Sample records for salt wash type

  1. Content of toxic and essential metals in recrystallized and washed table salt in Shiraz, Iran. (United States)

    Eftekhari, Mohammad Hassan; Mazloomi, Seyed Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Ranjbar, Mojdeh


    Table salt is the most commonly used food additive. Since most of the salt consumed in Iran comes from mines, contamination with heavy metals is a health concern. The commonest salt purification method in Iran is washing with water. But recently, some industries have turned to recrystallization method. The present study aimed to determine the level of essential and non-essential heavy metals in the table salt refined with recrystallization and washing methods. Thirty eight pre-packed salt samples were directly collected from retail market in Shiraz (22 samples refined with recrystallization method and 16 with washing method). The level of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt was determined using Voltammetric method. Daily intakes of lead and cadmium as well as their weekly intakes were calculated. The levels of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt in recrystallized samples were 0. 30 ± 0.26, 0.02 ± 0.02, 0.11 ± 0.06, 0.34 ± 0.22, 0.15 ± 0.19 and 0.008 ± 0.007 μg/g, respectively, and also 0.37 ± 0.27, 0.017 ± 0.021, 0.19 ± 0.18, 0.37 ± 0.20, 0.13 ± 0.23 and 0.037 ± 0.06 μg/g in washed salt samples. The calculated weekly intake of lead and cadmium was 0.216 and 0.014 μg/kg, respectively for the recrystallized and 0.2653 and 0.0119 μg/kg for the washed salts. All values for toxic metals were lower than the permitted maximum for human consumption as prescribed by Codex and Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. Only 0.8652-1.0612% of lead and 0.17-0.2% of cadmium PTWIs are received via salt consumption weekly.

  2. Radiotracer study of wash load movement in a drum-type fabric washing machine using a gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balt, A.P.; Brekel, L.D.M. van den; Vandecasteele, C.; Kolar, Z.


    A study was made of the movement of the wash loads in a drum-type washing machine. For this purpose a sup(99m)Tc source was attached to one or two separate textile pieces and the subsequent source positions were determined by means of a gamma-camera. The wash load movement pattern appears to depend on the type of textile material and its amount, as well as on the volume of water present in the washing machine.

  3. Effects of lead mineralogy on soil washing enhanced by ferric salts as extracting and oxidizing agents. (United States)

    Yoo, Jong-Chan; Park, Sang-Min; Yoon, Geun-Seok; Tsang, Daniel C W; Baek, Kitae


    In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using ferric salts including FeCl3 and Fe(NO3)3 as extracting and oxidizing agents for a soil washing process to remediate Pb-contaminated soils. We treated various Pb minerals including PbO, PbCO3, Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2, PbSO4, PbS, and Pb5(PO4)3(OH) using ferric salts, and compared our results with those obtained using common washing agents of HCl, HNO3, disodium-ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (Na2-EDTA), and citric acid. The use of 50 mM Fe(NO3)3 extracted significantly more Pb (above 96% extraction) from Pb minerals except PbSO4 (below 55% extraction) compared to the other washing agents. In contrast, washing processes using FeCl3 and HCl were not effective for extraction from Pb minerals because of PbCl2 precipitation. Yet, the newly formed PbCl2 could be dissolved by subsequent wash with distilled water under acidic conditions. When applying our washing method to remediate field-contaminated soil from a shooting range that had high concentrations of Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2 and PbCO3, we extracted more Pb (approximately 99% extraction) from the soil using 100 mM Fe(NO3)3 than other washing agents at the same process conditions. Our results show that ferric salts can be alternative washing agents for Pb-contaminated soils in view of their extracting and oxidizing abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sandstone-body and shale-body dimensions in a braided fluvial system: Salt wash sandstone member (Morrison formation), Garfield County, Utah (United States)

    Robinson, J.W.; McCabea, P.J.


    Excellent three-dimensional exposures of the Upper Jurassic Salt Wash Sandstone Member of the Morrison Formation in the Henry Mountains area of southern Utah allow measurement of the thickness and width of fluvial sandstone and shale bodies from extensive photomosaics. The Salt Wash Sandstone Member is composed of fluvial channel fill, abandoned channel fill, and overbank/flood-plain strata that were deposited on a broad alluvial plain of low-sinuosity, sandy, braided streams flowing northeast. A hierarchy of sandstone and shale bodies in the Salt Wash Sandstone Member includes, in ascending order, trough cross-bedding, fining-upward units/mudstone intraclast conglomerates, singlestory sandstone bodies/basal conglomerate, abandoned channel fill, multistory sandstone bodies, and overbank/flood-plain heterolithic strata. Trough cross-beds have an average width:thickness ratio (W:T) of 8.5:1 in the lower interval of the Salt Wash Sandstone Member and 10.4:1 in the upper interval. Fining-upward units are 0.5-3.0 m thick and 3-11 m wide. Single-story sandstone bodies in the upper interval are wider and thicker than their counterparts in the lower interval, based on average W:T, linear regression analysis, and cumulative relative frequency graphs. Multistory sandstone bodies are composed of two to eight stories, range up to 30 m thick and over 1500 m wide (W:T > 50:1), and are also larger in the upper interval. Heterolithic units between sandstone bodies include abandoned channel fill (W:T = 33:1) and overbank/flood-plain deposits (W:T = 70:1). Understanding W:T ratios from the component parts of an ancient, sandy, braided stream deposit can be applied in several ways to similar strata in other basins; for example, to (1) determine the width of a unit when only the thickness is known, (2) create correlation guidelines and maximum correlation lengths, (3) aid in interpreting the controls on fluvial architecture, and (4) place additional constraints on input variables to

  5. Remediation of 137Cs contaminated concrete using electrokinetic phenomena and ionic salt washes in nuclear energy contexts. (United States)

    Parker, Andrew J; Joyce, Malcolm J; Boxall, Colin


    This work describes the first known the use of electrokinetic treatments and ionic salt washes to remediate concrete contaminated with 137Cs. A series of experiments were performed on concrete samples, contaminated with K+ and 137Cs, using a bespoke migration cell and an applied electric field (60V potential gradient and current limit of 35mA). Additionally, two samples were treated with an ionic salt wash (≤400molm-3 of KCl) alongside the electrokinetic treatment. The results show that the combined treatment produces removal efficiencies three times higher (>60%) than the electrokinetic treatment alone and that the decontamination efficiency appears to be proportional to the initial degree of contamination. Furthermore, the decontamination efficiencies are equivalent to previous electrokinetic studies that utilised hazardous chemical enhancement agents demonstrating the potential of the technique for use on nuclear licensed site. The results highlight the relationship between the initial contamination concentration within the concrete and achievable removal efficiency of electrokinetic treatment and other treatments. This information would be useful when selecting the most appropriate decontamination techniques for particular contamination scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Release of synthetic microplastic plastic fibres from domestic washing machines: Effects of fabric type and washing conditions. (United States)

    Napper, Imogen E; Thompson, Richard C


    Washing clothes made from synthetic materials has been identified as a potentially important source of microscopic fibres to the environment. This study examined the release of fibres from polyester, polyester-cotton blend and acrylic fabrics. These fabrics were laundered under various conditions of temperature, detergent and conditioner. Fibres from waste effluent were examined and the mass, abundance and fibre size compared between treatments. Average fibre size ranged between 11.9 and 17.7μm in diameter, and 5.0 and 7.8mm in length. Polyester-cotton fabric consistently shed significantly fewer fibres than either polyester or acrylic. However, fibre release varied according to wash treatment with various complex interactions. We estimate over 700,000 fibres could be released from an average 6kg wash load of acrylic fabric. As fibres have been reported in effluent from sewage treatment plants, our data indicates fibres released by washing of clothing could be an important source of microplastics to aquatic habitats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Will mouth wash solutions of water, salt, sodiumbicarbonate or citric acid improve upper gastrointestinal symptoms in chronic kidney disease. (United States)

    Manley, Karen Joy


    Uraemic symptoms including taste changes, nausea and dry retching are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Taste buds detect five basic tastes: sweet, salty, sour, umami and bitter. Saliva in CKD usually has increased concentrations of urea, sodium, potassium, phosphate and higher pH levels. Genetic sensitivities to the bitter taste, with the changes in saliva can cause taste changes and impact uraemic symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess if mouth wash solutions of water, salt, sodium bicarbonate or citric acid improves upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in CKD patients. An interventional crossover study with 42 CKD patients (21 men, 21 women) complaining of upper GI symptoms were recruited. Subjects completed a questionnaire to assess symptoms and tested for genetic taste sensitivities. Saliva samples were analysed. Mouth rinse solutions of salt, bicarbonate, citric acid and de-ionised water were trialled in randomized order for patient reaction and symptom improvement. All 42 patients experienced anorexia, 39 (93%) reported taste changes, 27 (48%) nausea and 27 (48%) dry retching. All solutions improved symptoms in some patients. Sodium bicarbonate (P = 0.005) gave the greatest improvement in mouth feel and symptom control compared with the least favoured citric acid solution. Sixty-six percent of patients found sodium bicarbonate beneficial with 40% preference over other solutions. Simple mouthwashes can be used to relieve or eliminate some uraemic symptoms. Rinsing the mouth with a sodium bicarbonate solution cleanses receptors on taste buds and may alter mouth pH thereby reducing some upper GI symptoms that CKD patients can experience. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  8. Characterization of a water pump for drum-type washing machine by vibration power approach (United States)

    Heo, YongHwa; Kim, Kwang-joon


    Water pumps used in drum-type washing machines to save water are likely to make the washing process noisier than the one without those because the water pumps attached usually onto cabinet structure work as additional vibration and noise sources. In order to either counteract such vibration and noise problems by stiffness design of the cabinet structure or classify the water pumps from the view point of an acceptance test, characterization of the water pumps as excitation sources would be essential. In this paper, several methods to characterize a water pump as an excitation source are investigated. Measurements by traditional methods of blocked force and/or free velocity for a water pump of 35 W are presented. Two methods of vibration power suggested rather recently are reviewed. Then, another method of the vibration power is proposed. Estimations of the vibration power for the water pump operating on a beam structure are obtained and discussed comparatively.

  9. Effects of Types of Washing and Peeling in Relation to Pesticide Residues in Tomatoes


    Andrade,Graziela C. R. M.; Monteiro, Sérgio H.; Francisco,Jeane G.; Figueiredo,Leila A.; Rocha, Aderbal A.; Tornisielo,Valdemar L


    Tomatoes are widely consumed and most often without cooking, therefore it is important to estimate the reduction of residues using simple washing procedures. An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of household processing such as: washing with water, washing with 10% of vinegar solution and washing with 10% of sodium bicarbonate solution on pesticide residue levels of acetamiprid, azoxystrobin, diflubenzuron, dimethoate, fipronil, imidacloprid, procymidone and thiamethoxam, in s...

  10. Metal removal and associated binding fraction transformation in contaminated river sediment washed by different types of agents. (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Liu, Tongzhou; Feng, Shuai; Zhang, Weihua


    In ex-situ washing, HCl, EDTA and H2O2 solutions can effectively extract heavy metals in river sediment. Nevertheless they often target different sediment components, possibly transforming metal species into more bioavailable and hence toxic ones. This study, in batch settings, investigated the influences of different types of washing agents (i.e. HCl, EDTA and H2O2) on metal (i.e. Cu and Zn) removal from contaminated river sediment, destroy or dissolution of sediment components, and transformation of metal fractions during chemical washing treatment. Additionally, bioavailability of these metals left in the washed sediment was assessed. Results showed that HCl obtained the highest Cu and Zn removal through destroying the reducible, oxidizable and residual sediment components. Meanwhile, it transformed metal fractions to acid extractable one, resulting in an increase in metal bioavailability. Thus, the feasibility of washing with HCl for sediment remediation shall be reconsidered due to the caused high metal bioavailability. EDTA was capable of removing metals via direct complexation of labile metal species and indirect dissolution of reducible and oxidizable sediment components, where the transformation of corresponding metal binding fraction may occur. H2O2 obtained the lowest total Cu and Zn removal, but it preferentially removed the oxidizable metal species by oxidizing sulfides in the sediment. The bioavailable levels of Cu and Zn in the sediment washed by EDTA or H2O2 seemed not increase. To maintain a good balance between labile metal species removal and avoiding increase of metal bioavailability, EDTA and H2O2 are promising additives for metal removal by sediment washing.

  11. Metal removal and associated binding fraction transformation in contaminated river sediment washed by different types of agents


    Wang, Hong; Liu, Tongzhou; Feng, Shuai; Zhang, Weihua


    In ex-situ washing, HCl, EDTA and H2O2 solutions can effectively extract heavy metals in river sediment. Nevertheless they often target different sediment components, possibly transforming metal species into more bioavailable and hence toxic ones. This study, in batch settings, investigated the influences of different types of washing agents (i.e. HCl, EDTA and H2O2) on metal (i.e. Cu and Zn) removal from contaminated river sediment, destroy or dissolution of sediment components, and transfor...

  12. Distinct functional connectivity of limbic network in the washing type obsessive-compulsive disorder. (United States)

    Jhung, Kyungun; Ku, Jeonghun; Kim, Se Joo; Lee, Hyeongrae; Kim, Kyung Ran; An, Suk Kyoon; Kim, Sun I; Yoon, Kang-Jun; Lee, Eun


    Neurobiological models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) emphasize disturbances of the corticostriatal circuit, but it remains unclear as to how these complex network dysfunctions correspond to heterogeneous OCD phenotypes. We aimed to investigate corticostriatal functional connectivity alterations distinct to OCD characterized predominantly by contamination/washing symptoms. Functional connectivity strengths of the striatal seed regions with remaining brain regions during the resting condition and the contamination symptom provocation condition were compared among 13 OCD patients with predominant contamination/washing symptoms (CON), 13 OCD patients without these symptoms (NCON), and 18 healthy controls. The CON group showed distinctively altered functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the insula during both the resting and symptom-provoking conditions. Also, the connectivity strength between the ventral striatum and the insula significantly correlated with contamination/washing symptom severity. As common connectivity alterations of the whole OCD subjects, corticostriatal circuits involving the orbitofrontal and temporal cortices were again confirmed. To our knowledge, this is the first study that examined specific abnormalities in functional connectivity of contamination/washing symptom dimension OCD. The findings suggest limbic network dysfunctions to play a pivotal role in contamination/washing symptoms, possibly associated with emotionally salient error awareness. Our study sample allowed us to evaluate the corticostriatal network dysfunction underlying the contamination/washing symptom dimension, which leaves other major symptom dimensions to be explored in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Removal of Pb from sewage sludge by electrokinetics: effect of pH and washing solution type. (United States)

    Hanay, Ozge; Hasar, Halil; Koçer, Nilufer Nacar; Ozdemir, Ozgur


    In this study, the effect of pH and washing solution on the removal of lead from sewage sludge by electrokinetics was investigated. The six experimental runs were carried out at two different pH values--3 and 4--using acetic acid, nitric acid and phosphoric acid. In addition, the sequential chemical extraction scheme according to the BCR's (Community Bureau of Reference) guidelines was applied to the sludge samples to evaluate the effect of acidic solutions on Pb fractionation during electrokinetic processes. Using nitric acid as the washing solution resulted in the highest removal efficiency of Pb (39%) amongst all the experiments. Acetic acid also provided similar removal percentages (37% and 38%) at different pre-acidification conditions. On the other hand, the removal efficiencies were 36% and 27% with pre-acidification using phosphoric acid at pH 3 and 4, respectively, resulting in the lowest efficiencies. The results obtained by BCR analysis showed that the metal present near the anode partitioned in to more mobile forms while the metal near the cathode partitioned in to less mobile forms, such as precipitated or adsorbed forms, as the electrokinetic process proceeded. The inter-fractional transformations of Pb formed only when using acetic acid. The similar percentages obtained by using different washing solutions indicated that the type of acid used as washing solution was less effective than the values of pH for removal of Pb from sewage sludge during the electrokinetic process.

  14. Adhesive properties of water washed cottonseed meal on four types of wood (United States)

    The interest in natural product-based wood adhesives has been steadily increasing due to the environmental and sustainable concerns of petroleum-based adhesives. In this work, we reported our research on the utilization of water washed cottonseed meal (WCM) as wood adhesives. The adhesive strength a...

  15. Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank, Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank, Caustic Wash Tank And Caustic Storage Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 6 Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B.


    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Caustic Storage Tank (CST) samples from several of the ''microbatches'' of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (''Macrobatch'') 6 have been analyzed for {sup 238}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from comparable samples in Macrobatch 5. From a bulk chemical point of view, the ICPES results do not vary considerably between this and the previous macrobatch. The titanium results in the DSSHT samples continue to indicate the presence of Ti, when the feed material does not have detectable levels. This most likely indicates that leaching of Ti from MST in ARP continues to occur. Both the CST and CWT samples indicate that the target Free OH value of 0.03 has been surpassed. While at this time there is no indication that this has caused an operational problem, the CST should be adjusted into specification. The {sup 137}Cs results from the SRNL as well as F/H lab data indicate a potential decline in cesium decontamination factor. Further samples will be carefully monitored to investigate this.

  16. Environmental washing: a new type of washing?

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    Cristina Castillo Gatica


    Full Text Available Enterprises - imitating the example set by a number of public characters belonging to some countries- have appealed to the strategy of what, lacking of a best name, we will call “Inverse marketing”, which consist of auto-define themselves exactly the opposite of what criticism have pointed-out. This way, the dictators who take over by mean of power define him as liberator or something similar. No wonder that some companies that have severely compromised the environment due its production activities, initiate costing marketing campaigns in which they assume the role of environment protection leaders. Before analyzing this situation, however, we will define the conceptual framework that is required for this phenomenon to occur. Globalization, being actually a multidimensional phenomenon, since it comprises practically all the spectrum of human relationships, at national and international level, obtained its maximum intensity within the Economy level, however. Particularly, to say globalization = free market, even whether this is only one particular point of view regarding globalization, is not an exaggeration vis-a-vis what society as a whole tend to understand when this word is used.

  17. New type of imidazole based salts designed specifically for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedzicki, L., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00664 Warsaw (Poland); Zukowska, G.Z.; Bukowska, M.; Szczecinski, P. [Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00664 Warsaw (Poland); Grugeon, S.; Laruelle, S.; Armand, M. [Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides University de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue de Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Panero, S.; Scrosati, B. [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Marcinek, M.; Wieczorek, W. [Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00664 Warsaw (Poland)


    In this manuscript we announce new type of 'tailored' imidazole-derived salts designed, synthesized and tested for application in lithium conductive electrolytes. Basic characterization of the structure of described materials has been made by Raman, IR and NMR ({sup 13}C NMR, {sup 19}F NMR) techniques. DSC and CV studies showed thermal stability of all salts over 200 deg. C and electrochemical stability in liquid and solid polymer solvents up to +4.6 V vs. metallic lithium anode and Al collectors. Such properties proved applicability of these salts as lithium electrolytes for modern types of lithium ion batteries.

  18. Soil washing treatability study

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    Krstich, M.


    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS.

  19. One-dimensional Magnus-type platinum double salts (United States)

    Hendon, Christopher H.; Walsh, Aron; Akiyama, Norinobu; Konno, Yosuke; Kajiwara, Takashi; Ito, Tasuku; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Sakai, Ken


    Interest in platinum-chain complexes arose from their unusual oxidation states and physical properties. Despite their compositional diversity, isolation of crystalline chains has remained challenging. Here we report a simple crystallization technique that yields a series of dimer-based 1D platinum chains. The colour of the Pt2+ compounds can be switched between yellow, orange and blue. Spontaneous oxidation in air is used to form black Pt2.33+ needles. The loss of one electron per double salt results in a metallic state, as supported by quantum chemical calculations, and displays conductivity of 11 S cm−1 at room temperature. This behaviour may open up a new avenue for controllable platinum chemistry. PMID:27320502

  20. Impact of type of salt and ambient conditions on saline water evaporation from porous media (United States)

    Shokri-Kuehni, Salomé M. S.; Norouzi Rad, Mansoureh; Webb, Colin; Shokri, Nima


    Saline water evaporation from porous media is important in many processes such as soil salinization, CO2 sequestration, crop production and water management. This process is influenced by the transport properties of porous media, properties of the evaporating solution and external conditions. In this work, we investigated the effects of external conditions and type of salt on the drying behaviour of sandy media and on the dynamics of surface salt precipitation. To do so, a comprehensive series of evaporation experiments were conducted using 33 columns packed with sand saturated with salt solutions. The evaporation experiments were conducted in an environmental chamber to investigate the effects of relative humidity, ambient temperature and type of salt on the evaporation process. Sodium Chloride, Calcium Chloride and Potassium Iodide with a wide range of concentration were used to saturate the sand columns mounted on digital balances. A digital camera was fixed at the surface of the sand packs to record the dynamics of salt precipitation at the surface. The results provide further confirmation that ambient conditions are the controlling factors during stage-1 evaporation of pure water. Additionally, the minor impact of the presence of precipitated salt at the surface on the saline water evaporation during the early stages of the process is discussed. Strong correlations between the cumulative water losses and the precipitation at the surface were found under different ambient conditions. The results obtained from different types of salt highlight the significant influence of the relationship between the saturated vapour pressure and salt concentration on the general dynamics of the process.

  1. PENGARUH DEFATTING, FREKUENSI PENCUCIAN DAN JENIS DRYOPROTECTANT TERHADAP MUTU TEPUNG SURIMI IKAN LELE KERING BEKU [Effect of Defatting, Washing Cycle and Dryoprotectant Type on the Quality of Freeze Dried Catfish Surimi Powder

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    Wahyu Ramadhan*


    Full Text Available Freeze dried surimi powder is a surimi type processed by freeze drying. To utilize oversized catfish and to reduce surimi handling cost, oversized catfish has been used as raw material of surimi powder. The study aimed to determine the effect of defatting (NaHCO3 concentration and soaking duration, washingcycle,and dryoprotectant type on catfish surimi, as well as quality differences between surimi powder and wet surimi. With regard to defatting step, soaking in NaHCO3 0.75% for 10 minutes was found as the best treatment and resulting in a fat content of 1.52%. Moreover, one time of washing cycle was found as the most appropriate procedure to obtain a superior quality of surimi with whiteness value 57.21%, water holding capacity 73.28%, salts soluble protein 7.17%, pH 6.69, and gel strength 482.3 g/cm2, folding value of 4.84, and teeth cutting value of 8.26. Trehalose 6% was the most suitable dryoprotectant resulting in surimi powder with water holding capacity of 8.01 mL/g, gel strength 826.3 g/cm2, salt soluble protein 18.98%, density 4.06 mL/10 g, rehydration capacity 3.81, emulsion capacity 69.3%, emulsion stability 59.3%, foaming capacity 25.33% and foaming stability 9.40%. The microstructure profile of surimi powder added with trehalose had more compact tissues, without any damage and clots, than that treated with other dryoprotectants. However, surimi powder still had lower protein content than wet surimi, and lower physical and chemical properties, particularly in its teeth cutting and folding characteristics.

  2. Soil washing: A preliminary assessment of its applicability to Hanford

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    Gerber, M A; Freeman, H D; Baker, E G; Riemath, W F


    Soil washing is being considered for treating soils at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. As a result of over 50 years of operations to produce plutonium for the US Department of Defense and research for DOE, soils in areas within the Site are contaminated with hazardous wastes and radionuclides. In the soil washing process, contaminated soil is mixed with a liquid and then physically and/or chemically treated to dissolve the contaminants into solution and/or concentrate them in a small fraction of the soil. The purpose of this procedure is to separate the contaminants from the bulk of the soil. The key to successful application is to match the types of contaminants and soil characteristics with physical-chemical methods that perform well under the existing conditions. The applicability of soil washing to Hanford Site contaminated soils must take into account both the characteristics of the oil and the type of contamination. Hanford soils typically contain up to 90% sand, gravel, and cobbles, which generally are favorable characteristics for soil washing. For example, in soil samples from the north pond in the 300 Area, 80% to 90% of the soil particles were larger than 250 {mu}m. The principal contaminants in the soil are radionuclides, heavy metals, and nitrate and sulfate salts. For most of the sites, organic contaminants are either not present or are found in very low concentration. 28 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.


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    B. K. Satriyasa


    Full Text Available Background: caffeine, a methylxanthine derivate, appears to inhibit phosphodiesterase, thereby inhibiting the break down of cAMP and increasing its concentration inside cell. This study aims to assess the effect of caffeine addition in Earles’s Balanced Salt Solution (EBSS on the increase in membrane integrity and acrosome reaction of spermatozoa using swim up method. Methods: This study was carried out at the Clinic of Sexology and Andrology, Sanglah Public Hospital at Denpasar Bali-Indonesia. This study was an experimental study using the design of pre and post test paired control group design. The samples were sperm specimens of eighteen infertile couple male or volunteers who were infertile with age ranged between 20-40 years old. The samples   were divided into two groups: treatment group (caffeine + EBSS and control group (EBSS. The data were analysed statistically by normality test (Kolmogorov - Smirnov Goodness of Fit Test, Homogeneity test, and Paired Student’s t test.  Results: The results showed that the caffeine addition in EBSS medium could increase significantly (p<0.05.  The integrity of the sperm membrane obtained were from 81.30 % to 86.60 % and acrosomal reaction from 82.60% to 89.60% evaluated by hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS. The conclusion of this study is that addition of caffeine in EBSS medium increases significantly membrane integrity and acrosomal reaction of the human sperm.

  4. Bile salt and cholesterol metabolism in diabetes mellitus type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker-van Waarde, Willemijntje Maria


    W.M. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) is associated with microvascular complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (cardiovascular disease). Macrovascular disease is the major cause of death in patients with DM1. The mortality rate due to coronary artery


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    Full Text Available Comparing the spontaneous polarizations, static and dynamic dielectric properties of piezoelectric Rochelle salt and non-piezoelectric RbHSO4 we explore the role played by piezoelectric coupling in forming the dielectric response of the crystals of this type. The calculations for crystals of both types are performed within the Mitsui model, modified for the case of Rochelle salt by including the terms related to piezoelectric coupling with spontaneous strain ε4. It is shown that such a modification improves the agreement between theory and experiment for spontaneous polarization and yields a correct temperature behavior of relaxation times and dynamic dielectric permittivity of Rochelle salt in the vicinity of the transition points.

  6. Preliminary state-of-the-art survey: mining techniques for salt and other rock types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This is a systematic review of the state-of-the-art of underground mining and excavation technology in the U.S. as applied to salt, limestone, shale, and granite. Chapter 2 covers the basic characteristics of these rock types, the most frequently used underground mining methods, shaft and slope entry construction, equipment, and safety and productivity data. Chapters 3 and 4 summarize underground salt and limestone mining in the U.S. Chapter 5 shows that large amounts of thick shale exist in the U.S., but little is mined. Chapter 6 discusses underground excavations into granite-type rocks. Suggestions are given in the last chapter for further study. (DLC)

  7. Bile salt receptor complex activates a pathogenic type III secretion system

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    Li, Peng; Rivera-Cancel, Giomar; Kinch, Lisa N.; Salomon, Dor; Tomchick, Diana R.; Grishin, Nick V.; Orth, Kim


    Bile is an important component of the human gastrointestinal tract with an essential role in food absorption and antimicrobial activities. Enteric bacterial pathogens have developed strategies to sense bile as an environmental cue to regulate virulence genes during infection. We discovered thatVibrio parahaemolyticusVtrC, along with VtrA and VtrB, are required for activating the virulence type III secretion system 2 in response to bile salts. The VtrA/VtrC complex activates VtrB in the presence of bile salts. The crystal structure of the periplasmic domains of the VtrA/VtrC heterodimer reveals a β-barrel with a hydrophobic inner chamber. A co-crystal structure of VtrA/VtrC with bile salt, along with biophysical and mutational analysis, demonstrates that the hydrophobic chamber binds bile salts and activates the virulence network. As part of a family of conserved signaling receptors, VtrA/VtrC provides structural and functional insights into the evolutionarily conserved mechanism used by bacteria to sense their environment.

  8. A reliable and accurate portable device for rapid quantitative estimation of iodine content in different types of edible salt. (United States)

    Yadav, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Chakrabarty, Arijit; Pandav, Chandrakant S


    Continuous monitoring of salt iodization to ensure the success of the Universal Salt Iodization (USI) program can be significantly strengthened by the use of a simple, safe, and rapid method of salt iodine estimation. This study assessed the validity of a new portable device, iCheck Iodine developed by the BioAnalyt GmbH to estimate the iodine content in salt. Validation of the device was conducted in the laboratory of the South Asia regional office of the International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD). The validity of the device was assessed using device specific indicators, comparison of iCheck Iodine device with the iodometric titration, and comparison between iodine estimation using 1 g and 10 g salt by iCheck Iodine using 116 salt samples procured from various small-, medium-, and large-scale salt processors across India. The intra- and interassay imprecision for 10 parts per million (ppm), 30 ppm, and 50 ppm concentrations of iodized salt were 2.8%, 6.1%, and 3.1%, and 2.4%, 2.2%, and 2.1%, respectively. Interoperator imprecision was 6.2%, 6.3%, and 4.6% for the salt with iodine concentrations of 10 ppm, 30 ppm, and 50 ppm respectively. The correlation coefficient between measurements by the two methods was 0.934 and the correlation coefficient between measurements using 1 g of iodized salt and 10 g of iodized salt by the iCheck Iodine device was 0.983. The iCheck Iodine device is reliable and provides a valid method for the quantitative estimation of the iodine content of iodized salt fortified with potassium iodate in the field setting and in different types of salt.

  9. Abdominopelvic washings: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika F Rodriguez


    Full Text Available Intraperitoneal spread may occur with gynecological epithelial neoplasms, as well as with non-gynecological malignancies, which may result in serosal involvement with or without concomitant effusion. Therefore, washings in patients with abdominopelvic tumors represent important specimens for cytologic examination. They are primarily utilized for staging ovarian cancers, although their role has decreased in staging of endometrial and cervical carcinoma. Abdominopelvic washings can be positive in a variety of pathologic conditions, including benign conditions, borderline neoplastic tumors, locally invasive tumors, or distant metastases. In a subset of cases, washings can be diagnostically challenging due to the presence of co-existing benign cells (e.g., mesothelial hyperplasia, endosalpingiosis, or endometriosis, lesions in which there is only minimal atypia (e.g., serous borderline tumors or scant atypical cells, and the rarity of specific tumor types (e.g., mesothelioma. Ancillary studies including immunocytochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization may be required in difficult cases to resolve the diagnosis. This article provides a comprehensive and contemporary review of abdominopelvic washings in the evaluation of gynecologic and non-gynecologic tumors, including primary peritoneal and mesothelial entities.

  10. Impacts of road deicing salts on the early-life growth and development of a stream salmonid: Salt type matters. (United States)

    Hintz, William D; Relyea, Rick A


    The use of road deicing salts in regions that experience cold winters is increasing the salinity of freshwater ecosystems, which threatens freshwater resources. Yet, the impacts of environmentally relevant road salt concentrations on freshwater organisms are not well understood, particularly in stream ecosystems where salinization is most severe. We tested the impacts of deicing salts-sodium chloride (NaCl), magnesium chloride (MgCl2), and calcium chloride (CaCl2)-on the growth and development of newly hatched rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We exposed rainbow trout to a wide range of environmentally relevant chloride concentrations (25, 230, 860, 1500, and 3000 mg Cl- L-1) over an ecologically relevant time period (25 d). We found that the deicing salts studied had distinct effects. MgCl2 did not affect rainbow trout growth at any concentration. NaCl had no effects at the lowest three concentrations, but rainbow trout length was reduced by 9% and mass by 27% at 3000 mg Cl- L-1. CaCl2 affected rainbow trout growth at 860 mg Cl- L-1 (5% reduced length; 16% reduced mass) and these effects became larger at higher concentrations (11% reduced length; 31% reduced mass). None of the deicing salts affected rainbow trout development. At sub-lethal and environmentally relevant concentrations, our results do not support the paradigm that MgCl2 is the most toxic deicing salt to fish, perhaps due to hydration effects on the Mg2+ cation. Our results do suggest different pathways for lethal and sub-lethal effects of road salts. Scaled to the population level, the reduced growth caused by NaCl and CaCl2 at critical early-life stages has the potential to negatively affect salmonid recruitment and population dynamics. Our findings have implications for environmental policy and management strategies that aim to reduce the impacts of salinization on freshwater organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. FOCUS ON HAND WASHING Yakubu Tahir Maigari Departm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 24, 2014 ... be told to develop the habit of hand washing to avoid infection from various types of diseases? Different organizations have mapped out strategies and schemes for hand washing, enumerating the immense benefits this action. For example, Mayo clinic has this to say: Hand washing does not take much time ...

  12. Viability and functional integrity of washed platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, A.A.; Zylstra, V.W.; Clare, D.E.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Forstrom, L.A.


    The viability and functional integrity of saline- and ACD-saline-washed platelets were compared with those of unwashed platelets. After template bleeding time (TBT) was measured, 15 healthy volunteers underwent plateletpheresis and ingested 600 mg of aspirin. Autologous /sup 111/In-labeled platelets were transfused: unwashed (n = 5), washed with 0.9 percent saline solution (SS) (n = 5), and washed with a buffered 12.6 percent solution of ACD-A in 0.9 percent saline solution (n = 5). After transfusion, we measured TBT at 1, 4, and 24 hours; platelet survival at 10 minutes and 1, 4, and 24 hours and daily for 6 days; and the percentage of uptake in liver and spleen by quantitative whole-body radionuclide scintigraphy at 24 and 190 hours. We found that saline washing affected platelet recovery, 23.47 +/- 12 percent (p less than 0.001) as compared to 52.43 +/- 17 percent (p less than 0.002) for ACD-saline and 73.17 +/- 8 percent for control; that saline washing resulted in a greater liver uptake than control and ACD-saline-washed platelets (31.9 +/- 8% (p less than 0.001) vs 17.7 +/- 4.1 and 19.3 +/- 2.1% (p greater than 0.1), respectively); that, unlike control and ACD-saline-washed platelets, saline-washed platelets did not shorten bleeding time; and that neither type of washing affected survival. Although ACD-saline washing affects recovery, it also results in intact function, normal survival, higher recovery than SS platelets, and no significant liver uptake.

  13. Amiloride-Insensitive Salt Taste Is Mediated by Two Populations of Type III Taste Cells with Distinct Transduction Mechanisms. (United States)

    Lewandowski, Brian C; Sukumaran, Sunil K; Margolskee, Robert F; Bachmanov, Alexander A


    Responses in the amiloride-insensitive (AI) pathway, one of the two pathways mediating salty taste in mammals, are modulated by the size of the anion of a salt. This "anion effect" has been hypothesized to result from inhibitory transepithelial potentials (TPs) generated across the lingual epithelium as cations permeate through tight junctions and leave their larger and less permeable anions behind (Ye et al., 1991). We tested directly the necessity of TPs for the anion effect by measuring responses to NaCl and Na-gluconate (small and large anion sodium salts, respectively) in isolated taste cells from mouse circumvallate papillae. Using calcium imaging, we identified AI salt-responsive type III taste cells and demonstrated that they compose a subpopulation of acid-responsive taste cells. Even in the absence of TPs, many (66%) AI salt-responsive type III taste cells still exhibited the anion effect, demonstrating that some component of the transduction machinery for salty taste in type III cells is sensitive to anion size. We hypothesized that osmotic responses could explain why a minority of type III cells (34%) had AI salt responses but lacked anion sensitivity. All AI type III cells had osmotic responses to cellobiose, which were significantly modulated by extracellular sodium concentration, suggesting the presence of a sodium-conducting osmotically sensitive ion channel. However, these responses were significantly larger in AI type III cells that did not exhibit the anion effect. These findings indicate that multiple mechanisms could underlie AI salt responses in type III taste cells, one of which may contribute to the anion effect. Understanding the mechanisms underlying salty taste will help inform strategies to combat the health problems associated with NaCl overconsumption by humans. Of the two pathways underlying salty taste in mammals, the amiloride-insensitive (AI) pathway is the least understood. Using calcium imaging of isolated mouse taste cells, we

  14. IgG antibodies against human papillomavirus type 16 E7 proteins in cervicovaginal washing fluid from patients with cervical neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjiong, M. Y.; ter Schegget, J.; Tjiong-A-Hung, S. P.; Out, T. A.; van der Vange, N.; Burger, M. P. M.; Struyk, L.


    Little information is available about the cervicovaginal mucosal antibodies against human papillomavirus (HPV) proteins. In this study specific IgG antibodies against HPV 16 E7 protein were determined in paired samples of cervicovaginal washing fluid and serum from patients with cervical cancer (n =

  15. Mite and mite allergen removal during machine washing of laundry. (United States)

    Arlian, Larry G; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn L; Morgan, Marjorie S


    Few studies have investigated live house dust mite and mite allergen removal from clothing and bedding by washing machines. No studies have investigated the transfer of mites from infested to uninfested clothing and bedding during washing. The purpose of this study was to wash different types of clothing and bedding in residential washing machines to determine the live Dermatophagoides farinae mite and allergen removal and the mite transfer from mite-infested items to mite-free items. Clothing and bedding items were machine washed in 6- and 8-lb loads in warm (36 degrees C-38 degrees C) or cold (22 degrees C-27 degrees C) water with and without recommended concentrations of laundry detergent and sodium hypochlorite bleach. Live mites and allergen present in washed versus unwashed and washed mite-infested versus washed mite-free items were compared. Washing clothing and bedding in water alone, detergent, or detergent plus bleach removed 60% to 83% of the live mites. Washing removed more mites from some items than from others. When mite-infested items were washed with identical sets of mite-free items, many live mites were transferred to the previously mite-free items. Overall, 84% of Der f 1 was removed from items washed in water alone or in detergent and 98% from items washed in detergent plus bleach. Washing clothing and bedding in cold or warm water with detergent or detergent plus bleach removed most allergen and a significant (P washing is required to further reduce mite levels. Live mites were transferred from mite-infested to mite-free items during washing.

  16. Wash Your Hands

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This video shows kids how to properly wash their hands, one of the most important steps we can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others.  Created: 3/8/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/8/2010.

  17. Effects of salinity and sea salt type on egg activation, fertilization, buoyancy and early embryology of European eel, Anguilla anguilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Butts, Ian; Munk, Peter


    Improper activation and swelling of in vitro produced eggs of European eel, Anguilla anguilla, has been shown to negatively affect embryonic development and hatching. We investigated this phenomenon by examining the effects of salinity and sea salt type on egg dimensions, cell cleavage patterns a...

  18. Tidal Creek Morphology and Sediment Type Influence Spatial Trends in Salt Marsh Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Daehyun; Cairns, David M.; Bartholdy, Jesper


    Zonal patterns of salt marsh plants and physical conditions have been addressed primarily across the elevation gradient from inland to coastline rather than across tidal creeks in relation to their hydro-geomorphic processes such as bar formation and bank erosion. We found at a Danish marsh...... to fully understand the underlying structure and geographic variability in salt marshes....

  19. Hand Washing: Do's and Dont's (United States)

    ... for a sick person Inserting or removing contact lenses Always wash your hands after: Preparing food Using ... best to wash your hands with soap and water. Follow these steps: Wet your hands with running ...

  20. An emulsion wash fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Yu.G.; Kasyanenko, N.I.; Nedoseko, L.V.; Yablonovskaya, K.M.


