increase of three times the amount of $102 billion in 1995, having these funds to become the second largest type of flows after foreign direct investment. The South-Eastern and Eastern-European countries welcomed 12% of the world’s remittances inflows in 2007, totalling $37 billion. The impact of remittances on financial development of the South-Eastern and Eastern-European countries for the period 1994 – 2007 i...

  11. Intercontinental and intracontinental biogeography of the eastern Asian - Eastern North American disjunct Panax (the ginseng genus, Araliaceae), emphasizing its diversification processes in eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yun-Juan; Wen, Jun; Zhou, Shi-Liang

    2017-12-01

    The intercontinental biogeography between eastern Asia and eastern North America has attracted much attention from evolutionary biologists. Further insights into understanding the evolution of the intercontinental disjunctions have been hampered by the lack of studies on the intracontinental biogeography in eastern Asia, a region with complex geology, geography, climates and habitats. Herein we studied the biogeographic history of the eastern Asian-eastern North American disjunct genus Panax with special emphasis on the investigation of its uneven diversification in Asia. This study reconstructs the diversification history of Panax and also emphasizes a large clade of Panax taxa, which has a wide distribution in eastern Asia, but was unresolved in previous studies. We examined the noncoding plastid DNA fragments of trnH-psbA, rps16, and psbM-trnD, the mitochondrial b/c intron of NAD1, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 356 samples from 47 populations. The results revealed the subtropical Northern Hemisphere origin (Asia or Asia and North America) of Panax in the Paleocene. Intercontinental disjunctions between eastern Asia and eastern North America formed twice in Panax, once estimated in early Eocene for the split of P. trifolius and another in mid-Miocene for the divergence of P. quinquefolius. Intercontinental diversifications in Panax showed temporal correlation with the increase of global temperature. The evolutionary radiation of the P. bipinnatifidus species complex occurred around the boundary of Oligocene and Miocene. Strong genetic structure among populations of the species complex was detected and the populations may be isolated by distance. The backbone network and the Bayesian clustering analysis revealed a major evolutionary radiation centered in the Hengduan Mountains of western China. Our results suggested that the evolutionary radiation of Panax was promoted by geographic barriers, including mountain ranges

  12. Eastern Europe and Community of Independent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, A

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration, HIV/AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases in Eastern Europe and the Community of Independent States (CIS): Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the former Yugoslavian countries; and Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. There is little in-depth research on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. After the collapse of the USSR, the opening up of borders presented greater options for the spread of HIV. During 1991-1996, HIV-infected persons increased from 0.3/100,000 to 7.8/100,000. Syphilis and gonorrhea also spread in the 1990s. The increased prevalence is attributed to changes in sexual behavior due to increased travel and migration, disruption among families, and changes in sexual mores; and changes in the structure, availability, and effectiveness of health services. Many migrants in the CIS are young people. Mobile populations in the CIS include labor migrants, refugees, persons displaced by armed conflicts, repatriates, forced migrants, resettlement of formerly deported persons, and ecological migrants. It is general knowledge that migrants are poorly informed about HIV/AIDS. Condoms are not readily available in the CIS. Eastern Europe has high rates of HIV among migrant sex workers.

  13. Petrogenesis of cogenetic silica-oversaturated and -undersaturated syenites of Abu Khruq ring complex, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogahed, Moustafa M.

    2016-12-01

    The upper Cretaceous Abu Khruq ring complex (ARC) is located in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt displays concentric zonation of syenitic rocks from quartz-rich syenite at the margin, through alkali feldspar syenite to nepheline syenite in the centre. The syenitic rocks occur with nepheline monzogabbro, volcanic rocks (phonolite and trachyte) and the quartz- and nepheline-bearing pegmatites. Rocks of contrasting composition (mafic and salic) exhibit sophisticate geometric relationships. The nepheline monzogabbroic rocks have pillowy xenoliths forms within the salic (nepheline syenite and quartz alkali feldspar syenite) rocks, suggesting synchronous emplacement of the mafic and salic magmas. Clinopyroxene analysis of mafic and salic plutonic rocks of the ARC revealed that the overall pyroxene trend suggesting that fractionation involved a late, progressive increase in Na, in a reaction of the type Ca Mg Fe2+↔Na Fe3+. The chemistry of the analysed amphiboles are compositionally similar to those from typical differentiated peralkaline suites. Geochemically, the complex is enriched in the LILE, HFSE and REE. The concentrations of the compatible elements (V, Sr and Ba) generally decrease with increasing silica, consistent with fractional crystallization. A generalised increase in the Nb/Ta from the nepheline monzogabbro to nepheline syenite compositions is attributed to titanite fractionation. All the rock samples show relative increment of the LREE content than the HREE indicating weak to steep fractionated REE patterns (La/Yb) from 9.43 to 10.86, and thus retaining the geochemical characteristics of anorogenic suites. The magma sources of ARC are not derived from normal primitive mantle. The early stages of differentiation involved extensive olivine and pyroxene fractionation, the fractionation of amphibole, titanite, magnetite, apatite and feldspar may have been involved in the genesis of the salic differentiated compositions. The deviation towards silica

  14. Correct nomenclature for the Angadimogar pluton, Kerala ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of southern India showing the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. (b) Photograph illustrating the pink syenite exposed near Angadimogar, northern Kerala. (c) Modal composition (this study) and normative compositions (reproduced from. Anil Kumar et al 2005) of the Angadimogar samples in a QAP plot. The three components ...

