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Sample records for saltmarsh cumbria uk

  1. A Cu tolerant population of the earthworm Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1862) at Coniston Copper Mines, Cumbria, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, R.E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Hodson, M.E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.uk; Langdon, C.J. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-15

    Dendrodrilus rubidus were sampled from a mine spoil soil at Coniston Copper Mine, an abandoned Cu mine in Cumbria, UK and a Cu-free control site. Earthworms were maintained for 14 d in both Kettering loam and a Moorland soil amended with Cu nitrate. Mortality, condition index, weight change and tissue concentration were determined. In both soils D. rubidus native to the mine site were able to tolerate significantly higher soil Cu concentrations (MWRT, p {<=} 0.001), and exhibited significantly less change in weight (t-test, p {<=} 0.001) and a lower loss in condition (t-test, p {<=} 0.001) than control earthworms. For a given soil Cu concentration tissue Cu concentrations were greater in the mine site earthworms. Low cocoon production and viability from the mine site population prevented the determination of toxicity parameters on the F1 generation and may be an indicator of the cost of tolerance to the population. - Dendrodrilus rubidus at an abandoned Cu mine tolerates high Cu concentrations by accumulating more Cu before toxic effects occur compared to non-native populations.

  2. A Cu tolerant population of the earthworm Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1862) at Coniston Copper Mines, Cumbria, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, R E; Hodson, M E; Langdon, C J

    2008-04-01

    Dendrodrilus rubidus were sampled from a mine spoil soil at Coniston Copper Mine, an abandoned Cu mine in Cumbria, UK and a Cu-free control site. Earthworms were maintained for 14d in both Kettering loam and a Moorland soil amended with Cu nitrate. Mortality, condition index, weight change and tissue concentration were determined. In both soils D. rubidus native to the mine site were able to tolerate significantly higher soil Cu concentrations (MWRT, p

  3. The Brampton kame belt and Pennine escarpment meltwater channel system (Cumbria, UK): morphology, sedimentology and formation

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, S.J.; Evans, D.J.A.; Cofaigh, C.O.; J. Hopkins

    2010-01-01

    The Brampton kame belt represents one of the largest glaciofluvial complexes within the UK. It is composed of an array of landform-sediment assemblages, associated with a suite of meltwater channels and situated within a palimpsest landscape of glacial features in the heart of one of the most dynamic parts of the British–Irish Ice Sheet. Glacial geomorphological mapping and sedimentological analysis have allowed a detailed reconstruction of both the morphological features and the temporal evo...

  4. Fluvial geomorphological response along the upland sediment cascade during the record-breaking December 2015 floods, Cumbria, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Andrew; Perks, Matthew; Large, Andrew; Dunning, Stuart; Warburton, Jeff

    2016-04-01

    Between 0900 GMT on 4th December and 0900 GMT on 6th December 2015, Atlantic Storm Desmond produced over 260 mm of rainfall in Cumbria, northwest England, representing a new UK 48 hour rainfall maximum, and breaking previous records set in 2005 and 2009. The December 2015 event resulted in a number of rivers significantly exceeding their 2009 levels, over-topping recently-commissioned flood defences, destroying bridges and flooding thousands of homes. Our research aim is to identify factors controlling significant geomorphological and sedimentary response during Storm Desmond along the upland sediment cascade including: Rattling Beck (Glenridding), a high gradient upland stream draining the flanks of Helvellyn (950 m.a.o.d.), and a 25km extended reach of the lower gradient piedmont Derwent River corridor downstream of Bassenthwaite Lake. Rattling Beck descends steeply from the eastern slopes of the Helvellyn massif draining across an alluvial fan into Lake Ullswater. On 5th December 2015 the village of Glenridding was severely impacted by flooding which deposited boulder-sized sediment within the centre of the village, completely blocking the pre-existing stream course and causing avulsion of waning stage flows through riverside properties. A major new sediment lobe was deposited on the existing alluvial fan downstream of the village, grading to the temporarily raised lake water level. Although a number of hillslope failures occurred in the higher catchment, the majority of the sediment transported by Rattling Beck and impacting the village was acquired within a 2km reach upstream of Glenridding through erosion of older glacial and alluvial sediments. Lateral channel erosion was enhanced by inability of flood flows to rework highly resistant boulder bar lag deposits related to a previous mine tailings dam failure in 1927. The River Derwent corridor extends for 30km downstream of Bassenthwaite Lake to the Irish Sea at Workington and has a sinuous course ranging in

  5. Coastal saltmarsh managed realignment drives rapid breach inlet and external creek evolution, Freiston Shore (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friess, Daniel A.; Möller, Iris; Spencer, Thomas; Smith, Geoffrey M.; Thomson, Andrew G.; Hill, Ross A.

    2014-03-01

    The creation of saltmarsh through the managed realignment of sea defences, implemented in NW Europe as a sustainable coastal defence option, represents a substantial hydrodynamic perturbation to the local coastal system. The impact of a significantly increased tidal prism on hydromorphological features was investigated at Freiston Shore, Lincolnshire UK. Local tidal conditions and inadequate drainage at this realignment trial contributed to significant channel erosion due to the establishment of water surface slopes and pooling between the newly realigned site and the adjacent intertidal zone. Very high spatial resolution aerial photography and blimp photography were used to monitor inlet evolution from breaching in August 2002 to March 2008, showing a highly non-linear response with breach channels increasing in width by up to 960% within 2.5 months. Airborne laser scanning/LiDAR and terrestrial laser scanning quantified breach channel volume increases, showing a similar pattern. Breach channel evolution did not follow established tidal prism-channel width/cross-sectional area relationships that are often used to guide realignment design. Pre- and post-breach rates of external creek morphology change between 1999 and 2006 were also quantified, with intertidal creeks attached to the breach channels increasing significantly after realignment in both width and depth. This study highlights the physical processes affected by managed realignment, and the importance of understanding the causes of complex water surface slopes at multiple scales.

  6. Evidence of Historical Mining Impacts on Saltmarshes from east Cornwall, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurian, Andra-Rada; Taylor, Alex; Millward, Geoff; Blake, William

    2016-04-01

    In landscapes with extensive mining history, saltmarshes can become sinks for contaminants that are vulnerable to release with sea-level rise and increased storminess. Given the prolonged residence time of heavy metals in the environment, data is urgently required to contextualise the impacts of past and present mining and pollution events and provide a baseline against which to assess Water Framework Directive (WFD) (2000/60/EC) compliance within an integrated catchment management framework. The geology of east Cornwall, UK (with intrusions of granite into the surrounding sedimentary rocks) was favourable for a prosperous mining industry, although large scale operations did not start until about 1830. Tin, cooper, lead and tungsten were the most important ores in the region. In order to quantify the spatial and temporal extent of contamination from past mining, sediment cores were collected from three saltmarshes, namely: Antony Marsh and Treluggan Marsh on the Lower Basin of River Lynher, and Port Eliot Marsh on the Lower Basin of River Tiddy. Core sections at 1 cm intervals were analysed by gamma-ray spectrometry for Pb-210, Ra-226, Cs-137 and Am-241, and the well-established Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) model was employed to derive Pb-210 geochronology with bomb-derived Cs-137 and Am-241 as independent chronological markers. The geochronological data provided the sedimentary accumulation and temporal context for the study. In terms of sediment quality with respect to mining pollution, core sections were analysed using Q-ICP-MS techniques and, additionally, WD-XRF instrumentation at Plymouth University. Measurements were performed for target elements that are normally associated with mining and smelting activities (e.g. Pb, Cu, Sn, Zn, Cr, Cd, etc.), and lithogenic elements (e.g. Fe, Al, Ti) that allow enrichment factors for the anthropogenically-derived elements to be determined. The grain size distribution was determined to identify storminess events and to

  7. Characterization of a fluvial aquifer at a range of depths and scales: the Triassic St Bees Sandstone Formation, Cumbria, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Giacomo; West, L. J.; Mountney, N. P.

    2017-11-01

    Fluvial sedimentary successions represent porous media that host groundwater and geothermal resources. Additionally, they overlie crystalline rocks hosting nuclear waste repositories in rift settings. The permeability characteristics of an arenaceous fluvial succession, the Triassic St Bees Sandstone Formation in England (UK), are described, from core-plug to well-test scale up to 1 km depth. Within such lithified successions, dissolution associated with the circulation of meteoric water results in increased permeability (K 10-1-100 m/day) to depths of at least 150 m below ground level (BGL) in aquifer systems that are subject to rapid groundwater circulation. Thus, contaminant transport is likely to occur at relatively high rates. In a deeper investigation (> 150 m depth), where the aquifer has not been subjected to rapid groundwater circulation, well-test-scale hydraulic conductivity is lower, decreasing from K 10-2 m/day at 150-400 m BGL to 10-3 m/day down-dip at 1 km BGL, where the pore fluid is hypersaline. Here, pore-scale permeability becomes progressively dominant with increasing lithostatic load. Notably, this work investigates a sandstone aquifer of fluvial origin at investigation depths consistent with highly enthalpy geothermal reservoirs ( 0.7-1.1 km). At such depths, intergranular flow dominates in unfaulted areas with only minor contribution by bedding plane fractures. However, extensional faults represent preferential flow pathways, due to presence of high connective open fractures. Therefore, such faults may (1) drive nuclear waste contaminants towards the highly permeable shallow (< 150 m BGL) zone of the aquifer, and (2) influence fluid recovery in geothermal fields.

  8. Investigating the potential to reduce flood risk through catchment-based land management techniques and interventions in the River Roe catchment, Cumbria,UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Callum; Reaney, Sim; Bracken, Louise; Butler, Lucy

    2015-04-01

    Throughout the United Kingdom flood risk is a growing problem and a significant proportion of the population are at risk from flooding throughout the country. Across England and Wales over 5 million people are believed to be at risk from fluvial, pluvial or coastal flooding (DEFRA, 2013). Increasingly communities that have not dealt with flooding before have recently experienced significant flood events. The communities of Stockdalewath and Highbridge in the Roe catchment, a tributary of the River Eden in Cumbria, UK, are an excellent example. The River Roe has a normal flow of less than 5m3 sec-1 occurring 97 percent of the time however there have been two flash floods of 98.8m3 sec-1 in January 2005 and 86.9m3 sec-1 in May 2013. These two flash flood events resulted in the inundation of numerous properties within the catchment with the 2013 event prompting the creation of the Roe Catchment Community Water Management Group which aims are to deliver a sustainable approach to managing the flood risk. Due to the distributed rural population the community fails the cost-benefit analysis for a centrally funded flood risk mitigation scheme. Therefore the at-risk community within the Roe catchment have to look for cost-effective, sustainable techniques and interventions to reduce the potential negative impacts of future events; this has resulted in a focus on natural flood risk management. This research investigates the potential to reduce flood risk through natural catchment-based land management techniques and interventions within the Roe catchment; providing a scientific base from with further action can be enacted. These interventions include changes to land management and land use, such as soil aeration and targeted afforestation, the creation of runoff attenuation features and the construction of in channel features, such as debris dams. Natural flood management (NFM) application has been proven to be effective when reducing flood risk in smaller catchments and the

  9. Saltmarsh Ecology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    marsh flora, and provides an interesting account of plant species and population genetics. The authors conclude that. 'presence is a result of tolerance rather than a requirement for high salinities' and 'much vegetational change is a response to physically driven changes in saltmarsh physiography and is not primarily the ...

  10. Food Relocalization for Environmental Sustainability in Cumbria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Levidow

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, many European farmers have adopted less-intensive production methods replacing external inputs with local resources and farmers’ skills. Some have developed closer relations with consumers, also known as short food-supply chains or agro-food relocalization. Through both these means, farmers can gain more of the value that they have added to food production, as well as greater incentives for more sustainable methods and/or quality products, thus linking environmental and economic sustainability. These systemic changes encounter difficulties indicating two generic needs—for state support measures, and for larger intermediaries to expand local markets. The UK rural county of Cumbria provides a case study for exploring those two needs. Cumbria farmers have developed greater proximity to consumers, as a means to gain their support for organic, territorially branded and/or simply ‘local’ food. This opportunity has been an incentive for practices which reduce transport distances, energy costs and other inputs. Regional authorities have provided various support measures for more closely linking producers with each other and with consumers, together developing a Cumbrian food culture. Going beyond the capacity of individual producers, farmer-led intermediaries have maintained distinctive product identities in larger markets including supermarket chains. Although Cumbria’s agro-food relocalization initiatives remain marginal, they counteract the 1990s trend towards delocalization, while also indicating potential for expansion elsewhere.

  11. Assessing the continuity of the upland sediment cascade, fluvial geomorphic response of an upland river to an extreme flood event: Storm Desmond, Cumbria, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Hannah; Hardy, Richard; Warburton, Jeff

    2017-04-01

    Hillslope erosion and accelerated lake sedimentation are often viewed as the source and main storage elements in the upland sediment cascade. However, the continuity of sediment transfer through intervening valley systems has rarely been evaluated during extreme events. Storm Desmond (4th - 6th December, 2015) produced record-breaking rainfall maximums in the UK: 341.4 mm rainfall was recorded in a 24 hour period at Honister Pass, Western Lake District, and 405 mm of rainfall was recorded in a 38 hour period at Thirlmere, central Lake District. The storm was the largest in a 150 year local rainfall series, and exceeded previous new records set in the 2005 and 2009 floods. During this exceptional event, rivers over topped flood defences, and caused damage to over 257 bridges, flooded over 5000 homes and businesses, and caused substantial geomorphic change along upland rivers. This research quantifies the geomorphic and sedimentary response to Storm Desmond along a regulated gravel-bed river: St John's Beck. St John's Beck (length 7.8 km) is a channelised low gradient river (0.005) downstream of Thirlmere Reservoir, which joins the River Greta, and flows through Keswick, where major flooding has occurred, before discharging into Bassenthwaite Lake. St John's Beck has a history of chronic sediment aggradation, erosion and reports of historic flooding date back to 1750. During Storm Desmond, riverbanks were eroded, coarse sediment was deposited across valuable farmland and access routes were destroyed, including a bridge and footpaths, disrupting local business. A sediment budget framework has been used to quantify geomorphic change and sedimentary characteristics of the event along St John's Beck. The volume and sediment size distribution of flood deposits, channel bars, tributary deposits, floodplain scour, riverbank erosion and in-channel bars were measured directly in the field and converted to mass using local estimates of coarse and fine sediment bulk densities

  12. A global map of saltmarshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcowen, Chris J; Weatherdon, Lauren V; Bochove, Jan-Willem Van; Sullivan, Emma; Blyth, Simon; Zockler, Christoph; Stanwell-Smith, Damon; Kingston, Naomi; Martin, Corinne S; Spalding, Mark; Fletcher, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Saltmarshes are extremely valuable but often overlooked ecosystems, contributing to livelihoods locally and globally through the associated ecosystem services they provide, including fish production, carbon storage and coastal protection. Despite their importance, knowledge of the current spatial distribution (occurrence and extent) of saltmarshes is incomplete. In light of increasing anthropogenic and environmental pressures on coastal ecosystems, global data on the occurrence and extent of saltmarshes are needed to draw attention to these critical ecosystems and to the benefits they generate for people. Such data can support resource management, strengthen decision-making and facilitate tracking of progress towards global conservation targets set by multilateral environmental agreements, such as the Aichi Biodiversity Targets of the United Nations' (UN's) Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Ramsar Convention. Here, we present the most complete dataset on saltmarsh occurrence and extent at the global scale. This dataset collates 350,985 individual occurrences of saltmarshes and presents the first global estimate of their known extent. The dataset captures locational and contextual data for saltmarsh in 99 countries worldwide. A total of 5,495,089 hectares of mapped saltmarsh across 43 countries and territories are represented in a Geographic Information Systems polygon shapefile. This estimate is at the relatively low end of previous estimates (2.2-40 Mha), however, we took the conservative approach in the mapping exercise and there are notable areas in Canada, Northern Russia, South America and Africa where saltmarshes are known to occur that require additional spatial data. Nevertheless, the most extensive saltmarsh worldwide are found outside the tropics, notably including the low-lying, ice-free coasts, bays and estuaries of the North Atlantic which are well

  13. A global map of saltmarshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherdon, Lauren V; Bochove, Jan-Willem Van; Sullivan, Emma; Blyth, Simon; Zockler, Christoph; Stanwell-Smith, Damon; Kingston, Naomi; Martin, Corinne S; Spalding, Mark; Fletcher, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Saltmarshes are extremely valuable but often overlooked ecosystems, contributing to livelihoods locally and globally through the associated ecosystem services they provide, including fish production, carbon storage and coastal protection. Despite their importance, knowledge of the current spatial distribution (occurrence and extent) of saltmarshes is incomplete. In light of increasing anthropogenic and environmental pressures on coastal ecosystems, global data on the occurrence and extent of saltmarshes are needed to draw attention to these critical ecosystems and to the benefits they generate for people. Such data can support resource management, strengthen decision-making and facilitate tracking of progress towards global conservation targets set by multilateral environmental agreements, such as the Aichi Biodiversity Targets of the United Nations' (UN's) Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Ramsar Convention. New information Here, we present the most complete dataset on saltmarsh occurrence and extent at the global scale. This dataset collates 350,985 individual occurrences of saltmarshes and presents the first global estimate of their known extent. The dataset captures locational and contextual data for saltmarsh in 99 countries worldwide. A total of 5,495,089 hectares of mapped saltmarsh across 43 countries and territories are represented in a Geographic Information Systems polygon shapefile. This estimate is at the relatively low end of previous estimates (2.2-40 Mha), however, we took the conservative approach in the mapping exercise and there are notable areas in Canada, Northern Russia, South America and Africa where saltmarshes are known to occur that require additional spatial data. Nevertheless, the most extensive saltmarsh worldwide are found outside the tropics, notably including the low-lying, ice-free coasts, bays and estuaries of

  14. Transfer of lead by freshwater snails in Ullswater, Cumbria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everard, M.; Denny, P.

    1984-01-01

    The cycling of lead by freshwater snails from primary producers and detritus, through the snails and snail-predators, and back into the sediment was investigated. The concentrations of lead in snails collected from Ullswater, Cumbria, correlated with the degree of contamination at particular sites. When snails were fed on lead-enriched food in the laboratory, their digestive glands, feet and shells all accumulated the metal to some extent. It was not distributed equally among the tissues of Lymnaea peregra; the foot and digestive gland normally contained 2 to 4 and 3 to 10 times more lead than the shell, respectively. It appears that lead is laid down inexchangeably in the structural material of the shell while in soft tissues lead-containing granules are induced. These may be relocated and excreted and, when snails are transferred to lead-free conditions, their total lead content falls back to near-background levels. In Ullswater, contaminated snails, containing up to 5.6 mg Pb/g dry weight, are grazed by eels almost exclusively for some periods of the year but the majority of lead ingested by the fish passes straight through the gut. 17 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  15. Sporadic Cryptosporidiosis, North Cumbria, England, 1996–2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Stella; Casemore, David P.; Verlander, Neville Q.; Chalmers, Rachel; Knowles, Margaret; Williams, Joy; Osborn, Keith; Richards, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis were determined in 152 patients and 466 unmatched controls who resided in two local government districts in North Cumbria, North West England, from March 1, 1996, to February 29, 2000. Risk was associated with the usual daily volume of cold unboiled tap water drunk (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.14 to 1.71 per pint consumed per day [p = 0.001]) and short visits to farms (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.90, p = 0.04). Fifty-six (84%) of 67 fecal specimens from patients obtained from January 1, 1998, and February 29, 2000, were Cryptosporidium parvum genotype 2 (animal and human strain). Livestock fecal pollution of water sources appears to be the leading cause of human sporadic cryptosporidiosis in this population and shows the need for better protection of water catchments from livestock and improved drinking water treatment in this area of England. PMID:15207050

  16. Sporadic cryptosporidiosis, North Cumbria, England, 1996-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Stella; Reacher, Mark; Casemore, David P; Verlander, Neville Q; Chalmers, Rachel; Knowles, Margaret; Williams, Joy; Osborn, Keith; Richards, Sarah

    2004-06-01

    Risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis were determined in 152 patients and 466 unmatched controls who resided in two local government districts in North Cumbria, North West England, from March 1, 1996, to February 29, 2000. Risk was associated with the usual daily volume of cold unboiled tap water drunk (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.14 to 1.71 per pint consumed per day [p = 0.001]) and short visits to farms (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.90, p = 0.04). Fifty-six (84%) of 67 fecal specimens from patients obtained from January 1, 1998, and February 29, 2000, were Cryptosporidium parvum genotype 2 (animal and human strain). Livestock fecal pollution of water sources appears to be the leading cause of human sporadic cryptosporidiosis in this population and shows the need for better protection of water catchments from livestock and improved drinking water treatment in this area of England.

  17. Recent saltmarsh foraminiferal assemblages from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbers, Julia; Schönfeld, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    This study reports for the first time boreal to subarctic intertidal foraminiferal assemblages from saltmarshes at Borgarnes and Faskrudsfjördur on Iceland. The composition of living and dead foraminiferal assemblages was investigated along transects from the tidal flat to the highest reach of halophytic plants. The foraminiferal assemblages from Borgarnes showed 18 species in the total foraminiferal assemblage of which only 7 species were recorded in the living fauna. The assemblages were dominated by agglutinated taxa, whereas 3 calcareous species were recorded, of which only Haynesina orbicularis was found in the living fauna. The distribution limit of calcifying species corresponds to the lower boundary of the lower saltmarsh vegetation zone. Furthermore, calcareous tests showed many features of dissolution, which is an indication of a carbonate corrosive environment. The species forming the dead assemblages were mainly derived from the ambient intertidal areas and were displaced by tidal currents into the saltmarsh. The foraminiferal assemblages from Faskrudsfjördur showed two species, of which only one species was recorded in the living fauna. The assemblage was dominated by the agglutinated foraminifer Trochaminita irregularis. The foraminiferal species recorded on Iceland were the same as commonly found elsewhere in Europa. Since no species was found which is endemic to North America, Iceland is considered part of the European bio province. The foraminiferal could have been immigrated to Iceland from Europe through warm water currents, migratory birds or marine traffic since the last Ice Age.

  18. The Cumbria Rural Health Forum: initiating change and moving forward with technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchburn, Jae-Llane; Marshall, Alison

    2016-01-01

    The Cumbria Rural Health Forum was formed by a number of public, private and voluntary sector organisations to collaboratively work on rural health and social care in the county of Cumbria, England. The aim of the forum is to improve health and social care delivery for rural communities, and share practical ideas and evidence-based best practice that can be implemented in Cumbria. The forum currently consists of approximately 50 organisations interested in and responsible for delivery of health and social care in Cumbria. An exploration of digital technologies for health and care was recognised as an initial priority. This article describes a hands-on approach undertaken within the forum, including its current progress and development. The forum used a modified Delphi technique to facilitate its work on discussing ideas and reaching consensus to formulate the Cumbria Strategy for Digital Technologies in Health and Social Care. The group communication process took place over meetings and workshops held at various locations in the county. A roadmap for the implementation of digital technologies into health and social care was developed. The roadmap recommends the following: (i) to improve the health outcomes for targeted groups, within a unit, department or care pathway; (ii) to explain, clarify, share good (and bad) practice, assess impact and value through information sharing through conferences and events, influencing and advocacy for Cumbria; and (iii) to develop a digital-health-ready workforce where health and social care professionals can be supported to use digital technologies, and enhance recruitment and retention of staff. The forum experienced issues consistent with those in other Delphi studies, such as the repetition of ideas. Attendance was variable due to the unavailability of key people at times. Although the forum facilitated collective effort to address rural health issues, its power is limited to influencing and supporting implementation of change

  19. Mercury levels in saltmarsh sparrows on Region 5 refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This poster summarizes a study that was done to analyze mercury levels in blood from saltmarsh sparrows in Region 5 of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  20. The effect of vegetation height and biomass on the sediment budget of a European saltmarsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reef, Ruth; Schuerch, Mark; Christie, Elizabeth K.; Möller, Iris; Spencer, Tom

    2018-03-01

    Sediment retention in saltmarshes is often attributed to the presence of vegetation, which enhances accretion by slowing water flow, reduces erosion by attenuating wave energy and increases surface stability through the presence of organic matter. Saltmarsh vegetation morphology varies considerably on a range of spatial and temporal scales, but the effect of different above ground morphologies on sediment retention is not well characterised. Understanding the biophysical interaction between the canopy and sediment trapping in situ is important for improving numerical shoreline models. In a novel field flume study, we measured the effect of vegetation height and biomass on sediment trapping using a mass balance approach. Suspended sediment profilers were placed at both openings of a field flume built across-shore on the seaward boundary of an intertidal saltmarsh in the Dengie Peninsula, UK. Sequential removal of plant material from within the flume resulted in incremental loss of vegetation height and biomass. The difference between the concentration of suspended sediment measured at each profiler was used to determine the sediment budget within the flume. Deposition of material on the plant/soil surfaces within the flume occurred during flood tides, while ebb flow resulted in erosion (to a lesser degree) from the flume area, with a positive sediment budget of on average 6.5 g m-2 tide-1 with no significant relationship between sediment trapping efficiency and canopy morphology. Deposition (and erosion) rates were positively correlated to maximum inundation depth. Our results suggest that during periods of calm conditions, changes to canopy morphology do not result in significant changes in sediment budgets in marshes.

  1. Microbial communities within saltmarsh sediments: Composition, abundance and pollution constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana; Magalhães, Catarina; Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2012-03-01

    The influence of the saltmarsh plant Halimione portucaloides and the level of sediment metal contamination on the distribution of microbial communities were investigated in two Portuguese estuarine systems with different degrees of metal contamination: the Cavado (41.5 N; 8.7 W) and Sado estuaries. In the Sado, two saltmarshes were studied: Lisnave (38.4 N; 8.7 W) and Comporta (38.4 N; 8.8 W). A PCR rDNA-DGGE approach and direct microscopic counts of DAPI-stained cells were applied to study the biodiversity and abundance of prokaryotic communities. Sediment characteristics and metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni and Zn) were also evaluated to identify possible environmental pollution constraints on spatial and temporal microbial dynamics. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that the Lisnave saltmarsh microbial community was usually associated with a higher degree of metal contamination, especially the metal Pb. In clear contrast, the Cavado estuary microbial assemblage composition was associated with low metal concentrations but higher organic matter content. The Comporta saltmarsh bacterial community clustered in a separate branch, and was associated with higher levels of different metals, such as Ni, Cr and Zn. Additionally, the microbial community structure of the Lisnave and Cavado showed a seasonal pattern. Moreover, microbial abundance correlated negatively with metal concentrations, being higher at the Cavado estuarine site and with general higher counts in the rhizosediment. These findings suggest that increased metal concentrations negatively affect the abundance of prokaryotic cells and that saltmarsh plants may have a pivotal role in shaping the microbial community structure.

  2. Source apportionment of Pb pollution in saltmarsh sediments from southwest England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurian, Andra-Rada; Millward, Geoffrey; Taylor, Alex; Marshall, William; Rodríguez, Javier; Gil Ibarguchi, José Ignacio; Blake, William H.

    2017-04-01

    The local availability of metal resources played a crucial role in Britain's development during the industrial revolution, but centuries of mining within Cornwall and Devon (UK) have left a legacy of contamination in river basin and estuary sediments. Improved knowledge of historical heavy metal sources, emissions and pathways will result in a better understanding of the contemporary pollution conditions and a better protection of the environment from legacy contaminants. Our study aims to trace historical sources of Pb pollution in the area of east Cornwall and west Devon, UK, using a multi proxy approach for contaminants stored in saltmarsh sediment columns from 3 systems characterized by different contamination patterns. Source apportionment investigations included the determination of Pb concentration and Pb isotopic composition (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, and 208Pb) for selected down-core sediment samples, and for local ore and parent rock materials. General trends in pollutant loading (e.g. Pb) could be identified, with maximum inputs occurring in the middle of the 19th century and decreasing towards the present day, while an increase in the catchment disturbance was apparent for the last decades. The isotopic ratios of Pb further indicate that sediments with higher Pb content have a less radiogenic signature, these particular inputs being derived from Pb mining and smelting sources in the catchment area. Acknowledgements: Andra-Rada Iurian acknowledges the support of a Marie Curie Fellowship (H2020-MSCA-IF-2014, Grant Agreement number: 658863) within the Horizon 2020.

  3. The effects of tidal range on saltmarsh morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Guillaume; Mudd, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Saltmarshes are highly productive coastal ecosystems that act simultaneously as flood barriers, carbon storage, pollutant filters and nurseries. As halophytic plants trap suspended sediment and decay in the settled strata, innervated platforms emerge from the neighbouring tidal flats, forming sub-vertical scarps on their eroding borders and sub-horizontal pioneer zones in areas of seasonal expansion. These evolutions are subject to two contrasting influences: stochastically generated waves erode scarps and scour tidal flats, whereas tidally-generated currents transport sediment to and from the marsh through the channel network. Hence, the relative power of waves and tidal currents strongly influences saltmarsh evolution, and regional variations in tidal range yield marshes of differing morphologies. We analyse several sheltered saltmarshes to determine how their morphology reflects variations in tidal forcing. Using tidal, topographic and spectral data, we implement an algorithm based on the open-source software LSDTopoTools to automatically identify features such as marsh platforms, tidal flats, erosion scarps, pioneer zones and tidal channels on local Digital Elevation Models. Normalised geometric properties are then computed and compared throughout the spectrum of tidal range, highlighting a notable effect on channel networks, platform geometry and wave exposure. We observe that micro-tidal marshes typically display jagged outlines and multiple islands along with wide, shallow channels. As tidal range increases, we note the progressive disappearance of marsh islands and linearization of scarps, both indicative of higher hydrodynamic stress, along with a structuration of channel networks and the increase of levee volume, suggesting higher sediment input on the platform. Future research will lead to observing and modelling the evolution of saltmarshes under various tidal forcing in order to assess their resilience to environmental change.

  4. The Skallingen spit, Denmark: birth of a back-barrier saltmarsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdy, Jesper; Brivio, Lara; Bartholdy, Anders; Kim, Daehyun; Fruergaard, Mikkel

    2017-09-01

    The formation and evolution of a modern saltmarsh platform on the barrier spit Skallingen in the northernmost part of the Wadden Sea was investigated through historical map records, 12 orthophotos covering the period from 1945 to 2012, sediment cores and cross-sectional creek profiles. The barrier spit, which constitutes the foundation of the saltmarsh platform, formed in about 50 years in the seventeenth century. After its formation the spit was left as a bare sandflat for about 200 years. Along with the development of foredunes, an increased availability of fine-grained sediment and establishment of vegetation in the beginning of the 1890s, the saltmarsh area formed in about 100 years, while the development of a large system of saltmarsh creeks took place in just ca. 50 years. The development of the drainage network, saltmarsh creek morphology and sedimentology during the saltmarsh formation are described in detail and analysed with special attention to the transformation rate from bare sandflat to a genuine vegetation-covered back-barrier saltmarsh.

  5. Saltmarsh boundary modulates dispersal of mangrove propagules: implications for mangrove migration with sea-level rise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Peterson

    Full Text Available Few studies have empirically examined the suite of mechanisms that underlie the distributional shifts displayed by organisms in response to changing climatic condition. Mangrove forests are expected to move inland as sea-level rises, encroaching on saltmarsh plants inhabiting higher elevations. Mangrove propagules are transported by tidal waters and propagule dispersal is likely modified upon encountering the mangrove-saltmarsh ecotone, the implications of which are poorly known. Here, using an experimental approach, we record landward and seaward dispersal and subsequent establishment of mangrove propagules that encounter biotic boundaries composed of two types of saltmarsh taxa: succulents and grasses. Our findings revealed that propagules emplaced within saltmarsh vegetation immediately landward of the extant mangrove fringe boundary frequently dispersed in the seaward direction. However, propagules moved seaward less frequently and over shorter distances upon encountering boundaries composed of saltmarsh grasses versus succulents. We uniquely confirmed that the small subset of propagules dispersing landward displayed proportionately higher establishment success than those transported seaward. Although impacts of ecotones on plant dispersal have rarely been investigated in situ, our experimental results indicate that the interplay between tidal transport and physical attributes of saltmarsh vegetation influence boundary permeability to propagules, thereby directing the initial phase of shifting mangrove distributions. The incorporation of tidal inundation information and detailed data on landscape features, such as the structure of saltmarsh vegetation at mangrove boundaries, should improve the accuracy of models that are being developed to forecast mangrove distributional shifts in response to sea-level rise.

  6. TRiM: an organizational response to traumatic events in Cumbria Constabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, E; Jones, N; Hastings, V; Greenberg, N

    2013-12-01

    A major incident involving multiple fatalities occurred in Cumbria, England on 2 June 2010. The Cumbrian Constabulary deployed an organizational peer support response for personnel involved known as trauma risk management (TRiM). To examine data routinely gathered during the TRiM process to evaluate the relationship of the intervention to sickness absence. Using incident databases, details were gathered regarding exposure to the murders and type of TRiM intervention, including an assessment of the psychological risk to the individual of developing a trauma-related mental health problem. Sociodemographic information was collated by the occupational health department. Cumulative sickness absence data in the 2 months following the murders were used as a proxy for mental health status. A total of 717 police officers and civilian support staff were identified. High levels of traumatic exposure were associated with subsequent receipt of a TRiM intervention. The majority of psychological risk indices reduced between the initial and subsequent evaluation. Greater traumatic exposure was associated with longer sickness absence lengths. Engagement in the TRiM process was associated with a reduction in sickness absence especially in more junior ranks. In this study, we found that TRiM deployed within a police force responding to a major event offered a way of structuring a response for those involved. Our data suggest that TRiM may offer a way of assessing psychological risk so that officers can be offered early supportive interventions. Our data suggest that TRiM may help to ameliorate some of the negative effects of high trauma exposure.

  7. Vegetation response to soil salinity and waterlogging in three saltmarsh hydrosequences through macronutrients distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferronato, Chiara; Speranza, Maria; Ferroni, Lucia; Buscaroli, Alessandro; Vianello, Gilmo; Vittori Antisari, Livia

    2018-01-01

    Saltmarshes consist of soil hydrosequences, where the complex interactions between water tide fluctuations, soil physicochemical properties and plant colonization contribute to the triggering of the pedogenetic processes and consequently to the stability of the saltmarsh edges. In this study, the composition and richness of the vegetation cover were investigated along soil transects in three different saltmarshes. With the aim to investigate the response of the vegetation to the soil hydroperiod and its influence on the availability of soil nutrients, plant and soil samples were collected in four representative sites on each saltmarsh transect (hydrosequence). Among the different species of saltmarshes, L. vulgare and S. europaea colonized intertidal areas, where an accumulation of nutrients (Ca, K, P, S and Na) and organic C and total N (OC and TN, respectively) was found. These intertidal areas are the "critical transition zones", which drive the transition between the terrestrial and the aquatic systems along the increase of soil salinity and water saturation. Among the different element cycles analysed in the soil-plant system, the analysis of the Na and S dynamic, through both bioconcentration and translocation indexes, explains the different adaptation mechanisms to different salinity and waterlogging stressors. The limiting of the species areal was generally associated firstly with a decrease in their Na and S bioconcentration factor and, to a lesser extent, with the increase in their Na and S translocation.

  8. Early Salt-Marsh Development, an Example of a Turing Instability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Koppel, J.

    2008-12-01

    In the past decades, regular spatial patterns have been described in a wide range of ecosystems, ranging from arid lands to boreal peat lands. Pattern formation mechanisms in many of these ecosystems are caused by scale-dependent interactions between organisms and geophysical processes, causing facilitation between organisms at small spatial scale, but inhibition at larger spatial scales. This conforms to the activation-inhibition principle laid out by Alan Turing in 1953. We present a combination of experimental and modeling studies on early salt-marsh development that indicate that similar scale-dependent interactions determine the establishment of salt-marsh vegetation and early geomorphological development of the marsh. Based on these studies, we argue that the early development of salt-marsh ecosystems is characterized by a Turing instability, placed into a complex landscape setting.

  9. Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes vs. carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous burial in new intertidal and saltmarsh sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C.A., E-mail: christopher.adams@uea.ac.uk; Andrews, J.E.; Jickells, T.

    2012-09-15

    Carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) burial rates were determined within natural saltmarsh (NSM) and 'managed realignment' (MR) sediments of the Blackwater estuary, UK. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) fluxes were measured along with their ability to offset a portion of the C burial to give net C sequestration. C and N densities (C{rho} and N{rho}) of NSM sediments (0.022 and 0.0019 g cm{sup -3}) are comparable to other UK NSM sediments. Less vegetationally developed MR sediments have lower C{rho} and N{rho} (0.012 and 0.0011 g cm{sup -3}) while the more vegetationally developed sites possess higher C{rho} and N{rho} (0.023 and 0.0030 g cm{sup -3}) than NSM. Both NSM and MR areas were small CH{sub 4} (0.10-0.40 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}) and N{sub 2}O (0.03-0.37 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}) sources. Due to their large Global Warming Potentials, even these relatively small greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes reduced the net C sequestration within MR marshes by as much as 49%, but by only 2% from NSM. Potential MR areas within the Blackwater estuary (29.5 km{sup 2} saltmarsh and 23.7 km{sup 2} intertidal mudflat) could bury 5478 t C yr{sup -1} and 695.5 t N yr{sup -1}, with a further 476 t N yr{sup -1} denitrified. The saltmarsh MR would also sequester 139.4 t P yr{sup -1}. GHG fluxes would reduce the C burial benefit by 24% giving a C sequestration rate of 4174 t C yr{sup -1}. Similar areas within the Humber estuary (74.95 km{sup 2}) could bury 3597 t C yr{sup -1} and 180 t N yr{sup -1}, with a further 442 t N yr{sup -1} denitrified. GHG fluxes would reduce the C burial benefit by 31% giving a C sequestration rate of 2492 t C yr{sup -1}. Overall, MR sites provide sustainable coastal defence options with significant biogeochemical value and, despite being net sources of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, can sequester C and reduce estuarine nutrient loads. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated C, N, P, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O fluxes

  10. Study of erosion processes in the Tinto salt-marshes with remote sensing images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Both climatic factors and the sea wave energy are two important factors to study the tidal wetlands. One of the most important wetlands in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula is the Tinto salt-marshes, the third largest wetland in Andalusia after ...

  11. Comparing Aedes vigilax Eggshell Densities in Saltmarsh and Mangrove Systems with Implications for Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Dale

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aedes vigilax (Skuse, a nuisance and disease vector, is prolific in intertidal wetlands in Australia. Aedine mosquitoes oviposit directly onto substrate. The eggshells are relatively stable spatially and temporally, providing an estimate of mosquito larval production. The aims of the research were to compare, at a general level, oviposition in mangroves and saltmarshes, and to compare oviposition between different habitats within mangroves and saltmarshes. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between production in mangrove and saltmarsh overall. However, within each system there were significant differences between habitat classes, with mangrove hummocks being the most productive. All classes, except for fringing mangrove forests, produced sufficient densities of eggshells (>0.05/cc to warrant concern. While mosquito production in mangroves is known, the significantly higher production rates in the mangrove hummock habitats had not been demonstrated. This warrants improved management strategies that both specifically target these parts of mangrove systems and, secondly, addresses the longer-term potential for mangrove hummock habitats developing in the future; such as, in response to sea level rise and mangrove encroachment into saltmarsh. A strategy to increase tidal flushing within the systems would improve water quality and mitigate adverse impacts while providing a source reduction outcome.

  12. Comparison of Bottomless Lift Nets and Breder Traps for Sampling Salt-Marsh Nekton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetated salt-marsh surfaces provide refuge, forage, and spawning habitat for estuarine nekton, yet are threatened by accelerating rates of sea-level rise in southern New England and elsewhere. Nekton responses to ongoing marsh surface changes need to be evaluated with effective...

  13. Methylmercury availability in New England estuaries as indicated by saltmarsh Sharp-tailed sparrow, 2004-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As part of an ongoing investigation of Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrows (Ammodramus caudacutus) in the Northeast, we conducted a sparrow mercury (Hg) exposure survey...

  14. The role of changing climate in driving the shift from perennial grasses to annual succulents in a Mediterranean saltmarsh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strain, E.M.A.; van Belzen, J.; Comandini, P.; Wong, J.; Bouma, T.J.; Airoldi, L.

    2017-01-01

    Changing climate threatens the structure and function of saltmarshes, which are often severely degraded by other human perturbations. Along the Mediterranean coastline, increasing temperature and decreasing rainfall have been hypothesised to trigger habitat shifts from perennial grasses to annual

  15. OT {-(Uk} / ET {-(Uk}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. İbrahim TAŞ

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The {-(Uk} affix, expressing the verb result and derivingqualifications, is not seen among the the rules of vowels, rounded-unroundedat old Turkic and middle Turkic texts. But in some words, rounded -unrounded rule is seen. At this text, we investigated some of these words.

  16. Motor neurone disease in Lancashire and South Cumbria in North West England and an 8 year experience with enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Suresh Kumar; Bradley, Belinda Fay; Majeed, Tahir; Lea, Robert William

    2016-02-01

    Motor neurone disease (MND) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of unknown aetiology. Malnutrition is a common occurrence and an independent risk factor for worse prognosis. However, it remains unclear whether provision of enteral nutrition (EN) through a gastrostomy tube offers any survival advantage. Our aim was to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of MND in Lancashire and South Cumbria in North West England and the impact of EN on survival in the 8 year period of 2005-2012. Four hundred and seven patients with MND were identified through the Preston MND care and research centre registry giving a crude incidence rate of 3.15/100,000. Three hundred and forty patients with adequate information were included in the final analysis of whom 53.2% were male. The presentation was limb/spinal in 62.1% and bulbar in 37.9% of patients, bulbar onset being more common in elderly females. Mean age of onset was 67.28 years (standard deviation 11.06; range 22.78-93.06). Median survival was 1.98 years (range 1.18-3.05). Ninety-one patients received EN of whom 67% had bulbar onset disease. EN was not associated with a statistically significant survival advantage except for the subgroup who received EN more than 500 days after symptom onset. In conclusion, the early requirement for EN may indicate a prognostically less favourable subgroup. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of autochthonous microbial consortia for enhanced phytoremediation of salt-marsh sediments contaminated with cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Catarina [Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Laboratório de Hidrobiologia e Ecologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar (ICBAS), Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Nunes da Silva, Marta [Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Bordalo, Adriano A. [Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Laboratório de Hidrobiologia e Ecologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar (ICBAS), Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Mucha, Ana P., E-mail: amucha@ciimar.up.pt [Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-09-15

    Microbial assisted phytoremediation is a promising, though yet poorly explored, new remediation technique. The aim of this study was to develop autochthonous microbial consortia resistant to cadmium that could enhance phytoremediation of salt-marsh sediments contaminated with this metal. The microbial consortia were selectively enriched from rhizosediments colonized by Juncus maritimus and Phragmites australis. The obtained consortia presented similar microbial abundance but a fairly different community structure, showing that the microbial community was a function of the sediment from which the consortia were enriched. The effect of the bioaugmentation with the developed consortia on cadmium uptake, and the microbial community structure associated to the different sediments were assessed using a microcosm experiment. Our results showed that the addition of the cadmium resistant microbial consortia increased J. maritimus metal phytostabilization capacity. On the other hand, in P. australis, microbial consortia amendment promoted metal phytoextraction. The addition of the consortia did not alter the bacterial structure present in the sediments at the end of the experiments. This study provides new evidences that the development of autochthonous microbial consortia for enhanced phytoremediation of salt-marsh sediments contaminated with cadmium might be a simple, efficient, and environmental friendly remediation procedure. Capsule abstract: Development of autochthonous microbial consortia resistant to cadmium that enhanced phytoremediation by salt-marsh plants, without a long term effect on sediment bacterial diversity. - Highlights: • Cd resistant microbial consortia were developed and applied to salt-marsh sediments. • In Phragmites australis the consortia amendment promoted metal phytoextraction. • The consortia addition increased Juncus maritimus phytostabilization capacity. • No long term changes on the rhizosediment bacterial structure were observed.

  18. Spatio-temporal changes of a mangrove–saltmarsh ecotone in the northeastern coast of Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfrid Rodriguez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available General circulation models predict warming trends and changes in temperature and precipitation patterns that have the potential to alter the structure and function of coastal habitats. The purpose of this study was to quantify the expansion and contraction of mangroves and saltmarsh habitats and assess the impact of climate on these landscape changes. The study was conducted in a mangrove/saltmarsh ecotone in Flagler County, FL, near the northern range limit of mangroves along the Atlantic coast of North America. We used time series of historical aerial photography and high-resolution multispectral satellite imagery from 1942 to 2013 to quantify changes in the extent of mangrove and saltmarsh vegetation and compared these changes to climate variables of temperature and precipitation, temperature–seasonality, as well as historical sea-level data. Results showed increases in mangrove extent of 89% between 1942 and 1952, and a continuous increase from 1995 to 2013. Largest decrease in saltmarsh extent occurred between 1942 and 1952 (-136% and between 2008 and 2013 (-81%. We found significant effects of precipitation, temperature, seasonality, and time on mangrove and saltmarsh areal extent. The statistical effect of sea-level was rather small, but we speculate that it might have ecological impacts on these two coastal ecosystems. Results also showed a cyclical dynamism as well as a reversal in habitat dominance, which may be the result of complex interactions between plant habitats and several environmental drivers of change such as species interactions, and hydrological changes induced by sea-level rise, in addition to temperature and precipitation effects. Our results on mangrove/saltmarsh expansion and contraction may contribute to the improvement of management and conservation strategies for coastal ecosystems being impacted by climate change.

  19. Comments on Letter (Phys. Rev. L, Vol.89, No. 10,2002) by D. Shapira and M. Saltmarsh

    CERN Document Server

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P; Cho, JaeSeon; Lahey, Richard T; Nigmatulin, Robert I; Block, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on correcting several factual errors and critiques in the previously published Letter in Phys. Rev. L, Vol. 89, No. 10, 2022, by D. Shapira and M. Saltmarsh. The authors of the Letter did not perform their own "independent" experiments as claimed; they did not perform control experiments with normal acetone; and, neither did they monitor for tritium. It their Letter, the authors (D. Shapira and M. Saltmarsh) failed to disclose that the data they collected actually confirmed our claims of having observed statistically significant nuclear emissions in chilled, cavitated deuterated acetone.

  20. Evidence for coseismic subsidence events in a southern California coastal saltmarsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, Robert; Rhodes, Brady; Kirby, Matthew; Scharer, Katherine; Carlin, Joseph; Hemphill-Haley, Eileen; Avnaim-Katav, Simona; MacDonald, Glen; Starratt, Scott; Aranda, Angela

    2017-03-01

    Paleoenvironmental records from a southern California coastal saltmarsh reveal evidence for repeated late Holocene coseismic subsidence events. Field analysis of sediment gouge cores established discrete lithostratigraphic units extend across the wetland. Detailed sediment analyses reveal abrupt changes in lithology, percent total organic matter, grain size, and magnetic susceptibility. Microfossil analyses indicate that predominantly freshwater deposits bury relic intertidal deposits at three distinct depths. Radiocarbon dating indicates that the three burial events occurred in the last 2000 calendar years. Two of the three events are contemporaneous with large-magnitude paleoearthquakes along the Newport-Inglewood/Rose Canyon fault system. From these data, we infer that during large magnitude earthquakes a step-over along the fault zone results in the vertical displacement of an approximately 5-km2 area that is consistent with the footprint of an estuary identified in pre-development maps. These findings provide insight on the evolution of the saltmarsh, coseismic deformation and earthquake recurrence in a wide area of southern California, and sensitive habitat already threatened by eustatic sea level rise.

  1. Spectral Discrimination of the Invasive Plant Spartina alterniflora at Multiple Phenological Stages in a Saltmarsh Wetland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu-Tao Ouyang

    Full Text Available Spartina alterniflora has widely invaded the saltmarshes of the Yangtze River Estuary and brought negative effects to the ecosystem. Remote sensing technique has recently been used to monitor its distribution, but the similar morphology and canopy structure among S. alterniflora and its neighbor species make it difficult even with high-resolution images. Nevertheless, these species have divergence on phenological stages throughout the year, which cause distinguishing spectral characteristics among them and provide opportunities for discrimination. The field spectra of the S. alterniflora community as well as its major victims, native Phragmites australis and Scirpus mariqueter, were measured in 2009 and 2010 at multi-phenological stages in the Yangtze River Estuary, aiming to find the most appropriate periods for mapping S. alterniflora. Collected spectral data were analyzed separately for every stage firstly by re-sampling reflectance curves into continued 5-nm-wide hyper-spectral bands and then by re-sampling into broad multi-spectral bands - the same as the band ranges of the TM sensor, as well as calculating commonly used vegetation indices. The results showed that differences among saltmarsh communities' spectral characteristics were affected by their phenological stages. The germination and early vegetative growth stage and the flowering stage were probably the best timings to identify S. alterniflora. Vegetation indices like NDVI, ANVI, VNVI, and RVI are likely to enhance spectral separability and also make it possible to discriminate S. alterniflora at its withering stage.

  2. Evidence for coseismic subsidence events in a southern California coastal saltmarsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, Robert; Rhodes, Brady P.; Kirby, Matthew E.; Scharer, Katherine M.; Carlin, Joseph A.; Hemphill-Haley, Eileen; Avnaim-Katav, Simona; MacDonald, Glen M.; Starratt, Scott W.; Aranda, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Paleoenvironmental records from a southern California coastal saltmarsh reveal evidence for repeated late Holocene coseismic subsidence events. Field analysis of sediment gouge cores established discrete lithostratigraphic units extend across the wetland. Detailed sediment analyses reveal abrupt changes in lithology, percent total organic matter, grain size, and magnetic susceptibility. Microfossil analyses indicate that predominantly freshwater deposits bury relic intertidal deposits at three distinct depths. Radiocarbon dating indicates that the three burial events occurred in the last 2000 calendar years. Two of the three events are contemporaneous with large-magnitude paleoearthquakes along the Newport-Inglewood/Rose Canyon fault system. From these data, we infer that during large magnitude earthquakes a step-over along the fault zone results in the vertical displacement of an approximately 5-km2 area that is consistent with the footprint of an estuary identified in pre-development maps. These findings provide insight on the evolution of the saltmarsh, coseismic deformation and earthquake recurrence in a wide area of southern California, and sensitive habitat already threatened by eustatic sea level rise.

  3. A strategy to potentiate Cd phytoremediation by saltmarsh plants - autochthonous bioaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes da Silva, Marta; Mucha, Ana P; Rocha, A Cristina; Teixeira, Catarina; Gomes, Carlos R; Almeida, C Marisa R

    2014-02-15

    The recovery of estuarine environments is in need. Phytoremediation could be a valid option to reduce pollution while preserving natural biodiversity. In this work, estuarine sediments colonized by Juncus maritimus or Phragmites australis were spiked with cadmium in the absence and in the presence of an autochthonous microbial consortium resistant to the metal. The aim of this study was to increase the potential for cadmium phytoremediation that these two halophyte plants have shown. Experiments were carried out in greenhouses with an automatic irrigation system that simulated estuarine tidal cycles. After 2 months, Cd concentration in P. australis stems increased up to 7 times when the rhizosphere was inoculated with the microbial consortium. So, P. australis phytoextraction potential was increased through autochthonous bioaugmentation. As for J. maritimus, up to 48% more Cd (total amount) was observed in its belowground tissues after being subjected to autochthonous bioaugmentation. Therefore, the phytostabilization potential of this plant was promoted. For both plants this increase in cadmium uptake did not cause significant signs of toxicity. Therefore, the addition of autochthonous microorganisms resistant to cadmium seems to be a valuable strategy to potentiate phytoremediation of this metal in saltmarshes, being useful for the recovery of moderately impacted estuaries. This will contribute for an effective management of these areas. Research on this topic regarding estuarine ecosystems, especially saltmarshes, is, to our knowledge, inexistent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of stillbirth risk among the offspring of male radiation workers at the Sellafield nuclear installation, west Cumbria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, M.S

    2000-04-01

    Ionising radiation is a known mutagen, much of the evidence coming from studies on animals, and from studies of occupationally exposed workforces and those exposed after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. However, few studies have examined transgenerational effects of paternal exposure in humans. The workforce at the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant in west Cumbria, is the most highly exposed such workforce in Western Europe and North America. This epidemiological investigation set out to determine whether there was evidence of an association between stillbirth risk and paternal preconceptional exposure to external ionising radiation or internal radionuclides. Logistic regression was used to analyse the relationship between stillbirth risk and paternal preconceptional irradiation (ppi). Further modelling of the risk of stillbirth in relation to ppi was carried out using overdispersion and variance components models. The form of doseresponse was investigated using both threshold and broken-stick models, in addition to varying the power function of the dose term. To assess the effect of errors in the dose estimates for the immediate preconceptional period resulting from the derivation of doses for short intervals pro rata from annual dose summaries, a nested case-control study was also carried out. This used more precise estimates of external doses estimated directly from monthly film badges and internal doses from special dose assessments, which were very time consuming to collate and would have taken several years to compile for the entire workforce. A significant positive association was found between the risk of a child being stillborn and total external ppi (adjusted odds ratio per 100 mSv, 1.25 95% CI 1.04-1.46, p=0.019). The risk was higher for stillbirths with congenital anomaly and was highest for the nine stillbirths with neural tube defects, eight of which were anencephalic, the other spina bifida. Although, the possibility of an

  5. 76 FR 49412 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Saltmarsh Topminnow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... contain topminnows (Thompson, 1980; Peterson et al., 2003). In addition to salinity, water depth, bank... Galveston Bay (Texas) (Gilbert and Relyea, 1992). Analysis of the Petition We evaluated whether the petition... pollution as the threats cumulatively leading to the decline of saltmarsh habitat. According to the petition...