    The advantage of making a wash fluid at drill wells far from the clay works from concentrates of pastes delivered there is demonstrated. A formula is cited for the EP-1 emulsion paste, developed in the Dnepropetrovsk section of the Institute of Mineral Resources (IMR), along with its production technology. The low clay emulsion wash liquid, EPZh-1, obtained directly from the drill well from the EP-1 paste, after adding one of the polymers of the acrylic series (hydrolized polyacrylamide, hypan, K-4 and so on) to it is a volume of 1 to 2 percent of the total mass is suitable for use in different geological conditions. Based on the results of broad testing in the geological organizations of the Sevukreologiya and Yuzhukrgeologiya PO, it is established that the EPZh-1 wash fluid promotes an increase in the speed of well passage on the average by 13.7 percent and an increase in the technical drilling speed of 17.3 percent and a reduction in downtime due to the absence of the clearing agent by 53 percent and due to complications by 50 percent. More than 100,000 meters of wells have been drilled using EPZh-1 and a savings of 1.37 rubles per meter drilled has been achieved.

  1. Effects of salt stress on wild type and vte4 mutant Arabidopsis thaliana: Model plant to engineer tolerance towards salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalatbari Amir Ali


    Full Text Available One of the major environmental constraints impairing plant distribution and yield is believed to be salt stress. Additionally, engineered abiotic stress resistance or/and tolerance is considered as an indispensable target in order to enhance plant productivity. In this study, the effects of salinity on physiological and morphological of wild type (Columbia-0 and vte4 mutant Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated under different NaCl concentrations. These salt treatments, including control condition, 50mM and 100mM NaCl were imposed on the plants. Each salt treatment was replicated three times in a complete randomized design with factorial arrangement. Wild type and mutant A.thaliana plants were subjected to the abiotic stress (salinity for up to 11 days to evaluate the parameters of growth, development and water relations. As a result, the performance of wild type plants was stronger than vte4 mutant under different salt treatments. Under control condition, rosette dry weight, maximum quantum efficiency (PSII and specific leaf area obtained the highest values of 13.85 mg, considered, wild type A.thaliana recorded higher value of 0.82 gW/gFW for relative water content (RWC under 50mM NaCl whereas mutant plants gained the value of 0.78 gW/gFW under the same condition. However, root mass fraction indicated an increase for both wild type and vte4 mutant plants after 11 days of salt stress onset. The reduction of water potential was observed for wild type and mutant A.thaliana where it scored -1.3 MPa and -1.4, respectively. As a conclusion, these findings implied that under different salt treatments morphological and physiological responses of wild type and vte4 mutant were affected in which wild type plants showed more tolerance. Lack of γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ -TMT gene in vte4 seemed to impair defence mechanism of this mutant against salinity.

  2. Please wash your hands often


    Moraru, C.


    This poster advises washing hands "before and after using the toilet, handling food, touching animals, eating, drinking, or smoking." It advocates "always use clean water / never wash your hands in used wash water!" The purpose is to protect self and others from diseases. LTRA-2 (An Agricultural Markets Model for Biodiversity Conservation)

  3. Effects of the combination between bio-surfactant product types and washing times on the removal of crude oil in nonwoven fabric (United States)

    Triawan, Agus; Ni'matuzahroh, Supriyanto, Agus


    This research aimed to characterize bio-surfactants produced by Bacillus subtilis 3KP, Pseudomonas putida T1-8, Micrococcus sp. L II 61 and Acinetobacter sp. P 2(1) and to investigate its combination's effects on the removal of crude oil in nonwoven fabric with different washing times vary from 12, 24 to 36 hours. The production of bio-surfactants was done on Synthetic Mineral Water mixed with molasses 4% within four days. The bio-surfactant products were characterized by measuring the Surface Tension (ST) (mN/m) and Emulsion Activity (EA) (%). Oil removal experiment was done by mixing 10 mL bio-surfactant with nonwoven fabric that contains crude oil into 50 mL bottle inside a shaker. The removed crude oil was extracted with n-hexane and measured gravimetrically. The results were then being analyzed with two ways ANOVA and Duncan test. Bio-surfactant produced by four bacteria has variations of Surface Tension and Emulsion Activity values. Bio-surfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis 3KP and Pseudomonas putida T1-8 showed the increasing of crude oil removal as washing times increase, while bio-surfactant produced by Micrococcus sp. L II 61 and Acinetobacter sp. P2(1) showed the decreasing result at 36 hours. However, the combination that showed the best result was Acinetobacter sp. P 2(1) at 24 hours valued 65,3%.

  4. Responsibility and hand washing behaviour. (United States)

    Taylor, Jasmine; Purdon, Christine


    Recent research suggests that compulsions persist due to a self-perpetuating mechanism of poor memory confidence and repetition. However, most of this work has examined checking compulsions and findings may not generalize well to washing compulsions. This study examined the role of responsibility in the persistence of washing behaviour. Hand washing was examined in undergraduates (n = 80) high and low in contamination fears (CF) under conditions of high or low responsibility (RL). Wash duration and number of visits to objects/locations key to the wash (e.g., soap) were examined. Overvalued responsibility predicted washing duration across groups. Neither wash duration nor number of visits was associated with memory for the wash. Wash duration predicted post-wash certainty that the wash had prevented harm, but only in the high CF group, and that effect varied according to RL: longer wash duration predicted greater certainty under conditions of low RL but predicted less certainty under conditions of high RL. Greater repetition predicted poorer sensory confidence, but only in the high CF group under high RL conditions. The data were collected in an analogue sample of modest size. Replication in a clinical sample is required. Self-perpetuating mechanisms identified in perseverative checking seem to also be present in perseverative washing, but only under conditions of high responsibility. Sensory confidence may be more important to perseverative washing than memory confidence. More research is required to understand self-perpetuating mechanisms at play when washing to under conditions of high responsibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Brain endogenous angiotensin II receptor type 2 (AT2-R) protects against DOCA/salt-induced hypertension in female rats. (United States)

    Dai, Shu-Yan; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Li, Jian-Dong; Shen, Ying; Sun, Xiao-Fei


    Recent studies demonstrate that there are sex differences in the expression of angiotensin receptor type 2 (AT2-R) in the kidney and that AT2-R plays an enhanced role in regulating blood pressure (BP) in females. Also, brain AT2-R activation has been reported to negatively modulate BP and sympathetic outflow. The present study investigated whether the central blockade of endogenous AT2-R augments deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)/salt-induced hypertension in both male and female rats. All rats were subcutaneously infused with DOCA combined with 1% NaCl solution as the sole drinking fluid. BP and heart rate (HR) were recorded by telemetric transmitters. To determine the effect of central AT2-R on DOCA/salt-induced hypertension, male and female rats were intracerebroventricularly (icv) infused with AT2-R antagonist, PD123,319, during DOCA/salt treatment. Subsequently, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, a key cardiovascular regulatory region of the brain, was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. DOCA/salt treatment elicited a greater increase in BP in male rats than that in females. Icv infusions of the AT2-R antagonist significantly augmented DOCA/salt pressor effects in females. However, this same treatment had no enhanced effect on DOCA/salt-induced increase in the BP in males. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis of the female brain revealed that DOCA/salt treatment enhanced the mRNA and protein expression for both antihypertensive components including AT2-R, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-2, and interleukin (IL)-10 and hypertensive components including angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1-R), ACE-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1β, but decreased mRNA expression of renin in the PVN. The central blockade of AT2-R reversed the changes in mRNA and protein expressions of ACE-2, IL-10, and renin, further increased the expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β, and kept higher the expressions of AT1-R, ACE-1, and AT2-R

  6. Sodium salt of starch octenylsuccinate as an emulsifier in “light” type mayonnaises


    Grażyna Lewandowicz; Tomasz Zięba; Artur Szwengiel; Joanna Le Thanh-Blicharz; Zuzanna Małyszek


      Introduction. The E 1450 sodium salt of starch octenylsuccinate which exhibits emulsifying properties is used as food additive and is also recommended as yolk replacer in the process of mayonnaise production. Commercial E 1450 preparations reveal excellent functional properties in mayonnaise production. However, sodium salt of starch octenylsuccinate produced in the course of the suspension process (as well as the product of its hydrolysis in a membrane reactor), despite high surfa...

  7. Leaching Behavior of Circulating Fluidised Bed MSWI Air Pollution Control Residue in Washing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen


    Full Text Available In this study, air pollution control (APC residue is conducted with water washing process to reduce its chloride content. A novel electrical conductivily (EC measurement method is proposed to monitor the dynamic change of chloride concentrations in leachate as well as the chloride content of the residue. The method equally applies to various washing processes with different washing time, liquid/solid ratio and washing frequency. The results show that washing effectively extracts chloride salts from APC residues, including those from circulating fluidized bed (CFB municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI. The most appropriate liquid/solid ratio and washing time in the first washing are found to be around 4 L water per kg of APC residue and 30 min, respectively, and washing twice is required to obtain maximum dissolution. The pH value is the major controlling factor of the heavy metals speciation in leachate, while chloride concentration also affects the speciation of Cd. Water washing causes no perceptible transfer of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs from the APC residue to leachate. The chloride concentration is strongly related with electrical conductivity (EC, as well as with the concentrations of calcium, sodium and potassium of washing water. Their regression analyses specify that soluble chloride salts and EC could act as an indirect indicator to monitor the change of chloride concentration and remaining chloride content, thus, contributing to the selection of the optimal washing conditions.

  8. Auto-Washing Panty Toilet for Care


    長屋, 幸助; 王, 宇; 小島, 多香子; 福室, 允央


    It is important jobs to change diapers for a bedridden patient. Changing diapers hurts prides of the patient, so that a panty toilet, that can be worn to the patient, is of importance, in which feces and urine are washed automatically. In this study, a new-type automatic washing panty toilet system is presented. The system consists of a rubber made panty toilet with tubes at both thighs and a torso, and the control system. In the panty toilet, air expands the tubes, and water leakage is preve...

  9. Mineral resource of the month: salt (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.


    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  10. Postoperative washing of sutured wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad Harrison


    Full Text Available A best evidence topic was written according to the structured protocol. The three part question addressed was: [In patients undergoing closure of surgical wounds with sutures] does [keeping the wound dry for the first 48 h after closure] [reduce the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs]? 4 relevant papers were culled from the literature and appraised. The authors, date, country, population, study type, main outcomes, key results and study weaknesses were tabulated. Current NICE guidelines recommend cleaning surgical wounds with sterile saline only for the first 48 h following skin closure. We found no evidence that washing wounds with tap water during this period increases the incidence of SSIs compared to keeping them dry. Further randomised controlled trials will enable the construction of conclusive systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

  11. Tenacity of Exogenous Human Papillomavirus DNA in Sperm Washing


    Brossfield, Jeralyn E.; Philip J. Chan; Patton, William C.; King, Alan


    Purpose:Sperm cells have been shown to take up exogenous DNA readily. The hypothesis was that sperm washing would remove exogenous viral DNA infecting sperm cells. The objective was to compare three types of sperm washing procedures for their capacity to remove exogenous human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA from infected sperm.

  12. Trend Analysis of Soil Salinity in Different Land Cover Types Using Landsat Time Series Data (case Study Bakhtegan Salt Lake) (United States)

    Taghadosi, M. M.; Hasanlou, M.


    Soil salinity is one of the main causes of desertification and land degradation which has negative impacts on soil fertility and crop productivity. Monitoring salt affected areas and assessing land cover changes, which caused by salinization, can be an effective approach to rehabilitate saline soils and prevent further salinization of agricultural fields. Using potential of satellite imagery taken over time along with remote sensing techniques, makes it possible to determine salinity changes at regional scales. This study deals with monitoring salinity changes and trend of the expansion in different land cover types of Bakhtegan Salt Lake district during the last two decades using multi-temporal Landsat images. For this purpose, per-pixel trend analysis of soil salinity during years 2000 to 2016 was performed and slope index maps of the best salinity indicators were generated for each pixel in the scene. The results of this study revealed that vegetation indices (GDVI and EVI) and also salinity indices (SI-1 and SI-3) have great potential to assess soil salinity trends in vegetation and bare soil lands respectively due to more sensitivity to salt features over years of study. In addition, images of May had the best performance to highlight changes in pixels among different months of the year. A comparative analysis of different slope index maps shows that more than 76% of vegetated areas have experienced negative trends during 17 years, of which about 34% are moderately and highly saline. This percent is increased to 92% for bare soil lands and 29% of salt affected soils had severe salinization. It can be concluded that the areas, which are close to the lake, are more affected by salinity and salts from the lake were brought into the soil which will lead to loss of soil productivity ultimately.


    We quantified nekton and estimated trophic export at salt marshes with both erosional and depositional edges at the Goodwin Islands (York River, Virginia, USA). At depositional-edge marshes, we examined trophic flows through quantitative sampling with 1.75 m2 drop rings, and thro...

  14. [Post-vaccination granulomas caused by delayed-type reaction to aluminum salts]. (United States)

    Wahl, R U; Wurpts, G; Merk, H F


    Aluminium salts are common adjuvants in all established inactivated vaccines. They are necessary to activate the humoral immune system. In the 1990s a Swedish study on an acellular vaccination against pertussis was started. Until 2013, 745 of 760,000 children with pruritic subcutaneous nodules were identified. In 77 % of these children a contact allergy to aluminium could be proven. Contact allergy to aluminium induced by vaccines causes pruritic subcutaneous nodules at the vaccination site. During infections of the upper respiratory tract the pruritus often escalates with inflammatory, erythematous and urticarial plaques. The use of solutions containing aluminium salts for specific immunotherapy is contraindicated in the case of contact allergy to aluminium. Intramuscular injections of inactivated vaccines can be employed to avoid granuloma formation.

  15. On the Effect of Salt and its Removal from the Fibers of the Wool Weavings Found with the Salt Men in Chehr Abad Salt Mine, Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeideh Khamseh


    Full Text Available Examination of the salt men and their accompanying objects in Chehr Abad Salt Mine, Zanjan, has opened up an interesting research area for archaeologists and conservators. In addition to the historical and cultural values of these works, indicating the rich civilization of that period, investigation into the preservation and type of remaining ingredients, often putrescible organic materials, provides a rich field of research. In this case study, research was conducted on the discovered objects in Chehr Abad salt mine, with identification of the objects and hand-woven artifacts found in the mine and, more importantly, the effect of salt on the hand-woven artifacts. Since discovered artifacts are often sensitive to changes in environmental conditions, salt absorption and the role of salt as a disinfectant, are obvious factors to be considered. The discovered hand-woven artifacts are of paramount importance due to their history. They were discovered as a result of cooperation between archaeological teams working in Iran and Germany (from the Bochum museum and University. As these weavings were soaked in minerals and other wastes, the cleansing procedure was done by water washing. In order to protect the weavings, unearthed and removed from their original site of discovery, research on issues such as the removal and retention of salt, its impact on the life-span of organic materials, the probability of the hand-woven fibers being destroyed by salt crystals and the reaction of water and salt, all needed to be considered. In this paper an introduction is given to the discovered objects and artifacts from Chehr Abad salt mine, with a study of the wool fibers, examined by visual (macroscopic inspection, optical micrographs, electron SEM micrographs, including an EDX analysis of the hand-woven artifacts. The results of the investigations have shown the conservative effect of the salt on the fibers.

  16. Coagulation-flocculation process applied to wastewaters generated in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, L. g.; Belloc, C.; Iturbe, R.; Bandala, E.


    A wastewater produced in the contaminated soil washing was treated by means of coagulation-flocculation (CF) process. the wastewater treatment in this work continued petroleum hydrocarbons, a surfactant, i. e., sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as well as salts, humic acids and other constituents that were lixiviated rom the soil during the washing process. The aim of this work was to develop a process for treating the wastewaters generated when washing hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in such a way that it could be recycled to the washing process, and at the end of the cleaning up, the waters could be disposed properly. (Author)

  17. Delayed diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with salt wasting due to type II 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Trine H; Mallet, Delphine; Dige-Petersen, Harriet


    Classical 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) deficiency is a rare cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. We report two sisters presenting with delayed diagnoses of classical 3beta-HSD, despite salt wasting (SW) episodes in infancy. Sibling 1 was referred for premature pubarche, slight....... There is no previous report of the combination of SW and premature pubarche due to mutations in the type II 3beta-HSD gene. Because neonatal diagnosis could have prevented life-threatening crises in these girls, this report further supports the benefits for neonatal screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia...

  18. Comparative study on fermentation performance in the genome shuffled Candida versatilis and wild-type salt tolerant yeast strain. (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Guo, Hong-Lian; Wang, Chun-Ling; Hou, Li-Hua; Cao, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Jin-Fu; Lu, Fu-Ping


    The fermentation performance of a genome-shuffled strain of Candida versatilis S3-5, isolated for improved tolerance to salt, and wild-type (WT) strain were analysed. The fermentation parameters, such as growth, reducing sugar, ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds, were detected during soy sauce fermentation process. The results showed that ethanol produced by the genome shuffled strain S3-5 was increasing at a faster rate and to a greater extent than WT. At the end of the fermentation, malic acid, citric acid and succinic acid formed in tricarboxylic acid cycle after S3-5 treatment elevated by 39.20%, 6.85% and 17.09% compared to WT, respectively. Moreover, flavour compounds such as phenethyl acetate, ethyl vanillate, ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl myristate, ethyl pentadecanoate, ethyl palmitate and phenylacetaldehyde produced by S3-5 were 2.26, 2.12, 2.87, 34.41, 6.32, 13.64, 2.23 and 78.85 times as compared to WT. S3-5 exhibited enhanced metabolic ability as compared to the wild-type strain, improved conversion of sugars to ethanol, metabolism of organic acid and formation of volatile compounds, especially esters, Moreover, S3-5 might be an ester-flavour type salt-tolerant yeast. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B


    Preparation of high level waste for vitrification involves in part the dissolution of salt cake from the carbon steel storage tanks. The salt crystals composing this cake are high in nitrate concentration with the interstitial liquid being high in hydroxide and nitrite concentration. During the salt dissolution process, a stage is reached in which the inhibitors, hydroxide and nitrite, are insufficient to prevent nitrate stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and fall outside the requirements of the corrosion control program. Additional inhibitors, which are necessary to meet the requirements, may be counterproductive to the efficiency of the process and waste minimization. Corrosion testing was initiated to better characterize the necessary inhibitor concentration for high nitrate waste during salt dissolution processing. A four-phase test program is being conducted: (1) electrochemical characterization, (2) accelerated or polarized U-bend testing, (3) long-term (non-polarized) U-bend testing and (4) vapor space U-bend tests. Electrochemical testing, which included cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP), linear polarization resistance (LPR) and open-circuit potential (OCP) measurements, was performed to identify stress corrosion cracking susceptibility, to characterize pitting resistance and to determine the general corrosion rate. Polarized U-bend tests were utilized to assess the effect of minimum inhibitor concentrations and heat treatment on SCC and to determine test parameters for future long-term U-bend testing. Results from CPP, LPR and OCP tests demonstrated that carbon steel formed a protective oxide film and the potential became electropositive during exposure to the waste at all inhibitor concentrations. The tenacity of this film improved as the inhibitor concentration level was increased and the temperature was decreased. This passive film increased the resistance to localized corrosion significantly. Therefore if any of these inhibitor levels are selected

  20. The behavior of silver nanotextiles during washing. (United States)

    Geranio, L; Heuberger, M; Nowack, B


    The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in commercial products, especially textiles, will likely result in an unknown spread of Ag into the environment. The quantification and characterization of the Ag released from nano-Ag-products is an important parameter needed to predict the effect of Ag-NPs on the environment. The aim of this study was to determine the amount and the form of Ag released during washing from nine fabrics with different ways of silver incorporation into or onto the fibers. The effect of pH, surfactants, and oxidizing agents was evaluated. The results show that little dissolution of Ag-NPs occurs under conditions relevant to washing (pH 10) with dissolved concentrations 10 times lower than at pH 7. However, bleaching agents such as hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid (formed by the perborate/TAED system) can greatly accelerate the dissolution of Ag. The amount and form of Ag released from the fabrics as ionic and particulate Ag depended on the type of Ag-incorporation into the textile. The percentage of the total silver emitted during one washing of the textiles varied considerably among products (from less than 1 to 45%). In the washing machine the majority of the Ag (at least 50% but mostly >75%) was released in the size fraction >450 nm, indicating the dominant role of mechanical stress. A conventional silver textile did not show any significant difference in the size distribution of the released silver compared to many of the textiles containing nano-Ag. These results have important implications for the risk assessment of Ag-textiles and also for environmental fate studies of nano-Ag, because they show that under conditions relevant to washing, primarily coarse Ag-containing particles are released.

  1. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Fenfen, E-mail: [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Institute of Material Structure Science (IMSS), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)


    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl{sub 2}, and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl{sub 2} decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.CaCl{sub 2}) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl{sub 2}. Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl{sub 2}.

  2. Albian salt-tectonics in Central Tunisia: Evidences for an Atlantic-type passive margin (United States)

    Jaillard, Etienne; Bouillin, Jean-Pierre; Ouali, Jamel; Dumont, Thierry; Latil, Jean-Louis; Chihaoui, Abir


    Tunisia is part of the south-Tethyan margin, which comprises Triassic evaporites and a thick series of Jurassic and Cretaceous, mainly marine deposits, related to the Tethyan rifting evolution. A survey of various Cretaceous outcrops of central Tunisia (Kasserine-El Kef area), combined with literature descriptions, shows that the style of Albian deformation changes from the proximal (South) to the distal part (North) of the margin. The southern part is dominated by tilted blocks and growth faults, which evolve to the north to turtle-back and roll-over structures. Farther North, deformation is dominated by the extrusion of diapirs and salt walls. Such a distribution of deformation strongly suggests that the whole sedimentary cover glided northward on the Triassic evaporites during Albian times, as described for the Atlantic passive margin or for the Gulf of Mexico. Subsequently, these halokinetic structures have been folded during Alpine compressional tectonics.

  3. Impact of soil types and management practices on soil microbiological properties - a case study in salt affected area of Hungary (United States)

    Gangwar, Ravi Kumar; Makádi, Marianna; Michéli, Erika; Weldmichael, Tsedekech G.; Szegi, Tamás


    The impact of different land use systems on soil microbiological properties in salt affected soils were investigated in the Nádudvar region of Hajdu-Bihar County, Hungary. The study area is characterized by associations of Solonetz and Chernozem soils. Soils were collected from both arable (cultivated) and pasture (non-cultivated) land from the upper 15 cm, in May, 2016. Besides soil physical and chemical properties (SOM, pH, CaCO3, EC, E4/E6, available macro, meso and micro nutrients and moisture content), soil microbiological properties were also investigated, phosphatase and dehydrogenase activities of the samples were measured, as well as soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and soil microbiological respiration. The results were statistically compared on the different soil types and land uses. It was concluded that land management has greater impact on soil microbiology than inherent properties or soil types.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Wiersma, B.; Garcia-Diaz, B.


    Dissolution of salt from Type III/IIIA waste tanks at the Savannah River Site may create solutions with inhibitor concentrations below those currently required (0.6M OH{sup -} and 1.1M OH{sup -} + NO{sub 2}{sup -}) per the Corrosion Control Program for high nitrate salt solutions (5.5 to 8.5M NO{sub 3}{sup -}). An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the corrosion susceptibility of grade A537 carbon steel for waste simulants containing 4.5-8.5M NaNO{sub 3} with maximum inhibitor concentrations of 0.6M NaOH and 0.2M NaNO{sub 2}. These maximum inhibitor concentrations used in this program are at a reduced level from those currently required. Current requirements were initially established for the Types I, II and IV tanks made of A285 carbon steel. The experimental program involved corrosion testing to evaluate the pitting and stress corrosion stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of the Type III/IIIA waste tank materials. The program was conducted in two phases; the results of the first phase were reported previously (WSRC-STI-2006-00029). In this second phase, the corrosion specimens were modified to represent the 'as-fabricated' condition of the tank wall, and included specimens with mill scale, ground welds and stress-relief heat treatments. The complete description of the corrosion testing and the results are reported herein. The collective corrosion test results for A537 carbon steel in high nitrate waste simulants (4.5 - 8.5M) with the maximum inhibitor concentrations of 0.6M NaOH and 0.2M NaNO{sub 2} were as follows: (1) In long-term non-polarized U-bend testing, heat treatment, similar to the waste tank stress relief regime, reduced the incidence of cracking over the 18-month test period. Vapor space SCC was found to initiate on non-heat treated U-bend coupons. (2) In polarized U-bend testing, cracking occurred on U-bend coupons that had welds prepared similar to those in the waste tanks, i.e. ground and heat treated. (3) In

  5. Modest Salt Reduction Lowers Blood Pressure and Albumin Excretion in Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial. (United States)

    Suckling, Rebecca J; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A


    The role of salt restriction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus is controversial, with a lack of well controlled, longer term, modest salt reduction trials in this group of patients, in spite of the marked increase in cardiovascular risk. We carried out a 12-week randomized double-blind, crossover trial of salt restriction with salt or placebo tablets, each for 6 weeks, in 46 individuals with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance and untreated normal or high normal blood pressure (BP). From salt to placebo, 24-hour urinary sodium was reduced by 49±9 mmol (2.9 g salt). This reduction in salt intake led to fall in clinic BP from 136/81±2/1 mm Hg to 131/80±2/1 mm Hg, (systolic BP; P24-hour BP was reduced by 3/2±1/1 mm Hg (systolic BP, Pdiabetes mellitus with normal or mildly raised BP. The reduction in urinary albumin excretion may carry additional benefits in reducing cardiovascular disease above the effects on BP. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Aquifer washing by micellar solutions: 1. Optimization of alcohol-surfactant-solvent solutions (United States)

    Martel, Richard; Gélinas, Pierre J.; Desnoyers, Jacques E.


    Phase diagrams were used for the formulation of alcohol-surfactant-solvent and to identify the DNAPL (Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquid) extraction zones. Four potential extraction zones of Mercier DNAPL, a mixture of heavy aliphatics, aromatics and chlorinated hydrocarbons, were identified but only one microemulsion zone showed satisfactory DNAPL recovery in sand columns. More than 90 sand column experiments were performed and demonstrate that: (1) neither surfactant in water, alcohol-surfactant solutions, nor pure solvent can effectively recover Mercier DNAPL and that only alcohol-surfactant-solvent solutions are efficient; (2) adding salts to alcohol-surfactant or to alcohol-surfactant-solvent solutions does not have a beneficial effect on DNAPL recovery; (3) washing solution formulations are site specific and must be modified if the surface properties of the solids (mineralogy) change locally, or if the interfacial behavior of liquids (type of oil) changes; (4) high solvent concentrations in washing solutions increase DNAPL extraction but also increase their cost and decrease their density dramatically; (5) maximum DNAPL recovery is observed with alcohol-surfactant-solvent formulations which correspond to the maximum solubilization in Zone C of the phase diagram; (6) replacing part of surfactant SAS by the alcohol n-butanol increases washing solution efficiency and decreases the density and the cost of solutions; (7) replacing part of n-butanol by the nonionic surfactant HOES decreases DNAPL recovery and increases the cost of solutions; (8) toluene is a better solvent than D-limonene because it increases DNAPL recovery and decreases the cost of solutions; (9) optimal alcohol-surfactant-solvent solutions contain a mixture of solvents in a mass ratio of toluene to D-limonene of one or two. Injection of 1.5 pore volumes of the optimal washing solution of n-butanol-SAS-toluene- D-limonene in water can recover up to 95% of Mercier DNAPL in sand columns. In the first

  7. 27 CFR 19.328 - Wash water. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wash water. 19.328 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production Chemical By-Products § 19.328 Wash water. Water used in washing chemicals to remove spirits therefrom may be run into a wash tank or a distilling...

  8. Washing of fly ash from combustion of municipal solid waste using water as leachant; Vattentvaett av flygaska fraan avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Zhao, Dongmei


    Ashes from combustion of municipal solid waste contain a large amount of minerals, salts and other metal compounds that are more or less soluble in water. The metal salts are often enriched in the fly ash which leads to a classification of the ash as hazardous waste. This makes ash management complicated and costly. Many stabilisation methods for Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ash have been developed and most of them are based on a removal of chloride and sulfate in addition to a binding of metals in less soluble forms. The aim is to avoid the common situation that the ash does not comply to leaching limit values due to release of harmless salts. The aim of this project was to investigate if a simple washing with water can remove enough of the fly ash content of chloride and sulphate so that the ash can be landfilled in a simpler and less costly way than today. The project was focused on fly ashes from the MSWI units owned by Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB and Renova AB Goeteborg, i.e. a electro filter ash from grate fired boilers at Renova and a cyclone ash from a fluid bed boiler at Boraas. The results show that the main part of the chloride content of the ashes can be removed easily, but the washing with water is less effective in the removal of sulphate. A water-to-ash ratio of 1-2 l/kg removes about 100% of chloride but only 8-16% of the sulphate content. In many cases, the leachability of sulphate increases after the washing step. This is due to the rather complex sulphate chemistry with several possible reactions taking place in the ash-water system. For both the tested ashes the high level of chloride leaching is an important factor that prevents admittance on a landfill for hazardous waste without treatment.. The leaching of certain metals, such as Pb, is also high from both ashes but in the case of the Renova fly ash this is dealt with by treatment of the ash according to the Bamberg method. After a water washing with L/S 1-2 (L/kg dry ash

  9. Hand washing for preventing diarrhoea. (United States)

    Ejemot, R I; Ehiri, J E; Meremikwu, M M; Critchley, J A


    Diarrhoea is a common cause of morbidity and a leading cause of death among children aged less than five years, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. It is transmitted by ingesting contaminated food or drink, by direct person-to-person contact, or from contaminated hands. Hand washing is one of a range of hygiene promotion interventions that can interrupt the transmission of diarrhoea-causing pathogens. To evaluate the effects of interventions to promote hand washing on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. In May 2007, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 2), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, PsycINFO, Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index, ERIC (1966 to May 2007), SPECTR, Bibliomap, RoRe, The Grey Literature, and reference lists of articles. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Randomized controlled trials, where the unit of randomization is an institution (eg day-care centre), household, or community, that compared interventions to promote hand washing or a hygiene promotion that included hand washing with no intervention to promote hand washing. Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and methodological quality. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Fourteen randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. Eight trials were institution-based, five were community-based, and one was in a high-risk group (AIDS patients). Interventions promoting hand washing resulted in a 29% reduction in diarrhoea episodes in institutions in high-income countries (IRR 0.71, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.84; 7 trials) and a 31% reduction in such episodes in communities in low- or middle-income countries (IRR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.87; 5 trials). Hand washing can reduce diarrhoea episodes by about 30%. This significant

  10. Control of IPMSM drive system for drum washing machine (United States)

    Lee, Woncheol; Park, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jung-Hyo; Yu, Jae-Sung; Kim, Gyu-Sik; Won, Chung-Yuen


    The use of the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) has increased in the industrial field because of its excellent characteristics such as high efficiency, wide range of speed operation, and flexibility of the rotor structure. Therefore, IPMSM, especially one using the rare earth permanent magnet, is being actively studied. In IPMSM using the rare earth permanent magnet, typically the permanent magnet is deeply embedded in the rotor. The washing machine has large load variation and needs high torque. So, IPMSM is better than any other motor types for washing machines. This paper suggests a control algorithm of IPMSM for washing machines. Some experimental results are given in order to show the feasibility of the proposed control schemes for washing machines.

  11. Synthesis and Solution Properties of Adamantane Containing Quaternary Ammonium Salt-type Cationic Surfactants: Hydrocarbon-based, Fluorocarbonbased and Bola-type. (United States)

    Yoshimura, Tomokazu; Okada, Mari; Matsuoka, Keisuke


    Quaternary ammonium salt-type cationic surfactants with an adamantyl group (hydrocarbon-type; CnAdAB, fluorocarbon-type; Cm(F)C3AdAB, bola-type; Ad-s-Ad, where n, m and s represent hydrocarbon chain lengths of 8-16, fluorocarbon chain lengths of 4-8, and spacer chain length of 10-12) were synthesized via quaternization of N, N-dimethylaminoadamantane and n-alkyl bromide or 1, n-dibromoalkane. Conductivity and surface tension were measured to characterize the solution properties of the synthesized adamantyl group-containing cationic surfactants. In addition, the effects of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon chain lengths and spacer chain length between headgroups on the measured properties were evaluated by comparison with those of conventional cationic surfactants. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of CnAdAB and Ad-s-Ad was 2/5 of that for the corresponding conventional surfactants CnTAB and bola-type surfactants with similar number of carbons in the alkyl or alkylene chain; this was because of the increased hydrophobicity due to the adamantyl group. A linear relationship between the logarithm of CMC and the hydrocarbon chain length for CnAdAB was observed, as well as for CnTAB. The slope of the linear correlation for both surfactants was almost the same, indicating that the adamantyl group does not affect the CMC with variations in the hydrocarbon chain length. Similar to conventional surfactants CnTAB, the hydrocarbon-type CnAdAB is highly efficient in reducing the surface tension of water, despite the large occupied area per molecule resulting from the relatively bulky structure of the adamantane skeleton. On the other hand, the bola-type Ad-s-Ad resulted in increased surface tension compared to CnAdAB, indicating that the curved chain between adamantyl groups leads to poor adsorption and orientation at the air-water interface.

  12. Hand Washing: Do's and Dont's (United States)

    ... role in protecting your health. References Wash your hands. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... antibacterial soaps: Effective or just risky? Clinical Infectious Diseases. ... S, et al. Safety of alcohol hand gel use among children and personnel at a ...

  13. Effects of Salt Supplementation on the Albuminuric Response to Telmisartan With or Without Hydrochlorothiazide Therapy in Hypertensive Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Are Modulated by Habitual Dietary Salt Intake


    Ekinci, Elif I.; Thomas, Georgina; Thomas, David; Johnson, Cameron; MacIsaac, Richard J.; Houlihan, Christine A.; Finch, Sue; Panagiotopoulos, Sianna; O'Callaghan, Chris; Jerums, George


    OBJECTIVE This prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study examined the effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) supplementation on the antialbuminuric action of telmisartan with or without hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes, increased albumin excretion rate (AER), and habitual low dietary salt intake (LDS; 200 mmol sodium/24 h on two of three consecutive occasions). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Following a washout period, subjects (n = ...

  14. Coagulation-flocculation process applied to wastewaters generated in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil washing: Interactions among coagulant and flocculant concentrations and pH value. (United States)

    Torres, Luis G; Belloc, Claudia; Vaca, Mabel; Iturbe, Rosario; Bandala, Erick R


    Wastewater produced in the contaminated soil washing was treated by means of coagulation-flocculation (CF) process. The wastewater contained petroleum hydrocarbons, a surfactant, i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as well as salts, brownish organic matter and other constituents that were lixiviated from the soil during the washing process. The main goal of this work was to develop a process for treating the wastewaters generated when washing hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in such a way that it could be recycled to the washing process, and also be disposed at the end of the process properly. A second objective was to study the relationship among the coagulant and flocculant doses and the pH at which the CF process is developed, for systems where methylene blue active substances (MBAS) as well as oil and greases were present. The results for the selection of the right coagulant and flocculant type and dose, the optimum pH value for the CF process and the interactions among the three parameters are detailed along this work. The best coagulant and flocculant were FeCl(3) and Tecnifloc 998 at doses of 4,000 and 1 mg/L, correspondingly at pH of 5. These conditions gave color, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and conductivity removals of 99.8, 99.6, 97.1 and 35%, respectively. It was concluded that it is feasible to treat the wastewaters generated in the contaminated soil washing process through CF process, and therefore, wastewaters could be recycled to the washing process or disposed to drainage.

  15. Hand washing in operating room: a procedural comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Stilo


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hand washing has been considered a measure of personal hygiene for centuries and it is known that an improper hand hygiene by healthcare workers is responsible for about 40% of nosocomial infections. Therefore, surgical hand preparation is a critical element for healthcare safety in order to reduce microbial contamination of  surgical wound in case of non detected break of the gloves. The aim of our study is to evaluate the efficacy three antiseptics: Povi-iodine scrub; EPG (Ethanol, Hydrogen Peroxide, Glycerol, recommended by WHO, and common marseille soap type in a liquid formulation. METHODS It was designed a randomized, double-blind, single-center study conducted in the University Hospital of Messina, from January to June 2013. We asked operators to put the fingertips of their right hand (if not left-handed for one minute on the PCA medium, before washing with the three types of antiseptics, and after washing and drying. Drying was made using sterile gauzes or disposable wipes. Then, we measured the number of colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL and calculated the percentage of microbial load reduction. RESULTS 211 samples have been considered for statistical analysis: in 42 samples, in fact, initial microbial load was lower than after washing. Washing with EPG reduced CFU/ml from  a mean of 38,9 to 4,1 (86,5% reduction, washing with povi-iodine scrub from 59,55 to 12,9 (75,9% reduction and washing with Marseille soap from 47,26 to 12,7 (64,3% reduction. CONCLUSIONS Our study shows that washing with EPG has superior efficacy in CFU reduction. Antiseptic hand washing, however, cannot be considered the only measure to reduce infections: the anomaly of some results (initial microbial load lower than after washing  demonstrates that drying is an essential phase in the presurgical preparation. Therefore, hand hygiene must be part of a more complex strategy of surveillance and control of nosocomial infections

  16. Iodized Salt Use and Salt Iodine Content among Household Salts from Six Districts of Eastern Nepal. (United States)

    Khatiwada, S; Gelal, B; Tamang, M K; Kc, R; Singh, S; Lamsal, M; Baral, N


    Universal salt iodization is considered the best strategy for controlling iodine deficiency disorders in Nepal. This study was done to find iodized salt use among Nepalese population and the iodine content of household salts. Six districts (Siraha, Saptari, Jhapa, Udayapur, Ilam and Panchthar) were chosen randomly from 16 districts of eastern Nepal for the study. In each district, three schools (private and government) were chosen randomly for sample collection. A total of 1803 salt samples were collected from schools of those districts. For sample collection a clean air tight plastic pouch was provided to each school child and was asked to bring approximately 15 gm of their kitchen salt. The information about type of salt used; 'two child logo' iodized salt or crystal salt was obtained from each child and salt iodine content was estimated using iodometric titration. At the time of study, 85% (n=1533) of Nepalese households were found to use iodized salt whereas 15% (n=270) used crystal salt. The mean iodine content in iodized and crystal salt was 40.8±12.35 ppm and 18.43±11.49 ppm respectively. There was significant difference between iodized and crystal salts use and salt iodine content of iodized and crystal salt among different districts (p value <0.001 at confidence level of 95%). Of the total samples, only 169 samples (9.4% of samples) have iodine content<15 ppm. Most Nepalese households have access to iodized salt most salt samples have sufficient iodine content.

  17. Carpinteria Salt Marsh Habitat Polygons (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland. We then drew polygons around each habitat...

  18. The maize AAA-type protein SKD1 confers enhanced salt and drought stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by interacting with Lyst-interacting protein 5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongliang Xia

    Full Text Available ATPase associated with various cellular activities (AAA proteins are important regulators involved in diverse cellular functions. To date, the molecular mechanisms of AAA proteins involved in response to salt and drought stresses in plants are largely unknown. In this study, a putative SKD1 (suppressor of K(+ transport growth defect 1 ortholog from Zea mays (ZmSKD1, which encodes a putative AAA protein, was isolated. The transcript levels of ZmSKD1 were higher in aerial tissues and were markedly up-regulated by salt or drought stress. Over-expression of ZmSKD1 in tobacco plants enhanced their tolerances not only to salt but to drought. Moreover, reactive oxygen species accumulations in ZmSKD1 transgenic lines were relative less than those in wild-type plants during salt or PEG-induced water stress. The interaction between ZmSKD1 and NtLIP5 (Lyst-Interacting Protein 5 homolog from Nicotiana tabacum was confirmed by both yeast two-hybrid and immuno-precipitation assays; moreover, the α-helix-rich domain in the C-terminus of ZmSKD1 was identified to be required for its interaction with NtLIP5 using truncation mutations. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ZmSKD1could be involved in salt and drought stress responses and its over-expression enhances salt or drought stress tolerance possibly through interacting with LIP5 in tobacco. This study may facilitate our understandings of the biological roles of SKD1-mediated ESCRT pathway under stress conditions in higher plants and accelerate genetic improvement of crop plants tolerant to environmental stresses.