  15. Geothermal Reservoirs: Products of Cooling Plutons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis L. Norton

    2002-09-24

    The goals of this project were to develop an in depth understanding of how geothermal reservoirs form and elucidate those features that could potentially be useful in exploration and development of additional energy reserves. Collaboration with Jeff Hulen, EGI helped closely coordinate theoretical concepts and computational experiments with geologic reality in fulfillment of the tasks for this project. Initial reconnaissance computations with Tom Brikowski, University of Texas were critical in realizing the final products of this project. The products of this work contribute basic understanding of the dynamical conditions attendant to the formation of reservoirs in general and the Geysers reservoir in particular. The most exciting of the discoveries were a combination of mineralogical, computational, and geothermometric data sets that revealed a chaotic-like behavior of the processes is critical in the formation of reservoirs near cooling plutions. This discovery provides a fundamental basis for improving resource assessment and exploration methods for geothermal energy associated with very young magmas. Some of the main results are documented in scientific publications, and DOE progress reports. An additional publication is in preparation on the overall significance of fracture propagation and microseismic activity around young magmas.

  16. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  17. Changes in the Eastern Cape demersal inshore trawl fishery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in the Eastern Cape demersal inshore trawl fishery between 1967 and 1995. AJ Booth, T Hecht. Abstract. Changes in the Eastern Cape demersal inshore trawl fishery operating out of Port Elizabeth over a 28-year period from 1967 to 1995 are described. The fishery is restricted to vessels operating between ...

  18. Eastern Kentucky Teacher and Administrative Stress: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sam; Ballestero, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to survey selected Eastern Kentucky Teachers (Elementary, Middle, and High School) to collect data about stress in public schools. This was a continuation study for Eastern Kentucky that collected data on how men and women teachers and men and women administrators handle stress. A stress survey (Appendix C) was…

  19. Migration patterns of the Osprey Pandion haliaetus on the Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We analysed migration strategies of the Osprey Pandion haliaetus on the poorly studied Eastern European– East African flyway. Four adult birds were equipped with GPS-based satellite-transmitters or data-loggers in their breeding sites in Estonia (north-eastern Europe) and tracked to their wintering grounds in Africa and ...

  20. (DRLs) for radiography examinations in north eastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) is an essential optimization tool in radiography and radiological sciences. The objective of the study is to establish DRL for radiography examinations in north eastern Nigeria. A Prospective cross- sectional study conducted in two university teaching hospitals in north eastern Nigeria.

  1. Globally threatened biodiversity of the Eastern Arc Mountains and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally threatened biodiversity of the Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests of Kenya and Tanzania. ... Journal of East African Natural History ... We present an account of the 909 globally threatened taxa (793 species, 74 subspecies, 42 varieties) of animals and plants in the Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests ...

  2. Who needs credit and who gets credit in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, M.; Ongena, S.; Popov, A.; Yesin, P.

    2011-01-01

    Based on survey data covering 8,387 firms in 20 countries we compare the access to bank credit for firms in Eastern Europe to that in selected Western European countries. Our analysis reveals five main results. First, the firm-level determinants of the propensity to apply are similar in Eastern and

  3. Introduction to Eastern Philosophy, Social Studies: 6414.23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Judy Reeder

    Major Eastern philosophies and/or religions consisting of Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and Shintoism are investigated by 10th through 12th grade students in this general social studies quinmester course. Since Eastern philosophical ideas are already influencing students, this course aims to guide students in a universal search for…

  4. Primary head and neck cancers in north eastern Nigeria | Otoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:To document the pattern of primary head and neck cancers in North Eastern Nigeria. Study DesignA record-based study of primary head and neck cancers histologically diagnosed at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH), Maiduguri, North Eastern Nigeria between 1987 and 2002. Results: A ...

  5. Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Members of the Eastern Africa Agricultural Economics Society receive the Journal as part of the membership. Orders for individual copies of the journal and changes of address of subscribers should be addressed to: The Office of the Editor, Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development, Department of Agricultural Economics ...

  6. 33 CFR 110.59 - Eastern Long Island, NY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eastern Long Island, NY. 110.59... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.59 Eastern Long Island, NY. (a) Huntington Harbor... adjacent to the easterly side of Centre Island, westerly of a line on range with Cold Spring Harbor Light...

  7. Climate Change and Saltwater Intrusion along the Eastern ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Climate Change and Saltwater Intrusion along the Eastern Mediterranean: Socioeconomic Vulnerability. The Eastern Mediterranean is highly vulnerable to saltwater intrusion into the freshwater aquifers along its coasts. The degradation of these aquifers would result in serious socioeconomic consequence to people living ...

  8. Fire ecology and bird populations in eastern deciduous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanessa L. Artman; Todd F. Hutchinson; Jeffrey D. Brawn; Jeffrey D. Brawn

    2005-01-01

    Eastern deciduous forests are located across the central portion of eastern North America and provide habitat for a wide diversity of bird species. The occurrence of fi re in the region has been associated with the presence of humans for over 10,000 yr. While pre-European fire regimes are poorly understood, fire is widely thought to have promoted and maintained large...