  6. Activity rhythms and the tide in a saltmarsh beetle Dicheirotrichus gustavi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, W A

    1983-10-01

    Field observations at Mersea Island, Essex confirm previous observations at Scolt Head Island, Norfolk that the intertidal beetle Dicheirotrichus gustavi Crotch (Coleoptera: Carabidae) has a rhythm of activity on the saltmarsh surface which is suppressed during periods of submerging tides. Although the timing of the tides at the two sites is 180° (6 h) out of phase, the timing of beetle activity at the two sites is the same, with a peak of activity shortly after dusk. Beetle activity therefore shows no special phase relationship with the "critical" tide - the first high tide that covers the beetle zone after a period of emergence. At Mersea, the peak of beetle activity coincides with the critical high tides, but the beetles were observed to escape from the seawater by scrambling up the mud and vegetation.

  7. Pyriproxyfen for the control of Australian salt-marsh mosquito, Aedes vigilax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Garry; Miller, Peter; Peters, Bryce

    2012-03-01

    The efficacy of pyriproxyfen against the Australian salt-marsh mosquito, Aedes vigilax, was examined in 2 laboratory and 1 semi-field study using both technical grade and formulated products. In a dose-response study, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) and EI95 values were determined to be 0.019 and 0.076 ppb, respectively, for pyriproxyfen technical grade, 0.021 and 0.092 ppb for a microencapsulated formulation (Sumilarv 90CS), and 0.054 and 0.236 ppb for the formulated s-methoprene product, Altosid Liquid Larvicide. A further laboratory comparison of the microencapsulated formulation of pyriproxyfen and Altosid, at the nominal field rate for Altosid, showed that both products provided 100% emergence inhibition and this was confirmed in a semi-field study, which also included a granular formulation of pyriproxyfen (Sumilarv 0.5G).

  8. Potential vectors of equine arboviruses in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, G E; Archer, D; Torr, S; Solomon, T; Baylis, M

    2017-01-07

    There is growing concern about the increasing risk of disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) in both human beings and animals. There are several mosquito-borne viral diseases that cause varying levels of morbidity and mortality in horses and that can have substantial welfare and economic ramifications. While none has been recorded in the UK, vector species for some of these viruses are present, suggesting that UK equines may be at risk. The authors undertook, therefore, the first study of mosquito species on equine premises in the UK. Mosquito magnet traps and red-box traps were used to sample adults, and larvae were collected from water sources such as tyres, buckets, ditches and pools. Several species that are known to be capable of transmitting important equine infectious arboviruses were trapped. The most abundant, with a maximum catch of 173 in 72 hours, was Ochlerotatus detritus, a competent vector of some flaviviruses; the highest densities were found near saltmarsh habitats. The most widespread species, recorded at >75 per cent of sites, was Culiseta annulata. This study demonstrates that potential mosquito vectors of arboviruses, including those known to be capable of infecting horses, are present and may be abundant on equine premises in the UK. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Are all intertidal wetlands naturally created equal? Bottlenecks, thresholds and knowledge gaps to mangrove and saltmarsh ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friess, Daniel A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Horstman, Erik M.; Balke, Thorsten; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Galli, Demis; Webb, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    Intertidal wetlands such as saltmarshes and mangroves provide numerous important ecological functions, though they are in rapid and global decline. To better conserve and restore these wetland ecosystems, we need an understanding of the fundamental natural bottlenecks and thresholds to their establishment and long-term ecological maintenance. Despite inhabiting similar intertidal positions, the biological traits of these systems differ markedly in structure, phenology, life history, phylogeny and dispersal, suggesting large differences in biophysical interactions. By providing the first systematic comparison between saltmarshes and mangroves, we unravel how the interplay between species-specific life-history traits, biophysical interactions and biogeomorphological feedback processes determine where, when and what wetland can establish, the thresholds to long-term ecosystem stability, and constraints to genetic connectivity between intertidal wetland populations at the landscape level. To understand these process interactions, research into the constraints to wetland development, and biological adaptations to overcome these critical bottlenecks and thresholds requires a truly interdisciplinary approach.

  10. Exploring mechanisms of compaction in salt-marsh sediments using Common Era relative sea-level reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Matthew J.; Kemp, Andrew C.; Hawkes, Andrea D.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Vane, Christopher H.; Cahill, Niamh; Hill, Troy D.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Horton, Benjamin P.

    2017-07-01

    Salt-marsh sediments provide precise and near-continuous reconstructions of Common Era relative sea level (RSL). However, organic and low-density salt-marsh sediments are prone to compaction processes that cause post-depositional distortion of the stratigraphic column used to reconstruct RSL. We compared two RSL reconstructions from East River Marsh (Connecticut, USA) to assess the contribution of mechanical compression and biodegradation to compaction of salt-marsh sediments and their subsequent influence on RSL reconstructions. The first, existing reconstruction ('trench') was produced from a continuous sequence of basal salt-marsh sediment and is unaffected by compaction. The second, new reconstruction is from a compaction-susceptible core taken at the same location. We highlight that sediment compaction is the only feasible mechanism for explaining the observed differences in RSL reconstructed from the trench and core. Both reconstructions display long-term RSL rise of ∼1 mm/yr, followed by a ∼19th Century acceleration to ∼3 mm/yr. A statistically-significant difference between the records at ∼1100 to 1800 CE could not be explained by a compression-only geotechnical model. We suggest that the warmer and drier conditions of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) resulted in an increase in sediment compressibility during this time period. We adapted the geotechnical model by reducing the compressive strength of MCA sediments to simulate this softening of sediments. 'Decompaction' of the core reconstruction with this modified model accounted for the difference between the two RSL reconstructions. Our results demonstrate that compression-only geotechnical models may be inadequate for estimating compaction and post-depositional lowering of susceptible organic salt-marsh sediments in some settings. This has important implications for our understanding of the drivers of sea-level change. Further, our results suggest that future climate changes may make salt

  11. A trophic cascade triggers collapse of a salt-marsh ecosystem with intensive recreational fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Andrew H; Bertness, Mark D; Coverdale, Tyler C; Herrmann, Nicholas C; Angelini, Christine

    2012-06-01

    Overexploitation of predators has been linked to the collapse of a growing number of shallow-water marine ecosystems. However, salt-marsh ecosystems are often viewed and managed as systems controlled by physical processes, despite recent evidence for herbivore-driven die-off of marsh vegetation. Here we use field observations, experiments, and historical records at 14 sites to examine whether the recently reported die-off of northwestern Atlantic salt marshes is associated with the cascading effects of predator dynamics and intensive recreational fishing activity. We found that the localized depletion of top predators at sites accessible to recreational anglers has triggered the proliferation of herbivorous crabs, which in turn results in runaway consumption of marsh vegetation. This suggests that overfishing may be a general mechanism underlying the consumer-driven die-off of salt marshes spreading throughout the western Atlantic. Our findings support the emerging realization that consumers play a dominant role in regulating marine plant communities and can lead to ecosystem collapse when their impacts are amplified by human activities, including recreational fishing.

  12. Numerical simulations of Holocene salt-marsh dynamics under the hypothesis of large soil deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccarato, C.; Teatini, P.

    2017-12-01

    Salt marshes are vulnerable environments hosting complex interactions between physical and biological processes. The prediction of the elevation dynamics of a salt-marsh platform is crucial to forecast its future behavior under potential changing scenarios. An original finite-element (FE) numerical model accounting for the long-term marsh accretion and compaction linked to relative sea level rise is proposed. The accretion term considers the material sedimentation over the marsh surface, whereas the compaction reflects the progressive consolidation of the porous medium under the increasing load of the overlying younger deposits. The modeling approach is based on a 2D groundwater flow simulator coupled to a 1D vertical geomechanical module, where the soil properties may vary with the effective intergranular stress. The model takes also into account the geometric non-linearity arising from the consideration of large solid grain movements by using a Lagrangian approach with an adaptive FE mesh. The numerical experiments show the potentiality of the proposed 2D model, which consistently integrates in modeling framework the behavior of spatially distributed model parameters. High sedimentation rates and low permeabilities largely impact on the mechanism of soil compaction following the overpressure dissipation.

  13. Trophic shift in young-of-the-year Mugilidae during salt-marsh colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, B; Richard, P; Guillou, G; Blanchard, G F

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the trophic shift of young-of-the-year (YOY) thinlip grey mullet Liza ramada and golden grey mullet Liza aurata during their recruitment in a salt marsh located on the European Atlantic Ocean coast. Stable-isotope signatures (δ(13) C and δ(15) N) of the fishes followed a pattern, having enrichments in (13) C and (15) N with increasing fork length (LF ): δ(13) C in fishes  30 mm δ(13) C ranged from -15.8 to -12.7‰, closer to the level in salt-marsh food resources. Large differences between the δ(15) N values of mugilids and those of food sources (6·0‰ on average) showed that YOY are secondary consumers, similar to older individuals, when feeding in the salt marsh. YOY mugilids shift from browsing on pelagic prey to grazing on benthic resources from the salt marsh before reaching 30 mm LF. The results highlight the role of European salt marshes as nurseries for juvenile mugilids. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Heavy metals in sediments and halophytes of saltmarshes in the Marano and Grado Lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emili A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The content of several heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn was determined in sediments and in plants (the halophytes Sarcocornia fruticosa and Limonium vulgare from two selected saltmarshes located in the Marano and Grado Lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea. This environment has been affected by severe Hg contamination from both industrial and long-term mining activities. In both saltmarshes, Hg content in sediments exceeded the estimated background value (0.13 μg g−1, showing the highest concentrations (13.7 μg g−1 in the eastern sector (Grado Lagoon, the most affected by cinnabar ore extraction. On the other hand, the saltmarsh, located in the Marano Lagoon, showed a higher degree of contamination for As, Cd and Pb, which can be related to industrial sources. The rhizo-sediments of both halophytes reflected the characteristics of the non-vegetated sediment, with higher organic carbon content and similar metal concentrations. Enrichment Factors (EF=[metal]root/[metal]rhizo-sediment for each sediment layer were calculated for both halophytes, showing metal enrichments in the roots and the presence of preferential layers of metal accumulation. Hg showed accumulation (EF>1 in the roots below the 20 cm depth, with higher contents in S. Fruticosa. As and Cd were accumulated by both halophytes, more efficiently by S. Fruticosa, and the same species showed also accumulation of Pb and Zn. Translocation of metals from the roots to the aboveground biomass was investigated by measuring metal contents in shoots and leaves of the two species. With the exception of Cd and Hg, all metals were present in the aboveground biomass, most evidently for Cr in S. Fruticosa and Zn in L. Vulgare, although the presence of the latter in leaves could be due to plant physiology rather than translocation of the contaminant.

  15. The influence of saltmarsh restoration on sediment dynamics and the potential impact on carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Benjamin; Paterson, David

    2017-04-01

    Coastal wetland ecosystems can act as large-capacity carbon sinks, providing a valuable climate change mitigation function. Globally, saltmarshes are estimated to accumulate an average of 244.7g C m-2 yr-1 (Ouyang & Lee 2014). Saltmarsh areas have experienced rapid loss in the recent past of approximately 1-2% per year (Duarte et al. 2008). Efforts to restore these areas could result in additional carbon storage due to extended vegetation cover and altered burial due to changing sediment dynamics. The influence of restoration through transplantation on sediment dynamics within a small estuary on the east coast of Scotland was assessed. Restoration efforts have been implemented since the early 2000s providing examples of old established sites ("old", >10years), young recently planted sites ("young", business-as-usual' mudflats and natural marsh areas. In each of these area types seasonal data of sediment deposition and settlement were collected and sediment accretion rates measured. Deposition and settlement samples were taken four times a season, provided total sediment weight and organic content information. Elevation changes were measured once per season, quantifying sediment accretion rates. All data were collected between summer 2015 and spring 2016. Data suggest a positive correlation between sediment settlement and deposition quantities (dry weight) across the estuary (r2=0.64), with restored areas displaying a slightly stronger relationship (old r2=0.67, young r2=0.68) compared to natural marsh and mudflats (r2=0.54 and 0.59 respectively). Suggesting restored areas which are developing or expanding are retaining more from the potential sediment load in the water column. However average amounts of actual deposited material are significantly greater in mudflat and young areas with old and natural areas significantly lower; potentially as a result of those being of a lower elevation. Nevertheless, percentage organic matter content of deposited material is

  16. Decoupled diversity dynamics in green and brown webs during primary succession in a saltmarsh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, Maarten; van der Plas, Fons; Berg, Matty P; Olff, Han

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by a strong functional connection between the green (plant-herbivore-based) and brown (detritus-detritivore-based) parts of the food web, which both develop over successional time. However, the interlinked changes in green and brown food web diversity patterns in relation to key ecosystem processes are rarely studied. Here, we demonstrate changes in species richness, diversity and evenness over a wide range of invertebrate green and brown trophic groups during 100 years of primary succession in a saltmarsh ecosystem, using a well-calibrated chronosequence. We contrast two hypotheses on the relationship between green and brown food web diversity across succession: (i) 'coupled diversity hypothesis', which predicts that all trophic groups covary similarly with the main drivers of successional ecosystem assembly vs. (ii) the 'decoupled diversity hypothesis', where green and brown trophic groups diversity respond to different drivers during succession. We found that, while species richness for plants and invertebrate herbivores (green web groups) both peaked at intermediate productivity and successional age, the diversity of macrodetritivores, microarthropod microbivores and secondary consumers (brown web groups) continuously increased towards the latest successional stages. These results suggest that green web trophic groups are mainly driven by vegetation parameters, such as the amount of bare soil, vegetation biomass production and vegetation height, while brown web trophic groups are mostly driven by the production and standing stock of dead organic material and soil development. Our results show that plant diversity cannot simply be used as a proxy for the diversity of all other species groups that drive ecosystem functioning, as brown and green diversity components in our ecosystem responded differently to successional gradients. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  17. The impact of pre-restoration land-use and disturbance on sediment structure, hydrology and the sediment geochemical environment in restored saltmarshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Kate L; Carr, Simon J; Diggens, Lucy M; Tempest, James A; Morris, Michelle A; Harvey, Gemma L

    2017-06-01

    Saltmarshes are being lost or degraded as a result of human activity resulting in loss of critical ecosystem services including the provision of wild species diversity, water quality regulation and flood regulation. To compensate, saltmarshes are being restored or re-created, usually driven by legislative requirements for increased habitat diversity, flood regulation and sustainable coastal defense. Yet, there is increasing evidence that restoration may not deliver anticipated ecosystem services; this is frequently attributed to poor drainage and sediment anoxia. However, physical sediment characteristics, hydrology and the sediment geochemical environment are rarely examined in restoration schemes, despite such factors being critical for plant succession. This study presents the novel integration of 3D-computed X-ray microtomography to quantify sediment structure and porosity, with water level and geochemical data to understand the impact of pre-restoration land use and disturbance on the structure and functioning of restored saltmarshes. The study combines a broad-scale investigation of physical sediment characteristics in nine de-embanked saltmarshes across SE England, with an intensive study at one site examining water levels, sediment structure and the sediment geochemical environment. De-embankment does not restore the hydrological regime, or the physical/chemical framework in the saltmarshes and evidence of disturbance includes a reduction in microporosity, pore connectivity and water storage capacity, a lack of connectivity between the sub-surface environment and overlying floodwaters, and impeded sub-surface water flow and drainage. This has significant consequences for the sediment geochemical environment. This disturbance is evident for at least two decades following restoration and is likely to be irreversible. It has important implications for plant establishment in particular, ecosystem services including flood regulation, nutrient cycling and wild

  18. LLW disposal wasteform preparation in the UK: the role of high force compaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L. F.; Fearnley, I. G. [British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1991-07-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) owns and operates the principal UK solid low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. The site is located at Drigg in West Cumbria some 6 km to the south east of BNFL's Sellafield reprocessing complex. Sellafield is the major UK generator of LLW, accounting for about 85% of estimated future arisings of raw (untreated, unpackaged) waste. Non-Sellafield consignors to the Drigg site include other BNFL production establishments, nuclear power stations, sites of UKAEA, Ministry of Defence facilities, hospitals, universities, radioisotope production sites and various other industrial organisations. In September 1987, BNFL announced a major upgrade of operations at the Drigg site aimed at improving management practices, the efficiency of space utilisation and enhancing the visual impact of disposal operations. During 1989 a review of plans for compaction and containerisation of Sellafield waste identified that residual voidage in ISO freight containers could be significant even after the introduction of compaction. Subsequent studies which examined a range of compaction and packaging options concluded that the preferred scheme centred on the use of high force compaction (HFC) of compactable waste, and grouting to take up readily accessible voidage in the wasteform. The paper describes the emergence of high force compaction as the preferred scheme for wasteform preparation and subsequent benefits against the background of the overall development of Low Level Waste disposal operations at Drigg.

  19. Mercury on national wildlife refuges as a threat to long-term viability of saltmarsh and Nelson’s sparrows in the face of climate induced sea level rise

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Nelson’s and saltmarsh sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni and A. caudacutus) have recently been recognized as separate species, and because of their limited distributions...

  20. Human impact and the historical transformation of saltmarshes in the Marano and Grado Lagoon, northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontolan, Giorgio; Pillon, Simone; Bezzi, Annelore; Villalta, Renato; Lipizer, Marco; Triches, Antonella; D'Aietti, Alessandro

    2012-11-01

    Historical transformations of the saltmarshes in the six sub-basins of the Marano and Grado Lagoon were analyzed using aerial photographs (1954, 1990, 2006), and the support of historical maps and topographic surveys. Analysis of the 2006 set of aerial photographs enabled the definition of the present extent and distribution of the saltmarshes inside the lagoon (760 ha), with a total reduction in saltmarsh area of 16% (144 ha) compared to 1954. Direct human actions played a significant role in the budget, since total loss due to land reclamation and dredging during this period amounted to 126 ha. After excluding the total loss due to direct human interventions, different erosional and depositional marsh types were recognized and associated with different forcing factors, based on morphological and geographical evidence. Over the 52-year period marshes were lost due to: (a) drowning - the combined effects of eustatism, regional subsidence and autocompaction (102 ha); (b) edge-retreat by wind wave attack (34 ha); (c) erosion by vessel-generated waves (37 ha); and (d) coastal dynamics and inlet migration (5.7 ha). Conversely, marshes gained in area due to: (a) fluvial input (63 ha); (b) tidal input (27 ha); (c) paralagoonal deposition (45 ha); (d) the re-opening of abandoned fish farms (18 ha); and (e) the dumping of dredged material (8 ha). Our analysis demonstrates that local and short-term forcing factors can obliterate or compensate the long-term ones, especially the relative sea-level rise. A test of the integrated sediment budget carried out on one third of the total lagoon, through a bathymetric comparison between datasets from 1964 to 2009, pointed out that conservation or slight expansion of the marshes inside these basins were linked to an overall positive sediment budget of 61,000 m3/y. Nevertheless, significant morphological changes occurred in the submerged basin, which is affected by sustained deposition along the inner margins due to sediment supplies

  1. Effects of CuCl sub 2 on the germination response of two populations of the saltmarsh cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, D.C.; Kraus, M.L. (Felician College, Lodi, NJ (USA) Hackensack Meadowlands Development Commission, Lyndhurst, NJ (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The saltmarsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is the dominant vascular plant in tidal marshes along the east and gulf coasts in the United States. This plant's ability to survive in polluted estuaries has led many researchers to investigate its role in heavy metal uptake and export. Spartina seeds accumulate a variety of metals as well, although seed concentrations are generally lower than those found in leaf tissue. It has been demonstrated that some heavy metals affect germination in this plant (e.g. methyl Hg, Zn, and Pb), while others, such as Cu and Cd, in solution concentrations as high as 100 mg/L, do not affect the germination response. Despite this, S. alterniflora seedlings grown in Cu solution exhibit 100 percent mortality within 56 d.

  2. Ingestion and selection of suprabenthic crustaceans by small-sized fishes in a lower saltmarsh system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Wakabara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in the lower saltmarsh system of the Arrozal, in the Cananéia lagoon estuarine region (25º02'S - 47º56'W, Brazil. Suprabenthic fauna was surveyed Wlth a small sledge and fishes were captured with casting and set nets to analyse: crustacean fauna as food for local fish species; difference in the diet at different times of the year; if there is diet overlap between species and the feeding behaviour of the species analysed. The fauna of Arrozal is poor in species, dominated mainly by Metamysidopsis alongata atlantica, Acartia lilljeborgi, Atylus minikoi, decapod larvae, and reveals a strong seasonal variation. The fishes were ali camivorous with suprabenthic crustacean as their main food resource. Seasonal changes in food supply are also reflected in the diet. Of the 12 flSh species collected six were opportunistlc feeders whereas six others were selective feeders. Food overlap value of 0.08 for ali of the fish community indicates an almost completely distinct food niches. The increased overlapping of summer food between Cathorops spixii and species of Group 11 and between Oligoplites sp and species of Group I seems to have two different explanations: 1 the mmIDishing of food supply for species feeding on benthic originated suprabenthic crustaceans and 2 overabundance of planktonic forms of suprabenthos as well as a period of high feeding activity of fishes with such diet.O presente estudo foi realizado no infralitoral contíguo à marisma, na Ponta do Arrozal, região estuarina lagunar de Cananéia (25º02'S - 47º56'W, Brasil. A fauna suprabêntica foi amostrada com uma pequena draga e os peixes capturados com tarrafa e rede de espera, com a finalidade de analisar: a composição de espécies dos crustáceos suprabênticos como itens alimentares dos peixes; diferenças na dieta em diferentes época do ano; se ocorre sobreposição alimentar entre as espécies e o comportamento alimentar: das espécies de peixes

  3. Recent sea-level changes in the southern Bay of Biscay: transfer function reconstructions from salt-marshes compared with instrumental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Leorri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the accuracy and regional significance of salt-marsh reconstructions of former sea level based on foraminiferal transfer functions, we compared the calibration of the foraminiferal assemblages of two salt-marsh cores from two estuaries using the regional transfer function constructed for the southern Bay of Biscay. The foraminifera-based reconstructions were placed into a temporal framework using 137Cs, heavy metal concentrations, and 210Pb-derived sediment accumulation rates. The resulting relative sea-level (RSL curves were compared with the nearest tide-gauge data (Santander. The two RSL trends from core sediments show excellent agreement and are in very good agreement with instrumental data, providing a regional relative sea-level rise of 1.9 mm yr-1 for the 20th century.

  4. Radioactive influence of some phosphogypsum piles located at the SW Spain in their surrounding soils and salt-marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivar, J. P.; Mosqueda, F.; Vaca, F.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Martinez-Sanchez, M. J.; Perez-Sirvent, C.; Martinez-Lopez, S.

    2012-04-01

    In the SW of Spain, just in the confluence of the mouths of the Tinto and Odiel River and in the vicinity of Huelva town, there is a big industrial complex which includes between others an industry devoted during more than 40 years to the production of phosphoric acid, by treating sedimentary phosphate rock by the so-called "wet acid method". As a by-product of the mentioned process it have been produced historically huge amounts of a compound called phosphogypsum, which composition is mostly di-hydrate calcium sulphate containing some of the impurities of heavy metals and natural radionuclides originally present in the raw material. Due to the lack of market for this by-product, it has been mostly piled over some salt-marshes located in the vicinity of the industry, on the bank of the Tinto River. About 100 million tons of phosphogypsum have been piled in an area covering more than 1000 hectares, constituting a clear environmental and radiological anomaly in the zone. The phosphogypsum piles set do not conform obviously a close system. They are interacting with the nearby environment mostly by leaching waters releases from the waters accumulated in them either for its previous use in transporting in suspension the PG from the factory or by rainfall. These waters leaks contain in solution enhanced amounts of heavy metals and radionuclides that can provoke the chemical and radioactive contamination in surroundings soil and salt-marshes areas. In this communication the radioactive influence by the phosphogypsum piles in the surrounding terrestrial environment is evaluated. This contamination is mostly due to radionuclides belonging to the uranium series, which are present originally in the raw material treated in the industry, and afterwards in the generated phosphogypsum, in enhanced amounts in relation to typical soils. In addition, the different dynamics and behavior of different radionuclides will be discussed and analyzed. The gained information in this study

  5. UK electricity `94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    A detailed factual account is presented of the achievements of the UK electricity industry in 1994. The review is divided into sections headed: the UK energy market and electricity`s share; the electricity market; electricity prices; the electric power supply system; quality of service; protection of the environment; manpower and safety trends; business diverisification and the electricity industry in the European Union. Statistical tables are presented on power stations in the UK and key electricity and energy statistics.

  6. Hydrogen isotope systematics in C3 and C4 saltmarsh plants: the importance of biochemical processes in controlling interspecies variation in n-alkane 2H/1H composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Y.; Pedentchouk, N.

    2013-12-01

    Palaeohydrological studies have increasingly utilised the 2H/1H composition of leaf wax n-alkyl lipids to extract information from the geological record. Interpretation of the sedimentary biomarker δ2H signal, however, requires detailed understanding of the mechanisms controlling hydrogen isotope fractionation between source water and n-alkyl lipids (ɛl/w). The existence of large ranges in published n-alkyl δ2H and ɛl/w among modern plant species growing at a single location suggests that the lipid signal incorporated into the sedimentary record could be sensitive to relatively small-scale changes in vegetation assemblages. The mechanisms responsible for these interspecies differences are currently poorly constrained. Previous research has had limited success explaining n-alkyl δ2H by reference to physical processes controlling the movement of water inside/outside and within the leaf, while the relative importance of biochemical processes remains largely unexplored. This project aims to identify the mechanisms controlling interspecies variation in n-alkane 2H/1H among a range of C3 and C4 plants from a Norfolk saltmarsh in the UK. To distinguish between environmental, physical and biochemical controls, we conducted 2H/1H analysis of soil, xylem, and leaf waters and n-alkanes (i) across multiple sampling sites within the marsh, (ii) throughout the 2012 growth season, and (iii) at different times of the day. We also measured the 2H/1H of chloroplast phytol in 7 samples collected at the end of 2012. Leaf wax n-alkane δ2H varied among the sampled species by over 100‰ throughout the 2012 growth season. Environmental processes that could influence control source water 2H/1H did not fully account for this interspecies variation - soil water 2H/1H varied by only 35‰ with marsh sub-environment and exhibited site-specific seasonal shifts by no more than 31‰. Maximum interspecies variation in xylem water was 38‰, while leaf waters differed by only 29‰. We

  7. In situ measurements of shear stress, erosion and deposition in man-made tidal channels within a tidal saltmarsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Aline; Puleo, Jack A.; McKenna, Thomas E.; Figlus, Jens

    2017-06-01

    A field study was conducted in man-made ditches in a tidal saltmarsh in Lewes, Delaware, USA. Ditches are prevalent throughout tidal marshes along the Atlantic US coast, and influence hydrodynamics and sediment transport. The field study focused on measuring near-bed velocity, shear stress, sediment concentration, and bed level variability at 5 stations over a 3-week period. Velocities in the ditch (2-5 m wide, 1 m deep) peaked between 0.4 and 0.6 m/s and were slightly ebb dominated. Velocity and shear stress were maximum during a storm event, with peak shear stresses of 2 N/m2. Bed levels were estimated from acoustic amplitude return of a downward-looking velocity profiler. The bed level in the ditch at the landward locations increased ∼ 0.03 m over 3 weeks, while there was ∼ 0.01 m bed level decrease at the most seaward site suggesting a net import of sediment into the channel. At all sites, erosion (∼ 0.005-0.015 m) occurred during the accelerating phase of the flood tide, and accretion of a similar magnitude occurred during the decelerating phase of the ebb tide. This erosion-deposition sequence resulted in small net changes in bed level at the end of each tidal cycle. The intratidal behavior of the bed level was simulated using erosion and deposition flux equations based on shear stress, critical shear stress, and suspended sediment concentration. Erosion was predicted well with RMS errors on the order of 2 ṡ10-3 m. The bed level during the deposition phase could not be reproduced using the simple approach. Model inaccuracies for deposition were attributed to advection and variations in fall velocity due to flocculation that were not modeled due to lack of ground-truth observations.

  8. Long-term ecological consequences of herbicide treatment to control the invasive grass, Spartina anglica, in an Australian saltmarsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimeta, Jeff; Saint, Lynnette; Verspaandonk, Emily R.; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Howe, Steffan

    2016-07-01

    Invasive plants acting as habitat modifiers in coastal wetlands can have extensive ecological impacts. Control of invasive plants often relies on herbicides, although little is known about subsequent environmental impacts. Studying effects of herbicides on non-target species and long-term cascading consequences may yield insights into the ecology of invasive species by revealing interactions with native species. We conducted a long-term field experiment measuring effects of treating the invasive saltmarsh grass, Spartina anglica, with the herbicide Fusilade Forte®. No changes in sedimentary macrofaunal abundances or species richness, diversity, or assemblages were detected 1-2 months after spraying, despite known toxicity of Fusilade Forte® to fauna. This lack of impact may have been due to low exposure, since the herbicide was taken up primarily by plant leaves, with the small amount that reached the sediment hydrolyzing rapidly. Six months after spraying, however, total macrofauna in treated plots was more than four times more abundant than in unsprayed control plots, due to a fifteen-fold increase in annelids. This population growth correlated with increased sedimentary organic matter in treated plots, likely due to decomposition of dead S. anglica leaves serving as food for annelids. After another year, no differences in macrofauna or organic matter remained between treatments. The indirect effect on annelid populations from herbicide treatment could benefit management efforts by providing greater food resources for wading birds, in addition to improving birds' access to sediments by reducing plant cover. This study shows that an invasive grass can have a significant impact on native fauna through food-web interactions, influenced by herbicide usage.

  9. Evaluation of mercury methylation and methylmercury demethylation rates in vegetated and non-vegetated saltmarsh sediments from two Portuguese estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesário, Rute; Hintelmann, Holger; Mendes, Ricardo; Eckey, Kevin; Dimock, Brian; Araújo, Beatriz; Mota, Ana Maria; Canário, João

    2017-07-01

    Neurotoxic methylmercury (MMHg) is formed from inorganic divalent mercury (Hg2+). However, it is poorly understood to what extent different mercury (Hg) pools contribute to existent MMHg levels. In this study, ambient concentrations of total Hg (THg) and MMHg as well as rates of methylation and demethylation were measured simultaneously in sediments with and without salt-marsh plant vegetation, which were collected in Guadiana and Tagus estuaries, Portugal. Concurrent processes of Hg methylation and MMHg demethylation were directly monitored and compared by spiking sediments cores with stable isotope tracers of 199Hg2+ and CH3201Hg+ followed by gas chromatographic separation and isotope-specific detection using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared to the Guadiana estuary, where concentrations were comparatively low, THg and MMHg levels varied between vegetated and non-vegetated sediments collected at the Rosário site (ROS) of the Tagus estuary. Methylation (KM) and demethylation rates (KD) were also different between estuaries being dependent on the presence of vegetation. In addition, the type of macrophyte species influenced KM and KD values. In fact, the highest KM value was found in Sarcocornia fruticosa vegetated sediments at the Castro Marim site in Guadiana (CM, 0.160 day-1) and the lowest KM was observed in non-vegetated sediments at the Alcochete site in Tagus (ALC, 0.009 day-1). KD varied by a factor of three among sites with highest rates of demethylation observed in non-vegetated sediments in Guadiana (12 ± 1.3 day-1, corresponding to a half-life of 1.4 ± 0.2 h). This study clearly shows that the presence of vegetation in sediments favors the formation of MMHg. Moreover, this effect might be site specific and further studies are needed to confirm the findings reported here. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. BSE in the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2004-01-01

    The 2000 BSE Inquiry report points out that the most serious failure of the UK Government was one of risk communication. This paper argues that the government's failure to communicate the risks BSE posed to humans to a large degree can be traced back to a lack of transparency in the first risk...

  11. UK Mission to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    At the end of June, nine experts from UK industry visited CERN to study techniques for developing distributed computing systems and to look at some specific applications. In a packed three-day programme, almost 40 CERN experts presented a comprehensive survey of achievements.

  12. Hewitt launches Research Councils UK

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Trade and Industry Secretary Patricia Hewitt today launched 'Research Councils UK' - a new strategic partnership that will champion research in science, engineering and technology across the UK" (1 page).

  13. UK Royal Navy WWII Logbooks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006, the UK and NOAA's Climate Database Modernization Program (CDMP) funded the imaging of approximately 8,000 Royal Navy logbooks in the UK National Archives...

  14. Effects of repeated field applications of two formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on non-target saltmarsh invertebrates in Atlantic coastal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caquet, Thierry; Roucaute, Marc; Le Goff, Pierre; Lagadic, Laurent

    2011-07-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) is commonly used for selective control of larval populations of mosquitoes in coastal wetlands. A two year-study was implemented to investigate whether repeated treatments with Bti applied either as a liquid (VectoBac® 12AS) or a water-dispersible granule (VectoBac® WG) formulation may affect the abundance and diversity of non-target aquatic invertebrates in saltmarsh pools. Taxonomic composition of the invertebrate communities was typical of brackishwater intermittent ecosystems, with a dominance of annelids, crustaceans and nematocerans. Conditions were contrasted between the two years of the survey, both in terms of annual cumulative rainfall and rainfall distribution throughout the year. As a consequence, the hydroperiod and some other environmental characteristics associated with pool drying played a major role in the dynamics of the invertebrate community. In summer 2006, pool drying reduced the abundance of the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor, of the amphipod crustacean Corophium volutator and of chironomid larvae. These taxa were able to recolonize rapidly the pools after flooding in September 2006. In 2007, rainfall was more regularly distributed across the year, and the pools did not get dry. Hydrozoans, Chironomini and Orthocladiinae larvae, and oligochaetes were more abundant in treated than in control pools, especially in VectoBac® WG-treated pools. No adverse effects of the treatments were shown on the abundance of N. diversicolor, C. volutator and midge larvae, suggesting that the availability of these food sources for birds was not negatively affected by Bti applications. It is concluded that, as currently performed in Western France coastal wetlands, land-based treatments of saltmarsh pools for larval mosquito control with Bti, used either as VectoBac® 12AS or VectoBac® WG, did not adversely impact non-target aquatic invertebrate communities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bacterial community shift in the coastal Gulf of Mexico salt-marsh sediment microcosm in vitro following exposure to the Mississippi Canyon Block 252 oil (MC252)

    KAUST Repository

    Koo, Hyunmin

    2014-07-10

    In this study, we examined the responses by the indigenous bacterial communities in salt-marsh sediment microcosms in vitro following treatment with Mississippi Canyon Block 252 oil (MC252). Microcosms were constructed of sediment and seawater collected from Bayou La Batre located in coastal Alabama on the Gulf of Mexico. We used an amplicon pyrosequencing approach on microcosm sediment metagenome targeting the V3–V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Overall, we identified a shift in the bacterial community in three distinct groups. The first group was the early responders (orders Pseudomonadales and Oceanospirillales within class Gammaproteobacteria), which increased their relative abundance within 2 weeks and were maintained 3 weeks after oil treatment. The second group was identified as early, but transient responders (order Rhodobacterales within class Alphaproteobacteria; class Epsilonproteobacteria), which increased their population by 2 weeks, but returned to the basal level 3 weeks after oil treatment. The third group was the late responders (order Clostridiales within phylum Firmicutes; order Methylococcales within class Gammaproteobacteria; and phylum Tenericutes), which only increased 3 weeks after oil treatment. Furthermore, we identified oil-sensitive bacterial taxa (order Chromatiales within class Gammaproteobacteria; order Syntrophobacterales within class Deltaproteobacteria), which decreased in their population after 2 weeks of oil treatment. Detection of alkane (alkB), catechol (C2,3DO) and biphenyl (bph) biodegradation genes by PCR, particularly in oil-treated sediment metacommunity DNA, delineates proliferation of the hydrocarbon degrading bacterial community. Overall, the indigenous bacterial communities in our salt-marsh sediment in vitro microcosm study responded rapidly and shifted towards members of the taxonomic groups that are capable of surviving in an MC252 oil-contaminated environment.

  16. Bacterial community shift in the coastal Gulf of Mexico salt-marsh sediment microcosm in vitro following exposure to the Mississippi Canyon Block 252 oil (MC252).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyunmin; Mojib, Nazia; Huang, Jonathan P; Donahoe, Rona J; Bej, Asim K

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we examined the responses by the indigenous bacterial communities in salt-marsh sediment microcosms in vitro following treatment with Mississippi Canyon Block 252 oil (MC252). Microcosms were constructed of sediment and seawater collected from Bayou La Batre located in coastal Alabama on the Gulf of Mexico. We used an amplicon pyrosequencing approach on microcosm sediment metagenome targeting the V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Overall, we identified a shift in the bacterial community in three distinct groups. The first group was the early responders (orders Pseudomonadales and Oceanospirillales within class Gammaproteobacteria), which increased their relative abundance within 2 weeks and were maintained 3 weeks after oil treatment. The second group was identified as early, but transient responders (order Rhodobacterales within class Alphaproteobacteria; class Epsilonproteobacteria), which increased their population by 2 weeks, but returned to the basal level 3 weeks after oil treatment. The third group was the late responders (order Clostridiales within phylum Firmicutes; order Methylococcales within class Gammaproteobacteria; and phylum Tenericutes), which only increased 3 weeks after oil treatment. Furthermore, we identified oil-sensitive bacterial taxa (order Chromatiales within class Gammaproteobacteria; order Syntrophobacterales within class Deltaproteobacteria), which decreased in their population after 2 weeks of oil treatment. Detection of alkane (alkB), catechol (C2,3DO) and biphenyl (bph) biodegradation genes by PCR, particularly in oil-treated sediment metacommunity DNA, delineates proliferation of  the hydrocarbon degrading bacterial community. Overall, the indigenous bacterial communities in our salt-marsh sediment in vitro microcosm study responded rapidly and shifted towards members of the taxonomic groups that are capable of surviving in an MC252 oil-contaminated environment.

  17. Innovative UK Approaches to Acquisition Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Financial and Operational Imperatives Size of UK armed forces UK Industry ? Political influence PFI / PPP Increased Scrutiny - NAO “ Commercialisation “ of the...acquisition KNOWLEDGE (EXPERIENCE – Lessons learned) KNOWLEDGE (Training) KNOWLEDGE ( Education ) OPTIMAL OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE Operational Capability UK

  18. UK businesses bag innovation awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Five UK firms have received innovation awards from the Institute of Physics (IOP), which publishes Physics World. Hallmarq Veterinary Imaging, Metrasens, M Squared Lasers, Silixa and Tracerco have all won an IOP award for developing new innovative products.

  19. UK science, post-Brexit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James Wilsdon

    2017-01-01

    Nine months since the British vote to exit the European Union ("Brexit"), the UK science community's initial dismay has given way to hard-boiled determination to limit the damage it will do to universities and research...

  20. "UK today" Tallinnas / Tuuli Oder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oder, Tuuli, 1958-

    2001-01-01

    Vabariikliku inglise keele olümpiaadi raames toimus Tallinnas viktoriini "UK today" lõppvoor. Osalesid 22 kooli kaheliikmelised võistkonnad. Viktoriini tulemused koolide lõikes ja küsimused õigete vastustega

  1. Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches

    OpenAIRE

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional adv...

  2. Assessing the Resilience of a Blue Carbon Store: Characterizing the Lateral Flux of DIC from an East Coast U.S. Saltmarsh using Δ14C and δ13C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgate, S. L.; Gonneea, M. E.; Kroeger, K. D.; Chu, S. N.; Wang, A. Z.

    2016-12-01

    Intertidal saltmarshes are highly productive coastal habitats and important blue carbon stores. They commonly exhibit high salinity, low oxygen environmental regimes which lend themselves towards reduced rates of microbial respiration, and the assimilation of atmospheric CO2 into plant biomass tends to outpace the rate at which that biomass is broken down. As a result, a relatively high proportion of CO2 entering the system can be expected to become incorporated into marsh sediment before it can be metabolised, potentially entering storage for thousands of years and providing a sizeable natural carbon sink. However, the rate at which these habitats are now being degraded is substantial and growing: the combined impacts of stressors such as increasing temperature and sea level rise are predicted to reduce global saltmarsh coverage by 30-40% by the end of the century, and many saltmarsh carbon stores can be expected to shift from net sinks to sources within the same time frame. Based on high resolution measurements and modelling in a northeastern U.S. saltmarsh, a recent study reported a marsh DIC export of 414g C m2 yr-1. This is more than twice that put forward in previous estimates, and is larger than the total uptake by plant biomass. This translates into one of the largest carbon fluxes to the coastal ocean found along the U.S. East Coast. Additionally it is possible that the marsh carbon budget is not in balance, with export exceeding carbon fixation rates. Here we characterise this carbon flux using Δ14C and δ13C data to age and source the exported dissolved carbon pools. Carbon isotope mixing models between surface (modern) and porewater (old) carbon sources are constrained by creek samples and porewaters from multiple depths and locations within the marsh. We determine the age of exported carbon to see if carbon stored over the lifetime of the marsh (c. 2000 years) continues to be respired, thereby evaluating the long term resilience of the carbon sink.

  3. Scoping assessment of groundwater doses to biota at the Sellafield site, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, P.; Gleizon, P.; Coleman, I.A.; Watts, S.J.; Batlle, L.V.; Smith, A.D.

    2008-07-01

    In the current climate of investigating the impact of discharges from the nuclear industry on non-human biota, much attention has been given to biota in marine and terrestrial environments in receipt of authorised discharges of liquid and gaseous effluent. Relatively little attention to date has been given to the exposure of biota to groundwater containing man-made radio-nuclides. This area of interest is growing especially in the field of nuclear waste repositories. A scoping assessment has been performed here to determine the impacts due to radiological contamination on organisms living within or coming into contact with groundwater at the Sellafield site, UK. The following potential exposure routes to biota were identified: 1) Organisms living within groundwater; 2) Groundwater discharges to the surface at beach springs (i.e. emerging above the low water line; 3) Groundwater discharges to nearby surface water bodies (e.g. rivers); 4) Groundwater discharges directly to the Irish Sea.. In order to evaluate impacts on organisms living within, contacting or ingesting groundwater, it was necessary to determine the activity concentration of radio-nuclides in the groundwater. For time periods up to 2120, modeling of contaminant release from in-ground inventories and transport in groundwater was carried out for this scoping study using a relatively simple assessment methodology with the MONDRIAN modeling suite. Screening assessments of radiological impacts upon wildlife have been performed for liquid discharges to groundwater from the Sellafield Ltd reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria. Impacts have been considered for biota at sites within reach of the groundwater flow network. Most calculated total weighted absorbed doses appear to be of no radiological significance whatsoever in relation to the new Environment Agency freshwater ecosystem trigger level (40 microGy h-1), thereby obviating the need to conduct further investigations. The one exception to this is for

  4. Innovative 3D and 4D geological interpretation, modelling and visualisation techniques for subsurface characterisation of complex industrial sites - examples in the UK nuclear industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas; Shevelan, John; Hodgetts, David; Head, William

    2013-04-01

    Industrial sites are typically complex, with numerous plants within their (often) relatively small footprint. The 'cramped' nature of these sites means that the geological characterisation that is essential to the development of environmental safety cases may be hampered by a lack of access to exposures, if they exist at all. Due to access limitations and potential for ground vibration affecting key plants, geophysical data are typically limited to those gathered from lower resolution surveys (e.g. electrical resistivity tomography) rather than those gathered from more informative vibroseis seismic reflection surveys. Thus, whilst many industrial sites may possess numerous intrusive boreholes (Sellafield, perhaps the UK's most complex industrial site, has over 3000), there is a lack of ties to either high resolution geophysical data, or important regional lithostratigraphic data provided by exposure of key sequences. This poses a conundrum: the hydrogeological 3D and 4D numerical models required to show the predicted migration paths of potential contamination within the subsurface require the best geological understanding possible, yet without high resolution geophysical data or geological exposure within the sites themselves geological interpretation is often restricted to attempting to correlate between boreholes that may be tens to hundreds of metres apart and only a few metres deep, which one could assume may not provide a good geological understanding. In this paper, using examples from the nuclear industry, we describe how the use of outcrop analogues and innovative GIS-based, 3D/4D geological interpretation, characterisation, modelling and visualisation techniques goes some way to addressing these issues. Regional outcrops of Triassic sandstone and unconsolidated Quaternary sequences are ideal analogues for unexposed sequences underlying key nuclear sites in West Cumbria (UK), providing important sedimentological (and depositional), lithostratigraphic and

  5. Vaccine acceptance: the UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, John A; Mahgoub, Hamid; Shankar, Ananda Giri

    2013-12-01

    The United Kingdom has had a long history with vaccine acceptability dating back to Edward Jenner's theory of small pox vaccination. More recently, the discredited, Wakefield study published in 1998 continues to cause MMR skepticism. In pregnant women pertussis vaccination has been considerably more successful than influenza vaccination. Influenza vaccine uptake in healthcare workers remains poor. The media, politicians, and health reforms have contributed to the mixed coverage for these vaccines. In this article we examine vaccine acceptability from a UK perspective, and consider the future impact this is likely to have on the introduction of rotavirus and shingles vaccine in the UK in 2013.

  6. Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Paul; Roberts, Sarah; Newsam, Andy; Barclay, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to summarise the good, bad and (occasionally) ugly aspects of teaching astronomy in UK schools. It covers the most common problems reported by teachers when asked about covering the astronomy/space topics in school. Particular focus is given to the GCSE Astronomy qualification offered by Edexcel (which is currently the…

  7. Anandavardhanan, Dr U.K.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship; Associateship. Associate Profile. Period: 2007–2010. Anandavardhanan, Dr U.K.. Date of birth: 25 May 1976. Address during Associateship: Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Mumbai - 400 076. Contact: Email: anand@math.iitb.ac.in. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog ...

  8. The UK Prospective Diabetes Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Andreasen, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    Læserbrev, som kritiserer det store UK Prospective Diabetes Study's forfattere for at overfortolke deres fund, idet marginalt signifikante p-værdier tages som udtryk for slående effekt (af at sænke blodsukkeret). Det sker selvom der f.eks. indgår effektvariabler, som kunne påvirkes af patienternes...

  9. Altamont attracts UK windfarm developer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macari, L.; Reynolds, S.C.

    1986-08-01

    Altamont Pass in California is the site for a 25 MW wind farm built by UK-based James Howden and equipped with seventy-five 330 kW machines. It was sold to an institutional investor in the USA for $48 million. The wind farm is also the site for a 750 kW demonstration wind turbine.

  10. Indian Diaspora In The UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kulik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The author traces the history of formation of the Indian diaspora in the UK, evaluates the key trends that characterize the current state of diaspora. The article highlights the level of involvement and participation of diaspora in the evolution of the bilateral relations, as well as the influence of diaspora over home and foreign policy in the UK and India. The diaspora today is not just a unique vibrant connection between the two countries, it has also become a factor of influence over domestic, social and economic affairs in both the UK and India. There is a growing number of Indians among British statesmen and politicians. Indians occupy significant posts in various sectors in Britain, including business and finance. This contributes to strengthening of economic ties between the two countries, particularly important considering Britain’s forthcoming exit from the EU. As to internal political matters, though potential issues exist (those include, for instance, the possible transfer from India into Britain of problematic inter-caste relations, India’s criticism over unbalanced approach to teaching colonial history in British schools, the Indian diaspora due to its’ inherent tolerance and moderation generally plays a stabilizing role in the UK, especially on the background of radicalization of other ethnic communities. For the new India the diaspora today is not just an important source of financing, competences and know-how, it is also a significant lobbying and soft-power instrument. This article is part of a broader research, related to the contemporary relations between the United Kingdom and India. Indian diaspora in the UK is an integral part of the unique centuries-long history that connects the two countries. It is poised to remain a strong factor contributing to interdependence and cooperation between Britain and India in the XXI century.

  11. Turning the tide : tidal power in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2007-01-01

    Contents: Turning the tide : tidal power in the UK -- Executive summary -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 1 : UK tidal resource assessment -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 2 : tidal technologies overview -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 3 : Severn barrage proposals -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 4 : Severn non-barrage options -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 5 : UK case studies. Summarised in the Welsh language version of the executive ...

  12. UK policy: A success story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2007-10-01

    Child poverty is at the heart of the United Kingdom (UK) government's social policy agenda. Child poverty rose rapidly in the 1980s; the child poverty rate was one of the highest in Europe by 2000. In 1999, the government's objective was to reduce child poverty by 50% by 2004/2005, which it narrowly failed to meet. In 2005/2006, there was an increase in child poverty. An index of child well-being found that the UK was 21st out of the 25 European Union countries. Overall, the UK came in last in the UNICEF well-being index. The government's child poverty strategy has been to manage the economy to maximize employment and to improve in-work incomes. Both have been successful in reducing child poverty. Out-of-work incomes have also been improved, but not enough to lift many children out of poverty. Public expenditure on services, especially health, education and childcare, has also increased; although there are questions about how much of this extra spending has focused on children and child poverty. The comprehensive spending review, reporting later in 2007, is likely to be tight, and it is now unlikely that the government will succeed in its aim of reducing child poverty by 50% by 2010 unless there are radical changes in policy. Constraints on the government's ability to do this include the structural inequalities in British society and public attitudes toward people in poverty.

  13. Worldwide open access: UK leadership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Harnad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The web is destined to become humankind's cognitive commons, where digital knowledge is jointly created and freely shared. The UK has been a leader in the global movement toward open access (OA to research but recently its leadership has been derailed by the joint influence of the publishing industry lobby from without and well-intentioned but premature and unhelpful over-reaching from within the OA movement itself. The result has been the extremely counterproductive ‘Finch Report’ followed by a new draft of the Research Councils UK (RCUK OA mandate, downgrading the role of cost-free OA self-archiving of research publications (‘green OA’ in favor of paying subscription publishers over and above subscriptions, out of scarce research funds, in exchange for making single articles OA (‘hybrid gold OA’. The motivation of the new policy is to reform publication and to gain certain re-use rights (CC-BY, but the likely effect would be researcher resistance, very little OA and a waste of research funds. There is still time to fix the RCUK mandate and restore the UK's leadership by taking a few very specific steps to clarify and strengthen the green component by adding a mechanism for monitoring and verifying compliance, with consequences for non-compliance, along lines also being adopted in the EC and the US.

  14. Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05). In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice. PMID:24727434

  15. Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Cockburn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163 completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a if they provided nutritional advice; (b their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%, even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05. Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05. In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

  16. UK photonics in defence and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracie, C.; Tooley, I.; Wilson, A.

    2008-10-01

    The UK is globally recognised as strong in Photonics. However its Photonics sector is fragmented and the size and sectors of interest have not previously been established. The UK government has instigated the formation of the Photonics Knowledge Transfer Network (PKTN) to bring the Photonics community together. The UK features in Defence & Security; Communications; Measurement; Medical Technology; Lighting; Solar Energy; Information Technology and Flat Panels. This expertise is scattered through out the UK in geographic areas each with a breadth of Photonic interests. The PKTN has mapped the UK capability in all Photonics sectors. This paper will present the capability of the Companies, Research Institutions and Infrastructure making up the Defence & Security Photonics scene in the UK. Large Defence companies in the UK are well known throughout the world. However, there are a large number of SMEs, which may not be as well known in the supply chain. These are being actively encouraged by the UK MoD to engage with the Defence & Security Market and shall be discussed here. The presentation will reference a number of organisations which help to fund and network the community, such as the Defence Technology Centres. In addition the Roadmap for Defence & Security in the UK, produced for the UK Photonics Strategy (July 2006) by the Scottish Optoelectronics Association will be described and the plans in taking it forward under the PKTN will be revealed.

  17. Police.uk and Data.police.uk: Developing Open Crime and Justice Data for the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Smith

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the evolution and development of the police.uk and data.police.uk sites, which publish open data about crime and justice in the UK, and make it accessible and comprehensible to the public. Police.uk has received over 64 million visits (754 million hits since launching in January 2011. Open crime and justice data represents a key sector in the UK open data landscape, and citizens are keen to engage with the criminal justice system to become more informed about local levels of crime and other policing information. This paper sets out the policing context in the UK, discusses the journey in providing such open data, the processes involved and challenges encountered, and explores possible future developments.