  19. Washing and Caustic Leaching of Hanford Tank Sludge: Results of FY 1998 Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; BM Rapko; J Liu; DJ Temer; RD Hunt


    Sludge washing and parametric caustic leaching tests were performed on sludge samples tiom five Hanford tanks: B-101, BX-1 10, BX-112, C-102, and S-101. These studies examined the effects of both dilute hydroxide washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the residual sludge solids. ` Dilute hydroxide washing removed from <1 to 25% of the Al, -20 to 45% of the Cr, -25 to 97% of the P, and 63 to 99% of the Na from the Hdord tank sludge samples examined. The partial removal of these elements was likely due to the presence of water-soluble sodium salts of aluminate, chromate, hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate, either in the interstitial liquid or as dried salts.

  20. A R2R3-type MYB gene, OsMYB2, is involved in salt, cold, and dehydration tolerance in rice (United States)

    Yang, An; Dai, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Wen-Hao


    MYB-type transcription factors play a diverse role in plant development and response to abiotic stress. This study isolated a rice R2R3-type MYB gene, OsMYB2, and functionally characterized its role in tolerance to abiotic stress by generating transgenic rice plants with overexpressing and RNA interference OsMYB2. Expression of OsMYB2 was up-regulated by salt, cold, and dehydration stress. OsMYB2 was localized in the nucleus with transactivation activity. No difference in growth and development between the OsMYB2-overexpressing and wild-type plants was observed under normal growth conditions, but the OsMYB2-overexpressing plants were more tolerant to salt, cold, and dehydration stresses and more sensitive to abscisic acid than wild-type plants. The OsMYB2-overexpressing plants accumulated greater amounts of soluble sugars and proline than wild-type plants under salt stress. Overexpression of OsMYB2 enhanced up-regulation of genes encoding proline synthase and transporters. The OsMYB2-overexpressing plants accumulated less amounts of H2O2 and malondialdehyde. The enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes, including peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, may underlie the lower H2O2 contents in OsMYB2-overexpressing plants. There was greater up-regulation of stress-related genes, including OsLEA3, OsRab16A, and OsDREB2A, in the OsMYB2-overexpressing plants. Microarray analysis showed that expression of numerous genes involving diverse functions in stress response was altered in the OsMYB2-overexpressing plants. These findings suggest that OsMYB2 encodes a stress-responsive MYB transcription factor that plays a regulatory role in tolerance of rice to salt, cold, and dehydration stress. PMID:22301384

  1. Tenacity of exogenous human papillomavirus DNA in sperm washing. (United States)

    Brossfield, J E; Chan, P J; Patton, W C; King, A


    Sperm cells have been shown to take up exogenous DNA readily. The hypothesis was that sperm washing would remove exogenous viral DNA infecting sperm cells. The objective was to compare three types of sperm washing procedures for their capacity to remove exogenous human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA from infected sperm. Prewashed sperm were equally divided and sperm in one portion were exposed to L1 HPV DNA fragments for 30 min at 37 degrees C. Untreated washed sperm served as the control. After transfection, the sperm were washed by either centrifuge, two-layer Isolate colloid wash, or test-yolk buffer procedures. Sperm parameters were measured on a Hamilton Thorn HTM-C analyzer. Sperm DNA were extracted and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out targeting the L1 consensus gene of HPV and the designated sentinel gene, 17q21 spanning the D17S855 gene. Amplified products were analyzed in 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. PCR analyses detected the consensus L1 HPV gene in sperm after they were processed through either of the three procedures. Controls were negative for the L1 gene. Extracted DNA were verified by PCR amplification of 17q21 spanning the D17S855 gene. Transfected sperm had higher percentages of total motility and progression compared with the control. Centrifuged, washed, transfected sperm exhibited a greater curvilinear velocity and hyperactivation. The data showed that washing would not remove exogenous HPV DNA from sperm cells. The viral DNA was tenaciously bound to the sperm, suggesting an internalization into the sperm. The viral DNA also increased the motility of the sperm by affecting the velocity and progression of the sperm, which suggested either an increase in metabolism, an enhancement of the calcium-regulated motility mechanism, or an artifact of PCR reagents. More studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of DNA stimulated sperm motility.

  2. Examining the relationship between socio-economic status, WASH practices and wasting. (United States)

    Raihan, Mohammad Jyoti; Farzana, Fahmida Dil; Sultana, Sabiha; Haque, Md Ahshanul; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Waid, Jillian L; McCormick, Ben; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Ahmed, Tahmeed


    Childhood wasting is a global problem and is significantly more pronounced in low and middle income countries like Bangladesh. Socio Economic Status (SES) and Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) practices may be significantly associated with wasting. Most previous research is consistent about the role of SES, but the significance of WASH in the context of wasting remains ambiguous. The effect of SES and WASH on weight for length (WHZ) is examined using a Structural Equation Model (SEM) to explicitly describe the direct and indirect role of WASH in the context of SES.A nationally representative survey of 10,478 Bangladeshi children under 5 were examined. An expert defined SEM was used to construct latent variables for SES and WASH. The SEM included a direct pathway from SES to WHZ and an indirect pathway from SES to WHZ via WASH along with regression of relevant covariates on the outcome WHZ and the latent variables. Both SES (p<0.01) and WASH (p<0.05) significantly affect WHZ. SES (p<0.01) also significantly affects WASH. Other structural components showed that child's age (p<0.01) affects WHZ and types of residence (p<0.01) affects SES. WASH practices at least partially mediate the association between SES and wasting status. WASH and SES are both significantly associated with WHZ.

  3. A new type of charge-transfer salts based on tetrathiafulvalene-tetracarboxylate coordination polymers and methyl viologen. (United States)

    Huang, Yu-De; Huo, Peng; Shao, Ming-Yan; Yin, Jing-Xue; Shen, Wei-Chun; Zhu, Qin-Yu; Dai, Jie


    Although charge-transfer compounds based on tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivatives have been intensively studied, {[cation](n+)·[TTFs](n-)} ion pair charge-transfer (IPCT) salts have not been reported. The aim of this research is to introduce functional organic cations, such as photoactive methyl viologen (MV(2+)), into the negatively charged TTF-metal coordination framework to obtain this new type of IPCT complex. X-ray structural analysis of the four compounds (MV)2[Li4(L)2(H2O)6] (1), {(MV)(L)[Na2(H2O)8]·4H2O}n (2), {(MV)[Mn(L)(H2O)2]·2H2O}n (3), and {(MV)[Mn(L)(H2O)2]}n (4), reveals that the electron donor (D) TTF moiety and the electron acceptor (A) MV(2+) form a regular mixed-stack arrangement in alternating DADA fashion. The TTF moiety and the MV(2+) cation are essentially parallel stacked to form the column structures. The strong electrostatic interaction is a main force to shorten the distance between the cation and anion planes. Optical diffuse-reflection spectra indicate that charge transfer occurs in these complexes. The ESR and magnetic measurements confirm that there is strong charge-transfer-induced partial electron transfer. Compounds 2, 3, and 4 show an effective and repeatable photocurrent response. The current intensities of 3 and 4 are higher than that of 2, which reflects that the coordination center of the Mn(II) ion has a great effect on the increasing photocurrent response.

  4. A Bowman-Birk type protease inhibitor is involved in the tolerance to salt stress in wheat. (United States)

    Shan, Lei; Li, Cuiling; Chen, Fang; Zhao, Shuangyi; Xia, Guangmin


    A salt-responsive gene WRSI5 was characterized from salt-tolerant cultivar Shanrong No. 3 (SR3), an introgression line via asymmetric somatic hybrid between Triticum aestivum L. cv. Jinan177 (JN177) and Thinopyrum ponticum Podp. The peptide encoded by WRSI5 contains a Bowman-Birk domain sharing a high level of sequence identity to monocotyledonous protease inhibitors. When expressed in vitro, the WRSI5 gene product exhibited trypsin, but not chymotrypsin inhibition. The expression level of WRSI5 was increased in SR3 roots exposed to salt, drought or oxidative stress. In situ hybridization showed that it is induced in the endodermal cells of the mature region of the SR3 root tip, with no signal detectable in the corresponding region of the salt-susceptible cultivar JN177. SR3 has a higher selectivity for K(+) over Na(+), and therefore limits the transport of Na(+) from the root to the shoot. When overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, WRSI5 improves the ability of seedlings to grow on a medium containing 150 mM NaCl. We suggest that WRSI5 plays an important role in regulating the plant growth rate or long-distance Na(+) transport in SR3 plants exposed to salt stress.

  5. A novel washing algorithm for underarm stain removal (United States)

    Acikgoz Tufan, H.; Gocek, I.; Sahin, U. K.; Erdem, I.


    After contacting with human sweat which comprise around 27% sebum, anti-perspirants comprising aluminium chloride or its compounds form a jel-like structure whose solubility in water is very poor. In daily use, this jel-like structure closes sweat pores and hinders wetting of skin by sweat. However, when in contact with garments, they form yellowish stains at the underarm of the garments. These stains are very hard to remove with regular machine washing. In this study, first of all, we focused on understanding and simulating such stain formation on the garments. Two alternative procedures are offered to form jel-like structures. On both procedures, commercially available spray or deo-stick type anti-perspirants, standard acidic and basic sweat solutions and artificial sebum are used to form jel-like structures, and they are applied on fabric in order to get hard stains. Secondly, after simulation of the stain on the fabric, we put our efforts on developing a washing algorithm specifically designed for removal of underarm stains. Eight alternative washing algorithms are offered with varying washing temperature, amounts of detergent, and pre-stain removal procedures. Better algorithm is selected by comparison of Tristimulus Y values after washing.

  6. Washing machine usage in remote aboriginal communities. (United States)

    Lloyd, C R


    The use of washing machines was investigated in two remote Aboriginal communities in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara homelands. The aim was to look both at machine reliability and to investigate the health aspect of washing clothes. A total of 39 machines were inspected for wear and component reliability every three months over a one-year period. Of these, 10 machines were monitored in detail for water consumption, hours of use and cycles of operation. The machines monitored were Speed Queen model EA2011 (7 kg washing load) commercial units. The field survey results suggested a high rate of operation of the machines with an average of around 1,100 washing cycles per year (range 150 and 2,300 cycles per year). The results were compared with available figures for the average Australian household. A literature survey, to ascertain the health outcomes relating to washing clothes and bedding, confirmed that washing machines are efficient at removal of bacteria from clothes and bedding but suggested that recontamination of clothing after washing often negated the prior removal. High temperature washing (> 60 degrees C) appeared to be advantageous from a health perspective. With regards to larger organisms, while dust mites and body lice transmission between people would probably be decreased by washing clothes, scabies appeared to be mainly transmitted by body contact and thus transmission would be only marginally decreased by the use of washing machines.

  7. Vibrational Spectra of β″-Type BEDT-TTF Salts: Relationship between Conducting Property, Time-Averaged Site Charge and Inter-Molecular Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yamamoto


    Full Text Available The relationship between the conducting behavior and the degree of charge fluctuation in the β″-type BEDT-TTF salts is reviewed from the standpoints of vibrational spectroscopy and crystal structure. A group of β″-type ET salts demonstrates the best model compounds for achieving the above relationship because the two-dimensional structure is simple and great diversity in conducting behavior is realized under ambient pressure. After describing the requirement for the model compound, the methodology for analyzing the results of the vibrational spectra is presented. Vibrational spectroscopy provides the time-averaged molecular charge, the charge distribution in the two-dimensional layer, and the inter-molecular interactions, etc. The experimental results applied to 2/3-filled and 3/4-filled β″-type ET salts are reported. These experimental results suggest that the conducting property, the difference in the time-averaged molecular charges between the ionic and neutral-like sites, the alternation in the inter-molecular distances and the energy levels in the charge distributions are relevant to one another. The difference in the time-averaged molecular charges, ∆ρ, is a useful criterion for indicating conducting behavior. All superconductors presented in this review are characterized as small but finite ∆ρ.

  8. Design of Online Washing Process for an Engine Based on Washing Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yong


    Full Text Available In order to develop online washing process of a carrier-based aircraft engine and improve washing efficiency, washing equipments were employed in cold operation state to carry out experimental study on structural strength of spray frame, selection of nozzle and determination of injection parameters of online washing spray system, determination of washing injection timing, determination of drying procedure, liquid-washing experiments of different concentrations and water-washing experiments and so on. The results show that if engine is washed in cold operation state, mid-nozzle with upward offset angel of 7°30′ can be selected and the feed liquid pressure provided by washing vehicle is 0.9Mpa. The start time is 20s after an engine cold start-up, and sustains 30s for once washing. After a liquid-washing with the use of washing fluid, the liquid concentration of which is no more than 20%, twice water-washing can be carried out to rinse the almost all cleaning agent remaining in the engine runner(the residue is less than 1%. The engine can be thoroughly dried by power-on operation, the procedure of which is engine operating 2min in ideal state, then 2min in state of n2=85% and 2min of ideal state lastly. Washing will not affect the engine function.

  9. Study of Nonhomogeneous Equations with Variable Coefficients Describing Washing Machines Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Alekhin


    Full Text Available Earlier in a slightly intertwined system of differential equations describing the dynamics of the random vibrations of the drum type washing machine suspended unit was fixed. This article studies the general case of nonhomogeneous equations with variable coefficients describing washing machines vibration.

  10. 21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and Drugs... Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do not comply with the requirements of a potable water system...

  11. Effects of salt supplementation on the albuminuric response to telmisartan with or without hydrochlorothiazide therapy in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes are modulated by habitual dietary salt intake. (United States)

    Ekinci, Elif I; Thomas, Georgina; Thomas, David; Johnson, Cameron; Macisaac, Richard J; Houlihan, Christine A; Finch, Sue; Panagiotopoulos, Sianna; O'Callaghan, Chris; Jerums, George


    OBJECTIVE This prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study examined the effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) supplementation on the antialbuminuric action of telmisartan with or without hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes, increased albumin excretion rate (AER), and habitual low dietary salt intake (LDS; 200 mmol sodium/24 h on two of three consecutive occasions). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Following a washout period, subjects (n = 32) received 40 mg/day telmisartan for 4 weeks followed by 40 mg telmisartan plus 12.5 mg/day HCT for 4 weeks. For the last 2 weeks of each treatment period, patients received either 100 mmol/day NaCl or placebo capsules. After a second washout, the regimen was repeated with supplements in reverse order. AER and ambulatory blood pressure were measured at weeks 0, 4, 8, 14, 18, and 22. RESULTS In LDS, NaCl supplementation reduced the anti-albuminuric effect of telmisartan with or without HCT from 42.3% (placebo) to 9.5% (P = 0.004). By contrast, in HDS, NaCl supplementation did not reduce the AER response to telmisartan with or without HCT (placebo 30.9%, NaCl 28.1%, P = 0.7). Changes in AER were independent of changes in blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS The AER response to telmisartan with or without HCT under habitual low salt intake can be blunted by NaCl supplementation. By contrast, when there is already a suppressed renin angiotensin aldosterone system under habitual high dietary salt intake, the additional NaCl does not alter the AER response.

  12. INNER SALTS (United States)

    been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a...Products that have been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a mesomeric inner salt . (Author)...Novel phosphonium and phosphorane compounds ere prepared by a variety of m hods from triphenylphosphine and methylene bromide. Products that have

  13. Hand washing practice among health care workers in a teaching hospital. (United States)

    Joshi, S K; Joshi, A; Park, B J; Aryal, U R


    Health care associated infection has been identified as one of the major challenges of modern medicine and remains as a major health concern around the globe. Hands of the health-care workers are potential vehicle for transmission of pathogenic organisms within the healthcare environment. Hand washing is widely accepted as one of the most effective measures in prevention of health care associated infections. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the hand washing practice among the doctors, intern doctors, nurses, medical students and nursing students in a multi specialty, non government tertiary care teaching hospital in Kathmandu. Summary statistics and chi-square tests were performed and the type I error was set at 0.05 for analysis. Out of the total 336 participants of the study, there was significant difference in hand washing practice among the participants (PHand washing practice both before and after the patient examination was found to be highest among the nursing students followed by the nurses. The frequency of hand washing after exposure to hospital instruments, blood or other body fluids among the participants was remarkably high (more than 90%) in all groups. Nearly 99% of the participants agreed upon the fact that hand washing could be an effective measure in preventing health care associated infections. The healthcare workers understand the importance of hand washing but tend to wash their hands selectively depending upon the indications. The majority of the health care workers wash their hands after the patient care than before.

  14. Single-cell-type quantitative proteomic and ionomic analysis of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte model plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum to identify salt-responsive proteins. (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Raymond, Carolyn


    Epidermal bladder cells (EBC) are large single-celled, specialized, and modified trichomes found on the aerial parts of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. Recent development of a simple but high throughput technique to extract the contents from these cells has provided an opportunity to conduct detailed single-cell-type analyses of their molecular characteristics at high resolution to gain insight into the role of these cells in the salt tolerance of the plant. In this study, we carry out large-scale complementary quantitative proteomic studies using both a label (DIGE) and label-free (GeLC-MS) approach to identify salt-responsive proteins in the EBC extract. Additionally we perform an ionomics analysis (ICP-MS) to follow changes in the amounts of 27 different elements. Using these methods, we were able to identify 54 proteins and nine elements that showed statistically significant changes in the EBC from salt-treated plants. GO enrichment analysis identified a large number of transport proteins but also proteins involved in photosynthesis, primary metabolism and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). Validation of results by western blot, confocal microscopy and enzyme analysis helped to strengthen findings and further our understanding into the role of these specialized cells. As expected EBC accumulated large quantities of sodium, however, the most abundant element was chloride suggesting the sequestration of this ion into the EBC vacuole is just as important for salt tolerance. This single-cell type omics approach shows that epidermal bladder cells of M. crystallinum are metabolically active modified trichomes, with primary metabolism supporting cell growth, ion accumulation, compatible solute synthesis and CAM. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004045.

  15. Human papillomavirus gene sequences in washed human sperm deoxyribonucleic acid. (United States)

    Chan, P J; Su, B C; Kalugdan, T; Seraj, I M; Tredway, D R; King, A


    The present study demonstrated the presence of HPV gene sequences in Percoll-washed sperm cells using polymerase chain reaction primers targeting smaller gene regions. Up to 64% of the sperm specimens were shown to contain gene sequences indicative of the presence of HPV. Human papillomavirus type 16 was detected about twice as often as HPV type 18. The results suggest the possible role of sperm as a vector for HPV.

  16. Hydrodynamic calculation of a filter washing in liquids type used in containment venting systems; Calculo hidrodinamico de un filtro tipo lavado en liquidos usados en los sistemas de venteo de la contencion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes G, A. A.; Sainz M, E.; Ortiz V, J., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    From the nuclear accident of Chernobyl, the European nuclear power plants have chosen to install filters on the venting pipes of the containment, whose function is to help to mitigate the consequences of a severe accident, by controlled depressurization of the containment passively through a filtered venting of the containment system. These systems are designed to relieve the internal pressure of the containment by means of the deliberate opening of pressure relief devices, either a valve or rupture disc during a severe accident and be channeled to the filter unit. In this paper the hydraulic response of a filter system of gases washing by liquid is evaluated, due to this information is necessary to estimate the effect that has the pressure increase of the contention on the discharge capacity of the venting pipes. By simulation of computational of fluid dynamics with the programs: CAELINUX-2014 and OpenFOAM, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the Multi Venturi System for gases washing from the containment, which could be included in the general model of the venting pipe, were obtained. Representative models of the Venturi tubes of each concentric area that forming the washing system were generated; and using parametric calculations the average mass flow rate established through each venturi, depending on its size and depth in which it is located inside the tank was estimated. Also, the pressure and mass flow rate required to activate each concentric area depending on the pressure and mass load from the containment were calculated, to estimate the maximum flow that is established through the filter. Finally, the velocity profiles and the characteristic pressure at which each area operates as well as the pressure drop of local and global discharge also were calculated. (Author)

  17. The population of coloured textile fibres in domestic washing machines. (United States)

    Watt, Rebecca; Roux, Claude; Robertson, James


    A population survey was carried out to analyse examples of the coloured fibre population that may be expected to exist in both front- and top-loading domestic washing machines during Spring, in Sydney, Australia. White cotton T-shirts were washed both individually, and with a normal household wash load, then taped to recover extraneous fibres transferred during the wash cycle. Twelve thousand one hundred and seventy-eight fibres were classified according to length, colour and generic class. Cotton fibres were most prevalent (69.4%), followed by man-made fibres (24.2%). The most common colour/generic class combinations were black/grey cotton (27%), blue cotton (20%) and red cotton (15.6%). Other combinations generally represented under 2% of the total fibre population. Two thirds (65.9%) of the recovered fibres were under 2 mm in length, the proportion of fibres decreasing with increasing fibre length. Variations in machine type did not affect the distribution of fibres with respect to fibre type, colour or length.

  18. CarNAC4, a NAC-type chickpea transcription factor conferring enhanced drought and salt stress tolerances in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Yu, Xingwang; Liu, Yanmin; Wang, Shuang; Tao, Yuan; Wang, Zhankui; Shu, Yingjie; Peng, Hui; Mijiti, Abudoukeyumu; Wang, Ze; Zhang, Hua; Ma, Hao


    CarNAC4 is a typical stress-responsive NAC transcription factor and enhances drought and salt stress tolerances in transgenic Arabidopsis. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is relatively vulnerable to abiotic stress conditions, but the tolerance mechanisms for such stresses in chickpea are largely unknown. To identify stress-related factors in chickpea, we previously constructed a cDNA library of chickpea leaves exposed to drought stress conditions. A cDNA encoding a putative NAC transcription factor (CarNAC4) was identified as a putative stress-responsive gene. Our study indicated that the transcript levels of CarNAC4 were enhanced in response to several abiotic stresses and phytohormones. Promoter analysis demonstrated that multiple stress-related cis-acting elements exist in promoter region of CarNAC4. CarNAC4 is localized in the nucleus and binds to the DNA sequence containing CGT[G/A], while the C-terminal region of CarNAC4 contains a transcriptional activation domain. Over-expression of CarNAC4 in Arabidopsis plants improved tolerance to drought and salt stresses. Transgenic plants exhibited greater reduced rates of water loss and more proline accumulation than Col-0 plants under drought stress and less MDA contents than Col-0 plants under salt stress. In addition, over-expression of CarNAC4 enhanced the expression of stress-responsive genes such as RD29A, ERD10, COR15A, COR47, KIN1 and DREB2A. These results indicated that CarNAC4 functions as a transcription factor involved in the regulation of drought and salt stress response.

  19. Urosepsis in infants with vesicoureteral reflux masquerading as the salt-losing type of congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaid, Y.N.; Lebowitz, R.L.


    Three male infants with vomiting, dehydration, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis were found to have vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and urinary tract infection. Two were initially thought to have the salt-losing form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Although prompt diagnosis of this potentially fatal condition is critical, its mimicry by urosepsis in infants with VUR is actually more common. Infection probably causes unresponsiveness of the distal renal tubules to aldoterone. (orig.).

  20. MusaDHN-1, a novel multiple stress-inducible SK(3)-type dehydrin gene, contributes affirmatively to drought- and salt-stress tolerance in banana. (United States)

    Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Srinivas, Lingam; Ganapathi, Thumballi R


    Dehydrins are highly hydrophilic proteins involved in playing key adaptive roles in response to abiotic stress conditions having dehydration as a common component. In the present study, a novel banana SK(3)-type dehydrin, MusaDHN-1, was identified and later characterized using transgenic banana plants to investigate its functions in abiotic stress tolerance. Expression profiling in native banana plants demonstrated that MusaDHN-1 was induced in leaves by drought, salinity, cold, oxidative and heavy metal stress as well as by treatment with signalling molecules like abscisic acid, ethylene and methyl jasmonate. Promoter analysis carried out by making a MusaDHN-1 promoter: β-glucuronidase fusion construct reconfirmed the abiotic stress inducibility of MusaDHN-1. Transgenic banana plants constitutively overexpressing MusaDHN-1 were phenotypically normal and displayed improved tolerance to drought and salt-stress treatments in both in vitro and ex vitro assays. Enhanced accumulation of proline and reduced malondialdehyde levels in drought and salt-stressed MusaDHN-1 overexpressing plants further established their superior performance in stressed conditions. This study is the first to report generation of transgenic banana plants engineered for improved drought and salt-stress tolerance.

  1. Multiphase CFD modelling of water evaporation and salt precipitation in micro-pores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twerda, A.; O’Mahoney, T.S.D.; Velthuis, J.F.M.


    The precipitation of salt in porous reservoir rocks is an impairment to gas production, particularly in mature fields. Mitigation is typically achieved with regular water washes which dissolve the deposited salt and transport it in the water phase. However, since the process of salt precipitation is

  2. 49 CFR 230.60 - Time of washing. (United States)


    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.60 Time of washing. (a) Frequency of washing. All boilers shall thoroughly be washed... inspection. The date of the boiler wash shall be noted on the FRA Form No. 1 or FRA Form No. 3. (See appendix...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.


    During processing of Salt Batches 3 and 4 in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU), the decontamination efficiency for cesium declined from historical values and from expectations based on laboratory testing. This report documents efforts to analyze samples of solvent and process solutions from MCU in an attempt to understand the cause of the reduced performance and to recommend mitigations. CWT Solutions from MCU from the time period of variable decontamination factor (DF) performance which covers from April 2011 to September 2011 (during processing of Salt Batch 4) were examined for impurities using chromatography and spectroscopy. The results indicate that impurities were found to be of two types: aromatic containing impurities most likely from Modifier degradation and aliphatic type impurities most likely from Isopar{reg_sign} L and tri-n-octylamine (TOA) degradation. Caustic washing the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) solution with 1M NaOH improved its extraction ability as determined from {sup 22}Na uptake tests. Evidence from this work showed that pH variance in the aqueous solutions within the range of 1M nitric acid to 1.91M NaOH that contacted the solvent samples does not influence the analytical determination of the TOA concentration by GC-MS.

  4. A Review on the Salt Bridge Between ASP177 and ARG163 of Wild-Type Rabbit Prion Protein

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jiapu


    Prion diseases are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of mammalian species such as sheep and goats, cattle, deer, elks, humans and mice etc., but rabbits have a low susceptibility to be infected by prion diseases with respect to other species. The stability of rabbit prion protein is due to its highly ordered beta2-alpha2 loop [PLoS One 5 (10) e13273 (2010); Journal of Biological Chemistry 285 (41) 31682-31693 (2010)] and a helix-capping motif within this loop [PLoS One 8 (5) e63047 (2013)]. The beta2-alpha2 loop has been a focus in prion studies. For this loop we found a salt bridge linkage ASP177-ARG163 (O-N) [Journal of Theoretical Biology 342 (7 February 2014) 70-82 (2014)]. Some scientists said on the 2FJ3.pdb NMR file of the rabbit prion protein, the distance of ASP177-ARG163 (O-N) gives the salt bridge of about 10 angstroms which is nearly null in terms of energy thus think our result is wrong. This opinion is clearly wrong simply due to the 3O7...

  5. Environmental diagnosis of the washing machine motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Hanne K. Linnet


    An environmental diagnosis of the washing machine focusing on the motor is performed. The goal of the diagnosis is to designate environmental focus points in the product. The LCA of the washing machine showed impact potentials from the life cycle of the product (see: LCA of a washing machine......). The diagnosis points to which of the impact potentials are considered to be problematic, and locates where in the product the problems are situated.The diagnosis is also used for showing which effects ideas for changes in the motor have on the environment. The ideas which are looked upon are: motor efficiency...

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, Ricky Lynn [Idaho National Laboratory; Reese, Stephen Joseph [Idaho National Laboratory


    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. Several practical, easily deployable methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using a surrogate contaminant and americium (241Am), were developed and tested. The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent practical, quantitatively. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, mechanical grinding, strippable coatings, and fixative barriers), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and water washing is easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (~2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from water washed coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever contamination is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  7. Effects of Salinity, Commercial Salts, and Water Type on Cultivation of the Cryptophyte Microalgae Rhodomonas salina and the Calanoid Copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Per Meyer; Thoisen, Christina V.; Carron-Cabaret, Thibaut


    was to investigate the applicability of commercial salts and clarify the potential effects on the cultivation of the microalga Rhodomonas salina and the copepod Acartia tonsa. Three commercial salts were tested, Red Sea Salt (RS), Red Sea – Coral Pro Salt (CP), and Blue Treasure Salt. R. salina was cultured......Marine aquaculture facilities positioned far from the sea need access to seawater (SW); hence, commercial salts are often the chosen solution. In marine hatcheries, most fish larvae require live feed (zooplankton) that are in turn fed with microalgae. The objective of this research...

  8. Bacterial exchange in household washing machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris eCallewaert


    Full Text Available Household washing machines launder soiled clothes and textiles, but do not sterilize them. We investigated the microbial exchange occurring in five household washing machines. Samples from a new cotton T-shirt were laundered together with a normal laundry load. Analyses were performed on the influent water and the ingoing cotton samples, as well as the greywater and the washed cotton samples. The number of living bacteria was generally not lower in the washing machine effluent water as compared to the influent water. The laundering process caused a microbial exchange of influent water bacteria, skin- and clothes-related bacteria and biofilm-related bacteria in the washing machine. A variety of biofilm-producing bacteria were enriched in the effluent after laundering, although their presence in the cotton sample was low. Nearly all bacterial genera detected on the initial cotton sample were still present in the washed cotton samples. A selection for typical skin- and clothes-related microbial species occurred in the cotton samples after laundering. Accordingly, malodour-causing microbial species might be further distributed to other clothes. The bacteria on the ingoing textiles contributed for a large part to the microbiome found in the textiles after laundering.

  9. Chemical washing of contaminated soils and photocatalytic treatments of spent soil washing effluent


    Race, Marco


    This dissertation has been addressed to study the reclamation of heavy metal contaminated soils by soil washing, and to investigate the feasibility of photocatalytic processes for the treatment of the spent soil washing solution (SSWS). Indeed, the collected SSWS, containing the extracted metals and chelating agents, represents one of the main drawbacks of the washing technique, as it has to be submitted to further treatments for a complete detoxification before being discharged into the envi...

  10. Investigation on Washing Effects for Nano-Bubble/Surfactant Mixtures in an Alternating Flow


    牛田, 晃臣; 長谷川, 富市; 天木, 桂子; 中島, 俊之; 高橋, 尚幸; 鳴海, 敬倫; Ushida, Akiomi; Hasegawa, Tomiichi; AMAKI, Keiko; Nakajima, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Narumi, Takatsune


    Laundry wastewater is known to contribute to water pollution, and the need to reduce the amount of detergents used is recognized. Extensive research has focused on the washing effects of micro-bubbles and nano-bubbles, and mechanical work has been found to account for 50% of the washing effect. In the present research, a water/nano-bubble mixture and several types of surfactants were investigated in an alternating flow system. The nano-bubble water achieved a washing rate of about 5% greater ...

  11. Removal of Uranium by Exchanger Resins from Soil Washing Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Han, G. S.; Kim, G. N.; Koo, D. S.; Jeong, J. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Uranyl ions in the acidic waste solution were sorbed on AM-resin resin with a high sorption efficiency, and desorbed from the resin by a batch-type washing with a 60 .deg. C heated 0.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. However, the uranium dissolved in the sulfuric acid solution was not sorbed onto the strong anion exchanger resins. Our group has developed a decontamination process with washing and electrokinetic methods for uranium-contaminated (U-contaminated) soil. However, this process generates a large amount of waste solution containing various metal ions. If the uranium selectively removed from the waste solution, a very small amount of the 2nd waste would be generated. Thus, selective sorption of uranium by ion exchange resins was examined in this study.

  12. Chloride salt type/ionic strength and refrigeration effects on antioxidant enzymes and lipid oxidation in cattle, camel and chicken meat. (United States)

    Gheisari, Hamid Reza; Motamedi, Hossien


    The effects of NaCl and KCl at varying ionic strengths on catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and lipid oxidation in ground Longissimus dorsi (LD) of cattle and camel and breast muscle of chicken during refrigerated storage were studied. NaCl and KCl significantly increased 2-thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide values. TBARS and peroxide values increased and GSH-Px activity decreased during 4 day storage in the 4 degrees C, but catalase activity was stable. Salt type had no consistent effect on GSH-Px and catalase activities. Chicken samples had lower enzyme activities and TBARS content than cattle and camel. Their peroxide values were lower than camel samples. Camel meat showed higher catalase activity and TBARS content than cattle meat. Results indicated that negative correlation between lipid oxidation and GSH-Px activity and the accelerated lipid oxidation in salted meat may be partly related to a decrease in GSH-Px activity. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of salt type and concentration on the growth and lipid content of Chlorella vulgaris in synthetic saline wastewater for biofuel production. (United States)

    Church, Jared; Hwang, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Keug-Tae; McLean, Rebecca; Oh, You-Kwan; Nam, Bora; Joo, Jin Chul; Lee, Woo Hyoung


    Microalgae can offer several benefits for wastewater treatment with their ability to produce large amounts of lipids for biofuel production and the high economic value of harvested biomass for biogas and fertilizer. This study found that salt concentration (∼45gL -1 ) had more of an effect than salt type on metabolisms of Chlorella vulgaris for wastewater treatment and biofuel production. Salinity stress decreased the algal growth rate in wastewater by 0.003day -1 permScm -1 and slightly reduced nutrient removal rates. However, salinity stress was shown to increase total lipid content from 11.5% to 16.1% while also increasing the saturated portions of fatty acids in C. vulgaris. In addition, salinity increased the algal settling rate from 0.06 to 0.11mday -1 which could potentially reduce the cost of harvesting for algal biofuel production. Overall, C. vulgaris makes a suitable candidate for high salinity wastewater cultivation and biofuel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water (United States)

    Augustin, S.; Wex, H.; Niedermeier, D.; Pummer, B.; Grothe, H.; Hartmann, S.; Tomsche, L.; Clauss, T.; Voigtländer, J.; Ignatius, K.; Stratmann, F.


    Birch pollen grains are known to be ice nucleating active biological particles. The ice nucleating activity has previously been tracked down to biological macromolecules that can be easily extracted from the pollen grains in water. In the present study, we investigated the immersion freezing behavior of these ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules. Therefore we measured the frozen fractions of particles generated from birch pollen washing water as a function of temperature at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). Two different birch pollen samples were considered, with one originating from Sweden and one from the Czech Republic. For the Czech and Swedish birch pollen samples, freezing was observed to start at -19 and -17 °C, respectively. The fraction of frozen droplets increased for both samples down to -24 °C. Further cooling did not increase the frozen fractions any more. Instead, a plateau formed at frozen fractions below 1. This fact could be used to determine the amount of INA macromolecules in the droplets examined here, which in turn allowed for the determination of nucleation rates for single INA macromolecules. The main differences between the Swedish birch pollen and the Czech birch pollen were obvious in the temperature range between -17 and -24 °C. In this range, a second plateau region could be seen for Swedish birch pollen. As we assume INA macromolecules to be the reason for the ice nucleation, we concluded that birch pollen is able to produce at least two different types of INA macromolecules. We were able to derive parameterizations for the heterogeneous nucleation rates for both INA macromolecule types, using two different methods: a simple exponential fit and the Soccer ball model. With these parameterization methods we were able to describe the ice nucleation behavior of single INA macromolecules from both the Czech and the Swedish birch pollen.

  15. Evaluation of microplastic release caused by textile washing processes of synthetic fabrics. (United States)

    De Falco, Francesca; Gullo, Maria Pia; Gentile, Gennaro; Di Pace, Emilia; Cocca, Mariacristina; Gelabert, Laura; Brouta-Agnésa, Marolda; Rovira, Angels; Escudero, Rosa; Villalba, Raquel; Mossotti, Raffaella; Montarsolo, Alessio; Gavignano, Sara; Tonin, Claudio; Avella, Maurizio


    A new and more alarming source of marine contamination has been recently identified in micro and nanosized plastic fragments. Microplastics are difficult to see with the naked eye and to biodegrade in marine environment, representing a problem since they can be ingested by plankton or other marine organisms, potentially entering the food web. An important source of microplastics appears to be through sewage contaminated by synthetic fibres from washing clothes. Since this phenomenon still lacks of a comprehensive analysis, the objective of this contribution was to investigate the role of washing processes of synthetic textiles on microplastic release. In particular, an analytical protocol was set up, based on the filtration of the washing water of synthetic fabrics and on the analysis of the filters by scanning electron microscopy. The quantification of the microfibre shedding from three different synthetic fabric types, woven polyester, knitted polyester, and woven polypropylene, during washing trials simulating domestic conditions, was achieved and statistically analysed. The highest release of microplastics was recorded for the wash of woven polyester and this phenomenon was correlated to the fabric characteristics. Moreover, the extent of microfibre release from woven polyester fabrics due to different detergents, washing parameters and industrial washes was evaluated. The number of microfibres released from a typical 5 kg wash load of polyester fabrics was estimated to be over 6,000,000 depending on the type of detergent used. The usage of a softener during washes reduces the number of microfibres released of more than 35%. The amount and size of the released microfibres confirm that they could not be totally retained by wastewater treatments plants, and potentially affect the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Washing, Leaching, and Other Ways to Disturb Geochronological Samples (United States)

    Scherer, E. E.; Bast, R.


    Contamination effects in geochronology depend on the mass fraction of contaminant and how much its composition differs from that of the sample. Attempts to remove contamination range from gentle washing of grains in cold water or dilute acids to harsh leaching of powders in hot, concentrated acids. It is often assumed that 1) for the element(s) of interest, the portion contributed by contamination is more readily removed than that originally hosted by the target minerals, and 2) washing neither fractionates parent-daughter ratios nor changes the isotope composition of the daughter element by contamination or fractionation. The latter may even be relevant for Pb-Pb [1]. These assumptions are seldom tested. Leaching experiments and differences between variously treated aliquots of the same samples imply that they may not always hold, e.g., in the case of Lu-Hf: for grt [2], ol [3 cf. 4], and plag [3-6 cf. 7]. Similar issues may affect mineral separations done by "selective digestion" of grt [8] or ol [4], or "cleansing" grt of phosphate inclusions [9]. The effectiveness of washing procedures depends on the relative solubilities of the contamination host (salts, fine-grained silicates, or alteration products at grain boundaries and cracks) and the target mineral. We found that 2 M HNO3 was ineffective at removing terrestrial contamination from meteorite minerals, but did not adversely affect those minerals [10]. Whereas much has been done to understand washing, leaching, and stepwise dissolution, especially for U-Pb [11, 12] and Pb-Pb [13-15], there is still an urgent need for systematic testing of such methods to determine which are effective yet safe for other minerals and isotope systems. [1] Amelin et al. (2016) Goldschmidt, A57. [2] Scherer et al. (2000) GCA 64, 3413-3432. [3] Bast et al., GCA submitted. [4] Sanborn et al. (2015) GCA 171, 80-99. [5] Lundgaard et al. (2004) GCA 68 suppl, 738. [6] Thrane et al. (2006) MAPS 41, A173. [7] Bouvier et al., (2015) MAPS

  17. Quality of red blood cells washed using a second wash sequence on an automated cell processor. (United States)

    Hansen, Adele L; Turner, Tracey R; Kurach, Jayme D R; Acker, Jason P


    Washed red blood cells (RBCs) are indicated for immunoglobulin (Ig)A-deficient recipients when RBCs from IgA-deficient donors are not available. Canadian Blood Services recently began using the automated ACP 215 cell processor (Haemonetics Corporation) for RBC washing, and its suitability to produce IgA-deficient RBCs was investigated. RBCs produced from whole blood donations by the buffy coat (BC) and whole blood filtration (WBF) methods were washed using the ACP 215 or the COBE 2991 cell processors and IgA and total protein levels were assessed. A double-wash procedure using the ACP 215 was developed, tested, and validated by assessing hemolysis, hematocrit, recovery, and other in vitro quality variables in RBCs stored after washing, with and without irradiation. A single wash using the ACP 215 did not meet Canadian Standards Association recommendations for washing with more than 2 L of solution and could not consistently reduce IgA to levels suitable for IgA-deficient recipients (24/26 BC RBCs and 0/9 WBF RBCs had IgA levels < 0.05 mg/dL). Using a second wash sequence, all BC and WBF units were washed with more than 2 L and had levels of IgA of less than 0.05 mg/dL. During 7 days' postwash storage, with and without irradiation, double-washed RBCs met quality control criteria, except for the failure of one RBC unit for inadequate (69%) postwash recovery. Using the ACP 215, a double-wash procedure for the production of components for IgA-deficient recipients from either BC or WBF RBCs was developed and validated. © 2015 AABB.