  9. Platinum-group elements in the Eastern Deccan volcanic province ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In contrast, eastern province values dominated in the Pd-Au-Cu region at the 'Cu' end of the profiles. A strong dominance of Pd in the eastern Deccan was also of interest. A number of factors, for example, percentage partial melting of the source rock and the temperature and pressure of partial melting strongly influence the ...

  10. Characteristics and Conditions of Entrepreneurship in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    2017-01-01

    Establishing of new small businesses is an intensive process in the whole of Eastern Europe. As they are new, most of them are in the introductory phases of their existence (survival, consolidation and control). Contemporary industrial and market structure in the countries of Eastern Europe provi...

  11. Some mandibular geometry of Eastern Nigerians | Didia | Orient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine mean values of the mandibular angle, mandibular length and mandibular ramus height in Nigerians of Eastern origin. Methods: A prospective study of 34 prepared mandibular bones of Eastern Nigerians was conducted. The measurements were done using the mandibulometer according to ...

  12. Quality of Antenatal care services in eastern Uganda: implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Good quality Antenatal Care (ANC) provides opportunity to detect and respond to risky maternal conditions. This study assessed quality of ANC services in eastern Uganda with a goal of benchmarking implications for interventions. Methods Data was collected from 15 health facilities in Eastern Uganda to establish capacity ...

  13. 50 CFR 300.25 - Eastern Pacific fisheries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eastern Pacific fisheries management. 300.25 Section 300.25 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.25 Eastern Pacific fisheries management. (a) Notification...

  14. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge about future rainfall would significantly benefit land, water resources and agriculture management, as this assists with planning and management decisions. Forecasting spatiotemporal monthly rainfall is difficult, especially in Australia where there is a complex interaction between topography and the effect of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study describes a method for spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting in south-eastern and eastern part of Australia using climatic and non-climatic variables. Rainfall data were obtained from Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high quality weather stations from the south-eastern and eastern part of Australia with monthly rainfall records from 1879 to 2012. To reduce spatial complexity of the area and improve model accuracy, spatial classification (regionalization) was considered as first step. Significant predictors for each sub-region among lagged climatic input variables were selected using Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA). Climate classification: 1) discovered homogenous sub-regions with a similar rainfall patterns and investigated spatiotemporal rainfall variations in the area, 2) allowed selection of significant predictors with a fine resolution for each area, 3) improved the prediction model and increased model accuracy. PCA was used to reduce the dimensions of the dataset and to remove the rainfall time series correlation. K-means clustering was used on the loadings of PCs describing 93% of long-term monthly rainfall variations. The analysis was repeated for different numbers of sub-regions (3 - 8) to identify the best number of clusters to improve the forecast model performance. Subsequently, a Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. After these two stages of pre-processing, a Neural Network model was developed and optimized for each of the sub-regions as well as for the entire area. It is concluded

  15. POLITICAL PROCESS DRIVERS OF CORRUPTION IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada-Iuliana POPESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption stands as one of the many obstacles to the political and economic security of the Eastern European region. Thus, despite the political and economic instability in the region, Eastern European countries, in and outside of the European Union need to fight corruption collectively and individually. The task is difficult, but hope is justified because the causes of corruption in this part of the region are similar and anti-corruption expertise is available. We believe that a deeper analysis of corruption’s drivers can produce a better articulated and more efficient anti-corruption strategy. This strategy will create an anti-corruption infrastructure that will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership. As a prelude to the deeper analysis that we believe must be a part of this strategy, this paper identifies the main drivers of corruption in the Eastern European Partnership countries and explains why addressing these drivers will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership.

  16. Construction and validation of three instruments for the technical evaluation of progress, high jump and shot put Construcción y validación de tres instrumentos para la evaluación técnica de la marcha, salto de altura y lanzamiento de peso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Delgado Fernández

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    The assessment at school athletics shouldn’t only be centered in performance, other elements should be taken into account as technical mastering during the performance of athletics gestures. One of the most advisable instruments for its evaluation are registry sheets, although there are not many proyjects and books where they appear and there is almost no research where registry sheet have been tested. The aim of this study was to validate three instruments for the technical observation of athletic walk, high jump and shot put, where 88 pupils of fourth year of Primary Education. The reliability among the observers was obtained by means of “Kappa of Cohen” measurement which was acceptable. For the validation of the register sheets were used among the alpha coeficient of Cronbach, the difficulty index, the discrimination index and factorial analisis getting a high internal consistency and showing the validity of the construct.
    KEY WORDS: validation, technical, assessment, athletics.

     

    La evaluación en el atletismo escolar no se ha de centrar únicamente en el rendimiento, han de tomarse en consideración otros elementos como el dominio de la técnica durante la ejecución de los gestos atléticos. Uno de los instrumentos más aconsejables para su evaluación son las hojas de registro, siendo escasos los trabajos y manuales en los que aparecen y prácticamente inexistentes las investigaciones en las que se han sometido a una validación. El objetivo del presente estudio fue validar tres instrumentos para la observación técnica de la marcha atlética, salto de altura y lanzamiento de peso, participando 88 alumnos de 4º curso de Educación Primaria. La fiabilidad entre los observadores se obtuvo a través de la medida “Kappa de Cohen” siendo aceptable. Para la validación de las hojas de registro se emplearon entre otras