  18. Energy co-operatives in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Tham; T. Muneer

    2011-01-01

    The UK is implementing different types of policies to encourage the use of renewable energy for electricity generation. Currently, the UK is falling behind other European countries in this respect. Hence, co-operatives play an important role in helping the UK to move forward. Co-operatives are of interest to the Government in respect of economic development in the community. Co-operatives keep both the business, or entity, and the wealth it creates locally, which also supports the local econo...

  19. Immunization campaigns in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, K; Salisbury, D

    2006-01-01

    A mass immunization campaign is a rapid vaccination intervention across age groups as opposed to provision through routine vaccination at a specified age attainment. Some countries use campaigns routinely as they have experience that shows that in their health systems higher coverage can be reached through campaigns than by routine service provision. Whilst many industrialized and non-industrialized countries have introduced new vaccines into their routine programme, the UK is unusual in deliberately doing this via campaigns. A number of mass immunization campaigns have been implemented in the UK, either integrated into the routine immunization programme such as the annual influenza immunization campaign; as a catch-up campaign alongside the introduction of a new vaccine into the routine vaccination schedule (MMR, Haemophilus influenzae b, Meningococcal C conjugate vaccine); or as a one-off campaign, to boost immunity in a particular age group, without introducing the vaccination into the schedule routinely at that age (Haemophilus influenzae b). Campaigns require intense planning at national and local level with leadership to achieve proper management. Although the components of an immunization campaign can be described separately--strategic planning, vaccine supply, communication and surveillance; for a programme to be successful integrated planning is essential.

  20. Nutritional knowledge of UK coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

    2014-04-10

    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

  1. Cancer Research UK | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. Cancer Research UK. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative funds innovative fiscal policy research supporting tobacco control in low and middle-income countries. View more. The Economics ...

  2. The Geomatics.org.UK Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramald, Tom; Powell, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how pupils can benefit from some unusual and exciting free resources of geomatics.org.uk. Geomatics.org.uk is a project that provides free resources to support teaching and learning in a variety of subjects including maths and geography, often in a cross-curricular way. Via the project website, it is possible,…

  3. UK Policy on Folate Fortification of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency has decided not to recommend fortification of foods with folate, the family of vitamins associated with the prevention of neural tube defects in babies. This is a change in attitude from previous recommendations made by a series of committees and reports in the UK. Notably, it differs from US policy on the matter. The…

  4. UK creates new funding super-body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The UK government has passed its higher-education and research bill, which includes the creation of UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) - a new umbrella organization that will oversee the country’s seven research councils such as the Science and Technology Facilities Council and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

  5. Grade Inflation in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachan, Ray

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the continual increase in the proportion of "good" honour degrees awarded by UK universities since the mid-2000s. This trend has brought with it the charge of "grade inflation" that may reflect falling standards in UK higher education. This issue has been raised in the national press and in government which…

  6. Development of the UK Engagement Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiko Howson, Camille; Buckley, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Student engagement has become a key feature of UK higher education, but until recently there has been a lack of data to track, benchmark and drive enhancement. In 2015 the first full administration ran in the UK a range of survey items drawn from the US-based National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). This is the latest example of international…

  7. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  8. Prospects for UK fuel cells component suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.; Tunnicliffe, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report examines the capabilities of the UK fuel cell industry in meeting the expected increase in demand, and aims to identify all UK suppliers of fuel cell components, evaluate their products and match them to fuel cell markets, and identify components where the UK is in a competitive position. Component areas are addressed along with the need to reduce costs and ensure efficient production. The well established supplier base in the UK is noted, and the car engine manufacturing base and fuel supply companies are considered. The different strengths of UK suppliers of the various types of fuel cells are listed. The future industry structure, the opportunities and dangers for business posed by fuel cells, the investment in cleaner technologies by the large fuel companies, opportunities for catalyst suppliers, and the residential combined heat and power and portable electronics battery markets are discussed.

  9. MNCs in Denmark and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Marginson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    country’s institutions to suit the MNC’s needs (country-of-origin effect). This question is discussed by Steen E. Navrbjerg from FAOS and Paul Marginson from Warwick in the article MNCs in Denmark and the UK - accommodating to or transforming national industrial relations? The article is based on a survey...... of 301 MNCs in the UK and 110 MNC’s in Denmark. In the article home owned MNCs is compared with overseas MNCs in Denmark and the UK respectively; furthermore, MNCs in a liberal market economy (UK) is compared with MNCs in a coordinated market economy (Denmark). The analysis shows that the MNCs in Denmark...... much more often recognize unions than is the case with MNCs in the UK. This indicates that strong relations between the social partners and a strong institutionalised IR-system in Denmark are defining the relations between employer and employee, and are also inhibiting the MNCs opportunities...

  10. END-TO-END INDIA-UK TRANSNATIONAL WIRELESS TESTBED

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Budhiraja, Rohit; Ramamurthi, Bhaskar; Narayanan, Babu; A, Oredope

    2011-01-01

    .... The India-UK Advanced Technology Centre initiative is a collaborative research project between various institutes and companies across UK and India, which envisages, apart from several research...

  11. Heavens Open Up for UK Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    A significant milestone for British and European science occurred today (July 8, 2002) when the Council of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) met in London. At this historical meeting, the United Kingdom was formally welcomed into ESO by the nine other member states. The UK, one of the leading nations in astronomical research, now joins one of the world's major astronomical organisations. UK astronomers will now be able to use the four 8.2-metre and several 1.8-metre telescopes that comprise the Very Large Telescope (VLT) facility located at the Paranal Observatory in the northern part of the Atacama desert in Chile, as well as two 4-m class telescopes and several smaller ones at the ESO La Silla Observatory further south. The UK will also benefit from increased involvement in the design and construction of the Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA), a network of 64 twelve-metre telescopes also sited in Chile, and play a defining role in ESO's 100-metre Overwhelmingly Large Telescope (OWL). Sir Martin Rees , The Astronomer Royal, said, "Joining ESO is good for UK science, and I think good for Europe as well. It offers us access to the VLT's 8-m class telescopes and restores the UK's full competitiveness in optical astronomy. We're now guaranteed full involvement in ALMA and in the next generation of giant optical instruments - projects that will be at the forefront of the research in the next decade and beyond. Moreover, our commitment to ESO should enhance its chances of forging ahead of the US in these technically challenging and high profile scientific projects. UK membership of ESO is a significant and welcome outcome of this government's increasing investment in science". Prof. Ian Halliday , Chief Executive of the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC), the UK's strategic science investment agency said, "The United Kingdom already participates in Europe's flagship particle physics research and the space science research programmes through

  12. UK Freight Demand: Elasticities and Decoupling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agnolucci, Paolo; Bonilla, David

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate road freight demand in the UK for the period 1956-2003 and to assess the occurrence of decoupling between economic activity and freight demand as discussed in McKinnon (2006...

  13. CERN sells management system to UK's Transacsys

    CERN Multimedia

    Rohde, L

    2001-01-01

    CERN has sold its Internal Transaction Management system to UK company Transacsys for 1 MCHF. The company will market it with Oracle although CERN will continue to work with Transacsys on the future developments (1/2 page).

  14. Project SEARCH UK - Evaluating Its Employment Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehne, Axel

    2016-11-01

    The study reports the findings of an evaluation of Project SEARCH UK. The programme develops internships for young people with intellectual disabilities who are about to leave school or college. The aim of the evaluation was to investigate at what rate Project SEARCH provided employment opportunities to participants. The evaluation obtained data from all sites operational in the UK at the time of evaluation (n = 17) and analysed employment outcomes. Data were available for 315 young people (n = 315) in the programme and pay and other employment related data were available for a subsample. The results of the analysis suggest that Project SEARCH achieves on average employment rates of around 50 per cent. Project SEARCH UK represents a valuable addition to the supported employment provision in the UK. Its unique model should inform discussions around best practice in supported employment. Implications for other supported employment programmes are discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. UK Higher Education Project Management Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This is a printable version of a survey designed and distributed online to capture information about the maturity of project management practices across UK Higher Education during the academic year 2012-2013.

  16. A rescue plan for UK physics funding

    CERN Multimedia

    Brumfiel, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    "Britain's most troubled research council is about to undergo radical surgery. On 4 March, UK science minister Paul Drayson unveiled his plan to reform the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)" (0.5 page)

  17. Analysing UK real estate market forecast disagreement

    OpenAIRE

    McAllister, Patrick; Newell, G.; Matysiak, George

    2005-01-01

    Given the significance of forecasting in real estate investment decisions, this paper investigates forecast uncertainty and disagreement in real estate market forecasts. Using the Investment Property Forum (IPF) quarterly survey amongst UK independent real estate forecasters, these real estate forecasts are compared with actual real estate performance to assess a number of real estate forecasting issues in the UK over 1999-2004, including real estate forecast error, bias and consensus. The re...

  18. The UK sports- and underwear market

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfai, Iyoel; Melgaard, Mathilde; Elvestad, Nina; Grav, Nina Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Pierre Robert Group is a Norwegian company, which specialises in regular underwear, in addition to sports underwear. The company is currently represented in Sweden and Finland, as well as in their domestic market. Pierre Robert Group wishes to explore the possibilities for a future expansion into the UK sports- and/or underwear market. The purpose of this report is to explore the UK sports- and underwear market in order to ascertain the most appropriate strategy for Pierre Robert, if they ...

  19. UK energy policy: findings from two surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, P.J.G.; Fouquet, R. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Technology

    1996-08-01

    The paper summarises the results of two surveys, carried out in November 1992 and December 1994, of the opinions of UK energy professionals on the effectiveness of UK energy policy, what objectives energy policy should seek to achieve and how they should be achieved. Most respondents said that there should be a long term energy policy, at the level of both the UK and Europe. Such a policy should create a regulatory framework that complements market forces to improve the efficiency of energy use and environmental quality, to enhance security of supplies and to reduce the costs of energy supplies. Around two-thirds, however, said that existing UK energy policies were inappropriate and ineffective. There were serious doubts about the effectiveness of the regulation of gas and electricity, particularly the latter. Opinions tended to be somewhat more favourable in 1994 than in 1992. Just under half the respondents wanted nuclear power to occupy a special place in policy, while two-fifths wanted a special place for electricity from renewable sources. While the experts` desired energy policy objectives were broadly similar to those listed by the Government in 1994, the rankings were in many cases different. The energy professionals were not fully convinced that the objectives had been satisfactorily achieved. The paper also draws some wider lessons from the UK`s recent policy experience. 18 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs., 3 apps.

  20. Helmintos intestinales en aves Ciconiiformes de la ciénaga de Chuburná, Yucatán, México Intestinal helminths of Ciconiiform birds from the Chuburna saltmarsh, Yucatan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo O. Barrera-Guzmán

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se recolectaron aves Ciconiiformes en la ciénaga de Chuburná, Yucatán y los intestinos de las aves fueron examinados en busca de parásitos helmintos. En total se encontraron 7 taxa de helmintos: 4 digéneos, 2 nematodos y 1 acantocefalo. Por vez primera se registra para Yucatán el digéneo Cotylotretus grandis y se registran nuevos hospederos para las especies de helmintos Euhaplorchis californiensis y Southwellina hispida, así como para el género Ascocotyle.Ciconiiform birds from the Chuburná saltmarsh, Yucatán were collected and their intestines were examined for helminths. Seven taxa in total were found: 4 digeneans, 2 nematodes and 1 acanthocephalan. The digenean Cotylotretus grandis is registered for the first time for Yucatán. Additionally, there are new host records for the helminth species Euhaplorchis californiensis and Southwellina hispida, and also for the genus Ascocotyle.

  1. PLAB and UK graduates’ performance on MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations: data linkage study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether international medical graduates passing the two examinations set by the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB1 and PLAB2) of the General Medical Council (GMC) are equivalent to UK graduates at the end of the first foundation year of medical training (F1), as the GMC requires, and if not, to assess what changes in the PLAB pass marks might produce equivalence. Design Data linkage of GMC PLAB performance data with data from the Royal Colleges of Physicians and the Royal College of General Practitioners on performance of PLAB graduates and UK graduates at the MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations. Setting Doctors in training for internal medicine or general practice in the United Kingdom. Participants 7829, 5135, and 4387 PLAB graduates on their first attempt at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments from 2001 to 2012 compared with 18 532, 14 094, and 14 376 UK graduates taking the same assessments; 3160 PLAB1 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP AKT during 2007-12 compared with 14 235 UK graduates; and 1411 PLAB2 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP CSA during 2010-12 compared with 6935 UK graduates. Main outcome measures Performance at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments, and MRCGP AKT and CSA assessments in relation to performance on PLAB1 and PLAB2 assessments, as well as to International English Language Testing System (IELTS) scores. MRCP(UK), MRCGP, and PLAB results were analysed as marks relative to the pass mark at the first attempt. Results PLAB1 marks were a valid predictor of MRCP(UK) Part 1, MRCP(UK) Part 2, and MRCGP AKT (r=0.521, 0.390, and 0.490; all PIELTS scores correlated significantly with later performance, multiple regression showing that the effect of PLAB1 (β=0.496) was much stronger than the effect of IELTS (β=0.086). Changes to PLAB pass marks that would result in international medical graduate and UK medical graduate equivalence were assessed in two

  2. PLAB and UK graduates' performance on MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations: data linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Wakeford, Richard

    2014-04-17

    To assess whether international medical graduates passing the two examinations set by the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB1 and PLAB2) of the General Medical Council (GMC) are equivalent to UK graduates at the end of the first foundation year of medical training (F1), as the GMC requires, and if not, to assess what changes in the PLAB pass marks might produce equivalence. Data linkage of GMC PLAB performance data with data from the Royal Colleges of Physicians and the Royal College of General Practitioners on performance of PLAB graduates and UK graduates at the MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations. Doctors in training for internal medicine or general practice in the United Kingdom. 7829, 5135, and 4387 PLAB graduates on their first attempt at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments from 2001 to 2012 compared with 18,532, 14,094, and 14,376 UK graduates taking the same assessments; 3160 PLAB1 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP AKT during 2007-12 compared with 14,235 UK graduates; and 1411 PLAB2 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP CSA during 2010-12 compared with 6935 UK graduates. Performance at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments, and MRCGP AKT and CSA assessments in relation to performance on PLAB1 and PLAB2 assessments, as well as to International English Language Testing System (IELTS) scores. MRCP(UK), MRCGP, and PLAB results were analysed as marks relative to the pass mark at the first attempt. PLAB1 marks were a valid predictor of MRCP(UK) Part 1, MRCP(UK) Part 2, and MRCGP AKT (r=0.521, 0.390, and 0.490; all PIELTS scores correlated significantly with later performance, multiple regression showing that the effect of PLAB1 (β=0.496) was much stronger than the effect of IELTS (β=0.086). Changes to PLAB pass marks that would result in international medical graduate and UK medical graduate equivalence were assessed in two ways. Method 1 adjusted PLAB pass marks to equate median performance of PLAB

  3. Statement about UK referendum on the EU

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, Many people have expressed their concerns about the consequences of the 23 June vote in the UK for CERN, and for the UK’s relationship with CERN. CERN is an intergovernmental organisation subject to its own treaty. We are not part of the European Union, and several of our Member States, including Switzerland, in which we are headquartered, are not EU Members. Britain’s membership of CERN is not affected by the UK electorate’s vote to leave the European Union. We look forward to continuing the very constructive relationship we have shared with the UK, one of our founding members, long into the future. CERN was founded on the principle of international collaboration, and our success over the years is built on that. We will continue to work proactively to encourage ever-greater international collaboration in particle physics, and to help ensure that the UK continues to play a very active role. UK nationals remain eligible for all categories of employment at CERN, a...

  4. Trends in UK mean sea level revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, P. L.; Teferle, F. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Shennan, I.; Williams, S. D. P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents estimates of rates of mean sea level (MSL) change around the UK, based on a larger tide gauge data set and more accurate analysis methods than have been employed so far. The spatial variation of the trend in MSL is found to be similar to that inferred from geological information and from advanced geodetic techniques, which is a similar conclusion to that arrived at in the previous studies. The tide gauge MSL trends for 1901 onwards are estimated to be 1.4 +/- 0.2 mm yr-1 larger than those inferred from geology or geodetic methods, suggesting a regional sea level rise of climate change origin several one-tenths of mm per year lower than global estimates for the 20th century. However, UK MSL change cannot be described in terms of a simple linear increase alone but includes variations on interannual and decadal timescales. The possible sources of variation in a `UK sea level index' are explored. Air pressure is clearly one such possible source but its direct local forcing through the `inverse barometer' accounts for only one-third of the observed variability. A number of larger scale atmospheric and ocean processes must also play important roles, but modelling them satisfactorily and separating the individual contributions present a major challenge. As regards future regional UK sea level changes, we conclude that there is no basis for major modification to existing projections for the 2080s included in the 2002 UK Climate Impacts Programme studies.

  5. UK-India CBM technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creedy, D.P.; Garner, K.; Vrolijk, C. [Wardell Armstrong, Newcastle-under-Lyme (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this UK-India coalbed methane (CBM) technology transfer project was to promote the development of CBM gas extraction and utilisation techniques appropriate to the geological and mining conditions in India, focusing on coal mine methane (CMM) and abandoned mine methane (AMM) needs. The potential use of environmental support mechanism under the Kyoto Agreement to project development was also explored. Two of the most advanced, gassy coal mines in India were selected as case study sites: Moonidih coal mine and North Amlabad coal mine. Background data were gathered on the two mines and supplemented by observations made during the UK team visit to India in December 2004. The report concludes that opportunities exist for UK companies in VCBM, CMM and DMM in India. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 apps.

  6. UK school visit: Alfriston School for girls

    CERN Multimedia

    Sophie Louise Hetherton

    2014-01-01

    Pupils with learning disabilities from Alfriston School in the UK visited the CMS detector last week. This visit was funded by the UK's Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) as part of a grant awarded to support activities that will help to build the girls’ self-esteem and interest in physics.   Alfriston School students at CMS. On Friday, 10 October, pupils from Alfriston School – a UK secondary school catering for girls with a wide range of special educational needs and disabilities – paid a special visit to CERN. Dave Waterman, a science teacher at the school, recently received a Public Engagement Small Award from the STFC, which enabled the group of girls and accompanying teachers to travel to Switzerland and visit CERN. The awards form part of a project to boost the girls’ confidence and interest in physics. The aim is to create enthusiastic role models with first-hand experience of science who can inspire their peers back hom...

  7. Putting the teeth into the UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, John

    2011-01-01

    The author of this article has been involved in the development of the UK Biobank, and was instrumental in ensuring that dentistry has been included in the project. He describes what the UK Biobank is, what the project involves and aims to achieve, and how by July 2010 some 500,000 UK citizens aged from 40-69 years had been recruited. He then details the events that led to the inclusion of dentistry in the project, the key role that stored saliva samples will have, and how the project will link to data stored by the Dental Practice Board and now the National Health Service Business Services Authority. The article ends with a brief look into the future of the project.

  8. UK Minister enthusiastic after visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    ON Tuesday 5 August the UK Secretary of State for Innovation, Universities and Skills, John Denham, came to CERN. The UK continues its strong links with CERN.The Minister was welcomed on arrival at CERN by Robert Aymar, the Director-General, and senior British scientists. Following a short presentation, he began a comprehensive tour of the Laboratory with a visit to both the LHC at point 5 and the CMS experiment. After lunch the Minister’s busy schedule continued, completing his overview of the main areas of UK participation at CERN. As soon as he had signed the guest book, he was whisked off to visit the LHCb experiment, the LHC computing grid project (LCG) and the ATLAS control room. However, the last item on his itinerary was perhaps the most illuminating. Meeting a diverse group of British scientists, from technical and summer students to staff members with more than 30 years of experience, the Minister had the opportunity...

  9. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-05-01

    Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK.

  10. CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT AND LEGISLATION THE UK EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIBLEY P. J.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Underpinning the conservation management of Austropotamobius pallipes in the UK is the process of monitoring and reporting crayfish distribution. Should the current trend in the decline of A. pallipes continue, the species could be virtually extinct in mainland Britain within 30 years (SIBLEY, 2003. Conversely, if the increase in the distribution of non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS continues at its current rate, the distribution (by 10 km squares of these species could double within 15 years. These forward projections are based on a number of possibly unreliable assumptions; they illustrate however the magnitude of the challenge facing those concerned with the conservation of A. pallipes in the UK at this time. Recent work in crayfish conservation management in the UK has yielded guidance in several areas including monitoring, habitat enhancement and a re-introduction protocol for A. pallipes (KEMP and HILEY, 2003. Similarly, scientific research continues to inform our understanding of the movement and behaviour of NICS and explores new methods for the potential management of these species. In addition, the protection afforded to A. pallipes by current legislation is key to the long-term survival prospects of the species, albeit with a probable fragmented distribution, across the British Isles and continental Europe. Legal provisions in the UK derive in part from European instructions (e.g. EC Habitats and Species Directive and also from national legislation (e.g. Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Act (1975 and the Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981. Also, a raft of “quasi-legislation” exists which requires responsible organisations in the UK to implement the white-clawed crayfish biodiversity action plan (BAP. Altogether these provisions constitute a considerable volume of legal protection for crayfish and provide the legal framework on which UK management policy and practice are based.

  11. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  12. 16th UK Workshop on Computational Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Gegov, Alexander; Jayne, Chrisina; Shen, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The book is a timely report on advanced methods and applications of computational intelligence systems. It covers a long list of interconnected research areas, such as fuzzy systems, neural networks, evolutionary computation, evolving systems and machine learning. The individual chapters are based on peer-reviewed contributions presented at the 16th Annual UK Workshop on Computational Intelligence, held on September 7-9, 2016, in Lancaster, UK. The book puts a special emphasis on novels methods and reports on their use in a wide range of applications areas, thus providing both academics and professionals with a comprehensive and timely overview of new trends in computational intelligence.

  13. Bullying and the UK Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, R H; Atkins, S; Gould, M

    2012-06-01

    There are certain characteristics of the culture and environment in the Armed Forces that may be conducive to bullying. In this article we examine the cultural and environmental factors that may encourage such behaviour and those that act as deterrents for victims to come forward. We will look at the scope of this problem within the UK Armed Forces specifically, before more generally considering the psychological impact of bullying. There appears to be an overall downward trend in bullying within the UK Armed Forces and a positive increase in complaints as more victims step forward. We conclude by highlighting some areas for further development.

  14. Brexit and UK-Based Financial Services

    OpenAIRE

    Sowels, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    This article seeks to present the key issues which Brexit is raising for financial services based in the UK, as they appeared in early 2017: i.e. since the Government has made clear that Britain will leave both the EU and the Single Market. The article reviews the place of UK-based financial services internationally and with respect to the European Union. The article then looks at some of the main questions currently highlighted by the Brexit process, most notably the loss of “passporting rig...

  15. IMMIGRATION AND INTEGRATION POLICIES IN UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Voicu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of immigrants received by the United Kingdom significantly increased during the past several years. Given the set of economic and social difficulties encountered, UK created for the first time a completely original system of Nationality Legislation and started to apply a severe policy of assimilation instead of integration. UK applied the Community Law concerning immigration, asylum and free movement of workers in its national interest, the whole European construction showing the “British specificities”. Even today, there are a lot of measures to be taken in order to come to a real integration policy of immigrants.

  16. The Operational Performance of UK Airlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. Georg; Josiassen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to measure the efficiency of UK airlines in light of all the recent industry challenges. Design/methodology/approach – The study measured the technical efficiency of airlines through the innovative data envelopment analysis (DEA) bootstrap methodology...... airline size and load factor. The paper also highlights that factors such as increase in oil price and fierce market competition were also potential inefficiency determinants. Practical implications – The findings of this paper provide a fresh link between airline performance and the current industry...... of the airline industry. The study also extends the limited literature available on UK airlines....

  17. Particulates and the cycling of lead in Ullswater, Cumbria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everard, M.; Denny, P.

    1985-04-01

    Ullswater has been affected by former lead mining in the catchment area. An attempt is made to investigate how lead in the lake is re-distributed within the littoral zones. Concentrations in the lakewater are low particulates including phytoplankton, seston and gelatinous ooze overlying lead-enriched sediments can be values from 1.3 to >6.0 and 26 mg Pb g/sup -1/ dry weight respectively. During turbulent conditions, contaminated phytoplankton, settled algae and some of the gelatinous ooze are brought in to near-homogenous suspension within the water column. In calm conditions, settlement of particulates occurs and a rate-zonal distribution results such that, in a vertical column of water, the finer particles in the upper layers have lower concentrations of lead per unit volume of water than the lower layers. In non-turbulent conditions, the particles which settle on all submerged surfaces form a tenuous layer termed ecton. Aufwuchs becomes coated by ecton but the latter is readily re-suspended by disturbances. The intimate contact, and the similarity of concentrations of lead in Aufwuchs and ecton from any one sample, suggests that metal flux occurs between the two. It is concluded that the variety of particulates which comprise the ecton distribute lead during turbulence. In calm conditions the ecton settles on all submerged surfaces and provides a mechanism for transfer of lead into the littoral food web.

  18. Enhancing national Daily Landslide Hazard Assessments through inter-agency collaboration; lessons learned from storm Desmond (UK)/Synne (Norway), Dec 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boje, Søren; Devoli, Graziella; Sund, Monica; Freeborough, Katy; Dijkstra, Tom; Reeves, Helen; Banks, Vanessa

    2016-04-01

    The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) and the British Geological Survey (BGS) compile daily landslide hazard assessments (DLHA) in their respective countries. NVE DLHA has been operational since 2013 and provides national daily assessments based on quantitative thresholds related to daily hydro-meteorological forecasts coupled with qualitative expert analysis of these forecasts. The BGS DLHA has been operational since 2012 and this is predominantly based on expert evaluation of antecedent hydro-meteorological conditions and triggering rainfall across Great Britain (GB). In both cases, the hydro-meteorological evaluation is coupled with observations derived from proprietary datasets on landslide events and landslide potential in order to specify, and limit, the spatial extent of the potentially impacted area. However, the DLHA are strongly driven by hydro-meteorological forecasts. In December 2015, a large extra-tropical cyclone developed over the Atlantic and delivered record-breaking precipitation over parts of the UK and Norway. The meteorological services started naming these events to enhance public uptake and awareness and the storms were named as Desmond (the 4th large storm in 2015/16 in the UK) and Synne (the 5th storm in 2015 in Norway). Desmond arrived in earnest on the 5th of December and brought intense precipitation and strong winds over a 48-hour period. In Cumbria (NW-England) record precipitation was measured (341.4 mm in 24-hour at Honister Pass which is more than twice the monthly average), with 48-hour accumulations exceeding 400 mm. Synne arrived shortly after in Norway and was also characterised by excessive rainfall of 140 mm in 24-hour, 236 mm in 48-hour and 299 mm in 72-hour at Maudal, SW-Norway. Both organisations managed to issue appropriate advance warnings, operating individually. In Norway, warnings were issued some 2 days in advance with a yellow level communicated on Friday 4th and an orange warning the 5th and 6

  19. Cancer Research UK | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/ · What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map. Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month. Subscribe · Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ...

  20. Developing Internationalisation Strategies, University of Winchester, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Richard Hugh; Spark, Alasdair; Carter, Joy

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Internationalisation has been a theme in UK higher education for a decade or more. The review of this paper, a practice-based case study, is to find how Winchester formulated two successive internationalisation strategies. Design/methodology/approach: The strategies were developed using a research-oriented method: grounded in the…

  1. Resources for Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Paul; Newsam, Andy; Roberts, Sarah; Mason, Tom; Baruch, John

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at a selection of resources currently available for use in the teaching of astronomy in UK schools. It is by no means an exhaustive list but it highlights a variety of free resources that can be used in the classroom to help engage students of all ages with astronomy and space science. It also lists several facilities with a…

  2. Subject Choice and Earnings of UK Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Using a survey of a cohort of UK graduates, linked to administrative data on higher education participation, this paper investigates the labour market attainment of recent graduates by subject of study. We document a large heterogeneity in the mean wages of graduates from different subjects and a considerably larger one within subject with…

  3. Student Representations of Psychology in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Philip; Duffy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Psychology is a popular choice for UK students in their secondary school curriculum. Policy makers and elite universities, however, express concern about the subject. The British Psychological Society (2013) commissioned a detailed study of the provision of school curricula in psychology and as part of this work a survey of students was conducted.…

  4. Akanidomo ibanga University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corresponding author: Akanidomo Ibanga, Department of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. E-mail: akjibanga@yahoo.com ... sexual behaviour and lack of self-protection in sexual situations among the women (Co- hen et al. ... behaviour is upheld despite varying defini- tions of CSA. Other negative ...

  5. UK pulls out of plans for ILC

    CERN Multimedia

    Durrani, Matin

    2007-01-01

    "A funding crisis at one of the UK's leading research councils has forced the country to pull out of plans for the International Linear Collider (ILC). The science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) says in a report published today that it does not see "a practicable path towards the realization of this facility as currently conceived on a reasonable timescale". (1 page)

  6. Sunday Opening in UK Public Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Chris; Creaser, Claire

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the first survey of public library authorities in the UK to explore Sunday opening, undertaken in 2007 as part of the Clore Leadership Programme. It provides a snapshot of Sunday opening practice, set against a context of societal, economic, and policy developments, and examines whether Sunday opening furthers the…

  7. UK Groups Plan Cancer Research Hub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Janet

    2016-04-01

    Two major cancer research groups in the UK have announced plans to create a global cancer center aimed at accelerating drug development and fostering collaboration with industry. The $1.5 billion campus is expected to house 10,000 scientists and clinicians and deliver two additional drug candidates, an increase of 40%, every 5 years. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Rental Values in UK Shopping Malls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuo, Tony Shun-Te; Lizieri, Colin; McCann, Phillip; Crosby, Neil

    This paper employs a unique dataset to analyse the retail rental levels of 1108 retail tenants in 148 UK regional shopping malls. The dataset integrates information regarding the characteristics of the shopping centre, the individual retailer, the brand, the individual unit occupied, the tenancy

  9. Periodic integration in quarterly UK macroeconomic variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); G. Romijn

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents empirical evidence on the seasonal patterns in several UK macroeconomic variables, additional to related evidence reported in Osborn (International Journal of Forecasting (1990), 6, 327–336). The method used is a test procedure for seasonal unit roots that allows

  10. Globalisation and MATESOL Programmes in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasrati, Mostafa; Tavakoli, Parvaneh

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of a mixed-methods approach to investigating the association between globalisation and MATESOL in UK universities. Qualitative and quantitative data collected from academic staff through eight emails, four interviews and 41 questionnaires indicate that the globalised context of higher education has affected these…

  11. A UK indicator of education for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Huckle, John; Sustainable Development Commission

    2006-01-01

    Report references UK Government publication 'Securing the Future'. Report on workshops consulting members of the education community on their preferred approach to the indicator announced in the UK strategy for sustainable development, 'Securing the Future'. Publisher PDF

  12. Entrepreneurial Propensity in Pakistan and UK: A comparative study of Pakistani and UK Prospective Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar Ali; Keith Topping; Tariq, Riaz H.; Peter Wakefield

    2011-01-01

    This research compares entrepreneurial inclination of Pakistani and UK primary level prospective teachers (B.Ed. students). Factor analysis revealed entrepreneurial intentions, instrumental readiness and self-efficacy as three common factors among both the data sets. Both the groups of respondents were also compared on five conceptual variables namely locus of control, self efficacy, entrepreneurial intentions, instrumental readiness and subjective norms. The prospective teachers from UK were...

  13. Analysis of energy embodied in the international trade of UK

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Xu; Snowden, Simon; Höök, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the role embodied energy plays in international trade and its subsequent impact on energy security has grown. As a developed nation, the UK's economic structure has changed from that of a primary producer to that of a primary consumer. Although the UK's energy consumption appears to have peaked, it imports a lot of energy embodied in international trade alongside the more obvious direct energy imports. The UK has seen increasing dependency on imported fossil energy since the UK be...

  14. Food production and service in UK hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed; Jones, Eleri; Redmond, Elizabeth; Hewedi, Mahmoud; Wingert, Andreas; Gad El Rab, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to apply value stream mapping holistically to hospital food production/service systems focused on high-quality food. Multiple embedded case study of three (two private-sector and one public-sector) hospitals in the UK. The results indicated various issues affecting hospital food production including: the menu and nutritional considerations; food procurement; food production; foodservice; patient perceptions/expectations. Value stream mapping is a new approach for food production systems in UK hospitals whether private or public hospitals. The paper identifies opportunities for enhancing hospital food production systems. The paper provides a theoretical basis for process enhancement of hospital food production and the provision of high-quality hospital food.

  15. DYNAMICS OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the beginning of the 1990’s, organic agriculture in the UK has expanded rapidly, in the middle of the year 2003 it represented 4% of the agricultural surface with around 4000 farms, managing almost 720.000 hectares. This growth was brought by the consumers and decisional factors which see organic agriculture as a contribution to environment, social and nutritional welfare purposes. This is one of the sustainable food production strategies; another being the integrated agriculture, a less restrictive option for the farmers. The most recent national statistics presented by DEFRA (The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs on organic farming were published in July of 2012. These present information gathered throughout 2011 for organic crops and livestock in the UK and the number of organic producers/processors registered with the Organic Certification Bodies in Great Britain.

  16. Burnout in therapy radiographers in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Probst, H; Griffiths, S.; Adams, R; Hill, C.

    2012-01-01

    The 2007 UK National Radiotherapy Advisory Group report indicated that the number and type of staff available is one of the “rate-limiting” steps in improving productivity in radiotherapy departments. Retaining well-trained, satisfied staff is key to meeting the objectives of the report; burnout is an important factor linked to satisfaction and attrition. The results of a survey measuring burnout in a sample of radiotherapists (therapy radiographers) are presented and considered against norms...

  17. Stresses reported by UK trainee counselling psychologists

    OpenAIRE

    Kumary, Ajvir; Baker, Martyn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined stressors and psychological distress in 109 UK counselling psychology trainees. The research focus was two-fold. What is the profile of stressors that counselling psychology trainees report about the components of training? What relationship is there between this profile, and other characteristics of trainees, including their level of current psychological distress? Data from a stress survey and from the General Health Questionnaire were examined. High stress scores were f...

  18. The UK's National Electronic Site Licencing Initiative.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, Hazel

    2001-01-01

    In 1998 the UK created the National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI) to increase and improve access to electronic journals and to negotiate license agreements on behalf of academic libraries. The use of a model license agreement and the success of site licensing is discussed. Highlights from an interim evaluation by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) are noted and key issues and questions arising from the evaluation are identified

  19. Comovement in UK real estate sector returns

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Engle et al. (1990) distinguish between 'heat waves' and 'meteor showers' in an analogy which tries to differentiate between particular effects, not transmitted among markets, and general effects, which tend to affect all the markets, although different markets can be affected to different degrees. This paper applies this approach to the study of the monthly returns of four real estate market sectors: Office, Retail, Industrial and Retail Warehouses in the UK over the period 1979:2 to 1997:12...

  20. UK: disputing boundaries of biotechnology regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Les Levidow; Susan Carr

    1996-01-01

    UK biotechnology regulation has developed ‘precautionary controls’ for GMO releases. Stringent legislation was drafted and eventually implemented by the Department of Environment (DoE). In parallel, the DoE established a broadly-based advisory committee, which included ecologists and an implicit public-interest representation. The committee was assigned the task to advise on the release of all “novel organisms” — a term which implies an analogy between GMOs and non-indigenous organisms. Copyr...

  1. INOPS Survey data report for the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Nielsen, Alex Skøtt

    This data report provides statistics on the organization, management and performance of different ways of providing maintenance services within the municipal park and road sector(s) in Denmark. The statistics rely on data collected in the period from September 2015 to November 2015 through an onl...... an online survey send to managers in all Local Authorities in the UK (England, Wales and Northern Ireland)....

  2. UK wood gasification project under way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-24

    It is reported that a wood gasification pilot plant will be built in the UK by John Brown and Wellman Engineering as part of the EEC solar energy programme. The construction of the plant is scheduled to start in November 1982 and will convert up to 12 ton/day of biomass into around 20 ton/day of synthesis gas suitable for methanol production.

  3. Engineering geology maps of the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbs, Marcus; Reeves, Helen; Northmore, Kevin; Entwisle, David

    2010-01-01

    School and university students of geology, engineering geology and geotechnical engineering generally have less knowledge of engineering geological conditions than those who have had experience of hands-on research or practice. In the UK, the number of geology, geoscience and earth science departments has reduced over the past 25 years. Engineering geology has a very weak academic base and geology is taught less to civil engineering students than previously.

  4. Emerging hybridity: comparing UK healthcare regulatory arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnival, Joy; Walshe, Kieran; Boaden, Ruth

    2017-06-19

    Purpose Healthcare regulation is one means to address quality challenges in healthcare systems and is carried out using compliance, deterrence and/or improvement approaches. The four countries of the UK provide an opportunity to explore and compare different regulatory architecture and models. The purpose of this paper is to understand emerging regulatory models and associated tensions. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses qualitative methods to compare the regulatory architecture and models. Data were collected from documents, including board papers, inspection guidelines and from 48 interviewees representing a cross-section of roles from six organisational regulatory agencies. The data were analysed thematically using an a priori coding framework developed from the literature. Findings The findings show that regulatory agencies in the four countries of the UK have different approaches and methods of delivering their missions. This study finds that new hybrid regulatory models are developing which use improvement support interventions in parallel with deterrence and compliance approaches. The analysis highlights that effective regulatory oversight of quality is contingent on the ability of regulatory agencies to balance their requirements to assure and improve care. Nevertheless, they face common tensions in sustaining the balance in their requirements connected to their roles, relationships and resources. Originality/value The paper shows through its comparison of UK regulatory agencies that the development and implementation of hybrid models is complex. The paper contributes to research by identifying three tensions related to hybrid regulatory models; roles, resources and relationships which need to be managed to sustain hybrid regulatory models.

  5. IEA PVPS Task 1 - UK Expert. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunning, R.

    2003-07-01

    The paper relates to work carried out under contract to the UK Renewable Energy Programme, and describes the terms of reference of the UK representation in the IEA PVPS Task 1 which provides a forum for exchange of information on photovoltaic (PV) technology between 21 participating countries. The main benefit derived by the UK is access to international expertise in PV technology. Using information obtained from participation in Task 1, the UK produces a National Survey Report which reports on developments in PV technology in the UK over the previous 12 months. The report covers installed capacity, prices, budgets and costs: it is freely available on the UK PVPS website. The newsletter PV Power, is prepared and distributed biannually - 18 issues have been published by mid-2003. IT Power is currently the UK representative on the IEA PVPS Task 1.

  6. The risk of hydraulic fracturing on public health in the UK and the UK's fracking legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reap, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing to extract natural gas from shale rock is a new, rapidly expanding industry in the United States (US). However, there is concern that these operations could be having large negative impacts such as groundwater contamination, increased air pollution and seismic events. The United Kingdom (UK) is looking at the potential for emulating the success of 'shale gas' in the US. Differences in population density and geological conditions mean that the public health impacts recorded in the US cannot be directly extrapolated to the UK. There is limited academic literature available but findings suggest that the UK government is not fully recognising the inherent risks of hydraulic fracturing exposed by this literature. Government reports suggest a reliance on engineering solutions and better practice to overcome problems found in the US when evidence suggests that there are inherent risks and impacts that cannot be eliminated. This study applies US results to approximate the impact of one exposure pathway, inhalation of hydrocarbons by the public from operational air emissions over the 30 year lifetime of a well and finds that 7.2 extra cancer cases from exposure to air contamination would be expected in the UK if all test sites, approved test sites and test sites awaiting approval as of January 2015 went on to extract gas. In conclusion, limited assessment of the public health implications of hydraulic fracturing operations is available but the UK government appears to not be applying the precautionary principle to potentially significant legislation.

  7. UK FIT : successes and lessons learned from the UK's small wind FIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, A. [NEL Technologies, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the feed-in tariff (FIT) program established in the United Kingdom (UK) to develop wind power resources. Grants and and other financial incentives available in the UK were also described. The FIT program is comprised of 3 small wind financial incentive bands that are based on wind turbine rate power. Microgeneration certification scheme (MCS) certification is a prerequisite. The MCS is comprised of scheme owners, administrators and licensees, and certification bodies. MCS product standards and scheme documents for factory production control were reviewed. Testing, certification, and accreditation standards were outlined. FIT tariffs will be reviewed in 2013. The FIT program has been guaranteed in the UK for a period of 20 years. An Act of Parliament will be required to overturn it. A chart of wind speed power curves was also included. tabs., figs.

  8. Report on primate supply for biomedical scientific work in the UK. EUPREN UK Working Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S; Thomas, C; West, P; Wolfensohn, S; Wood, M

    1997-10-01

    A Working Party of the UK group of European Primate Resources Network (EUPREN) considered primate supply for scientific work in the UK. Through a questionnaire, which achieved a very good response, it obtained details of primate use, sources and breeding in the UK and it put forward options to ensure that animal welfare is the best possible whilst ensuring continued supply. The questionnaire showed that contract research laboratories and pharmaceutical companies use about 80% of the 4233 primates used annually at the moment, with the rest accounted for by academic establishments and public sector laboratories. Fifty-four per cent are cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), of which nearly 90% are captive-bred outside the European Union (EU), the remainder being bred in the UK. Nearly 90% of cynomolgus macaques are used by only five institutions. Thirty-seven per cent of primates used are marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus), all of which are bred in the UK. Most of the rest are rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), about half of which are captive-bred outside the EU, the other half being bred in the UK. Overall primate use has increased from about 3000 per year in 1990 and users predict that requirements for all species except baboons (Papio sp.) will be maintained or increase. Marmoset breeding in the UK is already closely matched to use, and it could be increased reasonably easily if necessary. Some of the existing breeding centres of macaques in the UK would be prepared to consider expanding to supply others, although investment and imported breeding stock would be needed and it is likely that a large investment would be needed to breed a significant fraction of the macaque use in the UK. A further problem is that the users of only about 10% of the cynomolgus macaques said that they could replace this species by rhesus macaques, which are easier to breed in the UK. The questionnaire showed that much of the use of macaques would be transferred to other countries

  9. Entrepreneurial Propensity in Pakistan and UK: A comparative study of Pakistani and UK Prospective Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research compares entrepreneurial inclination of Pakistani and UK primary level prospective teachers (B.Ed. students. Factor analysis revealed entrepreneurial intentions, instrumental readiness and self-efficacy as three common factors among both the data sets. Both the groups of respondents were also compared on five conceptual variables namely locus of control, self efficacy, entrepreneurial intentions, instrumental readiness and subjective norms. The prospective teachers from UK were found to be significantly lower on instrumental readiness and entrepreneurial intentions than their Pakistani counterparts. There were some partial impacts of demographic variables on entrepreneurial propensity of both the groups of respondents. Some implications for planning and policy were outlined.

  10. Pharmacovigilance teaching in UK undergraduate pharmacy programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melvyn P; Webley, Sherael D

    2013-03-01

    Pharmacists in the UK are able to report spontaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Authority. The level of reporting by UK pharmacists remains low. This could be explained by poor knowledge of ADR reporting. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the level of pharmacovigilance education provided to pharmacy students on undergraduate pharmacy programmes in the UK. A cross-sectional survey was used to obtain data relating to the teaching of pharmacovigilance within schools of pharmacy. The survey was designed to reveal whether core elements pertinent to pharmacovigilance and specifically to spontaneous reporting were taught and to what extent. All of the respondents taught pharmacovigilance within an assessed compulsory module. A small number (23%) did not include pharmacovigilance law within their syllabus. In 54%, the amount of time devoted to teaching pharmacy students about their role in pharmacovigilance was less than 4 h in the 4-year course; only one respondent spent approximately 20 h, the remaining respondents (38%) spent between 4 and 8 h. The amount of time dedicated to the teaching of pharmacovigilance on pharmacy undergraduate degree programmes is low. Considering the importance of spontaneous reporting in drug safety and the shift in the role of the pharmacists, more time may need to be devoted to pharmacovigilance on pharmacy undergraduate courses. By doing so, new pharmacists would be more informed of the important role they play in drug safety and thereby potentially help enhance the level of ADR reporting. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A Water Grid for the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathard, A.; Fowler, H. J.; Kilsby, C. G.

    2009-12-01

    Anthropogenically aggravated climate change associated with intensive expansion of the global economy has increased the demand for water whilst simultaneously altering natural variability in its distribution, straining water resources unsustainably and inequitably in many parts of the world, increasing drought risk, and encouraging decision-makers to reconsider the security of water supply. Indeed, in the absence of additional resource development, contemporary planning forecasts imply increased water stress across much of the United Kingdom. Until recently the regulatory authorities of the UK promoted increased efficiency of water delivery and consumption combined with a portfolio of financial instruments as a means of reducing water stress, maintaining present levels of consumer service without significant further exploitation of the environment. However, despite an increasingly sophisticated understanding of climate change and its effects, significant uncertainty remains in the quantification of its impacts on the water sector, and questions persist as to the effectiveness of such demand management measures compared to that of more traditional infrastructure improvements. Faced with possible futures provided for by detrimentally over-stressed resources, what opportunities remain for future strategic development in the UK? Is there a single national strategy that is both politically and socially acceptable? Do the benefits of national water infrastructure projects outweigh their costs? This ongoing study aims to evolve robust national adaptation strategies by quantifying the projected impacts of climate change across mainland UK using multi-model and perturbed-physics ensembles of projected future climate, encapsulating uncertainties in a scenario-driven integrated water resources model incorporating socio-economic elements.

  12. UK medicines regulation: responding to current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Natalie; Hudson, Ian

    2016-12-01

    The medicines regulatory environment is evolving rapidly in response to the changing environment. Advances in science and technology have led to a vast field of increasingly complicated pharmaceutical and medical device products; increasing globalization of the pharmaceutical industry, advances in digital technology and the internet, changing patient populations, and shifts in society also affect the regulatory environment. In the UK, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) regulates medicines, medical devices and blood products to protect and improve public health, and supports innovation through scientific research and development. It works closely with other bodies in a single medicines network across Europe and takes forward UK health priorities. This paper discusses the range of initiatives in the UK and across Europe to support innovation in medicines regulation. The MHRA leads a number of initiatives, such as the Innovation Office, which helps innovators to navigate the regulatory processes to progress their products or technologies; and simplification of the Clinical Trials Regulations and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme, to bring innovative medicines to patients faster. The Accelerated Access Review will identify reforms to accelerate access for National Health Service patients to innovative medicines and medical technologies. PRIME and Adaptive Pathways initiatives are joint endeavours within the European regulatory community. The MHRA runs spontaneous reporting schemes and works with INTERPOL to tackle counterfeiting and substandard products sold via the internet. The role of the regulator is changing rapidly, with new risk-proportionate, flexible approaches being introduced. International collaboration is a key element of the work of regulators, and is set to expand. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. UK money demand 1873-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Heino Bohn

    2007-01-01

    This paper performs a multivariate cointegration analysis of UK money demand 1873-2001, and illustrates how a long-run time series analysis may be conducted on a data set characterized by turbulent episodes and institutional changes. We suggest accounting for the effects of the two world wars...... analysis we find a single equilibrium relationship relating velocity to opportunity costs, and we identify a significant link between excess money and inflation. After accounting for the turbulent periods, the equilibrium structure is reasonably stable over a period of 130 years...

  14. Well integrity failure in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, F.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to consider the potential legacy of increased onshore, unconventional gas production by examining the integrity of decommissioned, onshore, oil and gas wells in the UK. In the absence of a history of unconventional hydrocarbon exploitation in the UK, conventional onshore sites were considered and an examination of pollution incidents records had suggested that only a small fraction of operational, onshore wells could show integrity failures. A consideration of groundwater and surface water quality monitoring could find no regional impact of historic or current conventional oil and gas exploitation in the UK. As a more direct measure of well legacy this study considered the fugitive emissions of methane from former oil and gas wells onshore in the UK as a measure of well integrity. The survey considered 102 decommissioned (abandoned) wells from 4 different basins that were between 8 and 78 years old; all but one of these wells would be considered as having been decommissioned properly, i.e. wells cut, sealed and buried by soil cover to the extent that the well sites were being used for agriculture. For each well site the soil gas methane was analysed multiple times and assessed relative to a nearby control site of similar land-use and soil type. The results showed that of the 102 wells surveyed, 30% had soil gas CH4 at the soil surface that was significantly greater than their respective control. Conversely, 39% of well sites had significant lower surface soil gas CH4 concentrations than their respective control. We interpret elevated soil gas CH4 concentrations to be the result of well integrity failure, but do not know the source of the gas nor the route to the surface. Where elevated CH4 was detected it appears to have occurred within a decade of the well being decommissioned. The flux of CH4 from wells was 364 ± 677 kg CO2eq/well/yr with a 27% chance that any well would be a net sink of CH4 independent of well age. This flux is low

  15. Intake Levels of Fish in the UK Paediatric Population

    OpenAIRE

    Kranz, Sibylle; Nicholas R V Jones; Monsivais, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) is an island and its culture, including diet, is heavily influenced by the maritime resources. Dietary guidance in the UK recommends intake of fish, which provides important nutrients, such as long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). This study was designed to describe the fish intake habits of UK children using a nationally representative sample. Dietary and socio-demographic data of children 2?18 (N = 2096) in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey ...

  16. Challenges and opportunities for UK immigrants. Learning English

    OpenAIRE

    Pundziuvienė, Daiva; Matulionienė, Jūratė

    2014-01-01

    In the UK, the need for adult immigrants to learn English includes considerations for the recently arrived and those who have been living in the UK for a long time but still do not speak English; those in a wide variety of work situations; and those experiencing cultural shock. Such learners frequently have low self-esteem and often develop psychological barriers to speaking a foreign language. While most learning of English takes place in informal contexts, formal institutions in the UK and ...

  17. An exploration of Branding approaches in UK Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Chapleo, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory paper considers the current state of UK HE branding; in particular, conceptualisations and approaches. It is driven by calls in the literature for clearer understanding and application of branding in Higher Education (HE). Objectives of the research, drawn from literature, were to explore conceptualisations of branding in the UK HE sector, as well as current challenges to branding concepts/ practice in UK HE. The methodology was based upon depth interviews with fifteen opinio...

  18. Obesity Treatment in the UK Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capehorn, Matthew S; Haslam, David W; Welbourn, Richard

    2016-09-01

    In the UK, as in most other countries in the world, levels of obesity are increasing. According to the Kinsey report, obesity has the second largest public health impact after smoking, and it is inextricably linked to physical inactivity. Since the UK Health and Social Care Act reforms of 2012, there has been a significant restructuring of the National Health Service (NHS). As a consequence, NHS England and the Department of Health have issued new policy guidelines regarding the commissioning of obesity treatment. A 4-tier model of care is now widely accepted and ranges from primary activity, through community weight management and specialist weight management for severe and complex obesity, to bariatric surgery. However, although there are clear care pathways and clinical guidelines for evidence-based practice, there remains no single stakeholder willing to take overall responsibility for obesity care. There is a lack of provision of adequate services characterised by a noticeable 'postcode lottery', and little political will to change the obesogenic environment.

  19. The UK s new National Space Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, K.; Barnet

    The National Space Centre (NSC) was opened in June 2001 and is a £52M (75M) science-based visitor attraction and education facility with the mission `to promote a wider understanding of space science and technology, and demonstrate its relevance to life on Earth in the 21s t Century'. It is located in the city of Leicester, lying close to the geographical heart of the UK and with 9 million people within a 90 minute drive. The NSC was funded by the Millennium Commission in partnership with the University of Leicester and Leicester City Council, with support from BT, ESA and others. Its main components are an Exhibition, Space Theatre and Challenger Learning Centre. The CLC is the only one operating outside North America and it has been the stimulus for the new "Classroom Space" project which makes data from real space missions available for use in schools, with appropriate support for teachers. Recently the NSC has become the host for the UK's Near Earth Object Information Centre, and it will act as the Operations Centre for the Faulkes (2m class) robotic telescopes to be located in Maui and Siding Springs, providing a unique educational facility for 12-18 year old school students. The first successful year of operation of the NSC will be reported and plans for future national and international development outlined.

  20. Islamist groups in the UK and recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ilyas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2001 and 7/7 the search to find out why and how Muslims born in Europe join political and violence orientated Islamist groups has occupied policy makers and social scientist. The search has produced explanations that suggest social grievance, Islam and physiological problems are the motivations for why some Muslims join and act on behalf of Islamist groups in the UK. However, the approaches tend not to focus the role emotions generated from events that involve Muslim suffering play in some individuals becoming interested in acquiring and acting upon them. These events are often experienced variously by Muslims living in Europe through the media and are used by Islamist groups as resources to recruit. Consequently, this paper is based on interviews carried out with Islamists in the UK and tentatively discusses two process that take into account the emotional effect of events that concern Muslims in order to make sense of how some Muslims become compelled to acquire extreme ideas, act upon extreme ideas (independently or behalf of a group or join Islamist groups.