  18. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea (United States)

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A


    Background Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. Objectives To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Selection criteria Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. Main results We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency

  19. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban


    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Counts, K; Bruce Wiersma, B; John Mickalonis, J


    Preparation of high level waste for vitrification involves in part the dissolution of salt cake from the carbon steel storage tanks. During dissolution, a point is reached in which the corrosion inhibitors, hydroxide and nitrite, are diluted below established guidelines, and nitrate stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is possible. Because the addition of inhibitors may be counterproductive to process efficiency and waste minimization, corrosion testing was initiated to revisit and possibly revise the guidelines for inhibitor limits. The bases for the work summarized in this status report are results from previously-completed phases of study. In the first two phases of study, several reduced-inhibitor levels were tested in HLW simulants with nitrate concentrations ranging from 4.5 M to 8.5 M. The first two phases of work determined, among other things, the reduced-inhibitor levels and solution chemistries in which heat-treated and non-heat-treated A537 carbon steel is susceptible to SCC, crevice corrosion, and pitting. The work covered in this current task both builds on and verifies the conclusions of the previous work. The current work involves testing of low levels of inhibitors in HLW simulants with 5.5 M to 8.5 M nitrate concentrations. Stressed U-bend specimens, both polarized and non-polarized, were tested. Non-polarized U-bend testing is ongoing, with the U-bends currently in test for 100 days. The purpose of the testing is to determine SCC susceptibility in the vapor space (VS) and liquid air interface (LAI) regions of the HLW tanks under conditions expected during salt dissolution, and also to verify previous accelerated testing. The simulated wastes being tested have nitrate concentrations of 5.5 M and 8.5 M and inhibitor levels of 0.01 M/0.01 M hydroxide/nitrite and 0.1 M/ 0.1 M hydroxide/nitrite. The open circuit potential measurements being monitored and the corrosion morphology of the U-bends are in agreement with results and observations of previous

  1. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by § 133.136...

  2. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the net...

  3. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the net...

  4. Georelational analysis of soil type, soil salt content, landform, and land use in the Yellow River Delta, China. (United States)

    Fang, Hongliang; Liu, Gaohuan; Kearney, Michael


    The Yellow River Delta, one of China's three major river deltas, is becoming a major region for the development of agriculture and fisheries. Protecting the delicate ecology of newly formed aquatic systems as well as the evolution of soils, natural vegetation, and fauna on older upland environments in the delta is a priority in planning for the wise use of the delta's resources for future agricultural development. In this article, we use a Geographic Information System (GIS) to analyze relationships between land-use/ land-cover characteristics in the Dongying municipality, one of the most intensely developed areas of the delta, and spatial variations in soil salinity and landforms. This analysis reveals that soil salt content decreases from regionally high values in isolated depressions to relatively moderate values in embanked former back swamps, with the lowest values occurring in abandoned river courses. Comparing the present land use on this soil salinity-landform pattern shows that it is basically at odds with general concepts of land suitability for agricultural utilization of saline soils. Crop-based agriculture in the region is probably overdeveloped, whereas more appropriate agricultural development, like cattle and forest production, is underrepresented. Future development should focus on converting farmland in embanked former back swamps and abandoned river courses into grasslands and forests. Crop-based agriculture (up to 151,000 ha) could be planned at the low-salinity terrace uplands and flood plains. The article provides guidelines for decision-makers regarding agricultural land use and wetland protection in the Yellow River Delta.

  5. Fit for washing; Human factors and ergonomic evaluations of washing machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, N.


    People do the laundry all over the world. About 500 million washing machines are in use at the moment. To reduce the heavy workload, washing machines were invented about 100 years ago. 50 years of innovations led to a reduction in water, energy and detergent consumption and the interface became

  6. Food washing and placer mining in captive great apes. (United States)

    Allritz, Matthias; Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep


    Sweet potato washing and wheat placer mining in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are among the most well known examples of local traditions in non-human animals. The functions of these behaviors and the mechanisms of acquisition and spread of these behaviors have been debated frequently. Prompted by animal caretaker reports that great apes [chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo abelii)] at Leipzig Zoo occasionally wash their food, we conducted a study of food washing behaviors that consisted of two parts. In the first part we assessed the current distribution of the behavior on the basis of caretaker reports. In the second (experimental) part, we provided subjects individually with a water basin and two types of food (apples and cereal) that was either clean or covered/mixed with sand. We found that subjects of all species (except gorillas) placed apples in the water before consumption, and that they did so more often when the apples were dirty than when they were clean. Several chimpanzees and orangutans also engaged in behaviors resembling wheat placer mining.

  7. Development of eco-friendly washing machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakidin Hamzah


    Full Text Available A portable, non-electric washing machine powered by human leg identical to cycling is produced in order to fulfil the need of varsity students to wash their clothes in a cheap, eco-friendly and time saving and also to do physical body exercises. A black plastic bin has been used as the main body. At the bottom lies the rotating disk to provide agitation to the water and also cleaning the clothes. Shaft and gears are also been used in the rotating and moving mechanism that is connected to the pedal. This eco-friendly washing machine with an affordable price will benefit the lower income family and also for the college students.

  8. Washing Machine Injuries of the Upper Extremity (United States)

    Suresh, S S


    Washing machines are part of every household and there are various reports of upper extremity injuries due to inadequate safety precautions while operating the machine. Most of the injuries occur when an attempt is made to remove the clothes from the machine and the hand gets caught in the spinning machine. The presentation can vary from minor soft tissue injuries to a mangled upper extremity. The chance of neurovascular damage resulting in compartment syndrome is very high. The author reports three cases of washing machine injuries to draw attention to this not so uncommon injury. The relevant literature is also considered. PMID:21654964

  9. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Wash Sale Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne; Marekwica, Marcel


    is to a large extent driven by the desire to realize those losses, either immediately by sharply decreasing the holding of assets carrying unrealized losses, or indirectly by increasing such holdings in order to prepare for a decrease in a future period to earn the tax rebate payment. Our findings are robust......We analytically solve the portfolio choice problem in the presence of wash sale constraints in a two-period model with one risky asset. Our results show that wash sale constraints can heavily affect portfolio choice of investors with unrealized losses. The trading behavior of such investors...

  10. Impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation (United States)

    Nachshon, Uri


    Field measurements indicated on high variability in salt accumulation along natural and cultivated slopes, even for relatively homogeneous soil conditions. It was hypothesised that slope inclination has an impact on the location of salt accumulation along the slope. A set of laboratory experiments and numerical models were used to explore the impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation. It was shown, experimentally, that for conditions of saline water source at the lower boundary of the slope - salt accumulates in low concentrations and homogeneously along the entire slope, for moderate slopes. However, as inclination increases high salt concentrations were observed at the upper parts of the slope, leaving the lower parts of the slope relatively free of salt. The traditional flow and transport models did not predict the experimental observations as they indicated also for the moderate slopes on salt accumulation in the elevated parts of the slope, away of the saline water source. Consequently - a conceptual model was raised to explain the laboratory observations. It was suggested that the interactions between slope angle, evaporation rates, hydraulic conductivity of the medium and distribution of wetness along the slope affect the saline water flow path through the medium. This lead to preferential flow path close to the soil-atmosphere interface for the steep slopes, which leads to constant wash of the salts from the evaporation front upward towards the slope upper parts, whereas for the moderate slopes, flow path is below the soil-atmosphere interface, therefore salt that accumulates at the evaporation front is not being transported upward. Understanding of salt dynamics along slopes is important for agricultural and natural environments, as well as for civil engineering purposes. Better understanding of the salt transport processes along slopes will improve our ability to minimize and to cope with soil salinization processes. The laboratory experiments and

  11. Automatic top loader washing machine related injury. A report of four cases with serious injury. (United States)

    Kwan, M K; Saw, A; Sara Ahmad, T


    We are reporting four cases of serious washing machine related injury that presented within a period of 5 months. All patients were young children with the mean age of 9 year-old and three had their dominant hand injured. The washing machines involved were the automatic top loader type and all injuries occurred during the spinning phase. Serious automatic washing machine injury is not uncommon in Malaysia. We feel that there is a need to improve the safety features especially during the spinning phase. The operating instructions and safety precautions on the washing machine should be displayed in different languages that can be understood well. Parents should also aware of the potential risks of this seemingly benign household appliance.

  12. Multi-Scale Bridge Wash Out Simulation During Tsunami by Using a Particle Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyagawa Yoshiya


    Full Text Available In 2011, the huge tsunami caused by the great east Japan earthquake devastated many infrastructures in pacific coast of north eastern Japan. Particularly, collapse of bridges caused a traffic disorder and these collapse behaviors led to delay of recovery after the disaster. In this study, the bridge wash away accident is selected as a target issue, and it is represented by a numerical simulation. For this purpose, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH Method, which is one of the pure mesh free methods, is utilized for the rigid body motion simulation. In this study, rigid body motion is introduced for the fluid-rigid interaction behavior during bridge wash away simulation. In the numerical analysis, the upper bridge structure is washed away by receiving an impact fluid force. The wash away simulation of two types of the bridge girder showed good agreement with the real accident on the great east Japan earthquake tsunami.

  13. Use of green washing fluids in a washing process for dioxin contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwalee Yotapukdee


    Full Text Available High levels of dioxin contamination in soil have significant environmental challenges. Soil washing is a successful remediation process that is primarily used to treat coarse soils. Several literature studies have used various kinds of chemical washing liquids to remove dioxins from soils, though there are secondary environmental effects. This study intends to develop environmentally friendly soil washing methods that are effective in dioxin removal at an acceptable cost. Sugarcane wine, compost leachate, and ground fish broth were chosen as potential washing liquids. Each washing liquid was analyzed to determine its content of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs and volatile organic compounds (VOCs. These compounds are related to their bio-surfactant content. Several of the identified compounds had properties to help remove dioxins from contaminated soil. In the experiments, high removal efficiencies were observed, up to 70%~95% after five to six washes. Although effective removal was observed, a significant amount of wastewater was produced and the problems were not completely resolved. Thus, the optimal washing conditions are necessary to minimize the overall costs, while improving the process effectiveness. Moreover, an appropriate treatment method is required for wastewater containing dioxins.

  14. GsSNAP33, a novel Glycine soja SNAP25-type protein gene: Improvement of plant salt and drought tolerances in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. (United States)

    Nisa, Zaib-Un; Mallano, Ali Inayat; Yu, Yang; Chen, Chao; Duan, Xiangbo; Amanullah, Sikandar; Kousar, Abida; Baloch, Abdul Wahid; Sun, Xiaoli; Tabys, Dina; Zhu, Yanming


    The N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) superfamily, specifically the SNAP25-type proteins and t-SNAREs, have been proposed to regulate cellular processes and plant resistance mechanisms. However, little is known about the role of SNAP25-type proteins in combating abiotic stresses, specifically in wild soybean. In the current study, the isolation and functional characterization of the putative synaptosomal-associated SNAP25-type protein gene GsSNAP33 from wild soybean (Glycine soja) were performed. GsSNAP33 has a molecular weight of 33,311 Da and comprises 300 amino acid residues along with Qb-Qc SNARE domains. Multiple sequence alignment revealed the highest similarity of the GsSNAP33 protein to GmSNAP33 (91%), VrSNAP33 (89%), PvSNAP33 (86%) and AtSNAP33 (63%). Phylogenetic studies revealed the abundance of SNAP33 proteins mostly in dicotyledons. Quantitative real-time PCR assays confirmed that GsSNAP33 expression can be induced by salt, alkali, ABA and PEG treatments and that GsSNAP33 is highly expressed in the pods, seeds and roots of Glycine soja. Furthermore, the overexpression of the GsSNAP33 gene in WT Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in increased germination rates, greater root lengths, improved photosynthesis, lower electrolyte leakage, higher biomass production and up-regulated expression levels of various stress-responsive marker genes, including KINI, COR15A, P5Cs, RAB18, RD29A and COR47 in transgenic lines compared with those in WT lines. Subcellular localization studies revealed that the GsSNAP33-eGFP fusion protein was localized to the plasma membrane, while eGFP was distributed throughout whole cytoplasm of onion epidermal cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that GsSNAP33, a novel plasma membrane protein gene of Glycine soja, might be involved in improving plant responses to salt and drought stresses in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Environmental control during steam boiler washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Marcio A.B.; Abreu Pereira, Vera L. de [Companhia Petroquimica do Nordeste (COPENE), Camacari, BA (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Ambiental; Ringler, Ulrich E.S. [PROMON Engenharia Ltda., Salvador, BA (Brazil)


    The washing and chemical cleaning of boilers, activities of a high polluting potential, are responsible for the generation of wastewater of high contents of heavy metals, suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD). This paper describes the actions carried out by COPENE - Petroquimica do Nordeste S/A - in order to reduce this problem. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Washing treatment of automotive shredder residue (ASR). (United States)

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana


    Worldwide, the amount of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) reaches 50 million units per year. Once the ELV has been processed, it may then be shredded and sorted to recover valuable metals that are recycled in iron and steelmaking processes. The residual fraction, called automotive shredder residue (ASR), represents 25% of the ELV and is usually landfilled. In order to deal with the leachable fraction of ASR that poses a potential threat to the environment, a washing treatment before landfilling was applied. To assess the potential for full-scale application of washing treatment, tests were carried out in different conditions (L/S = 3 and 5L/kgTS; t = 3 and 6 h). Moreover, to understand whether the grain size of waste could affect the washing efficiency, the treatment was applied to ground (<4 mm) and not-ground samples. The findings obtained revealed that, on average, washing treatment achieved removal rates of more than 60% for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN). With regard to metals and chlorides, sulphates and fluoride leachable fraction, a removal efficiency of approximately 60% was obtained, as confirmed also by EC values. The comparison between the results for ground and not-ground samples did not highlight significant differences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hand wash and manual skin wipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.H.; Boeniger, M.F.; Hemmen, J. van


    Hand wash and skin wipes are major techniques that have been used for dermal exposure sampling. Both techniques remove chemicals either deposited on or transferred to the skin contaminant layer by a combination of chemical and mechanical actions. The paper overviews identified methods and

  18. What happens at a car wash?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallick, Barbara; Lee, Lisa


    ... "What Happens at a Car Wash?" were Barb Gallick, Pam Morbitzer, and Lisa Lee. During this particular semester, our class consisted of 18 children. The majority of children attended for the full day, 5 days a week. Half of the children had attended the child care center the previous semester and had experienced project work during that time. Eight girls a...

  19. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese


    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  20. Speciation of mercury in sludge solids: washed sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Lourie, A. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The objective of this applied research task was to study the type and concentration of mercury compounds found within the contaminated Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (SRS LWS). A method of selective sequential extraction (SSE), developed by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences1,2 and adapted by SRNL, utilizes an extraction procedure divided into seven separate tests for different species of mercury. In the SRNL’s modified procedure four of these tests were applied to a washed sample of high level radioactive waste sludge.

  1. Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.


    A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a Late Wash' facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

  2. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash (United States)

    Regan, Jamie; Ananthapadmanabhan, K.P.


    Objective: To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Design: Biochemical and clinical assays. Setting: Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Participants: Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); and women 18 to 64 years of age (home use). Measurements: Assessments across studies included colorimetric dye exclusion to assess skin damage potential (corneosurfametry), efficacy of cosmetic product removal from skin, change from baseline in visual dryness, change from baseline in Eczema Area and Severity Index, and self-perceived eczema attributes and self-reported product preference. Results: The glycinate-based cleanser demonstrated mildness to skin components when evaluated in a corneosurfametry assay. Short-term use under exaggerated wash conditions in subjects with dryness scores <3 and erythema scores <2 (both on a 0-6 scale) indicated an initial reduction in visual dryness. In subjects with eczema, normal use resulted in significant improvements (p<0.05) at Week 4 compared with baseline in skin dryness (change from baseline = −0.73), rash (−0.56), itch (−0.927), tightness (−0.585), and all eczema (−0.756). The glycinate-based body wash removed 56 percent of a long-lasting cosmetic foundation from skin compared with less than 30 percent removed by two competitive products tested. The glycinate-based body wash was preferred over a competitive mild cleansing product overall. Conclusion: The patented glycinate-containing body wash demonstrated better product mildness and patient-preferred attributes and clinical benefits. PMID:23882306

  3. [A nationwide survey on the hand washing behavior and awareness]. (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Sim; Choi, Jun Kil; Jeong, Ihn Sook; Paek, Kyong Ran; In, Hye-Kyung; Park, Ki Dong


    This study was conducted to evaluate the public's awareness of the importance of hand washing and to compare perceptions on the habit of hand washing with actual hand washing behavior. Data were collected by observing 2,800 participants washing their hands after using public restrooms in seven cities nationwide and by surveying 1,000 respondents (age>14 years) through telephone interviews using a structured questionnaire. Although 94% of the survey respondents claimed to mostly or always wash their hands after using public restrooms, only 63.4% of the observed participants did wash their hands after using public restrooms. Significant factors related to increased adherence to hand washing were female gender, approximate ages of 20 to 39 years by their appearance, and the presence of other people from the observation. About 79% of the survey respondents always washed their hands after using bathrooms at home, 73% washed their hands before handling food, and 67% washed their hands upon returning to their home. However, 93.2% and 86.3% of the survey respondents did not wash their hands after coughing or sneezing and after handling money, respectively. Although most of the survey respondents (77.6%) were aware that hand washing is helpful in preventing communicable diseases, 39.6% of the survey respondents did not do so because they were 'not accustomed' to washing their hands and 30.2% thought that washing their hands is 'annoying'. This is the first comprehensive report on hand washing behavior and awareness of the general population in Korea. The result of this study in terms of individual behavior and awareness of hand washing are comparable with similar studies conducted in other countries. However adherence to hand washing is still low and needs to be increased. The results of this study can be used as a baseline in setting up strategies and activities to promote adherence to hand washing.

  4. Increased serum concentrations of secondary bile salts during cholate feeding are due to coprophagy. A study with wild-type and Atp8b1-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Annemiek; Kunne, Cindy; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.


    Coprophagy (i.e., consumption of feces) is a behavior seen in rodents and other animal species. This behavior can substantially influence the enterohepatic cycling of compounds, including bile salts. Since many studies involve the feeding of rodents with bile salt supplemented diets, it is of

  5. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea. (United States)

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A


    Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (148 participants).Hand washing promotion (education activities, sometimes with

  6. Observance of hand washing procedures performed by the medical personnel after the patient contact. Part II. (United States)

    Garus-Pakowska, Anna; Sobala, Wojciech; Szatko, Franciszek


    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as well as the World Health Organization (WHO) state that adequate hand hygiene maintained by medical personnel is an indispensable prerequisite for controlling nosocomial infections. The recommendations of CDC and WHO emphasize the obligation to wash hands after each contact with a patient, after the exposure to a potentially infectious material or upon the contact with objects surrounding the patient. The study was performed by quasi-observation among the group of 188 medical staff members (nurses and physicians) working in three selected hospitals of the Łódź Province. The procedure of hand washing/disinfection performed directly after the patient contact according to the recommendations of CDC and WHO was observed. The results were subject to statistical analysis (p hand washing were recorded. The medical personnel followed the hand hygiene procedures after the patient contact in 26.4% of the situations that require hygiene according to the guidelines. The level of observance of the hand washing procedures depended significantly on the type of performed activity, profession, degree of workload, index of activity, and time of duty hours. The mean time of hand washing after patient contact was 9.2 s for physicians and 6.7 s for nurses. Both the level of observance of hygienic procedures after the contact with patients as well as the time of hand washing are insufficient. There is an urgent need to work out educational programs on maintaining proper hand hygiene for medical personnel.

  7. Food worker hand washing practices: an observation study. (United States)

    Green, Laura R; Selman, Carol A; Radke, Vincent; Ripley, Danny; Mack, James C; Reimann, David W; Stigger, Tammi; Motsinger, Michelle; Bushnell, Lisa


    Improvement of food worker hand washing practices is critical to the reduction of foodborne illness and is dependent upon a clear understanding of current hand washing practices. To that end, this study collected detailed observational data on food worker hand washing practices. Food workers (n = 321) were observed preparing food, and data were recorded on specific work activities for which hand washing is recommended (e.g., food preparation, handling dirty equipment). Data were also recorded on hand washing behaviors that occurred in conjunction with these work activities. Results indicated that workers engaged in approximately 8.6 work activities per hour for which hand washing is recommended. However, workers made hand washing attempts (i.e., removed gloves, if worn, and placed hands in running water) in only 32% of these activities and washed their hands appropriately (i.e., removed gloves, if worn, placed hands in running water, used soap, and dried hands) in only 27% of these work activities. Attempted and appropriate hand washing rates varied by work activity--they were significantly higher in conjunction with food preparation than other work activities (46 versus hand washing; 41 versus hand washing) and were significantly lower in conjunction with touching the body than other work activities (13 versus > or = 27% for attempted hand washing; 10 versus > or = 23% for appropriate hand washing). Attempted and appropriate hand washing rates were significantly lower when gloves were worn (18 and 16%) than when gloves were not worn (37 and 30%). These findings suggest that the hand washing practices of food workers need to be improved, glove use may reduce hand washing, and restaurants should consider reorganizing their food preparation activities to reduce the frequency with which hand washing is needed.

  8. Unique inhibition of bile salt-induced apoptosis by lecithins and cytoprotective bile salts in immortalized mouse cholangiocytes. (United States)

    Komichi, Daisuke; Tazuma, Susumu; Nishioka, Tomoji; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Une, Mizuho; Chayama, Kazuaki


    Bile duct epithelium is physiologically exposed to high concentrations of bile salts, suggesting the presence of a cytoprotective mechanism(s). The aim of this study was to clarify whether bile salts cause bile duct cell damage and to elucidate the mechanism(s) providing protection against such an action of bile salts. Immortalized mouse cholangiocytes were incubated with taurocholate, taurochenodeoxycholate, glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC), taurodeoxycholate, and tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC), followed by flow-cytometric analysis and caspase activity assay to evaluate the induction of apoptosis. GCDC time-dependently induced caspase 3 (3.4-fold)- and caspase 9 (1.4-fold)-mediated apoptosis of cholangiocytes, but this was inhibited by lecithins and TUDC. Further, expression of cholangiocyte bile salt transporters (apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter [Asbt] and multidrug resistance protein 3 [Mrp3]) was examined by RT-PCR and western blotting, and cholangiocyte bile salt uptake was determined using radiolabeled bile salts. Expression of cholangiocyte Asbt and Mrp3 was increased by bile salts, whereas lecithins interestingly reduced bile salt uptake to inhibit cholangiocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, bile salts themselves cause cholangiocyte apoptosis when absorbed by and retained inside the cell, but this is inhibited by washing out cytotoxic bile salts according to Mrp3, a rescue exporting molecule. Biliary lecithin is seemingly another cytoprotective player against cytotoxic bile salts, reducing their uptake, and this is associated with a reduced expression of Mrp3.

  9. Why Is Hand Washing So Important? (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Gynecologist? Blood Test: Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies Why Is Hand Washing So Important? KidsHealth > For Parents > Why Is ... es tan importante lavarse las manos? Why Is Hand Washing So Important? Kids don't always listen ...

  10. SLAH1, a homologue of the slow type anion channel SLAC1, modulates shoot Cl − accumulation and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Jiaen


    Salinity tolerance is correlated with shoot chloride (Cl–) exclusion in multiple crops, but the molecular mechanisms of long-distance Cl– transport are poorly defined. Here, we characterize the in planta role of AtSLAH1 (a homologue of the slow type anion channel-associated 1 (SLAC1)). This protein, localized to the plasma membrane of root stelar cells, has its expression reduced by salt or ABA, which are key predictions for a protein involved with loading Cl– into the root xylem. Artificial microRNA knockdown mutants of AtSLAH1 had significantly reduced shoot Cl− accumulation when grown under low Cl–, whereas shoot Cl– increased and the shoot nitrate/chloride ratio decreased following AtSLAH1 constitutive or stelar-specific overexpression when grown in high Cl–. In both sets of overexpression lines a significant reduction in shoot biomass over the null segregants was observed under high Cl– supply, but not low Cl– supply. Further in planta data showed AtSLAH3 overexpression increased the shoot nitrate/chloride ratio, consistent with AtSLAH3 favouring nitrate transport. Heterologous expression of AtSLAH1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes led to no detectible transport, suggesting the need for post-translational modifications for AtSLAH1 to be active. Our in planta data are consistent with AtSLAH1 having a role in controlling root-to-shoot Cl– transport.

  11. Washing of the AN-107 entrained solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; FV Hoopes


    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing on the composition of the entrained solids in the diluted AN-107 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. The objective of this work was to gather data on the solubility of the AN-107 entrained solids in 0.01 M NaOH, so that BNFL can evaluate whether these solids require caustic leaching.

  12. Safety assessment of windshield washing Technologies


    Willersinn, Dieter; Manger, Daniel; Erdnüß, Bastian; Baumgärtner, D.; Giraud, F


    We present a new assessment method for driver visibility based on reaction time measurement and workload in real driving situations from the most relevant accident scenario involving pedestrians. The procedure was validated in a balanced trial to compare a wet flatblade windshield washing system to a conventional Fluidic nozzles system. The test cohort comprised 204 subjects who form a representative sample of German driving license holders. The average reaction time gain of wet flatblade ove...

  13. Colour Changes in Fabrics Dyed with Vegetable Dyes Caused by Daylight and Washing


    福田, 瑛子; 〓谷, 要; フクダ, エイコ; カツラヤ, カナメ; Eiko, FUKUDA; Kaname, KATURAYA


    An experiment was conducted on the colour of various samples (cotton, wool, nylon) dyed using vegetable dyes consisting of onion skin and tumeric along with the effects of fibre type and mordants on colour fastness to daylight and colour fastness to washing the results of wich are described below. Although colour fastness to daylight of fabric dyed with vegetable dye differs according to the type of fibre and vegetable dye as well as the mordant used, colour fastness to washing was high for a...

  14. Bacterial Exchange in Household Washing Machines. (United States)

    Callewaert, Chris; Van Nevel, Sam; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Granitsiotis, Michael S; Boon, Nico


    Household washing machines (WMs) launder soiled clothes and textiles, but do not sterilize them. We investigated the microbial exchange occurring in five household WMs. Samples from a new cotton T-shirt were laundered together with a normal laundry load. Analyses were performed on the influent water and the ingoing cotton samples, as well as the greywater and the washed cotton samples. The number of living bacteria was generally not lower in the WM effluent water as compared to the influent water. The laundering process caused a microbial exchange of influent water bacteria, skin-, and clothes-related bacteria and biofilm-related bacteria in the WM. A variety of biofilm-producing bacteria were enriched in the effluent after laundering, although their presence in the cotton sample was low. Nearly all bacterial genera detected on the initial cotton sample were still present in the washed cotton samples. A selection for typical skin- and clothes-related microbial species occurred in the cotton samples after laundering. Accordingly, malodour-causing microbial species might be further distributed to other clothes. The bacteria on the ingoing textiles contributed for a large part to the microbiome found in the textiles after laundering.

  15. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b... allowed in paragraph (f) of this section, each cargo tank must have COW machines located to wash all...

  16. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation: WARRP Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    This activity demonstrated, on a practical scale, the primary unit operations for building a containment structure for radioactive wash waters, washing down a hypothetically radioactively contaminated vehicle, collecting the hypothetically radioactive slurry waste water, filtering the hypothetically radioactive wash waters, disassembling the containment, and transporting the materials for final disposition.

  17. 21 CFR 211.52 - Washing and toilet facilities. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washing and toilet facilities. 211.52 Section 211... § 211.52 Washing and toilet facilities. Adequate washing facilities shall be provided, including hot and cold water, soap or detergent, air driers or single-service towels, and clean toilet facilities easily...

  18. Enhancing The Wash Oil Antifouling Action In A Cracked Gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pure grade samples from operational wash oil (used in cracked gas compression unit), light cycle oil, heavy residue and heavy diesel oil were obtained. Miscible blend samples of ratio 1:1 were also obtained from wash oil/light cycle oil and wash oil/heavy residue. These samples were subjected to characterization and the ...

  19. [The responsibility schema in obsessive compulsive checking and washing]. (United States)

    Palermou, B; Efstathiou, G; Kalantzi-Azizi, A


    According to the theory of cognitive therapy, mental disorders are related to specific dysfunctional schemata, assumptions and automatic thoughts. Various pathogenic schemata have been identified in the context of the cognitive explanation of obsessive compulsive disorder, among which is the responsibily schema, proposed by Salkovskis in 1985. The responsibility schema has been defined as the belief that one possesses pivotal power to provoke or prevent subjective crucial negative outcomes. In order to investigate the relationship between the major obsessive compulsive themes and the cognitive schema of responsibility, the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory and the Responsibility Questionnaire were administered to a non-clinical sample of 366 college students. Two groups, consisting of 15 participants each, were identified having obsessive compulsive manifestations (complaints). The first group manifested obsessive compulsive checking and the second group manifested obsessive compulsive washing. No significant sex differences were found between the groups (x²=0.186, df=1, p>0.005), but significant age differences were observed (t=-2.41, df=19.68, pobsessive compulsive checking and washing on responsibility were analyzed. The findings seem to verify this relationship for obsessive compulsive checking (F=5.63, df=1.307, pobsessive-compulsive checking reported an increased sense of responsibility as compared to those who experienced obsessive-compulsive washing or were free of obsessive-compulsive manifestations. The available questionnaires did not allow the investigation of the relationship between other types of obsessive compulsive manifestations and responsibility. The use of a non-clinical sample should also be noted.

  20. O-alkylation of disodium salt of diethyl 3,4-dihydroxythiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate with 1,2-dichloroethane catalyzed by ionic type phase transfer catalyst and potassium iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Huasheng; Yin, Hengbo; Wang, Aili; Shen, Jun; Yan, Xiaobo; Liu, Yumin; Zhang, Changhua [Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China)


    Diethyl 3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate was efficiently synthesized via the O-alkylation of disodium salt of diethyl 3,4-dihydroxy thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate with 1,2-dichloroethane over ionic type phase transfer catalysts, such as tetrabutyl ammonium bromide and benzyl triethyl ammonium chloride. The ionic type phase transfer catalysts showed higher catalytic activities than the nonionic type phase transfer catalysts, such as triethylamine, pyridine, 18-crown-6, and polyethylene glycol 400/600, in the O-alkylation reaction. The conversion of the disodium salt of more than 97% and the selectivity of diethyl 3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate of more than 98% were achieved when the O-alkylation reaction was synergistically catalyzed by tetrabutyl ammonium bromide and potassium iodide.

  1. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI GARAM, PENAMBAH JENIS ASAM TERHADAP MUTU LADA HIJAU DALAM BOTOL SELAMA PENYIMPANAN [The Effect of Salt and the Addition of Several Acid Types on the Quality of Bottled Green Pepper During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Djubaedah1


    Full Text Available Research on the effect of salt and the acid types addition on the quality of bottled green pepper during storage has been conducted. Treatments were used 10 % and 20 % of salt, 0.2 % of citric acid and 4 % of acetic acid. The product were stored for 3 months and were analyzed for green color degree, pH, total plate count (TPC, piperine and total solid content. The results showed that citric acid treatment, better than acetic acid treatment, indicated by higher degree of green color (5.30 - 5.92 and pH 4.5 - 4.7 while the other 4.46 - 4.60 of green color degree and pH 3.5 - 3.9. Treatment of 20 % salt was more effective than 10 % of salt in preventing microorganism growth which was indicated by lower TPC value (2 - 5 colony/g. Products treated by citric acid and acetic acid also had lower TPC value, 3 - 5 colony/g and 2 - 3 colony/g respectively. Combinations of salt and acid treatments gave significant effect on it. Piperine content were relatively unchanged during 2 months storage (6.5 - 8 % but it decreased in 3 months storage (5 - 6 %. The best quality was product treated by 20 % of salt and 0.2 % of citric acid. It was also treated by soaking in 2 % of Na2CO3 for 30 minutes, blanching for 5 minutes, addition of 300 ppm SO2 and heating in 100 °C for 15 minutes as constant treatment. The product was also feasible financially on capacity 1,000 bottle per day. Selling Rp. 4,000.00 per bottle will give benefit Rp. 60,000,000.00 per 6 months with 1.11 benefit cost ratio (B/CResearch on the effect of salt and the acid types addition on the quality of bottled green pepper during storage has been conducted. Treatments were used 10 % and 20 % of salt, 0.2 % of citric acid and 4 % of acetic acid. The product were stored for 3 months and were analyzed for green color degree, pH, total plate count (TPC, piperine and total solid content. The results showed that citric acid treatment, better than acetic acid treatment, indicated by higher degree of





    In this article the findings on the production of complex phosphorus-potassium and nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer by decomposition of washed and dried phosphoconcentrate from Central Kyzylkum phosphorite with incomplete norms of sulfuric acid with the addition of potassium chloride, sulfate, ammonium nitrate and urea have been given. It has been revealed that the addition of potassium chloride and ammonium salts significantly affect on expansion coefficient and NP and NPK fertilizer...

  3. Hand washing practices in a college town environment. (United States)

    Borchgrevink, Carl P; Cha, JaeMin; Kim, SeungHyun


    Many people do not wash their hands when the behavior in which they engage would warrant it. Most research of hand washing practices to date has taken place in high-traffic environments such as airports and public attraction venues. These studies have established a persistent shortcoming and a gender difference in hand washing compliance. Using field observations of 3,749 people in a college town environment, the research described in this article replicates and extends earlier work while identifying potential environmental and demographic predictors of hand washing compliance. Additionally, the authors' research suggests that proper hand washing practices, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, are not being practiced. Finally, the authors' research raises a question as to the accuracy of earlier measurements of "proper" hand washing practices, suggesting that compliance rates are inflated. The results can help increase hand washing rates for the general public and thus decrease the risk of transmitting disease.

  4. CO2/pH-Controllable Viscoelastic Nanostructured Fluid Based on Stearic Acid Soap and Bola-Type Quaternary Ammonium Salt. (United States)

    Zhang, Yongmin; Kong, Weiwei; An, Pengyun; He, Shuai; Liu, Xuefeng


    Fatty acid soaps such as sodium stearate (NaOSA) represent a class of cheap, environmentally friendly surfactants; however, their poor solubility seriously challenges their application in various fields. Herein, we describe a CO2/pH-controllable viscoelastic nanostructured fluid, which was developed by simple mixing of the commodity soap NaOSA with a bola-type quaternary ammonium salt (Bola2be) in a 2:1 molar ratio without the need for complex organic synthesis. The introduction of Bola2be increased NaOSA solubility and promoted micelle growth by forming a noncovalent pseudo-Gemini structure, 2NaOSA-Bola2be. Long aggregates are formed with increases in concentration, and these become entangled into a three-dimensional network at 10 times that of the critical micelle concentration (0.057 mM), showing strong thickening ability. Micellar branching occurs above 22.38 mM, as deduced by rheology and verified by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The worm-based fluid formed from the noncovalent pseudo-Gemini surfactant is highly thermosensitive, and features a higher flow activation energy of 399.76 kJ·mol(-1) compared with common worm systems. Because of the pH-sensitivity of NaOSA, the viscoelastic fluid can respond to common pH stimuli or green CO2 gas, and shows a transition between a gel-like wormlike micellar network and a water-like dispersion with precipitate. However, the CO2-responsive behavior is irreversible.

  5. MI (2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one) contained in detergents is not detectable in machine washed textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Maja A; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; Aberer, Werner


    Background: European legislation has banned the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) from inclusion in leave-on cosmetics. However, the risk for allergic reactions depends on exposure. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of MI in laundry detergents for household machine washing....... Methods: Different formulations of laundry detergents with commercial MI levels, up to one thousand ppm were used and three different types of clothes were washed in a normal household machine setting one time and 10 times. The level of MI was measured by HPLC. Results: While MI could be retrieved...... setting machine wash....

  6. Effects of egg shell quality and washing on Salmonella Infantis penetration. (United States)

    Samiullah; Chousalkar, K K; Roberts, J R; Sexton, M; May, D; Kiermeier, A


    The vast majority of eggs in Australia are washed prior to packing to remove dirt and fecal material and to reduce the microbial contamination of the egg shell. The egg contents can be an ideal growth medium for microorganisms which can result in human illness if eggs are stored improperly and eaten raw or undercooked, and it is estimated that egg-related salmonellosis is costing Australia $44 million per year. Egg shell characteristics such as shell thickness, amount of cuticle present, and thickness of individual egg shell layers can affect the ease with which bacteria can penetrate the egg shell and washing could partially or completely remove the cuticle layer. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of egg washing on cuticle cover and effects of egg shell quality and cuticle cover on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. A higher incidence of unfavorable ultrastructural variables of the mammillary layer such as late fusion, type B bodies, type A bodies, poor cap quality, alignment, depression, erosion and cubics were recorded in Salmonella penetrated areas of egg shells. The influence of egg washing on the ability of Salmonella Infantis on the egg shell surface to enter the egg internal contents was also investigated using culture-based agar egg penetration and real-time qPCR based experiments. The results from the current study indicate that washing affected cuticle cover. There were no significant differences in Salmonella Infantis penetration of washed or unwashed eggs. Egg shell translucency may have effects on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. The qPCR assay was more sensitive for detection of Salmonella Infantis from egg shell wash and internal contents than traditional microbiological methods. The agar egg and whole egg inoculation experiments indicated that Salmonella Infantis penetrated the egg shells. Egg washing not only can be highly effective at removing Salmonella Infantis from the egg shell surface

  7. The influence of DOCA-salt hypertension and chronic administration of the FAAH inhibitor URB597 on KCa2.3/KCa3.1-EDH-type relaxation in rat small mesenteric arteries. (United States)

    Kloza, Monika; Baranowska-Kuczko, Marta; Malinowska, Barbara; Karpińska, Olga; Harasim-Symbor, Ewa; Kasacka, Irena; Kozłowska, Hanna


    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt (DOCA-salt) hypertension and chronic treatment with the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, URB597, on small and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (KCa2.3/KCa3.1-EDH) in rat small mesenteric arteries (sMAs). The EDH-type response was investigated, in endothelium-intact sMAs using a wire myograph, by examining acetylcholine-evoked vasorelaxation in the presence of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and indomethacin (inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase, respectively). In normo- and hypertension the efficacy of EDH-type relaxation was similar and inhibition of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 by UCL1684 and TRAM-34, respectively, given alone or in combination, attenuated EDH-mediated vasorelaxation. KCa3.1 expression and NS309 (KCa2.3/KCa3.1 activator)-induced relaxation was reduced in sMAs of DOCA-salt rats. Endothelium denudation and incubation with UCL1684 and TRAM-34 attenuated the maximal NS309-evoked vasorelaxation in both groups. URB597 had no effect in functional studies, but increased the expression of KCa3.1 in the sMAs. KCa2.3/KCa3.1-EDH-mediated relaxation was maintained in the sMAs of DOCA-salt rats despite endothelial dysfunction and down-regulation of KCa3.1. Furthermore, KCa3.1 played a key role in the EDH-type dilator response of sMAs in normo- and hypertension. The hypotensive effect of URB597 is independent of KCa2.3/KCa3.1-EDH-type relaxation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Observance of hand washing procedures performed by the medical personnel before patient contact. Part I. (United States)

    Garus-Pakowska, Anna; Sobala, Wojciech; Szatko, Franciszek


    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as well as the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, medical staff are obliged to decontaminate the skin of the hands before every single patient contact. The study was performed by quasi-observation among the group of 188 medical staff (nurses and physicians) working in three selected hospitals of the Łódź province. The procedure of hand washing and disinfection performed directly before the patient contact according to the CDC and WHO recommendations were observed. The results was subject to statistical analysis (p hand washing were recorded. The medical staff obeyed the hand washing procedure before the patient contact only in 5.2% of the situations. There was no activity observed before which hand hygiene was maintained in 100% of cases. Observance of hand hygiene depended significantly on the type of the performed activity, the professional group, and the workload index. A decrease in percentage observance of hand hygiene according to the time of the day was found to be of statistical significance. The mean time of hand washing was 8.5 s for physicians and 6.6 s for nurses. The level of observance of hand washing procedures among the medical staff prior to the patient contact appears to be alarmingly below the expectations.