  17. Eastern Europe: pronatalist policies and private behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, H P

    1982-02-01

    Fertility trends in the 9 Eastern European socialist countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, USSR, Yugoslavia) are reviewed. Official policy in all these countries but Yugoslavia is explicitly pronatalist to varying degrees. Attention is directed to the following areas: similarities and differences; fertility trends (historical trends, post World War 2 trends, and family size); abortion trends (abortion legislation history, current legislation, abortion data, impact on birth rates, abortion seekers, health risks, and psychological aftereffects); contraceptive availability and practice; pronatal economic incentives (impact on fertility); women's position; and marriage, divorce, and sexual attitudes. The fact that fertility was generally higher in the Eastern European socialist countries than in Western Europe in the mid-1970s is credited to pronatalist measures undertaken when fertility fell or threatened to fall below replacement level (2.1 births/woman) after abortion was liberalized in all countries but Albania, following the lead of the USSR in 1955. Fertility increased where access to abortion was again restricted (mildly in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary at various times, and severely in Romania in 1966) and/or economic incentives such as birth grants, paid maternity leave, family and child care allowances, and low interest loans to newlyweds were substantially increased (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland to some extent, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and the German Democratic Republic in 1976). Subsequent declines in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Romania suggest that policy induced increases in fertility are short-lived. Couples respond to abortion restrictions by practicing more efficient contraception or resorting to illegal abortion. It is evident that the region's low birth rate is realized mainly with abortion, for withdrawal remains the primary contraceptive

  18. Eastern geothermal resources: should we pursue them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, J E

    1980-11-07

    A geothermal resource that consists of hot water at moderate temperatures (below 125 degrees C) underlies many areas in the central and eastern United States. Programs funded by the Department of Energy have revealed that this resource is definable and economically competitive with conventional fuels for use in direct heat applications. The resource, therefore, has the potential for reducing our dependence on the imported oil used for space heating. However, front-end costs and risks to explore, drill, test, and evaluate the magnitude of the resource have inhibited development. The question is, therefore, how much federal stimulation will be needed to convince private capital to exploit this widespread low-quality energy source.

  19. Acne neonatorum in the eastern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alakloby Omar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne neonatorum (AN is characterized by a facial eruption of inflammatory and noninflammatory acne lesions in a neonate. Hyperactivity of sebaceous glands, stimulated by neonatal androgens, is implicated in its pathogenesis. Aim: To elucidate the clinical profile of AN in eastern Saudi Arabia. Methods: All patients diagnosed with AN in King Fahd Hospital of the University in Khobar, Saudi Arabia, during the year 2005 were evaluated clinically. Results: AN was diagnosed in 26 patients (male/female ratio 1:1. The lesions included mainly facial comedones (30.8%; papules and pustules (15.3% each; and combination of papules, pustules, and cysts (53.4%. Conclusion: All patients recovered spontaneously. In 50% of the cases, one of the parents reported having had acne vulgaris during adolescence. Hereditary factors seem to play a significant role in our series.

  20. Bulbophyllum sect. Hirtula in eastern Indochina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. AVERYANOV

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern taxonomic revision of Bulbophyllum sect Hirtula in the flora of eastern Indochina, including Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam based on all available collections and literature data reports 12 species (Bulbophyllum clipeibulbum, B. dasystachys, B. glabrichelia, B. nigrescens, B. nigripetalum, B. parviflorum, B. penicillium, B. phitamii, B. scaphiforme, B. secundum, B. setilabium, B. spadiciflorum, 2 of which represent new records for the studied flora (B. parviflorum, B. penicillium and 3 (Bulbophyllum glabrichelia, B. phitamii, B. setilabium are described as a new for science. For all accepted taxa the paper provides valid name and main synonyms with appropriate standard taxonomic references, data on type and other authentic materials, description, data on ecology, phenology, expected conservation status, distribution, notes on biology and taxonomy, list of all studied materials, as well as key for identification of species and their line and color illustrations.

  1. Eastern Band of Cherokee Strategic Energy Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souther Carolina Institute of energy Studies-Robert Leitner

    2009-01-30

    The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians was awarded a grant under the U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program (TEP) to develop a Tribal Strategic Energy Plan (SEP). The grant, awarded under the “First Steps” phase of the TEP, supported the development of a SEP that integrates with the Tribe’s plans for economic development, preservation of natural resources and the environment, and perpetuation of Tribal heritage and culture. The Tribe formed an Energy Committee consisting of members from various departments within the Tribal government. This committee, together with its consultant, the South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies, performed the following activities: • Develop the Tribe’s energy goals and objectives • Establish the Tribe’s current energy usage • Identify available renewable energy and energy efficiency options • Assess the available options versus the goals and objectives • Create an action plan for the selected options

  2. Permeability Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends on the charact......The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends...... on the characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. Finally the test results are briefly summarised and a relationship between...

  3. Project management of DAG: Eastern Anatolia Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Onur; Yesilyaprak, Cahit; Yerli, Sinan K.; Zago, Lorenzo; Guver, Tolga; Alis, Sinan

    2016-08-01

    The four meter DAG (Eastern Anatolia Observatory in Turkish) telescope is not only the largest telescope in Turkey but also the most promising telescope in the northern hemisphere with a large potential to offer scientific observations with its cutting edge technology. DAG is designed to be an AO telescope which will allow both infrared and visible observations with its two Nasmyth platforms dedicated to next generation focal plane instruments. In this paper, status updates from DAG telescope will be presented in terms of; (i) in house optical design of DAG, (ii) tender process of telescope, (iii) tender process of enclosure, and (iv) tender process of the observatory building. Also status updates from the focal plane instruments project and possible collaboration activities will be presented.