  1. Customer privacy on UK healthcare websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Darren P

    2006-09-01

    Privacy has been and continues to be one of the key challenges of an age devoted to the accumulation, processing, and mining of electronic information. In particular, privacy of healthcare-related information is seen as a key issue as health organizations move towards the electronic provision of services. The aim of the research detailed in this paper has been to analyse privacy policies on popular UK healthcare-related websites to determine the extent to which consumer privacy is protected. The author has combined approaches (such as approaches focused on usability, policy content, and policy quality) used in studies by other researchers on e-commerce and US healthcare websites to provide a comprehensive analysis of UK healthcare privacy policies. The author identifies a wide range of issues related to the protection of consumer privacy through his research analysis using quantitative results. The main outcomes from the author's research are that only 61% of healthcare-related websites in their sample group posted privacy policies. In addition, most of the posted privacy policies had poor readability standards and included a variety of privacy vulnerability statements. Overall, the author's findings represent significant current issues in relation to healthcare information protection on the Internet. The hope is that raising awareness of these results will drive forward changes in the industry, similar to those experienced with information quality.

  2. Assisted reproductive travel: UK patient trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2011-11-01

    Media reporting of 'fertility tourism' tends to portray those who travel as a cohesive group, marked by their desperation and/or selfishness and propensity towards morally questionable behaviour. However, to date little has been known about the profile of those leaving the UK for treatment. This paper discusses the first UK-based study of patient assisted reproduction travel that was designed to explore individual travel trajectories. It is argued that existing ways of conceptualizing cross-border reproductive care as 'fertility or reproductive tourism' are in danger of essentializing what the data suggest are diverse, complex and often ambiguous motivations for reproductive travel. The concept of seriality is used to suggest that, whilst 'reproductive tourists' share some characteristics, they also differ in significant ways. This paper argues that, through an examination of the personal landscapes of fertility travel, the diverse processes involved in reproductive travel can be better understood and policymakers can be assisted to avoid what might be regarded as simplistic responses to cross-border reproductive care. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The UK Virtual Observatory - Adding Planetary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Peter

    The UK has built a virtual observatory called AstroGrid. Using this facility, scientists can already get access to a wide range of data on traditional astronomy, the Sun and solar-terrestrial physics (STP). This paper describes the AstroGrid system and what would be involved in adding access to planetary data to those already on offer. In recent years, there have been activities in several countries to create what are known as virtual observatories. The idea is that you should be able to easily get to all of the astronomical data that exist from your desktop computer. You do not need to know that specific data exist and you do not need to know where these data reside. In order to make this possible, it is essential that data archives and software that accesses those archives is built around a set of internationally agreed standards. These standards have been developed by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). A data archive that adheres to these standards can publish data on the internet to registries of resources that client software can search. The AstroGrid software developed in the UK adheres to these standards and provides a comprehensive set of services for data archives to provide dataset access, registries of data holdings, virtual file stores, communities of users, workflow for execution of complex grid applications and an environment into which pre-existing data processing applications can be plugged. There is also client software for searching registries and remote data archives, accessing the remote data, and a basic set of tools for displaying and analysing those data. AstroGrid is unique amongst virtual observatories in that it includes major data sources on the Sun and solar-terrestrial physics as well as more traditional astronomy. The need to support these very different types of data has led to the development of tools that can handle very different coordinate systems and display data in a variety of ways. For example, we have a

  4. Changes needed to medicine in the UK before senior UK-trained doctors, working outside the UK, will return: questionnaire surveys undertaken between 2004 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Trevor W; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J

    2017-12-01

    To report the changes to UK medicine which doctors who have emigrated tell us would increase their likelihood of returning to a career in UK medicine. Questionnaire survey. UK-trained medical graduates. Questionnaires were sent 11 years after graduation to 7158 doctors who qualified in 1993 and 1996 in the UK: 4763 questionnaires were returned. Questionnaires were sent 17 and 19 years after graduation to the same cohorts: 4554 questionnaires were returned. Comments from doctors working abroad about changes needed to UK medicine before they would return. Eleven years after graduation, 290 (6%) of respondents were working in medicine abroad; 277 (6%) were doing so 17/19 years after graduation. Eleven years after graduation, 53% of doctors working abroad indicated that they did not intend to return, and 71% did so 17/19 years after graduation. These respondents reported a number of changes which would need to be made to UK medicine in order to increase the likelihood of them returning. The most frequently mentioned changes cited concerned 'politics/management/funding', 'pay/pension', 'posts/security/opportunities', 'working conditions/hours', and 'factors outside medicine'. Policy attention to factors including funding, pay, management and particularly the clinical-political interface, working hours, and work-life balance may pay dividends for all, both in terms of persuading some established doctors to return and, perhaps more importantly, encouraging other, younger doctors to believe that the UK and the National Health Service can offer them a satisfying and rewarding career.

  5. Paediatric UK demyelinating disease longitudinal study (PUDDLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likeman Marcus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that at least 5% of Multiple sclerosis (MS cases manifest in childhood. Children with MS present with a demyelinating episode involving single or multiple symptoms prior to developing a second event (usually within two years to then meet criteria for diagnosis. There is evidence from adult cohorts that the incidence and sex ratios of MS are changing and that children of immigrants have a higher risk for developing MS. A paediatric population should reflect the vanguard of such changes and may reflect trends yet to be observed in adult cohorts. Studying a paediatric population from the first demyelinating event will allow us to test these hypotheses, and may offer further valuable insights into the genetic and environmental interactions in the pathogenesis of MS. Methods/Design The Paediatric UK Demyelinating Disease Longitudinal Study (PUDDLS is a prospective longitudinal observational study which aims to determine the natural history, predictors and outcomes of childhood CNS inflammatory demyelinating diseases. PUDDLS will involve centres in the UK, and will establish a cohort of children affected with a first CNS inflammatory demyelinating event for long-term follow up by recruiting for approximately 5 years. PUDDLS will also establish a biological sample archive (CSF, serum, and DNA, allowing future hypothesis driven research. For example, the future discovery of a biomarker will allow validation within this dataset for the evaluation of novel biomarkers. Patients will also be requested to consent to be contacted in the future. A secondary aim is to collaborate internationally with the International Paediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group when future collaborative studies are proposed, whilst sharing a minimal anonymised dataset. PUDDLS is the second of two jointly funded studies. The first (UCID-SS is an epidemiological surveillance study that already received ethical approvals, and started on the 1st

  6. Paediatric UK demyelinating disease longitudinal study (PUDDLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absoud, Michael; Cummins, Carole; Chong, Wui K; De Goede, Christian; Foster, Katharine; Gunny, Roxanna; Hemingway, Cheryl; Jardine, Philip; Kneen, Rachel; Likeman, Marcus; Lim, Ming J; Pike, Mike; Sibtain, Naomi; Whitehouse, William P; Wassmer, Evangeline

    2011-07-28

    There is evidence that at least 5% of Multiple sclerosis (MS) cases manifest in childhood. Children with MS present with a demyelinating episode involving single or multiple symptoms prior to developing a second event (usually within two years) to then meet criteria for diagnosis. There is evidence from adult cohorts that the incidence and sex ratios of MS are changing and that children of immigrants have a higher risk for developing MS. A paediatric population should reflect the vanguard of such changes and may reflect trends yet to be observed in adult cohorts. Studying a paediatric population from the first demyelinating event will allow us to test these hypotheses, and may offer further valuable insights into the genetic and environmental interactions in the pathogenesis of MS. The Paediatric UK Demyelinating Disease Longitudinal Study (PUDDLS) is a prospective longitudinal observational study which aims to determine the natural history, predictors and outcomes of childhood CNS inflammatory demyelinating diseases. PUDDLS will involve centres in the UK, and will establish a cohort of children affected with a first CNS inflammatory demyelinating event for long-term follow up by recruiting for approximately 5 years. PUDDLS will also establish a biological sample archive (CSF, serum, and DNA), allowing future hypothesis driven research. For example, the future discovery of a biomarker will allow validation within this dataset for the evaluation of novel biomarkers. Patients will also be requested to consent to be contacted in the future. A secondary aim is to collaborate internationally with the International Paediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group when future collaborative studies are proposed, whilst sharing a minimal anonymised dataset. PUDDLS is the second of two jointly funded studies. The first (UCID-SS) is an epidemiological surveillance study that already received ethical approvals, and started on the 1st September 2009. There is no direct patient

  7. The compassion gap in UK universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Waddington

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: This critical reflection is set in the context of increasing marketisation in UK higher education, where students are seen as consumers, rather than learners with power. The paper explores the dark side of academic work and the compassion gap in universities, in order to make recommendations for practice development in higher education and the human services. Aims: The paper aims to show how reflexive dialogue can be used to enable the development of compassionate academic practice. Conclusions and implications for practice: Toxic environments and organisational cultures in higher education have compounded the crisis in compassionate care in the NHS. Implications for practice are: Narrative approaches and critical appreciative inquiry are useful methods with which to reveal, and rectify, failures of compassion Courageous conversations are required to challenge dysfunctional organisational systems and processes Leadership development programmes should include the application of skills of compassion in organisational settings

  8. Repertoires of ADHD in UK newspaper media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton-Salway, Mary

    2011-09-01

    This article takes a discursive approach to examine how Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has been represented and debated in UK newspapers in the last decade. Two repertoires of ADHD were identified as the biological and the psychosocial. Subject positions such as problem child, abnormal or ordinary naughty child and ineffectual or neglectful parents are embedded in these alternative versions of ADHD. The biological repertoire justifies and encourages drug treatment for problem children while the psychosocial repertoire makes available the subject position of ordinary naughty child and supports moral judgements about poor parenting practices in a 'sick society'. Such representations have challenged the media medicalization of ADHD common in a previous decade. Although the biological and the psychosocial repertoires are competing explanations for ADHD, they both perform a common function in representing families as in need of regulation.

  9. A statistical analysis of UK financial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J.; Nadarajah, S.

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, with a growing interest in big or large datasets, there has been a rise in the application of large graphs and networks to financial big data. Much of this research has focused on the construction and analysis of the network structure of stock markets, based on the relationships between stock prices. Motivated by Boginski et al. (2005), who studied the characteristics of a network structure of the US stock market, we construct network graphs of the UK stock market using same method. We fit four distributions to the degree density of the vertices from these graphs, the Pareto I, Fréchet, lognormal, and generalised Pareto distributions, and assess the goodness of fit. Our results show that the degree density of the complements of the market graphs, constructed using a negative threshold value close to zero, can be fitted well with the Fréchet and lognormal distributions.

  10. "Big Society" in the UK: A Policy Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Alongside the UK Coalition Government's historic public spending cuts, the "Big Society" has become a major narrative in UK political discourse. This article reviews key features of Big Society policies against their aims of rebalancing the economy and mending "Broken Britain", with particular reference to their implications…

  11. Food advertising during children's television in Canada and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J; Hennessy-Priest, K; Ingimarsdóttir, S; Sheeshka, J; Ostbye, T; White, M

    2009-09-01

    Television advertisements for less healthy foods are thought to contribute to overweight and obesity in children. In the UK, new regulations on television food advertising to children came into effect in April 2007. These prohibit advertisements for "less healthy" foods during or around programmes "of particular appeal to" (OPAT) children. In Canada, self-regulated codes of practice on television food advertising to children were recently strengthened. To document the nutritional content of food advertised and number of advertisements OPAT children broadcast in the UK and central Canada before the introduction of the new UK regulations. All food advertisements broadcast on four popular channels in Canada and the three terrestrial commercial channels in the UK during 1 week in 2006 were identified and linked to relevant nutritional data. Food advertisements OPAT children and for "less healthy" products were identified using the criteria in the UK regulations. 2315 food related advertisements broadcast in Canada and 1365 broadcast in the UK were included. 52-61% were for "less healthy" products; 5-11% were OPAT children. Around 5% of food advertisements would have been prohibited under the new UK regulations. There were few differences in the nutritional content of food described in advertisements that were and were not OPAT children. There was little evidence that food described in advertisements OPAT children were any less healthy than those that were not. Few food advertisements are likely to be prohibited by the new UK regulations.

  12. Students and Sex Work in the UK: Providers and Purchasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ron; Jones, Amy; Sanders, Teela

    2013-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that changes in the funding of UK higher education in recent years have been accompanied by an increased student presence in the sex industry, ostensibly for financial reasons and to make ends meet. The current study comprises a sample of students ("N" = 200) drawn from several universities in the UK. Data…

  13. Universities and Economic Development Activities: A UK Regional Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decter, Moira; Cave, Frank; Rose, Mary; Peers, Gill; Fogg, Helen; Smith, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK--the North West and the South East of England--which have very different levels of economic performance.…

  14. Is Communications a Strategic Activity in UK Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapleo, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative exploratory paper investigates whether communications/public relations is regarded by opinion formers in UK education as a strategic business activity or a tactical marketing tool. It is based upon depth interviews with 16 senior managers with strategic roles in UK higher or further education, or Government bodies, conducted…

  15. In the Service of Technocratic Managerialism? History in UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Mark; Norton, Claire

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the conceptualisation, organisation and philosophical orientation of academic history culture in UK higher education. It problematises the extent to which a dominant history culture in UK universities implies and uncritically reproduces normative understandings about the subject; about its epistemological standing,…

  16. Large-Scale Innovation and Change in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on challenges universities face as they respond to change. It reviews current theories and models of change management, discusses why universities are particularly difficult environments in which to achieve large scale, lasting change and reports on a recent attempt by the UK JISC to enable a range of UK universities to employ…

  17. Staying In Step: The US Pivot and UK Strategic Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    http://ukinsingapore.fco.gov.uk/en/about-us/working-with -singapore/defence. 10. “New Treaty to Formalise Defence Co-Operation with Australia,” 18...January 2013, https:// www.gov.uk/government/news/new-treaty-to- formalise -defence-co-operation-with-australia. 11. Saki Dockrill, Britain’s Retreat from

  18. Stress among UK Academics: Identifying Who Copes Best

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Mitra; Macaskill, Ann; Reidy, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    This article examined levels of stress and associated coping strategies among UK academics. Adopting a positive psychology approach, the influence of the character strengths of hope, optimism, gratitude and self-efficacy on stress, subjective well-being (SWB), and mental health was examined in 216 academics in a UK university. The study explored…

  19. Restart: The Resurgence of Computer Science in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Neil C. C.; Sentance, Sue; Crick, Tom; Humphreys, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Computer science in UK schools is undergoing a remarkable transformation. While the changes are not consistent across each of the four devolved nations of the UK (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), there are developments in each that are moving the subject to become mandatory for all pupils from age 5 onwards. In this article, we…

  20. Cancer Research UK | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. Cancer Research UK. IDRC to populate at a later date. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/. Nous finançons des chercheurs qui inspirent des changements mondiaux. Abonnez-vous · Carrières · Communiquez avec nous · Désabonnez-vous · Plan du site. Suivez-nous; Facebook · Twitter · Youtube ...

  1. UK Higher Education: The Truth about the Student Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David

    2006-01-01

    This article uses data from a series of reports by the Longer Term Strategy Group of Universities UK to outline key features of the developing market for higher education in the UK. The resulting empirical lessons about the behaviour of students and institutions are tested against the political drive for a freer domestic "market" for…

  2. Long-term scenarios: Energy pathways in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavoni, Alessandro

    2017-03-01

    The bottom-up approach promoted through the Paris Agreement and signed in 2016 requires the definition of accurate and realistic national pathways to cut emissions. A recent study applied to the UK energy system shows that current UK policy on climate change is incompatible with the most stringent climate objectives.

  3. UK Government: New postgraduate scheme - Dorothy Hodgkin awards

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The UK Prime Minister today announced a new GBP10m initiative, the Dorothy Hodgkin Postgraduate Awards, which will allow over 100 PhD students from India, China, Hong Kong, Russia and the developing world to study in top UK universities (1 page).

  4. Multiple-camera tracking: UK government requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosmer, Paul

    2007-10-01

    The Imagery Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (i-LIDS) is the UK government's new standard for Video Based Detection Systems (VBDS). The standard was launched in November 2006 and evaluations against it began in July 2007. With the first four i-LIDS scenarios completed, the Home Office Scientific development Branch (HOSDB) are looking toward the future of intelligent vision in the security surveillance market by adding a fifth scenario to the standard. The fifth i-LIDS scenario will concentrate on the development, testing and evaluation of systems for the tracking of people across multiple cameras. HOSDB and the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) identified a requirement to track targets across a network of CCTV cameras using both live and post event imagery. The Detection and Vision Systems group at HOSDB were asked to determine the current state of the market and develop an in-depth Operational Requirement (OR) based on government end user requirements. Using this OR the i-LIDS team will develop a full i-LIDS scenario to aid the machine vision community in its development of multi-camera tracking systems. By defining a requirement for multi-camera tracking and building this into the i-LIDS standard the UK government will provide a widely available tool that developers can use to help them turn theory and conceptual demonstrators into front line application. This paper will briefly describe the i-LIDS project and then detail the work conducted in building the new tracking aspect of the standard.

  5. Oxidative ratio (OR) of UK peats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, G. D.; Worrall, F.; Masiello, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    The oxidative ratio (OR) is the amount of CO2 sequestered in the terrestrial biosphere for each mol of O2 produced. The OR governs the effectiveness of a terrestrial biome to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and it has been used to calculate the balance of terrestrial and oceanic carbon sinks across the globe. However, few studies have investigated the controls of the variability in OR. What factors affect OR - climate? Soil type? Vegetation type? N deposition? Land use? Land use change? Small shifts in OR could have important implications in the global partitioning of CO2 between the atmosphere, biosphere, and oceans. This study looks at peat soils (Histosols) from a series of sites representing a climatic transect across the UK. Duplicate peat cores were taken, along with samples of above-ground vegetation and litter, from sites in northern Scotland (Forsinard), southern Scotland (Auchencorth), northern England (Moor House; Thorne Moor) through the Welsh borders (Whixhall Moss) and Somerset levels (Westhay Moor) to Dartmoor and Bodmin Moor in the south west of England. Sub-samples of the cores were analysed for their CHNO concentrations using a Costech ECS 4010 Elemental combustion system. Using the method of Masiello et al. (2008), OR values could be calculated from these elemental concentrations. Initial results show that OR values of UK peats varied between 0.94 and 1.1 with a median value of 1.05 which similar to the median value of World soils but the range is at the more reduced end. There was significant variation between peat cores, even between peat cores on the same site and the peat showed significant reduction in OR with depth in the core.

  6. In the loop Large Hadron Collider project - UK engineering firms

    CERN Document Server

    Wilks, N

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the latest measures being taken to boost the level of UK engineering firms' involvement in research at CERN (Centre for Nuclear Research), including its 27 km circular Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project. Virtually all of the components on this complex project have had to be custom-made, usually in the form of collaboration. It is part of these collaborations that some UK firms have proved they can shine. However, despite the proven capabilities, the financial return continues to be less than the government's funding. Each of the 20 CERN member states provides funds in proportion to its GDP and the UK is the second largest financial contributor. UK firms become price-competitive where a contract calls for a degree of customisation or product development, project management and tight quality control. Development of the Particle Physics Grid, for dissemination and analysis of data from the LHC, continues to provide major supply opportunities for UK manufacturers.

  7. Update on Radioactive Waste Management in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, John; McCall, Ann

    2003-02-24

    This paper provides a brief background to the current position in the United Kingdom (UK) and provides an update on the various developments and initiatives within the field of radioactive waste management that have been taking place during 2002/03. These include: The UK Government's Department of Trade and Industry (DTi) review of UK energy policy; The UK Government's (Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and Devolved Administrations*) consultation program; The UK Government's DTi White Paper, 'Managing the Nuclear Legacy: A Strategy for Action'; Proposals for improved regulation of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) conditioning and packaging. These various initiatives relate, in Nirex's opinion, to the three sectors of the industry and this paper will provide a comment on these initiatives in light of the lessons that Nirex has learnt from past events and suggest some conclusions for the future.

  8. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy in the UK: current status and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A; Distefano, G; Scott, A J D; Webster, G J; Hatton, M Q

    2013-01-01

    Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has developed from the principles and techniques used in the stereotactic radiosurgery treatment of brain metastases. Advances in computer technology, imaging, planning and treatment delivery and evidence from retrospective analysis of single- and multi-institutional early-phase studies have established SABR in the treatment of medically inoperable early lung cancer. Effective multidisciplinary team working is crucial to safe delivery of SABR. The variation in patient selection, radiotherapy planning and delivery techniques has led to a collective approach to SABR implementation across the UK. Centres developing the technique are represented in the UK SABR Consortium, which is supported by the relevant UK professional bodies and represents a platform to develop extracranial SABR across the UK. The uptake of SABR in the UK has been slowed by workforce issues, but at least 15 centres are currently delivering treatment with over 500 patients treated using UK SABR Consortium guidance. A mentoring program is being piloted helping new centres to develop their programs, and over 30 UK centres are expected to be offering SABR treatment by the end of 2014. The use of consistent guidance for patient selection, treatment planning and delivery in the UK gives the opportunity to collect and audit toxicity and outcome across the centres, contributing to the internationally reported SABR experience. Having established this service in the UK, the development of SABR through clinical research is a priority, and with input from the Radiotherapy Trials Quality Assurance Group, the UK is developing a national study program that includes participation in international trials. PMID:23873906

  9. Report from the UK e-Science All Hands Meeting, September 10-13, 2007, Nottingham, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Neilson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a report from the UK e-Science All Hands Meeting held at the East Midlands Conference Centre, Nottingham on September 10-13, 2007. This event was the 5th annual All Hands Meeting. The proceedings of the meeting are available from the UK e-Science 2007 All Hands Meeting Website.

  10. Macrophytes: ecosystem engineers in UK urban rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, H.; Gurnell, A.; Heppell, K.; Spencer, K.

    2012-04-01

    Macrophytes act as ecosystem engineers within river channels in that they have the ability to cause geomorphological and ecological change. They induce reductions in flow velocity and associated sediment accumulation, and their system of underground roots and rhizomes also reinforces the accumulated sediment reducing sediment erosion and resuspension and creating habitats. As sediments, particularly finer-grained, store contaminants including metals, this engineering means that in the specific context of urban rivers where sediments are more likely to be contaminated, macrophytes trap and hold contaminated sediments creating a potentially important sink of metals. However, depending on the ability for the macrophyte to reinforce the sediment and reduce erosion and resuspension, there is the potential for the sink to turn in to a source and metals to be released in to the overlying water. This research therefore looks at the ecosystem engineering ability of common macrophytes in UK urban rivers by looking at: (i) the effect upon flow velocity and sediment accumulation of Sparganium erectum (branched bur-reed); (ii) the sediment reinforcement ability of both S. erectum, Typha latifolia (bulrush) and Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass); and, (iii) the storage of metals within the sediment, overlying water and the macrophytes. Research was undertaken on the River Blackwater, an urban river in Surrey, UK which has extensive macrophyte growth. Flow velocity measurements and fine sediment depths were recorded both within and outside of dense stands of S. erectum. The uprooting resistance (as an indicator of sediment reinforcement) was measured for three species: S. erectum, T. latifolia and P. arundinacea. Additionally, some preliminary sampling was undertaken of the sediment, overlying water and the macrophytes to determine metal storage. Lower flow velocities and greater volumes of fine sediment were recorded within the stands of S. erectum as opposed to the

  11. The siting of UK nuclear reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimston, Malcolm; Nuttall, William J; Vaughan, Geoff

    2014-06-01

    Choosing a suitable site for a nuclear power station requires the consideration and balancing of several factors. Some 'physical' site characteristics, such as the local climate and the potential for seismic activity, will be generic to all reactors designs, while others, such as the availability of cooling water, the area of land required and geological conditions capable of sustaining the weight of the reactor and other buildings will to an extent be dependent on the particular design of reactor chosen (or alternatively the reactor design chosen may to an extent be dependent on the characteristics of an available site). However, one particularly interesting tension is a human and demographic one. On the one hand it is beneficial to place nuclear stations close to centres of population, to reduce transmission losses and other costs (including to the local environment) of transporting electricity over large distances from generator to consumer. On the other it is advantageous to place nuclear stations some distance away from such population centres in order to minimise the potential human consequences of a major release of radioactive materials in the (extremely unlikely) event of a major nuclear accident, not only in terms of direct exposure but also concerning the management of emergency planning, notably evacuation.This paper considers the emergence of policies aimed at managing this tension in the UK. In the first phase of nuclear development (roughly speaking 1945-1965) there was a highly cautious attitude, with installations being placed in remote rural locations with very low population density. The second phase (1965-1985) saw a more relaxed approach, allowing the development of AGR nuclear power stations (which with concrete pressure vessels were regarded as significantly safer) closer to population centres (in 'semi-urban' locations, notably at Hartlepool and Heysham). In the third phase (1985-2005) there was very little new nuclear development, Sizewell

  12. SSTL UK-DMC SLIM-6 data quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, G.; Saunier, S.; Choate, M.J.; Scaramuzza, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite data from the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) United Kingdom (UK) Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) were assessed for geometric and radiometric quality. The UK-DMC Surrey Linear Imager 6 (SLIM-6) sensor has a 32-m spatial resolution and a ground swath width of 640 km. The UK-DMC SLIM-6 design consists of a three-band imager with green, red, and near-infrared bands that are set to similar bandpass as Landsat bands 2, 3, and 4. The UK-DMC data consisted of imagery registered to Landsat orthorectified imagery produced from the GeoCover program. Relief displacements within the UK-DMC SLIM-6 imagery were accounted for by using global 1-km digital elevation models available through the Global Land One-km Base Elevation (GLOBE) Project. Positional accuracy and relative band-to-band accuracy were measured. Positional accuracy of the UK-DMC SLIM-6 imagery was assessed by measuring the imagery against digital orthophoto quadrangles (DOQs), which are designed to meet national map accuracy standards at 1 : 24 000 scales; this corresponds to a horizontal root-mean-square accuracy of about 6 m. The UK-DMC SLIM-6 images were typically registered to within 1.0-1.5 pixels to the DOQ mosaic images. Several radiometric artifacts like striping, coherent noise, and flat detector were discovered and studied. Indications are that the SSTL UK-DMC SLIM-6 data have few artifacts and calibration challenges, and these can be adjusted or corrected via calibration and processing algorithms. The cross-calibration of the UK-DMC SLIM-6 and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus was performed using image statistics derived from large common areas observed by the two sensors.

  13. Spatially Explicit Analysis of Water Footprints in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Barrett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Water Footprint, as an indicator of water consumption has become increasingly popular for analyzing environmental issues associated with the use of water resources in the global supply chain of consumer goods. This is particularly relevant for countries like the UK, which increasingly rely on products produced elsewhere in the world and thus impose pressures on foreign water resources. Existing studies calculating water footprints are mostly based on process analysis, and results are mainly available at the national level. The current paper assesses the domestic and foreign water requirements for UK final consumption by applying an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model in combination with geo-demographic consumer segmentation data. This approach allows us to calculate water footprints (both direct and indirect for different products as well as different geographies within the UK. We distinguished between production and consumption footprints where the former is the total water consumed from the UK domestic water resources by the production activities in the UK and the latter is the total water consumed from both domestic and global water resources to satisfy the UK domestic final consumption. The results show that the production water footprint is 439 m3/cap/year, 85% of which is for the final consumption in the UK itself. The average consumption water footprint of the UK is more than three times bigger than the UK production water footprint in 2006. About half of the UK consumption water footprints were associated with imports from Non-OECD countries (many of which are water-scarce, while around 19% were from EU-OECD countries, and only 3% from Non-EU-OECD countries. We find that the water footprint differs considerably across sub-national geographies in the UK, and the differences are as big as 273 m3/cap/year for the internal water footprint and 802 m3/cap/year for the external water footprint. Our results suggest

  14. Burnout in therapy radiographers in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, H; Griffiths, S; Adams, R; Hill, C

    2012-09-01

    The 2007 UK National Radiotherapy Advisory Group report indicated that the number and type of staff available is one of the "rate-limiting" steps in improving productivity in radiotherapy departments. Retaining well-trained, satisfied staff is key to meeting the objectives of the report; burnout is an important factor linked to satisfaction and attrition. The results of a survey measuring burnout in a sample of radiotherapists (therapy radiographers) are presented and considered against norms for the health sector and burnout in therapists from Canada and the USA. Case study methodology was used studying six radiotherapy departments selected because of close geographical proximity and differing vacancy rates for radiotherapists. An anonymous survey of radiotherapists used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and other workforce-related measures (e.g. job satisfaction scales, measures of professional plateau, intentions to leave, job characteristics and demographic data); the results of the burnout questionnaire alone are presented in this paper. A total of 97 completed questionnaires were returned (representing a 28% response rate). The average score for emotional exhaustion was higher than the MBI norms, with 38% of respondents reporting emotional exhaustion (an element of burnout). The data presented support and validated a previous qualitative study, and highlighted key areas of concern requiring further study. A correlation between burnout and job dissatisfaction and intention to leave was identified; managers may want to consider encouraging role extension and good leadership qualities in treatment unit leaders to minimise the potential for burnout.

  15. Social sensing of floods in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Hywel T. P.

    2018-01-01

    “Social sensing” is a form of crowd-sourcing that involves systematic analysis of digital communications to detect real-world events. Here we consider the use of social sensing for observing natural hazards. In particular, we present a case study that uses data from a popular social media platform (Twitter) to detect and locate flood events in the UK. In order to improve data quality we apply a number of filters (timezone, simple text filters and a naive Bayes ‘relevance’ filter) to the data. We then use place names in the user profile and message text to infer the location of the tweets. These two steps remove most of the irrelevant tweets and yield orders of magnitude more located tweets than we have by relying on geo-tagged data. We demonstrate that high resolution social sensing of floods is feasible and we can produce high-quality historical and real-time maps of floods using Twitter. PMID:29385132

  16. Social Justice and Adaptation in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Benzie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation strategies and policies are normally based on climate impact assessments that fail to take account of the social nature and distribution of vulnerability to climate change. This is largely a product of the dominant assessment techniques that are used to inform such strategies and the limits of existing evidence. In this paper I contribute to filling gaps in the current adaptation literature by exploring the social nature of vulnerability and the potential for socially just adaptation. It does so by reviewing studies from the UK, in particular those under the Joseph Rowntree Foundation's Climate Change and Social Justice programme. It finds that vulnerability to high temperatures and fluvial and coastal flooding, in terms of sensitivity, exposure, and the capacity to anticipate, respond, and recover, is concentrated in certain disadvantaged and socially marginalized groups, including those on low incomes. It also finds that both autonomous and planned adaptation may fail to protect the most vulnerable individuals and groups, and may even reinforce existing patterns of vulnerability in some cases, i.e., mal-adaptation, especially where they rely on unmediated market forces or where they fail to explicitly recognize aspects of social vulnerability in their design and implementation. I argue that social justice should be an explicit objective of adaptation strategy.

  17. Retrofit electrochromic glazing in a UK office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kelly Waskett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochromic (EC glazing is now considered a viable alternative to fixed transmittance glazing. It has the potential to enable occupants to control daylight glare and solar heat gain without the use of blinds or external shading devices, giving users more access to daylight with all its inherent benefits. Furthermore, EC glazing can reduce energy consumption by decreasing cooling loads and electric lighting usage. Most research to date has studied the effects of EC glazing in scale models, computer simulations and full scale test rooms, and some of these studies have included human participants. However, there is a general lack of understanding regarding the performance and suitability of EC glazing in real-world working environments. A case study of the first UK retrofit application of EC glazing is being conducted in two adjacent offices in a university campus building. The offices are occupied by administration staff and have large southeastfacing windows. The existing double glazed units were replaced with commercially-available EC glazed units in 2012. Over a period of more than 18 months, the rooms were monitored intensively to record the effect of the EC glazing on both the physical room environment and the occupants themselves. A large amount of data from the monitoring programme is currently undergoing detailed analysis. Initial findings emerging from the installation and post-installation period are described in this paper.

  18. Processing LHC data in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colling, D; Britton, D; Gordon, J; Lloyd, S; Doyle, A; Gronbech, P; Coles, J; Sansum, A; Patrick, G; Jones, R; Middleton, R; Kelsey, D; Cass, A; Geddes, N; Clark, P; Barnby, L

    2013-01-28

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the greatest scientific endeavours to date. The construction of the collider itself and the experiments that collect data from it represent a huge investment, both financially and in terms of human effort, in our hope to understand the way the Universe works at a deeper level. Yet the volumes of data produced are so large that they cannot be analysed at any single computing centre. Instead, the experiments have all adopted distributed computing models based on the LHC Computing Grid. Without the correct functioning of this grid infrastructure the experiments would not be able to understand the data that they have collected. Within the UK, the Grid infrastructure needed by the experiments is provided by the GridPP project. We report on the operations, performance and contributions made to the experiments by the GridPP project during the years of 2010 and 2011--the first two significant years of the running of the LHC.

  19. UK Renal Registry 12th Annual Report (December 2009): chapter 16: international comparisons with the UK RRT programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Kieron; Ford, Daniel; van Schalkwyk, Dirk; Ansell, David

    2010-01-01

    International comparisons between renal registries are important to highlight epidemiological and practice differences in RRT provision between countries. This report aims to compare the rates of RRT incidence and prevalence in the UK with a number of different countries. Data from 19 countries or regions between 2003 and 2007 from four international renal registries were analysed. Rates of RRT incidence, prevalence, transplantation and dialysis modality were compared. A crude mortality rate for each country was calculated. Despite continued growth, the UK ranked 16th highest in incidence rate and 15th in prevalence rate in 2007. This may partly be related to successful primary care preventing stage 5 CKD. The UK had the 8th fastest rate of increase in RRT prevalence of 18 countries (4.2%/ year). The age profile of UK RRT patients was comparable with other countries. The UK had the 6th highest use of home dialysis therapies. The UK has the 8th highest incidence and 9th highest prevalence rate of kidney transplantation of 16 countries. Meeting the growing demand for RRT is a problem for all countries that choose to offer it. The UK continues to provide for growth in demand for RRT. (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Mercury in UK imported fish and shellfish and UK-farmed fish and their products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, T G; Farrington, D; Kestin, S C

    2003-09-01

    Total mercury concentrations were measured in fish and shellfish and their products imported into the UK and also in UK-produced farmed salmon and trout. Three hundred and thirty-six samples were collected using a two-stage sampling plan. The sample plan was weighted to reflect consumption, but with some bias towards fish that might accumulate higher levels of mercury, such as large predatory fish at the top of the food chain. The highest levels of total mercury were found in billfish (swordfish and marlin) and shark. Mercury concentrations in the five samples of fresh/frozen shark ranged from 1.006 to 2.200 mg kg(-1), all above the European Commission limit for the species, and concentrations in 20 samples of fresh/frozen billfish ranged from 0.153 to 2.706 mg kg(-1) with 13 samples above the 1.0 mg kg(-1) limit for the species. One sample of Antarctic ice fish was collected and had a mercury concentration of 0.664 mg kg(-1). The limit for this species was 0.5 mg kg(-1). One sample of fresh/frozen tuna out of the 20 collected had a mercury concentration above the limit of 1.0 mg kg(-1) (1.5 mg kg(-1)), but all other fresh tuna samples were well within the regulatory limit (average 0.4 mg kg(-1)). Mercury concentrations in canned tuna were lower with concentrations on average half that measured in fresh/frozen tuna. Mercury concentrations in UK-farmed salmon and trout were relatively low. The maximum concentration found in 46 samples of fresh/frozen or smoked trout and salmon was 0.103 mg kg(-1).

  1. Experiences with maternal and perinatal death reviews in the UK--the MBRRACE-UK programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurinczuk, J J; Draper, E S; Field, D J; Bevan, C; Brocklehurst, P; Gray, R; Kenyon, S; Manktelow, B N; Neilson, J P; Redshaw, M; Scott, J; Shakespeare, J; Smith, L K; Knight, M

    2014-09-01

    Established in 1952, the programme of surveillance and Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the UK is the longest running such programme worldwide. Although more recently instituted, surveillance and confidential enquiries into perinatal deaths are also now well established nationally. Recent changes to funding and commissioning of the Enquiries have enabled both a reinvigoration of the processes and improvements to the methodology with an increased frequency of future reporting. Close engagement with stakeholders and a regulator requirement for doctors to participate have both supported the impetus for involvement of all professionals leading to greater potential for improved quality of care for women and babies. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. Curbing UK impacts on global biodiversity: an agenda for action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steve [Scott Wilson Ltd (United Kingdom); Craeynest, Lies [WWF (United Kingdom); Bass, Steve

    2008-05-15

    Stemming the tide of biodiversity loss is a global issue with national implications. The UK has set up initiatives to reduce its impacts on biodiversity worldwide — but as a government review found in 2006, these have yet to add up to a comprehensive strategy. How can the gaps be filled? New research suggests that action on a number of fronts is key. Many UK policies and practices clearly affect biodiversity even though they do not directly address it. For instance, UK imports such as coffee, cocoa and sugar are linked to biodiversity loss. By integrating relevant mainstream concerns such as trade and exploitation of natural resources into an overall strategy, the UK government could better demonstrate its commitment to reducing biodiversity loss significantly by the target date of 2010.

  3. 2009 UK/US Nuclear Engineering Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Rankin

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the 2009 UK/US Nuclear Engineering Workshop held April 20-21, 2010, in Washington, D.C. to discuss opportunities for nuclear engineering collaboration between researchers in the United States and the United Kingdom.

  4. UK Ownership and Control: A Transformational Analysis | Lotto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    financial companies and data from the Office for National Statistics, this study reveals that, UK equity ownership has witnessed a rapid decline by major domestic institutional investors and increase in foreign ownership since 2004. It is further ...

  5. Hydrogeological aspects of shale gas extraction in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    UK shale gas exploitation currently at a very early stage. Potentially significant quantities but resources are not yet proven. In the UK a number of the potentially exploitable shales are below important aquifers.Water demand for shale gas production may not be significant relative to other uses but local needs must be considered carefully. Shale gas extraction will use/mobilise potential pollutants. Risks must be fully assessed and managed effectively – through to post abandonment. The most...

  6. Exploring shared leadership in a UK public sector programme

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Simon

    2010-01-01

    This thesis considers shared leadership in a UK public sector programme. Many UK public sector change initiatives are delivered through programmes. In recent years, the practice and academic domain of programme management have developed from within the established discipline of project management. The leadership of projects has been widely studied, both conceptually and empirically, but programmes are substantively different. Shared leadership is a relatively new conceptuali...

  7. Determinants of Capital Structure: Empirical Evidence From UK

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Wenjing

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of capital structure for the companies in the United Kingdom. The aim of this study is to determine which capital structure is more appropriate to UK listed companies. Results obtained will be compared against previous empirical and theoretical predictions. Panel data set containing 342 UK public quoted companies across 8 industries during the period from 2000-2009 is employed. A Pooled OLS regression is constructed to discuss what the determinants...

  8. Occurrence of Legionella in UK household showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Samuel; Stevenson, David; Bennett, Allan; Walker, Jimmy

    2017-04-01

    Household water systems have been proposed as a source of sporadic, community acquired Legionnaires' disease. Showers represent a frequently used aerosol generating device in the domestic setting yet little is known about the occurrence of Legionella spp. in these systems. This study has investigated the prevalence of Legionella spp. by culture and qPCR in UK household showers. Ninety nine showers from 82 separate properties in the South of England were sampled. Clinically relevant Legionella spp. were isolated by culture in 8% of shower water samples representing 6% of households. Legionella pneumophila sg1 ST59 was isolated from two showers in one property and air sampling demonstrated its presence in the aerosol state. A further 31% of showers were positive by Legionella spp. qPCR. By multi-variable binomial regression modelling Legionella spp. qPCR positivity was associated with the age of the property (p=0.02), the age of the shower (p=0.01) and the frequency of use (p=0.09). The concentration of Legionella spp. detected by qPCR was shown to decrease with increased frequency of use (p=0.04) and more frequent showerhead cleaning (p=0.05). There was no association between Legionella spp. qPCR positivity and the cold water supply or the showerhead material (p=0.65 and p=0.71, respectively). Household showers may be important reservoirs of clinically significant Legionella and should be considered in source investigations. Simple public health advice may help to mitigate the risk of Legionella exposure in the domestic shower environment. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Prescription errors in UK critical care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, S A; Booth, S A; Thompson, C M

    2004-12-01

    Drug prescription errors are a common cause of adverse incidents and may be largely preventable. The incidence of prescription errors in UK critical care units is unknown. The aim of this study was to collect data about prescription errors and so calculate the incidence and variation of errors nationally. Twenty-four critical care units took part in the study for a 4-week period. The total numbers of new and re-written prescriptions were recorded daily. Errors were classified according to the nature of the error. Over the 4-week period, 21,589 new prescriptions (or 15.3 new prescriptions per patient) were written. Eighty-five per cent (18,448 prescriptions) were error free, but 3141 (15%) prescriptions had one or more errors (2.2 erroneous prescriptions per patient, or 145.5 erroneous prescriptions per 1000 new prescriptions). The five most common incorrect prescriptions were for potassium chloride (10.2% errors), heparin (5.3%), magnesium sulphate (5.2%), paracetamol (3.2%) and propofol (3.1%). Most of the errors were minor or would have had no adverse effects but 618 (19.6%) errors were considered significant, serious or potentially life threatening. Four categories (not writing the order according to the British National Formulary recommendations, an ambiguous medication order, non-standard nomenclature and writing illegibly) accounted for 47.9% of all errors. Although prescription rates (and error rates) in critical care appear higher than elsewhere in hospital, the number of potentially serious errors is similar to other areas of high-risk practice.

  10. Macrofaunal production along the UK continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolam, S. G.; Barrio-Frojan, C. R. S.; Eggleton, J. D.

    2010-10-01

    Estimates of secondary production ( P/ B ratio and total production) by macrobenthic communities across the UK continental shelf are presented. Values for individual sampling stations varied from 0.21 to 4.1 y - 1 for community P/ B and 3.1 to 897.2 kJ m - 2 y - 1 for total production. Such data fills an important gap pertaining to our understanding of the spatial variation in production estimates for this region. Benthic production estimates varied primarily at small (inter-station) scales (24 nm), although larger-scale differences were observed. In general, the highest production estimates were exhibited by benthic communities in Cardigan Bay (Irish Sea) and East English Channel, while the lowest estimates were observed for the mid- and northern North Sea areas. The former were typified by shallow, gravelly areas of seabed which exhibit high bed tidal stress and do not thermally stratify during the summer months. On average, annelids contribute an overwhelming majority of the total production with different regions varying in the relative contributions from other phyla such as molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms. Spatial heterogeneity of sediment granulometric variables occurred primarily between stations while those of other variables (e.g., depth, stratification, and tidal bed stress) were more regional. Although a large proportion of the spatial variation in secondary production estimates was not explained by environmental characteristics, the data indicate that such relationships are scale-dependent. Average bed temperature was a significant factor in creating some of the observed differences at large spatial scales. The possible reasons why a larger proportion of the variation in production estimates was not explained by the present study are presented.

  11. Core competencies for UK occupational health nurses: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, D; Demou, E; Kiran, S; Gaffney, M; Stevenson, M; Macdonald, E B

    2016-11-01

    Occupational health nurses (OHNs) play a pivotal role in the delivery of occupational health (OH) services. Specific competency guidance has been developed in a number of countries, including the UK. While it is acknowledged that UK OHN practice has evolved in recent years, there has been no formal research to capture these developments to ensure that training and curricula remain up-to-date and reflect current practice. To identify current priorities among UK OHNs of the competencies required for OH practice. A modified Delphi study undertaken among representative OHN networks in the UK. This formed part of a larger study including UK and international occupational physicians. The study was conducted in two rounds using a questionnaire based on available guidance on training competencies for OH practice, the published literature, expert panel reviews and conference discussions. Consensus among OHNs was high with 7 out of the 12 domains scoring 100% in rating. 'Good clinical care' was the principal domain ranked most important, followed by 'general principles of assessment & management of occupational hazards to health'. 'Research methods' and 'teaching & educational supervision' were considered least important. This study has established UK OHNs' current priorities on the competencies required for OH practice. The timing of this paper is opportune with the formal launch of the Faculty of Occupational Health Nursing planned in 2018 and should inform the development of competency requirements as part of the Faculty's goals for standard setting in OHN education and training.

  12. Clinical epidemiology of epithelial ovarian cancer in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doufekas K

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Konstantinos Doufekas, Adeola OlaitanDepartment of Gynaecological Oncology, University College London Hospitals, London, UKAbstract: Epithelial ovarian cancer is the fifth commonest cancer among women and the leading cause of gynecological cancer death in the UK. Most women present with advanced disease, mainly because the nonspecific nature of the symptoms lead to diagnostic delays. Recent data have shown a fall in ovarian cancer mortality rates in the UK, but rates are still higher when compared to other European countries or the USA. In addition, surgeons in the UK achieve on average lower optimal surgical cytoreduction rates in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Despite a wealth of information on epidemiological risk factors, the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer remains largely unknown. This review presents the most recent data on incidence, mortality, and survival for epithelial ovarian cancer in the UK. Time trends, trends by age, international comparisons, and regional variation in incidence, survival, and mortality are presented within the context of a major reorganization of cancer services that took place in the UK over 10 years ago. Centralization of cancer services has meant that women with ovarian cancer receive treatment in specialist Cancer Centers.Keywords: ovarian, cancer, epidemiology, UK, incidence, survival

  13. The alcohol industry, charities and policy influence in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyness, Sarah M; McCambridge, Jim

    2014-08-01

    Charities exist to pursue a public benefit, whereas corporations serve the interests of their shareholders. The alcohol industry uses corporate social responsibility activities to further its interests in influencing alcohol policy. Many charities also seek to influence alcohol and other policy. The aim of this study was to explore relationships between the alcohol industry and charities in the UK and whether these relationships may be used as a method of influencing alcohol policy. The charity regulator websites for England and Wales and for Scotland were the main data sources used to identify charities involved in UK alcohol policy making processes and/or funded by the alcohol industry. Five charities were identified that both receive alcohol industry funding and are active in UK alcohol policy processes: Drinkaware; the Robertson Trust; British Institute of Innkeeping; Mentor UK and Addaction. The latter two are the sole remaining non-industry non-governmental members of the controversial responsibility deal alcohol network, from which all other public health interests have resigned. This study raises questions about the extent to which the alcohol industry is using UK charities as vehicles to further their own interests in UK alcohol policy. Mechanisms of industry influence in alcohol policy making globally is an important target for further investigations designed to assist the implementation of evidenced-based policies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Future Supply of Medical Radioisotopes for the UK Report 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Neilly, Brian; Ballinger, Jim; Buscombe, John; Clarke, Rob; Ellis, Beverley; Flux, Glenn; Fraser, Louise; Hall, Adrian; Owen, Hywel; Paterson, Audrey; Perkins, Alan; Scarsbrook, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The UK has no research nuclear reactors and relies on the importation of 99Mo and other medical radioisotopes (e.g. Iodine-131) from overseas (excluding PET radioisotopes). The UK is therefore vulnerable not only to global shortages, but to problems with shipping and importation of the products. In this context Professor Erika Denton UK national Clinical Director for Diagnostics requested that the British Nuclear Medicine Society lead a working group with stakeholders including representatives from the Science & Technology Facilities Council (STFC) to prepare a report. The group had a first meeting on 10 April 2013 followed by a working group meeting with presentations on 9th September 2013 where the scope of the work required to produce a report was agreed. The objectives of the report are: to describe the status of the use of medical radioisotopes in the UK; to anticipate the potential impact of shortages for the UK; to assess potential alternative avenues of medical radioisotope production for the UK m...

  15. Incentives facing UK-listed companies to comply with the risk reporting provisions of the UK corporate governance code â[euro] Abstract of the London Discussion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

      This abstract relates to the following paper: Klumpes P. , Ledlie C. , Fahey F. , Kakar G. and Styles S. Incentives facing UK-listed companies to comply with the risk reporting provisions of the UK corporate governance code...

  16. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnew, Kieran [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes

  17. School food standards in the UK: implementation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Ashley; Spence, Suzanne; Reed, Lowri; Conway, Ruth; Palmer, Alison; Stewart, Eve; McBratney, Jennifer; Carter, Lynne; Beattie, Shirley; Nelson, Michael

    2013-06-01

    To outline the evolution of school food standards and their implementation and evaluation in each of the four countries of the UK since 2000. Review of relevant policies, surveys and evaluations, including country-specific surveys and regional evaluations. UK: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Primary and secondary schools and schoolchildren. By September 2013 standards will have been introduced in all primary and secondary schools in the UK. Evaluations have varied in their scope and timing, relating to government forward planning, appropriate baselines and funding. Where standards have been implemented, the quality and nutritional value of food provided have improved. Emerging evidence shows improved overall diet and nutrient intake by school-aged children as a result. The re-introduction of school food standards in the UK has not been centrally coordinated, but by September 2013 will be compulsory across all four countries in the UK, except in England where academies are now exempt. Provision of improved school food has had a demonstrable impact on diet and nutrition beyond the school dining room and the school gate, benefiting children from all socio-economic groups. Improved school food and dining environments are associated with higher levels of school lunch take up. Implementation of school food standards requires investment. It is critical to policy development that the value of this investment is measured and protected using planned, appropriate, robust and timely evaluations. Where appropriate, evaluations should be carried out across government departments and between countries.

  18. Factors associated with smoking behaviour change in UK military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandi, G; Fear, N T

    2017-10-10

    Research in the UK civilian population suggests that poor mental health outcomes are associated with smoking behaviour. In the UK military population, smoking cessation is associated with deployment in the reserve forces. However, little is known about the links between mental health outcomes and smoking initiation and cessation in the UK military. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine change in mental health and military factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation in a representative sample of UK military personnel. Data were collected between 2003 and 2009; 5138 regular and reserve military personnel were included in the analyses. The results showed that smoking initiation was associated with symptoms of psychological distress, symptoms of probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), relationship breakdown and deployment. These findings are consistent with existing research in civilian populations showing links between poor mental health and smoking behaviour. Furthermore, our finding that deployment is associated with smoking initiation is also in line with research from the US military and UK reserves.

  19. Economic Effects of Migration from Poland to the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Simionescu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering that large numbers of the EU-8 immigrants was a strong argument for the Brexit, the objective of this paper is to assess some economic effects of migration from Poland to the UK for both countries. Intensive emigration of the Poles to the UK since 2004 negatively affected Poland’s economic growth in the long run, but it also reduced tensions at the labour market by decreasing the unemployment rate. On the other hand, the increase in Polish immigrants in the UK did not significantly affect economic growth and unemployment rate in the destination country in the short run in the period 2004-2015. A significance influence was observed only in the long run, when the UK economic growth decreased, but the pressures on the labour market significantly reduced. From these empirical findings, some policy recommendations are required for both countries: for Poland, migration policies to promote the return of migrants and more efficient utilization of labour force, while for the UK – shaping a more flexible labour market.

  20. The future of UK/Irish surgery: A European solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzgalis, M; Kerin, M J; Sweeney, K J

    2015-11-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) and Republic of Ireland (ROI) hospital systems are dependent on junior doctors for their functionality however it is increasingly difficult to recruit UK/ROI trained doctors to fill these posts. Directive 2005/36/EC, which came into force in 2007, is the principal European legislation on the recognition of equivalence of professional qualifications across Europe. European trained doctors are therefore attractive candidates for junior doctor posts. However, although their training is recognised as equivalent by the Irish Medical Council (IMC) and General Medical Council (GMC) they are not being appointed to equivalent posts by the Health Service Executive (HSE) or National Health Service (NHS). With the influence of European Union (EU) centralisation, modification of UK/ROI consultant grade is imminent, possibly to pyramidal structure of the Continental European model with clearer lines of corporate responsibility. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. AstroGrid: Initial Deployment of the UK's Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, N. A.; Lawrence, A.; Linde, T.

    2004-07-01

    AstroGrid, a UK eScience project with collaborating groups drawn from the major UK data archive centres, is creating the UK's virtual observatory. AstroGrid has now completed its requirements capture and design stages, and has begun to release software capabilities on a three monthly cycle. It is using the iterative process, with eight iterations, with each successive iteration release building a working system comprising increasing capabilities. AstroGrid's first functional release with it's 'Iteration 2' product, and the capabilities and functionality that this provides, is described. AstroGrid's technical input into joint products in conjunction with the European Astrophysical Virtual Observatory, and the Australian VO, is discussed. The component based AstroGrid architecture and how external projects may be able to deploy components of interest in constructing there 'VO' - for instance the use of MySpace to provide secure intermediate 'grid' user storage areas, is discussed.