  9. Observance of hand washing procedures performed by the medical personnel before patient contact. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Garus-Pakowska


    Full Text Available Introduction: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as well as the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations, medical staff are obliged to decontaminate the skin of the hands before every single patient contact. Materials and Methods: The study was performed by quasi-observation among the group of 188 medical staff (nurses and physicians working in three selected hospitals of the Łódź province. The procedure of hand washing and disinfection performed directly before the patient contact according to the CDC and WHO recommendations were observed. The results was subject to statistical analysis (p < 0.05. Results: During 1544 hours of observation 4101 activities requiring hand washing were recorded. The medical staff obeyed the hand washing procedure before the patient contact only in 5.2% of the situations. There was no activity observed before which hand hygiene was maintained in 100% of cases. Observance of hand hygiene depended signifi cantly on the type of the performed activity, the professional group, and the workload index. A decrease in percentage observance of hand hygiene according to the time of the day was found to be of statistical signifi cance. The mean time of hand washing was 8.5 s for physicians and 6.6 s for nurses. Conclusion: The level of observance of hand washing procedures among the medical staff prior to the patient contact appears to be alarmingly below the expectations.

  10. Optimal efficiency vector control of induction motor drive system for drum washing machine (United States)

    Lee, Won Cheol; Yu, Jae Sung; Jang, Bong An; Won, Chung Yuen


    In home appliances, electric energy is optimally controlled by using power electronics technology, creating a comfortable environment in terms of energy saving, low sound generation, and reduced time consumption. Usually simplicity and robustness make the three phase induction motor attractive for use in domestic appliance, including washing machines. Two main types of domestic washing machine have evolved. We focus on efficiency of the front loading machine favored in Europe, which has a horizontal drum axis. This paper presents the control algorithm for optimal efficiency drives of an induction motor for drum washing machine. This system uses a simple model of the induction motor that include equations of the iron losses. The proposed optimal efficiency control algorithm calculates commands of the reference torque and flux currents for the flux oriented control of the induction motor. The proposed algorithm is verified through digital simulation.

  11. Diagnostic use of PCR for detection of Pneumocystis carinii in oral wash samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Jensen, Jens Ulrik Stæhr; Benfield, T


    There is a need to develop noninvasive methods for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients unable to undergo bronchoscopy or induction sputum. Oral wash specimens are easily obtained, and P. carinii nucleic acid can be amplified and demonstrated by PCR. In routine clinical use...... and was compared to a previously described PCR protocol (mitochondrial RNA) run in a research laboratory. Both PCR methods amplified a sequence of the mitochondrial rRNA gene of P. carinii. Paired bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and oral wash specimens from 76 consecutive human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected...... persons undergoing a diagnostic bronchoscopy were included. The TD-PCR procedure was quicker than the mitochondrial PCR procedure (oral wash...

  12. Diagnostic use of PCR for detection of Pneumocystis carinii in oral wash samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Jensen, Jens Ulrik Stæhr; Benfield, T


    There is a need to develop noninvasive methods for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients unable to undergo bronchoscopy or induction sputum. Oral wash specimens are easily obtained, and P. carinii nucleic acid can be amplified and demonstrated by PCR. In routine clinical use...... and was compared to a previously described PCR protocol (mitochondrial RNA) run in a research laboratory. Both PCR methods amplified a sequence of the mitochondrial rRNA gene of P. carinii. Paired bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and oral wash specimens from 76 consecutive human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected...... persons undergoing a diagnostic bronchoscopy were included. The TD-PCR procedure was quicker than the mitochondrial PCR procedure (wash...

  13. Aqueous treatment of water-sensitive paper objects: capillary unit, blotter wash or paraprint wash?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkx, H.; Iedema, P.; Reissland, B.; van Velzen, B.


    Blotter washing andwashing with the capillary unit are both methods used for aqueoustreatment of water-sensitive paper objects. The challenge of thistreatment is to remove water-soluble products while keeping thewater-sensitive medium in its place. In this article the two methodsare compared, along

  14. A salt diapir-related Mississippi Valley-type deposit: The Bou Jaber Pb-Zn-Ba-F deposit, Tunisia: Fluid inclusion and isotope study (United States)

    Bouhlel, Salah; Leach, David; Johnson, Craig A.; Marsh, Erin; Salmi-Laouar, Sihem; Banks, David A.


    simply by the evaporation of seawater to halite saturation and requires a dilution of more than two times by meteoric water. The higher K/Na values in fluid inclusions from barite suggest that the brines interacted with K-rich rocks in the basement or siliciclastic sediments in the basin. Carbonate gangue minerals (ankerite and calcite) have δ13C and δ18O values that are close to the carbonate host rock and indicate fluid equilibrium between carbonate host rocks and hydrothermal brines. The δ34S values for sphalerite and galena fall within a narrow range (1 to 10 ‰) with a bulk value of 7.5 ‰, indicating a homogeneous source of sulfur. The δ34S values of barite are also relatively homogeneous (22 ‰), with 6 ‰ higher than the δ34S of local and regional Triassic evaporites (15 ‰). The latter are believed to be the source of sulfate. Temperature of deposition together with sulfur isotope data indicate that the reduced sulfur in sulfides was derived through thermochemical sulfate reduction of Triassic sulfate via hydrocarbons produced probably from Late Cretaceous source rocks. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio in the Bou Jaber barite (0.709821 to 0.711408) together with the lead isotope values of Bou Jaber galena (206Pb/204Pb = 18.699 to 18.737;207Pb/204Pb = 15.635 to 15.708 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.321 to 38.947) show that metals were extracted from homogeneous crustal source(s). The tectonic setting of the Bou Jaber ore deposit, the carbonate nature of the host rocks, the epigenetic style of the mineralization and the mineral associations, together with sulfur and oxygen isotope data and fluid inclusion data show that the Bou Jaber lead-zinc mineralization has the major characteristics of a salt diapir-related Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposit with superimposed events of fluorite and of barite deposition. Field relations are consistent with mineral deposition during the Eocene–Miocene Alpine orogeny from multiple hydrothermal events: (1) Zn

  15. A salt diapir-related Mississippi Valley-type deposit: the Bou Jaber Pb-Zn-Ba-F deposit, Tunisia: fluid inclusion and isotope study (United States)

    Bouhlel, Salah; Leach, David L.; Johnson, Craig A.; Marsh, Erin; Salmi-Laouar, Sihem; Banks, David A.


    evaporation of seawater to halite saturation and requires a dilution of more than two times by meteoric water. The higher K/Na values in fluid inclusions from barite suggest that the brines interacted with K-rich rocks in the basement or siliciclastic sediments in the basin. Carbonate gangue minerals (ankerite and calcite) have δ13C and δ18O values that are close to the carbonate host rock and indicate fluid equilibrium between carbonate host rocks and hydrothermal brines. The δ34S values for sphalerite and galena fall within a narrow range (1 to 10 ‰) with a bulk value of 7.5 ‰, indicating a homogeneous source of sulfur. The δ34S values of barite are also relatively homogeneous (22 ‰), with 6 ‰ higher than the δ34S of local and regional Triassic evaporites (15 ‰). The latter are believed to be the source of sulfate. Temperature of deposition together with sulfur isotope data indicate that the reduced sulfur in sulfides was derived through thermochemical sulfate reduction of Triassic sulfate via hydrocarbons produced probably from Late Cretaceous source rocks. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio in the Bou Jaber barite (0.709821 to 0.711408) together with the lead isotope values of Bou Jaber galena (206Pb/204Pb = 18.699 to 18.737; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.635 to 15.708 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.321 to 38.947) show that metals were extracted from homogeneous crustal source(s). The tectonic setting of the Bou Jaber ore deposit, the carbonate nature of the host rocks, the epigenetic style of the mineralization and the mineral associations, together with sulfur and oxygen isotope data and fluid inclusion data show that the Bou Jaber lead-zinc mineralization has the major characteristics of a salt diapir-related Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposit with superimposed events of fluorite and of barite deposition. Field relations are consistent with mineral deposition during the Eocene-Miocene Alpine orogeny from multiple hydrothermal events: (1) Zn-Pb sulfides formed by mixing of two fluids: one

  16. Washing of cut persimmon with thyme or lemon essential oils. (United States)

    Almela, Celia; Castelló, María L; Tarrazó, José; Ortolá, María D


    The aim of this study was to develop a minimally processed persimmon product by applying different concentrations of thyme essential oil or lemon essential oil on the product in order to increase its shelf life. Essential oils were applied on cut persimmon in a preliminary stage of immersion, and the samples were then stored at 4 ℃ for seven days. Moisture content, soluble solids content, antioxidant capacity, total phenols, pH, optical and mechanical properties and microbiology counts were periodically analysed. Noteworthy was that the application of thyme essential oil in the washing stage improved the preservation of the fruits' colour. All samples would be considered safe according to microbiology requirements and based on the period of study, regardless of the type of essential oil applied. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions:

  17. Formulation and Assessment of a Wash-Primer Containing Lanthanum "Tannate" for Steel Temporary Protection (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Oriana; Selmi, Gonzalo J.; Deyá, Cecilia; Di Sarli, Alejandro; Romagnoli, Roberto


    Tannins are polyphenols synthesized by plants and useful for the coating industry as corrosion inhibitors. In addition, lanthanum salts have a great inhibitory effect on steel corrosion. The aim of this study was to obtain lanthanum "tannate" with adequate solubility to be incorporated as the corrosion inhibitor in a wash-primer. The "tannate" was obtained from commercial "Quebracho" tannin and 0.1 M La(NO3)3. The soluble tannin was determined by the Folin-Denis reagent, while the concentration of Lanthanum was obtained by a gravimetric procedure. The protective action of "tannate" on SAE 1010 steel was evaluated by linear polarization curves and corrosion potential measurements. Lanthanum "tannate" was incorporated in a wash-primer formulation and tested by corrosion potential and ionic resistance measurements. The corrosion rate was also determined by the polarization resistance technique. Besides, the primer was incorporated in an alkyd paint system and its anticorrosion performance assessed in the salt spray cabinet and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Results showed that lanthanum "tannate" primer inhibits the development of deleterious iron oxyhydroxides on the steel substrate and incorporated into a paint system had a similar behavior to the primer formulated with zinc tetroxychromate.

  18. Standard of Electrical Washing Machine for Household and Similar Purposes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jianguo


    Background With further improvement of people's living,the household washing machine industry has entered a new stage of development.However,some indicators of GB/T 4288-2003 have become no longer suitable for the development of household washing machine products at present.Particularly,with an increasing number of basic functions and auxiliary functions,many aspects are not covered by the existing standard.In order to further improve the overall quality of China's household washing machines and enhance their competitiveness in the international market,guide manufacturers to produce household washing machines in line with the demands of consumers and instruct consumers to properly purchase and use household washing machines,it is imperative to revise the GB/T 4288-2003 Household Electric Washing Machine.

  19. Salting-in and salting-out of water-soluble polymers in aqueous salt solutions. (United States)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Jahani, Farahnaz


    To obtain further experimental evidence for the mechanisms of the salting effect produced by the addition of salting-out or sating-in inducing electrolytes to aqueous solutions of water-soluble polymers, systematic studies on the vapor-liquid equilibria and liquid-liquid equilibria of aqueous solutions of several polymers are performed in the presence of a large series of electrolytes. Polymers are polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 250 (PEGDME250), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 2000 (PEGDME2000), and polypropylene glycol 400 (PPG400), and the investigated electrolytes are KCl, NH(4)Cl, MgCl(2), (CH(3))(4)NCl, NaCl, NaNO(3), Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit (tri-sodium citrate). Aqueous solutions of PPG400 form aqueous two-phase systems with all the investigated salts; however, other investigated polymers form aqueous two-phase systems only with Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit. A relation was found between the salting-out or sating-in effects of electrolyte on the polymer aqueous solutions and the slopes of the constant water activity lines of ternary polymer-salt aqueous solutions, so that, in the case of the salting-out effect, the constant water activity lines had a concave slope, but in the case of the salting-in effects, the constant water activity lines had a convex slope. The effect of temperature, anion of electrolyte, cation of electrolyte, and type and molar mass of polymers were studied and the results interpreted in terms of the solute-water and solute-solute interactions. The salting-out effect results from the formation of ion (specially anion)-water hydration complexes, which, in turn, decreases hydration, and hence, the solubility of the polymer and the salting-in effect results from a direct binding of the cations to the ether oxygens of the polymers.

  20. Factors affecting the bacteriological contamination of commercial washing machines. (United States)

    Legnani, P P; Leoni, E


    Wash water from self-service washing machines in three commercial launderettes of Bologna (Italy) were examined to verify which factors affect their bacterial contamination and to determine which procedures in the laundering process have the most significant effects on the removal of bacteria. Four washing formulas were compared: a delicates cycle (programmed temperature 25-30 degrees C; actual temperature: 28-31 degrees C); a whites cycle (programmed temperature: 80-90 degrees C; actual temperature: 50-57.5 degrees C); a delicates cycle with the addition of an oxygen-based bleach safe for delicate fabrics and a whites cycle with the addition of an oxygen-based bleach. Bacterial contamination of washing machines was higher in the launderette most heavely used, and, furthermore, it was in relation with the washing temperature and the use of bleaches. The low temperature laundering cycle (20-30 degrees C) did not guarantee elimination of bacterial content from either the inside of the washing machine or from the fabric being washed. Washing with water at a higher temperature, of about 55 degrees C, or adding an oxygen-based bleach to the low temperature cycle did ensure a significant reduction in bacterial recovery from water samples and fabrics, but did not prevent bacteria such as P. aeruginosa from surviving inside the washing machine. Only the addition of bleaches to the hot water program ensured the almost total elimination of bacteria and also guaranteed their elimination from protected parts of the drum.

  1. Landscape of WASH-relevant Training for Humanitarian Emergencies (United States)

    Dorea, Caetano


    Background: Both employed humanitarian personnel as well as those seeking to start a career as an aid worker are often provided with or seek training on the theme of humanitarian water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The objective of this study was to conduct a landscaping exercise of the available WASH-relevant training for humanitarian emergencies. Methods: An open internet search was performed with specific terms related to humanitarian WASH. Retained search results included those training opportunities (including past ones) that were themed around or with a mentioned relevance to humanitarian WASH. Results and Discussion: A total of 42 training courses relevant to humanitarian emergency WASH were retained. In addition to the more generic/introductory trainings, some provided thematic variations such as coordination of WASH responses, project management, risk reduction, information, education and communication (IEC), and complex emergencies. Timely topics such as urban WASH, Ebola, and WASH innovations were also observed indicating the responsiveness of the training providers to the changing needs of humanitarian WASH response programmes. This survey also revealed a large variety in terms of target audience, duration, fees, location, and language of courses. There was no centralised listing of courses available on the Internet. Limitations of this exercise were also discussed. PMID:26064781

  2. Three kinds of psychological determinants for hand-washing behaviour in Kenya. (United States)

    Aunger, Robert; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Ranpura, Ashish; Coombes, Yolande; Maina, Peninnah Mukiri; Matiko, Carol Nkatha; Curtis, Valerie


    Washing hands with soap at the right times - primarily after contact with faeces, but also before handling food or feeding an infant - can significantly reduce the incidence of childhood infectious disease. Here, we present empirical results which substantiate a recent claim that washing hands can be the consequence of different kinds of psychological causes. Such causes can be divided into three kinds of control over behaviour: automatic or habitual responses, motivated or goal-driven behaviour to satisfy needs, and cognitive causes which reflect conscious concerns. Empirical results are based on 3-h-long structured observations of hand-washing behaviour in 802 nationally representative Kenyan households with children under five, and structured interviews with the primary female caretaker in these households, collected in March 2007. Factor analysis of questionnaire responses identified three psychological factors which are also significant predictors of observed hand-washing behaviour: having the habit of hand-washing at particular junctures during the day, the motivated need for personal or household cleanliness, and a lack of cognitive concern about the cost of soap use. These factors each represent a different kind of psychological cause. A perceived link between clean hands and sexual attractiveness also appeared in the factor analysis, but was not a determinant of actual behaviour. We also report evidence that those who express concern about the cost of soap use are those with relatively few economic resources. We suggest that those developing hygiene promotion programmes should consider the possible existence of multiple types of strategies for increasing hand-washing behaviour. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bacterial flora of processed broiler chicken skin after successive washings in mixtures of potassium hydroxide and lauric acid. (United States)

    Hinton, Arthur; Cason, John A


    Changes in the size of populations of different groups of bacteria composing the normal flora of processed broiler skin were examined after each of five consecutive washings in mixtures of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and lauric acid (LA). Portions of skin from commercially processed broiler carcasses were washed in distilled water (control) or in mixtures of 0.25% KOH-0.5% LA or 0.5% KOH-1% LA by using a stomacher laboratory blender to agitate the skin in the solutions. After each wash, skin was transferred to fresh solutions, and washing was repeated to provide samples washed one to five times in each solution. Bacteria in rinsates of the washed skin were enumerated on plate count (PC) agar, Staphylococcus (STA) agar, Levine eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) agar, and Perfringens (PER) agar with TSC supplement. Selected isolates recovered on each medium were identified. Overall, no significant differences were observed in numbers of bacteria recovered on PC, STA, or EMB agars from skin after repeated washing in water, but there were significant reductions in the number of bacteria recovered on LAB and PER agars. Repeated washing of skin in 0.25% KOH-0.5% LA or 0.5% KOH-1% LA generally produced significant reductions in the number of bacteria recovered on all media. Furthermore, no bacteria were recovered on PER agar from skin washed five times in 0.25% KOH-0.5% LA. Likewise, no bacteria were recovered on EMB or LAB agars from skin washed three or more times in 0.5% KOH-1% LA or on PER agar from skin washed four or five times in this solution. Staphylococcus spp. were identified as the skin isolates with the highest degree of resistance to the bactericidal activity of KOH-LA. Findings indicate that although bacteria may be continually shed from poultry skin after repeated washings, bactericidal surfactants can be used to remove and kill several types of bacteria found on the surface of the skin of processed broilers.

  4. Lithium salts as "redox active" p-type dopants for organic semiconductors and their impact in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. (United States)

    Abate, Antonio; Leijtens, Tomas; Pathak, Sandeep; Teuscher, Joël; Avolio, Roberto; Errico, Maria E; Kirkpatrik, James; Ball, James M; Docampo, Pablo; McPherson, Ian; Snaith, Henry J


    Lithium salts have been shown to dramatically increase the conductivity in a broad range of polymeric and small molecule organic semiconductors (OSs). Here we demonstrate and identify the mechanism by which Li(+) p-dopes OSs in the presence of oxygen. After we established the lithium doping mechanism, we re-evaluate the role of lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide (Li-TFSI) in 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)9,9'-Spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) based solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSSCs). The doping mechanism consumes Li(+) during the device operation, which poses a problem, since the lithium salt is required at the dye-sensitized heterojunction to enhance charge generation. This compromise highlights that new additives are required to maximize the performance and the long-term stability of ss-DSSCs.

  5. Guidelines for the operation and maintenance of Alkazid-wash installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Alkazid wash process was a process of removing hydrogen sulfide and/or carbon dioxide impurities from gases by means of liquids (solutions of certain salts) which would absorb these impurities when cold and release them when hot. The process was carried out within a system using a closed circulation for the liquid (DIK solution or M solution) in which the liquid was cooled before being sprayed into a tower through the gas to be purified and then collected and heated with steam to drive off the impurities before being cooled again. Part of the heating and cooling was done by means of heat exchange with the liquid in the other part of the cycle. The report contained a schematic diagram for the process. The liquids were very corrosive toward aluminum in certain salt concentrations, so the solutions had to be kept below a density of 1.16 for DIK-solution and 1.17 for M-solution at 20/sup 0/C if the Alkazid installation had any apparatus made of aluminum. The report also contained some advice for maintaining and restoring apparatus exposed to such corrosion, as well as for helping to prevent corrosion by use of water-glass solutions. Solutions of mercury salts also attacked aluminum, so installations having aluminum apparatus had to avoid use of mercury thermometers or flow meters. The Alkazid wash solutions, especially when hot, had to be kept out of contact of air or oxygen-containing gases. Small quantities of dust in the apparatus could lead to formation of a sludge which would have to be filtered out of the solutions. 1 figure.

  6. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  7. Effects of salting-in interactions on macromolecule diffusiophoresis and salt osmotic diffusion. (United States)

    McAfee, Michele S; Annunziata, Onofrio


    Macromolecule diffusiophoresis (i.e., macromolecule migration induced by a salt concentration gradient) in water and salt osmotic diffusion (i.e., salt migration induced by a macromolecule concentration gradient) are two cross-diffusion mechanisms caused by macromolecule-salt interactions. We investigated the effect of salting-in interactions on the behavior of these two cross-diffusion mechanisms. Our results are distinct from those previously obtained in the case of salting-out interactions. Cross-diffusion was experimentally characterized by Rayleigh interferometry at 25 °C. Specifically, multicomponent diffusion coefficients were measured for a neutral polymer, polyethylene glycol (molar mass, 20 kg/mol), in aqueous solutions of three thiocyanate salts (NaSCN, KSCN, and NH₄SCN) as a function of salt concentration at low polymer concentration (0.5% w/w). Our results on salt osmotic diffusion, which were qualitatively different from those previously obtained for salting-out salts, were used to quantitatively characterize the strength of salting-in interactions. The behavior of polymer diffusiophoresis as a function of salt concentration and cation type reveals that polymer chains have an extrinsic negative charge, consistent with anion binding being the cause of salting-in interactions. To quantitatively examine the effect of anion binding on salt osmotic diffusion and polymer diffusiophoresis, we developed a theoretical model based on the linear laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics for diffusion, the Scatchard binding model, and particle electrophoresis. This work contributes to the understanding of the multifaceted effects of molecular interactions on cross-diffusion mechanisms, salting-in interactions, and the Hofmeister series.

  8. Unequivocal experimental evidence for a unified lithium salt-free Wittig reaction mechanism for all phosphonium Ylide types: reactions with β-heteroatom-substituted aldehydes are consistently selective for cis-oxaphosphetane-derived products. (United States)

    Byrne, Peter A; Gilheany, Declan G


    The true course of the lithium salt-free Wittig reaction has long been a contentious issue in organic chemistry. Herein we report an experimental effect that is common to the Wittig reactions of all of the three major phosphonium ylide classes (non-stabilized, semi-stabilized, and stabilized): there is consistently increased selectivity for cis-oxaphosphetane and its derived products (Z-alkene and erythro-β-hydroxyphosphonium salt) in reactions involving aldehydes bearing heteroatom substituents in the β-position. The effect operates with both benzaldehydes and aliphatic aldehydes and is shown not to operate in the absence of the heteroatom substituent on the aldehyde. The discovery of an effect that is common to reactions of all ylide types strongly argues for the operation of a common mechanism in all Li salt-free Wittig reactions. In addition, the results are shown to be most easily explained by the [2+2] cycloaddition mechanism proposed by Vedejs and co-workers as supplemented by Aggarwal, Harvey, and co-workers, thus providing strong confirmatory evidence in support of that mechanism. Notably, a cooperative effect of ortho-substituents in the case of semi-stabilized ylides is confirmed and is accommodated by the cycloaddition mechanism. The effect is also shown to operate in reactions of triphenylphosphine-derived ylides and has previously been observed for reactions under aqueous conditions, thus for the first time providing evidence that kinetic control is in operation in both of these cases.

  9. Hand Washing Practices amongst Doctors in A Tertiary Hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Washing hand with soap and water is said to be the single most important intervention against hospital acquired infections. This study aimed to explore perceptions, attitudes and hand washing practices amongst doctors in a tertiary institution in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. This was a descriptive cross sectional survey carried out ...

  10. Hand washing practices amongst medical students in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    org. 4. arvis WR. Handwashing the Semmelweis lesson forgotten? The Lancet 1994: 344: 1311 1312. 5. Teare L, Cookson B, French G, Gould D, Jenner E,. McCollough J, et al (Hand Washing liason group). Hand washing modest measure- big ...

  11. Evaluation of Water Consumption by Car Wash Facilities in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: Car wash can be defined as a facility used to clean the exterior and in some cases, the interior of motor vehicles. These facilities are common in Bauchi and other cities in Nigeria. They use water as a major input thereby causing serious challenges to water resources management. Car wash facilities in Bauchi ...

  12. Hand washing practices amongst medical students in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hand washing with soap and water is one of the most effective and inexpensive means of preventing infections. Rates of hand washing are low world wide even amongst health care workers who are should know about its importance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and hand ...

  13. Egg wash wastewater: Estrogenic risk or environmental asset? (United States)

    Commercial production of eggs and egg products requires the washing of eggs to remove urinary / fecal material and broken egg residue. In the case of one Ohio farming facility, 1.6 million birds produce 1.4 million eggs per day, using ~50mL of wash water / egg or ~ 70,000 liters per day. The aqueo...

  14. Assessment of knowledge of hand washing among health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nosocomial infections increase mortality and morbidity although adherence to simple hand washing procedures is suggested to reduce these. Purpose: To assess knowledge of hand washing among health care providers in Juba Teaching Hospital (JTH) in South Sudan and establish associations with ...

  15. Road dust emission sources and assessment of street washing effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanasiou, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Linares, C.; Boldo, E.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.


    Although previous studies report on the effect of street washing on ambient particulate matter levels, there is a lack of studies investigating the results of street washing on the emission strength of road dust. A sampling campaign was conducted in Madrid urban area during July 2009 where road dust

  16. Effects of shampoo and water washing on hair cortisol concentrations. (United States)

    Hamel, Amanda F; Meyer, Jerrold S; Henchey, Elizabeth; Dettmer, Amanda M; Suomi, Stephen J; Novak, Melinda A


    Measurement of cortisol in hair is an emerging biomarker for chronic stress in human and nonhuman primates. Currently unknown, however, is the extent of potential cortisol loss from hair that has been repeatedly exposed to shampoo and/or water. Pooled hair samples from 20 rhesus monkeys were subjected to five treatment conditions: 10, 20, or 30 shampoo washes, 20 water-only washes, or a no-wash control. For each wash, hair was exposed to a dilute shampoo solution or tap water for 45 s, rinsed 4 times with tap water, and rapidly dried. Samples were then processed for cortisol extraction and analysis using previously published methods. Hair cortisol levels were significantly reduced by washing, with an inverse relationship between number of shampoo washes and the cortisol concentration. This effect was mainly due to water exposure, as cortisol levels following 20 water-only washes were similar to those following 20 shampoo treatments. Repeated exposure to water with or without shampoo appears to leach cortisol from hair, yielding values that underestimate the amount of chronic hormone deposition within the shaft. Collecting samples proximal to the scalp and obtaining hair washing frequency data may be valuable when conducting human hair cortisol studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hand Washing Practices and Compliance among Health Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a wide disparity between knowledge and practice of hand washing as a way of reducing hospital-acquired infections. Some reasons given for failure to observe proper hand washing include; time wasting, skin irritation and unavailability of soap and water. In addition, we found that the most preferred method of ...

  18. Molten salt oxidation of organic hazardous waste with high salt content. (United States)

    Lin, Chengqian; Chi, Yong; Jin, Yuqi; Jiang, Xuguang; Buekens, Alfons; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Jian


    Organic hazardous waste often contains some salt, owing to the widespread use of alkali salts during industrial manufacturing processes. These salts cause complications during the treatment of this type of waste. Molten salt oxidation is a flameless, robust thermal process, with inherent capability of destroying the organic constituents of wastes, while retaining the inorganic ingredients in the molten salt. In the present study, molten salt oxidation is employed for treating a typical organic hazardous waste with a high content of alkali salts. The hazardous waste derives from the production of thiotriazinone. Molten salt oxidation experiments have been conducted using a lab-scale molten salt oxidation reactor, and the emissions of CO, NO, SO2, HCl and dioxins are studied. Impacts are investigated from the composition of the molten salts, the types of feeding tube, the temperature of molten carbonates and the air factor. Results show that the waste can be oxidised effectively in a molten salt bath. Temperature of molten carbonates plays the most important role. With the temperature rising from 600 °C to 750 °C, the oxidation efficiency increases from 91.1% to 98.3%. Compared with the temperature, air factor has but a minor effect, as well as the composition of the molten salts and the type of feeding tube. The molten carbonates retain chlorine with an efficiency higher than 99.9% and the emissions of dioxins are below 8 pg TEQ g-1 sample. The present study shows that molten salt oxidation is a promising alternative for the disposal of organic hazardous wastes containing a high salt content.

  19. Wave attenuation by salt marsh vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuik, V.; Jonkman, S.N.


    Salt marshes are a characteristic feature of estuaries and coastal seas. They are found in the upper coastal intertidal zones between land and water, which are regularly flooded by tides and surges. They are covered with salt-tolerant vegetation types, such as herbs and grasses. Sheltering from

  20. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  1. Car wash wastewater treatment and water reuse - a case study. (United States)

    Zaneti, R N; Etchepare, R; Rubio, J


    Recent features of a car wash wastewater reclamation system and results from a full-scale car wash wastewater treatment and recycling process are reported. This upcoming technology comprises a new flocculation-column flotation process, sand filtration, and a final chlorination. A water usage and savings audit (22 weeks) showed that almost 70% reclamation was possible, and fewer than 40 L of fresh water per wash were needed. Wastewater and reclaimed water were characterized by monitoring chemical, physicochemical and biological parameters. Results were discussed in terms of aesthetic quality (water clarification and odour), health (pathological) and chemical (corrosion and scaling) risks. A microbiological risk model was applied and the Escherichia coli proposed criterion for car wash reclaimed water is 200 CFU 100 mL(-1). It is believed that the discussions on car wash wastewater reclamation criteria may assist institutions to create laws in Brazil and elsewhere.

  2. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)


    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  3. Salmonella transfer during pilot plant scale washing and roller conveying of tomatoes. (United States)

    Wang, Haiqiang; Ryser, Elliot T


    Salmonella transfer during washing and roller conveying of inoculated tomatoes was quantified using a pilot scale tomato packing line equipped with plastic, foam, or brush rollers. Red round tomatoes (2.3 kg) were dip inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 (avirulent) (4 log CFU/g), air dried for 2 h, and then washed in sanitizer-free water for 2 min. Inoculated tomatoes were then passed single file over a 1.5-m conveyor equipped with plastic, foam, or brush rollers followed by 25 previously washed uninoculated tomatoes. Tomato samples were collected after 2 min of both washing and roller conveying, with all 25 uninoculated tomatoes collected individually after conveying. Roller surface samples were collected before and after conveying the uninoculated tomatoes. Both tomato and surface samples were quantitatively examined for Salmonella by direct plating or membrane filtration using xylose lysine Tergitol 4 agar. Regardless of the roller type, Salmonella populations on inoculated tomatoes did not significantly (P 100 CFU per tomato. With plastic rollers, 24 and 76% of tomatoes were cross-contaminated with Salmonella at 10 to 100 and 1 to 10 CFU per tomato, respectively. In contrast, only 8% of 25 tomatoes were cross-contaminated with brush rollers with Salmonella populations of 1 to 10 CFU per tomato. Overall, cross-contamination was greatest with foam, followed by plastic and brush rollers (P brush rollers.

  4. Washing the guilt away: Effects of personal versus vicarious cleansing on guilty feelings and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, H.; Bègue, L.; Bushman, B.J.


    For centuries people have washed away their guilt by washing their hands. Do people need to wash their own hands, or is it enough to watch other people wash their hands? To induce guilt, we had participants write about a past wrong they had committed. Next, they washed their hands, watched a

  5. Evaluation of the effectiveness of salt neutralizers for washing snow and ice equipment. (United States)


    In winter maintenance, the chloride-based deicers used to keep roadways clear of : snow and ice are highly corrosive to vehicles and equipment. Corrosion of snow and ice equipment : is a major issue causing increased maintenance and repair costs, red...

  6. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Chemistry in Evaluating the Origin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    This report evaluates the chemistry of seep water occurring in three desert drainages near Shiprock, New Mexico: Many Devils Wash, Salt Creek Wash, and Eagle Nest Arroyo. Through the use of geochemical plotting tools and multivariate statistical analysis techniques, analytical results of samples collected from the three drainages are compared with the groundwater chemistry at a former uranium mill in the Shiprock area (the Shiprock site), managed by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. The objective of this study was to determine, based on the water chemistry of the samples, if statistically significant patterns or groupings are apparent between the sample populations and, if so, whether there are any reasonable explanations for those groupings.

  7. Design and optimisation of purification procedure for biodiesel washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Glišić


    Full Text Available Almost complete methanolysis of triglycerides is usually not enough to fulfil the strict standards of biodiesel quality. A key step in this process is neutralization of alkali (catalyst followed by the washing procedure necessary for removing different impurities such as traces of catalyst and methanol and removal of soaps and glycerol from esters phase. The washing with hot water is still widely used in many industrial units for the biodiesel production. In this study, different procedures of biodiesel washing using hot water were investigated. The orto-phosphoric acid was suggested as the best compound for alkali catalyst (sodium hydroxide neutralization. The main goal of the performed analysis was to minimize the water usage in the washing-neutralization step during the biodiesel production. Such solution would make the process of biodiesel synthesis more economical taking into account the decrease of energy consumed for evaporation of water during the final product purification, as well as more acceptable procedure related to the impact on environment (minimal waste water release. Results of the performed simulation of the washing process supported by original experimental data suggested that neutralization after the optimized washing process of the methyl ester layer could be the best solution. The proposed washing procedure significantly decreases the amount of waste water giving at the same time the desired purity of final products (biodiesel and glycerol. The simulation of the process was performed using ASPEN plus software supported by ELCANTREL and UNIQUAC procedure of required properties calculation

  8. Hand washing frequencies and procedures used in retail food services. (United States)

    Strohbehn, Catherine; Sneed, Jeannie; Paez, Paola; Meyer, Janell


    Transmission of viruses, bacteria, and parasites to food by way of improperly washed hands is a major contributing factor in the spread of foodborne illnesses. Field observers have assessed compliance with hand washing regulations, yet few studies have included consideration of frequency and methods used by sectors of the food service industry or have included benchmarks for hand washing. Five 3-h observation periods of employee (n = 80) hand washing behaviors during menu production, service, and cleaning were conducted in 16 food service operations for a total of 240 h of direct observation. Four operations from each of four sectors of the retail food service industry participated in the study: assisted living for the elderly, childcare, restaurants, and schools. A validated observation form, based on 2005 Food Code guidelines, was used by two trained researchers. Researchers noted when hands should have been washed, when hands were washed, and how hands were washed. Overall compliance with Food Code recommendations for frequency during production, service, and cleaning phases ranged from 5% in restaurants to 33% in assisted living facilities. Procedural compliance rates also were low. Proposed benchmarks for the number of times hand washing should occur by each employee for each sector of food service during each phase of operation are seven times per hour for assisted living, nine times per hour for childcare, 29 times per hour for restaurants, and 11 times per hour for schools. These benchmarks are high, especially for restaurant employees. Implementation would mean lost productivity and potential for dermatitis; thus, active managerial control over work assignments is needed. These benchmarks can be used for training and to guide employee hand washing behaviors.

  9. Effects of soap-water wash on human epidermal penetration. (United States)

    Zhu, Hanjiang; Jung, Eui-Chang; Phuong, Christina; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard


    Skin decontamination is a primary interventional method used to decrease dermal absorption of hazardous contaminants, including chemical warfare agents, pesticides and industrial pollutants. Soap and water wash, the most common and readily available decontamination system, may enhance percutaneous absorption through the "wash-in effect." To understand better the effect of soap-water wash on percutaneous penetration, and provide insight to improving skin decontamination methods, in vitro human epidermal penetration rates of four C(14) -labeled model chemicals (hydroquinone, clonidine, benzoic acid and paraoxon) were assayed using flow-through diffusion cells. Stratum corneum (SC) absorption rates of these chemicals at various hydration levels (0-295% of the dry SC weights) were determined and compared with the results of the epidermal penetration study to clarify the effect of SC hydration on skin permeability. Results showed accelerated penetration curves of benzoic acid and paraoxon after surface wash at 30 min postdosing. Thirty minutes after washing (60 min postdosing), penetration rates of hydroquinone and benzoic acid decreased due to reduced amounts of chemical on the skin surface and in the SC. At the end of the experiment (90 min postdosing), a soap-water wash resulted in lower hydroquinone penetration, greater paraoxon penetration and similar levels of benzoic acid and clonidine penetration compared to penetration levels in the non-wash groups. The observed wash-in effect agrees with the enhancement effect of SC hydration on the SC chemical absorption rate. These results suggest SC hydration derived from surface wash to be one cause of the wash-in effect. Further, the occurrence of a wash-in effect is dependent on chemical identity and elapsed time between exposure and onset of decontamination. By reducing chemical residue quantity on skin surface and in the SC reservoir, the soap-water wash may decrease the total quantity of chemical absorbed in the

  10. Endotoxins in cotton: washing effects and size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olenchock, S.A.; Mull, J.C.; Jones, W.G.


    Endotoxin contamination was measured in washed and unwashed cottons from three distinct growing areas, California, Mississippi, and Texas. The data show differences in endotoxin contamination based upon the geographic source of the cotton. It is also shown that washing bulk cotton before the carding process results in lower endotoxin in the cotton dust. Washing conditions can affect the endotoxin levels, and all size fractions of the airborne dust contain quantifiable endotoxin contamination. Endotoxin analyses provide a simple and reliable method for monitoring the cleanliness of cotton or airborne cotton dusts.