  4. Harrod, Balassa, and Samuelson (revisit Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Sonora

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the Harrod–Balassa–Samuelson (HBS hypothesis in 11 Central and Eastern European transition countries. Unlike previous research, we test the HBS hypothesis with NACE 6 quarterly data which enables us to divide data into tradable and nontradable sectors without requiring unrealistic assumptions on the nature of the data. Contrary to previous results, we are only able to find evidence for univariate HBS effects in Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, and Poland. However, using panel cointegration tests, we find strong statistical evidence for the HBS hypothesis within countries and across countries. Our results also demonstrate that cross-country HBS holds under the assumption that the law of one price for tradables does not hold. Finally, we find, contrary to theory, that government consumption negatively impacts relative prices. The policy implications are that failing to acknowledge the peculiarities of the transition process results in suboptimal monetary policy.

  5. Trends in Employee Ownership in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2012-01-01

    employee ownership. The article concludes that privatization was the main determinant for the initial spread of employee ownership. However, other factors undermined the sustainability of employee-owned firms. No institutions created a framework for employee ownership. The long and deep production crisis......Employee-owned companies are those where the broad group of employees owns the majority of shares. They have been widespread in the early transition process in Eastern Europe. This raises the question of why this type of ownership was so frequently used in some of the countries involved, and why...... there was a subsequent rapid transfer to manager ownership or outside ownership. This article gives a theoretical overview of the factors driving and hampering employee ownership, and develops hypotheses about how the transition process provided specific conditions for the development of these firms. The predictions...

  6. New Records of Raptors in Eastern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Barashkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe our data on observations of birds of prey in Eastern-Kazakhstan Upland and Northern Balkhash Lake area collected mostly in 2013, May–June and September, and also in 2012, March and May. In total we have recorded 15 species of birds of prey: Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis, Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca, Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus, Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus, Black-Eared Kite (Milvus migrans lineatus, Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus, Montagu’s Harrier (Circus pygargus, Western Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus, Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus, Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug, Steppe Merlin (Falco columbarius pallidus, Lesser and Common Kestrels (Falco naumanni, F. tinnunculus, and also 4 owl species: Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo, Short-Eared Owl (Asio flammeus, Little Owl (Athene noctua, and Scops Owl (Otus scops. Nesting peculiarities (data on nests' locations and breeding are described for some species.

  7. CONFLICT IN EASTERN UKRAINE: STRATEGY FOR TUBERCULOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchuloria, T; Akhvlediani, T; Akhvlediani, N

    2016-09-01

    This root cause analysis concerns the conflict in the Eastern Ukraine and its impact on healthcare delivery in the context of treating internally displaced persons (IDPs). Inadequate treatment of tuberculosis (TB) was selected as a major topic for intervention planning in conflict areas in Ukraine. With respect to treating TB among IDPs, rapid diagnosis and adequate nutrition and shelter are important components of care and disease control. The DOT, supported by trained primary healthcare providers equipped with rapid MDR TB diagnostic capacities, need to provide appropriate shelter and nutrition to IDPs. In addition to active disease management, this paper discusses the important role of ongoing project monitoring and communicating evaluation findings with all the major stakeholders shaping the national TB strategy in Ukraine. A comprehensive strategy is essential for successful transitioning and re-structuring of TB healthcare delivery both during after conflict resolution.

  8. The Near Eastern Origin of Cat Domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Carlos A.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Roca, Alfred L.; Hupe, Karsten; Johnson, Warren E.; Geffen, Eli; Harley, Eric H.; Delibes, Miguel; Pontier, Dominique; Kitchener, Andrew C.; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Macdonald, David W.

    2017-01-01

    The world’s domestic cats carry patterns of sequence variation in their genome that reflect a history of domestication and breed development. A genetic assessment of 979 domestic cats and their wild progenitors—Felis silvestris silvestris (European wildcat), F. s. lybica (Near Eastern wildcat), F. s. ornata (central Asian wildcat), F. s. cafra (southern African wildcat), and F. s. bieti (Chinese desert cat)—indicated that each wild group represents a distinctive subspecies of Felis silvestris. Further analysis revealed that cats were domesticated in the Near East, probably coincident with agricultural village development in the Fertile Crescent. Domestic cats derive from at least five founders from across this region, whose descendants were transported across the world by human assistance. PMID:17600185

  9. Systematics of wolves in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, R.; Federoff, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    Cranial morphology of Recent wolves throughout northern and western North America is remarkably consistent. Statistical analysis indicates the presence of four subspecies of gray wolf (Canis lupus) there, which are always distinguishable from the sympatric coyote (C. latrans). A fifth gray wolf subspecies, lycaon, occurs in southeastern Canada, and the red wolf (C. rufus), is found in the southeast. During the early 1900s the coyote moved east of the prairies and hybridized with the native wolves, thereby creating much confusion. Nonetheless, analysis of every available specimen of wild Canis, dating from before the coyote invasion in the region east of the Mississippi River and south of Wisconsin, Michigan, and New York, does indicate the presence of a small wolf, distinct from the coyote and showing the statistical consistency of other wolf populations. That series also has close affinity to specimens of the red wolf collected in Louisiana and Missouri prior to 1925, and to Pleistocene fossils from the east. There was a sharp line of morphological distinction between the wolves of the eastern United States and those of the prairies, but a closer approach by the former to the subspecies lycaon, which in turn intergrades with gray wolf populations in western Ontario and Minnesota. Although gaps in our knowledge remain, a reasonable hypothesis is that the entire forested region from southeastern Canada to the Gulf Coast originally was inhabited by populations of small wolves, with a subspecific or specific line just south of the eastern Great Lakes. There is no evidence that southeastern North America ever was occupied by large gray wolves and coyotes that hybridized to form the red wolf.