  2. Evolving trauma and orthopedics training in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaparthy, Praveen K; Sayana, Murali K; Maffulli, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The ever-growing population of the UK has resulted in increasing demands on its healthcare service. Changes have been introduced in the UK medical training system to avoid loss of training time and make it more focused and productive. Modernizing medical careers (MMC) was introduced in 2005. This promised to reduce the training period for a safe trauma specialist, in trauma and orthopedics, to 10 years. At around the same time, the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) was introduced to reduce the working hours for junior doctors in training, to improve patient safety and also work-life balance of junior doctors. Introduction of the assessment tools from Orthopedic Competency assessment project (OCAP) will help tailor the training according to the needs of the trainee. The aim of this article is to review the changes in the UK orthopedic surgical training over the past two decades. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. UK Hazard Assessment for a Laki-type Volcanic Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, Claire; Felton, Chris; Daud, Sophie; Aspinall, Willy; Braban, Christine; Loughlin, Sue; Hort, Matthew; Schmidt, Anja; Vieno, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Following the impacts of the Eyjafjallajokull eruption in 2010, two types of volcanic eruption have been added to the UK Government's National Risk Register for Civil Emergencies. One of these, a large gas-rich volcanic eruption, was identified as a high impact natural hazard, one of the three highest priority natural hazards faced by the UK. This eruption scenario is typified by the Laki eruption in Iceland in 1783-1784. The Civil Contingency Secretariat (CCS) of the UK's Cabinet Office, responsible for Civil Protection in the UK, has since been working on quantifying the risk and better understanding its potential impacts. This involves cross-cutting work across UK Government departments and the wider scientific community in order to identify the capabilities needed to respond to an effusive eruption, to exercise the response and develop increased resilience where possible. As part of its current work, CCS has been working closely with the UK Met Office and other UK agencies and academics (represented by the co-authors and others) to generate and assess the impacts of a 'reasonable worst case scenario', which can be used for decision making and preparation in advance of an eruption. Information from the literature and the findings of an expert elicitation have been synthesised to determine appropriate eruption source term parameters and associated uncertainties. This scenario is then being used to create a limited ensemble of model simulations of the dispersion and chemical conversion of the emissions of volcanic gases during such an eruption. The UK Met Office's NAME Lagrangian dispersion model and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology's EMEP4UK Eulerian model are both being used. Modelling outputs will address the likelihood of near-surface concentrations of sulphur and halogen species being above specified health thresholds. Concentrations at aviation relevant altitudes will also be evaluated, as well as the effects of acid deposition of volcanic species on

  4. Are UK undergraduate Forensic Science degrees fit for purpose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Charles; Hannis, Marc

    2011-09-01

    In October 2009 Skills for Justice published the social research paper 'Fit for purpose?: Research into the provision of Forensic Science degree programmes in UK Higher Education Institutions.' The research engaged employers representing 95% of UK Forensic Science providers and 79% of UK universities offering Forensic Science or Crime Scene degree programmes. In addition to this, the research collected the views of 430 students studying these degrees. In 2008 there were approximately 9000 people working in the Forensic Science sector in the UK. The research found that the numbers of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees in the UK have more than doubled since 2002-03, from 2191 in to 5664 in 2007-08. Over the same period there were twice as many females as males studying for these degrees. The research concluded that Forensic Science degree programmes offered by UK universities were of a good quality and they provided the student with a positive learning experience but the content was not relevant for Forensic Science employers. This echoed similar research by the former Government Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills on graduates from wider science, technology, engineering and mathematics degree programmes. The research also found that 75% of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees expected to have a career in the Forensic Science sector, meaning that ensuring these courses are relevant for employers is a key challenge for universities. This paper reflects on the original research and discusses the implications in light of recent government policy. Copyright © 2011 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The UK's multidisciplinary response to an Ebola epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Sian; Brown, Colin S; Dunning, Jake; Chand, Meera A; Zambon, Maria C; Jacobs, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The West African Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic was the largest and most devastating outbreak of EVD the world has ever seen. Its impact was felt far from the shores of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, with public health systems and clinicians across the globe confronted with an international response both in the affected region and within their own borders. The UK had a prominent role in response efforts, particularly in Sierra Leone. This article highlights how UK academic, health service, military, commercial and public health professionals all played a significant role both at home and abroad. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  6. Food, the UK and the EU: Brexit or Bremain?

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, T.; Schoen, V.

    2016-01-01

    This briefing paper explores the food terrain exposed by the wider “Brexit versus Bremain” Referendum question to be decided by the voting UK public on June 23. It is written to raise issues; to invite academics and civil society working on food matters to consider how their work fits this momentous issue; and to aid informed decisions. The paper follows from debates and concerns expressed at the 6th City Food Symposium on UK food and Brexit held on December 14, 2015.

  7. Performance assessment for low-level waste disposal in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, A.B. [UK Dept. of the Environment, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operate a site for the disposal of Low Level Radioactive Waste at Drigg in West Cumbria, in North-West England. HMIP are responsible for the regulation of the site with regard to environmental discharges of radioactive materials, both operational and post-closure. This paper is concerned with post-closure matters only. Two post-closure performance assessments have been carried out for this site: one by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1987; and a subsequent one carried out on behalf of HMIP, completed in 1991. Currently, BNFL are preparing a Safety Case for continued operation of the Drigg site, and it expected that the core of this Case will comprise BNFL`s own analysis of post-closure performance. HMIP has developed procedures for the assessment of this Case, based upon experience of the previous Drigg assessments, and also upon the experience of similar work carried out in the assessment of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) disposal at both deep and shallow potential sites. This paper describes the more important features of these procedures.

  8. The UK waste input-output table: Linking waste generation to the UK economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Reynolds, Christian

    2016-10-01

    In order to achieve a circular economy, there must be a greater understanding of the links between economic activity and waste generation. This study introduces the first version of the UK waste input-output table that could be used to quantify both direct and indirect waste arisings across the supply chain. The proposed waste input-output table features 21 industrial sectors and 34 waste types and is for the 2010 time-period. Using the waste input-output table, the study results quantitatively confirm that sectors with a long supply chain (i.e. manufacturing and services sectors) have higher indirect waste generation rates compared with industrial primary sectors (e.g. mining and quarrying) and sectors with a shorter supply chain (e.g. construction). Results also reveal that the construction, mining and quarrying sectors have the highest waste generation rates, 742 and 694 tonne per £1m of final demand, respectively. Owing to the aggregated format of the first version of the waste input-output, the model does not address the relationship between waste generation and recycling activities. Therefore, an updated version of the waste input-output table is expected be developed considering this issue. Consequently, the expanded model would lead to a better understanding of waste and resource flows in the supply chain. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Learning the Price of Poverty across the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivinson, Gabrielle; Thompson, Ian; Beckett, Lori; Egan, David; Leitch, Ruth; McKinney, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, the British Educational Research Association (BERA) Commission on Poverty and Policy Advocacy brought together several academics from across the four jurisdictions of the UK already engaged in work on poverty, education and schooling. The aim of this BERA Commission was to build a network of research-active practitioners across the UK…

  10. LGBT refugee protection in the UK: from discretion to belief?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gray

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The UK government used to have no specific guidance or trainingfor decision-makers for claims brought on the grounds of sexualorientation. It was only in 2010 following a combination of judicial,civil society and political pressures that specific policy guidance wasspeedily issued and significant progress was seen.

  11. The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair is an annual three-day event designed to promote science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) careers to young people aged 7-19 through experiential learning. It is supported by stakeholders from business and industry, government and the community, and brings together people from various…

  12. The Future of Entrepreneurship Education in the UK's "Big Society"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlay, Harry; Hussain, Javed

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three decades in the UK, successive Conservative and Labour governments have implemented policies and initiatives aimed at widening access to higher education. During the same period, entrepreneurship education has emerged as an important aspect of higher education provision, as it has in other industrially developed and developing…

  13. The Textuality of Learning Contexts in UK Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satchwell, Candice; Ivanic, Roz

    2007-01-01

    A significant aspect of learning contexts is the way in which semiotic artefacts mediate learning within them. This article reports on the "Literacies for Learning in Further Education" (LfLFE) project in the UK, which has researched the role of texts and associated communicative practices in constructing and mediating teaching and…

  14. Cancer Research UK | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/. Initiative de recherche sur la dimension économique de la lutte antitabac. L'Initiative de recherche sur la dimension économique de la lutte antitabac finance la recherche novatrice sur les politiques fiscales qui appuient la lutte antitabac dans les pays à faible revenu ...

  15. The Future of Bioscience Fieldwork in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauchline, Alice L.; Peacock, Julie; Park, Julian R.

    2013-01-01

    Fieldwork is an important and often enjoyable part of learning in Bioscience degree courses, however it is unclear how the recent reforms to Higher Education (HE) may impact the future funding of outdoor learning. This paper reports on the findings from a recent survey of 30 HE Bioscience practitioners from across the UK. Their current level of…

  16. The status of ISI in the UK nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bann, T.; Rogerson, A. [AEA Technology, Risley (United Kingdom). Nuclear NDE Services

    1999-08-01

    This paper reviews the status of in-service inspection (ISI) in UK nuclear power generation industry through the experience of its nuclear utilities. The paper is intended to be a summary of some of the most recent and relevant ISI issues facing the utilities and the solutions devised to address those issues. (orig.)

  17. UK Higher Education Viewed through the Marketization and Marketing Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedbalová, Eva; Greenacre, Luke; Schulz, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the Economic Market mechanisms and the 4P Marketing Mix as lenses to review the context of UK higher education (HE) and to explore the relationship between the market and marketing disciplines and practice. Four Economic Market mechanisms--autonomy, competition, price and information--are contrasted with the four Ps of marketing:…

  18. UK Food Standards Agency alpha-linolenic acid workshop report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanderson, P; Finnegan, YE; Williams, CM; Calder, PC; Burdge, GC; Wootton, SA; Griffin, BA; Millward, DJ; Pegge, NC; Bemelmans, WJE

    2002-01-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating whether n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from plant oils (alpha-linolenic acid; ALA) were as beneficial to cardiovascular health as the n-3 PUFA from the marine oils, eicosapentaenoic

  19. The Global Economic Cost of Osteoarthritis: How the UK Compares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine all relevant literature on the economic costs of osteoarthritis in the UK, and to compare such costs globally. Methods. A search of MEDLINE was performed. The search was expanded beyond peer-reviewed journals into publications by the department of health, national orthopaedic associations, national authorities and registries, and arthritis charities. Results. No UK studies were identified in the literature search. 3 European, 6 North American, and 2 Asian studies were reviewed. Significant variation in direct and indirect costs were seen in these studies. Costs for topical and oral NSAIDs were estimated to be £19.2 million and £25.65 million, respectively. Cost of hip and knee replacements was estimated to exceed £850 million, arthroscopic surgery for osteoarthritis was estimated to be £1.34 million. Indirect costs from OA caused a loss of economic production over £3.2 billion, £43 million was spent on community services and £215 million on social services for osteoarthritis. Conclusions. While estimates of economic costs can be made using information from non-published data, there remains a lack of original research looking at the direct or indirect costs of osteoarthritis in the UK. Differing methodology in calculating costs from overseas studies makes direct comparison with the UK difficult.

  20. Paokil uks ja 13 noort hinge / Pille-Riin Purje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purje, Pille-Riin, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    12. mail esietendus Eesti Riiklikus Nukuteatris noortestuudio debüütlavastus "Kolmteist + uks" L. Knutzoni näidendi "Kõigepealt sa sünnid" põhjal, lavastaja R. Toots, muusikaline kujundaja J. Kreen, liikumine E. Ülevainult

  1. Functions of Turkish complementary schools in the UK: Official vs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary schools in the United Kingdom (UK) are community organised schools with the general aim of teaching younger generations their 'native' languages and cultures. However, the aims and practices of these schools are predominantly dependent on changes in the social and political contexts both in the host ...

  2. Participation in Written Government Consultations in Denmark and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    5,000 responses to consultations in Denmark and the UK in the first half of 2008. It shows that participation is highly conditional upon system-and actor-level characteristics in practice. Our findings indicate that, even if liberal democracies have adopted similar procedures for actor consultation...

  3. Functions of Turkish complementary schools in the UK: Official vs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary schools in the United Kingdom (UK) are community organised schools with the general aim of teaching younger generations their 'native' languages and cultures. However, the aims and practices of these schools are pre- dominantly dependent on changes in the social and political contexts both in the host ...

  4. Chinese Language Teaching in the UK: Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, George X.; Li, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    There has been a long history of Chinese learning and teaching (CLT) in the UK, but until recently CLT was predominantly confined to community schools for Chinese children at weekends and a small number of other schools and universities. Therefore, it had remained peripheral for a long time in terms of student numbers and its position in the…

  5. Research funding systems in Australia, New Zealand and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny; Ross, S

    2011-01-01

    . This article reports on a study involving interviews with 274 academics at universities in Australia (Melbourne), New Zealand (Auckland) and the UK (Birmingham). Perceptions of the three research funding systems demonstrated significant differences across universities, and some interesting gender and seniority...

  6. Perceptions of HPV Vaccine amongst UK University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ellen; Senior, Naomi; Abdullah, Ammar; Brown, Janine; Collings, Suzanne; Racktoo, Sophie; Walpole, Sarah; Zeiton, Moez; Heffernan, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this small-scale focus group study is to explore the impact the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine has on attitudes towards HPV, cervical cancer and sexual risk taking amongst university students in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were recruited through advertisements placed on notice boards throughout the…

  7. Greening Technology in U.K. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Rob

    2009-01-01

    With the world focusing on climate change and individuals through to organizations questioning how they can reduce their personal and professional carbon footprints, JISC (Joint Information Systems Committee) is looking at how it can help U.K. education professionals learn from one another. In 2009, the final report from JISC's SusteIT study…

  8. Diagnostic Testing at UK Universities: An E-Mail Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Jonathan; Levi, Margaret; Wilson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    In July 2009, an e-mail survey was sent to various UK universities to gain information regarding current practices concerning mathematics diagnostic testing, and to provide an update from the review "Diagnostic Testing for Mathematics" published by the LTSN MathsTEAM Project in 2003. A total of 38 university departments were contacted…

  9. Norms and Values in UK Science Engagement Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric; Holliman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a rhetorical shift from "deficit" to "dialogue" and "engagement" in UK policy and institutional discourse about science communication. Past efforts to reduce public scientific literacy deficits have been overshadowed by calls for dialogue between scientists, science communicators and…

  10. East African refugees adapting to life in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Bekalo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the first-hand life experiences of refugees ofEast/Horn of Africa origin on arrival in the UK. The experiences – someof which could be seen as humorous or sad – may be informative andrelevant for other practitioners.

  11. Emotional Connectedness to Home for Ghanaian Students in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doku, Florence; Meekums, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    Ghanaian migrants represent one of the largest Black African groups in the UK. While viewed positively in terms of economic and educational success, migration has impacts on emotional attachments. The aim of this study was therefore to explore narrative expressions of belonging and emotional connectedness for Ghanaian university students in the…

  12. The Education of Asylum Seekers: Some UK Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reakes, Angharad

    2007-01-01

    The body of literature examining the educational needs of asylum-seeker children is limited. Extending the body of knowledge has become increasingly important because of the increasing number of asylum seekers in the UK, with significant implications for local education authorities and schools. The main focus of the research was the situation in…

  13. Refugee Children in the UK. Education in an Urbanised Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Jill

    2006-01-01

    Asylum migration causes intense media and political debate. However, little attention has been paid to how forced migrants can rebuild their lives in the UK or elsewhere. This timely book analyzes the social policies that impact on refugee children's education, and: (1) Provides the background to the migration of refugees; (2) Explores how…

  14. Quick Win or Slow Burn: Modelling UK HE CAA Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The uptake of CAA in UK higher education (HE) on a large scale lags behind the expectations of CAA specialists. A research project was undertaken with the aim of discovering and addressing the underlying reasons for this. The research was conducted according to Strauss and Corbin's (1998) prescription for grounded theory (GT) research. During…

  15. Commitment to Environmental Sustainability in the UK Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Debby R. E.; Alcock, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability is an increasingly important issue in higher education, both in the UK and internationally. Although environmental sustainability is the most frequently identified of the three pillars of sustainability (social and economic sustainability being less widely understood), there has been little previous research which has quantitatively…

  16. Creating Cultures of Integrity: Ethics Education in UK Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Emma; Caulfield, Paul; Hibbert, Paul; Jennings, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Recent corporate scandals and responses by regulators have created an environment in which there is a heightened awareness of business ethics. This report presents a series of case studies exploring how the current curricula in UK business schools could be scoped differently to give new business leaders the tools required for strong ethical…

  17. Mapping Student-Led Peer Learning in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Peer-led academic learning has increased in importance, but there is little sense of how many institutions support it, how they understand its purposes or what peer-led learning best practice is. This report examines the provision of peer-led learning in the UK. It identifies challenges and opportunities, including international perspectives and…

  18. Performance Management in UK Universities: Implementing the Balanced Scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John; Baines, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, UK universities have become increasingly concerned with performance management. This trend reflects both growing competition and marketisation within higher education, and the increasing requirements for accountability. In response, institutions have begun to explore the application of formal methodologies for performance…

  19. Tuberculosis Microepidemics among Dispersed Migrants, Birmingham, UK, 2004–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Catherine; Khanom, Shaina; Evans, Jason T.; Smith, E. Grace; Hawkey, Peter M.; Kunst, Heinke; Welch, Steven B.; Dedicoat, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    To determine if local transmission was responsible for rising tuberculosis incidence in a recently dispersed migrant community in Birmingham, UK, during 2004–2013, we conducted enhanced epidemiologic investigation of molecular clusters. This technique identified exact locations of social mixing and chains of apparent recent transmission, which can be helpful for directing resources. PMID:25695328

  20. The Future of Family Business Education in UK Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lorna; Seaman, Claire; Graham, Stuart; Stepek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This practitioner paper aims to question basic assumptions about management education and to argue that a new paradigm is needed for UK business schools which embraces an oft neglected, yet economically vital, stakeholder group, namely family businesses. It seeks to pose the question of why we have forgotten to teach about family business…

  1. The End of the Botany Degree in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drea, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The last student enrolled in a pure "Botany" degree in the UK began in the University of Bristol this year, 2010. In recent years only the University of Reading also offered the Botany degree, before it was dropped there 3 years ago. This short article is written to draw attention to this fact and to a more general relative decline in…

  2. Leveraged Public to Private Transactions in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Simons, T.; Wright, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the magnitude and the sources of the expected shareholder gains in UK public to private transactions (PTPs) in the second wave from 1997-2003.Pre-transaction shareholders on average receive a premium of 40% and the share price reaction to the PTP announcement is about 30%.The

  3. The Changing UK Careers Landscape: Tidal Waves, Turbulence and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how the UK careers landscape in each of the four home nations is changing in response to neo-liberal policies. In this context, careers services are increasingly under pressure to demonstrate their added value, impact and returns on investment. As fiscal arrangements tighten and governments state their preferences and…

  4. Lock-In Agreements in Venture Capital Backed UK IPOs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espenlaub, S.; Goergen, M.; Khurshed, A.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of venture-capital backing of UK companies issuing shares at flotation on the characteristics of the lock-in agreements entered into by the existing shareholders, and on the abnormal returns realised around the expiry of the directors' lock-in agreements.The study

  5. Bloom's syndrome in an Indian man in the UK

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vekaria, Rajni; Bhatt, Ree'Thee; Saravanan, Ponnusamy; de Boer, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    A 17-year-old Indian man was diagnosed with Bloom's syndrome at the age of 3 years. This is the first reported case of Bloom's in an Indian from the UK and the third case report from the British Isles...

  6. UK Solar System Data Centre: Data Archive for Ionospheric Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Matthew; James, Sarah; Bogdanova, Yulia; Crothers, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The UK Solar System Data Centre (UKSSDC) has been working to improve access to its extensive holdings of historical ionospheric data. In our archive, ionospheric data from 200 stations worldwide (1930s-present), such as ionograms and scaled ionospheric parameters (e.g., foF2, fmin, h'F2), is held on both digital and physical media. From the 1990s these data sets are available in digital form and can be downloaded from our web-interface. Thanks to a Natural Environment Research Council grant we are in the process of digitising a selection, 2,200 out of ~27,000, of UK ionosonde film data to be made available via the web interface. It is hoped that more funding will be made available to continue this exercise over the next few years. The UKSSDC also provides real-time ionospheric data retrieval from two RAL Space ionosondes, Chilton and Port Stanley, alongside other European observatories. The UKSSDC is part of RAL Space based at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory with the electronic address: http://www.ukssdc.ac.uk. This is a UK national data archive facility with open data access and can be used by scientists around the globe.

  7. The UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshop Programme...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albone, Eric; Okano, Toru

    2012-01-01

    The authors have been running UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshops at universities in Britain and Japan since 2001: for the past three years in England with Cambridge University and, last year, also with Kyoto University and Kyoto University of Education. For many years they have worked jointly with colleagues in a group of Super Science High…

  8. PISA 2015: Findings and Some Implications for UK Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jonathan; Millar, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the main findings for the countries of the UK from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2015, where science was the major focus. The nature of the tests, the key findings and how they might be interpreted are discussed--in…

  9. High risk of unprecedented UK rainfall in the current climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Vikki; Dunstone, Nick J; Scaife, Adam A; Smith, Doug M; Slingo, Julia M; Brown, Simon; Belcher, Stephen E

    2017-07-24

    In winter 2013/14 a succession of storms hit the UK leading to record rainfall and flooding in many regions including south east England. In the Thames river valley there was widespread flooding, with clean-up costs of over £1 billion. There was no observational precedent for this level of rainfall. Here we present analysis of a large ensemble of high-resolution initialised climate simulations to show that this event could have been anticipated, and that in the current climate there remains a high chance of exceeding the observed record monthly rainfall totals in many regions of the UK. In south east England there is a 7% chance of exceeding the current rainfall record in at least one month in any given winter. Expanding our analysis to some other regions of England and Wales the risk increases to a 34% chance of breaking a regional record somewhere each winter.A succession of storms during the 2013-2014 winter led to record flooding in the UK. Here, the authors use high-resolution climate simulations to show that this event could have been anticipated and that there remains a high chance of exceeding observed record monthly rainfall totals in many parts of the UK.

  10. Empowering sustainable niches: Comparing UK and Dutch offshore wind developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, Florian; Verhees, Bram; Raven, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41331927X; Smith, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Offshore wind has been positioned as a promising technology that could play a major role in moving towards more sustainable energy systems, but deployment varies significantly across countries. This article aims to explain the contrast between the boom in the UK versus stagnation in The

  11. Maturity and Interculturality: Chinese Students' Experiences in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Increasing global competition for students has witnessed an ever more rapid internationalisation of higher education. In the case of the UK, there has been a major influx of Chinese students to British universities since the launch of the British Government's long-term worldwide educational campaign in 1999. Drawing upon evidence from an extensive…

  12. Kosovan refugees in the UK: the Rolls Royce or rickshaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Bloch

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the different reception and support entitlements offered to spontaneous asylum seekers from Kosovo and their UNHCR programme counterparts, plus the operation of the Kosovo reception programme. It also discusses the Asylum and Immigration Bill and itsimplications for asylum seekers to the UK.

  13. The role of fire in UK peatland and moorland management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, G.M.; Kettridge, Nicholas; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Gray, Alan; Ascoli, Davide; Fernandes, Paulo M.; Marrs, Rob; Allen, Katherine A.; Doerr, Stefan H.; Clay, Gareth D.; McMorrow, Julia; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2016-01-01

    Fire has been used for centuries to generate and manage some of the UK’s cultural landscapes. Despite its complex role in the ecology of UK peatlands and moorlands, there has been a trend of simplifying the narrative around burning to present it as an only ecologically damaging practice. That

  14. Project SEARCH UK--Evaluating Its Employment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehne, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study reports the findings of an evaluation of Project SEARCH UK. The programme develops internships for young people with intellectual disabilities who are about to leave school or college. The aim of the evaluation was to investigate at what rate Project SEARCH provided employment opportunities to participants. Methods: The…

  15. Comparing SVARs and SEMs : Two models of the UK economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.P.A.M.; Wallis, K.F.

    2005-01-01

    The structural vector autoregression (SVAR) and simultaneous equation macroeconometric model (SEM) styles of empirical macroeconomic modelling are compared and contrasted, with reference to two models of the UK economy, namely the long-run structural VAR model of Garratt, Lee, Pesaran and Shin and

  16. East African refugees adapting to life in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Bekalo

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on the first-hand life experiences of refugees ofEast/Horn of Africa origin on arrival in the UK. The experiences – someof which could be seen as humorous or sad – may be informative andrelevant for other practitioners.

  17. Evidence-based medicine teaching in UK medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meats, Emma; Heneghan, Carl; Crilly, Mike; Glasziou, Paul

    2009-04-01

    It is recognized that clinicians need training in evidence-based medicine (EBM), however there is considerable variation in the content and methods of the EBM curriculum in UK medical schools. To determine current practice and variation in EBM undergraduate teaching in UK medical schools and inform the strategy of medical schools and the National Knowledge Service. We contacted all 32 medical schools in the UK and requested that the person primarily responsible for EBM undergraduate teaching complete a short online survey and provide their EBM curriculum. The survey was completed by representatives from 20 (63%) medical schools and curriculum details were received from 5 (16%). There is considerable variation in the methods and content of the EBM curriculum. Although the majority of schools teach core EBM topics, relatively few allow students to practice the skills or assess such skills. EBM teaching is restricted by lack of curriculum time, trained tutors and teaching materials. Key elements to progress include the integration of EBM with clinical specialties, tutor training and the availability of high-quality teaching resources. The development of a national undergraduate EBM curriculum may help in promoting progress in EBM teaching and assessment in UK medical schools.

  18. Current status of cranial stereotactic radiosurgery in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Alexis; Kirkby, Karen J; Nisbet, Andrew; Clark, Catharine H

    2016-01-01

    To investigate and benchmark the current clinical and dosimetric practices in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the UK. A detailed questionnaire was sent to 70 radiotherapy centres in the UK. 97% (68/70) of centres replied between June and December 2014. 21 centres stated that they are practising SRS, and a further 12 centres plan to start SRS by the end of 2016. The most commonly treated indications are brain metastases and acoustic neuromas. A large range of prescription isodoses that range from 45% to 100% between different radiotherapy centres was seen. Ionization chambers and solid-water phantoms are used by the majority of centres for patient-specific quality assurance, and thermoplastic masks for patient immobilization are more commonly used than fixed stereotactic frames. The majority of centres perform orthogonal kilovoltage X-rays for localization before and during delivery. The acceptable setup accuracy reported ranges from 0.1 to 2 mm with a mean of 0.8 mm. SRS has been increasing in use in the UK and will continue to increase in the next 2 years. There is no current consensus between SRS centres as a whole, or even between SRS centres with the same equipment, on the practices followed. This indicates the need for benchmarking and standardization in SRS practices within the UK. This article outlines the current practices in SRS and provides a benchmark for reference and comparison with future research in this technique.

  19. UK parliamentary debate analysis: bombing ISIL in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the arguments presented for and against the UK government's motion for the UK to intervene militarily in Syria in the House of Commons debate on ISIL in Syria that took place on 2 December 2015. It considers what the most common arguments were in favour of and in opposition to the motion as well as which arguments were given the most emphasis, in order to understand the prime justifications given that led to the decision to approve the motion. It suggests that due to the shadow of the 2003 Iraq war, politicians in the debate placed a considerable emphasis on the legal justification for military intervention. It argues that the focus on the national security of the UK and its allies in this particular debate seems to contrast with previous military interventions where humanitarian motives were more widely stated. This paper calls for further comparative research of parliamentary debates in order to track such changes in the rhetoric used by UK politicians to defend their support for military intervention.

  20. Addressing the Causes of Chef Shortages in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratten, John; O'Leary, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To outline the reasons for staff shortages in the UK catering industry and then to decide if further training could help to address these issues. Design/methodology/approach: The objectives have been achieved by examining the training provisions at a college, and then asking the students, their training staff, employers and employees…

  1. Education and Training in Psychiatry in the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Stuart; Bhugra, Dinesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective: Recent training and education changes have raised important issues in delivery of psychiatric education at all levels. In this article, the authors describe the current status of mental health education in the training of all doctors and postgraduate training and education in psychiatry in the U.K. Method: The authors explore…

  2. Malaria in the UK: past, present, and future

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, T; Welsby, P

    2004-01-01

    There is strong evidence that malaria was once indigenous to the UK, that global warming is occurring, and that human activity is contributing to global warming. Global warming will have a variety of effects, one of which will probably be the return of indigenous malaria.

  3. L130-million cut to grants hits UK physical scientists

    CERN Multimedia

    Cressey, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    "UK physicists, still reeling from massive funding cuts announced earlier this year, have learnt of worse to come. Roughly L130 million (US$260 million)is being slashed from research grants awarded by the Engineering and Physical Scienes Research Council (EPSRC), it announced on 17 March." (2 pages)

  4. International Students' Networks: A Case Study in a UK University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Nashrawan; Cox, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The great influx of international students into UK universities has led to internationalisation becoming an important issue. Previous studies have focused on the integration of home and international students, illustrating a lack of intercultural interaction. Yet there has been a lack of research investigating international students' networks and…

  5. Supporting International Students in UK Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Ian

    2014-01-01

    International students make up an increasingly large proportion of the UK's student population. Whether studying at undergraduate, postgraduate taught or postgraduate research level, they require support just like home students. However, international students can often bring additional issues and complications for the staff who are supporting…

  6. Abandoned babies in the UK - a review utilizing media reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherr, L; Mueller, J; Fox, Z

    2009-05-01

    In the absence of national policy or comprehensive data, the phenomenon of abandoned babies is poorly understood in the UK. This study aims to use media reports as a resource to collate existing information on abandoned babies and to draw conclusions to inform future response. An exhaustive media search using electronic searches and media monitoring was undertaken to glean systematic information on all abandoned babies in the UK from 1998-2005. These were matched onto two databases - the UK Crime Statistics and the UK Abandoned Children Register in an attempt to align information on infant abandonment. Media reports were coded to list gender, survival, age, parental finding and circumstantial data. Our figures suggest an average of 16 babies abandoned yearly, while official sources give conflicting indications because of incomplete data gathering and child over-inclusion. Through systematic coding of media reports, 124 babies were identified over a 7-year period. Of these, 96 (77.4%) were newborns (1 week old). Adjusted logistic regression analysis found the strongest predictors of survival were age at abandonment and 'findability'. Newborn babies were less likely to survive than older babies (33.7% newborns died vs. 0% older babies, P Media interest is transient - 44.8% cases have a single report - and are typified by negative headlines (81.5%). This database currently represents the most accurate and comprehensive picture of the newborn abandonment phenomenon in the UK, a phenomenon that is rare but with high media and social interest. If the future well-being of mother and baby are to be catered for, clearer evidence-based policy and provision is vital.

  7. June 22, 1941: Evaluation of Public Opinion US and UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey O. Buranok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the U.S. and U.K public opinion about German attack on the USSR 22 June 1941. Considered the views of the American and British statesmen and politicians, the public mood, reflected in the press. Identify the main points of view on the outbreak of war with Germany against the Soviet Union. It is shown that in the presence of a variety of assessments prevailed ideas of solidarity with the Soviet Union and the need to support it. This work will allow for a " reflection" of the image of a belligerent Soviet Union, and to find the key moments falsifying the history of World War II in the U.S. and the UK. The events of the Great Patriotic War , which will be set out on the basis of US and UK archives, and t hen will be presented t o look at fighting in the USSR in the memoranda of public institutions of Great Britain and the United States, as well as their coverage in the Anglo-American media. In this case, due consideration will be given to the mechanisms of information influence that have been implemented in the U.S. Office of War Information and the British Ministry of Information. Selected key battles 1941 year in the USSR: a description of the fighting, then their score by British and U.S. military and political leadership, guidelines an d promotional materials departments of the UK and the U.S., the UK and the U.S. press.

  8. Educational challenges faced by international medical graduates in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Hashim Gastroenterology Department, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton, UK Introduction: International medical graduates (IMGs in the UK constitute approximately one-quarter of the total number of doctors registered in the General Medical Council (GMC. The transition of IMGs into the health care system in the UK is accompanied by significant sociocultural and educational challenges. This study aims to explore the views of IMGs in medical training on the educational challenges they face.Methods: This study was conducted in the Kent, Surrey and Sussex region in 2015. All IMGs who work in medical (physicianly training programs were included. Data were collected through a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Thematic approach was used to analyze the qualitative data.Results: Of the total 61 IMGs included, 17 responded to the survey and 3 were interviewed. The common educational barriers faced by IMGs were related to lack of appreciation of the values and structure of the National Health Service (NHS, ethical and medicolegal issues, receiving feedback from colleagues and the different learning strategies in the UK. IMGs suggested introduction of a mandatory dedicated induction program in the form of formal teaching sessions. They also believed that a supervised shadowing period prior in the first job in the UK would be beneficial. Further assessment areas should be incorporated into the prequalifying examinations to address specific educational needs such as NHS structure and hospital policies. Other measures such as buddying schemes with senior IMGs and educating NHS staff on different needs of IMGs should also be considered.Conclusion: This study highlighted important educational challenges faced by IMGs and generated relevant solutions. However, the opinions of the supervisors and other health care professionals need to be explored. Keywords: international medical graduates, IMG, educational barriers

  9. Leadership and management in UK medical school curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Richard; Sheriff, Ibrahim H N; Matthews, Jacob H; Jagger, Olivia; Curtis, Sarah; Lees, Peter; Spurgeon, Peter C; Fountain, Daniel Mark; Oldman, Alex; Habib, Ali; Saied, Azam; Court, Jessica; Giannoudi, Marilena; Sayma, Meelad; Ward, Nicholas; Cork, Nick; Olatokun, Olamide; Devine, Oliver; O'Connell, Paul; Carr, Phoebe; Kotronias, Rafail Angelos; Gardiner, Rebecca; Buckle, Rory T; Thomson, Ross J; Williams, Sarah; Nicholson, Simon J; Goga, Usman

    2016-10-10

    Purpose Although medical leadership and management (MLM) is increasingly being recognised as important to improving healthcare outcomes, little is understood about current training of medical students in MLM skills and behaviours in the UK. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This qualitative study used validated structured interviews with expert faculty members from medical schools across the UK to ascertain MLM framework integration, teaching methods employed, evaluation methods and barriers to improvement. Findings Data were collected from 25 of the 33 UK medical schools (76 per cent response rate), with 23/25 reporting that MLM content is included in their curriculum. More medical schools assessed MLM competencies on admission than at any other time of the curriculum. Only 12 schools had evaluated MLM teaching at the time of data collection. The majority of medical schools reported barriers, including overfilled curricula and reluctance of staff to teach. Whilst 88 per cent of schools planned to increase MLM content over the next two years, there was a lack of consensus on proposed teaching content and methods. Research limitations/implications There is widespread inclusion of MLM in UK medical schools' curricula, despite the existence of barriers. This study identified substantial heterogeneity in MLM teaching and assessment methods which does not meet students' desired modes of delivery. Examples of national undergraduate MLM teaching exist worldwide, and lessons can be taken from these. Originality/value This is the first national evaluation of MLM in undergraduate medical school curricula in the UK, highlighting continuing challenges with executing MLM content despite numerous frameworks and international examples of successful execution.

  10. Increased funding fro UK's largest scientific computing grid, GridPP

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Science computing in the UK has been boosted with the annoucement by the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) of 30 million BP further funding for the UK's largest scientific Grid." (1 page)

  11. Undergraduate Courses in Family Medicine in the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands and the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan-Helge

    1993-01-01

    Almen medicin, Family Medicine, undergraduate Courses, the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands, the Nordic Countries......Almen medicin, Family Medicine, undergraduate Courses, the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands, the Nordic Countries...

  12. Survey of stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy in the UK by the QA group on behalf of the UK SABR Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A; Scott, A J D; Webster, G J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the progress being made towards the implementation of stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) treatment in the UK, to obtain details of current practice in centres with an active treatment programme and to assess the projected future provision. Methods: In August 2012, an online questionnaire was sent to all 65 UK radiotherapy institutions. The included questions covered the current number of patients being treated and the intended number of patients for each clinical site; immobilization and motion management methods; CT scanning protocols; target and organ-at-risk delineation; treatment planning; image-guidance and treatment protocols; and quality assurance methods. Results: 48/65 (74%) institutions responded by the end of November 2012, with 15 indicating an active SABR programme. A further four centres indicated that a SABR protocol had been established but was not yet in clinical use. 14 of the 29 remaining responses stated an intention to develop a SABR programme in the next 2 years. Conclusion: The survey responses confirm that SABR provision in the UK is increasing and that this should be expected to continue in the next 2 years. A projection of the future uptake would suggest that by the end of 2014, UK SABR provision will be broadly in line with international practice. PMID:24620840

  13. International Students' Perceptions of Service Quality in the UK Banking Sector: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Christopher; Hsu, Marc Ting-Chun

    2011-01-01

    This study reviews and evaluates international students' perceptions of UK banks. The specific research objectives were to identify international students' expectations and perceptions of service quality from UK banks and to assess the quality GAP or dissonance between these. A total of 297 international students studying in the UK responded to…

  14. Evaluating the UK and Dutch defined benefit policies using the holistic balance sheet framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Z.; Pelsser, A.; Ponds, E.H.M.

    This paper compares the UK and Dutch occupational defined-benefit pension policies using the holistic balance sheet (HBS) framework. The UK DB pension system differs from the Dutch one in terms of the steering tools and adjustment mechanisms. In addition to the sponsor guarantee, the UK system has

  15. Energy and nutrient intakes of young children in the UK: findings from the Gemini twin cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syrad, H.; Llewellyn, C.H.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Johnson, L.; Jebb, S.A.; Wardle, J.

    2016-01-01

    Data on the diets of young children in the UK are limited, despite growing evidence of the importance of early diet for long-term health. We used the largest contemporary dietary data set to describe the intake of 21-month-old children in the UK. Parents of 2336 children aged 21 months from the UK

  16. Evaluating UK research in speech and language therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewison, Grant; Carding, Paul

    2003-01-01

    There has been a steady growth in recent years in British higher-degree training in speech and language therapy. But what is the standing of UK research in the subject and its component areas which should underpin and inform such training? How can such research be evaluated? The intention was to compare UK publications relevant to speech and language therapy with those of other countries, both quantitatively and qualitatively. We sought then to examine the UK papers in more detail to analyse their sources of funding, their geographical distribution and the ways in which they could appropriately be evaluated. Papers were selectively retrieved from the Science Citation Index and the Social Sciences Citation Index for 1991-2000 by means of a filter based on journal names and paper title words. They were subsequently checked to remove many false positives. The papers were classified into one of seven subject areas and by their research level (from clinical to basic). Their importance was estimated through their potential impact on other researchers, as determined by the citation score of their journals, by the numbers of citations they actually received and by the subjective esteem in which the various journals were held by UK speech and language researchers. World output of speech and language therapy papers has averaged 1000 papers per year during the 1990s, and has grown by half over the period. UK output has been about 12% of the total, compared with 10% in biomedicine, and is published in high impact journals relative to the norm for the field, which is quite a low rate compared with biomedicine overall. Almost half the UK papers had no funding acknowledgements, with the private-non-profit and industrial sectors playing less of a role than in other biomedical areas. Papers in seven subject areas showed substantial differences in their performance on the four criteria selected. The state of British speech and language research appears to be satisfactory, with an

  17. Long Term Large Scale river nutrient changes across the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Victoria; Naden, Pam; Tipping, Ed; Davies, Helen; Davies, Jessica; Dragosits, Ulli; Muhammed, Shibu; Quinton, John; Stuart, Marianne; Whitmore, Andy; Wu, Lianhai

    2017-04-01

    During recent decades and centuries, pools and fluxes of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus (C, N and P) in UK rivers and ecosystems have been transformed by the spread and fertiliser-based intensification of agriculture (necessary to sustain human populations), by atmospheric pollution, by human waste (rising in line with population growth), and now by climate change. The principal objective of the UK's NERC-funded Macronutrients LTLS research project has been to account for observable terrestrial and aquatic pools, concentrations and fluxes of C, N and P on the basis of past inputs, biotic and abiotic interactions, and transport processes. More specifically, over the last 200 years, what have been the temporal responses of plant and soil nutrient pools in different UK catchments to nutrient enrichment, and what have been the consequent effects on nutrient transfers from land to the atmosphere, freshwaters and estuaries? The work described here addresses the second question by providing an integrated quantitative description of the interlinked land and water pools and annual fluxes of C, N and P for UK catchments over time. A national-scale modelling environment has been developed, combining simple physically-based gridded models that can be parameterised using recent observations before application to long timescales. The LTLS Integrated Model (LTLS-IM) uses readily-available driving data (climate, land-use, nutrient inputs, topography), and model estimates of both terrestrial and freshwater nutrient loads have been compared with measurements from sites across the UK. Here, the focus is on the freshwater nutrient component of the LTLS-IM, but the terrestrial nutrient inputs required for this are provided by models of nutrient processes in semi-natural and agricultural systems, and from simple models of nutrients arising from human waste. In the freshwater model, lateral routing of dissolved and particulate nutrients and within-river processing such as

  18. The medline UK filter: development and validation of a geographic search filter to retrieve research about the UK from OVID medline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiku, Lynda; Levay, Paul; Hudson, Tom; Craven, Jenny; Barrett, Elizabeth; Finnegan, Amy; Adams, Rachel

    2017-07-13

    A validated geographic search filter for the retrieval of research about the United Kingdom (UK) from bibliographic databases had not previously been published. To develop and validate a geographic search filter to retrieve research about the UK from OVID medline with high recall and precision. Three gold standard sets of references were generated using the relative recall method. The sets contained references to studies about the UK which had informed National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance. The first and second sets were used to develop and refine the medline UK filter. The third set was used to validate the filter. Recall, precision and number-needed-to-read (NNR) were calculated using a case study. The validated medline UK filter demonstrated 87.6% relative recall against the third gold standard set. In the case study, the medline UK filter demonstrated 100% recall, 11.4% precision and a NNR of nine. A validated geographic search filter to retrieve research about the UK with high recall and precision has been developed. The medline UK filter can be applied to systematic literature searches in OVID medline for topics with a UK focus. © 2017 Crown copyright. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2017 Health Libraries GroupThis article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  19. Large-scale innovation and change in UK higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Brown

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on challenges universities face as they respond to change. It reviews current theories and models of change management, discusses why universities are particularly difficult environments in which to achieve large scale, lasting change and reports on a recent attempt by the UK JISC to enable a range of UK universities to employ technology to deliver such changes. Key lessons that emerged from these experiences are reviewed covering themes of pervasiveness, unofficial systems, project creep, opposition, pressure to deliver, personnel changes and technology issues. The paper argues that collaborative approaches to project management offer greater prospects of effective large-scale change in universities than either management-driven top-down or more champion-led bottom-up methods. It also argues that while some diminution of control over project outcomes is inherent in this approach, this is outweighed by potential benefits of lasting and widespread adoption of agreed changes.

  20. Financing Corporate Rescues, Where Does the UK Stand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpareva Aruoriwo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Akpareva Aruoriwo aims to evaluate the adequacy of the framework available for the financing of corporate rescues in the UK. She examines the legal provision made for prioritising creditors who get involved after an insolvency has been declared, with reference to examples from America and Canada. Without post-insolvency funding, companies may find it very difficult to survive, and without protection for post-insolvency creditors, those creditors may not wish to provide this sort of funding. The author examines the arguments for and against this kind of creditor protection, looking at past calls for reforms to the law and the preparedness of the UK to adopt any reforms.

  1. UK role 4 military infection services: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufty, Ngozi E; Bailey, M S

    2013-09-01

    NATO describes 'Role 4' military medical services as those provided for the definitive care of patients who cannot be treated within a theatre of operations and these are usually located in a military force's country of origin and may include the involvement of civilian medical services. The UK Defence Medical Services have a proud history of developing and providing clinical services in infectious diseases and tropical medicine, sexual health and HIV medicine, and medical microbiology and virology. These UK Role 4 Military Infection Services have adapted well to recent overseas deployments, but new challenges will arise due to current military cutbacks and a greater diversity of contingency operations in the future. Further evidence-based development of these services will require leadership by military clinicians and improved communication and support for 'reach-back' services.

  2. The moral economy of austerity: analysing UK welfare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lydia

    2016-03-01

    This paper notes the contemporary emergence of 'morality' in both sociological argument and political rhetoric, and analyses its significance in relation to ongoing UK welfare reforms. It revisits the idea of 'moral economy' and identifies two strands in its contemporary application; that all economies depend on an internal moral schema, and that some external moral evaluation is desirable. UK welfare reform is analysed as an example of the former, with reference to three distinct orientations advanced in the work of Freeden (1996), Laclau (2014), and Lockwood (1996). In this light, the paper then considers challenges to the reform agenda, drawn from third sector and other public sources. It outlines the forms of argument present in these challenges, based respectively on rationality, legality, and morality, which together provide a basis for evaluation of the welfare reforms and for an alternative 'moral economy'. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  3. [Career guidance for registered nurse in the UK].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón Melchor, Lucía; Simón Melchor, Alba

    2014-04-01

    Cuts in temporary contracts has had big consequences for newly qualified nurses with regards to finding employment. This cut in contracts has resulted in a doubling in the rate of unemployment in this profession. In the past nurses emigrated to other countries for purposes like knowledge of the language or to extend their training and experience, however today the emigration has become the only way out for many professional nurses. The reputation of nurses in Spain is recognised internationally, with the UK being one of the countries with the largest demand for Spanish nurses. Due to the great amount of job opportunities that are emerging in the UK, nurses need help and guidance in their careers, and also nurses need training in areas such as Professional Body, developing a curriculum, facing an interview etc...

  4. Evaluation of the status of canine hydrotherapy in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waining, M; Young, I S; Williams, S B

    2011-04-16

    To establish the current status of canine hydrotherapy in the UK and to ascertain information regarding the current use of hydrotherapy, a questionnaire was sent to 152 hydrotherapy centres throughout the UK, from which 89 responded. Hydrotherapy was found to be a rapidly growing business. Stand-alone centres were in existence; however, many centres were connected to other businesses, including boarding kennels and general practice veterinary surgeries. The dogs using the facility were mainly pedigree breeds, particularly labrador retrievers (30 per cent), and the most commonly encountered conditions were rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (25 per cent), hip dysplasia (24 per cent) and osteoarthritis (18 per cent). The proportion of qualified versus unqualified staff varied between centres, highlighting a need for improved regulation of this aspect of the industry. However, all the dogs treated by the hydrotherapy centres surveyed were direct veterinary referrals, suggesting a good degree of professionalism in the field and a high regard for the benefits of hydrotherapy.

  5. Mobile phone collection, reuse and recycling in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D

    2011-06-01

    Mobile phones are the most ubiquitous electronic product on the globe. They have relatively short lifecycles and because of their (perceived) in-built obsolescence, discarded mobile phones represent a significant and growing problem with respect to waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). An emerging and increasingly important issue for industry is the shortage of key metals, especially the types of metals found in mobile phones, and hence the primary aim of this timely study was to assess and evaluate the voluntary mobile phone takeback network in the UK. The study has characterised the information, product and incentives flows in the voluntary UK mobile phone takeback network and reviewed the merits and demerits of the incentives offered. A survey of the activities of the voluntary mobile phone takeback schemes was undertaken in 2008 to: identify and evaluate the takeback schemes operating in the UK; determine the target groups from whom handsets are collected; and assess the collection, promotion and advertising methods used by the schemes. In addition, the survey sought to identify and critically evaluate the incentives offered by the takeback schemes, evaluate their ease and convenience of use; and determine the types, qualities and quantities of mobile phones they collect. The study has established that the UK voluntary mobile phone takeback network can be characterised as three distinctive flows: information flow; product flow (handsets and related accessories); and incentives flow. Over 100 voluntary schemes offering online takeback of mobile phone handsets were identified. The schemes are operated by manufacturers, retailers, mobile phone network service operators, charities and by mobile phone reuse, recycling and refurbishing companies. The latter two scheme categories offer the highest level of convenience and ease of use to their customers. Approximately 83% of the schemes are either for-profit/commercial-oriented and/or operate to raise funds

  6. Attitudes towards protective headgear in UK rugby union players

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Andrew; Rumbold, James L; Olusoga, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background/aim Concussions in rugby union pose a major threat to player welfare. Research has found protective headgear offers no significant protection against concussions but suggests a large proportion of players perceive headgear to be effective in preventing concussions. This study aimed to explore UK rugby union players’ attitudes towards wearing protective headgear.\\ud \\ud \\ud Methods 545 rugby union players (85% male) from a range of playing standards completed an online survey. Quant...

  7. Determinants of satisfaction amongst tenants of UK Offices

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, Danielle C.; Edwards, Victoria M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Corporate Occupiers require offices and services which meet their business needs, whilst\\ud landlords must attract and retain occupiers in order to maximise occupancy and rental income. The purpose\\ud of this research is to help landlords and corporate occupiers understand each other better, in order to achieve a mutually beneficial relationship.\\ud Design/methodology/approach - This paper analyses interviews with 1334 office tenants in the UK,\\ud conducted over an 11-year period, t...

  8. Experience, age and exporting performance in UK SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Love, James H.; Roper, Stephen; Zhou, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We consider the determinants of SME exporting performance using a survey of internationally engaged UK SMEs. We first develop a model incorporating organisational and prior managerial learning effects. Our empirical analysis then allows us to identify separately the positive effects on exporting from the international experience of the firm and the negative effects of firm age. Positive exporting effects also result from grafted knowledge – acquired by the recruitment of management with prior...

  9. US line-ups outperform UK line-ups

    OpenAIRE

    Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Mickes, Laura

    2016-01-01

    In the USA and the UK, many thousands of police suspects are identified by eyewitnesses every year. Unfortunately, many of those suspects are innocent, which becomes evident when they are exonerated by DNA testing, often after having been imprisoned for years. It is, therefore, imperative to use identification procedures that best enable eyewitnesses to discriminate innocent from guilty suspects. Although police investigators in both countries often administer line-up procedures, the details ...

  10. Gene-obesogenic environment interactions in the UK Biobank study

    OpenAIRE

    Tyrrell, J.; Wood, AR; Ames, RM; Yaghootkar, H; Beaumont, RN; Jones, SE; Tuke, MA; Ruth, KS; Freathy, RM; Davey Smith, G.; S. Joost; Guessous, I; Murray, A.; Strachan, DP; Kutalik, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that modern obesogenic environments accentuate the genetic risk of obesity. However, these studies have proven controversial as to which, if any, measures of the environment accentuate genetic susceptibility to high body mass index (BMI).Methods: We used up to 120 000 adults from the UK Biobank study to test the hypothesis that high-risk obesogenic environments and behaviours accentuate genetic susceptibility to obesity. We used BMI as the outcome a...

  11. Renal artery sympathetic denervation:observations from the UK experience

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, Andrew S.P.; Davies, Justin E; Lobo, Melvin D.; Bent, Clare L.; Mark, Patrick B.; Burchell, Amy E; Thackray, Simon D.; Martin, Una; McKane, William S.; Gerber, Robert T.; Wilkinson, James R.; Antonios, Tarek F.; Doulton, Timothy W.; Patterson, Tiffany; Clifford, Piers C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Renal denervation (RDN) may lower blood pressure (BP); however, it is unclear whether medication changes may be confounding results. Furthermore, limited data exist on pattern of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) response?particularly in those prescribed aldosterone antagonists at the time of RDN. Methods We examined all patients treated with RDN for treatment-resistant hypertension in 18 UK centres. Results Results from 253 patients treated with five technologies are shown. Pre-proc...