  11. A new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3{beta}-HSD gene causes salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Sakkal-Alkaddour, S.; Chang, Ying T.; Yang, Xiaojiang; Songya Pang [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)


    We report a new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{Beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) gene in a Pakistanian female child with the salt-wasting form of 3{Beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The etiology for her congenital adrenal hyperplasia was not defined. Although the family history suggested possible 3{beta}-HSd deficiency disorder, suppressed adrenal function caused by excess glucocorticoid therapy in this child at 7 yr of age did not allow hormonal diagnosis. To confirm 3{beta}-HSD deficiency, we sequenced the type II 3{beta}-HSD gene in the patient, her family, and the parents of her deceased paternal cousins. The type II 3{beta}-HSD gene region of a putative promotor, exons I, II, III, and IV, and exon-intron boundaries were amplified by PCR and sequenced in all subjects. The DNA sequence of the child revealed a single nucleotide deletion at codon 318 [ACA(Thr){r_arrow}AA] in exon IV in one allele, and two nucleotide deletions at codon 273 [AAA(Lys){r_arrow}A] in exon IV in the other allele. The remaining gene sequences were normal. The codon 318 mutation was found in one allele from the father, brother, and parents of the deceased paternal cousins. The codon 273 mutation was found in one allele of the mother and a sister. These findings confirmed inherited 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the child caused by the compound heterozygous type II 3{beta}-HSD gene mutation. Both codons at codons 279 and 367, respectively, are predicted to result in an altered and truncated type II 3{beta}-HSD protein, thereby causing salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the patient. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.


    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A

  13. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension


    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan


    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivit...

  14. Design and Construction of a Live Insulator Washing System for Transformers


    Lizama-Cámara Y.A.; Mendieta-Antúnez J.A.; Blanco-Brisset E.; Olivares Galván J.C.; Escarela-Pérez R.


    Through the electrical industry history there have been developments of different cleaning methods to avoid the insulators flashovers due to pollution. This paper describes the principal cleaning methods applicable to transformers insulators, emphasizing the high pressure fixed-type live insulator washing method, which was applied for cleaning the insulators of 900 MVA transformer bank of the “Laguna Verde” power plant localized at the state of Veracruz in Mexico. We propose a transformer ins...

  15. Soil remediation: humic acids as natural surfactants in the washings of highly contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, Pellegrino [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy) and INCA Research Unit Napoli 2, Naples (Italy)]. E-mail:; Agretto, Anna [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); INCA Research Unit Napoli 2, Naples (Italy); Spaccini, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); INCA Research Unit Napoli 2, Naples (Italy); Piccolo, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); INCA Research Unit Napoli 2, Naples (Italy)


    The remediation of the highly contaminated site around the former chemical plant of ACNA (near Savona) in Northern Italy is a top priority in Italy. The aim of the present work was to contribute in finding innovative and environmental-friendly technology to remediate soils from the ACNA contaminated site. Two soils sampled from the ACNA site (A and B), differing in texture and amount and type of organic contaminants, were subjected to soil washings by comparing the removal efficiency of water, two synthetic surfactants, sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) and Triton X-100 (TX100), and a solution of a natural surfactant, a humic acid (HA) at its critical micelle concentration (CMC). The extraction of pollutants by sonication and soxhlet was conducted before and after the soil washings. Soil A was richer in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, whereas soil B had a larger content of thiophenes. Sonication resulted more analytically efficient in the fine-textured soil B. The coarse-textured soil A was extracted with a general equal efficiency also by soxhlet. Clean-up by water was unable to exhaustively remove contaminants from the two soils, whereas all the organic surfactants revealed very similar efficiencies (up to 90%) in the removal of the contaminants from the soils. Hence, the use of solutions of natural HAs appears as a better choice for soil washings of highly polluted soils due to their additional capacity to promote microbial activity, in contrast to synthetic surfactants, for a further natural attenuation in washed soils. - Solutions of natural humic acids appear to be a better choice for washing highly polluted soils.

  16. Cross contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 between lettuce and wash water during home-scale washing. (United States)

    Jensen, Dane A; Friedrich, Loretta M; Harris, Linda J; Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W


    Lettuce and leafy greens have been implicated in multiple foodborne disease outbreaks. This study quantifies cross contamination between lettuce pieces in a small-scale home environment. A five-strain cocktail of relevant Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains was used. Bacterial transfer between single inoculated lettuce leaf pieces to 10 non-inoculated lettuce leaf pieces that were washed in a stainless steel bowl of water for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, and 5 min was quantified. Regardless of washing time, the wash water became contaminated with 90-99% of bacteria originally present on the inoculated lettuce leaf piece. The E. coli O157:H7 concentration on initially inoculated leaf pieces was reduced ∼ 2 log CFU. Each initially uncontaminated lettuce leaf piece had ∼ 1% of the E. coli O157:H7 from the inoculated lettuce piece transferred to it after washing, with more transfer occurring during the shortest (30 s) and longest (5 min) wash times. In all cases the log percent transfer rates were essentially normally distributed. In all scenarios, most of the E. coli O157:H7 (90-99%) transferred from the inoculated lettuce pieces to the wash water. Washing with plain tap water reduces levels of E. coli O157:H7 on the inoculated lettuce leaf pieces, but also spreads contamination to previously uncontaminated leaf pieces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Low-salt diet (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  18. Cotton fabrics with UV blocking properties through metal salts deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emam, Hossam E., E-mail: [Textile Research Division, National Research Centre, El Buhouth St., Dokki, Cairo 12311 (Egypt); Research Institute of Textile Chemistry and Textile Physics, University of Innsbruck, Hoechsterstrasse 73, A-6850 Dornbirn (Austria); Bechtold, Thomas [Research Institute of Textile Chemistry and Textile Physics, University of Innsbruck, Hoechsterstrasse 73, A-6850 Dornbirn (Austria)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Introducing metal salt based UV-blocking properties into cotton fabric. • A quite simple technique used to produce wash resistant UV-absorbers using different Cu-, Zn- and Ti-salts. • Good UPF was obtained after treatment with Cu and Ti salts, and ranged between 11.6 and 14. • The efficiency of the deposited metal oxides is compared on molar basis. - Abstract: Exposure to sunlight is important for human health as this increases the resistance to diverse pathogens, but the higher doses cause skin problems and diseases. Hence, wearing of sunlight protective fabrics displays a good solution for people working in open atmosphere. The current study offered quite simple and technically feasible ways to prepare good UV protection fabrics based on cotton. Metal salts including Zn, Cu and Ti were immobilized into cotton and oxidized cotton fabrics by using pad-dry-cure technique. Metal contents on fabrics were determined by AAS; the highest metal content was recorded for Cu-fabric and it was 360.6 mmol/kg after treatment of oxidized cotton with 0.5 M of copper nitrate. Ti contents on fabrics were ranged between 168.0 and 200.8 mmol/kg and it showed the lowest release as only 38.1–46.4% leached out fabrics after five laundry washings. Metal containing deposits were specified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. UV-transmission radiation over treated fabrics was measured and ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) was calculated. UPF was enhanced after treatment with Cu and Ti salts to be 11.6 and 14, respectively. After five washings, the amount of metal (Cu or Ti) retained indicates acceptable laundering durability.

  19. Selective transport of ions and molecules across layer-by-layer assembled membranes of polyelectrolytes, p-sulfonato-calix[n]arenes and Prussian Blue-type complex salts. (United States)

    Tieke, Bernd; Toutianoush, Ali; Jin, Wanqin


    Our recent studies in the field of ultrathin membranes prepared upon layer-by-layer assembly of various polyionic compounds such as polyelectrolytes, calixarenes and polyelectrolytes, and metal hexacyanoferrate salts such as Prussian Blue are reviewed. It is demonstrated that polyelectrolyte multilayers can be used (a) as nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes suitable for water softening and seawater desalination and (b) as molecular sieves and ion sieves for size-selective separation of neutral and charged aromatic compounds. Furthermore, hybrid membranes of p-sulfonato-calixarenes and cationic polyelectrolytes showing specific host-guest interactions with permeating ions are described. The membranes exhibit high selectivities for distinct metal ions. Finally, it is demonstrated that purely inorganic membranes of Prussian Blue (PB) and analogues can be prepared upon multiple sequential adsorption of transition metal cations and hexacyanoferrate anions. Due to the porous lattice of PB, the membranes are useful as ion filters able to separate cesium from sodium ions, for example.

  20. Hygienic status assessment of dish washing waters, utensils, hands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hygienic status assessment of dish washing waters, utensils, hands and pieces of money from street food processing sites in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). N Barro, AR Bello, A Savadogo, CAT Ouattara, AJ Iiboudo, AS Traoré ...

  1. Appraisal of guidelines for pre-operative body wash. (United States)

    Edström, Elisabet; Westerberg, Lisa; Henricson, Maria

    The pre-operative body wash is a strategy for reducing post-operative infection. However, there is a lack of knowledge about its importance. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the quality of guidelines for the pre-operative body wash using the AGREE instrument--35 guidelines containing instructions for the pre-operative body wash or preparation were included. The AGREE instrument was employed to establish a quality assessment framework that facilitated a comparison of the guidelines. The results were based on the six domains of the AGREE instrument, all of which were found to have low adherence. Descriptive statistics were used to present the assessment score. The AGREE instrument is useful for evaluating the quality of clinical guidelines. The development of evidence-based guidelines must include clinical activities. Further research is required to clarify the pre-operative body wash process and how it should be performed to reduce post-operative infection.

  2. Little Puerco Wash-Catalpa Canyon Floodplain Management Study (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The City of Gallup requested the Soil Conservation Service, through the McKinley Soil and Water Conservation District, to conduct a study of the Little Puerco Wash...

  3. Hand Washing Practices Among Emergency Medical Services Providers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bucher, Joshua; Donovan, Colleen; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; McCoy, Jonathan


    Hand hygiene is an important component of infection control efforts. Our primary and secondary goals were to determine the reported rates of hand washing and stethoscope cleaning in emergency medical services (EMS...

  4. Emissions of microplastic fibers from microfiber fleece during domestic washing. (United States)

    Pirc, U; Vidmar, M; Mozer, A; Kržan, A


    Microplastics are found in marine and freshwater environments; however, their specific sources are not yet well understood. Understanding sources will be of key importance in efforts to reduce emissions into the environment. We examined the emissions of microfibers from domestic washing of a new microfiber polyester fleece textile. Analyzing released fibers collected with a 200 μm filter during 10 mild, successive washing cycles showed that emission initially decreased and then stabilized at approx. 0.0012 wt%. This value is our estimation for the long-term release of fibers during each washing. Use of detergent and softener did not significantly influence emission. Release of fibers during tumble drying was approx. 3.5 times higher than during washing.

  5. 7 CFR 2902.51 - Parts wash solutions. (United States)


    ... Items § 2902.51 Parts wash solutions. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to clean parts in..., cabinet washers, and ultrasonic cleaners. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product...

  6. Documentation of a decision framework to support enhanced sludge washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brothers, A.J.


    This document describes a proposed decision model that, if developed to its fullest, can provide a wide range of analysis options and insights to pretreatment/sludge washing alternatives. A recent decision has been made to terminate this work

  7. Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford tank sludge: Results of FY 1997 studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Burgeson, I.E.; Wagner, M.J.; Liu, J.; Chen, Y.L.


    The current plan for remediating the Hanford tank farms consists of waste retrieval, pretreatment, treatment (immobilization), and disposal. The tank wastes will be partitioned into high-level and low-level fractions. The HLW will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass matrix; the resulting glass canisters will then be disposed of in a geologic repository. Because of the expected high cost of HLW vitrification and geologic disposal, pretreatment processes will be implemented to reduce the volume of immobilized high-level waste (IHLW). Caustic leaching (sometimes referred to as enhanced sludge washing or ESW) represents the baseline method for pretreating Hanford tank sludges. Caustic leaching is expected to remove a large fraction of the Al, which is present in large quantities in Hanford tank sludges. A significant portion of the P is also expected to be removed from the sludge by metathesis of water-insoluble metal phosphates to insoluble hydroxides and soluble Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Similar metathesis reactions can occur for insoluble sulfate salts, allowing the removal of sulfate from the HLW stream. This report describes the sludge washing and caustic leaching tests performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 1996. The sludges used in this study were taken from Hanford tanks AN-104, BY-108, S-101, and S-111.

  8. Evaluation of four commercial automatic endoscope washing machines. (United States)

    Lynch, D A; Porter, C; Murphy, L; Axon, A T


    Four commercially available endoscope washing machines (Pyser System 83, Wolf Fiberscope Disinfector, Olympus EW20, Keymed Auto-Disinfector) were evaluated. In most cases the machines were expensive, immobile and noisy, and could only wash one endoscope per cycle. Daily use involved repetitive chores and contact with glutaraldehyde. Disinfection procedures were flawed; no machine auto-disinfected adequately. In conclusion, these machines are unsatisfactory and represent a potential source of serious infection.

  9. A Wash-Free Homogeneous Colorimetric Immunoassay Method


    Liu, Huiqiao; Rong, Pengfei; Jia, Hongwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Bo; Dong, Qiong; Yang, Cejun; Hu, Pengzhi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haitao; Liu, Dingbin


    Rapid and convenient biosensing platforms could be beneficial to timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases in virtually any care settings. Sandwich immunoassays, the most commonly used methods for protein detection, often rely on expensive tags such as enzyme and tedious wash and incubation procedures operated by skilled labor. In this report, we revolutionized traditional sandwich immunoassays by providing a wash-free homogeneous colorimetric immunoassay method without requirement of any se...

  10. Hand Washing Rituals in Trauma Theatre: Clean or Dirty? (United States)

    Hajipour, L; Longstaff, L; Cleeve, V; Brewster, N; Bint, D; Henman, P


    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of contamination of a surgeon's hand following use of chlorhexidine gluconate or alcohol gel as disinfectants. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this prospective, randomised trial, orthopaedic surgeons were allocated to one of two different hand-washing protocols using a randomisation table. The hand-washing protocol dictated that all surgeons should wash for 5 min with chlorhexidine for their first case. Thereafter, the surgeon was randomised to wash for 3 min with either alcohol gel or chlorhexidine. At the end of each procedure, the gloves of each surgeon were carefully removed and the fingertips from each hand were placed on an agar plate. The number of bacterial colonies present after 24 h and 48 h of incubation were recorded for each agar plate by a microbiologist blinded to the washing protocol used. RESULTS Overall, 41 procedures and 82 episodes of hand washings were included in the study. Two episodes were discarded due to contamination at the time of glove removal. Four hands (8%) were contaminated in the chlorhexidine group compared to 19 (34%) in the alcohol group. Fisher's exact test confirmed a significantly higher risk of contamination using alcohol gel compared to chlorhexidine (P = 0.002). In addition, the average bacterial colony count was substantially higher in the alcohol group (20 colony forming units) compared to the chlorhexidine group (5 colony forming units). There was no relationship between the duration of surgery and the degree of contamination (P = 1.12). CONCLUSIONS Alcohol gel disinfectant is not a suitable alternative to chlorhexidine when hand washing before surgery. This study has identified a higher risk of bacterial contamination of surgeons' hands washed with alcohol. This may lead to higher levels of postoperative infection in the event of glove perforation. PMID:16460630

  11. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth H. M. Temme


    Full Text Available Background and objectives. High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011–2016 and differences in estimated salt intake over a 10-year period (2006–2015. Methods. To assess the salt contents of foods; we obtained recent data from chemical analyses and from food labels. Salt content of these foods in 2016 was compared to salt contents in the 2011 version Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO, version 2011, and statistically tested with General Linear Models. To estimate the daily dietary salt intake in 2006, 2010, and 2015, men and women aged 19 to 70 years were recruited through random population sampling in Doetinchem, a small town located in a rural area in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The characteristics of the study population were in 2006: n = 317, mean age 49 years, 43% men, in 2010: n = 342, mean age 46 years, 45% men, and in 2015: n = 289, mean age 46 years, 47% men. Sodium and potassium excretion was measured in a single 24-h urine sample. All estimates were converted to a common metric: salt intake in grams per day by multiplication of sodium with a factor of 2.54. Results. In 2016 compared to 2011, the salt content in certain types of bread was on average 19 percent lower and certain types of sauce, soup, canned vegetables and legumes, and crisps had a 12 to 26 percent lower salt content. Salt content in other types of foods had not changed significantly. Between 2006, 2010 and 2015 the estimated salt intake among adults in Doetinchem remained unchanged. In 2015, the median estimated salt intake was 9.7 g per day for men and 7.4 g per day for women. As in 2006 and 2010, the estimated salt intake in 2015 exceeded the recommended maximum intake of 6 g per day set by the Dutch Health Council

  12. Washing machine related injuries in children: a continuing threat. (United States)

    Warner, B L; Kenney, B D; Rice, M


    To describe washing machine related injuries in children in the United States. Injury data for 496 washing machine related injuries documented by the Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System and death certificate data files were analyzed. Gender, age, diagnosis, body part injured, disposition, location and mechanism of injury were considered in the analysis of data. The upper extremities were most frequently injured in washing machine related injuries, especially with wringer machines. Fewer than 10% of patients required admission, but automatic washers accounted for most of these and for both of the deaths. Automatic washer injuries involved a wider range of injury mechanism, including 23 children who fell from the machines while in baby seats. Though most injuries associated with washing machines are minor, some are severe and devastating. Many of the injuries could be avoided with improvements in machine design while others suggest a need for increased education of potential dangers and better supervision of children if they are allowed access to areas where washing machines are operating. Furthermore, washing machines should only be used for their intended purpose. Given the limitations of educational efforts to prevent injuries, health professionals should have a major role in public education regarding these seemingly benign household appliances.

  13. Immunotoxicity of washing soda in a freshwater sponge of India. (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal


    The natural habitat of sponge, Eunapius carteri faces an ecotoxicological threat of contamination by washing soda, a common household cleaning agent of India. Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is reported to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Domestic effluent, drain water and various human activities in ponds and lakes have been identified as the major routes of washing soda contamination of water. Phagocytosis and generation of cytotoxic molecules are important immunological responses offered by the cells of sponges against environmental toxins and pathogens. Present study involves estimation of phagocytic response and generation of cytotoxic molecules like superoxide anion, nitric oxide and phenoloxidase in E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Sodium carbonate exposure resulted in a significant decrease in the phagocytic response of sponge cells under 4, 8, 16 mg/l of the toxin for 96h and all experimental concentrations of the toxin for 192h. Washing soda exposure yielded an initial increase in the generation of the superoxide anion and nitric oxide followed by a significant decrease in generation of these cytotoxic agents. Sponge cell generated a high degree of phenoloxidase activity under the experimental exposure of 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/l of sodium carbonate for 96 and 192 h. Washing soda induced alteration of phagocytic and cytotoxic responses of E. carteri was indicative to an undesirable shift in their immune status leading to the possible crises of survival and propagation of sponges in their natural habitat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.


    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  15. Salt resistant crop plants. (United States)

    Roy, Stuart J; Negrão, Sónia; Tester, Mark


    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker-assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. [Microbial contamination of wash water in automatic washing and disinfection machines]. (United States)

    Kolch, A; Krizek, L; Schoenen, D


    Samples were taken from the water containing tube system of 7 cleaning and disinfection machines located at the university clinics. The machines were used for the treatment of medical tools. The samples were bacteriologically examined. The results showed systemic contaminations of the tubes of all tested machines. The well known positive effect of common ion-exchangers on bacterial growth was not the only reason for the high degree of microbial contaminations. Partial bacterial growth on the inner sides of the water tubes was detected. The reason was the use of bacteriological objectionable tube materials. Recontamination of the post treated medical tools is possible at any time by the last washing water. Preceding sterile filtration showed as supposed no effect. Consequences for the use of cleaning and disinfection machines are discussed.

  17. A Systematic Review: Costing and Financing of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) in Schools. (United States)

    McGinnis, Shannon M; McKeon, Thomas; Desai, Richa; Ejelonu, Akudo; Laskowski, Stanley; Murphy, Heather M


    Despite the success of recent efforts to increase access to improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) globally, approximately one-third of schools around the world still lack adequate WASH services. A lack of WASH in schools can lead to the spread of preventable disease and increase school absences, especially among women. Inadequate financing and budgeting has been named as a key barrier for integrating successful and sustainable WASH programs into school settings. For this reason, the purpose of this review is to describe the current knowledge around the costs of WASH components as well as financing models that could be applied to WASH in schools. Results show a lack of information around WASH costing, particularly around software elements as well as a lack of data overall for WASH in school settings as compared to community WASH. This review also identifies several key considerations when designing WASH budgets or selecting financing mechanisms. Findings may be used to advise future WASH in school programs.

  18. Design and Construction of a Live Insulator Washing System for Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizama-Cámara Y.A.


    Full Text Available Through the electrical industry history there have been developments of different cleaning methods to avoid the insulators flashovers due to pollution. This paper describes the principal cleaning methods applicable to transformers insulators, emphasizing the high pressure fixed-type live insulator washing method, which was applied for cleaning the insulators of 900 MVA transformer bank of the “Laguna Verde” power plant localized at the state of Veracruz in Mexico. We propose a transformer insulator cleaning methodology, which identifies the main variables to take into account (the voltage level of the transformers, the pollution level of the insulators, determination of the optimal wash time, the amount of water, the optimal pressure of water jet, the maximum conductivity of the water and the wind velocity, reference values are given for these variables. In addition, we present an economic cost analysis when applying a method of this kind in an electric substation.

  19. Endosomal WASH and exocyst complexes control exocytosis of MT1-MMP at invadopodia. (United States)

    Monteiro, Pedro; Rossé, Carine; Castro-Castro, Antonio; Irondelle, Marie; Lagoutte, Emilie; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Desnos, Claire; Formstecher, Etienne; Darchen, François; Perrais, David; Gautreau, Alexis; Hertzog, Maud; Chavrier, Philippe


    Remodeling of the extracellular matrix by carcinoma cells during metastatic dissemination requires formation of actin-based protrusions of the plasma membrane called invadopodia, where the trans-membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) accumulates. Here, we describe an interaction between the exocyst complex and the endosomal Arp2/3 activator Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and Scar homolog (WASH) on MT1-MMP–containing late endosomes in invasive breast carcinoma cells. We found that WASH and exocyst are required for matrix degradation by an exocytic mechanism that involves tubular connections between MT1-MMP–positive late endosomes and the plasma membrane in contact with the matrix. This ensures focal delivery of MT1-MMP and supports pericellular matrix degradation and tumor cell invasion into different pathologically relevant matrix environments. Our data suggest a general mechanism used by tumor cells to breach the basement membrane and for invasive migration through fibrous collagen-enriched tissues surrounding the tumor.

  20. Biofilms isolated from washing machines from three continents and their tolerance to a standard detergent. (United States)

    Gattlen, Jasmin; Amberg, Caroline; Zinn, Manfred; Mauclaire, Laurie


    The goal of this comparative study was to investigate biofilm forming microorganisms living in washing machines (WMs). Biofilms were sampled from 11 washing machines from four countries and three continents. Among the 94 isolated strains, 30% were potential human pathogens. Representative strains were selected and biofilm formation was evaluated with the crystal violet (CV) assay. The majority of the WM isolates formed more biofilm than their reference strains. Biofilms of P. putida WM (the largest biofilm producer) were exposed to different concentrations (0.0007-7 g l(-1)) of the standard detergent IEC-A* at 30°C for 30 min and observed with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Using quantitative CVA, P. putida WM biofilm removal required higher detergent concentrations than the type strain. However, for both strains the recommended detergent concentration (7 g l(-1)) was insufficient to completely clean surfaces from cell debris and exopolymeric substances.

  1. Washing technology development for gravel contaminated with uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Uk Ryang; Kim, Gye Nam; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Wan Suk; Moon, Jai Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The soil washing method has a short decontamination time and is economical. In addition, methods including phytoremediation, solidification/stabilization and bioremediation exist. Phytoremediation and bioremediation are economical, but have low remedial efficiency. In addition, bioremediation causes washing wastewater because it requires a washing process for the separation of microorganisms from the soils. In addition, solidification/stabilization is a commonly used methods, but eventually increases the volume of wastes. As mentioned above, many researches involved in the decontamination of radioactively contaminated soils have been actively processed. On the other hand, researches for decontaminating radioactively contaminated gravels are not being currently processed. In this study, we performed basic experiments using decontamination methods to decontaminate radioactively contaminated gravel. First, we measured the concentration of uranium in gravel included in uranium-contaminated soils and performed a washing experiment to monitor the tendency of uranium removal. In addition, when managing gravel with a low uranium-decontamination rate, we tried to satisfy the radioactivity concentration criteria for self-disposal in the wastes (0.4Bq/g or less) by performing a washing experiment after only a physical crushing process. We performed washing experiments to satisfy the radioactivity concentration criteria for self-disposal (0.4 Bq/g or less) in gravel included in radioactively contaminated soil. We performed washing experiments for gravel whose initial average concentration of uranium was 1.3Bq/g. In addition, the average concentration of uranium was 0.8Bq/g. Too increase the decontamination rate, we crushed the gravel with a jaw crusher and performed the washing experiments. The results were similar to the results without crushing. In addition, it was determined that the smaller the size of the gravel particles, the more efficient the uranium decontamination

  2. The variability of reported salt levels in fast foods across six countries: opportunities for salt reduction. (United States)

    Dunford, Elizabeth; Webster, Jacqueline; Woodward, Mark; Czernichow, Sebastien; Yuan, Wen Lun; Jenner, Katharine; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jacobson, Michael; Campbell, Norm; Neal, Bruce


    Several fast food companies have made commitments to reduce the levels of salt in the foods they serve, but technical issues are often cited as a barrier to achieving substantial reductions. Our objective was to examine the reported salt levels for products offered by leading multinational fast food chains. Data on salt content for products served by six fast food chains operating in Australia, Canada, France, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States were collected by survey in April 2010. Mean salt contents (and their ranges) were calculated and compared within and between countries and companies. We saw substantial variation in the mean salt content for different categories of products. For example, the salads we included in our survey contained 0.5 g of salt per 100 g, whereas the chicken products we included contained 1.6 g. We also saw variability between countries: chicken products from the UK contained 1.1 g of salt per 100 g, whereas chicken products from the US contained 1.8 g. Furthermore, the mean salt content of food categories varied between companies and between the same products in different countries (e.g., McDonald's Chicken McNuggets contain 0.6 g of salt per 100 g in the UK, but 1.6 g of salt per 100 g in the US). The salt content of fast foods varies substantially, not only by type of food, but by company and country in which the food is produced. Although the reasons for this variation are not clear, the marked differences in salt content of very similar products suggest that technical reasons are not a primary explanation. In the right regulatory environment, it is likely that fast food companies could substantially reduce the salt in their products, translating to large gains for population health.

  3. How Anionic Vesicles Steer the Oligomerization of Enzymatically Oxidized p-Aminodiphenylamine (PADPA) toward a Polyaniline Emeraldine Salt (PANI-ES)-Type Product. (United States)

    Luginbühl, Sandra; Bertschi, Louis; Willeke, Martin; Schuler, Lukas D; Walde, Peter


    The oxidation of the aniline dimer, p-aminodiphenylamine (PADPA), with Trametes versicolor laccase and O2 in an aqueous solution of pH 3.5 is controlled by negatively charged AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate) vesicles. With vesicles, a product resembling polyaniline in its emeraldine salt form (PANI-ES) is obtained, in contrast to the reaction without vesicles where no such product is formed. To understand this observation, the product distribution and structures from the reaction with and without vesicles were determined by using partially selectively deuterated PADPA as a starting material and analyzing the products with HPLC-MS. We found that in the presence of vesicles the main product is obtained in about 50% yield, which is the N-C-para-coupled PADPA dimer that has spectroscopic properties of PANI-ES, as determined by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations. A secondary reaction route leads to longer PADPA oligomers that must contain a phenazine core. Without vesicles, PADPA and its products undergo partial hydrolysis, but in the presence of vesicles, hydrolysis does not occur. Because molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that the main intermediate oxidation product is embedded within the vesicle membrane, where the water content is very low, we propose that the microenvironment of the vesicle membrane protects the oxidation products from unwanted hydrolysis.

  4. Hand washing induces a clean slate effect in moral judgments: a pupillometry and eye-tracking study. (United States)

    Kaspar, Kai; Krapp, Vanessa; König, Peter


    Physical cleansing is commonly understood to protect us against physical contamination. However, recent studies showed additional effects on moral judgments. Under the heading of the "Macbeth effect" direct links between bodily cleansing and one's own moral purity have been demonstrated. Here we investigate (1) how moral judgments develop over time and how they are altered by hand washing, (2) whether changes in moral judgments can be explained by altered information sampling from the environment, and (3) whether hand washing affects emotional arousal. Using a pre-post control group design, we found that morality ratings of morally good and bad scenes acquired more extreme values in the control group over time, an effect that was fully counteracted by intermediate hand washing. This result supports the notion of a clean slate effect by hand washing. Thereby, eye-tracking data did not uncover differences in eye movement behavior that may explain differences in moral judgments. Thus, the clean slate effect is not due to altered information sampling from the environment. Finally, compared to the control group, pupil diameter decreased after hand washing, thus demonstrating a direct physiological effect. The results shed light on the physiological mechanisms behind this type of embodiment phenomenon.

  5. Salt works and their impact on soil and groundwater. The cases of Anghelohori and Kitros, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christodoulos Angelopoulos


    Full Text Available Contamination of soil and groundwater caused to salt works occurs due to infiltration of a part of seawater from the lakes of salt works through the soil and into phreatic aquifers and from there percolating to artesian aquifers. In the same time, while salt remaining in place is washed out by rain, contaminating soil and both phreatic and artesian aquifers. In the areas of Angelohori and Kitros this contamination of soil has been detected through chemical analysis while groundwater contamination has been suggested through pressure level contours.

  6. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin


    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  7. Electricity generation using molten salt technology


    Osarinmwian, Charles


    The anodic release of carbon dioxide gas in the molten salt Hall-Heroult process can be used to power a turbine for electricity generation. The application of this new concept in molten salt reprocessing in the nuclear industry is considered because it could facilitate the suitability of carbon dioxide cycles to certain types of nuclear reactor. The theoretical power of 27.8 MW generated by a molten salt Hall-Heroult reactor is comparable with a next-generation biomass plant that sources low-...

  8. Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.


    A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a ``Late Wash` facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

  9. The potential impact of washing machines on laundry malodour generation. (United States)

    Stapleton, K; Hill, K; Day, K; Perry, J D; Dean, J R


    A multidisciplinary approach has been adopted to investigate and identify the source of malodour in washing machines and the potential for cross-contamination of laundry. Four washing machines were olfactively graded, and the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) bacteria was determined in four specific locations. Then, samples of terry-towel and fleece were washed, without the use of detergent, in the machines, and the occurrence of malodour over a 52-h period was assessed. Analysis of the scrapings from the four locations in the two malodorous machines identified a plethora of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by either olfactory detection or mass spectral identification post-gas chromatographic separation. In addition, microbiological analysis from the swabs from the four locations within all four washing machines was carried out. Quantitative analysis of VOCs from 66 microbiological isolates from either the washing machines or fabrics was carried out. In total, 10 VOCs were identified: dimethyl disulfide, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2,4-dithiapentane, dimethyl trisulfide, 2-tridecanone, indole, 2-phenylethanol, isovaleric acid, isobutyric acid and 1-undecene. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Consumers' Risk Perception of Household Cleaning and Washing Products. (United States)

    Bearth, Angela; Miesler, Linda; Siegrist, Michael


    A large share of accidental and nonaccidental poisonings are caused by household cleaning and washing products, such as drain cleaner or laundry detergent. The main goal of this article was to investigate consumers' risk perception and misconceptions of a variety of cleaning and washing products in order to inform future risk communication efforts. For this, a sorting task including 33 commonly available household cleaning and washing products was implemented. A total of 60 female consumers were asked to place the cleaning and washing products on a reference line 3 m in length with the poles "dangerous" and "not dangerous." The gathered data were analyzed qualitatively and by means of multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, and linear regression. The dimensionality of the sorting data suggests that both analytically (i.e., written and graphical hazard notes and perceived effectiveness) and intuitively driven risk judgments (i.e., eco vs. regular products) were applied by the participants. Furthermore, results suggest the presence of misconceptions, particularly related to consumers' perceptions of eco cleaning products, which were generally regarded as safer than their regular counterparts. Future risk communication should aim at dispelling these misconceptions and promoting accurate risk perceptions of particular household cleaning and washing products. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Screening of SDS-degrading bacteria from car wash wastewater and study of the alkylsulfatase enzyme activity. (United States)

    Shahbazi, Razieh; Kasra-Kermanshahi, Roha; Gharavi, Sara; Moosavi-Nejad, Zahra; Borzooee, Faezeh


    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is one of the main surfactant components in detergents and cosmetics, used in high amounts as a detergent in products such as shampoos, car wash soap and toothpaste. Therefore, its bioremediation by suitable microorganisms is important. Alkylsulfatase is an enzyme that hydrolyses sulfate -ester bonds to give inorganic sulfate and alcohol. The purpose of this study was to isolate SDS-degrading bacteria from Tehran city car wash wastewater, study bacterial alkylsulfatase enzyme activity and identify the alkylsulfatase enzyme coding gene. Screening of SDS-degrading bacteria was carried out on basal salt medium containing SDS as the sole source of carbon. Amount of SDS degraded was assayed by methylene blue active substance (MBAS). Identification of the sdsA gene was carried by PCR and subsequent sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene and biochemical tests identified Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacterium is able to degrade 84% of SDS after four days incubation. Bacteria isolated from car wash wastewater were shown to carry the sdsA gene (670bp) and the alkylsulfatase enzyme specific activity expressed from this gene was determined to be 24.3 unit/mg. The results presented in this research indicate that Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a suitable candidate for SDS biodegradation.

  12. Role of macromolecules in the safety of use of body wash cosmetics. (United States)

    Bujak, Tomasz; Wasilewski, Tomasz; Nizioł-Łukaszewska, Zofia


    One of the most challenging problems related to the use of surfactants in body wash cosmetics is their potential to cause skin irritations. Surfactants can bind with proteins, remove lipids from the epidermal surface, contribute to the disorganization of liquid crystal structures in the intercellular lipids, and interact with living skin cells. These processes can lead to skin irritations and allergic reactions, and impair the epidermal barrier function. The present study is an attempt to assess the effect of polymers and hydrolysed proteins present in the formulations of model body wash cosmetics on product properties. Special attention was given to the safety of use of this product type. The study examined three macromolecules: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), hydrolysed wheat protein (HWP) and polyvinylpyrrolidone/hydrolysed wheat protein crosspolymer (PVP/HWP). The addition of the substances under study was found to improve the foaming properties of body wash cosmetics, increase their stability during storage, and contribute significantly to an improvement in the safety of product use by reducing the irritant potential. The strongest ability to reduce the skin irritation potential was determined for the formula enriched with the PVP/HWP crosspolymer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reducing the Salt Added to Takeaway Food: Within-Subjects Comparison of Salt Delivered by Five and 17 Holed Salt Shakers in Controlled Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Goffe

    Full Text Available To determine if the amount of salt delivered by standard salt shakers commonly used in English independent takeaways varies between those with five and 17 holes; and to determine if any differences are robust to variations in: the amount of salt in the shaker, the length of time spent shaking, and the person serving.Four laboratory experiments comparing the amount of salt delivered by shakers. Independent variables considered were: type of shaker used (five or 17 holes, amount of salt in the shaker before shaking commences (shaker full, half full or nearly empty, time spent shaking (3s, 5s or 10s, and individual serving.Controlled, laboratory, conditions.A quota-based convenience sample of 10 participants (five women aged 18-59 years.Amount of salt delivered by salt shakers.Across all trials, the 17 holed shaker delivered a mean (SD of 7.86g (4.54 per trial, whilst the five holed shaker delivered 2.65g (1.22. The five holed shaker delivered a mean of 33.7% of the salt of the 17 holed shaker. There was a significant difference in salt delivered between the five and 17 holed salt shakers when time spent shaking, amount of salt in the shaker and participant were all kept constant (p<0.001. This difference was robust to variations in the starting weight of shakers, time spent shaking and participant shaking (pssalt shakers have the potential to reduce the salt content of takeaway food, and particularly food from Fish & Chip shops, where these shakers are particularly used. Further research will be required to determine the effects of this intervention on customers' salt intake with takeaway food and on total dietary salt intake.

  14. Design, development and demonstration of an improved bird washing machine. (United States)

    Rajabi, H; Monsef, H; Moghadami, M; Zare, M; Armandei, A


    Since oil was first extracted, pollution of the seas and oceans or adjacent coasts has been an obstacle for the oil industry and environmental activists. The major concern is oil discharge into the water which may lead to birds' affliction or death, besides putting marine life in jeopardy. This paper presents the first description of the design and implementation of a new bird washing machine that can be utilized for cleaning of oil-coated birds with the minimum of stress. The machine is equipped with a pneumatic system comprised of 19 moving nozzles which evenly cover the bird's body and is designed to be used in contaminated environments where a vast number of birds are affected. Experimental trials show an improvement in operation efficiency compared to other methods in a reduction in washing time, energy consumption and a decrease in fatality rate of washed birds.

  15. Increasing hand washing compliance with a simple visual cue. (United States)

    Ford, Eric W; Boyer, Brian T; Menachemi, Nir; Huerta, Timothy R


    We tested the efficacy of a simple, visual cue to increase hand washing with soap and water. Automated towel dispensers in 8 public bathrooms were set to present a towel either with or without activation by users. We set the 2 modes to operate alternately for 10 weeks. Wireless sensors were used to record entry into bathrooms. Towel and soap consumption rates were checked weekly. There were 97,351 hand-washing opportunities across all restrooms. Towel use was 22.6% higher (P=.05) and soap use was 13.3% higher (P=.003) when the dispenser presented the towel without user activation than when activation was required. Results showed that a visual cue can increase hand-washing compliance in public facilities.

  16. Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford Tank C-106 sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Hoopes, F.V.; Steele, R.T.


    This report describes the results of a laboratory-scale washing and caustic leaching test performed on sludge from Hanford Tank C-106. The purpose of this test was to determine the behavior of important sludge components when subjected to washing with dilute or concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions. The results of this laboratory-scale test were used to support the design of a bench-scale washing and leaching process used to prepare several hundred grams of high-level waste solids for vitrification tests to be done by private contractors. The laboratory-scale test was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1996 as part of the Hanford privatization effort. The work was funded by the US Department of Energy through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS; EM-30).

  17. Facial skin physiology recovery kinetics during 180 min post-washing with a cleanser. (United States)

    Eo, J; Seo, Y K; Baek, J H; Choi, A R; Shin, M K; Koh, J S


    Facial cleansing is important to clean and exfoliate the skin while maintaining optimal physiologic function. However, there is insufficient data on the very early stage of skin change after applying soap or cleansing foam. We investigated the recovery kinetics of facial skin physiology during 180 min after exposure to the cleanser. For the study, 22 Korean female subjects with normal and dry to oily skin type were recruited in this study. Study subjects were required to have face washing done within the 12 hours prior to visiting the research center, with only toner, lotion, or cream applied. The next day, the subjects visited the research center without face washing. We evaluated the skin hydration (Corneometer(®) CM 825), sebum (Sebumeter(®) SM 815), transepidermal water loss (Tewameter(®) TM 300), and pH (Skin-pH-Meter(®) PH 905) to define recovery kinetics of facial skin physiology during 180 min exposure post-cleansing. Skin hydration, sebum, and TEWL were significantly decreased at 20 min after washing, as compared to the baseline (P < 0.05). And skin hydration returned at 40 min, and skin sebum and TEWL returned at 120 min after washing. However, skin pH did not show significant differences at all times points. This study indicated that each of the skin parameters was restored at defined time points post-cleansing. Our result could be a useful reference to set the resting time in the estimation of skin bioengineering parameters. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Release of titanium dioxide from textiles during washing. (United States)

    Windler, L; Lorenz, C; von Goetz, N; Hungerbühler, K; Amberg, M; Heuberger, M; Nowack, B


    Nano-TiO(2) has the highest production of all nanomaterials, and pigment-TiO(2) is a commodity used on the million tons/year scale. Information on the release of TiO(2) from consumer products is therefore an important part of analyzing the potential environmental exposure to TiO(2). For this study, we investigated the release of TiO(2) from six different functional textiles during washing. TiO(2) is used in textiles because of its UV-absorbing properties and as pigment. Analysis of fiber cross sections showed that the TiO(2) was contained in the fiber matrix. The sun-protection textiles had Ultraviolet Protection Factors that were between 58 and 6100 after washing and therefore above the labeled factor of 50+. Five of the textiles (sun-protection clothes) released low amounts of Ti (0.01 to 0.06 wt % of total Ti) in one wash cycle. One textile (with antimicrobial functionality) released much higher amounts of Ti (5 mg/L, corresponding to 3.4 wt % of total Ti in one wash cycle). Size fractionation showed that about equal amounts were released as particles below and above 0.45 μm. After 10 washings, only in two textiles significantly lower Ti contents were measured. Electron microscopy showed that the TiO(2) particles released into washing solution had a roundish appearance with primary particle sizes between 60 and 350 nm that formed small aggregates with up to 20 particles. The results indicate that functional textiles release some TiO(2) particles, but that the amounts are relatively low and mostly not in the nanoparticulate range.