  10. Domestic violence against women in Eastern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, AbdelAziem A; Yassin, Khalid; Omer, Rawia

    2014-11-04

    Violence against women is one of the major public health problems in both developed and developing worlds. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of current (occurred in one year preceding the survey) domestic violence and socio-demographic factors associated with domestic violence against women. This was a cross sectional household survey (face to face interview) conducted in Kassala, eastern Sudan, from 1(st) March to 1(st) June 2014. Multivariable analyses were performed, Confidence intervals of 95% were calculated and P women, 33.5% (338) reported current experience of physical violence and, of these 338 women, 179 (53%) and 159 (47%) reported moderate and severe form of physical violence respectively. The prevalence of sexual coercion, psychological violence and verbal insult was 17% (172\\1009), 30.1% (304\\1009) and 47.6% (480\\1009) respectively. In the majority of cases, violence was experienced as repeated acts, ie, more than three times per year. For verbal insult 20.1% (203\\480) and 27.5% (277\\480) reported yelling and shouting respectively. Again 251 (24.9%) and 270 (26.8%) women reported that they experience divorce threat and second marriage threat respectively. In logistic regression model, husband's education (OR = 1.5; CI = 1.0-2.1; P = 0.015), polygamous marriage (OR = 1.9; CI = 1.3-2.9; P = 0.000), and husband's alcohol consumption (OR = 13.9; CI = 7.9-25.4; P domestic violence. Domestic violence was found to be highly prevalent in eastern Sudan and strongly associated with the educational status, polygamous marriage and husband's alcohol consumption. We recommend more research to include men.

  11. THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP – A PREMISE FOR AN ENHANCED EU-EASTERN NEIGHBOURS COOPERATION RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Mocanu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The enlargement of the European Union towards the Central and Eastern Europe has brought to attention the necessity to reshape the EU institutional framework and specific policies addressing its new neighbourhood. Repeatedly stating that the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP is not a preceding phase for membership, the European Union also embraced the Polish-Swedish initiative for an Eastern Partnership (EaP. Meant at first to counterbalance the Union for Mediterranean project, the EaP has developed into a distinct project, with specific and ambitious cooperation goals, a positive and constructive agenda meant to support six countries (Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and Belarus develop and harmonize with the European standards and, at the same, attempting to build and further develop an Eastern dimension of the ENP. The questions of the efficiency of the conditionality derived from the EaP and also the complementarity of this initiative with other regional projects in the area can also be important matters of concern.

  12. Hydrography of the eastern tropical Pacific: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Paul C.; Talley, Lynne D.

    2006-05-01

    Eastern tropical Pacific Ocean waters lie at the eastern end of a basin-wide equatorial current system, between two large subtropical gyres and at the terminus of two eastern boundary currents. Descriptions and interpretations of surface, pycnocline, intermediate and deep waters in the region are reviewed. Spatial and temporal patterns are discussed using (1) maps of surface temperature, salinity, and nutrients (phosphate, silicate, nitrate and nitrite), and thermocline and mixed layer parameters, and (2) meridional and zonal sections of temperature, salinity, potential density, oxygen, and nutrients. These patterns were derived from World Ocean Database observations by an ocean interpolation algorithm: loess-weighted observations were projected onto quadratic functions of spatial coordinates while simultaneously fitting annual and semiannual harmonics and the Southern Oscillation Index to account for interannual variability. Contrasts between the equatorial cold tongue and the eastern Pacific warm pool are evident in all the hydrographic parameters. Annual cycles and ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) variability are of similar amplitude in the eastern tropical Pacific, however, there are important regional differences in relative variability at these time scales. Unique characteristics of the eastern tropical Pacific are discussed: the strong and shallow pycnocline, the pronounced oxygen minimum layer, and the Costa Rica Dome. This paper is part of a comprehensive review of the oceanography of the eastern tropical Pacific.

  13. Evidence of mingling between contrasting magmas in a deep plutonic environment: the example of Várzea Alegre, in the Ribeira Mobile Belt, Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA R. MEDEIROS