  12. Proposal for establishment of the UK Cranial Reconstruction Registry (UKCRR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolias, Angelos G; Bulters, Diederik O; Cowie, Christopher J; Wilson, Mark H; Afshari, Fardad T; Helmy, Adel; Broughton, Ellie; Joannides, Alexis J; Zebian, Bassel; Harrisson, Stuart E; Hill, Ciaran S; Ahmed, Animul I; Barone, Damiano G; Thakur, Bhaskar; McMahon, Catherine J; Adlam, David M; Bentley, Robert P; Tolias, Christos M; Mitchell, Patrick M; Whitfield, Peter C; Critchley, Giles R; Belli, Antonio; Brennan, Paul M; Hutchinson, Peter J

    2014-06-01

    The increasing utilisation of decompressive craniectomy for traumatic brain injury and stroke has led to an increase in the number of cranioplasties undertaken. Cranioplasty is also undertaken following excision of tumours originating from or invading the skull vault, removal of bone flaps due to post-operative infection, and decompressive craniectomy for the management of rarer causes of brain oedema and/or refractory intracranial hypertension. The existing literature which mainly consists of single-centre, retrospective studies, shows a significant variation in practice patterns and a wide range of morbidity. There also exists a need to measure the outcome as perceived by the patients themselves with patient reported outcome measures (PROMs; functional outcome, quality of life, satisfaction with cosmesis). In the UK, the concept of long-term surveillance of neurosurgical implants is well established with the UK shunt registry. Based on this background, we propose to establish the UK Cranial Reconstruction Registry (UKCRR). The overarching aim of the UKCRR is to collect high-quality data about cranioplasties undertaken across the UK and Ireland in order to improve outcomes for patients. Any patient undergoing reconstruction of the skull vault with autologous bone, titanium, or synthetic material in participating units will be eligible for inclusion. Data will be submitted directly by participating units to the Outcome Registry Intervention and Operation Network secure platform. A Steering Committee will be responsible for overseeing the strategic direction and running of the UKCRR. These will include re-operation due to a cranioplasty-related issue, surgical site infection, re-admission due to a cranioplasty-related issue, unplanned post-operative escalation of care, adverse events, length of stay in admitting unit, destination at discharge from admitting unit, mortality at discharge from admitting unit, neurological status and PROMs during routine follow-up. The

  13. Determinants of Small Business Presence in Japanese and UK Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    土井, 教之; Cowling, Mark

    1995-01-01

    The present paper has attempted to examine determinants of small business(SMEs) presence in Japanese and UK manufacturing industries, using a cross-industry model. The results suggest that market structure elements have a definite influence on SMEs' share. This conclusion is consistent with the findings observed in the US and other European countries. The main results here are the following; (1) Concentration is negatively related to SMEs' share. (2) Capital intensity and requirements have a ...

  14. Fracking for shale in the UK: risks, reputation and regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Peter; Comfort, Daphne; Hillier, David

    2017-01-01

    Fracking, the exploitation of shale gas reserves, has become one of the most contentious energy-related issues in the world. New technologies have made once-unprofitable fields open to exploitation. This chapter examines fracking in the UK, a case study that illuminates the technology and politics of the procedure in many places. It situates British fracking within changing manifolds of global energy supply and demand as well as wider debates about energy security. It also explains the techni...

  15. The advertising creative process:a study of UK agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, Sarah; Wheeler, Colin H.

    2015-01-01

    Advertising agencies are hired to develop creative advertising for their clients. This paper explores the advertising creative process used by agencies when developing new creative work. Using in-depth interviews with 21 agency practitioners in the United Kingdom (UK) this study examines the stages that take place within the advertising creative process. Findings suggest the process is made up of a series of sequentially linked stages and illustrate how agencies validate advertising creative ...

  16. Reassessing employer expectations of graduates in UK travel services

    OpenAIRE

    Major, Bridget; Evans, Nigel

    2008-01-01

    This article sets out to ascertain travel and tourism industries employers' views on degrees. Research of this kind and on this scale has not previously been carried out and a large scale survey of industry views was conducted with key issues identified and discussed. These cover topics such as the employment of graduates within the UK travel services industry, views on their contribution and appropriateness, the types of skills that such degrees provide, salary scales and graduate training s...

  17. Phalangiotarbid arachnids from the coal measures of Lancashire, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, J.A.; Horrocks, C.A. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1997-05-01

    Four new specimens of phalangiotarbid (arachnida: Phalangiotarbida) from the Upper Carboniferous (upper Westphalian A) of Westhoughton, Lancashire, UK, are referred to Mesotarbus peteri sp. nov. an additional Lancashire phalangiotarbid, Phalangiotarbus subovalis (Woodward, 1872), from the Upper Carboniferous (lower/middle Westphalian A) of Burnley, is redescribed and designated the neotype of this species. This material allows new interpretations of the opisthosomal segmentation and respiratory organs of phalangiotarbids, and a reconstruction of Mesotarbus peteri is presented.

  18. Effectiveness of manual therapies: the UK evidence report

    OpenAIRE

    Leininger Brent; Evans Roni; Haas Mitch; Bronfort Gert; Triano Jay

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this report is to provide a succinct but comprehensive summary of the scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of manual treatment for the management of a variety of musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal conditions. Methods The conclusions are based on the results of systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), widely accepted and primarily UK and United States evidence-based clinical guidelines, plus the results of all RCTs not yet incl...

  19. A survey of statistics in three UK general practice journal

    OpenAIRE

    Rigby, A S; Armstrong, G K; Campbell, M J; Summerton, N

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Many medical specialities have reviewed the statistical content of their journals. To our knowledge this has not been done in general practice. Given the main role of a general practitioner as a diagnostician we thought it would be of interest to see whether the statistical methods reported reflect the diagnostic process. Methods Hand search of three UK journals of general practice namely the British Medical Journal (general practice section), British Journal of General Pr...

  20. Immunity to tetanus and diphtheria in the UK in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karen S; White, Joanne M; Andrews, Nick J; Borrow, Ray; Stanford, Elaine; Newton, Emma; Pebody, Richard G

    2012-11-19

    This study aimed to estimate the immunity of the UK population to tetanus and diphtheria, including the potential impact of new glycoconjugatate vaccines, and the addition of diphtheria to the school leaver booster in 1994. Residual sera (n=2697) collected in England in 2009/10 were selected from 18 age groups and tested for tetanus and diphtheria antibody. Results were standardised by testing a panel of sera (n=150) to enable comparison with a previously (1996) published serosurvey. Data were then standardised to the UK population. In 2009, 83% of the UK population were protected (≥0.1 IU/mL) against tetanus compared to 76% in 1996 (p=0.079), and 75% had at least basic protection against diphtheria (≥0.01 IU/mL) in 2009 compared to 60% in 1996 (pdiphtheria. Higher diphtheria immunity was observed in those aged 16-34 years in 2009 compared to 1996 (geometric mean concentration [GMC] 0.15 IU/mL vs. 0.03 IU/mL, pdiphtheria in 2009 were 29% susceptible), 45-69 years (>20% susceptible) and 70+ years (>32% susceptible). Low immunity was observed in those aged 10-11 years (>19% susceptible), between the scheduled preschool and school leaver booster administration. The current schedule appears to induce protective levels; increases in the proportions protected/GMCs were observed for the ages receiving vaccinations according to UK policy. Glycoconjugate vaccines appear to have increased immunity, in particular for diphtheria, in preschool age groups. Diphtheria immunity in teenagers and young adults has increased as a result of the addition of diphtheria to the school leaver booster. However, currently older adults remain susceptible, without any further opportunities for immunisations planned according to the present schedule. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Surprising Selection Effects in the UK Car Insurance Market

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, Edmund; Cipriani, Giam Pietro; Bazar-Rosen, Katia

    2014-01-01

    We document a large and persistent anomaly in the UK car insurance market over the period 2012-13: insurance companies charged a higher premium for third-party (liability) insurance than comprehensive insurance (which includes third-party). Furthermore, some companies charged higher prices for comprehensive policies with larger deductibles. This evidence suggests both that consumers are too confused or too poorly informed to arbitrage and that sellers of car insurance do not implement the inc...

  2. The Determinants of Employee Crime in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Neil Rickman; Robert Witt

    2003-01-01

    For the first time, we present evidence on employee theft in the UK using data on actual recorded crime. We present a model where employees are ‘rational cheaters’ with ‘consciences’ to produce hypotheses about the role of labour market (wages, unemployment) and social (age, education) influences on employee theft. We then examine the role of these influences using regional crime data supplemented by data from the LFS. Our results provide information on two competing views of motivations for ...

  3. Factors influencing improved attendance in the UK fire service

    OpenAIRE

    Litchfield, I; Hinckley, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sickness absence rates in the UK continue to exceed those in much of the developed world, with an annual cost to employers of ?29 billion. Rates of sickness absence in the public sector are higher than those in the private sector, with the exception of the fire service where they are consistently lower. Aims To understand the influences that increase attendance among operational firefighters. Methods A series of semi-structured interviews undertaken with operational staff to explor...

  4. Resurgence in home haemodialysis: perspectives from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sandip; Brady, Mark; O'Donoghue, Donal

    2011-12-01

    Improvement in dialysis outcomes requires a paradigm shift in haemodialysis provision and service design. Haemodialysis at home, recommended by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, can lead to outcome benefits but has a range of implementation barriers. This article describes the various initiatives in the UK at local, regional and national levels, to provide greater patient choice and autonomy, overcome adoption barriers and enable greater uptake of this modality.

  5. Trends in evaporation loss over the UK: 1962 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Eleanor; Robinson, Emma; Martinez de la Torre, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    Many models of hydrology assume that an increase in air temperature will result in an increase in evaporation. However, there are some processes involved in transpiration (evaporation through the vegetation) that make the relationship more complicated: in a bid to conserve water, vegetation will reduce their stomata in response to drier soils and warmer drier air which leads to lower transpiration rates despite higher evaporative demands. In addition, the vegetation responds to increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide by closing their stomata, and this further reduces the transpiration. The JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) model, used widely in the UK to study the impacts of climate change on the environment, includes many of the processes that are likely to affect changes in water loss and its impact on large scale hydrology. A new assessment of the UK wide water balance for the last 52 years (1961 to 2013) at a 1km grid-scale has been made using this model in a system called CHESS (Climate Hydrology and Ecology research Support System). Some data is available to check the overall water balance. For instance, river flow data can be used at an annual time scale to capture the water balance, while evaporation data from flux towers can be used at some locations around the UK for the few years that it is available to evaluate the seasonal variations of evaporation. Both of these methods provide imperfect but useful evidence. Here we present the results of the modelling exercise and the evaluation: long term increasing evaporation loss trends are clearly present in the model output and these are discussed with respect to the different drivers of change.

  6. Alcohol imagery on popularly viewed television in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to alcohol consumption and product imagery in films is associated with increased alcohol consumption among young people, but the extent to which exposure also occurs through television is not clear. We have measured the occurrence of alcohol imagery in prime-time broadcasting on UK free-to-air television channels. Occurrence of alcohol imagery (actual use, implied use, brand appearances or other reference to alcohol) was measured in all broadcasting on the five most popular UK television stations between 6 and 10 p.m. during 3 weeks in 2010, by 1-min interval coding. Alcohol imagery occurred in over 40% of broadcasts, most commonly soap operas, feature films, sport and comedies, and was equally frequent before and after the 9 p.m. watershed. Brand appearances occurred in 21% of programmes, and over half of all sports programmes, a third of soap operas and comedies and a fifth of advertising/trailers. Three brands, Heineken, Budweiser and Carlsberg together accounted for ∼40% of all brand depictions. Young people are exposed to frequent alcohol imagery, including branding, in UK prime-time television. It is likely that this exposure has an important effect on alcohol consumption in young people. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  7. Exploring leadership in the context of dentistry in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcocks, Stephen George

    2016-05-03

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore selective leadership approaches in the context of dentistry in the UK. Design/methodology/approach This is a conceptual paper utilising published sources from relevant literature about leadership theory and practice and the policy background to dentistry in the UK. Findings This paper suggests that there is merit in identifying and applying an eclectic mix of leadership theory to the case of dentistry. It offers insight into individual aspects of the leadership role for dentists and applies this to the dental context. It also contrasts these individual approaches with shared leadership and suggests this may also be relevant to dentistry. It highlights the fact that leadership will be of growing concern for dentistry in the light of recent policy changes. Research limitations/implications This paper points out that there are developmental implications depending on the particular approach taken. It argues that leadership development will become increasingly important in dentistry in the UK. Originality/value This paper addresses a topic that has so far received limited attention in the literature.

  8. UK asbestos imports and mortality due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, C M; Wiggans, R E; Young, C; Fishwick, D

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the rising mortality due to mesothelioma and asbestosis can be predicted from historic asbestos usage. Mortality due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is also rising, without any apparent explanation. To compare mortality due to these conditions and examine the relationship between mortality and national asbestos imports. Mortality data for IPF and asbestosis in England and Wales were available from the Office for National Statistics. Data for mesothelioma deaths in England and Wales and historic UK asbestos import data were available from the Health & Safety Executive. The numbers of annual deaths due to each condition were plotted separately by gender, against UK asbestos imports 48 years earlier. Linear regression models were constructed. For mesothelioma and IPF, there was a significant linear relationship between the number of male and female deaths each year and historic UK asbestos imports. For asbestosis mortality, a similar relationship was found for male but not female deaths. The annual numbers of deaths due to asbestosis in both sexes were lower than for IPF and mesothelioma. The strength of the association between IPF mortality and historic asbestos imports was similar to that seen in an established asbestos-related disease, i.e. mesothelioma. This finding could in part be explained by diagnostic difficulties in separating asbestosis from IPF and highlights the need for a more accurate method of assessing lifetime occupational asbestos exposure. © Crown copyright 2015.

  9. Public preferences regarding rabies-prevention policies in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, M; Barbier, E B; White, P C; Newton-Cross, G A; Kinsella, L; Kennedy, H J

    1999-08-23

    The current 6-month quarantine system for all cats and dogs entering the UK has kept the UK rabies-free since 1922. However, pressure is mounting for a change to a system of vaccination, microchip identification and serological testing. In response to the increasing controversy surrounding the quarantine system, the UK government recently set up an independent review panel to assess the alternatives. This paper quantifies public preferences for the current policy and three alternative rabies-prevention measures. A survey was used not only to assess the overall preferences for rabies-prevention policies but also to assess the importance of policy attributes and socio-economic characteristics in determining policy preferences. We interviewed a sample of pet-owners in North Yorkshire. The results showed that the existing system was the single most-preferred policy option. However, a large proportion of the sample preferred the vaccination-based policies. A logistic-regression model and ordered probit models were used to find that safety and animal welfare were the most-important factors determining policy preferences. The respondents' awareness of the rabies-policy review, a desire to take a pet abroad, the amount of foreign travel, occupation and previous experience of quarantine were all important factors in policy choice. Socio-economic characteristics such as income, pets owned and the number of children were not significant determinants of policy preference.

  10. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottrill, C [Centre for Environmental Strategy, School of Engineering (D3), University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Liverman, D [Institute of the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Boykoff, M, E-mail: c.bottrill@surrey.ac.u, E-mail: liverman@u.arizona.ed, E-mail: boykoff@colorado.ed [CIRES Center for Science and Technology Policy, Environmental Studies and Geography, University of Colorado - Boulder, 1333 Grandview Ave, Campus Box 488, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors-such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities-have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  11. Drug harms in the UK: a multicriteria decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J; King, Leslie A; Phillips, Lawrence D

    2010-11-06

    Proper assessment of the harms caused by the misuse of drugs can inform policy makers in health, policing, and social care. We aimed to apply multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) modelling to a range of drug harms in the UK. Members of the Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs, including two invited specialists, met in a 1-day interactive workshop to score 20 drugs on 16 criteria: nine related to the harms that a drug produces in the individual and seven to the harms to others. Drugs were scored out of 100 points, and the criteria were weighted to indicate their relative importance. MCDA modelling showed that heroin, crack cocaine, and metamfetamine were the most harmful drugs to individuals (part scores 34, 37, and 32, respectively), whereas alcohol, heroin, and crack cocaine were the most harmful to others (46, 21, and 17, respectively). Overall, alcohol was the most harmful drug (overall harm score 72), with heroin (55) and crack cocaine (54) in second and third places. These findings lend support to previous work assessing drug harms, and show how the improved scoring and weighting approach of MCDA increases the differentiation between the most and least harmful drugs. However, the findings correlate poorly with present UK drug classification, which is not based simply on considerations of harm. Centre for Crime and Justice Studies (UK). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Survey of intrathecal opioid usage in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, M; Bedforth, N; Aitkenhead, A

    2008-02-01

    Intrathecal opioids are now used routinely in the UK for intra- and postoperative analgesia. The opioids of choice have altered over recent years and the dosage regimens used can vary between institutions. Concerns over safety have been reduced probably because much lower doses of opioids are now being used. This survey explored the practice of intrathecal opioid usage in the UK. We sent a questionnaire survey to 270 anaesthetic departments and received 199 replies, a response rate of 73.7%. Intrathecal opioids were used in 175 (88.4%) departments. Of these departments, 107 (61.1%) had local guidelines or protocols in place. Opioids such as diamorphine (used in 136 (78.2%) of departments) and fentanyl (129 (74.1%)) with a shorter duration of action are now more commonly used than morphine (37 (21.3%)) for intrathecal analgesia. In 96 (54.5%) departments, patients were nursed on regular surgical wards following administration of spinal opioids. The use of low-dose lipophilic intrathecal opioids for postoperative analgesia is widespread in the UK. Patients are commonly nursed in low-dependency post-anaesthetic care areas. The low incidence of adverse events reported by the respondents along with the popularity of the technique suggests that low-dose spinal opioid administration is safe.

  13. US line-ups outperform UK line-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale-Carlisle, Travis M; Mickes, Laura

    2016-09-01

    In the USA and the UK, many thousands of police suspects are identified by eyewitnesses every year. Unfortunately, many of those suspects are innocent, which becomes evident when they are exonerated by DNA testing, often after having been imprisoned for years. It is, therefore, imperative to use identification procedures that best enable eyewitnesses to discriminate innocent from guilty suspects. Although police investigators in both countries often administer line-up procedures, the details of how line-ups are presented are quite different and an important direct comparison has yet to be conducted. We investigated whether these two line-up procedures differ in terms of (i) discriminability (using receiver operating characteristic analysis) and (ii) reliability (using confidence-accuracy characteristic analysis). A total of 2249 participants watched a video of a crime and were later tested using either a six-person simultaneous photo line-up procedure (USA) or a nine-person sequential video line-up procedure (UK). US line-up procedure yielded significantly higher discriminability and significantly higher reliability. The results do not pinpoint the reason for the observed difference between the two procedures, but they do suggest that there is much room for improvement with the UK line-up.

  14. Medical student fitness to practise committees at UK medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldridge Jocelyne

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to explore the structures for managing student fitness to practise hearings in medical schools in the UK. We surveyed by email the named fitness to practise leads of all full members of the UK Medical Schools Council with a medical undergraduate programme. We asked whether student fitness to practise cases were considered by a committee/panel dedicated to medicine, or by one which also considered other undergraduate health and social care students. Findings All 31 medical schools responded. 19 medical schools had a fitness to practise committee dealing with medical students only. Three had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and dentistry. One had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and veterinary medicine. Eight had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and two or more other programmes, such as dentistry, nursing, midwifery, physiotherapy, dietetics, social work, pharmacy, psychology, audiology, speech therapy, operating department practice, veterinary medicine and education. Conclusion All 31 UK medical schools with undergraduate programmes have a fitness to practise committee to deal with students whose behaviour has given rise to concern about their fitness to practise. The variation in governance structures for student fitness to practise committees/panels can in part be explained by variations in University structures and the extent to which Universities co-manage undergraduate medicine with other courses.

  15. An overview of occupational hazards amongst UK Otolaryngologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijendren, Ananth; Yung, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Occupational-related hazards (OH) are noted to be prevalent within the medical community. However, there is limited evidence of its effects amongst ENT surgeons. A national survey was carried out with the assistance of ENT-UK to investigate the prevalence of various OH amongst ENT doctors in the UK. A literature search was also conducted to search for articles within English literature worldwide on this subject. 70.6 % of the responding 323 ENT surgeons had reported a form of OH throughout their career. Musculoskeletal pain was the most commonly reported (47.4 %) followed by stress/psychiatric morbidities (38.4 %) and sharps injuries (26.6 %). We found no correlation between OH and consultants/non-consultant status, time spent in ENT and subspecialty. Our literature search revealed 16 articles pertaining to OH amongst ENT doctors. OHs are prevalent within the UK ENT community. There is good evidence within literature on musculoskeletal pain, however, higher level studies are required to thoroughly investigate the other hazards.

  16. Current use of early warning scores in UK emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, James R; Kidney, Elizabeth M

    2012-01-01

    There is recent evidence that the modified early warning scoring systems (MEWS) in the emergency department (ED) can identify patients at risk of deterioration. However, concerns remain that they are not sensitive enough to use as a risk assessment tool. To assess use of MEWS in UK EDs. A postal survey was undertaken of 254 adult EDs within the UK. Questionnaires were sent to the clinical lead at each department about their use of early warning scoring systems. Responses were received from 145 departments giving a response rate of 57%. 87% of respondents are currently using early warning scores (EWS). Of those, 80% are using MEWS. In 71% high EWS results in senior ED review, however in 25% it does not. Less than half of departments use high MEWS to trigger critical care input. 93% of respondents support using EWS in the ED. Despite the lack of strong evidence, the majority of UK EDs are using EWS in some form. MEWS is the most commonly used but departments vary on their use of EWS for senior ED and/or critical care review. Over 90% of respondents in this survey support EWS in the ED.

  17. Storageless and caching Tier-2 models in the UK context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadellin Skipsey, Samuel; Dewhurst, Alastair; Crooks, David; MacMahon, Ewan; Roy, Gareth; Smith, Oliver; Mohammed, Kashif; Brew, Chris; Britton, David

    2017-10-01

    Operational and other pressures have lead to WLCG experiments moving increasingly to a stratified model for Tier-2 resources, where “fat” Tier-2s (“T2Ds”) and “thin” Tier-2s (“T2Cs”) provide different levels of service. In the UK, this distinction is also encouraged by the terms of the current GridPP5 funding model. In anticipation of this, testing has been performed on the implications, and potential implementation, of such a distinction in our resources. In particular, this presentation presents the results of testing of storage T2Cs, where the “thin” nature is expressed by the site having either no local data storage, or only a thin caching layer; data is streamed or copied from a “nearby” T2D when needed by jobs. In OSG, this model has been adopted successfully for CMS AAA sites; but the network topology and capacity in the USA is significantly different to that in the UK (and much of Europe). We present the result of several operational tests: the in-production University College London (UCL) site, which runs ATLAS workloads using storage at the Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) site; the Oxford site, which has had scaling tests performed against T2Ds in various locations in the UK (to test network effects); and the Durham site, which has been testing the specific ATLAS caching solution of “Rucio Cache” integration with ARC’s caching layer.

  18. A survey of UK clinical librarianship: February 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Linda

    2005-03-01

    This article will describe a survey carried out in February 2004, the aim of which was to summarize the form and content of clinical librarian (CL) and other similar outreach information services to UK health professionals in the acute (secondary or tertiary) sector. (i) To survey the activities and views of UK information professionals offering information services involving the librarians' presence in the clinical setting, (ii) to develop a tool to explore critical aspects of this form of information work, (iii) to create a contacts database for UK CLs, to be made available on the Internet. All known information specialists/librarians offering CL or similar services were surveyed. The semi-structured questionnaire was piloted. Respondents were asked to consider their activity over a period of 4 weeks. Twenty-six people responded to the invitation to take part and met the inclusion criteria. A summary of a 'typical' clinical librarian revealed by this survey is given, with a major conclusion that there is a very mixed picture of activity. Opinion on how far CLs should go in fully appraising search results is uncertain. The survey suggests reasons for this and the developments that may influence change are discussed. Recommendations for future research and development are offered.

  19. Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in the Urine of UK Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Wells

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is produced by Fusarium graminearum and is one of the most commonly occurring trichothecenes. Vegetarians are alleged to be a high-risk group for DON exposure due to high intakes of cereals susceptible to the growth of the mycotoxin. This study provides the levels of DON and de-epoxi Deoxynivalenol (DOM-1 in urine analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS in UK vegetarians. Over two consecutive days, morning urine samples were collected from 32 vegetarians and 31 UK adult volunteers, and associated food consumption 24 h prior to the sample was recorded. Statistically significant differences between the weight of the UK adults and vegetarians (t = 3.15. df = 61, p ≤ 0.005 two-tailed were observed. The mean levels of DON in urine for adults on day 1 was 3.05 ng free DON/mg creatinine, and on day 2 was 2.98 ng free DON/mg creatinine. Even though high mean levels were observed, most adults were within the tolerable daily intake. However, for vegetarians, the mean level of urinary DON on day 1 was 6.69 ng free DON/mg creatinine, and on day 2 was 3.42 ng free DON/mg creatinine. These levels equate to up to 32% of vegetarians exceeding recommended tolerable daily intakes (TDI of exposure (1 µg/kg b.w./day.

  20. UK owner preferences for treatment of feline injection site sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carwardine, D; Friend, E; Toscano, M; Bowlt, K

    2014-02-01

    Feline injection site sarcomas are therapeutically challenging because of their locally invasive nature. Several protocols recommend that the two perceived high-risk adjuvanted vaccines should be administered into distinct anatomical sites ("left hind leg leukaemia, right hind leg rabies"), which should aid surgical resection. This has resulted in a change in tumour distribution with an increased proportion situated caudal to the diaphragm when such a policy is adopted. The aim of this study was to determine UK cat owners' attitudes towards surgical treatments of different anatomical regions. A cross-sectional study of an anonymous convenience sample of UK cat owners was conducted from September to December, 2012 using an internet-based survey. There were a total of 208 respondents: 39% would pursue surgery regardless of tumour site. One percent would not pursue surgery. Of the remainder, respondents would not allow amputation of the forelimb (20%), hindlimb (15%) or tail (15%). Twenty-six, 32 and 27% would not have surgical treatment of the inter-scapular region, chest or abdomen, respectively. The majority of respondents were willing to travel up to 100 miles for radiotherapy or chemotherapy (66 and 69%, respectively). The current feline vaccine site recommendations may not be appropriate for UK cat owners. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  1. Critical care pharmacy workforce: UK deployment and characteristics in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthwick, Mark; Barton, Greg; Bourne, Richard S; McKenzie, Catherine

    2017-10-11

    Clinical pharmacists reduce medication errors and optimize the use of medication in critically ill patients, although actual staffing level and deployment of UK pharmacists is unknown. The primary aim was to investigate the UK deployment of the clinical pharmacy workforce in critical care and compare this with published standards. An electronic data entry tool was created and distributed for UK critical care pharmacy services to record their critical care workforce deployment data. Data were received for 279 critical care units in 171 organizations. Clinical pharmacist input was identified for 98.6% of critical care units. The median weekday pharmacist input to critical care was 0.045 whole time equivalents per Level 3 (ICU) bed with significant interregional variation. Weekend services were sparse. Pharmacists spent 24.5% of time on the multidisciplinary team ward round, 58.5% of time on independent patient review and 17% of time on other critical care professional support activities. There is significant variation in staffing levels when services are stratified by highest level of competence of critical care pharmacist within an organization (P = 0.03), with significant differences in time spent on the multi-disciplinary ward round (P = 0.010) and on other critical care activities (P = 0.009), but not on independent patient review. Investment in pharmacy services is required to improve access to clinical pharmacy expertise at weekends, on MDT ward rounds and for other critical care activities. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. A survey of clinical teaching fellowships in UK medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sam; Denison, Alan R; McKenzie, Hamish

    2008-02-01

    Undergraduate medical education in the UK has changed considerably over the last decade. One development has involved the creation of teaching-specific posts for junior doctors by medical schools. These posts are generally termed 'clinical teaching fellowships', but it is not known how many of them exist, or whether they are similar in terms of educational activities, professional development, and research and clinical experience opportunities. Teaching deans in all UK medical schools were sent a questionnaire relating to clinical teaching fellowships, and were asked to distribute a second set of different questionnaires to their clinical teaching fellows, which were to be returned to the authors separately. A total of 28 deans and 46 fellows responded. Fifteen medical schools had clinical teaching fellows and there appeared to be a total of 77 such posts in the UK. There was little uniformity in the activities undertaken within the posts. Deans who employed clinical teaching fellows were unanimously positive regarding the posts. Fellows were generally positive but expressed reservations relating to approval for postgraduate training, career development, deterioration in clinical skills, financial disincentives, credibility within one's own specialty, and provision of training and support. Clinical teaching fellow posts are generally enjoyed by fellows and valued by deans. Fellows carry out differing duties and their training in medical education is variable. The posts can be unstructured and may lack credibility to doctors outside medical education. Providing specific structured training in medical education, recognised at a national level, would help deal with these concerns.

  3. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrill, C.; Liverman, D.; Boykoff, M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors—such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities—have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO2e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO2e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO2e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  4. IQ AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ACROSS REGIONS OF THE UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Noah

    2016-05-01

    Cross-regional correlations between average IQ and socioeconomic development have been documented in many different countries. This paper presents new IQ estimates for the twelve regions of the UK. These are weakly correlated (r=0.24) with the regional IQs assembled by Lynn (1979). Assuming the two sets of estimates are accurate and comparable, this finding suggests that the relative IQs of different UK regions have changed since the 1950s, most likely due to differentials in the magnitude of the Flynn effect, the selectivity of external migration, the selectivity of internal migration or the strength of the relationship between IQ and fertility. The paper provides evidence for the validity of the regional IQs by showing that IQ estimates for UK nations (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) derived from the same data are strongly correlated with national PISA scores (r=0.99). It finds that regional IQ is positively related to income, longevity and technological accomplishment; and is negatively related to poverty, deprivation and unemployment. A general factor of socioeconomic development is correlated with regional IQ at r=0.72.

  5. Sector review of UK higher education energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Ian; Ogbonna, Anthony; Altan, Hasim [Building Energy Analysis Unit, School of Architecture, University of Sheffield, S10 2TN Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    The UK education and education-related services are said to be one of the fastest-growing export earners in recent years and are known to have had significant impacts at the micro- and macro-levels of the UK. This review looks at energy consumption of this fast growing sector. It concentrates on the energy consumption patterns of the funded higher education institutions in the UK. The findings indicate energy consumption in the sector has been on the increase in the 6 years up to 2006; rising by about 2.7% above the 2001 consumption levels. This increase is, however, not evenly spread across the entire sector. The high energy-consuming institutions appear to be increasing their net consumption, relative to other institutions. Gross internal area, staff and research student full-time equivalent were found to have highest correlation with energy consumption across the sector and may be used as proxy indicators for energy consumption as well as the targets of interventions. (author)

  6. Energy efficiency interventions in UK higher education institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altan, Hasim [School of Architecture, The University of Sheffield, Crookesmoor Building, Conduit Road, Sheffield S10 1FL (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    This paper provides an insight into energy efficiency interventions studies, focusing on issues arising in UK higher education institutions (HEIs) in particular. Based on a review of the context for energy efficiency and carbon reduction programmes in the UK and the trends in higher education sector, existing external and internal policies and initiatives and their relevant issues are extensively discussed. To explore the efficacy of some internal intervention strategies, such as technical, non-technical and management interventions, a survey was conducted among UK higher education institutions between February and April 2008. Consultation responses show that there are a relatively high percentage of institutions (83%) that have embarked on both technical and non-technical initiatives, which is a demonstration to the joined-up approach in such area. Major barriers for intervention studies are also identified, including lack of methodology, non-clarity of energy demand and consumption issues, difficulty in establishing assessment boundaries, problems with regards to indices and their effectiveness and so on. Besides establishing clear targets for carbon reductions within the sector, it is concluded that it is important to develop systems for effectively measuring and evaluating the impact of different policies, regulations and schemes in the future as the first step to explore. (author)

  7. INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS CONTRIBUTION TO BUSINESS SCHOOLS IN THE UK HEIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Uyi OMORUYI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available International students’ contribution to Higher Education Institutions (HEIs tends to be considered from different aspects. There is an inadequate substantiation base that would allow academics, researchers and other stakeholders understand the importance of overseas students in the UK Business Schools. This paper investigates the contribution of international students to Business School in the UK HEIs. The research was exploratory and part of a bigger project on how and why Business Schools in the UK use Relationship Marketing to retain international students. It employed semi-structured interviews with 18 members of staff from four Business Schools in the North of England. Findings indicate that international students’ definition tends to differ amongst staff members within the Business Schools. Business Schools’ management perceive overseas students as an integral part of their institutions, especially as their overall contributions cannot be over-emphasised. The sample size and use of semi-structured interviews, as a single data gathering strategy, does not allow broad generalisation of findings. The obtained evidence can still be used as a platform for further research in this area.

  8. Developing a Broadband Adoption Model in the UK Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Yogesh K.; Mustafee, Navonil; Williams, Michael D.; Lal, Banita

    This research examines the factors affecting the consumer adoption of broadband in the United Kingdom. A conceptual model of broadband adoption was developed by selecting and justifying a number of relevant constructs from the technology adoption literature. The model was then empirically tested by employing survey data that was randomly collected from 358 UK broadband consumers. The findings suggest that, with the exception of one construct that was included in the conceptual model (namely, knowledge), all of the con structs significantly influence consumers when adopting broadband in a UK household. The significant constructs include relative advantage, utilitarian outcomes, hedonic outcomes, primary influence, facilitating conditions resources, and self-efficacy. Furthermore, when considering the behavioral intention and facilitating conditions resources constructs together, they significantly explain UK broad band adoption behavior. The theoretical contri bution of this research is that it determines and integrates the appropriate constructs from the technology adoption literature in order to enhance the knowledge of technology adoption from the consumer's perspective. This research has implications for policy makers and broadband providers since the results of this study can be exploited by the aforementioned stakeholders in order to encourage and promote the adoption and usage of broadband among the general population.

  9. Landslide response signatures from storm Desmond (UK)/Synne (Norway), December 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Tom; Freeborough, Katy; Reeves, Helen; Nykjaer, Boje Soren; Sund, Monica; Devoli, Graziella; Banks, Vanessa

    2016-04-01

    Great Britain (GB) and coastal Norway share a common humid maritime climate and annually receive precipitation in the form of cyclonic low-pressure systems or as extra-tropical storms that travel across the Atlantic. Extreme meteorological events capable of triggering floods and landslides are becoming more frequent, with both GB and Norway being affected by a sequence of record-breaking precipitation events in the past decade. On the 5th and 6th of December 2015, storms Desmond/Synne struck northern GB and southwestern Norway with record-breaking rainfall; >340 mm in 24-hour in Cumbria (or 200% of long term average) and daily accumulations in Norway in excess of 140 mm and 236 mm/48hr. Landscape responses to hydro-meteorological stress are non-uniform and the result of a complex interaction of processes. Therefore, event-specific analysis provides an important tool to further our understanding, particularly to enhance the quality of daily landslide hazard assessments (DLHA) issued by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) and the British Geological Survey (BGS). The application of precipitation thresholds provides a useful first approximation for landslide triggering. However, antecedent conditioning of slopes and the spatial variability of precipitation signatures are important factors in determining the location of landslides. Given the magnitude of storms Desmond/Synne a much larger population of landslides was expected to occur. Within one month of the events occurring some 25 events are recorded in GB and circa 30 events in Norway. In GB most of these events are relatively small scale, dominated by translational slides and flows and about 80% of cases reported to occur along transport infrastructure. In Norway, roughly equal numbers of debris flows, shallow slides, rock falls, slush flows and snow avalanches are recorded in close proximity to infrastructure. As the media largely focused on simultaneous severe consequences of extensive

  10. Health and lifestyle of Nepalese migrants in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Teijlingen Edwin R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health status and lifestyle of migrants is often poorer than that of the general population of their host countries. The Nepalese represent a relatively small, but growing, immigrant community in the UK, about whom very little is known in term of public health. Therefore, our study examined the health and lifestyle of Nepalese migrants in the UK. Methods A cross-sectional survey of Nepalese migrants in UK was conducted in early 2007 using a postal, self-administered questionnaire in England and Scotland (n = 312, and telephone interviews in Wales (n = 15. The total response rate was 68% (327 out of 480. Data were analyzed to establish whether there are associations between socio-economic and lifestyle factors. A multivariate binary logistic regression was applied to find out independent effect of personal factors on health status. Results The majority of respondents was male (75%, aged between 30 and 45 (66%, married or had a civil partner (83%, had university education (47% and an annual family income (69% ranging from £5,035 to £33,300. More than one third (39% of the respondents have lived in the UK for 1 to 5 years and approximately half (46% were longer-term residents. Most (95% were registered with a family doctor, but only 38% with a dentist. A low proportion (14% of respondents smoked but more than half (61% consumed alcohol. More than half (57% did not do regular exercises and nearly one fourth (23% of respondents rated their health as poor. Self reported 'good' health status of the respondents was independently associated with immigration status and doing regular exercise Conclusion The self reported health status and lifestyle, health seeking behaviour of Nepalese people who are residing in UK appears to be good. However, the overall regular exercise and dentist registration was rather poor. Health promotion, especially aimed at Nepalese migrants could help encourage them to exercise regularly and assist them

  11. Potential environmental impacts of offshore UK geological CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Kit; Wilkinson, Mark; Butler, Ian B.

    2016-04-01

    Geological carbon dioxide storage in the United Kingdom (UK) will almost certainly be entirely offshore, with storage for over 100 years' worth of UK CO2 output from industry and power generation in offshore depleted hydrocarbon fields and sandstone formations. Storage capacity can be limited by the increase in formation water pressure upon CO2 injection, therefore removal and disposal of formation waters ('produced waters') can control formation water pressures, and increase CO2 storage capacity. Formation waters could also be produced during CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR). The precedent from current UK North Sea hydrocarbon extraction is to 'overboard' produced waters into the ocean, under current regulations. However, laboratory and field scale studies, with an emphasis on the effects on onshore shallow potable groundwaters, have shown that CO2 dissolution in formation waters during injection and storage acidifies the waters and promotes mobilisation from the reservoir sandstones of major and trace elements into solution, including heavy metals. Eight of these elements are specifically identified in the UK as potentially hazardous to the marine environment (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn). A comparison was made between the concentrations of these eight trace elements in the results of laboratory batch leaching experiments of reservoir rock in CO2-rich saline solutions and overboarded waters from current offshore UK hydrocarbon production. This showed that, taking the North Sea as a whole, the experimental results fall within the range of concentrations of current oil and gas activities. However, on a field-by-field basis, concentrations may be enhanced with CO2 storage, such that they are higher than waters normally produced from a particular field. Lead, nickel and zinc showed the greatest concentration increases in the experiments with the addition of CO2, with the other five elements of interest not showing any strong trends with respect to enhanced CO2

  12. Environmental baselines: preparing for shale gas in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, John; Manamsa, Katya; Bell, Rachel; Darling, George; Dochartaigh, Brighid O.; Stuart, Marianne; Ward, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater in the UK. It provides almost 30% of public water supply on average, but locally, for example in south-east England, it is constitutes nearly 90% of public supply. In addition to public supply, groundwater has a number of other uses including agriculture, industry, and food and drink production. It is also vital for maintaining river flows especially during dry periods and so is essential for maintaining ecosystem health. Recently, there have been concerns expressed about the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater. The UK has abundant shales and clays which are currently the focus of considerable interest and there is active research into their characterisation, resource evaluation and exploitation risks. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is undertaking research to provide information to address some of the environmental concerns related to the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater resources and quality. The aim of much of this initial work is to establish environmental baselines, such as a baseline survey of methane occurrence in groundwater (National methane baseline study) and the spatial relationships between potential sources and groundwater receptors (iHydrogeology project), prior to any shale gas exploration and development. The poster describes these two baseline studies and presents preliminary findings. BGS are currently undertaking a national survey of baseline methane concentrations in groundwater across the UK. This work will enable any potential future changes in methane in groundwater associated with shale gas development to be assessed. Measurements of methane in potable water from the Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic carbonate and sandstone aquifers are variable and reveal methane concentrations of up to 500 micrograms per litre, but the mean value is relatively low at values compare with much higher levels of methane in aquicludes and thermal waters, for example

  13. UK Renal Registry 16th annual report: chapter 2 UK RRT prevalence in 2012: national and centre-specific analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Catriona; Pitcher, David; Pruthi, Rishi; Fogarty, Damian

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the characteristics of adult patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the UK in 2012. Data were electronically collected from all 71 renal centres within the UK. A series of crosssectional and longitudinal analyses were performed to describe the demographics of prevalent RRT patients in 2012 at centre and national level. There were 54,824 adult patients receiving RRT in the UK on 31st December 2012. The UK adult prevalence of RRT was 861 pmp. This represented an annual increase in absolute prevalent numbers of approximately 3.7%, although there was variation between centres and Primary Care and Health Board areas. The actual number of patients increased across all modalities: 2.3% haemodialysis (HD), 0.3% peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 5.6% for those with a functioning transplant. The number of patients receiving home HD has increased by 19.3% since 2011. Median RRT vintage for patients on HD was 3.4 years, PD 1.7 years and for those patients with a transplant, 10.2 years. The median age of prevalent patients was 58 years (HD 66 years, PD 63 years, transplant 52 years) compared to 55 years in 2005. For all ages the prevalence rate in men exceeded that in women. The most common recorded renal diagnosis was glomerulonephritis (biopsy proven/not biopsy proven) (18.8%). Transplantation was the most common treatment modality (50.4%) The HD and transplant population continued to expand; the decline in the size of the prevalent PD population has plateaued. There were national, regional and dialysis centre level variations in prevalence rates. Prevalent patients were on average three years older than the prevalent RRT cohort 7 years ago. This has continued implications for service planning and ensuring equity of care for RRT patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home's total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the 'ground truth' demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset.

  15. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-03-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home’s total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the ‘ground truth’ demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset.

  16. Malaria knowledge and utilization of chemoprophylaxis in the UK population and in UK passengers departing to malaria-endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Ron H; Alexander, Neal

    2013-12-21

    The burden of imported malaria is predominantly in travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) in sub-Saharan Africa. The failure of this group to use chemoprophylaxis is recognized as the most important risk factor for the high incidence of disease. Understanding the reasons for failure to follow national recommendations may relate to knowledge, risk perception, cost, and peer pressure. Research into these variables is critical to understand and change practices in this group and this study was designed to explore whether knowledge, risk perception and prophylaxis use differs between travellers' to various destinations and the rest of the UK population. Two face-to-face questionnaire surveys were conducted to collect information on demographics, malaria knowledge, source, and quality of pre-travel advice, past travel experience and perceived malaria threat. One was an IPSOS survey of individuals representative of the UK population. The other was a departure lounge survey (Civil Aviation Authority (CAA)) of passengers departing to malarious regions detailing destinations and use of chemoprophylaxis. Around a quarter of the 1,991 UK population surveyed had previously travelled to a malarious area. Five-hundred departing passengers were interviewed, of which 80% travelled for leisure (56% VFR's) and 42% were travelling to West Africa. Malaria knowledge among the UK population (score 58.6) was significantly lower than that of individuals who had previously travelled or were travelling (63.8 and 70.7 respectively). Malaria knowledge was similar in individuals who had and had not sought pre-travel advice and travellers using and not using chemoprophylaxis for their journey. Leisure travellers to Ghana and Nigeria were predominantly VFRs (74%), whilst 66% of travellers to Kenya were tourists. Despite similar high knowledge scores and perceived (>90%) threat of the lethality of malaria in the three groups, chemoprophylaxis use in Nigerians (50%) was substantially

  17. Radiotherapy physics research in the UK: challenges and proposed solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, R I; Burnet, N G; Green, S; Illidge, T M; Staffurth, J N

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the Clinical and Translational Radiotherapy Research Working Group (CTRad) of the National Cancer Research Institute brought together UK radiotherapy physics leaders for a think tank meeting. Following a format that CTRad had previously and successfully used with clinical oncologists, 23 departments were asked to complete a pre-meeting evaluation of their radiotherapy physics research infrastructure and the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats within their own centre. These departments were brought together with the CTRad Executive Group and research funders to discuss the current state of radiotherapy physics research, perceived barriers and possible solutions. In this Commentary, we summarise the submitted materials, presentations and discussions from the meeting and propose an action plan. It is clear that there are challenges in both funding and staffing of radiotherapy physics research. Programme and project funding streams sometimes struggle to cater for physics-led work, and increased representation on research funding bodies would be valuable. Career paths for academic radiotherapy physicists need to be examined and an academic training route identified within Modernising Scientific Careers; the introduction of formal job plans may allow greater protection of research time, and should be considered. Improved access to research facilities, including research linear accelerators, would enhance research activity and pass on developments to patients more quickly; research infrastructure could be benchmarked against centres in the UK and abroad. UK National Health Service departments wishing to undertake radiotherapy research, with its attendant added value for patients, need to develop a strategy with their partner higher education institution, and collaboration between departments may provide enhanced opportunities for funded research.

  18. Hirschsprung's disease in the UK and Ireland: incidence and anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradnock, T J; Knight, M; Kenny, S; Nair, M; Walker, G M

    2017-08-01

    To describe clinical characteristics and preoperative management of a national cohort of infants with Hirschsprung's disease (HD). Population-based cohort study of all live-born infants with HD born in the UK and Ireland from October 2010 to September 2012. All 28 paediatric surgical centres in the UK and Ireland. 305 infants presenting before 6 months of age with histologically proven HD. Incidence, clinical characteristics including gestational age, birth weight, gender, associated anomalies; age and clinical features at presentation; and use of rectal washouts or stoma. The incidence of HD in the UK and Ireland was 1.8 per 10 000 live births (95% CI 1.5 to 1.9). Male to female ratio was 3.3:1. An associated anomaly was identified in 23% (69), with 15% (47) having a recognisable syndrome. The proportion of infants who presented and were diagnosed in the neonatal period was 91.5% (279) and 83.9% (256), respectively. 23.9% (73) and 44.2% (135) passed meconium within 24 and 48 hours of birth. 81% (246) first presented to a hospital without tertiary paediatric surgical services, necessitating interhospital transfer. Initial colonic decompression was by rectal washouts in 86.2% (263) and by defunctioning stoma in 12.8% (39). Subsequently, 27.4% (72) of infants failed management with rectal washouts and required a delayed stoma, resulting in 36.4% (111) of infants having a stoma. In this population-based cohort, presentation outside the neonatal period was rare. Nearly half of the infants with HD passed meconium within 48 hours of birth and over one third were managed with a stoma. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Radiotherapy physics research in the UK: challenges and proposed solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, R I; Burnet, N G; Green, S; Illidge, T M; Staffurth, J N

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Clinical and Translational Radiotherapy Research Working Group (CTRad) of the National Cancer Research Institute brought together UK radiotherapy physics leaders for a think tank meeting. Following a format that CTRad had previously and successfully used with clinical oncologists, 23 departments were asked to complete a pre-meeting evaluation of their radiotherapy physics research infrastructure and the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats within their own centre. These departments were brought together with the CTRad Executive Group and research funders to discuss the current state of radiotherapy physics research, perceived barriers and possible solutions. In this Commentary, we summarise the submitted materials, presentations and discussions from the meeting and propose an action plan. It is clear that there are challenges in both funding and staffing of radiotherapy physics research. Programme and project funding streams sometimes struggle to cater for physics-led work, and increased representation on research funding bodies would be valuable. Career paths for academic radiotherapy physicists need to be examined and an academic training route identified within Modernising Scientific Careers; the introduction of formal job plans may allow greater protection of research time, and should be considered. Improved access to research facilities, including research linear accelerators, would enhance research activity and pass on developments to patients more quickly; research infrastructure could be benchmarked against centres in the UK and abroad. UK National Health Service departments wishing to undertake radiotherapy research, with its attendant added value for patients, need to develop a strategy with their partner higher education institution, and collaboration between departments may provide enhanced opportunities for funded research. PMID:22972972

  20. Paediatric surgery: trends in UK surgical trainees' operative experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngson, G G; Adams, S; Winton, E

    2006-02-01

    This study assesses the effects of the reconfiguration of postgraduate surgical training and changes to work patterns through legislation within UK on the operative experience of trainees completing specialty training in paediatric surgery. Data were collected from the consolidation record of operative experience submitted by every candidate sitting the Intercollegiate Specialty Board Examination in Paediatric Surgery in UK from 1996 through 2004. A number of index procedures were chosen as surrogates of the overall operative experience and underwent detailed analysis. These comprised operations performed in the following categories: Neonatal Surgery, General Paediatric Surgery, Paediatric Urology, Paediatric Oncology, and Emergency Paediatric Surgery. Sixty-three sets of data comprising 12,866 operations were ultimately identified as being suitable for analysis. The average number of operations performed annually by trainees increased over the study period as did the number in each of the operative categories. The number of operations performed with senior assistance or supervision increased over this period by an average of 12.5%. This trend was also evident in emergency surgery where the average number of sample procedures performed by trainees increased by 28% over the study period. In 1995, reforms to the training grade within UK reduced the time spent in specialist training from a previously unregulated period to 72 months of higher surgical training. Subsequent directives in response to health and safety legislation have further abbreviated the length of time spent at the workplace, initially to 72 hours and more recently to 58 hours per week. This combination has been generally perceived throughout the surgical community as prejudicial to acquisition of clinical and operative competence. This study, however, fails to endorse this perception and suggests to the contrary that perhaps through increased delegation, the volume of training operations is being

  1. Training on handover of patient care within UK medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Much evidence exists to demonstrate that poor handover can directly impact patient safety. There have been calls for formal education on handover, but evidence to guide intervention design and implementation is limited. It is unclear how undergraduate medical schools are tackling this issue and what barrier or facilitators exist to handover education. We set out to determine curriculum objectives, teaching and assessment methods, as well as institutional attitudes towards handover within UK medical schools. Methods: A descriptive, non-experimental, cross-sectional study design was used. A locally developed online questionnaire survey was sent to all UK Medical Schools, after piloting. Descriptive statistics were calculated for closed-ended responses, and free text responses were analysed using a grounded theory approach, with constant comparison taking place through several stages of analysis. Results: Fifty percent of UK medical schools took part in the study. Nine schools (56% reported having curriculum outcomes for handover. Significant variations in the teaching and assessments employed were found. Qualitative analysis yielded four key themes: the importance of handover as an education issue, when to educate on handover, the need for further provision of teaching and the need for validated assessment tools to support handover education. Conclusions: Whilst undergraduate medical schools recognised handover as an important education issue, they do not feel they should have the ultimate responsibility for training in this area and as such are responding in varying ways. Undergraduate medical educators should seek to reach consensus as to the extent of provision they will offer. Weaknesses in the literature regarding how to design such education have exacerbated the problem, but the contemporaneous and growing published evidence base should be employed by educators to address this issue.

  2. Researching primary engineering education: UK perspectives, an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robin; Andrews, Jane

    2010-10-01

    This paper draws attention to the findings of an exploratory study that critically identified and analysed relevant perceptions of elementary level engineering education within the UK. Utilising an approach based upon grounded theory methodology, 30 participants including teachers, representatives of government bodies and non-profit providers of primary level engineering initiatives were interviewed. Three main concepts were identified during the analysis of findings, each relevant to primary engineering education. These were pedagogic issues, exposure to engineering within the curriculum and children's interest. The paper concludes that the opportunity to make a real difference to children's education by stimulating their engineering imagination suggests this subject area is of particular value.

  3. Ammonia emissions from non-agricultural sources in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, M. A.; Dragosits, U.; Tang, Y. S.; Fowler, D.

    A detailed literature review has been undertaken of the magnitude of non-agricultural sources of ammonia (NH 3) in the United Kingdom. Key elements of the work included estimation of nitrogen (N) excreted by different sources (birds, animals, babies, human sweat), review of miscellaneous combustion sources, as well as identification of industrial sources and use of NH 3 as a solvent. Overall the total non-agricultural emission of NH 3 from the UK in 1996 is estimated here as 54 (27-106) kt NH 3-N yr -1, although this includes 11 (6-23) kt yr -1 from agriculture related sources (sewage sludge spreading, biomass burning and agro-industry). Compared with previous estimates for 1990, component source magnitudes have changed both because of revised average emissions per source unit (emission factors) and changes in the source activity between 1990 and 1996. Sources with larger average emission factors than before include horses, wild animals and sea bird colonies, industry, sugar beet processing, household products and non-agricultural fertilizer use, with the last three sources being included for the first time. Sources with smaller emission factors than before include: land spreading of sewage sludge, direct human emissions (sweat, breath, smoking, infants), pets (cats and dogs) and fertilizer manufacture. Between 1990 and 1996 source activities increased for sewage spreading (due to reduced dumping at sea) and transport (due to increased use of catalytic converters), but decreased for coal combustion. Combined with the current UK estimates of agricultural NH 3 emissions of 229 kt N yr -1 (1996), total UK NH 3 emissions are estimated at 283 kt N yr -1. Allowing for an import of reduced nitrogen (NH x) of 30 kt N yr -1 and deposition of 230 kt N yr -1, these figures imply an export of 83 kt NH 3-N yr -1. Although export is larger than previously estimated, due to the larger contribution of non-agricultural NH 3 emissions, it is still insufficient to balance the UK

  4. Aeroelastic analysis facilities for UK wind turbines. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIver, D.B.; Wooton, L.R.

    1984-04-01

    The results of a study to assess the suitability of existing wind turbine aeroelastic computer programs for a long-term commitment of the UK to wind turbine design are presented. The assessment of the programs has been made on the basis of how they compare with modern software engineering practice; the perceived future requirements of wind turbine design; the validity of their theoretical bases and their available facilities. It is concluded that there does not yet appear to be a definitive mathematical formulation of the wind turbine aeroelastic problem.