  19. Characterization of wastewaters from vehicle washing companies and environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite


    Full Text Available The car wash business has developed rapidly in recent years due to the increased number of cars, thus, it can cause serious environmental problems considering its potential source of pollution. The aim of this study was to characterize the wastewater from car washing companies in the city of Campina Grande, in Paraiba state, and to analyze the environmental impacts generated. A survey was conducted from November 2009 to July 2010. The first step we present a survey of car wash businesses in the city, and identified 20 licensed companies in which we evaluated the number of vehicles washed per week, the existence of a system of pre-treatment of wastewater generated and infrastructure that would allow the realization of the collection of samples of the effluent, the second step was carried out chemical and physical characterization of wastewater from five 20 companies surveyed in the previous step, and third stage were measured pollution loads of wastewater from washing of vehicles in the city, from the results obtained in previous steps. The characterization parameters were analyzed: oil and grease, COD, heavy metals, TS, TSS, turbidity, TKN, total P, pH and color. The results demonstrated that the wastewater from the car wash establishments shows high concentrations of organic matter, oils and grease, heavy metals and solids, and as such did not conform with the specific environmental legislation. Evaluation of pollutant loads demonstrated that if releases without proper treatment, it can cause serious environmental problems. It is therefore essential that these establishments are properly monitored.

  20. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.


    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing.

  1. Bile salt-stimulated lipase from human milk binds DC-SIGN and inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transfer to CD4+ T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naarding, Marloes A.; Dirac, Annette M.; Ludwig, Irene S.; Speijer, Dave; Lindquist, Susanne; Vestman, Eva-Lotta; Stax, Martijn J.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; Pollakis, Georgios; Hernell, Olle; Paxton, William A.


    A wide range of pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), hepatitis C virus, Ebola virus, cytomegalovirus, dengue virus, Mycobacterium, Leishmania, and Helicobacter pylori, can interact with dendritic cell (DC)-specific ICAM3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), expressed on DCs

  2. Anomalous role for dietary salt in diabetes mellitus?


    Vallon, V; Thomson, SC


    Prevailing guidelines advocate a low-salt diet to mitigate progression of kidney and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, two recent cohort studies in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus associate lower salt intake with increased rates of end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality.

  3. Bio-desulfurization and denitrification by anaerobic-anoxic process for the treatment of wastewater from flue gas washing. (United States)

    Song, Ziyu; Zhou, Xuemei; Li, Yuguang; Yang, Maohua; Xing, Jianmin


    For amine-based carbon dioxide capture, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides were the main pollutants that had a negative effect on the regeneration of solvent. Before carbon dioxide capture, the sulfur oxides in flue gas should be removed by the method of calcium salt, and then washed by alkaline solution to eliminate the residual nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The washing wastewater containing sulfate and nitrate needs to be treated. In this study, a novel anaerobic-anoxic process was built up for the treatment of this washing wastewater. Nitrate was reduced to nitrogen by denitrifying bacteria. Sulfate was firstly reduced to sulfide by sulfate reducing bacteria, and then selectively oxidized to element sulfur by sulfide oxidizing bacteria. The treated liquid could be reused as absorption after the adjustment of pH value. The performances of this bioprocess were investigated under various pH values and S/N ratios. It was found that the optimal pH value of influent was 6.0, the percentages of denitrification and sulfate reducing could reach 90 and 89%, respectively. Seventy-six percent of sulfate was transformed into element sulfur. Nitrate significantly had a negative effect on sulfate reduction above 10 mM. As 20 mM nitrate, the sulfate reducing percentage would drop to 67%. These results showed that the anaerobic-anoxic process was feasible for the treatment of flue gas washing wastewater. It would be prospectively applied to other wastewater with the higher ratio of SO4(2-)/NO3(-).

  4. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N


    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  5. SALT for Language Acquisition. (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane


    Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

  6. Resedimented salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaczka, A.; Kolasa, K. (Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland))


    Carparthian foredeep's Wieliczka salt mine, unique gravity deposits were lately distinguished. They are mainly built of salt particles and blocks with a small admixture of fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks, deposited on precipitated salt. The pattern of sediment distribution is similar to a submarine fan. Gravels are dominant in the upper part and sands in lower levels, creating a series of lobes. Coarse-grained deposits are represented by disorganized, self-supported conglomerates passing into matrix-supported ones, locally with gradation, and pebbly sandstones consisting of salt grains and scattered boulder-size clasts. The latter may show in the upper part of a single bed as indistinct cross-bedding and parallel lamination. These sediments are interpreted as debris-flow and high-density turbidity current deposits. Salt sandstones (saltstones) which build a lower part of the fan often show Bouma sequences and are interpreted as turbidity-current deposits. The fan deposits are covered by a thick series of debrites (olistostromes) which consist of clay matrix with salt grains and boulders. The latter as represented by huge (up to 100,000 m{sup 3}) salt blocks, fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks. These salt debrites represent slumps and debris-flow deposits. The material for resedimented deposits was derived from the southern part of the salt basin and from the adjacent, advancing Carpathian orogen. The authors believe the distinct coarsening-upward sequence of the series is the result of progressive intensification of tectonic movements with paroxysm during the sedimentation of salt debrites (about 15 Ma).

  7. Partitioning and analyzing temporal variability of wash and bed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 7. Partitioning and analyzing temporal variability of wash and bed material loads in a forest watershed in Iran ... Keywords. Laser particle size distribution; sand and gravel mining; sediment dynamic; suspended sediment; watershed management.

  8. Freeze concentration of proteins in Antarctic krill wash water (United States)

    Qi, Xiangming; Xu, Jing; Zhao, Kuo; Guo, Hui; Ma, Lei


    Water-washing removes fluoride from Antarctic krill but produces large volumes of wash water containing water- soluble proteins and fluoride. The freeze concentration method was tested to determine if it could be used to recover water-soluble proteins while leaving the fluoride in solution. After freezing and thawing the wash water, protein and fluoride contents of the thawed fractions were determined to explore the melting regularity of components in the wash water. The highest concentration factors of protein and fluoride were obtained after 80 min of thawing, such as 1.48 ± 0.06 and 1.35 ± 0.04 times, respectively. The free amino-nitrogen (FAN) content and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis pattern results revealed that the highest concentrations of all ingredients were obtained after 80 min of the process. The degree of hydrolysis of all fractions from the thawing process fluctuated in a narrow range around 12% during the entire process, indicating that the thawing order did not change with various proteins or time during the entire thawing course. These results demonstrate that the freeze concentration method can be used to concentrate protein solutions, even those with fluoride. It was concluded that condensation was achieved and no ingredient could be separated, regardless of fluoride, amino acids, or different proteins in the water.

  9. Identification of Enterobacteriaceae from washed and unwashed commercial shell eggs. (United States)

    Musgrove, Michael T; Jones, Deana R; Northcutt, Julie K; Cox, Nelson A; Harrison, Mark A


    To evaluate the effect of processing on the safety and quality of retail shell eggs, a storage study was conducted with unwashed and commercially washed eggs. This work demonstrated that commercial processing decreased microbial contamination of eggshells. To know which species persisted during storage on washed or unwashed eggs, Enterobacteriaceae isolates were selected and identified biochemically. For each of three replications, shell eggs were purchased from a commercial processing plant, transported back to the laboratory, and stored at 4 degrees C. Once a week for 6 weeks, 12 eggs for each treatment (washed and unwashed control) were rinsed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. A 1-ml aliquot of each sample was plated onto violet red bile glucose agar with overlay and incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Following incubation, plates were observed for colonies characteristic of the family Enterobacteriaceae. A maximum of 10 isolates per positive sample were streaked for isolation before being identified to the genus or species level using commercially available biochemical strips. Although most of the isolates from the unwashed control eggs belonged to the genera Escherichia or Enterobacter, many other genera and species were identified. These included Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Kluyvera, Pantoea, Providencia, Rahnella, Salmonella, Serratia, and Yersinia. Non-Enterobacteriaceae also recovered from the unwashed egg samples included Xanthomonas and Flavimonas. Very few washed egg samples were contaminated with any of these bacteria. These data provide useful information on the effectiveness of processing in removing microorganisms from commercial shell eggs.

  10. Design and Construction of a Computer Controlled Clothes Washing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work we develop a computer software for controlling the operations of a domestic clothes washing machine. The valves, pump, electric motor and other sensitive parts were computer-controlled. In the design, the mechanical timer's function were replaced by a software driven emulator which then controls components ...

  11. ignas semmelweis: the doctor who championed hand -washing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for the high contrasting statistics and several causes were attributed. He also noted that women who gave birth in the street never got the fever. The two clinics ... washing. However his doctrine was finally accepted by medical science and became a pillar in infection control and hailed by Joseph Lister the father of modern.

  12. Accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines. (United States)

    Stewart, Sarah A; Gaunt, Matthew C; Taylor, Susan M; Snead, Elizabeth C R


    Two clinical cases of accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines are described. One cat died the day after presentation as a result of aspiration pneumonia and head trauma, despite supportive care. The second cat survived with supportive treatment, but developed dermatologic complications 10 d later.

  13. Effects of selected washing treatments and drying temperatures on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of selected washing treatments and drying temperatures on biochemical and microbiological quality of dagaa (Rastrineobola argentea). ... Results indicated that TBARS values increased significantly (p<0.05) from 1.39 mgMA/kg in fresh fish to 10.55 mgMA/kg in the market samples. The TVBN values increased ...

  14. Abstract: Hand Washing Compliance among Nurses and Midwives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Hand Washing Compliance among Nurses and Midwives Caring for Newborn Babies in Selected Health Facilities of the Eastern Province, Rwanda. ... No relationship between handwashing performance and participants' demographic factors was found; thus strategies focusing on the identified predictors of hand ...

  15. Conservation of water for washing beef heads at harvest. (United States)

    DeOtte, R E; Spivey, K S; Galloway, H O; Lawrence, T E


    The objective of this research was to develop methods to conserve water necessary to cleanse beef heads prior to USDA-FSIS inspection. This was to be accomplished by establishing a baseline for the minimum amount of water necessary to adequately wash a head and application of image analysis to provide an objective measure of head cleaning. Twenty-one beef heads were manually washed during the harvest process. An average 18.75 L (2.49 SD) and a maximum of 23.88 L were required to cleanse the heads to USDA-FSIS standards. Digital images were captured before and after manual washing then evaluated for percentage red saturation using commercially available image analysis software. A decaying exponential curve extracted from these data indicated that as wash water increased beyond 20 L the impact on red saturation decreased. At 4 sigma from the mean of 18.75 L, red saturation is 16.0 percent, at which logistic regression analysis indicates 99.994 percent of heads would be accepted for inspection, or less than 1 head in 15,000 would be rejected. Reducing to 3 sigma would increase red saturation to 27.6 percent, for which 99.730 percent of heads likely would be accepted (less than 1 in 370 would be rejected). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Partitioning and analyzing temporal variability of wash and bed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    southern Arizona, the wash load concentration could be predicted by rainfall better than water discharge. Gellis (2013) studied the significant characteristics controlling the variability in storm generated suspended sediment loads and concen- trations in four watersheds with different land uses in humid-tropical Puerto Rico.

  17. assessment of soil wash and soil erodibility indices on miniature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 3, 1976 ... 1., University of Ibadan, Ibadan,. Mallo, I.I.Y. (1988), Slope morphology, soil property variation and rates of soil wash in an area in southern Zaria'. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis,. Department of Geography, Ahmadu Bello. University, Zaria, Nigeria. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ...

  18. Effectiveness Of Different House-Hold Hand Washing Agents On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hand hygiene is a very important procedure in infection control. Washing agents commonly in use were investigated for their effectiveness in reducing hand floral and cotton towel was used as drying agent. Agents studied include; water alone, carex soap, dettol, and imperial leather. The hands were inoculated (deliberate ...

  19. All You Have to Do is Wash Your Hands

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This CDC Kidtastics podcast teaches children how and when to wash their hands properly.  Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 3/26/2009.

  20. Ink and Wash Painting for Children with Visual Impairment (United States)

    Shih, Chih-Ming; Chao, Hsin-Yi


    Five children with visual impairments received instruction in drawing, using ink and wash painting and calligraphy techniques. A special system developed by a blind Taiwanese Chinese calligrapher, Tsann-Cherng Liaw, was used to help the children orient and refine their work. Children's performance on simple drawing tasks was compared before and…

  1. Design and Construction of a Computer Controlled Clothes Washing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: In this work we develop a computer software for controlling the operations of a domestic clothes washing machine. The valves, pump, electric motor and other sensitive parts were computer-controlled. In the design, the mechanical timer's function were replaced by a software driven emulator which then controls ...

  2. Comparative studies on dyeing rate migration and wash fastness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Migration and diffusion properties of synthesized azo dyes from 2-aminothiazole derivatives applied on commercial grade undyed cellulose acetate (CA) and cellulose triacetate (CTA) were investigated using dyeing conditions of 2% on weight of fabric (owf), 50:1 liquor ratio and subjected to ISO3 and ISO4 standard wash ...

  3. 49 CFR 393.78 - Windshield wiping and washing systems. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Windshield wiping and washing systems. 393.78 Section 393.78 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION...

  4. Hand-washing practices of facial plastic surgeons. (United States)

    Leventhal, Douglas D; Lavasani, Leela; Reiter, David


    (1) To define and characterize knowledge of effective hand hygiene and its scientific basis among practicing facial plastic surgeons; (2) to review the existing literature of, basis for, and guidelines on hand washing in clinical practice; and (3) to motivate and facilitate optimum hand hygiene among facial plastic surgeons. National Web-based physician survey and literature review. We conducted a national Web-based survey of members of the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery regarding general patient safety practices. A subset of the survey assessed physicians' knowledge of hand hygiene, including supporting rationale and actual practices. One hundred and twenty-two facial plastic surgeons of various demographics replied to the online survey. Of these, 65 (53%) correctly knew which hand washing agents are most effective at killing microorganisms, 88 (74%) knew the preferred hand-washing method for visibly soiled hands, and 51 (42%) correctly identified the indications for hand washing. Adherence to hand hygiene practices is suboptimal among facial plastic surgeons. There seems to be a lack of knowledge regarding indications, methods, and appropriate agents for hand hygiene. Promotion of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines is an important step in increasing hand hygiene compliance among facial plastic surgeons.

  5. Cultivation of freshwater microalgae in biodiesel wash water. (United States)

    Sassi, Patrícia Giulianna Petraglia; Calixto, Clediana Dantas; da Silva Santana, Jordana Kaline; Sassi, Roberto; Costa Sassi, Cristiane Francisca; Abrahão, Raphael


    Biodiesel wash water is a contaminating industrial effluent that must be treated prior to disposal. The use of this effluent as a low-cost alternative cultivation medium for microalgae could represent a viable supplementary treatment. We cultivated 11 microalgae species with potential use for biodiesel production to assess their growth capacities in biodiesel industrial washing waters. Only Monoraphidium contortum, Ankistrodesmus sp., Chlorococcum sp., and one unidentified Chlorophyceae species grew effectively in that effluent. M. contortum showed the highest growth capacity and had the second highest fatty acid content (267.9 mg g(-1) of DW), predominantly producing palmitic (20.9%), 7,10,13-hexadecatrienoic (14%), oleic (16.2%), linoleic (10.5%), and linolenic acids (23.2%). In the second phase of the experiment, the microalgae were cultivated in biodiesel wash water at 75% of its initial concentration as well as in WC (control) medium. After 21 days of cultivation, 25.8 and 7.2% of the effluent nitrate and phosphate were removed, respectively, and the chemical oxygen demand was diminished by 31.2%. These results suggest the possibility of cultivating biodiesel producing microalgae in industrial wash water effluents.

  6. Wash fastness improvement of malachite green-dyed cotton fabrics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Washing fastness of dyed cotton fabrics by malachite green (MG) blended with nanosols composite of SiO2–TiO2 has been significantly enhanced. The nanoparticulate inorganic sols were prepared by acidcatalyzed hydrolysis of titanium (IV) tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and tetraethylortosilicate (TEOS) in ethanol at room ...

  7. An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices and quality of routinely collected data in Machakos County Kenya. D.M. Kavoo, S.H. Ali, A.B. Kihara, R.J. Kosgei, H Tweya, W Kizito, Omondi Ogutu, C.N. Tauta ...

  8. Hand washing practices and the occurrence of enteropathogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... levels of compliance to hand washing and related this to the occurrence of infectious bacteria in the test population. A questionnaire which contained information on bio-demographic characteristics and hand hygiene practices was applied to 100 individuals in the study population. Microbiological samples were obtained, ...

  9. Assessment of washing procedure for determination some of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was proposed to assess the suitability of washing technique to distinguish between airborne and soil borne several metal contaminants. For this reason, six plant species which grew under Mobarakeh Steel Company emissions were selected. Aluminum, iron, nickel, manganese, zinc, copper and lead ...

  10. Osmotic Fragility in Stored Non-Detergent Washed Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osmotic fragility (OF) of non-detergent washed erythrocytes was evaluated in Nigerian human male erythrocytes stored for 0h, 12h, 24h and 48h. Storage of these human erythrocytes for up to 24h did not significantly alter their membrane characteristics. Mean corpuscular fragility (MCF) diminished and correlated negatively ...

  11. Salt Induced Decay of Masonry and Electrokinetic Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    without increased salt content. The types and concentrations of salts found in relation to building stone vary greatly and depend on the stone type and the environment around the building. In general most common salts are sulphates, chlorides and nitrates. These include CaSO4, Na2SO4, MgSO4,KCl and KNO3...... from brick masonry and also how much the removal rate can be increased by application of the electric field compared to diffusion alone. Some main differences occur between electrokinetic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil and electrokinetic removal of salts from brick masonry. The ions...

  12. Water purification using organic salts (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.


    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  13. Hand Washing Among School Children in Bogotá, Colombia (United States)

    Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Freeman, Paul


    Objectives. We assessed hand-washing behaviors and intentions among school children in Bogotá, Colombia, to help identify and overcome barriers to proper hygiene practices. Methods. Data on hand-washing behavior and intentions and individual and contextual factors were collected from 2042 sixth- through eighth-grade students in 25 schools in Bogotá via anonymous questionnaires. A member of the school administration or teaching staff completed a questionnaire about the school environment. Site inspections of bathroom facilities were conducted. Results. Only 33.6% of the sample reported always or very often washing hands with soap and clean water before eating and after using the toilet. About 7% of students reported regular access to soap and clean water at school. A high level of perceived control was the strongest predictor of positive hand-washing intentions (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.8, 7.5). Students with proper hand-washing behavior were less likely to report previous-month gastrointestinal symptoms (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9) or previous-year school absenteeism (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9). Conclusions. Scarcity of adequate facilities in most schools in Bogotá prevents children from adopting proper hygienic behavior and thwarts health promotion efforts. The current renovation program of public schools in Bogotá provides a unique opportunity to meet the challenges of providing a supportive environment for adoption of healthy behaviors. PMID:19008513

  14. Bronchial wash cytology: A study on morphology and morphometry (United States)

    Rao, Shalinee; Rao, Shivani; Lal, Archana; Barathi, Gunabooshanam; Dhanasekar, Thangaswamy; Duvuru, Prathiba


    Background: Bronchial wash cytology of lung lesions is a non/minimally invasive procedure utilized for diagnosis of pulmonary lesions. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of bronchial wash cytology in the diagnosis of bronchopulmonary lesions and assess the role of morphometry in categorizing dysplastic/malignant lesions. Materials and Methods: All cases of bronchial wash cytology received from January 2006 to June 2010 were retrieved and reviewed. Cases with adequate clinical data or a subsequent biopsy were selected for the study and cytodiagnosis was correlated with available clinical details. Morphometry was done on alcohol fixed hematoxylin and eosin stained cytosmears using computer assisted Image Pro software. Results: One hundred and seventy-six cases of the 373 cases of bronchial cytology received were included for the study. Bronchial wash cytology technique showed high specificity. Cytohistopathology correlation showed 62.06% concordance rate. Cells from normal epithelium, reactive atypia, neoplastic atypia, squamous metaplasia, non-small cell and small cell carcinoma showed a mean nuclear diameter of 7.4 μm, 11.7 μm, 13.9 μm, 13.0 μm, 10.7 μm, and 17.7 μm, respectively, which was statistically significant with P < 0.05. Multiple comparisons between various groups using analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests also showed remarkable statistical significance. Conclusions: Bronchial wash cytology has low sensitivity in detecting pulmonary lesions. It can be of value in patients with contraindication for biopsy. Morphometry can be a useful adjunct to cytomorphology, especially in situations where biopsy is contraindicated. PMID:25210231

  15. Quantification Of Heavy Metals In The Various Branded Face Wash Available In The Bangladeshi Markets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. M. Morshed


    Full Text Available The current study has played an important role for the determination of heavy metals in the different types of face wash. In this study 32 samples of 15 branded face wash were gathered from the local market in Bangladesh. The analysis of these samples has performed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer AAS. A total of 16 samples are herbal and also 16 are synthetic out of 32 samples. The range of heavy metal concentration for synthetic face wash was obtained 0.55 11.35ppm for iron followed by BDL for cobalt BDL 0.50ppm for nickel BDL 0.66ppm for copper 0.28 10.92ppm for zinc BDL 0.21ppm for lead BDL for cadmium BDL 0.51ppm for manganese and BDL 7.19ppm for chromium. On the other hand herbal face wash samples contain the range of heavy metals as 0.80 1358.46ppm for iron followed by BDL for cobalt BDL 0.43ppm for nickel BDL 1.85ppm for copper 0.37 136.77ppm for zinc BDL 28.13ppm for lead BDL 0.02ppm for cadmium BDL 32.17ppm for manganese and BDL 14.95ppm for chromium. It was referred that very high concentration of iron has found in three herbal samples. One herbal product also contains high concentration of lead. The excess range of chromium has found in one synthetic and two herbal products. It was observed that four herbal samples hold the high concentration of zinc and also two herbal products contain excess amount of manganese. The high mean value of iron was obtained from both synthetic as 5.58ppm and herbal as 166.42ppm face washes. It was noted that the low mean value was found for both cobalt and cadmium in synthetic samples where only the cobalt has shown low mean value in herbal samples.

  16. Salt disposition alternatives filtration at SRTC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B. W.; Hobbs, D.


    Several of the prospective salt disposition alternative technologies require a monosodium titanate (MST) contact to remove strontium and actinides from inorganic salt solution feedstock. This feedstock also contains sludge solids from waste removal operations and may contain defoamers added in the evaporator systems. Filtration is required to remove the sludge and MST solids before sending the salt solution for further processing. This report describes testing performed using the Parallel Theological Experimental Filter (PREF). The PREF contains two single tube Mott sintered metal crossflow filters. For this test one filter was isolated so that the maximum velocities could be achieved. Previous studies showed slurries of MST and sludge in the presence of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) were filterable since the NaTPB slurry formed a filter cake which aided in removing the smaller MST and sludge particles. Some of the salt disposition alternative technologies do not use NaTPB raising the question of how effective crossflow filtration is with a feed stream containing only sludge and MST. Variables investigated included axial velocity, transmembrane pressure, defoamer effects, and solids concentration (MST and sludge). Details of the tests are outlined in the technical report WSRC-RP-98-O0691. Key conclusions from this study are: (1) Severe fouling of the Mott sintered metal filter did not occur with any of the solutions filtered. (2) The highest fluxes, in the range of .46 to 1.02 gpm/f{sup 2}, were obtained when salt solution decanted from settled solids was fed to the filter. These fluxes would achieve 92 to 204 gpm filtrate production for the current ITP filters. The filtrate fluxes were close to the flux of 0.42 gpm/f{sup 2} reported for In Tank Precipitation Salt Solution by Morrisey. (3) For the range of solids loading studied, the filter flux ranged from .04 to .17 gpm/f{sup 2} which would result in a filtrate production rate of 9 to 31 gpm for the current HP

  17. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT


    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  18. Utility of peritoneal washing cytology in staging and prognosis of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms: a 10-year retrospective analysis. (United States)

    Davidson, Whitney; Madan, Rashna; O'Neil, Maura; Tawfik, Ossama W; Fan, Fang


    The prognostic significance of peritoneal washing cytology in gynecologic neoplasms is controversial. The presence of neoplastic cells in peritoneal washings is currently part of the Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging systems in cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms without metastasis beyond the pelvis. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed all cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms in which cytologic studies were performed. The utility of cytology in tumor staging and the relationship between cytology results and patient outcome are studied. All cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms in our institution between July 2002 and July 2012 were reviewed. Primary tumor characteristics including type and pelvic extension were collected, categorized, and correlated with peritoneal washing cytology. Final tumor staging was reviewed and the impact of positive cytology was evaluated. A total of 120 cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms without extrapelvic metastasis were identified within the study period. Peritoneal washing cytology was positive in 24% (29/120) of neoplasms and upstaged the tumor 83% (24/29) of the time when positive. Overall, 20% (24/120) of reviewed cases were upstaged based on positive cytology results. Peritoneal washing cytology remains a useful staging tool for ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms limited to the pelvic cavity. Positive cytology results in upstaging in a significant proportion of the cases regardless of the tumor type. A larger study is needed to analyze follow-up data to determine if upstaging based on positive cytology adversely affects outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background: Hand washing is the most effective method of preventing the transmission of diseases through hands. Objective: To identify relationships between gender, availability of hand washing facilities, perception of barriers toward hand washing compliance and subjective norm in implementing hand washing practice among students of public elementary school in Belitung district, Indonesia. Method: A cross-sectional research study was used in this study. Of 309 participants were recruited in 11 public elementary schools from 3 sub districts that has been implemented the hand washing program in Belitung, Indonesia. Purposive sampling method was used to select the participants. This study was used a self-administered questionnaire with minimal interference in order to minimize bias and by emphasizing to the students that this is not an examination. Results: The results showed that 71.8% of the students were not hand washing properly. It also showed that availability of hand washing facilities and gender were not related with hand washing behavior. In regards of barrier perception toward hand washing compliance also showed that was not related to hand washing practice among elementary schools students. However, subjective norm (χ² =4.459, p < .05 was related to hand washing practice among elementary schools students. Conclusion: Subjective norm has a significant relationship to hand washing behavior. Thus health care provider could develop specific intervention programs based on TPB to promote subjective norm among elementary schools students since this norm or perception of norm can motivate hand washing behavior among elementary schools students effectively.

  20. Effect of egg washing and correlation between eggshell characteristics and egg penetration by various Salmonella Typhimurium strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav C Gole

    Full Text Available Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen, causing an estimated 11,992 cases of infection in Australia per year. Egg or egg product related salmonellosis is a major concern for the egg industry. Worldwide, S. Typhimurium is one of the most common serovars identified in Salmonella food poisoning cases. The current study investigated the ability of five S. Typhimurium strains to penetrate washed and unwashed eggs using whole egg and agar egg penetration methods. All S. Typhimurium strains were able to penetrate eggshells and survive in egg albumen (at 20°C according to whole egg penetration results. Polymerase Chain Reaction results demonstrated that S. Typhimurium strain 2 (10(3 and 10(5 CFU/mL, and strain 5 (10(3 and 10(5 CFU/mL egg penetration was significantly higher (p<0.05 in washed eggs when compared to unwashed eggs. Statistical analysis of the agar penetration experiment indicated that S. Typhimurium was able to penetrate washed eggs at a significantly higher rate when compared to unwashed eggs (p<0.05. When compared to unwashed eggs, washed eggs also had significantly damaged cuticles. Statistical analysis also indicated that eggshell penetration by S. Typhimurium was related to various eggshell ultrastructural features such as cap quality, alignment, erosion, confluence, Type B bodies and cuticle cover.

  1. Use of a patient hand hygiene protocol to reduce hospital-acquired infections and improve nurses' hand washing. (United States)

    Fox, Cherie; Wavra, Teresa; Drake, Diane Ash; Mulligan, Debbie; Bennett, Yvonne Pacheco; Nelson, Carla; Kirkwood, Peggy; Jones, Louise; Bader, Mary Kay


    Critically ill patients are at marked risk of hospital-acquired infections, which increase patients' morbidity and mortality. Registered nurses are the main health care providers of physical care, including hygiene to reduce and prevent hospital-acquired infections, for hospitalized critically ill patients. To investigate a new patient hand hygiene protocol designed to reduce hospital-acquired infection rates and improve nurses' hand-washing compliance in an intensive care unit. A preexperimental study design was used to compare 12-month rates of 2 common hospital-acquired infections, central catheter-associated bloodstream infection and catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and nurses' hand-washing compliance measured before and during use of the protocol. Reductions in 12-month infection rates were reported for both types of infections, but neither reduction was statistically significant. Mean 12-month nurse hand-washing compliance also improved, but not significantly. A hand hygiene protocol for patients in the intensive care unit was associated with reductions in hospital-acquired infections and improvements in nurses' hand-washing compliance. Prevention of such infections requires continuous quality improvement efforts to monitor lasting effectiveness as well as investigation of strategies to eliminate these infections. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  2. Comparison of hand hygiene monitoring using the 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene method versus a wash in-wash out method. (United States)

    Sunkesula, Venkata C K; Meranda, David; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Zabarsky, Trina F; McKee, Melissa; Macinga, David R; Donskey, Curtis J


    One strategy to promote improved hand hygiene is to monitor health care workers' adherence to recommended practices and give feedback. For feasibility of monitoring, many health care facilities assess hand hygiene practices on room entry and exit (wash in-wash out). It is not known if the wash in-wash out method is comparable with a more comprehensive approach, such as the World Health Organization's My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene method. During a 1-month period, a surreptitious observer monitored hand hygiene compliance simultaneously using the wash in-wash out and My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene methods. For 283 health care worker room entries, the methods resulted in similar rates of hand hygiene compliance (70% vs 72%, respectively). The wash in-wash out method required 148 hand hygiene events not required by the My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene method (ie, before and after room entry with no patient or environmental contact) while not providing monitoring for 89 hand hygiene opportunities in patient rooms. The monitoring methods resulted in similar overall rates of hand hygiene compliance. Use of the wash in-wash out method should include ongoing education and intermittent assessment of hand hygiene before clean procedures and after body fluid exposure in patient rooms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The in vitro effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with indocyanine green on Enterococcus faecalis: Influence of a washing vs non-washing procedure. (United States)

    Chiniforush, Nasim; Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Parker, Steven; Shahabi, Sima; Bahador, Abbas


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of washing and non-washing of indocyanine green (ICG) as photosensitizer (PS) on bacterial count, biofilm formation, development and degradation of Enterococcus faecalis. The anti-bacterial, anti-biofilm formation, anti-biofilm development and biofilm degradation of anti-microbial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against E. faecalis was determined at concentrations of 3 to 2000μg/mL of ICG, subject to 18J/cm(2) dose of diode laser (808nm) in washing and non-washing producers. Bacterial viability measurements and biofilm assays were evaluated by broth microdilution method and crystal violet assays, respectively. ICG-mediated aPDT, using 25 to 2000μg/mL and 50 to 2000μg/mL showed significant reduction in E. faecalis growth when compared to the control in non-washing and washing producers, respectively (Pfaecalis in concentration of 6 to 2000μg/mL and 100 to 2000μg/mL in non-washing and washing groups (P<0.05). The biofilm development was inhibited by concentrations of 12 to 2000μg/mL and 100 to 2000μg/mL in non-washing and washing groups. The biofilm degradation increased from concentrations of 12 to 2000μg/mL and 250 to 2000μg/mL in non-washing and washing groups, respectively. This study shows that the application of ICG should be accompanied by laser irradiation without being washed out to achieve better result for bacterial count reduction and anti-biofilm effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Amine salts of nitroazoles (United States)

    Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.


    Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

  5. What Are Bath Salts? (United States)

    ... reports of people becoming psychotic (losing touch with reality) and violent. Although it is rare, there have ... in bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations ( ...

  6. Carpinteria salt marsh habitat polygons (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dunham, Eleca J.; Mancini, Frank T.; Stewart, Tara E.; Hechinger, Ryan F.


    We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland.  We then drew polygons around each habitat type identified from a registered and orthorectified aerial photograph and created a GIS shapefile. Polygons were ground-truthed in the field. From these habitat polygons, one can use GIS applications to estimate the area of each habitat type in this estuary. These data support the following publications: Kuris, Armand M., et al. "Ecosystem energetic implications of parasite and free-living biomass in three estuaries." Nature 454.7203 (2008): 515-518.Hechinger, Ryan F., Kevin D. Lafferty, Andy P. Dobson, James H. Brown, and Armand M. Kuris. "A common scaling rule for abundance, energetics, and production of parasitic and free-living species." Science 333, no. 6041 (2011): 445-448.Hechinger, Ryan F., Kevin D. Lafferty, John P. McLaughlin, Brian L. Fredensborg, Todd C. Huspeni, Julio Lorda, Parwant K. Sandhu et al. "Food webs including parasites, biomass, body sizes, and life stages for three California/Baja California estuaries." Ecology 92, no. 3 (2011): 791-791.Buck, J.C., Hechinger, R.F., Wood, A.C., Stewart, T.E., Kuris, A.M., and Lafferty, K.D., "Host density increases parasite recruitment but decreases host risk in a snail-trematode system." Manuscript submitted for publication. Lafferty, K.D., Stewart, T.E., and Hechinger, R.F. (in press). Bird distribution surveys at Carpinteria Salt Marsh, California USA, January 2012 to March 2013: U.S. Geological Survey data release, 

  7. Not salt taste perception but self-reported salt eating habit predicts actual salt intake. (United States)

    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun


    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a sodium chloride solution. Predicted 24-hr urinary salt excretions using Kawasaki's and Tanaka's equations estimated dietary salt intake. Participants' mean age was 35 yr, and 59.5% were male. Salt sense threshold did not show any relationship with actual salt intake and a salt-eating habit. However, those eating "salty" foods showed higher blood pressure (P for trend=0.048) and higher body mass index (BMI; P for trend=0.043). Moreover, a salty eating habit was a significant predictor for actual salt intake (regression coefficient [β] for Kawasaki's equation 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10-2.69, P=0.048; β for Tanaka's equation 0.66, 95% CI 0.01-1.31, P=0.047). In conclusion, a self-reported salt-eating habit, not salt taste threshold predicts actual salt intake.

  8. Many Parts of the World Lack Soap for Hand-Washing (United States)

    ... Many Parts of the World Lack Soap for Hand-Washing Areas with lowest rates are in Africa, research ... that they do without, a new study finds. Hand-washing with soap can help prevent the spread of ...

  9. Apparatus for washing particulate material. [Removal of silicone oil from microspheres by trichloroethylene (United States)

    Rivera, A.L.; Fowler, V.L.; Justice, G.V.


    Transport of nuclear fuel microspheres through a wash liquid is facilitated by feeding a slurry containing the microspheres into the wash liquid via a column having a vibrating tubular screen located under its lower end.

  10. Wash resistance and repellent properties of Africa University mosquito blankets against mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lukwa


    Full Text Available The effect of permethrin-treated Africa University (AU mosquito blankets on susceptible female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes was studied under laboratory conditions at Africa University Campus in Mutare, Zimbabwe. Wash resistance (ability to retain an effective dose that kills ≥80% of mosquitoes after a number of washes and repellence (ability to prevent ≥80% of mosquito bites properties were studied. The AU blankets were wash resistant when 100% mortality was recorded up to 20 washes, declining to 90% after 25 washes. Untreated AU blankets did not cause any mortality on mosquitoes. However, mosquito repellence was 96%, 94%, 97.9%, 87%, 85% and 80.7% for treated AU blankets washed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 times, respectively. Mosquito repellence was consistently above 80% from 0-25 washes. In conclusion, AU blankets washed 25 times were effective in repelling and killing An. gambiae sl mosquitoes under laboratory conditions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.

  12. A Wash-Free Homogeneous Colorimetric Immunoassay Method. (United States)

    Liu, Huiqiao; Rong, Pengfei; Jia, Hongwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Bo; Dong, Qiong; Yang, Cejun; Hu, Pengzhi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haitao; Liu, Dingbin


    Rapid and convenient biosensing platforms could be beneficial to timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases in virtually any care settings. Sandwich immunoassays, the most commonly used methods for protein detection, often rely on expensive tags such as enzyme and tedious wash and incubation procedures operated by skilled labor. In this report, we revolutionized traditional sandwich immunoassays by providing a wash-free homogeneous colorimetric immunoassay method without requirement of any separation steps. The proposed strategy was realized by controlling the growth of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to mediate the interparticle spacing in the protein-AuNP oligomers. We have demonstrated the successful in vitro detection of cancer biomarker in serum samples from patients with high clinical sensitivity and specificity.

  13. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi


    Full Text Available Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quality biodiesel fuel, considerable amount of spent absorbents is recorded, besides the skeletal knowledge on its operating process. Further, recent findings have shown that biodiesel purification using membrane technique could offer high-quality biodiesel fuel with less wastewater discharges. Thus, both researchers and industries are expected to benefit from the development of membrane technique in purifying crude biodiesel. As well biodiesel purification via membranes has been shown to be environmentally friendly. For these reasons, it is important to explore and exploit membrane technology to purify crude biodiesel.

  14. Will Astronauts Wash Clothes on the Way to Mars? (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Jeng, Frank F.


    Future human space exploration missions will lengthen to years, and keeping crews clothed without a huge resupply burden is an important consideration for habitation systems. A space laundry system could be the solution; however, the resources it uses must be accounted for and must win out over the reliable practice of simply bringing along enough spare underwear. NASA has conducted trade-off studies through its Logistics Reduction Project to compare current space clothing systems, life extension of that clothing, traditional water-based clothes washing, and other sanitizing techniques. The best clothing system depends on the mission and assumptions but, in general, analysis results indicate that washing clothes on space missions will start to pay off as mission durations approach a year.

  15. Study of Soil Washing for Remediation of Pb and Zn Contaminated Coastal Landfill (United States)

    Park, S.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.