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the geotectonic cycle that shaped the northern segment of the Ribeira Mobile Belt (Upper Proterozoic to Paleozoic age, a late to post-collisional set of plutonic complexes, consisting of a wide range of lithotypes, intruded all metamorphic units. The Várzea Alegre Intrusive Complex is a post-collisional complex. The younger intrusion consists of an inversely zoned multistage structure envolved by a large early emplaced ring of megaporphyritic charnoenderbitic rocks. The combination of field, petrographic and geochemical data reveals the presence of at least two different series of igneous rocks. The first originated from the partial melting of the mantle. This was previously enriched in incompatible elements, low and intermediate REE and some HFS-elements. A second enrichment in LREE and incompatible elements in this series was due to the mingling with a crustal granitic magma. This mingling process changed the composition of the original tholeiitic magma towards a medium-K calc-alkalic magma to produce a suite of basic to intermediate rock types. The granitic magma from the second high-K, calc-alkalic suite originated from the partial melting of the continental crust, but with strong influence of mantle-derived melts.No final do ciclo tectônico que originou o segmento norte do Cinturão Móvel Ribeira (de idade Proterozóica Superior a Paleozóica, uma série de complexos plutônicos tardi- a pós-colisionais, consistindo de larga gama de litotipos, intrudiu todas as unidades metamórficas. O Complexo Intrusivo de Várzea Alegre é um desses complexos pós-colisionais. A intrusão mais jovem consiste de uma estrutura de multiplos estágios, envolvida por um largo anel de rochas charnoenderbíiticas megaporfirícas de posicionmento anterior. A combinação de dados de campo, petrográficos e geoquímicos revela a presença de pelo menos duas séries distintas de rochas ígneas. A primeira foi originada por fusão parcial do manto

  14. Fluorcanasite, K3Na3Ca5Si12O30(F,OH)4 · H2O, a new mineral species from the Khibiny alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia, and new data on canasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomyakov, A. P.; Nechelyustov, G. N.; Krivokoneva, G. K.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Rozenberg, K. A.; Rozhdestvenskaya, I. V.

    2009-12-01

    Fluorcanasite is described, a new mineral species found in dumps of the Kirovsk apatite mine, Mt. Kukisvumchorr, Khibiny alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The new mineral is associated with microcline, nepheline, aegirine, scherbakovite, lamprophyllite, pectolite, mosandrite, villiaumite, rasvumite, and molybdenite. It occurs as prismatic crystals up to 0.2-0.3 × 1-2 mm in size extending along [010]. Fluorcanasite is purple, transparent, with white streak and vitreous luster. The fracture is hackly along the extension and stepped in other directions. The mineral is brittle. The cleavage is eminent parallel to {100} and {201} and perfect parallel to {001}. D(meas) = 2.68(2) g/cm3 (volumetric method); D(calc) = 2.69 g/cm3. Fluorcanasite is biaxial, negative, n α = 1.538(1), n β = 1.546(1), n γ = 1.549(1), 2 V(meas) = 60(2)°, 2 V(calc) = 63°. Dispersion r > v. The new mineral is pleochroic according to the scheme N β > N γ > N α; N β is purple, N γ is lilac, and N α is amber-yellow. Orientation is as follows: b = N β, a∧ N γ = 3°, c∧ N α = 19°. Fluorcanasite is not luminescent in UV light and slowly decomposes in acid. The new mineral is monoclinic, space group Cm, a = 18.846(4), b = 7.242(1), c = 12.650(2) Å, β = 111.84(2)°, V = 1602.6(4) Å3, Z = 2. The strongest reflections [ d, Å( I)] in the X-ray powder pattern of a grainoriented sample are 2.915(100), 4.204(40), 5.872(36), 4.712(36), 2.358(32), 3.012(24), 2.310(24), 3.082(24) and the same reflections in a randomly oriented sample are 3.082(100), 2.915(85), 4.712(46), 4.204(41), 3.340(35), 5.872(33), 2.658(30). The chemical composition, determined with an electron microprobe, is as follows, wt %: 7.19 Na2O, 10.91 K2O, 19.55 CaO, 0.27 FeO, 2.08 MnO, 55.84 SiO2, 4.10 F, 2.22 H2O (determined on the basis of structural data), 1.73-O = F2; the total is 100.43. The empirical formula, calculated on the basis of Si = 12, is K2.99Na3.00(Ca4.50Mn0.38·Fe{0.05/2+})Σ4.93Si12O29.93(F2.79OH1

  15. Fluor-ferro-leakeite, NaNa2(FC2+2Fe3+2Li)Si8O22F2, a new alkali amphibole from the Canada Pinabete pluton, Questa, New Mexico, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, F.C.; Oberti, R.; Ungaretti, L.; Ottolini, L.; Grice, Joel D.; Czamanske, G.K.