  5. The discovery of fear of crime in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Mike

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores the way in which the fear of crime emerged as a policy issue and as a criminological topic in the United Kingdom in the early 1980s. The British Crime Survey (BCS, now CSEW) was the first large-scale survey to attempt to measure fear of crime in the UK. It included questions asking if respondents felt safe out alone at night, and whether they worried about becoming the victim of various crimes. The first BCS report suggested that fear of crime was inflated by media accou...

  6. The injured mind in the UK Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, N; Jones, E; Jones, N; Fear, N T; Wessely, S

    2011-01-27

    The mental health of the UK Armed Forces is a topic much debated by healthcare professionals, politicians and the media. While the current operations in Afghanistan, and the recent conflict in Iraq, are relevant to this debate, much of what is known about the effects of war upon the psyche still derives from the two World Wars. This paper will examine the historical and contemporary evidence about why it is that some Service personnel suffer psychological injuries during their military service and others do not. The paper will also consider some of the strategies that today's Armed Forces have put in place to mitigate the effects of sending military personnel into danger.

  7. Mineral waste in the UK : innovation, optimisation and recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Mineral waste is largely an unavoidable by-product of the extraction, processing and production of mineral-based products. The UK is well-endowed with mineral resources which have been worked for thousands of years resulting in millions of tonnes of mineral waste across the country. The most significant mineral resource worked was coal with more than 26,000 million tonnes of coal produced and 3600 million tonnes of waste rock. Other significant volumes of mineral waste were derived from m...

  8. The Participatory Turn in UK Radioactive Waste Management Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Peter [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences; Bickerstaff, Karen [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography

    2006-09-15

    The history of radioactive waste management policy in the UK has, in common with many other countries, been one characterised by crisis. A study of UK radioactive waste management (RWM) policy published in 1991 begins with the claim that 'What is distinctive about the British context is that crisis has not produced new commitments to resolving the problems of radwaste management'. As this paper will illustrate, current activity suggests that this assertion no longer holds true. Rather, the UK has witnessed a renewed commitment to addressing the problem accompanied by a significant shift in approach to RWM decision making. This shift was precipitated by the failure in 1997 of the technocratic strategy that hitherto had been pursued by government and by the nuclear industry but has also been influenced by a number of other contributory factors. What we now see in the UK is a proliferation of stakeholder involvement (SI) initiatives in the RWM and related fields, a situation that poses new questions and potentially new problems. In this paper we outline the historical developments that preceded this change, examine the current situation and finally review the question of whether this reconfigured landscape of SI amounts to a radical shift in policy and practice that has produced, or is likely to produce, new commitments to resolving the problems of RWM. We have identified five issues raised by stakeholders: (i) the strains created by the demands placed on limited stakeholder capacity are for some organisations and individuals becoming difficult to manage; (ii) there is an associated problem of participation fatigue or exhaustion resulting from the demands on stakeholders called to participate in multiple processes, which is seen by some NGO critics as a cynical strategy of attrition designed to co-opt and wear down potential opposition - and both of these problems increase the risk of stakeholder withdrawal; (iii) concerns about the problem of policy

  9. Incidence of cancer among UK Gulf war veterans: cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Gj; Biggs, Am; Maconochie, N; Hotopf, M; Doyle, P; Lunt, M

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether incidence rates of cancer are higher in UK service personnel who were deployed in the Gulf war than in those not deployed and whether any increased risk of cancer is related to self reported exposures to potentially hazardous material during the period of deployment. Design A cohort study with follow up from 1 April 1991 (the end of the Gulf war) to 31 July 2002. Participants 51721 Gulf war veterans and 50 755 service personnel matched for age, sex, rank, servi...

  10. A Fresh Start for Flood Estimation in Ungauged UK Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giani, Giulia; Woods, Ross

    2017-04-01

    The standard regression-based method for estimating the median annual flood in ungauged UK catchments has a high standard error (95% confidence interval is +/- a factor of 2). This is also the dominant source of uncertainty in statistical estimates of the 100-year flood. Similarly large uncertainties have been reported elsewhere. These large uncertainties make it difficult to do reliable flood design estimates for ungauged catchments. If the uncertainty could be reduced, flood protection schemes could be made significantly more cost-effective. Here we report on attempts to develop a new practical method for flood estimation in ungauged UK catchments, by making more use of knowledge about rainfall-runoff processes. Building on recent research on the seasonality of flooding, we first classify more than 1000 UK catchments into groups according to the seasonality of extreme rainfall and floods, and infer possible causal mechanisms for floods (e.g. Berghuijs et al, Geophysical Research Letters, 2016). For each group we are developing simplified rainfall-runoff-routing relationships (e.g. Viglione et al, Journal of Hydrology, 2010) which can account for spatial and temporal variability in rainfall and flood processes, as well as channel network routing effects. An initial investigation by Viglione et al suggested that the relationship between rainfall amount and flood peak could be summarised through a dimensionless response number that represents the product of the event runoff coefficient and a measure of hydrograph peakedness. Our hypothesis is that this approach is widely applicable, and can be used as the basis for flood estimation. Using subdaily and daily rainfall-runoff data for more than 1000 catchments, we identify a subset of catchments in the west of the UK where floods are generated predominantly in winter through the coincidence of heavy rain and low soil moisture deficits. Floods in these catchments can reliably be simulated with simple rainfall

  11. Survival of incident RRT patients in the UK (chapter 12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, David; Roderick, Paul; Udayaraj, Uday; van Schalkwyk, Dirk; Tomson, Charlie

    2007-08-01

    This analysis presents the survival of patients starting renal replacement therapy (RRT) in UK renal units ('centres'), and includes an analysis of survival by centre. Data from 59 of the 70 UK centres are included. This is the first year that UK centre anonymity has been removed from analysis of patient survival by centre. Survival after adjustment for comorbidity is also reported for the first time although this analysis is restricted to those centres returning data on comorbidity in at least 85% of incident patients. The importance of adjusting for comorbidity can be seen in that for one centre, after adjustment of survival for age and diagnosis, the adjusted 1 year after 90 day survival was 84.6%. After adjusting to the average comorbidity present across centres, survival increased to 90.4%. Improved comorbidity data returns by renal units may require investment in informatics staff and creating structural process at renal unit level for clinicians to support these data returns. From the date of first RRT, the 1 year survival of all patients (unadjusted for age) is 79%. From the 90th day of RRT (to allow comparison with other countries' 1 year survival), the 1 year survival is 83%. The age adjusted (60 years) survival for the 1 year after 90 day period is 86%. There is a high death rate in the first 90 days on RRT (6% of all patients starting RRT), a period not included in reports by many registries and other studies. The 5 year survival (including deaths within the first 90 days) rates are 58, 53, 44, 28, 19 and 12%, respectively for patients aged 18-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74 and >75 years. The 'vintage effect' of increasing hazard of death with length of time on RRT, prominent in data from the US, is only noted in older age groups (65-75 and 75+ years) at 5-6 years after starting RRT. Six centres had a figure for the 1 year after 90 day survival which was outside 2 SDs from the mean for the UK: in three cases this was better survival, and in three

  12. UK Health and Social Care Case Studies: Iterative Technology Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Adie; Gilbert, Laura; Dawson, Tom

    2017-01-01

    As a result of increasing demand in the face of reducing resources, technology has been implemented in many social and health care services to improve service efficiency. This paper outlines the experiences of deploying a 'Software as a Service' application in the UK social and health care sectors. The case studies demonstrate that every implementation is different, and unique to each organisation. Technology design and integration can be facilitated by ongoing engagement and collaboration with all stakeholders, flexible design, and attention to interoperability to suit services and their workflows.

  13. What's in a name? Nominative determinism in the UK dental workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleigh, J

    2016-12-16

    Background Nominative determinism describes the theory that people are more likely to pursue careers that are connected to their names. Compelling research has been carried out across the medical professions that provides strong evidence for this phenomenon, but as yet its applicability to the UK dental workforce remains unknown.Aim The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of dentally-related surnames in the UK dental workforce (dentists and dental care professionals) and compare this to the UK population.Results Dentistry may provide a surprising counter-example to prevailing theories of nominative determinism, as UK dentists are significantly less likely than the UK general population to have dentally-related surnames. This new phenomenon of 'nominative antideterminism' was not observed in the dental care professional (DCP) cohort, for whom the prevalence of dentally-related surnames was similar to that in the wider UK population.

  14. Potential groundwater impact from exploitation of shale gas in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This report is a desk study to evaluate the potential risks to groundwater in the UK from exploitation of shale gas. As yet there is little information for UK so we need to look to the USA experience for transferable information. The UK may possess considerable reserves of shale gas. Significant areas include the Widmerpool Gulf, near Nottingham, and the Elsewick field near Blackpool. Work has begun near Blackpool. Hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) in combination with horizontal drillin...

  15. Study on the availability of UK academic "grey literature" to UK SMEs: Report to the JISC Scholarly Communications Group

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, Alma

    2008-01-01

    This report documents the findings from a small study on the availability of academic grey literature to SMEs (small and medium sized enterprises) in the UK. SMEs do require access to grey literature of various types and would welcome the chance to use reports, survey results, theses and datasets that universities could provide. The problem is discoverability. SMEs turn to trade or professional bodies for this sort of information as a rule, or search the Web, and do not think of the higher ed...

  16. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J D; Wright, D G; Dey, P K; Ghosh, S K; Davies, P A

    2013-11-01

    The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87-92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Misrepresentation of UK homicide characteristics in popular culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J; Hughes, N S; McGlen, M C; Crichton, J H M

    2014-03-01

    The homicide statistics of a popular UK television fictional crime series and the former Lothian & Borders police force region, Scotland were compared. This comparison was used to consider the implications for public attitudes which may influence the adoption of public health interventions to reduce homicide. 217 homicides were identified by 105 perpetrators in the television series 'Midsomer Murders' between 1997 and 2011; these were compared to 55 homicides by 53 perpetrators in the regional sample between 2006 and 2011. The numbers of serial killings (p < 0.0001), planned homicides, female perpetrators (p < 0.0001), shootings (p = 0.0456) and poisonings (p = 0.0289) were higher in the fictional sample. Lothian & Borders cases were almost all single killings, mostly unplanned, with a far greater rate of homicide by kitchen knives (p < 0.0001) and hitting/kicking (p = 0.0005) by intoxicated perpetrators. Control of access to pointed kitchen knives by members of certain groups may reduce homicide rates. If the popular perception of UK homicides is influenced by popular culture, the importance of such a public health intervention may not be apparent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Diabetes care provision in UK primary care practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Hawthorne

    Full Text Available Although most people with Type 2 diabetes receive their diabetes care in primary care, only a limited amount is known about the quality of diabetes care in this setting. We investigated the provision and receipt of diabetes care delivered in UK primary care.Postal surveys with all healthcare professionals and a random sample of 100 patients with Type 2 diabetes from 99 UK primary care practices.326/361 (90.3% doctors, 163/186 (87.6% nurses and 3591 patients (41.8% returned a questionnaire. Clinicians reported giving advice about lifestyle behaviours (e.g. 88% would routinely advise about calorie restriction; 99.6% about increasing exercise more often than patients reported having received it (43% and 42% and correlations between clinician and patient report were low. Patients' reported levels of confidence about managing their diabetes were moderately high; a median (range of 21% (3% to 39% of patients reporting being not confident about various areas of diabetes self-management.Primary care practices have organisational structures in place and are, as judged by routine quality indicators, delivering high quality care. There remain evidence-practice gaps in the care provided and in the self confidence that patients have for key aspects of self management and further research is needed to address these issues. Future research should use robust designs and appropriately designed studies to investigate how best to improve this situation.

  19. Diabetes care provision in UK primary care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Gillian; Hrisos, Susan; Stamp, Elaine; Elovainio, Marko; Francis, Jill J; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Hunter, Margaret; Johnston, Marie; Presseau, Justin; Steen, Nick; Eccles, Martin P

    2012-01-01

    Although most people with Type 2 diabetes receive their diabetes care in primary care, only a limited amount is known about the quality of diabetes care in this setting. We investigated the provision and receipt of diabetes care delivered in UK primary care. Postal surveys with all healthcare professionals and a random sample of 100 patients with Type 2 diabetes from 99 UK primary care practices. 326/361 (90.3%) doctors, 163/186 (87.6%) nurses and 3591 patients (41.8%) returned a questionnaire. Clinicians reported giving advice about lifestyle behaviours (e.g. 88% would routinely advise about calorie restriction; 99.6% about increasing exercise) more often than patients reported having received it (43% and 42%) and correlations between clinician and patient report were low. Patients' reported levels of confidence about managing their diabetes were moderately high; a median (range) of 21% (3% to 39%) of patients reporting being not confident about various areas of diabetes self-management. Primary care practices have organisational structures in place and are, as judged by routine quality indicators, delivering high quality care. There remain evidence-practice gaps in the care provided and in the self confidence that patients have for key aspects of self management and further research is needed to address these issues. Future research should use robust designs and appropriately designed studies to investigate how best to improve this situation.

  20. Attitudes towards protective headgear in UK rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Andrew; Rumbold, James L; Olusoga, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Concussions in rugby union pose a major threat to player welfare. Research has found protective headgear offers no significant protection against concussions but suggests a large proportion of players perceive headgear to be effective in preventing concussions. This study aimed to explore UK rugby union players' attitudes towards wearing protective headgear. 545 rugby union players (85% male) from a range of playing standards completed an online survey. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected on player attitudes towards protective headgear use. Descriptive statistics, multiple regressions and content analysis were used to analyse the responses. 37% of players believed that headgear was effective in preventing head injuries. Playing group was found to be inversely associated with headgear effectiveness (∆ R 2 =0.01, B =-0.13, p=0.02), with youth players holding stronger beliefs that headgear is effective at preventing head injuries compared with all senior groups. The main reasons cited for wearing headgear related to protection from minor injuries (55%) with only 10% of responses related to concussion prevention. There appears to be a good awareness in UK players that protective headgear is not effective at preventing concussions. Continued education is vital to ensure players are fully aware of the limitations of headgear, and players who wear it do not engage in overly reckless behaviours as a result.

  1. Demographics and macroeconomic effects in aesthetic surgery in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C O; Ho-Asjoe, M; Hittinger, R; Nishikawa, H; Waterhouse, N; Coghlan, B; Jones, B

    2004-09-01

    Media interest in aesthetic surgery is substantial and suggestions of demographic changes such as reductions in age or an increase in the number of male patients are common. In spite of this, there is no peer reviewed literature reporting demographics of a contemporary large patient cohort or of the effect of macroeconomic indicators on aesthetic surgery in the UK. In this study, computer records 13006 patients presenting between 1998 and the first quarter of 2003 at a significant aesthetic surgery centre were analysed for procedures undergone, patient age and sex. Male to female ratios for each procedure were calculated and a comparison was made between unit activity and macroeconomic indicators. The results showed that there has been no significant demographic change in the procedures studied with patient age and male to female ratio remaining constant throughout the period studied for each procedure. Comparison with macroeconomic indicators suggested increasing demand for aesthetic surgery in spite of a global recession. In conclusion, media reports of large scale demographic shifts in aesthetic surgery patients are exaggerated. The stability of unit activity in spite of falling national economic indicators suggested that some units in the UK might be relatively immune to economic vagaries. The implications for training are discussed.

  2. Interpretation of medical information acts by UK occupational physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Lucia; Glozier, Nick; Holland-Elliott, Kevin

    2009-05-01

    Difficulties arise in applying the Data Protection Act 1998 and the Access to Medical Reports Act 1988 in occupational health practice. There is no guidance on detailed aspects of applying these Acts in practice and consistent advice has proved difficult to obtain. To audit the understanding and practice of UK occupational physicians to see if a consensus view existed. A postal questionnaire sent to all UK-based Society of Occupational Medicine (SOM) members between December 2005 and June 2006. Responses were analysed using the SPSS 13.0 software. Responses were received from 726 SOM members, a response rate of 48%. The study revealed wide variation and a limited consensus in practice. Significant differences existed between doctors with a Diploma in Occupational Medicine and those with higher Faculty qualifications, between part-time and full-time practitioners and between doctors who qualified pre- and post-1974. The audit revealed wide variation in responding to clinical scenarios in relation to both the Access to Medical Reports and the Data Protection Acts. The findings have implications for clinical practice, policy and research. The majority of respondents reported that national guidance is needed.

  3. Periodontology in the undergraduate curriculum in UK dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heasman, P A; Witter, J; Preshaw, P M

    2015-07-10

    In 1980 the British Society of Periodontology published a series of educational goals which have guided periodontal curricula at UK dental schools. Further, a survey of UK dental schools evaluated aspects of teaching and learning in periodontology. The aims of this project were to identify teaching practices and assessments in periodontology and best practice which may be developed in the future. A questionnaire was sent to dental schools who had participated in the previous survey. The questionnaire sought information on aspects of teaching and learning in periodontology: teaching manpower, curriculum structure, assessment, research opportunities for students and whether implantology is delivered in the undergraduate curriculum. There is consistency between the education providers with respect to teaching and learning in periodontology. Most are developing integrated learning between dental undergraduates and members of the dental team although there are opportunities for further development. Students are expected to have knowledge of complex treatments but are not expected to be competent at undertaking periodontal surgery nor placing and restoring implants. The findings confirm that there is considerable consistency between the education providers with respect to aspects of teaching and learning in periodontology.

  4. Characterization of Hb Lepore variants in the UK population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lina; Kausar, Anika; Old, John M; Henderson, Shirley J; Gallienne, Alice E

    2015-01-01

    A molecular study of Hb Lepore heterozygotes identified by the UK population screening program has revealed four out of the five known Lepore variants. The region of homologous δ- and β-globin gene sequence was determined in 58 unrelated Hb Lepore heterozygotes referred for confirmation of their carrier status by DNA analysis through the national thalassemia and sickle cell screening program over a period of 10 years. The most common variant found was Hb Lepore-Boston-Washington (Hb LBW, HBD: c.265 C > c.315 + 7 C) observed in 46 carriers (79.0%). Hb Lepore-Hollandia (HBD: c.69 A > c.92 + 16 A) was found in nine cases (16.0%); Hb Lepore-Baltimore (HBD: c.208 G > c.254 C) in two cases (4.0%) and Hb Lepore-ARUP (HBD: c.97 C > c.150 C) in one carrier (2.0%). Analysis of the hematological findings showed no significant differences between the four groups. The wide range of Hb Lepore variants observed in this study confirms the very diverse range of α- and β-globin gene mutations observed in the UK population by previous studies.

  5. Ethnicity and Occupational Pension Membership in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Reflecting a relatively low‐value Basic State Pension, occupational pensions have historically been a key aspect of pension protection within Britain. Existing research shows that minority ethnic groups are less likely to benefit from such pensions and are more likely to face poverty in later life, as a result of the interaction of their labour market participation and pension membership patterns. However, the lack of adequate data on ethnic minorities has so far prevented the direct comparison of different ethnic groups, as well as their comparison to the White British group. Using data from the UK Household Longitudinal Study, this article explores patterns of employment and the odds ratios of membership in an employer's pension scheme among working‐age individuals from minority ethnic groups and the White British population, taking into account factors not used by previous research, such as one's migration history and sector of employment (public/private). The analysis provides new empirical evidence confirming that ethnicity remains a strong determinant of one's pension protection prospects through being in paid work, being an employee and working for an employer who offers a pension scheme. However, once an individual is working for an employer offering a pension scheme, the effect of ethnicity on that person's odds of being a member of that scheme reduces, except among Pakistani and Bangladeshi individuals for whom the differentials remain. The article also provides evidence on the pension protection of Polish individuals, a relatively ‘new’ minority group in the UK. PMID:27563161

  6. Cancer survivorship and return to work: UK occupational physician experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ziv; Wynn, Philip; Whitaker, Stuart; Luker, Karen

    2009-09-01

    Survivorship following diagnosis of cancer is increasing in prevalence. However, cancer survivors continue to report difficulty re-entering the workplace after diagnosis and treatment. To survey UK occupational health physicians (OHPs) regarding their role in rehabilitation of employed survivors of cancer. Following a pilot study, a questionnaire exploring opinions of OHPs regarding supporting cancer survivors' return to work was posted to all members of the UK Society of Occupational Medicine, with a repeat posting 2 months later. Responses were analyzed for significant correlations with OHP age, sex, qualification level, size of businesses advised and years of experience. There were 797 respondents (response rate 51%). Responses suggested opportunities for developing the knowledge base in relation to prognosis and functional outcomes in patients with a cancer diagnosis; instituting information resources on cancer and work for OHPs and developing communications skills training. Most respondents felt managers treated referral to occupational health (OH) differently for employees with cancer compared with management referral for employees with other diagnoses, with 45% of respondents indicating referral may take place too late to be effective in securing a return to work. A significant lack of understanding of the information requirements of employers and the role of OH by treating doctors was identified. This survey raises several possible significant barriers to return to work by cancer survivors. Recommendations to ameliorate these are made.

  7. Activity and education of clinical dental technicians: a UK survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M K; Ibbetson, R J; Turner, S

    2007-11-24

    This survey aimed to determine the clinical activity of clinical dental technicians (CDTs) in the UK and to establish their employment status, views of statutory registration and need for further education. Until 2006, this practise was illegal in the UK. A postal questionnaire was sent to 128 members of the Clinical Dental Technicians' Association (CDTA) who had agreed to participate in this study. Analysis was conducted using standard non-parametric statistical tests and quantitative techniques. A response rate of 54% was achieved. Qualifications in clinical dental technology from George Brown College, Toronto, Canada were held by 68%, with 16% currently undergoing training and 16% neither qualified nor in training. The majority (90%) owned a laboratory with 61% stating they had between one and four dental surgeries on site. CDTs with Canadian qualifications tended to provide a wider range of procedures, coupled with patient lists and recall systems, compared to those not so qualified. Eighty-one percent welcomed the prospect of statutory registration with 82% indicating that it would enhance their professional profile. This small but significant survey gives some insight of the work which has been undertaken by CDTs for many years, albeit illegally. With appropriate training and education, and consequent GDC registration, CDTs will be in a position to make a positive contribution to the clinical care of patients.

  8. Education and health knowledge: evidence from UK compulsory schooling reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, David W; Lordan, Grace; Shields, Michael A; Suziedelyte, Agne

    2015-02-01

    We investigate if there is a causal link between education and health knowledge using data from the 1984/85 and 1991/92 waves of the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS). Uniquely, the survey asks respondents what they think are the main causes of ten common health conditions, and we compare these answers to those given by medical professionals to form an index of health knowledge. For causal identification we use increases in the UK minimum school leaving age in 1947 (from 14 to 15) and 1972 (from 15 to 16) to provide exogenous variation in education. These reforms predominantly induced adolescents who would have left school to stay for one additionally mandated year. OLS estimates suggest that education significantly increases health knowledge, with a one-year increase in schooling increasing the health knowledge index by 15% of a standard deviation. In contrast, estimates from instrumental-variable models show that increased schooling due to the education reforms did not significantly affect health knowledge. This main result is robust to numerous specification tests and alternative formulations of the health knowledge index. Further research is required to determine whether there is also no causal link between higher levels of education - such as post-school qualifications - and health knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perceived effect of deployment on families of UK military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandi, G; Greenberg, N; Fear, N T; Jones, N

    2017-10-01

    In the UK, little is known about the perceived effects of deployment, on military families, from military personnel in theatre. To investigate military personnel's perceptions of the impact of deployment on intimate relationships and children. Deployed service personnel who were in a relationship, and who had children, completed a survey while deployed on combat operations. Data were taken from four mental health surveys carried out in Iraq in 2009 and Afghanistan in 2010, 2011 and 2014. Among 4265 participants, after adjusting for military and social-demographic covariates, perceiving that deployment had a negative impact on intimate relationships and children was associated with psychological distress, and traumatic stress symptoms. Military personnel who reported being in danger of being injured or killed during deployment, were more likely to report a perceived negative effect of deployment on their intimate relationships. Reservists were less likely to report a perceived negative impact of deployment on their children compared with regulars. Military personnel who themselves planned to separate from their partner were more likely to report psychological distress, and stressors at home. Perceived insufficient support from the Ministry of Defence was associated with poor mental health, and holding a junior rank. Deployed UK military personnel with symptoms of psychological distress, who experienced stressors at home, were especially likely to perceive that their family were inadequately supported by the military. Those planning to separate from their partner were at increased risk of suffering with mental health problems while deployed.

  10. Post-deployment family violence among UK military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Jamie; Jones, Margaret; Somaini, Greta; Hull, Lisa; Wessely, Simon; Fear, Nicola T; MacManus, Deirdre

    2017-12-19

    Research into violence among military personnel has not differentiated between stranger- and family-directed violence. While military factors (combat exposure and post-deployment mental health problems) are risk factors for general violence, there has been limited research on their impact on violence within the family environment. This study aims to compare the prevalence of family-directed and stranger-directed violence among a deployed sample of UK military personnel and to explore risk factors associated with both family- and stranger-directed violence. This study utilised data from a large cohort study which collected information by questionnaire from a representative sample of randomly selected deployed UK military personnel (n = 6711). The prevalence of family violence immediately following return from deployment was 3.6% and 7.8% for stranger violence. Family violence was significantly associated with having left service, while stranger violence was associated with younger age, male gender, being single, having a history of antisocial behaviour as well as having left service. Deployment in a combat role was significantly associated with both family and stranger violence after adjustment for confounders [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.92 (1.25-2.94), p = 0.003 and aOR = 1.77 (1.31-2.40), p military personnel. Further research using a validated measurement tool for family violence would improve comparability with other research.

  11. Smartphone Applications for the Clinical Oncologist in UK Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozati, Hamoun; Shah, Sonya Pratik; Shah, Neha

    2015-06-01

    A number of medical smartphone applications have been developed to assist clinical oncology specialists. Concerns have arisen that the information provided may not be under sufficient scrutiny. This study aims to analyse the current applications available for clinical oncologists in the UK. Applications aimed specifically at physician clinical oncologists were searched for on the major smartphone operating systems: Apple iOS; Google Android; Microsoft Windows OS; and Blackberry OS. All applications were installed and analysed. The applications were scrutinised to assess the following information: cost; whether the information included was referenced; when the information was last updated; and whether they made any reference to UK guidelines. A novel rating score based on these criteria was applied to each application. Fifty applications were identified: 24 for Apple's iOS; 23 for Google's Android; 2 for Blackberry OS; and 1 for Windows OS. The categories of applications available were: drug reference; journal reference; learning; clinical calculators; decision support; guidelines; and dictionaries. Journal reference and guideline applications scored highly on our rating system. Drug reference application costs were prohibitive. Learning tools were poorly referenced and not up-to-date. Smartphones provide easy access to information. There are numerous applications devoted to oncology physicians, many of which are free and contain referenced, up-to-date data. The cost and quality of drug reference and learning applications have significant scope for improvement. A regulatory body is needed to ensure the presence of peer-reviewed, validated applications to ensure their reliability.

  12. Prevalence of sensitization to 'improver' enzymes in UK supermarket bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M; Welch, J; Turvey, J; Cannon, J; Clark, P; Szram, J; Cullinan, P

    2016-07-01

    Supermarket bakers are exposed not only to flour and alpha-amylase but also to other 'improver' enzymes, the nature of which is usually shrouded by commercial sensitivity. We aimed to determine the prevalence of sensitization to 'improver' enzymes in UK supermarket bakers. We examined the prevalence of sensitization to enzymes in 300 bakers, employed by one of two large supermarket bakeries, who had declared work-related respiratory symptoms during routine health surveillance. Sensitization was determined using radioallergosorbent assay to eight individual enzymes contained in the specific 'improver' mix used by each supermarket. The prevalence of sensitization to 'improver' enzymes ranged from 5% to 15%. Sensitization was far more likely if the baker was sensitized also to either flour or alpha-amylase. The prevalence of sensitization to an 'improver' enzyme did not appear to be related to the concentration of that enzyme in the mix. We report substantial rates of sensitization to enzymes other than alpha-amylase in UK supermarket bakers; in only a small proportion of bakers was there evidence of sensitization to 'improver mix' enzymes without sensitization to either alpha-amylase or flour. The clinical significance of these findings needs further investigation, but our findings indicate that specific sensitization in symptomatic bakers may not be identified without consideration of a wide range of workplace antigens. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Investigating public space exploration support in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entradas, Marta; Miller, Steve

    2010-10-01

    Space agencies such as NASA and ESA have ambitious long-term programmes that mark the beginning of a new era in space exploration where humans will land on Mars; an era requiring public support and, therefore, more consideration for public opinion. Empirical research shows that there are substantial differences in the level of understanding of space exploration among the general public. Studying audiences appears to be crucial to inform public engagement and communication strategies as well as policy debate. This paper presents the results of a survey conducted in the UK in 2008 at two science outreach events, the Royal Society Exhibition in London and the National Space Centre in Leicester, to investigate the motivations, beliefs, political preferences and attitudes towards space exploration of this audience. A sample of 744 respondents was collected. The analysis shows that the British public who come to outreach and engagement activities support space exploration but have some reservations about considering the advancement of UK space activities to be of national interest. Yet, when asked about means of exploring space, the majority agrees that space should be explored using both mankind and machines, ranking "generating new scientific knowledge and advancing human culture" as the most important reason for continuing investment in space research. Although the greater number of supporters says that more than the current government funding should be allocated to civil space activities, concerns about risk and value appear to influence this view.

  14. Subsurface Biodegradation in a Fractured Basement Reservoir, Shropshire, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, John; Baba, Mas'ud; Bowden, Stephen; Muirhead, David

    2017-04-01

    Subsurface Biodegradation in a Fractured Basement Reservoir, Shropshire, UK. John Parnell, Mas'ud Baba, Stephen Bowden, David Muirhead Subsurface biodegradation in current oil reservoirs is well established, but there are few examples of fossil subsurface degradation. Biomarker compositions of viscous and solid oil residues ('bitumen') in fractured Precambrian and other basement rocks below the Carboniferous cover in Shropshire, UK, show that they are variably biodegraded. High levels of 25-norhopanes imply that degradation occurred in the subsurface. Lower levels of 25-norhopanes occur in active seepages. Liquid oil trapped in fluid inclusions in mineral veins in the fractured basement confirm that the oil was emplaced fresh before subsurface degradation. A Triassic age for the veins implies a 200 million year history of hydrocarbon migration in the basement rocks. The data record microbial colonization of a fractured basement reservoir, and add to evidence in modern basement aquifers for microbial activity in deep fracture systems. Buried basement highs may be especially favourable to colonization, through channelling fluid flow to shallow depths and relatively low temperatures

  15. Assessing the environmental impact of buildings in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, P.; Baldwin, R. [Building Research Establishment, Watford (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The protection of the environment is one of today`s key issues demanding international action. In the UK, the government has issued a {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} White Paper and two updating reviews, setting out its Agenda; businesses are also responding by developing environmental policy statements as part of their business strategy; general public concern is evident through changes in purchasing practices and an increasing interest in recycling waste such as paper, cans, and bottles. In Europe, initiatives are being taken to develop ecolabelling schemes specifically for assessing consumer products. Environmental management systems are being developed through BSI and internationally. Underlying these concerns is a perception that industrialised economies have significantly and irreversibly changed (or perhaps about to change) the planet`s climate, atmosphere and ecosystems. This perception is fuelled by reports in the media of rising pollution, poor air quality, threats to ecosystems such as historic hedgerows, and even graffiti and litter. This paper describes action taken by the BRE to set standards for environmentally friendlier buildings which uses market forces to bring about environmental sensitivity in the industry. BREEAM is an environmental assessment method, embodies in an accreditation scheme, which is enjoying considerable success in the UK. The paper describes its development and underlying philosophy and provides details of its content and operation.

  16. Home drinking in the UK: trends and causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John H; Ferguson, Colin S

    2012-01-01

    To explore the trend in the UK to consume alcohol at home rather than at licensed premises. A Medline search entering the terms 'home drinking', 'alcohol' and 'adult' covering the period 2000-2011 yielded 48 articles, of which 6 met the criteria to be included in the review. Grey literature including survey and market research data were reviewed. In the UK, since 1970 there has been trend for beer to be consumed at home more often than in licensed premises and that the overall trend towards greater home drinking has increased since 2000. The main reasons given are convenience, cost, safety, autonomy and stress relief. There has also been an increase in the practice known as 'pre-loading' (drinking before going out). Adults who drink mainly at home report that they are aware that they run a risk of higher overall alcohol consumption but tend to play down the possibility that increased consumption may lead to longer-term harm. Home drinking trends may have long-term public health consequences. Greater understanding of the drivers of this trend will help policy-makers to respond to these societal changes.

  17. Personal goals and expectations of OAB patients in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantell, Angie; Cardozo, Linda; Khullar, Vik

    2017-04-01

    In clinical practice and in research patient-centred outcomes are often utilised to help improve communication between patients and clinicians and to help manage expectations from treatment. However, many of these goals are generic and do not adequately capture the details of day to day life that bother patients the most and that they hope will improve with therapy. This study aimed to understand what are the goals of patients with overactive bladder symptoms in the UK who were taking part in a clinical trial and to assess goal achievement. This was a qualitative analysis of the patients goals recorded using the Self-Assessment Goal Achievement (SAGA) Questionnaire during the UK study assessing flexible dose fesoterodine in adults (SAFINA) trial. Free text patient goals were completed at baseline and an assessment of achievement was performed at the end of treatment. Grounded theory was used to develop themes and sub themes. Three hundred and thirty-one patients completed the trial and 1137 open ended goals were set. Six themes emerged from the data including, OAB, other LUTS and finishing the task in hand with multiple subthemes noted. By assessing and understanding what is important to the patient, it may help to tailor patient care and treatment and improve patient satisfaction. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Religion and organ donation: the views of UK faith leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Gurch; Brocklehurst, Anna; Pateman, Ruth; Kinsella, Suzannah; Parry, Vivienne

    2012-09-01

    This article reports the findings from the one-to-one interviews with the main UK faith and belief leaders which were commissioned by the Organ Donation Taskforce as part of its evidence gathering. Interviews were arranged with the main faith and belief organisations within the UK. Interviews covered a range of issues related to organ donation. Although some faith groups had some reservations regarding organ donation, interviews with these leaders demonstrated that none of these faith groups have reached a consensus against organ donation. The interviewees stated that the majority opinion in their faith or belief group is to permit organ donation, with some actively supporting it. Interviewees were keen to stress that there is a broad spectrum of opinion on organ transplantation within each faith and belief group and that consequently it is difficult to speak on behalf of an entire group. One complication mentioned by interviewees is that as organ transplantation is a relatively new medical procedure, there is no explicit reference to it in many original religious texts. Consequently, positions on the receipt and donation of organs are based on interpretation. It was felt that a much greater level of engagement is needed, as organ donation is currently not a priority for many faith and belief groups.

  19. A survey of sitting time among UK employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, A; Duncan, M; Clemes, S; Haslam, C

    2014-10-01

    Sedentary behaviour is a known risk factor for a wide range of chronic diseases. This major health risk is likely to increase given the increasingly sedentary nature of work. To investigate the prevalence of sedentary behaviour in a sample of UK working-aged adults, across a range of employment sectors. A cross-sectional survey conducted with organizations throughout the UK in the education, government administration, retail, telecommunications and service industry sectors. The questionnaire examined employee and organizational information, self-reported domain-specific sitting time, sleep and physical activity. A total of 1141 employees completed the questionnaire, of which 504 completed all aspects of the Domain-Specific Sitting Time Questionnaire for work day sitting. Work time sitting accounted for more than half of the total daily sitting time on a work day (54%). Significantly more time was reported sitting on a work day than time reported sleeping (P employee sitting times. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Genomics education for medical professionals - the current UK landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Ingrid; Subramanian, Deepak N; Burton, Hilary

    2016-08-01

    Genomics education in the UK is at an early stage of development, and its pace of evolution has lagged behind that of the genomics research upon which it is based. As a result, knowledge of genomics and its applications remains limited among non-specialist clinicians. In this review article, we describe the complex landscape for genomics education within the UK, and highlight the large number and variety of organisations that can influence, direct and provide genomics training to medical professionals. Postgraduate genomics education is being shaped by the work of the Health Education England (HEE) Genomics Education Programme, working in conjunction with the Joint Committee on Genomics in Medicine. The success of their work will be greatly enhanced by the full cooperation and engagement of the many groups, societies and organisations involved with medical education and training (such as the royal colleges). Without this cooperation, there is a risk of poor coordination and unnecessary duplication of work. Leadership from an organisation such as the HEE Genomics Education Programme will have a key role in guiding the formulation and delivery of genomics education policy by various stakeholders among the different disciplines in medicine. © 2016 Royal College of Physicians.

  1. Entries for the UK Business Plan Competition 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    PPARC is supporting the Research Councils' Business Plan Competition 2003, for which outline (one page) entries should be submitted by 31.1.03. The competition is open to CERN staff and visiting academics from UK establishments. The main condition on entry for CERN staff is that there should be intent to commercialise the technology in the UK. Postgraduates, postdocs and academic staff who have a business idea arising from their research and want to develop this further are encouraged to participate. There is a £25,000 first prize and advice and training along the way. The first step is simple - just prepare a one page summary of your business idea - without giving away any potential business secrets and fill in your details on the short application form. The training element will provide a comprehensive coverage on the issues you need to know about with case studies and special sessions on specific issues of relevance to different research areas. Staff from CERN EP division submitted an entry last year, w...

  2. Body size changes in passerine birds introduced to New Zealand from the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Blackburn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One feature of global geographic variation in avian body sizes is that they are larger on isolated islands than on continental regions. Therefore, this study aims to assess whether there have been changes in body size following successful establishment for seven passerine bird species (blackbird Turdus merula, song thrush T. philomelos, house sparrow Passer domesticus, chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, greenfinch Chloris chloris, goldfinch Carduelis carduelis, yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella introduced from the continental islands of the UK to the more isolated oceanic landmass of New Zealand in the middle of the nineteenth century. Measures of tarsus length were taken from individuals from contemporary UK and New Zealand populations of these species, and from historical specimens collected around the time that individuals were translocated from the UK to New Zealand. Analysis of Variance was used to test for size differences between contemporary UK and New Zealand populations, and between historical UK and contemporary UK and New Zealand populations. Historical UK populations have longer tarsi, on average, than 12 (7 UK and 5 New Zealand of the 14 contemporary populations. Significant decreases in tarsus length relative to the historical populations have occurred in the UK for blackbird, chaffinch and greenfinch, and in the New Zealand blackbird population. Contemporary New Zealand house sparrows have significantly longer tarsi, on average, than both historical and contemporary UK populations. Exposure to novel environments may be expected to lead to changes in the morphology and other traits of exotic species, but changes have also occurred in the native range. In fact, contrary to expectations, the most common differences we found were between contemporary and historical UK populations. Consideration of contemporary populations alone would underestimate the true scale of morphological change in these species over time, which may be due to

  3. The Academic Backbone: longitudinal continuities in educational achievement from secondary school and medical school to MRCP(UK) and the specialist register in UK medical students and doctors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McManus, I C; Woolf, Katherine; Dacre, Jane; Paice, Elisabeth; Dewberry, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Selection of medical students in the UK is still largely based on prior academic achievement, although doubts have been expressed as to whether performance in earlier life is predictive of outcomes...

  4. UK Renal Registry 13th Annual Report (December 2010): Chapter 1: UK RRT incidence in 2009: national and centre-specific analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilg, Julie; Castledine, Clare; Fogarty, Damian; Feest, Terry

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the characteristics of adult patients starting renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the UK in 2009 and the acceptance rates for RRT in Primary Care Trusts and Health Boards (PCT/HBs) in the UK. The basic demographics and clinical characteristics are reported on patients starting RRT from all UK renal centres. Late presentation, defined as time between first being seen by a nephrologist and start of RRT being RRT was 8.6 ml/min/1.73 m2 which was similar to the previous two years. Late presentation (<90 days) has fallen from 27% in 2004 to 19% in 2009. There was no relationship between social deprivation and presentation pattern. Acceptance rates have fallen in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales whilst they have plateaued in England over the last four years. Wales continued to have the highest acceptance rate of the countries making up the UK. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Benchmarking Ensemble Streamflow Prediction Skill in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Shaun; Smith, Katie; Parry, Simon; Tanguy, Maliko; Prudhomme, Christel

    2017-04-01

    Skilful hydrological forecasts at weekly to seasonal lead times would be extremely beneficial for decision-making in operational water management, especially during drought conditions. Hydro-meteorological ensemble forecasting systems are an attractive approach as they use two sources of streamflow predictability: (i) initial hydrologic conditions (IHCs), where soil moisture, groundwater and snow storage states can provide an estimate of future streamflow situations, and (ii) atmospheric predictability, where skilful forecasts of weather and climate variables can be used to force hydrological models. In the UK, prediction of rainfall at long lead times and for summer months in particular is notoriously difficult given the large degree of natural climate variability in ocean influenced mid-latitude regions, but recent research has uncovered exciting prospects for improved rainfall skill at seasonal lead times due to improved prediction of the North Atlantic Oscillation. However, before we fully understand what this improved atmospheric predictability might mean in terms of improved hydrological forecasts, we must first evaluate how much skill can be gained from IHCs alone. Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) is a well-established method for generating an ensemble of streamflow forecasts in the absence of skilful future meteorological predictions. The aim of this study is therefore to benchmark when (lead time/forecast initialisation month) and where (spatial pattern/catchment characteristics) ESP is skilful across a diverse set of catchments in the UK. Forecast skill was evaluated seamlessly from lead times of 1-day to 12-months and forecasts were initialised at the first of each month over the 1965-2015 hindcast period. This ESP output also provides a robust benchmark against which to assess how much improvement in skill can be achieved when meteorological forecasts are incorporated (next steps). To provide a 'tough to beat' benchmark, several variants of ESP with

  6. The example of the UK SHOT haemovigilance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Eleftheriou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SHOT (Serious Hazards of Transfusion scheme is the UK’s National confidential haemovigilance system, and was set up in 1996. It is an independent, confidential, professionally led haemovigilance scheme. Initially the reporting was voluntary but now required by several professional bodies. SHOT publishes annual reports with recommendations and circulates to all relevant organizations including the 4 UK Blood services, Departments of Health in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, all relevant professional bodies and reporting hospitals. Over the 17 years of reporting, the evidence gathered has prompted changes in transfusion practice from the selection and management of donors to changes in hospital practice, better education and training. Acute transfusion reactions and transfusion-associated circulatory overload carry the highest risk for morbidity and death. Greatest risk to patients remain errors in the process at the point of blood sampling, in the laboratory and at bedside administration. SHOT’s objectives are to use findings to improve standards of hospital transfusion practice, to educate users on transfusion hazards and prevention, to aid production of clinical guidelines in blood transfusion and to inform national policy on transfusion safety. MHRA is the UK competent authority to which serious adverse reactions and events have to be reported annually. Overall the most common adverse incidents are caused by errors, resulting in the transfusion of an incorrect component or one that does not meet the specific requirements of the patient (e.g. not irradiated or not appropriately antigen matched. TACO (transfusion associated circulatory overload accounts for most deaths and major morbidity reported to SHOT but is overall underreported. Transfusions are not always given appropriately. This may be due to wrong haemoglobin results, failure to assess patients appropriately, or avoidable use of emergency O RhD negative units because

  7. Epidemiology of impaction colic in donkeys in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trawford Andrew F

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colic (abdominal pain is a clinical condition of serious concern affecting the welfare and survival of donkeys at the Donkey Sanctuary in the UK. One of the most commonly reported causes is due to impacted ingesta in the large intestine ("impaction colic". However little is known about the incidence of, or risk factors for, this condition. Here we describe the epidemiology of colic in donkeys, specifically impaction colic. We focus on temporal aspects of the disease and we identify environmental and management related risk factors for impaction colic in UK donkeys. Results There were 807 colic episodes in the population of 4596 donkeys between January 1st 2000 and March 31st 2005. The majority (54.8% of episodes were due to a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of impaction of the gastrointestinal tract. The mortality risk for all colics (51.1% was higher than reported in other equids. The incidence rate of all colics (5.9 episodes per 100 donkeys per year and of impaction colic (3.2 episodes was similar to that in horses. A retrospective matched case-control study of all impaction colics from January 2003 (193 indicated that older donkeys, those fed extra rations and those that previously suffered colic were at increased risk of impaction. Lighter body weight, musculo-skeletal problems, farm and dental disease were also significantly associated with a diagnosis of impaction colic. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first study to estimate the incidence rate of colic in a large population of donkeys in the UK. In contrast to other equids, impaction was the most commonly reported cause of colic. We identified several risk factors for impaction colic. Increasing age, extra rations and previous colic are known risk factors for colic in other equids. Results support the hypothesis that dental disease is associated with impaction colic. Musculo-skeletal problems may be associated with colic for various reasons including change

  8. A healthy nation: strengthening child health research in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Neena; Clark, Howard; Wolfe, Ingrid; Costello, Anthony; Budge, Helen; Goodier, R; Hyde, M J; Lumsden, D; Prayle, A; Roland, D

    2013-01-05

    Despite a general acknowledgment that research in children is necessary and ethical, the evidence base for child-specific treatments is still sparse. We investigated children's biomedical and health services research in the UK in relation to training, infrastructure and activity, research evidence, and visibility. We show that excellent opportunities for career researchers exist through a competitive, national integrated academic training programme, but that the number of academic paediatricians has decreased by 18% between 2000 and 2011, falling from 11·3% to 5·9% of the consultant workforce. The potential for rapid delivery of studies in children through the National Health Service (NHS) is not being realised: clinical trainees are poorly equipped with core research skills; most newly appointed consultant paediatricians have little or no research experience; less than 5% of contracted consultant time supports research; less than 2·5% of the 2 million children seen in the NHS every year are recruited to studies; and ten of the 20 UK children's hospitals do not have a clinical research facility. Support through National Institute for Health Research networks is good for studies into drugs, but inconsistent for non-drug research; less than 5% of registered studies involve children and only one children's biomedical research centre has been allocated funding from 2012. Of the UK annual public and charitable biomedical research expenditure of roughly £2·2 billion, about 5% is directed at child health research. The scant evidence base is impeding the development of clinical guidance and policy-less than 20% of the outputs of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence are applicable to children. Paediatric representation on major research boards is weak. Parent and young people's advocacy is fragmented, and their views are insufficiently heeded by regulatory bodies. The strong UK Government commitment to biomedical research has not been translated

  9. Sport concussion knowledge in the UK general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mareen; Edwards, Martin Gareth

    2012-05-01

    This is the first study to assess sport concussion knowledge and the effect of sport concussion self-report on knowledge in the UK general public. In the online survey, participants (n = 227) stated personal sport concussion history, injury indicators, and rated 26 injury statements for truthfulness using definite (true, false) or non-definite (probably true, probably false) response options. As anticipated, knowledge was limited. Few statement ratings were definite, and misconceptions prevailed. The injury's seriousness was systematically underestimated, suggesting that knowledge may not be sufficient for injury self-diagnosis and self-recovery measures. Sport concussion self-report was associated with more definite than non-definite statement ratings. However, response accuracy did not differ. This suggested that personal injury experience may yield a false sense of security. The use of accessible, easy-to-use tools needs to be promoted to improve sport practice safety.

  10. Attitudes towards attrition among UK trainees in obstetrics and gynaecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafson, Irene; Currie, Jane; O'Dwyer, Sabrina; Woolf, Katherine; Griffin, Ann

    2017-06-02

    Physician dissatisfaction in the workplace has consequences for patient safety. Currently in the UK, 1 in 5 doctors who enter specialist training in obstetrics and gynaecology leave the programme before completion. Trainee attrition has implications for workforce planning, organization of health-care services and patient care. The authors conducted a survey of current trainees' and former trainees' views concerning attrition and 'peri-attrition' - a term coined to describe the trainee who has seriously considered leaving the specialty. The authors identified six key themes which describe trainees' feelings about attrition in obstetrics and gynaecology: morale and undermining; training processes and paperwork; support and supervision; work-life balance and realities of life; NHS environment; and job satisfaction. This article discusses themes of an under-resourced health service, bullying, lack of work-life balance and poor personal support.

  11. Female Directors and Firm Performance: Evidence from UK Listed Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pananda Pasaribu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of female directors on firm performance has lacked consistency in the previously conducted empirical studies, which may be due to the endogeneity problem, or certain characteristics (i.e. governance, industry, competition. This study examines the relationship between female directors and firm performance by addressing those problems. This study analyses all non-financial UK listed firms during the period 2004-2012 and employs several econometric models. The regression results indicate that there is little evidence that female directors have a positive and strong relationship with firm performance. But, further analysis reports that the UK’s small listed firms experience a positive significant effect, because small firms do not suffer from the problem of over-monitoring and they have more flexibility in composing their boards of directors.

  12. Grocery e-commerce in the UK and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Niels; Bjerre, Mogens

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a framework for the analysis of market creation and apply this to the grocery e-commerce business. The article develops a model of four forces that interplay when companies engage in the process of creating new markets. The applicability of the model...... is exemplified by examining the interaction of the forces having created grocery e-commerce markets in the UK and Denmark. The application of the model reveals that besides the usual identification of competition intensity, the persistency of market reach efforts of a focal firm and the value attraction of its...... offerings play a significant role in the creation of grocery e-commerce markets. The practical implications are that retailers should not just transfer a grocery e-commerce set-up from one national market to another without considering the mentioned four forces in their own national markets....

  13. Gas cool reactor operation in the UK. The present position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsden, B.J. [AEA Technology, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1998-09-01

    During 1996 there was a major reorganisation of the UK Nuclear Industry. The Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors (AGRs) and Pressurised Water reactor (PWR) operated by Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear was privatised under a new company called British Energy. The Magnox reactors are now operated by a public utility named Magnox Electric, which is currently being merged with British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL). The old UKAEA was split into two parts; a public company, which has maintained the name UKAEA that is responsible for managing all their nuclear liabilities and a technical/consultancy company which is privately owned under the name of AEA Technology. Most of the Magnox and AGRs have continued to operate well with high availability factors. Decommissioning programmes have continued to expand and decommissioning costs have reduced below predicted levels. The industry is maintaining its safety research programme on gas cooled reactors under the direction of the HSE

  14. Ethical challenges of conducting health research in UK school setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milnes, Linda; Kendal, Sarah

    This paper offers guidance for novice nurse researchers on the ethical and methodological challenges of conducting health research in high school settings. Over the course of two studies in UK high schools with students aged 11-16 years, the authors encountered common ethical and methodological challenges. This article draws on these studies to build a critique of approaches to health research in school settings. Issues of consent and assent, confidentiality and participation can highlight tensions between the expectations of schools and health researchers. In this context, feasible research designs raise complex ethical and methodological questions. Ethical and methodological norms for health research may not be suitable for high school settings. Successful school-based health research designs may need to be flexible and responsive to the social environment of schools.

  15. Journal subscription expenditure of UK higher education institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Stuart; Meghreblian, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The academic libraries of higher education institutions (HEIs) pay significant amounts of money each year for access to academic journals. The amounts paid are often not transparent especially when it comes to knowing how much is paid to specific publishers. Therefore data on journal subscription expenditure were obtained for UK HEIs using a series of Freedom of Information requests. Data were obtained for 153 HEIs' expenditure with ten publishers over a five-year period. The majority of institutions have provided figures but some are still outstanding. The data will be of interest to those who wish to understand the economics of scholarly communication and see the scale of payments flowing within the system. Further research could replicate the data collection in other jurisdictions.

  16. The changing UK careers landscape: tidal waves, turbulence and transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Deirdre

    2013-06-01

    This article explores how the UK careers landscape in each of the four home nations is changing in response to neo-liberal policies. In this context, careers services are increasingly under pressure to demonstrate their added value, impact and returns on investment. As fiscal arrangements tighten and governments state their preferences and priorities for national careers services, differing strategic responses are beginning to emerge. A quasi-market, experimental approach is now the dominant discourse in England, in contrast to differing and complementary arrangements in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The article suggests that insofar as these developments are transforming national careers services, they are also creating significant challenges which require new forms of policy imagery and imagination for high-impact, all-age careers services.

  17. Media coverage of the 'UK flooding crisis': a social panorama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencio, Norma; Valencio, Arthur

    2017-10-23

    A disaster referred to by the press as the 'UK flooding crisis' occurred between December 2015 and January 2016. This study employed three different levels of analysis to identify a multidimensional perspective adopted in the disaster reporting of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). These levels revealed details about the social actors and their interactions. The set of news exposed diverse viewpoints on the crisis, from loss and damage to distinct affected subgroups to the various social engagement actions of aid and the multiplicity of technical response measures. The conclusions highlight considerable social amplitude in the BBC's coverage; however, owing to the reductionist approach of this media communicator, the field of action involving different social actors was not very clear in the content of the news, particularly with regard to cohesion, conflict/obstruction, and concernthe concept of crisis in its essence. In addition, the paper suggests new questions for future reports. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  18. Theorizing Surveillance in the UK Crime Control Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McCahill

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon the work of Pierre Bourdieu and Loic Wacquant, this paper argues that the demise of the Keynesian Welfare State (KWS and the rise of neo-liberal economic policies in the UK has placed new surveillance technologies at the centre of a reconfigured “crime control field” (Garland, 2001 designed to control the problem populations created by neo-liberal economic policies (Wacquant, 2009a. The paper also suggests that field theory could be usefully deployed in future research to explore how wider global trends or social forces, such as neo-liberalism or bio-power, are refracted through the crime control field in different national jurisdictions. We conclude by showing how this approach provides a bridge between society-wide analysis and micro-sociology by exploring how the operation of new surveillance technologies is mediated by the “habitus” of surveillance agents working in the crime control field and contested by surveillance subjects.