    1996-01-01

    Fluor-ferro-leakeite is a new amphibole species from the Canada Pinabete pluton, Questa, New Mexico, U.S.A.; it occurs in association with quartz, alkali feldspar, acmite, ilmenite, and zircon. It forms as anhedral bluish black crystals elongated along c and up to 1 mm long. It is brittle, H = 6, Dmeas = 3.37 g/cm3, Dcalc = 3.34 g/cm3. In plane-polarized light, it is strongly pleochroic, X = very dark indigo blue, Y = gray blue, Z = yellow green; X ??? c = 10?? (in ??obtuse), Y = b, Z ??? a = 4?? (in ?? obtuse), with absorption X > Y > Z. Fluor-ferro-leakeite is biaxial positive, ?? = 1.675(2), ??= 1.683(2), ?? = 1.694(1); 2V = 87(2)??; dispersion is not visible because of the strong absorption. Fluor-ferro-leakeite is monoclinic, space group C2/m, a = 9.792(1), b = 17.938(1), c = 5.3133(4) A??, ??= 103.87(7)??, V = 906.0(1) A??3, Z = 2. The ten strongest X-ray diffraction lines in the powder pattern are [d(I,hkl)]: 2.710(100,151), 2.536(92,202), 3.404(57,131), 4.481(54,040), 8.426(45,110), 2.985(38,241), 2.585(38,061), 3.122(29,310), 2.165(26,261), and 1.586(25,403). Analysis by a combination of electron microprobe, ion microprobe, and crystal-structure refinement (Hawthorne et al. 1993) gives SiO2 51.12, Al2O3 1.13, TiO2 0.68, Fe2O3 16.73, FeO 8.87, MgO 2.02, MnO 4.51, ZnO 0.57, CaO 0.15, Na2O 9.22, K2O 1.19, Li2O 0.99, F 2.87, H2Ocalc 0.60, sum 99.44 wt%. The formula unit, calculated on the basis of 23 O atoms, is (K0.23Na0.76)(Na1.97Ca0.03)(Mg 0.46Fe2+1.4Mn2+0.59Zn0.07Fe3+1.93-Ti 0.08Al0.02Li0.61])(Si7.81Al 0.19)O22(F1.39OH0.61). A previous crystal-structure refinement (Hawthorne et al. 1993) shows Li to be completely ordered at the M3 site. Fluor-ferro-leakeite, ideally NaNa2(Fe2+2Fe3+2Li)Si8O22F2, is related to leakeite, NaNa2(Mg2Fe3+3Li)Si 8O22(OH)2, by the substitutions Fe2+ ??? Mg and F ??? OH.

  16. Particle tracking in the eastern Irish Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Judith; Amoudry, Karen; Phillips, Hazel; Brown, Jenny

    2017-04-01

    The unstructured grid finite volume community ocean model (FVCOM) has been applied to the west coast of the UK, in order to examine the circulation and transport in the eastern Irish Sea. Tides, freshwater river discharge and meteorological forcing for the year 2008 were used to force the baroclinic hydrodynamic circulation. The hydrodynamics of the Irish Sea are largely governed by the semidiurnal tide, which has a tidal range reaching 10m at Liverpool is the eastern Irish Sea. Tidal currents reach 1 ms-1 over the majority of the area, which means that much of Irish Sea is vertically well-mixed throughout the year period, with a few areas affected by seasonal stratification, such as the cyclonic gyre in the deep channel off Ireland in the western Irish Sea which experiences thermal stratification in summer. In Liverpool Bay, horizontal density gradients, created through freshwater influence from estuaries along the coastline interact with the strong tidal current to produce a phenomenon known as strain-induced periodic stratification (SIPS). There are water quality concerns due to the tendency to eutrophication, as the area is often exposed to industrial pollution and excess nutrients from effluent waters and rivers. There is also concern about the fate of radioactive materials discharged from the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant since 1952. In addition to the present discharges from the site, it has been estimated that it is likely that all of the americium and plutonium and around 10% of the caesium entering the Irish Sea were originally assimilated into deposits of silt and mud sediments; this material may be regarded as a considerable potential source of radionuclides. Determining suspended sediment pathways in this region is important in order to identify potential areas vulnerable to deposition of radioactive material, particularly as radionuclide uptake onto sediments takes place in the offshore 'mud patch' before returning to the coast to be deposited

  17. Qena Valley Evolution, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkareem, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    Remotely sensed topographic and optical data were used to identify tectonic phenomena in Qena Valley. Using digital elevation model, morphotectonic features were identified. Processing and analysis were carried out by the combined use of: (1) digital elevation model, (2) digital drainage network analysis, (3) optical data analysis, and (4) lineament extraction and analysis. Structural information from other sources, such as geological maps, remotely sensed images and field observations were analyzed with geographic information system techniques. The analysis results reveal that the linear features of Qena Valley controlled by several structural elements have different trends NW-SE, NE-SW and N-S trends. Basement rocks at Qena valley has a major NE-SW trending and the sedimentary rocks are dominated by a NW-SE, NE-SW and N-S trends while, E-W are less abundant. The NE-SW trends at north Eastern Desert Egypt attain to normal faults that reflect extension in NW-SE direction, which is related to strike slip faulting along NW-SE directed Najd fault system. Further, the NE-SW is abundant as joints and fractures seem to have controlled the path of the Nile in Qift - Qena area. The NW-SE direction are abundant in the rock fracture trends (Gulf of Suez or Red Sea) and reflects Neoproterozoic faults have been reactivated in Neogene during rifting events of the Red Sea opening and marked the sedimentary rocks at Qena valley. The results of the lineament density map reveals that Qena valley was originated along one fault that trend like the Gulf of Suez and the range of the Red Sea Hills. This major fault was dissected by several lateral faults are seen well exposed at numerous places within the valley, especially on its eastern side. Both sides of Qena valley have a similar density matching may attain to that this lineaments affected Qena valley during rifting. This rifts it probably happened in Early Miocene associated with Red Sea tectonics. The general southward slope of

  18. Diphtheria seroprevalence in children living in the eastern Turkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -6 years and to identify the relationship between diphtheria seroprevalence and several sociodemographic characteristics of the study subjects in the Erzurum, Erzincan and Kars cities situated in Eastern Turkey. Design: A cross sectional study ...

  19. Fire in eastern oak forests: delivering science to land managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B., ed. Dickinson

    2006-01-01

    Contains 20 papers and 36 poster abstracts presented at a conference on fire in oak forests of the Eastern United States that was held at the Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, on November 15-17, 2005.

  20. Vegetative rehabilitation of highway cut slopes in Eastern Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)</