  19. Obstetric trainees' experience in VBD and ECV in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, S; Raffi, F

    2010-01-01

    A survey of 100 obstetric trainees was performed to determine the level of experience in vaginal breech delivery (VBD) and external cephalic version (ECV) in the UK. The response rate was 80%. Sixty-four of the respondents were in their 4th or 5th year of old-style 'Calman' specialist registrar training, with the majority having had > or =5 years of experience in obstetrics including overseas experience. A total of 15 had performed less than five, 12 between five and ten, and 53 more than ten VBDs. In spite of limited training, 80% of the trainees felt confident in performing vaginal breech deliveries and were happy to offer VBD as an option in the future. All the respondents offered ECV to their patients and 63% had undergone practical training. Training in VBD should be continued in all settings and it should be a part of routine skills and drills teaching.

  20. THE UK ELECTRICITY MARKET EVOLUTION DURING THE LIBERALIZATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Vasilica Rotaru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an insight on the liberalization process that took place in the United Kingdom starting with 1990 until now. The electricity market in the United Kingdom made incredible progress in the road to reaching a full level of liberalization where customers are free to choose between suppliers and services. An analysis of the most important indicators for the electricity market evolution such as electricity price, the market share of the largest generator, the energy efficiency indicator shows that the liberalization process brought many advantages starting with 2001. Also, UK has to face new challenges in order to keep the development of the industry on the right path, challenges that are presented in the final part of the paper.

  1. The prevalence of personality disorder among UK primary care attenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P; Jenkins, R; Tylee, A; Blizard, R; Mann, A

    2000-07-01

    To determine the prevalence rate of personality disorder among a consecutive sample of UK primary care attenders. Associations between a diagnosis of personality disorder, sociodemographic background and common mental disorder were examined. Three hundred and three consecutive primary care attenders were examined for the presence of ICD-10 and DSM-4 personality disorders using an informant-based interview. Personality disorder was diagnosed in 24% (95% CI: 19-29) of the sample. Personality-disordered subjects were more likely to have psychiatric morbidity as indicated by GHQ-12, to report previous psychological morbidity, to be single and to attend the surgery on an emergency basis. 'Cluster B' personality disorders were particularly associated with psychiatric morbidity. There is a high prevalence rate of personality disorders among primary care attenders. These disorders are associated with the presence of common mental disorder and unplanned surgery attendance. Personality disorders may represent a significant source of burden in primary care.

  2. UK Government Web Continuity: Persisting Access through Aligning Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Spencer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 Government's use of the Web in the UK is prolific and a wide range of services are now available though this channel. The government set out to address the problem that links from Hansard (the transcripts of Parliamentary debates were not maintained over time and that therefore there was need for some long-term storage and stewardship of information, including maintaining access. Further investigation revealed that linking was key, not only in maintaining access to information, but also to the discovery of information. This resulted in a project that affects the entire  government Web estate, with a solution leveraging the basic building blocks of the Internet (DNS and the Web (HTTP and URIs in a pragmatic way, to ensure that an infrastructure is in place to provide access to important information both now and in the future.

  3. UK national guidelines on the management of syphilis 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, M; French, P; Higgins, S; McQuillan, O; Sukthankar, A; Stott, C; McBrien, B; Tipple, C; Turner, A; Sullivan, A K; Radcliffe, Keith; Cousins, Darren; FitzGerald, Mark; Fisher, Martin; Grover, Deepa; Higgins, Stephen; Kingston, Margaret; Rayment, Michael; Sullivan, Ann

    2016-05-01

    These guidelines are an update for 2015 of the 2008 UK guidelines for the management of syphilis. The writing group have piloted the new BASHH guideline methodology, notably using the GRADE system for assessing evidence and making recommendations. We have made significant changes to the recommendations for screening infants born to mothers with positive syphilis serology and to facilitate accurate and timely communication between the teams caring for mother and baby we have developed a birth plan. Procaine penicillin is now an alternative, not preferred treatment, for all stages of syphilis except neurosyphilis, but the length of treatment for this is shortened. Other changes are summarised at the start of the guideline. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Language and identity--the Afrikaans community in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzé, Ernst

    2004-01-01

    The role of language in the identity package of Afrikaans-speaking South African expatriates in the UK is investigated in this paper. A description of the community is provided and the domains of use of their first language identified. The main research problem is the relationship between language and identity in a diasporic community such as this. In all modes of communication, the percentage of Afrikaans (in a bilingual relation with English) progressively decreased the closer the ties between the interlocutors became. The identification of 73% of all respondents with positive language-related statements correlated with 82% of the group's support for various types of cultural activities involving visiting South Africans. The mix of functions pointed to a more complex configuration of bilingual and monolingual domains, with some elements of a heterolocal cultural enclave, in which similar domain types are maintained in parallel, but with differences in actual context of usage.

  5. Experience of cumulative effects assessment in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper Jake

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative effects assessment (CEA is a development of environmental impact assessment which attempts to take into account the wider picture of what impacts may affect the environment as a result of either multiple or linear projects, or development plans. CEA is seen as a further valuable tool in promoting sustainable development. The broader canvas upon which the assessment is made leads to a suite of issues such as complexity in methods and assessment of significance, the desirability of co-operation between developers and other parties, new ways of addressing mitigation and monitoring. After outlining the legislative position and the process of CEA, this paper looks at three cases studies in the UK where cumulative assessment has been carried out - the cases concern wind farms, major infrastructure and off-shore developments.

  6. Towards a Zero Carbon Vision for UK Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitelegg, John; Haq, Gary; Cambridge, Howard; Vallack, Harry

    2010-07-01

    The report presents a phased programme of technological, financial and behavioural changes could secure the following potential cuts in (CO2 ) emissions compared to business-as-usual approach: - 100 per cent in road transport (cars and lorries); - 100 per cent in rail transport; - 56 per cent in aviation; - 49 per cent in shipping. The resulting overall reduction for transport in the UK by 2050 is 76%. It takes an evidence-based approach meaning that reductions are only included if there are already-available experience showing that reductions can be achieved. Further policy approaches might be possible but the report demonstrates what can be achieved just with policies for which there is already good evidence for their practical delivery

  7. Conceptualisation of Social Enterprise in the UK: A contemporary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Mswaka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social enterprise is increasingly gaining academic interest worldwide and is increasingly becoming an integral component of the mainstream economies of many countries, including the Unite Kingdom. Despite persistent interest from academics, the concept is relatively underdeveloped inherently complex and there are various aspects of social enterprise that remain largely under researched compared to conventional businesses. Given the advent of globalisation and increased competition social enterprises are under pressure to provide more innovative solutions to social problems that society in the UK faces. Through a comprehensive literature review of social enterprises, this paper scrutinises the evolution of these organisations as they adapt to changes in the environment in which they operates. The discussions show a cultural shift in the conceptualisation and practice of social enterprises in the country.

  8. Austerity and health: the impact in the UK and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckler, David; Reeves, Aaron; Loopstra, Rachel; Karanikolos, Marina; McKee, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Austerity measures-reducing social spending and increasing taxation-hurts deprived groups the most. Less is known about the impact on health. In this short review, we evaluate the evidence of austerity's impact on health, through two main mechanisms: a 'social risk effect' of increasing unemployment, poverty, homelessness and other socio-economic risk factors (indirect), and a 'healthcare effect' through cuts to healthcare services, as well as reductions in health coverage and restricting access to care (direct). We distinguish those impacts of economic crises from those of austerity as a response to it. Where possible, data from across Europe will be drawn upon, as well as more extensive analysis of the UK's austerity measures performed by the authors of this review. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  9. IDEAhaus: A Modular Approach to Climate Resilient UK Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Keeffe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the result of a project to develop climate adaptation design strategies funded by the UK’s Technology Strategy Board. The aim of the project was to look at the threats and opportunities presented by industrialized and house-building techniques in the light of predicted future increases in flooding and overheating due to anthropogenic climate change. The paper shows that the thermal performance of houses built to the current UK Building Regulations is not adequate to cope with changing weather patterns, and in light of this, develops a detailed design for a new house: one that is industrially produced and climatically resilient, but affordable. This detailed concept IDEAhaus of a modular house is not only flood-proof to a water depth of 750 mm, but also is designed to utilize passive cooling, which dramatically reduces the amount of overheating, both now and in the future.

  10. Arts Entrepreneurship Education in the UK and Germany: An Empirical Survey among Lecturers in Fine Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the current state of arts entrepreneurship education at higher educational institutions (HEIs) in the UK and Germany. It is based on findings from questionnaire surveys among 210 lecturers in fine art at 89 HEIs in the UK and Germany. Design/methodology/approach: This paper explores issues related…

  11. The Benefits of Part-Time Undergraduate Study and UK Higher Education Policy: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Alice; Scesa, Anna; Williams, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Part-time study in the UK is significant: nearly 40 per cent of higher education students study part-time. This article reports on a literature review that sought to understand the economic and social benefits of part-time study in the UK. It concludes that there are substantial and wide-ranging benefits from studying part-time. The article also…

  12. "Brits Abroad": The Perceived Support Needs of U.K. Learners Studying in Higher Education Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    In the context of international growth in higher education exchanges and recent expansion in U.K. mobility rates after a period of some decline, this article examines the perspectives of U.K. students who have decided to spend part of their degree at universities abroad. Based on an analysis of data generated by a cross-institutional survey of…

  13. Which Terms Should Be Used to Describe Autism? Perspectives from the UK Autism Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Lorcan; Hattersley, Caroline; Molins, Bonnie; Buckley, Carole; Povey, Carol; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Recent public discussions suggest that there is much disagreement about the way autism is and should be described. This study sought to elicit the views and preferences of UK autism community members--autistic people, parents and their broader support network--about the terms they use to describe autism. In all, 3470 UK residents responded to an…

  14. Herding the Academic Cats: The Challenges of "Managing" Academic Research in the Contemporary UK University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    This article explores some aspects of and challenges faced by those academics and administrators who undertake the leadership and management of research activity in contemporary UK universities. This analysis is set in the context of almost three decades of reforms to the UK's higher education systems in general and to research funding and audit…

  15. Patterns in Payout Policy and Payout Channel Choice of UK Firms in the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Trojanowski, G.

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines the payout policy of UK firms listed on the London Stock Exchange during the 1990s.We complement the existing payout literature studies by analyzing jointly the trends in dividends and share repurchases.Unlike in the US, we find that, in the UK, firms do not demonstrate a

  16. Constructing a National Higher Education Brand for the UK: Positional Competition and Promised Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomer, Sylvie; Papatsiba, Vassiliki; Naidoo, Rajani

    2018-01-01

    This article examines national branding of UK higher education, a strategic intent and action to collectively brand UK higher education with the aim to attract prospective international students, using a Bourdieusian approach to understanding promises of capitals. We trace its development between 1999 and 2014 through a sociological study, one of…

  17. The Incidence and Effects of Overeducation in the U.K. Graduate Labour Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolton, Peter; Vignoles, Anna

    2000-01-01

    Considers overeducation in the context of the UK labor market, using a one in six sample of 1980 UK college graduates surveyed in 1986. Fully 38 percent of graduates were overeducated for their first job; 6 years later, 30 percent were overeducated and earned less than peers in graduate-level jobs. (Contains 26 references.) (MLH)

  18. An Exploration of the Relationship between Training Grants and Profitability of UK Construction Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed; Dainty, Andrew R. J.; Ison, Stephen G.; Hazlehurst, Guy

    2008-01-01

    A levy/grant system exists in the UK construction industry to provide financial support for companies undertaking training activities. With the current UK government skills policy, there is an emphasis on ensuring that training support provided to employers is aimed at enhancing companies' profitability. This paper explores the profitability of…

  19. Copyright Ownership of E-Learning and Teaching Materials: Policy Approaches Taken by UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, Elizabeth; Weedon, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Investigates whether and how UK university copyright policies address key copyright ownership issues relating to printed and electronic teaching materials. A content analysis of 81 UK university copyright policies is performed to understand their approach towards copyright ownership of printed and e-learning materials and performances; rights on…

  20. Perceived Advantages and Disadvantages of Being a Female Graduate Student in the US and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Clare Marie; Keener, Emily; Shrier, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    We build on Diana Leonard's work on gender and graduate education by qualitatively investigating the perceived advantages and disadvantages of being a female graduate student in the USA and the UK. We interviewed six female students (ages 22-30) pursuing master's degrees in psychology or social sciences in the USA and the UK. Students from both…

  1. Leading Learning and Teaching: An Exploration of "Loca"' Leadership in Academic Departments in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale longitudinal study of "local" leadership roles at two UK universities. The research explored perceptions of the leadership provided by a specific group of staff who held roles for enhancing learning and teaching. Based on ethnographic design principles, the study was based at one UK higher education…

  2. The Supply of Part-Time Higher Education in the UK. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Claire; Birkbeck, Anne Jamieson; Mason, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the supply of part-time higher education in the UK, with particular consideration to the study of part-time undergraduate provision in England. It is the final publication in the series of reports on individual student markets that were commissioned by Universities UK following the publication of the reports on the Future size…

  3. Leading and Managing Contemporary UK Universities: Do Excellence and Meritocracy Still Prevail over Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    The paper uses a gendered and feminist perspective to explore some dimensions of the debate about excellence and diversity in relation to the leadership and management of UK universities. The paper considers the extent to which notions about excellence and diversity are in tension in UK higher education and how understandings, underpinning values…

  4. ELIXIR-UK role in bioinformatics training at the national level and across ELIXIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, L.; Hendricusdottir, R.; Attwood, T.K.; Bacall, F.; Beard, N.; Bellis, L.J.; Dunn, W.B.; Hancock, J.M.; Nenadic, A.; Orengo, C.; Overduin, B.; Sansone, S-A; Thurston, M.; Viant, M.R.; Winder, C.L.; Goble, C.A.; Ponting, C.P.; Rustici, G.

    2017-01-01

    ELIXIR-UK is the UK node of ELIXIR, the European infrastructure for life science data. Since its foundation in 2014, ELIXIR-UK has played a leading role in training both within the UK and in the ELIXIR Training Platform, which coordinates and delivers training across all ELIXIR members. ELIXIR-UK contributes to the Training Platform’s coordination and supports the development of training to address key skill gaps amongst UK scientists. As part of this work it acts as a conduit for nationally-important bioinformatics training resources to promote their activities to the ELIXIR community. ELIXIR-UK also leads ELIXIR’s flagship Training Portal, TeSS, which collects information about a diverse range of training and makes it easily accessible to the community. ELIXIR-UK also works with others to provide key digital skills training, partnering with the Software Sustainability Institute to provide Software Carpentry training to the ELIXIR community and to establish the Data Carpentry initiative, and taking a lead role amongst national stakeholders to deliver the StaTS project – a coordinated effort to drive engagement with training in statistics. PMID:28781748

  5. The Effect of Work Placements on the Academic Performance of Chinese Students in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Ian; Wang, Zhiqi

    2015-01-01

    The main controversy as a result of the commercialisation of international education markets is that international students especially those from China are unable to perform as well as UK students in UK universities. So far, research has yet to identify the influence of placements on the academic performance of Chinese students from entry to…

  6. The UK Language Learning Crisis in the Public Media: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanvers, Ursula; Coleman, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Low levels of foreign language learning in the United Kingdom have been attributed to a lack of interest and motivation which, it is claimed, is partly fostered by the media. The present study examines 90 UK newspaper articles that contributed to the public debate on the language learning crisis in the UK between February 2010 and February 2012.…

  7. From Graduate Employability to Employment: Policy and Practice in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Sonal; Hristov, Dean; Reynolds, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to enrich the current conceptualization of graduate employability and employment through the lens of policy, academia and practice in UK higher education. We examine the UK policy context that is shaping graduate employability and employment debates before enriching this conceptualization through a discussion of key…

  8. Knowledge Construction and Personal Relationship: Insights about a UK University Mentoring and Coaching Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Eleanore

    2010-01-01

    This article examines interview data from 12 mentors/coaches and eight of their clients in order to explore a mentoring and coaching service among UK university staff. Both mentors/coaches and clients were administrative or academic employees of the Institute of Education or affiliated colleges at London University, UK. Their roles related to the…

  9. Accounting Academics' Perceptions of the Effect of Accreditation on UK Accounting Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Peter; Williams, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Students graduating from undergraduate accounting degree programmes in the UK are eligible for and attracted by accreditation available from professional accountancy body (PAB) examinations. The study reviews factual information available from PAB websites to confirm that virtually all accounting degrees in the UK have accreditation, and many are…

  10. In Two Minds?--Parental Attitudes toward Physical Punishment in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Lisa; Webb, Mary Anne; Healy, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Since the Millennium, the use of physical punishment in the home has been a widely debated topic across the UK. Reliance on public opinion has been an important feature of this debate with a variety of UK surveys showing that many find physical punishment acceptable and do not support a complete ban on smacking. Drawing on the results from a…

  11. An Agenda for Action To Achieve the Information Society in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Charles

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the development a national information policy in the United Kingdom (UK): policies for national information infrastructures, electronic information services, privacy and data protection, copyright, public and national libraries; reviews problems inhibiting Internet use; compares the UK's and the European Commission's approaches to…

  12. UK Young Adults' Safety Awareness Online -- Is It a "Girl Thing"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a recent research project undertaken in the UK that investigated young adults' perception of potentially risky behaviour online. The research was undertaken through the use of an online survey associated with the UK teen soap opera "Being Victor". The findings of the project suggest that this sample of British…

  13. On the mechanisms that can potentially influence connectivity outcomes in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, G.; de Wit, W.

    2015-01-01

    The Airports Commission has considered the UK’s long-term connectivity needs and concluded that, while the UK remains one of the best connected countries in the world, problems are starting to emerge and they are likely to get worse. It appears that the UK is approaching the limits of what can be

  14. Perceptions of diversity and attitudes of tolerance in the 'fragmented' U.K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duru, Deniz Neriman; Hanquinet, Laurie; Cesur, Nazli Sila

    2017-01-01

    Relying on a quantitative survey (n = 1497) and semi-structured interviews (n = 30) conducted in the U.K., we explore British nationals’, Romanian and Turkish migrants’ attitudes of tolerance and the factors influencing them in the current socio-political context in the U.K. The quantitative data...

  15. From laggard to leader: Explaining offshore wind developments in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, Florian; Smith, Adrian; Shaw, Chris; Raven, Rob; Verhees, Bram

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind technology has recently undergone rapid deployment in the UK. And yet, up until recently, the UK was considered a laggard in terms of deploying renewable energy. How can this burst of offshore wind activity be explained? An economic analysis would seek signs for newfound

  16. The Impact of Placements on the Academic Performance of UK and International Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Ian; Wang, Zhiqi

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by an increasing number of international students in UK higher education, this study investigates the effect of year-long placements on the academic performance of 268 accounting and finance students enrolled between 2006 and 2009. The results show differences between UK and international students although both statistically and…

  17. Enhancing the Biodiversity of Ditches in Intensively Managed UK Farmland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rosalind F.; Johnson, Paul J.; Macdonald, David W.; Feber, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Drainage ditches, either seasonally flooded or permanent, are commonly found on intensively managed lowland farmland in the UK. They are potentially important for wetland biodiversity but, despite their ubiquity, information on their biodiversity and management in the wider countryside is scarce. We surveyed 175 ditches for their physical and chemical characteristics, spatial connectivity, plant communities and aquatic invertebrates in an area of intensively managed farmland in Oxfordshire, UK and collected information on ditch management from farmer interviews. Water depth and shade had a small impact on the diversity of plant and invertebrate communities in ditches. Increased shade over the ditch channel resulted in reduced taxonomic richness of both channel vegetation and aquatic invertebrates and channel vegetation cover was lower at shaded sites. Invertebrate taxonomic richness was higher when water was deeper. Spatial connectivity had no detectable impact on the aquatic invertebrate or plant communities found in ditches. The number of families within the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT), which contain many pollution-sensitive species, declined with decreasing pH of ditch water. As time since dredging increased, the number of EPT families increased in permanent ditches but decreased in temporary ditches. Whether or not a ditch was in an agri-environment scheme had little impact on the reported management regime or biodiversity value of the ditch. Measures for increasing the amount of water in ditches, by increasing the water depth or promoting retention of water in ditches, could increase the biodiversity value of ditches in agricultural land. Some temporary ditches for specialised species should be retained. Reducing the amount of shade over narrow ditches by managing adjacent hedgerows is also likely to increase the species diversity of plant and invertebrate communities within the ditch. We recommend that to preserve or enhance the

  18. E-cigarette regulation and policy: UK vapers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrimond, Hannah

    2016-06-01

    The rapid increase in use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has created an international policy dilemma concerning how to use these products. This study assesses the types of beliefs that e-cigarette users in the United Kingdom may hold concerning regulation. Qualitative thematic analysis of written answers to open-ended questions. United Kingdom, questionnaire conducted by post, 44% recruited from online forums and 56% non-online. Fifty-five UK vapers, 55% male, mean age 46 years, 84% sole users of e-cigarettes, 95% vaping daily. Open-ended questions on regulatory and policy options. 'Protecting youth' was seen as a fundamental regulatory requirement which should be achieved through childproofing, age limits, no advertising aimed at children and health warnings about addictiveness of nicotine, but not the restriction of flavours. There was little support for regulating e-cigarettes as medicines or limiting the strength of nicotine liquids. In terms of public use, participants argued against a blanket ban on public vaping given perceptions of a lack of scientific evidence of harm. However, they supported the principle of autonomy, that individuals and organizations have the right to restrict vaping. Some participants suggested banning vaping in places such as schools, hospitals or around food, in line with current smoking norms. Vapers' regulatory positions were accompanied by political concerns about the use (and misuse) of scientific evidence. With regard to regulation of e-cigarettes, issues that are salient to UK vapers may include the need for youth protection, regulation as medicines, strength of e-liquids, bans on public vaping and concerns about the misuse of scientific evidence. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Potential economic impacts from improving breastfeeding rates in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, S; Quigley, M A; Fox-Rushby, J; McCormick, F; Williams, A; Trueman, P; Dodds, R; Renfrew, M J

    2015-04-01

    Studies suggest that increased breastfeeding rates can provide substantial financial savings, but the scale of such savings in the UK is not known. To calculate potential cost savings attributable to increases in breastfeeding rates from the National Health Service perspective. Cost savings focussed on where evidence of health benefit is strongest: reductions in gastrointestinal and lower respiratory tract infections, acute otitis media in infants, necrotising enterocolitis in preterm babies and breast cancer (BC) in women. Savings were estimated using a seven-step framework in which an incidence-based disease model determined the number of cases that could have been avoided if breastfeeding rates were increased. Point estimates of cost savings were subject to a deterministic sensitivity analysis. Treating the four acute diseases in children costs the UK at least £89 million annually. The 2009-2010 value of lifetime costs of treating maternal BC is estimated at £959 million. Supporting mothers who are exclusively breast feeding at 1 week to continue breast feeding until 4 months can be expected to reduce the incidence of three childhood infectious diseases and save at least £11 million annually. Doubling the proportion of mothers currently breast feeding for 7-18 months in their lifetime is likely to reduce the incidence of maternal BC and save at least £31 million at 2009-2010 value. The economic impact of low breastfeeding rates is substantial. Investing in services that support women who want to breast feed for longer is potentially cost saving. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. The secret garden? Elite metropolitan geographies in the contemporary UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Niall; Savage, Mike

    2015-01-01

    There is an enduring, indeed increasing awareness of the role of spatial location in defining and reinforcing inequality in this country and beyond. In the UK, much of the debate around these issues has focussed on the established trope of a long-standing ‘north-south divide’, a divide which appears to have deepened in recent decades with the inexorable de-industrialisation of northern Britain presented in stark counterpoint to the burgeoning concentration of wealth in London and the south-east, driven by the financial and ancillary services sectors. Due to a lack of available data, such debates have tended to focus solely on economic inequalities between places, and until now there was little understanding of how these disparities played out in the social and cultural domains. This paper significantly advances our understanding of the true meaning of spatial inequality in the UK by broadening that definition to encompass not only the economic, but also the social and cultural arenas, using data available from the BBC's Great British Class Survey experiment. We argue that these data shine a light not only on the economic inequalities between different parts of the country which existing debates have already uncovered but to understand how these are both reinforced and mediated across the social and cultural dimensions. Fundamentally, we concur with a great many others in seeing London and the south-east as a vortex for economic accumulation but it is also much more than that; it is a space where the coming together of intense economic, social and cultural resources enables the crystallisation of particular and nuanced forms of elite social class formations, formations in which place is not incidental but integral to their very existence. PMID:26640301

  1. National survey on endoscopy training in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R P; Stylianides, N A; Robertson, A G; Yip, V S K; Chadwick, G

    2015-07-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is an important skill for both gastroenterologists and general surgeons but concerns have been raised about the provision and delivery of training. This survey aimed to evaluate and compare the delivery of endoscopy training to gastroenterology and surgical trainees in the UK. A nationwide electronic survey was carried out of UK gastroenterology and general surgery trainees. There were 216 responses (33% gastroenterologists, 67% surgeons). Gastroenterology trainees attended more non-training endoscopy lists (mean: 3.0 vs 1.2) and training lists than surgical trainees (mean: 0.9 vs 0.5). A significantly higher proportion of gastroenterologists had already achieved accreditation in gastroscopy (60.8% vs 28.9%), colonoscopy (66.7% vs 1.4%) and flexible sigmoidoscopy (33.3% vs 3.0%). More gastroenterology trainees aspired to achieve accreditation in gastroscopy (97.2% vs 79.2%), flexible sigmoidoscopy (91.7% vs 70.1%) and colonoscopy (88.8% vs 55.5%) by completion of training. By completion of training, surgeons were less likely than gastroenterologists to have completed the required number of procedures to gain accreditation in gastroscopy (60.3% vs 91.3%), flexible sigmoidoscopy (64.6% vs 68.6%) and colonoscopy (60.3% vs 70.3%). This survey highlights marked disparities between surgical and gastroenterology trainees in both aiming for and achieving accreditation in endoscopy. Without changes to the delivery and provision of training as well as clarification of the role of endoscopy training in a surgical training programme, future surgeons will not be able to perform essential endoscopic assessment of patients as part of their management algorithm.

  2. Malnutrition in children with food allergies in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, R; De Koker, C; Dziubak, R; Venter, C; Dominguez-Ortega, G; Cutts, R; Yerlett, N; Skrapak, A-K; Fox, A T; Shah, N

    2014-06-01

    The mainstay of dietary management of food allergies remains the elimination diet. However, the removal of major food groups may predispose children to an inadequate nutrient intake. We therefore set out to establish growth status in food allergic children receiving dietetic input in the UK. Dietitians were approached via the Food Allergy and Intolerance Specialist Group from the British Dietetic Association and asked to submit anthropometrical data for children with food allergies. Data collected related to the systems involved and number of foods excluded. Malnutrition was defined according to World Health Organization standards. Data from 13 different centres yielded 97 patients (51 male and 46 female) of which 66 excluded ≤2 foods and 31 excluded ≥3 foods. Data indicated that 8.5% had a weight for age ≤ -2 Z-score and, conversely, 8.5% were ≥2 Z-score. For height for age, 11.1% were ≤ -2 Z-score and, for weight for height, 3.7% were ≤ -2 Z-score and 7.5% ≥2 Z-score. Type of allergy, system involved and specific food elimination did not impact on the level of malnutrition. However, the elimination of ≥3 foods significantly impacted on weight for age (P = 0.044). The present study demonstrates that children with food allergies are more underweight than the general UK population, which appears to be linked to the number of foods excluded. However, the impact of the disease process itself should not be disregarded. Additionally, obesity can also occur in this population despite dietary elimination. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Enhancing the Biodiversity of Ditches in Intensively Managed UK Farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rosalind F; Johnson, Paul J; Macdonald, David W; Feber, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    Drainage ditches, either seasonally flooded or permanent, are commonly found on intensively managed lowland farmland in the UK. They are potentially important for wetland biodiversity but, despite their ubiquity, information on their biodiversity and management in the wider countryside is scarce. We surveyed 175 ditches for their physical and chemical characteristics, spatial connectivity, plant communities and aquatic invertebrates in an area of intensively managed farmland in Oxfordshire, UK and collected information on ditch management from farmer interviews. Water depth and shade had a small impact on the diversity of plant and invertebrate communities in ditches. Increased shade over the ditch channel resulted in reduced taxonomic richness of both channel vegetation and aquatic invertebrates and channel vegetation cover was lower at shaded sites. Invertebrate taxonomic richness was higher when water was deeper. Spatial connectivity had no detectable impact on the aquatic invertebrate or plant communities found in ditches. The number of families within the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT), which contain many pollution-sensitive species, declined with decreasing pH of ditch water. As time since dredging increased, the number of EPT families increased in permanent ditches but decreased in temporary ditches. Whether or not a ditch was in an agri-environment scheme had little impact on the reported management regime or biodiversity value of the ditch. Measures for increasing the amount of water in ditches, by increasing the water depth or promoting retention of water in ditches, could increase the biodiversity value of ditches in agricultural land. Some temporary ditches for specialised species should be retained. Reducing the amount of shade over narrow ditches by managing adjacent hedgerows is also likely to increase the species diversity of plant and invertebrate communities within the ditch. We recommend that to preserve or enhance the

  4. Enhancing the Biodiversity of Ditches in Intensively Managed UK Farmland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind F Shaw

    Full Text Available Drainage ditches, either seasonally flooded or permanent, are commonly found on intensively managed lowland farmland in the UK. They are potentially important for wetland biodiversity but, despite their ubiquity, information on their biodiversity and management in the wider countryside is scarce. We surveyed 175 ditches for their physical and chemical characteristics, spatial connectivity, plant communities and aquatic invertebrates in an area of intensively managed farmland in Oxfordshire, UK and collected information on ditch management from farmer interviews. Water depth and shade had a small impact on the diversity of plant and invertebrate communities in ditches. Increased shade over the ditch channel resulted in reduced taxonomic richness of both channel vegetation and aquatic invertebrates and channel vegetation cover was lower at shaded sites. Invertebrate taxonomic richness was higher when water was deeper. Spatial connectivity had no detectable impact on the aquatic invertebrate or plant communities found in ditches. The number of families within the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT, which contain many pollution-sensitive species, declined with decreasing pH of ditch water. As time since dredging increased, the number of EPT families increased in permanent ditches but decreased in temporary ditches. Whether or not a ditch was in an agri-environment scheme had little impact on the reported management regime or biodiversity value of the ditch. Measures for increasing the amount of water in ditches, by increasing the water depth or promoting retention of water in ditches, could increase the biodiversity value of ditches in agricultural land. Some temporary ditches for specialised species should be retained. Reducing the amount of shade over narrow ditches by managing adjacent hedgerows is also likely to increase the species diversity of plant and invertebrate communities within the ditch. We recommend that to preserve

  5. Severe visual impairment and blindness in children in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, Jugnoo S; Cable, Noriko

    2003-10-25

    Prevention of visual impairment and blindness in childhood is an international priority. However, many countries do not have contemporary information about incidence and causes, from which the scope and priorities for prevention and treatment can be identified. In the UK, children aged younger than 16 years newly diagnosed with severe visual impairment or blindness (SVI/BL, WHO criteria) during 2000 were identified through national active surveillance schemes in ophthalmology and paediatrics. From these data, we calculated yearly age-group specific incidence and cumulative incidence. Causes were classified by the anatomical site or sites affected and by timing of the insult or insults and causal factors, where known. Of 439 newly diagnosed children, 336 (77%) had additional non-ophthalmic disorders or impairments (SVI/BL plus). Total yearly incidence was highest in the first year of life, being 4.0 (95% CI 3.6-4.5) per 10000, with a cumulative incidence by 16 years of age of 5.9 (5.3-6.5) per 10000. 10% (44) of all children died within 1 year of diagnosis of blindness. Prenatal causal factors affected 61% (268) of children, with perinatal or neonatal and childhood factors each affecting 18% (77). Incidence and causes varied with presence of non-ophthalmic impairments or disorders, birthweight, and ethnic origin. At least 75% (331) of children had disorders that were neither potentially preventable nor treatable, with current knowledge. Severe visual impairment and blindness in childhood in the UK is more common, occurs more frequently in the context of complex non-ophthalmic impairments, and has greater associated mortality, than previously assumed. An increased rate in children of low birthweight and from ethnic minority groups, together with the observed diversity and complexity of the causes, reflect recent secular changes in the population at risk, specific risk factors, and strategies available for treatment.

  6. Rest and recuperation in the UK Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsloe, L; Jones, N; Fertout, M; Luzon, O; Greenberg, N

    2014-12-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that military personnel commonly remain psychologically resilient in the face of adversity they face on deployment. However, the processes that promote resilience have not been well assessed within the UK military. For many years, the UK Armed Forces have operated a policy of rest and recuperation (R&R), which refers to the brief period during which troops return home when on an operational tour of duty. While R&R is thought to play an import ant role in promoting recovery and well-being, there is as yet no empirical evidence to support its effectiveness. To explore whether R&R promotes well-being and recovery from the strains of deployment in military personnel. Participants completed self-report measures of mental health and exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs), as well as an R&R Recovery Questionnaire (R&RRQ). Statistical analysis indicated that the R&RRQ was a reliable measure within the sample of 97 subjects. Participants who reported recovery following R&R reported fewer symptoms of mental health difficulties. However, increased deployment exposure to PTEs was associated with feeling less recovered at the end of R&R. These preliminary data suggest that R&R can be useful for troops if they can use the time to recover. This study's results are relevant to policymakers and leaders in the military and other groups placed in challenging environments but more work is needed to understand how R&R works and to maximize its capacity to promote well-being among military personnel. © Crown copyright 2014.

  7. Weight bias among UK trainee dietitians, doctors, nurses and nutritionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, J A; Hanlon, S; El-Redy, L; Puhl, R M; Glazebrook, C

    2013-08-01

    Trainee dietitians, nutritionists, nurses and doctors will direct the future of obesity treatment and prevention. To do so effectively, they must be willing and able to engage empathically with overweight and obese people. The present study aimed to assess weight bias among UK trainee healthcare professionals and to investigate the factors predicting weight bias, both static and potentially modifiable. A self-completed questionnaire collected data on demographics, weight and height, the Fat Phobia Scale (F-scale), and the Beliefs about Obese People (BOAP) scale from 1130 students. Overall, participants demonstrated significant levels of fat phobia [F-scale score mean (SD) = 3.8 (0.5)]. Only 1.4% of participants could be said to have expressed 'positive or neutral attitudes' (i.e. achieved a F-scale score ≤ 2.5). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that lower fat phobia (as measured by the F-scale) was uniquely predicted by a higher self-reported body mass index, being on the Nursing BSc course and a stronger perception that obesity is not under a person's control (as measured by the BOAP scale). There are unacceptable levels of weight bias among UK students training to become nurses, doctors, nutritionists and dietitians. The results of the present study suggest that a promising approach for future interventions would be the provision of balanced education about the controllability of obesity, focusing upon genetic and environmental factors, as well as diet and exercise. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  8. The politics of surveillance policy: UK regulatory dynamics after Snowden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Hintz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The revelations by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden have illustrated the scale and extent of digital surveillance carried out by different security and intelligence agencies. The publications have led to a variety of concerns, public debate, and some diplomatic fallout regarding the legality of the surveillance, the extent of state interference in civic life, and the protection of civil rights in the context of security. Debates about the policy environment of surveillance emerged quickly after the leaks began, but actual policy change is only starting. In the UK, a draft law (Investigatory Powers Bill has been proposed and is currently discussed. In this paper, we will trace the forces and dynamics that have shaped this particular policy response. Addressing surveillance policy as a site of struggle between different social forces and drawing on different fields across communication policy research, we suggest eight dynamics that, often in conflicting ways, have shaped the regulatory framework of surveillance policy in the UK since the Snowden leaks. These include the governmental context; national and international norms; court rulings; civil society advocacy; technical standards; private sector interventions; media coverage; and public opinion. We investigate how state surveillance has been met with criticism by parts of the technology industry and civil society, and that policy change was required as a result of legal challenges, review commissions and normative interventions. However a combination of specific government compositions, the strong role of security agendas and discourses, media justification and a muted reaction by the public have hindered a more fundamental review of surveillance practices so far and have moved policy debate towards the expansion, rather than the restriction, of surveillance in the aftermath of Snowden.

  9. Genetic evaluation of hip score in UK Labrador Retrievers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Lewis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Hip dysplasia is an important and complex genetic disease in dogs with both genetic and environmental influences. Since the osteoarthritis that develops is irreversible the only way to improve welfare, through reducing the prevalence, is through genetic selection. This study aimed to evaluate the progress of selection against hip dysplasia, to quantify potential improvements in the response to selection via use of genetic information and increases in selection intensity, and to prepare for public provision of estimated breeding values (EBV for hip dysplasia in the UK. Data consisted of 25,243 single records of hip scores of Labrador Retrievers between one and four years old, from radiographs evaluated between 2000 and 2007 as part of the British Veterinary Association (BVA hip score scheme. A natural logarithm transformation was applied to improve normality and linear mixed models were evaluated using ASREML. Genetic correlations between left and right scores, and total hip scores at one, two and three years of age were found to be close to one, endorsing analysis of total hip score in dogs aged one to three as an appropriate approach. A heritability of 0.35±0.016 and small but significant litter effect (0.07±0.009 were estimated. The observed trends in both mean hip score and mean EBV over year of birth indicate that a small genetic improvement has been taking place, approximately equivalent to avoiding those dogs with the worst 15% of scores. Deterministic analysis supported by simulations showed that a 19% greater response could be achieved using EBV compared to phenotype through increases in accuracy alone. This study establishes that consistent but slow genetic improvement in the hip score of UK Labrador Retrievers has been achieved over the previous decade, and demonstrates that progress may be easily enhanced through the use of EBVs and more intense selection.

  10. Genetic Evaluation of Hip Score in UK Labrador Retrievers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Thomas W.; Blott, Sarah C.; Woolliams, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Hip dysplasia is an important and complex genetic disease in dogs with both genetic and environmental influences. Since the osteoarthritis that develops is irreversible the only way to improve welfare, through reducing the prevalence, is through genetic selection. This study aimed to evaluate the progress of selection against hip dysplasia, to quantify potential improvements in the response to selection via use of genetic information and increases in selection intensity, and to prepare for public provision of estimated breeding values (EBV) for hip dysplasia in the UK. Data consisted of 25,243 single records of hip scores of Labrador Retrievers between one and four years old, from radiographs evaluated between 2000 and 2007 as part of the British Veterinary Association (BVA) hip score scheme. A natural logarithm transformation was applied to improve normality and linear mixed models were evaluated using ASREML. Genetic correlations between left and right scores, and total hip scores at one, two and three years of age were found to be close to one, endorsing analysis of total hip score in dogs aged one to three as an appropriate approach. A heritability of 0.35±0.016 and small but significant litter effect (0.07±0.009) were estimated. The observed trends in both mean hip score and mean EBV over year of birth indicate that a small genetic improvement has been taking place, approximately equivalent to avoiding those dogs with the worst 15% of scores. Deterministic analysis supported by simulations showed that a 19% greater response could be achieved using EBV compared to phenotype through increases in accuracy alone. This study establishes that consistent but slow genetic improvement in the hip score of UK Labrador Retrievers has been achieved over the previous decade, and demonstrates that progress may be easily enhanced through the use of EBVs and more intense selection. PMID:21042573

  11. Attribution of UK Winter Floods to Anthropogenic Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, N.; Alison, K.; Sparrow, S. N.; Otto, F. E. L.; Massey, N.; Vautard, R.; Yiou, P.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.; van Haren, R.; Lamb, R.; Huntingford, C.; Crooks, S.; Legg, T.; Weisheimer, A.; Bowery, A.; Miller, J.; Jones, R.; Stott, P.; Allen, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Many regions of southern UK experienced severe flooding during the 2013/2014 winter. Simultaneously, large areas in the USA and Canada were struck by prolonged cold weather. At the time, the media and public asked whether the general rainy conditions over northern Europe and the cold weather over North America were caused by climate change. Providing an answer to this question is not trivial, but recent studies show that probabilistic event attribution is feasible. Using the citizen science project weather@home, we ran over 40'000 perturbed initial condition simulations of the 2013/2014 winter. These simulations fall into two categories: one set aims at simulating the world with climate change using observed sea surface temperatures while the second set is run with sea surface temperatures corresponding to a world that might have been without climate change. The relevant modelled variables are then downscaled by a hydrological model to obtain river flows. First results show that anthropogenic climate change led to a small but significant increase in the fractional attributable risk for 30-days peak flows for the river Thames. A single number can summarize the final result from probabilistic attribution studies indicating, for example, an increase, decrease or no change to the risk of the event occurring. However, communicating this to the public, media and other scientists remains challenging. The assumptions made in the chain of models used need to be explained. In addition, extreme events, like the UK floods of the 2013/2014 winter, are usually caused by a range of factors. While heavy precipitation events can be caused by dynamic and/or thermodynamic processes, floods occur only partly as a response to heavy precipitation. Depending on the catchment, they can be largely due to soil properties and conditions of the previous months. Probabilistic attribution studies are multidisciplinary and therefore all aspects need to be communicated properly.

  12. Green power and the liberalisation of the UK electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D. [Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Technology Policy Group

    1999-01-01

    The UK electricity market is being opened up to full competition in stages, starting in September 1998. This radical change means that consumers can contract with suppliers of their choice, rather than just with their local Regional Electricity Companies. It also makes it possible for purveyors of renewable energy to offer green power from renewable energy sources direct to consumers, although they are likely, at least initially, to have to be charged a premium price. While some hope that this new green power market will expand so that renewable energy technology can begin to make a significant contribution to the UK's electricity supplies, there are several problems with this new scheme, not least the fact that it relies on the voluntary support of altruistic consumers. Can they be relied on to provide sufficient surplus to fund the expansion of renewables? Shouldn't this be the responsibility of the government? Or the energy companies? Some renewable energy proponents even fear that, since liberalisation may drive down the price of conventional electricity, renewables will be left looking expensive, and, far from expanding, could be wiped out entirely. This paper explores the potential and limits of the green market approach to renewable energy development, and looks at some of the alternative, or complementary, approaches that might be used to help stimulate the development and use of renewable energy technologies. In this paper the term liberalisation is used to mean giving consumers the opportunity to buy electricity from whom they please by removing restraints on competition. In the US the term deregulation is sometimes used. However, liberalisation is not necessarily synonymous with abandoning regulation. Nevertheless, there is clearly a debate over how much freedom should be given to the market, and how much regulation should be relaxed. (author)

  13. Dogslife: A cohort study of Labrador Retrievers in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, C A; Bronsvoort, B M de C; Handel, I G; Summers, K M; Clements, D N

    2015-12-01

    Studies of animals that visit primary and secondary veterinary centres dominate companion animal epidemiology. Dogslife is a research initiative that collects data directly from owners about the health and lifestyle of Kennel Club (KC) registered Labrador Retrievers (LR) in the UK. The ultimate aim is to seek associations between canine lifestyle and health. A selection of data from Dogslife regarding the height, weight and lifestyle of 4307 LR up to four years of age is reported here. The majority of the dogs were household pets, living with at least one other pet, in families or households with more than one adult. The dogs typically ate diets of dried food and daily meal frequency decreased as the dogs aged. Working dogs spent more time exercising than pets, and dogs in Wales and Scotland were exercised more than their counterparts in England. Dogs in households with children spent less time exercising than dogs in other types of households. There was considerable variation in height and weight measurements indicative of a highly heterogeneous population. The average male height at the shoulders was 2-3cm taller than the UK breed standard. Dog weights continued to increase between one and four years of age. Those with chocolate coloured coats were heavier than their yellow and black counterparts. Greater dog weight was also associated with dogs whose owners reported restricting their dog's exercise due to where they lived. These findings highlight the utility of wide public engagement in the collation of phenotypic measures, providing a unique insight into the physical development and lifestyle of a cohort of LRs. In combination with concurrently collected data on the health of the cohort, phenotypic data from the Dogslife Project will contribute to understanding the relationship between dog lifestyle and health. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Availability of iodised table salt in the UK - is it likely to influence population iodine intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Sarah C; Button, Suzanne; Rayman, Margaret P

    2014-02-01

    Iodine deficiency has recently been found in UK young and pregnant women, which is of concern given the importance of adequate iodine intake in pregnancy for fetal brain development. The WHO recommends that iodine deficiency in a population should be corrected through salt iodisation but there is a lack of UK data on iodised-salt availability, a situation that the present study aimed to address. Availability of iodised salt for household use was determined by a shelf survey in five supermarket chains in each of sixteen UK areas (in Southern England, Wales and Northern Ireland) encompassing a total of seventy-seven supermarkets. All branches of a sixth supermarket chain that had 2·3% of the market share sold exclusively iodised salt. Weighted iodised-salt availability was calculated taking the market share of supermarkets into account. The UK. Not applicable. Iodised salt was available in thirty-two of the seventy-seven supermarkets (41·6%). After accounting for market share and including all six UK supermarket chains, the weighted availability of iodised salt was 21·5%. The iodine concentration of the major UK brand of iodised salt is low, at 11·5 mg/kg. In contrast to other countries, iodised household table salt is unlikely to contribute meaningful amounts to UK iodine intake as (i) availability is low, (ii) table salt is only a small percentage of total UK salt intake and (iii) UK public-health campaigns have encouraged reduced salt consumption. As iodine intake in the UK is dependent entirely on food choices, regular monitoring of iodine status is essential.

  15. Differences in the sodium content of bread products in the USA and UK: implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Kasey J; Baldridge, Abigail S; Huffman, Mark D; Jenner, Katharine; Xavier, Dagan; Dunford, Elizabeth K

    2018-02-01

    Americans consume Na in excess of daily recommendations. Most dietary Na comes from packaged foods, and bread is a major contributor. In the UK, national Na reduction strategies contributed to lower Na levels in packaged foods and lower population Na intake. Similar initiatives are emerging in the USA and require surveillance to assess effectiveness. We aimed to examine Na levels in bread products in the USA and compare levels with similar UK products. Na data for bread products were obtained from the US Label Insight Open Data Initiative (n 4466) and the FoodSwitch UK database (n 1651). Mean, median and range of Na content, and proportion of products meeting Na targets established by the National Salt Reduction Initiative (NSRI) and the UK Department of Health (DH) were calculated overall, by bread type and by country. Mean (sd) Na content in bread was 455 (170) mg/100 g in the USA and 406 (179) mg/100 g in the UK. In both countries, savoury bread had the highest mean Na (USA=584 mg/100 g, UK=543 mg/100 g) and fruit bread the lowest mean Na (USA=345 mg/100 g, UK=277 mg/100 g). Na content of US bread products was 12 % higher than in the UK, with 21 % of US bread products and 31 % of UK bread products meeting the NSRI and DH targets, respectively. US bread products have, on average, 12 % more Na than similar products in the UK. Variation in Na content within product categories, and between countries, suggests the feasibility of manufacturing products with lower Na to lower dietary Na intake.

  16. Six Year Refractive Change among White Children and Young Adults: Evidence for Significant Increase in Myopia among White UK Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCullough, Sara J; O'Donoghue, Lisa; Saunders, Kathryn J

    2016-01-01

    To determine six-year spherical refractive error change among white children and young adults in the UK and evaluate differences in refractive profiles between contemporary Australian children and historical UK data...

  17. UK Renal Registry 17th Annual Report: Chapter 4 Demography of the UK Paediatric Renal Replacement Therapy Population in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthi, Rishi; Hamilton, Alexander J; O'Brien, Catherine; Casula, Anna; Braddon, Fiona; Inward, Carol; Lewis, Malcolm; Maxwell, Heather; Stojanovic, Jelena; Tse, Yincent; Sinha, Manish D

    2015-01-01

    To describe the demographics of the paediatric renal replacement therapy (RRT) population under the age of 18 years in the UK and to analyse changes in demography over time. Data were collected electronically from all 13 paediatric renal centres within the UK. A series of cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were performed to describe the demographics of paediatric RRT patients. A total of 891 children and young people under 18 with established renal failure (ERF) were receiving treatment at paediatric nephrology centres in 2013. At the census date, 80.2% had a functioning transplant, 11.7%were receiving haemodialysis (HD) and 8.1% were receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD). In patients aged ,16 years the prevalence of ERF was 58.2 per million age related population(pmarp) and the incidence 9.3 pmarp. A third of the prevalent patients had one or more reported comorbidities.At transfer to adult services, 85.2% of patients had a functioning renal transplant. Pre-emptive transplantation was seen to occur in a third of children starting RRT under16 years, with lower rates seen in girls and ethnic minorities.Living donation as starting modality has continued to improve with an increase from 8.8% in 1999–2003 to 18.4% in 2009–2013. Survival in childhood amongst children starting RRT was the lowest in those aged less than two years. We report continued improvement in data quality and electronic submission of data returns. The data provided in this report show relatively stable trends of incidence and prevalence in children with established renal failure.

  18. Effects of Economic Policy Uncertainty Shocks on the Long-Run US-UK Stock Market Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgharian, Hossein; Christiansen, Charlotte; Gupta, Rangan

    We use the economic policy uncertainty indices of Baker, Bloom, and Davis (2016) in combination with the mixed data sampling (MIDAS) approach to investigate the US and UK stock market movements. The long-run US-UK stock market correlation depends positively on US economic policy uncertainty shocks....... The US long-run stock market volatility depends significantly on the US economic policy uncertainty shocks but not on UK shocks while the UK depends significantly on both....

  19. Managing a Meritocracy or an Equitable Organisation? Senior Managers' and Employees' Views about Equal Opportunities Policies in UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the views of staff employed in UK higher education institutions (HEIs) about how those institutions are dealing with the impact of recent UK equality legislation and related European employment directives. Assumptions underlying current approaches to equality in UK HEIs are examined, particularly the notion of meritocracy,…

  20. Hemofilia nabyta w przebiegu tocznia rumieniowatego układowego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenobia Czuszyńska

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hemofilia nabyta jest rzadką jednostką chorobową spowodowanąwystępowaniem autoprzeciwciał, najczęściej przeciw VIII czynnikowikrzepnięcia. Częstość występowania tej choroby jest szacowanana 1,3–1,5 chorych na milion mieszkańców na rok. Ponadpołowa przypadków hemofilii nabytej (acquired haemophilia – AHma charakter samoistny. Wtórna postać najczęściej występujew przebiegu chorób autoimmunologicznych, takich jak: toczeńrumieniowaty układowy, reumatoidalne zapalenie stawówi zespół Sjögrena. Hemofilia nabyta może wystąpić także w przebiegunowotworów, chorób układu krwiotwórczego oraz w okresieciąży i połogu. Przyczyną może być również stosowanie niektórychleków. W przeciwieństwie do wrodzonej hemofilii, którawystępuje u mężczyzn, hemofilia nabyta występuje u obojga płci,pojawia się nagle, a jej przebieg może być gwałtowny i ciężki.WAH bardzo rzadko występują krwawienia do stawów, natomiastdominują rozległe wynaczynienia krwi pod skórą oraz krwawieniaśluzówkowe.W artykule opisano przypadek 27-letniej kobiety z toczniemrumieniowatym układowym, u której w trakcie aktywnej chorobypojawiły się rozległe podskórne wylewy krwawe (ryc. 1–3. Zaaktywnością choroby podstawowej przemawiało wysokie mianoprzeciwciał przeciwko dwuniciowemu DNA, niskie wartości składowychdopełniacza, niedokrwistość, a także białkomocz ponad1,3 g/dobę oraz aktywny osad moczu. W badaniach laboratoryjnychwykazano izolowane wydłużenie czasu częściowej tromboplastynypo aktywacji (APTT – 98 s (wartość referencyjna 26–37 s.Wykluczono obecność krążącego antykoagulantu tocznia (LA.Stwierdzono znacznie obniżoną aktywność VIII czynnika krzepnięcia (0,3% oraz wysokie miano inhibitora tego czynnika (49 jednostekBethesda. Zastosowano intensywne leczenie glikokortykosteroidamii cyklofosfamidem w pulsach, uzyskując pełną remisjęnabytej hemofilii. Aktywność czynnika VIII wr