    As a result of analyzing the pre-treatment process of Pb, Zn in contaminated coastal landfill soil presented by Korean Soil Analysis Method, the each concentration was presented 577.00mg/kg, 3894.34mg/kg. This soil was critically contaminated with Pb and Zn because it was exceeded the Standard of soil contamination(2area: Pb-400mg/kg, Zn-600mg/kg). Soil remediation efficiency of the soil washing process for the removal of Pb and Zn was determined to be consistent with the results. The batch experiment on the several washing solutions(HCl, HNO3), washing solutions concentrations(0.1-0.8M) and the ratio of soil vs. solution for soil washing(1:3, 1:5 and 1:10) was performed. The results of experiments, washing time was appropriate in 30 minutes. The removal efficiency of soil washing increased as the ratio of soil vs. washing solution increased. But, in the case of heavy metals, the soil vs. solution for soil washing was determined as the optimal ratio of 1 : 5. Five consecutive soil washing with 0.5M of HCl and HNO3 solutions were performed. Results of experiments, in case of Pb was removed by target removal efficiency from soil on the twice washing. With in case of Zn was over on the first washing by target removal efficiency, but suggesting that twice consecutive soil washing is desirable as stability at field. Results of consecutive soil washing experiments, the removal efficiency maintained lower than 10 % after the 4th washing. From the results, demanding consecutive washing is not recommended. Results about the heavy metal contaminated soil washing experiments of the coastal landfill, in the case of HCl with more than 0.5 M of solution was performed at 1:5 of soil ratio vs. solution, 30 minutes of washing time and 2-3 consecutive soil washing. And in the case of HNO3 with 0.8 M of solution was performed various ratios of soil vs. washing solution, suggesting that 2-3 consecutive soil washing was reached to Pb and Zn target removal efficiency. Key words

  16. Characteristics of penicillinase release by washed cells of Bacillus licheniformis. (United States)

    Sargent, M G; Ghosh, B K; Lampen, J O


    Saline-washed cells of Bacillus licheniformis strain 749/C (constitutive for penicillinase) were able to release exopenicillinase in the presence of concentrations of chloramphenicol that prevented protein synthesis completely. The release reaction was strongly pH-dependent, occurring at a faster rate at alkaline pH in anionic or cationic buffers than at neutral pH. A strongly pH-dependent release reaction was noted in growing cells also. The reaction in washed cells can be stopped completely by changing the pH to 6.0. Within 30 min at pH 9.0, about 55% of the cell-bound penicillinase was released; thereafter, release continued at a greatly reduced rate. Suspensions of washed cells retained their capacity to release penicillinase at pH 9.0 for 90 min. Penicillinase released at pH 9.0 from either cells or protoplasts was not readsorbed over a 60-min period after changing the pH to 6.0. The release reaction was strongly temperature-dependent. We examined the effect of a large number of metabolic inhibitors and other compounds on the pH-dependent release phenomenon. Quinacrine hydrochloride, chloroquine diphosphate, and chlorpromazine hydrochloride reduced secretion substantially at 10(-4)m. Deoxycholate and Triton X-100 were active at 10(-3)m, but tungstate, arsenate, and molybdate had small effects at 10(-1)m. The rate of exopenicillinase release at pH 9.0 from fully stabilized protoplasts was one-half that of intact cells. Protoplasts lysed in hypotonic media or detergents showed even greater reduction in releasing activity. Penicillinase released from washed cells at pH 7.5 or 9.0 appeared to be derived from the periplasmic tubule and vesicle fraction that was released by protoplast formation.

  17. Protection of oxidative hair color fading from shampoo washing by hydrophobically modified cationic polymers. (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Foltis, L; Moore, D J; Rigoletto, R


    The fading of oxidative color in hair as a result of daily shampoo washing activities has become a common problem and a source of frequent complaints by consumers. The fading occurs primarily through hair dye solubility in water. One aspect of the current study investigates the physical and chemical factors that influence hair color fading during the washing process. This is accomplished by testing hair dye dissolution in water from dyed hair samples with variation of surfactant type, pH, and hair type. Furthermore, a new approach to preventing color fading is developed aiming to provide an effective barrier function for hair dye from dissolving into water. The preliminary investigation of a series of polymers with various functional groups indicates that polymers with hydrophobically modified and cationic functionalities are most effective in preventing hair dye dissolution in water. It is also evident that a synergistic effect of the polymer's hydrophobic moieties and cationic charges are important on hair color protection during shampoo washing processes. A primary example of a polymer within this category is a cationic terpolymer of vinylpyrrolidone, dimethylaminopropyl methacrylamide, and methacryloylaminopropyl lauryldimonium chloride (INCI: Polyquaternium-55). The color protection benefit of this polymer is evaluated using newly developed methodologies for evaluating hair color changes, such as hair color fading tests through multiple shampoo washes with mannequin heads and hair tresses, both derived from human hair, colorimetry, and quantitative digital image analysis. In addition, new infrared spectroscopic imaging techniques are used to detect the hair dye deposition behavior inside hair fibers both with and without the color protection treatment. Both visual and instrumental measurement results indicate that Polyquaternium-55 provides a high level of color protection when formulated in a hair color protection regimen with up to 50% color protection. This

  18. Induced fields, charges and currents on a lineman engaged in transmission-line insulator washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Salam, M.; El-Mohandes, M.T. [Assiut Univ. (Egypt). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Alghamdi, A.S. [Junior Coll. of Technology, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Electrical Engineering Dept.


    This paper is aimed to calculate the distribution of the field, induced charges and currents on a lineman engaged in transmission-line insulator washing. The method of analysis is based on the charge simulation technique. The lineman is modeled by small sphere for the head and a large sphere for the body. For simplicity, the tower is chosen of the duct type and the insulator of the suspension type. The transmission-line conductor is simulated by finite and semi-infinite line charges to account for the nonuniform distribution of conductor charge resulting from the suspension insulator and the supporting tower. As the purity of the washing water is high, the water spray is simulated by a thin conducting stick extending between the column insulator and the lineman sitting on the crossarm of the tower. This represents a three-dimensional field problem and care has been devoted in the choice of the number and coordinates of charges simulating the tower, the insulator, the conductor, the water spray and the lineman. The induced currents increase as the lineman approaches the insulator with the suspended line conductor. These currents are higher than those for insulated lineman and may exceed the safe limits.

  19. Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Equine Nasopharyngeal and Guttural Pouch Wash Samples. (United States)

    Boyle, A G; Rankin, S C; Duffee, L A; Morris, D


    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is recognized as a cause of nosocomial infections in both human and veterinary medicine. Studies that examine the nasopharynx and guttural pouches of the horse as carriage sites for MRSA have not been reported. MRSA colonizes the nasopharynx and guttural pouch of horses. To determine the prevalence of MRSA in equine nasopharyngeal wash (NPW) and guttural pouch lavage (GPL) samples in a field population of horses. One hundred seventy-eight samples (123 NPW and 55 GPL) from 108 horses. Prospective study. Samples were collected from a convenience population of clinically ill horses with suspected Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (S. equi) infection, horses convalescing from a known S. equi infection, and asymptomatic horses undergoing S. equi screening. Samples were submitted for S. aureus aerobic bacterial culture with mannitol salt broth and two selective agars (cefoxitin CHROMagar as the PBP2a inducer and mannitol salt agar with oxacillin). Biochemical identification of Staphylococcus species and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), to determine clonal relationships between isolates, were performed. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRS) was isolated from the nasopharynx of 7/108 (4%) horses. Three horses had MRSA (2.7%), and 4 had MR-Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). MRSA was isolated from horses on the same farm. PFGE revealed the 3 MRSA as USA 500 strains. Sampling the nasopharynx and guttural pouch of community-based horses revealed a similarly low prevalence rate of MRSA as other studies sampling the nares of community-based horses. More study is required to determine the need for sampling multiple anatomic sites when screening horses for MRSA. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.



    Nazliansyah; Susheewa Wichaikull; Kanokwan Wetasin


    Background: Hand washing is the most effective method of preventing the transmission of diseases through hands. Objective: To identify relationships between gender, availability of hand washing facilities, perception of barriers toward hand washing compliance and subjective norm in implementing hand washing practice among students of public elementary school in Belitung district, Indonesia. Method: A cross-sectional research study was used in this study. Of 309 participants were recrui...

  1. Abdominopelvic washings in gynecologic pathology: A comprehensive review. (United States)

    Schulte, Jefree J; Lastra, Ricardo R


    Abdominopelvic washings (APW) performed during gynecologic surgeries have become a common specimen evaluated by cytopathologists. Their role in staging of female genital tract tumors has changed significantly since they were first described, and continue to evolve. The ability of these washings to detect microscopic disease, even in the absence of gross disease, warrants the critical role that these washings play in the staging of certain female gynecologic tract tumors, allowing for optimal staging and subsequent treatment of the patient. Irrespective of the underlying pathology, the gamut of cytomorphologic findings that may be observed in APW is extensive, and ranges from benign lesions that may act as mimickers of malignancy, to both common and rare malignancies. This review discusses the changing role of APW in the staging of gynecologic tumors, and highlights the salient cytomorphologic features of these lesions, with emphasis in their correct identification, including cautionary notes to avoid over or misinterpretation. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:1039-1057. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Hand Washing Practices Among Emergency Medical Services Providers. (United States)

    Bucher, Joshua; Donovan, Colleen; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; McCoy, Jonathan


    Hand hygiene is an important component of infection control efforts. Our primary and secondary goals were to determine the reported rates of hand washing and stethoscope cleaning in emergency medical services (EMS) workers, respectively. We designed a survey about hand hygiene practices. The survey was distributed to various national EMS organizations through e-mail. Descriptive statistics were calculated for survey items (responses on a Likert scale) and subpopulations of survey respondents to identify relationships between variables. We used analysis of variance to test differences in means between the subgroups. There were 1,494 responses. Overall, reported hand hygiene practices were poor among pre-hospital providers in all clinical situations. Women reported that they washed their hands more frequently than men overall, although the differences were unlikely to be clinically significant. Hygiene after invasive procedures was reported to be poor. The presence of available hand sanitizer in the ambulance did not improve reported hygiene rates but improved reported rates of cleaning the stethoscope (absolute difference 0.4, p=0.0003). Providers who brought their own sanitizer were more likely to clean their hands. Reported hand hygiene is poor amongst pre-hospital providers. There is a need for future intervention to improve reported performance in pre-hospital provider hand washing.

  3. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan


    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure >15mmHg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% Females, 16% Blacks, BMI 28.5±4.2 Kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mmHg) as compared to high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mmHg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dl, 10.8±7.3 mIU/L and 2.6±1.9) as compared to high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dl, 9.4±5.8 mIU/L and 2.1±1.4) (p salt sensitive (N=193) versus salt resistant (N=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in HOMA on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt resistant subjects (p=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in HOMA after including age, BMI, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. PMID:25185125

  4. 78 FR 28577 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity: Whirlpool Corporation Subzone 8I; (Washing Machines... (United States)


    ...; (Washing Machines): Clyde and Green Springs, Ohio Whirlpool Corporation (Whirlpool), operator of Subzone 8I... standard and high capacity washing machines using certain imported components. The current request would add subassemblies and other unfinished washing machine parts to the list of approved finished products...

  5. Washing of stored red blood cells by an autotransfusion device before transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vroege, R.; Wildevuur, W. R.; Muradin, J. A. G.; Graves, D.; van Oeveren, W.


    Background and Objectives The use of an autotransfusion device to wash blood of the incision site is increasing. After washing, this blood is retransfused without side effects caused by activated plasma factors and cell release products. This procedure could be extended to washing of donor blood,

  6. 40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory. (United States)


    ...-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446.10 Section 446.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash...

  7. Testing the Effects of Social Norms and Behavioral Privacy on Hand Washing: A Field Experiment (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Maloney, Erin K.; Braz, Mary; Shulman, Hillary C.


    A 2-part study examines the influence of normative messages on college males' hand washing perceptions and behaviors. Study 1 tests for the appropriateness of hand washing as a target of social norms campaigns and tests messages designed to change perceived descriptive norms. Results indicated that hand washing behavior is appropriate for health…

  8. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Sampers, I.; Haute, van S.; Fels, van der H.J.


    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water

  9. Bladder wash cytology, quantitative cytology, and the qualitative BTA test in patients with superficial bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, H. G.; van Balken, M. R.; Schamhart, D. H.; Peelen, P.; de Reijke, T.; Debruyne, F. M.; Schalken, J. A.; Witjes, J. A.


    Two new methods for the detection of transitional tumor cells in bladder wash (karyometry: QUANTICYT) and voided urine material (BARD BTA test) were compared with bladder wash cytology for the prediction of histology and tumor recurrence. Bladder wash material and voided urine were sampled from 138

  10. Comparative Analysis of Salt Taste Perception among Diabetics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impaired salt taste perception has been described in patients with essential hypertension. Hypertension occurs more frequently in diabetics than the general population. We compared salt taste perception among patients with type 2 diabetes (n=59), hypertension (n=57) and concurrent hypertension and diabetes (n=56) ...

  11. Financial and environmental modelling of water hardness--implications for utilising harvested rainwater in washing machines. (United States)

    Morales-Pinzón, Tito; Lurueña, Rodrigo; Gabarrell, Xavier; Gasol, Carles M; Rieradevall, Joan


    A study was conducted to determine the financial and environmental effects of water quality on rainwater harvesting systems. The potential for replacing tap water used in washing machines with rainwater was studied, and then analysis presented in this paper is valid for applications that include washing machines where tap water hardness may be important. A wide range of weather conditions, such as rainfall (284-1,794 mm/year); water hardness (14-315 mg/L CaCO3); tap water prices (0.85-2.65 Euros/m(3)) in different Spanish urban areas (from individual buildings to whole neighbourhoods); and other scenarios (including materials and water storage capacity) were analysed. Rainfall was essential for rainwater harvesting, but the tap water prices and the water hardness were the main factors for consideration in the financial and the environmental analyses, respectively. The local tap water hardness and prices can cause greater financial and environmental impacts than the type of material used for the water storage tank or the volume of the tank. The use of rainwater as a substitute for hard water in washing machines favours financial analysis. Although tap water hardness significantly affects the financial analysis, the greatest effect was found in the environmental analysis. When hard tap water needed to be replaced, it was found that a water price of 1 Euro/m(3) could render the use of rainwater financially feasible when using large-scale rainwater harvesting systems. When the water hardness was greater than 300 mg/L CaCO3, a financial analysis revealed that an net present value greater than 270 Euros/dwelling could be obtained at the neighbourhood scale, and there could be a reduction in the Global Warming Potential (100 years) ranging between 35 and 101 kg CO2 eq./dwelling/year. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical chemistry and evolution of salt tolerance in halobacteria (United States)

    Lanyi, J. K.


    The cellular constituents of extremely halophilic bacteria not only tolerate high salt concentration, but in many cases require it for optical functioning. The characteristics affected by salt include enzyme activity, stability, allosteric regulation, conformation and subunit association. The salt effects are of two major kinds: electrostatic shielding of negative charges by cations at low salt concentration, and hydrophobic stabilization by salting-out type salts at high salt concentration. The composition of halobacterial proteins shows an excess of acidic amino acids and a deficiency of nonpolar amino acids, which accounts for these effects. Since the cohesive forces are weaker and the repulsing forces are stronger in these proteins, preventing aggregation in salt, these structures are no longer suited for functioning in the absence of high salt concentrations. Unlike these nonspecific effects, ribosomes in halobacteria show marked preference for potassium over sodium ions. To ensure the proper intracellular ionic composition, powerful ion transport systems have evolved in the halobacteria, resulting in the extrusion of sodium ions and their replacement by potassium. It is likely that such membrane transport system for ionic movements is a necessary requisite for salt tolerance.

  13. Unequivocal experimental evidence for a unified lithium salt-free Wittig reaction mechanism for all phosphonium ylide types: reactions with β-heteroatom-substituted aldehydes are consistently selective for cis-oxaphosphetane-derived products


    Byrne, Peter A.; Gilheany, Declan G.


    The true course of the lithium salt-free Wittig reaction has long been a contentious issue in organic chemistry. Herein we report an experimental effect that is common to the Wittig reactions of all of the three major phosphonium ylide classes (non-stabilized, semi-stabilized, and stabilized): there is consistently increased selectivity for cis-oxaphosphetane and its derived products (Z-alkene and erythro-B-hydroxyphosphonium salt) in reactions involving aldehydes bearing heteroatom substitue...

  14. Great Salt Lake, Utah (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.


    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  15. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson


    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  16. Physicochemical Quality and Chemical Safety of Chlorine as a Reconditioning Agent and Wash Water Disinfectant for Fresh-Cut Lettuce Washing (United States)

    Van Haute, Sam; Holvoet, Kevin; Uyttendaele, Mieke


    Chlorine was assessed as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant in the fresh-cut produce industry. Artificial fresh-cut lettuce wash water, made from butterhead lettuce, was used for the experiments. In the reconditioning experiments, chlorine was added to artificial wash water inoculated with Escherichia coli O157 (6 log CFU/ml). Regression models were constructed based on the inactivation data and validated in actual wash water from leafy vegetable processing companies. The model that incorporated chlorine dose and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wash water accurately predicted inactivation. Listeria monocytogenes was more resistant to chlorine reconditioning in artificial wash water than Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. During the washing process with inoculated lettuce (4 log CFU/g), in the absence of chlorine, there was a rapid microbial buildup in the water that accumulated to 5.4 ± 0.4 log CFU/100 ml after 1 h. When maintaining a residual concentration of 1 mg/liter free chlorine, wash water contamination was maintained below 2.7, 2.5, and 2.5 log CFU/100 ml for tap water and artificial process water with COD values of 500 and 1,000 mg O2/liter, respectively. A model was developed to predict water contamination during the dynamic washing process. Only minor amounts of total trihalomethanes were formed in the water during reconditioning. Total trihalomethanes accumulated to larger amounts in the water during the wash water disinfection experiments and reached 124.5 ± 13.4 μg/liter after 1 h of execution of the washing process in water with a COD of 1,000 mg O2/liter. However, no total trihalomethanes were found on the fresh-cut lettuce after rinsing. PMID:23396332

  17. Physicochemical quality and chemical safety of chlorine as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant for fresh-cut lettuce washing. (United States)

    Van Haute, Sam; Sampers, Imca; Holvoet, Kevin; Uyttendaele, Mieke


    Chlorine was assessed as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant in the fresh-cut produce industry. Artificial fresh-cut lettuce wash water, made from butterhead lettuce, was used for the experiments. In the reconditioning experiments, chlorine was added to artificial wash water inoculated with Escherichia coli O157 (6 log CFU/ml). Regression models were constructed based on the inactivation data and validated in actual wash water from leafy vegetable processing companies. The model that incorporated chlorine dose and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wash water accurately predicted inactivation. Listeria monocytogenes was more resistant to chlorine reconditioning in artificial wash water than Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. During the washing process with inoculated lettuce (4 log CFU/g), in the absence of chlorine, there was a rapid microbial buildup in the water that accumulated to 5.4 ± 0.4 log CFU/100 ml after 1 h. When maintaining a residual concentration of 1 mg/liter free chlorine, wash water contamination was maintained below 2.7, 2.5, and 2.5 log CFU/100 ml for tap water and artificial process water with COD values of 500 and 1,000 mg O2/liter, respectively. A model was developed to predict water contamination during the dynamic washing process. Only minor amounts of total trihalomethanes were formed in the water during reconditioning. Total trihalomethanes accumulated to larger amounts in the water during the wash water disinfection experiments and reached 124.5 ± 13.4 μg/liter after 1 h of execution of the washing process in water with a COD of 1,000 mg O2/liter. However, no total trihalomethanes were found on the fresh-cut lettuce after rinsing.

  18. Gas releases from salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.


    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila V. Dyakova


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cobalt solution for the production of pure cobalt salts has been developed and introduced at Severonikel combine.

  20. Effect of different soil washing solutions on bioavailability of residual arsenic in soils and soil properties. (United States)

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile


    The effect of soil washing used for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil remediation on soil properties and bioavailability of residual As in soil is receiving increasing attention due to increasing interest in conserving soil qualities after remediation. This study investigates the effect of different washing solutions on bioavailability of residual As in soils and soil properties after soil washing. Regardless of washing solutions, the sequential extraction revealed that the residual As concentrations and the amount of readily labile As in soils were reduced after soil washing. However, the bioassay tests showed that the washed soils exhibited ecotoxicological effects - lower seed germination, shoot growth, and enzyme activities - and this could largely be attributed to the acidic pH and/or excessive nutrient contents of the washed soils depending on washing solutions. Overall, this study showed that treated soils having lower levels of contaminants could still exhibit toxic effects due to changes in soil properties, which highly depended on washing solutions. This study also emphasizes that data on the As concentrations, the soil properties, and the ecotoxicological effects are necessary to properly manage the washed soils for reuses. The results of this study can, thus, be utilized to select proper post-treatment techniques for the washed soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hand washing practices in urban and rural communities in and around Kolkata, West Bengal. (United States)

    Ray, S K; Dobe, M; Lahiri, A; Basu, S S


    Public health importance of hand washing was known since 19th century. Many researchers also highlighted how hand washing could bring down the incidence of diarrhea, ARI & other diseases. To find out the extent of hand washing as practiced by the community, to what extent suggested steps of hand washing was followed and to assess the changes in bacteriological count of hand before and after hand washing. A community based cross sectional study was carried out during January-February 2007 among 161 respondents in and around Kolkata through interview, observation of hand washing in some situations as well as carrying out microbiological test. 100% respondents interviewed practiced hand washing after defecation either with soap (59%) or with plain water, ash & mud (41%). But 64%, 51.6% and only 21.7% practiced hand washing before preparation of food; after using urinals; after changing the babies' nappies and disposing their feces respectively. Only 16.1% respondents washed their hands as per the recommended time of 15-30 seconds. Majority (75%) dried hands with apparently unclean materials. 90.7% followed step1 but none followed all the steps. Swab collection before and after hand washing revealed a decrease in colony count in 60% of the samples. It can be concluded that extent of desirable practices regarding hand washing is still lacking and needs to be emphasized.

  2. Hand washing practices in two communities of two states of Eastern India: an intervention study. (United States)

    Ray, Sandip Kumar; Zaman, Forhad Akhtar; Laskar, Nasrin Banu


    Public health importance of hand washing as well as its importance in reduction of communicable diseases such as diarrhea and acute respiratory infections have been highlighted in many studies worldwide. This study was designed to study the hand washing practices followed in two urban slums as well as to assess and compare the status of different components of hand washing at the pre- and post-intervention phases. A community-based cross-sectional intervention study on hand washing practices was carried out at two urban slums situated in two states of Eastern India with similar sociocultural and linguistic background. The study was carried out by using an interview technique as well as observation of hand washing practices. Interpersonal communication for behavioural change was chosen as a method of intervention. The majority (>90%) practiced hand washing after defecation in both the study areas. However, hand washing following all six steps and for stipulated time period was seen to be poor before intervention. Significant improvement was observed in all the aspects of hand washing after intervention in both the areas. The poor practice of hand washing was observed in some situations and needed attention. Use of soap and clean material for drying hands after hand washing was poor initially followed by improvement after intervention. Based on the findings of the study, it could be suggested that Behaviour Change Communication program should be further planned with emphasis on different components of hand washing with a final objective to bring down the incidence of target diseases.

  3. Factors influencing hand washing behaviour in primary schools: process evaluation within a randomised controlled trial (United States)

    Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Nicholson, Alexandra L.; Basker, Elaine; Bell, Sarah; Campbell, Rona


    This paper explores factors that may influence hand washing behaviour among pupils and staff in primary schools. A qualitative process evaluation within a cluster randomised controlled trial included pupil focus groups (n=16, ages 6 to 11, semi-structured interviews (n=16 teachers) and observations of hand washing facilities (n=57). Pupils and staff in intervention and control schools demonstrated a similar level of understanding of how, when and why they should wash their hands. Lack of time, poor adult modelling of regular hand washing and unattractive facilities were seen as important barriers to regular hand washing. Reminders and explanations for the importance of hand hygiene were thought to have a positive impact. Influencing individual choices about hand washing through education and information may be necessary, but not sufficient, for initiating and maintaining good hand washing practices. Structural factors, including having time to wash hands using accessible, clean facilities, and being encouraged through the existence of hand washing opportunities in the daily routine and hand washing being viewed as the social norm, will also influence hand washing behaviour. The effectiveness of educational interventions at improving hand hygiene in primary schools may be improved by changing priorities of staff and increasing accessibility to quality facilities. PMID:22623617

  4. Mechanism for salt scaling (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  5. An approach to better understanding of salt weathering on stone monuments - the "petraSalt" research project (United States)

    Heinrichs, K.; Azzam, R.


    Salt weathering is known as a major cause of damage on stone monuments. However, processes and mechanisms of salt weathering still can not be explained satisfactorily. From the expertś point of view, better understanding of salt weathering deserves further comprehensive in-situ investigation jointly addressing active salt weathering processes and controlling factors. The 'petraSalt' research project takes this approach. The rock-cut monuments of Petra / Jordan were selected for studies, since stone type and spectra of monument exposure regimes, environmental influences, salt loading and weathering damage are representative for many stone monuments worldwide. The project aims at real-time / real-scale weathering models that depict characteristic interdependencies between stone properties, monument exposure regimes, environmental influences, salt loading and salt weathering damage. These models are expected to allow reliable rating and interpretation of aggressiveness and damage potential of the salt weathering regimes considering their variability under range of lithology, monument exposure scenarios, environmental conditions and time. The methodological approach systematically combines assessment of weathering damage (type, extent, spatial distribution and progression of damage), assessment of monument exposure characteristics and environmental influences acting on the monuments (monument orientation / geometry, lithology, rain impact, water run-off, rising humidity, wind impact, insolation, heating-cooling and drying-wetting behaviour, etc.), engineering geological studies (structural discontinuities and related failure processes) and investigation of salt loading (type, concentration, spatial distribution and origin of salt, salt crystallization / dissolution, phase transitions, etc.). Besides established methods, very innovative technologies are applied in the course of investigation such as high-resolution 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and wireless

  6. Oxygen sparging of residue salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E.; Griego, W.J.; Owens, S.D.; Thorn, C.W.; Vigil, R.A.


    Oxygen sparge is a process for treating salt residues at Los Alamos National Laboratory by sparging oxygen through molten salts. Oxygen reacts with the plutonium trichloride in these salts to form plutonium dioxide. There is further reaction of the plutonium dioxide with plutonium metal and the molten salt to form plutonium oxychloride. Both of the oxide plutonium species are insoluble in the salt and collect atthe bottom of the crucible. This results in a decrease of a factor of 2--3 in the amount of salt that must be treated, and the amount of waste generated by aqueous treatment methods.

  7. Detection of Corrosion Resistance of Components in Cyclic Salt Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Álló


    Full Text Available The aim of this research is, to investigate the influence of two types of cyclic salt spray tests on parts surface treated with galvanizing. On the selected components was performed the method Zn-Ni surface treating on the bath line. Subsequently were the components embedded in the corrosion chamber, where was performed two types of cyclic salt test. In the first test was performed 4 hour salt spray, 8 hours drying, 60 hours condensation and 24 hours drying. Once cycle lasted 96 hours, and it was repeated 4 times. During the second test was performed 2 hours salt spray, 2 hours condensation. The cycle was repeated 4 times, that means 96 hours. After the cycle was performed 72 hours free relaxation in the corrosion chamber, on 20–25 °C temperature. As the research showed, after the cyclic salt spray was no red corrosion on the selected components. The white corrosion appeared only slightly.

  8. Functionalization of nanomaterials with aryldiazonium salts. (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed A; Salmi, Zakaria; Dahoumane, Si Amar; Mekki, Ahmed; Carbonnier, Benjamin; Chehimi, Mohamed M


    This paper reviews the surface modification strategies of a wide range of nanomaterials using aryldiazonium salts. After a brief history of diazonium salts since their discovery by Peter Griess in 1858, we will tackle the surface chemistry using these compounds since the first trials in the 1950s. We will then focus on the modern surface chemistry of aryldiazonium salts for the modification of materials, particularly metallic, semiconductors, metal oxide nanoparticles, carbon-based nanostructures, diamond and clays. The successful modification of sp(2) carbon materials and metals by aryldiazonium salts paved the way to innovative strategies for the attachment of aryl layers to metal oxide nanoparticles and nanodiamonds, and intercalation of clays. Interestingly, diazotized surfaces can easily trap nanoparticles and nanotubes while diazotized nanoparticles can be (electro)chemically reduced on electrode/materials surfaces as molecular compounds. Both strategies provided organized 2D surface assembled nanoparticles. In this review, aryldiazonium salts are highlighted as efficient coupling agents for many types of molecular, macromolecular and nanoparticulate species, therefore ensuring stability to colloids on the one hand, and the construction of composite materials and hybrid systems with robust and durable interfaces/interphases, on the other hand. The last section is dedicated to a selection of patents and industrial products based on aryldiazonium-modified nanomaterials. After nearly 160 years of organic chemistry, diazonium salts have entered a new, long and thriving era for the benefit of materials, colloids, and surface scientists. This tempts us to introduce the terminology of "diazonics" we define as the science and technology of aryldiazonium salt-derived materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of β-lactamase genes in domestic washing machines and dishwashers and the impact of laundering processes on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. (United States)

    Rehberg, L; Frontzek, A; Melhus, Å; Bockmühl, D P


    To investigate the prevalence of β-lactamase genes in domestic washing machines and dishwashers, and the decontamination efficacy of laundering. For the first investigation, swab samples from washing machines (n = 29) and dishwashers (n = 24) were analysed by real-time quantitative PCR to detect genes encoding β-lactamases. To test the impact of laundering on resistant bacteria, cotton test swatches were artificially contaminated with susceptible and resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus within a second investigation. They were washed in a domestic washing machine with or without activated oxygen bleach (AOB)-containing detergent at 20-50°C. β-Lactamase genes (most commonly of the AmpC- and OXA-type) were detected in 79% of the washing machines and in 96% of the dishwashers and Pseudomonadaceae dominated the microbiota. The level of bacterial reduction after laundering was ≥80% for all Ps. aeruginosa and Kl. pneumoniae strains, while it was only 37-61% for the methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus outbreak strain. In general, the reduction was tendentially higher for susceptible bacteria than for the resistant outbreak strains, especially for Staph. aureus. β-Lactamase genes seem to be frequently present in domestic appliances and may pose a potential risk for cross-contamination and horizontal transfer of genes encoding resistance against clinically important β-lactams. In general, higher temperatures and the use of AOB can improve the reduction of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including Staph. aureus which appears to be less susceptible to the decontamination effect of laundering. Data on the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the domestic environment are limited. This study suggests that β-lactamase genes in washing machines and dishwashers are frequent, and that antibiotic-resistant strains are generally more resistant to the used washing conditions. © 2017 The Society for

  10. The Application Queueing Theory in Singkil Service Car Wash


    Bongkriwan, Melisa Irene; Tumewu, Ferdinand


    In the service industry, long queuing will for waiting to be served is a taboo. Since, customers will switch to other competitors and reduce revenues. This research is conducted to find out the effectiveness and efficiency in queuing system in order to achieve customer satisfaction in the Singkil Service Car Wash. This research used model B M/M/S formula to get the average incoming customer. In normal condition, there were 2 customers and 3 line services, in the quiet condition, 1 customer an...

  11. Hand washing with soap and WASH educational intervention reduces under-five childhood diarrhoea incidence in Jigjiga District, Eastern Ethiopia: A community-based cluster randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Hashi, Abdiwahab; Kumie, Abera; Gasana, Janvier


    Despite the tremendous achievement in reducing child mortality and morbidity in the last two decades, diarrhoea is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. Hand washing with soap promotion, water quality improvements and improvements in excreta disposal significantly reduces diarrhoeal diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hand washing with soap and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) educational Intervention on the incidence of under-five children diarrhoea. A community-based cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in 24 clusters (sub-Kebelles) in Jigjiga district, Somali region, Eastern Ethiopia from February 1 to July 30, 2015. The trial compared incidence of diarrhoea among under-five children whose primary caretakers receive hand washing with soap and water, sanitation, hygiene educational messages with control households. Generalized estimating equation with a log link function Poisson distribution family was used to compute adjusted incidence rate ratio and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. The results of this study show that the longitudinal adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) of diarrhoeal diseases comparing interventional and control households was 0.65 (95% CI 0.57, 0.73) suggesting an overall diarrhoeal diseases reduction of 35%. The results are similar to other trials of WASH educational interventions and hand washing with soap. In conclusion, hand washing with soap practice during critical times and WASH educational messages reduces childhood diarrhoea in the rural pastoralist area.

  12. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized...

  13. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton


    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  14. Lowering Salt in Your Diet (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... and can be used by individuals to replace salt in their diet. There are no known undesirable effects in healthy ...

  15. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.


    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  16. Assessment of hand washing facilities, personal hygiene and the bacteriological quality of hand washes in some grocery and dairy shops in alexandria, egypt. (United States)

    Fawzi, Mohamed; Gomaa, Naglaa F; Bakr, Wafaa M


    Food produced with satisfactory hygienic standards is one of the essential conditions for promoting and preserving health. A total of 15 grocery and dairy shops were randomly selected from Alexandria, Egypt to assess their hand washing facilities and personal hygiene of food handlers using a pre-designed sanitation checklist. Also the bacteriological profile of the handlers' hand washes was determined. Only 20% of these shops were acceptable concerning their hand washing facilities ((3) 50% score percentages). Observing 29 food handlers revealed that only 3.4% of them were acceptable in their personal hygiene with a mean score percentage of only 31.0 +/- 9.2. Although the hand washing method followed by the food handlers significantly decreased both aerobic mesophilic and staphylococci counts, they were still high. Moreover, fecal coliforms increased insignificantly from 5 to 7 MPN/100ml indicating that the hand washing was improperly done due several pitfalls. Most of the handlers who washed their hands for less than 10 seconds (41.4%) had higher counts of aerobic mesophiles and staphylococci than those who washed for more 10 seconds. Most of the handlers (93.1%) did not avoid contamination from the tap after hand washing. Moreover, their hand washes were contaminated with fecal coliforms (8 MPN/100ml) and with slightly higher staphylococci counts than those who avoid contamination either by rinsing a tap or closing it by elbow. Much effort should be done from the responsible authority to improve the sanitation inside these shops and food handlers should be given in-service training to know how to efficiently wash their hands.

  17. Comparative effects of washing solution and the survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sample from nutrient broth was then sub cultured on Blood Agar, Mannitol Salt Agar, and MacConkey Agar, (MSA), Potato Dextrose Agar (SDA), while the one on Selenite F Broth was cultured on Salmonella Shigella Agar (SSA). Density of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 after pre-inoculation on ripe and unripe ...

  18. Microbial Diversity of Culinary Salts


    Muske, Galen; Baxter, Bonnie


    Extremophiles are exceptional microorganisms that live on this planet in extraordinarily harsh environments. One such extremophiles are Halophiles, salt-loving microorganisms that can survive in extreme salinity levels, and have been found to survive inside salt crystals. We were curious is about the potential diversity of halophiles surviving in salts harvested from around the world. For this experiment various culinary salts were suspended in a 23 % NaCL growth media broth and allowed to gr...

  19. Characterization of the effluent from a nanosilver producing washing machine. (United States)

    Farkas, Julia; Peter, Hannes; Christian, Paul; Gallego Urrea, Julián Alberto; Hassellöv, Martin; Tuoriniemi, Jani; Gustafsson, Stefan; Olsson, Eva; Hylland, Ketil; Thomas, Kevin Victor


    The increasing number of nanomaterial based consumer products raises concerns about their possible impact on the environment. This study provides an assessment of the effluent from a commercially available silver nanowashing machine. The washing machine released silver in its effluent at an average concentration of 11μgL(-1), as determined by inductive coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The presence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was confirmed by single particle ICP-MS as well as ion selective electrode measurements and filtration techniques. Size measurements showed particles to be in the defined nanosize range, with an average size of 10nm measured with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 60-100nm determined with nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). The effluent was shown to have negative effects on a natural bacterial community as its abundance was clearly reduced when exposed to the nanowash water. If washing machines capable of producing AgNPs become a common feature of households in the future, wastewater will contain significant loadings of AgNPs which might be released into the environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inactivation of Human Norovirus Genogroups I and II and Surrogates by Free Chlorine in Postharvest Leafy Green Wash Water. (United States)

    Dunkin, Nathan; Weng, ShihChi; Jacangelo, Joseph G; Schwab, Kellogg J


    Human noroviruses (hNoVs) are a known public health concern associated with the consumption of leafy green vegetables. While a number of studies have investigated pathogen reduction on the surfaces of leafy greens during the postharvest washing process, there remains a paucity of data on the level of treatment needed to inactivate viruses in the wash water, which is critical for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to quantify the susceptibility of hNoV genotype I (GI), hNoV GII, murine norovirus (MNV), and bacteriophage MS2 to free chlorine in whole leaf, chopped romaine, and shredded iceberg lettuce industrial leafy green wash waters, each sampled three times over a 4-month period. A suite of kinetic inactivation models was fit to the viral reduction data to aid in quantification of concentration-time (CT) values. Results indicate that 3-log 10 infectivity reduction was achieved at CT values of less than 0.2 mg · min/liter for MNV and 2.5 mg · min/liter for MS2 in all wash water types. CT values for 2-log 10 molecular reduction of hNoV GI in whole leaf and chopped romaine wash waters were 1.5 and 0.9 mg · min/liter, respectively. For hNoV GII, CT values were 13.0 and 7.5 mg · min/liter, respectively. In shredded iceberg wash water, 3-log 10 molecular reduction was not observed for any virus over the time course of experiments. These findings demonstrate that noroviruses may exhibit genogroup-dependent resistance to free chlorine and emphasize the importance of distinguishing between genogroups in hNoV persistence studies. IMPORTANCE Postharvest washing of millions of pounds of leafy greens is performed daily in industrial processing facilities with the intention of removing dirt, debris, and pathogenic microorganisms prior to packaging. Modest inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms (less than 2 log 10 ) is known to occur on the surfaces of leafy greens during washing. Therefore, the primary purpose of the sanitizing agent is to

  1. A review of hand-washing techniques in primary care and community settings. (United States)

    Smith, Sheree M S


    This review seeks to identify the most effective hand-washing and hand-cleansing practice that could be used in primary care. Healthcare associated infection is a major problem in the UK causing 5000 deaths every year. Current guidelines indicate expert opinion is the level of evidence for hand washing as an activity to reduce infection. Systematic review. Publications on hand-washing, hand-cleansing studies, policy and practice-based documents were sought by searching several databases. Terms used included hand washing, hand cleansing, hand hygiene, hand decontamination, infection control and primary care. Few articles described the hand-washing technique in detail and some publications simply referred to either the European and British Standards or the Centre for Disease Control statement on hand washing. Major discrepancies in hand position and water flow direction were found. Several methodological problems were also identified and few studies were undertaken in primary care. This review has found a lack of evidence for hand-washing techniques being undertaken in practice today. Findings from hand-washing technique studies were inconclusive and methodological issues exist resulting in sparse reliable evidence. There is an urgent need to undertake methodologically sound studies of hand-washing techniques for use in the ever expanding scope of primary care practice. Evidence for hand-washing and hand-cleansing techniques will inform healthcare professional practice, and contribute to the overall management of infection control in primary care.

  2. New Delhi Metallo-Β-Lactamase-Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriacae Isolated From Bronchial Washings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullivan, S


    The prevalence of Carbapenem resistance among Enterobacteriacae species is increasing and poses a potential major public health risk. In recent years, several new carbapenemases have been identified, including New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM). A 78-year-old non-smoking female with prior medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and prior coronary artery bypass grafting was referred to our respiratory outpatient service for evaluation of a chronic cough and dyspnoea in 2013. Clinical examination revealed bibasal pulmonary crepitations but was otherwise unremarkable. Computed tomography of the chest demonstrated atelectasis of the lingula and right middle lobe. She underwent bronchoscopy, which demonstrated laryngeal mucosa inflammation, consistent with her GERD. There was no growth on bacterial, fungal or mycobacterial bronchial washings cultures.

  3. Effect of a school-based hand washing promotion program on knowledge and hand washing behavior of girl students in a middle school of Delhi. (United States)

    Garg, Ankur; Taneja, Davendra Kumar; Badhan, Suresh Kumar; Ingle, Gopal Krishan


    The intervention study was conducted in a school of New Delhi to assess the effect of a school based hand-washing promotion program on knowledge and hand-washing behavior among school children and extent of information sharing with parents. Intervention was carried out on randomly selected 300 students (100 each from 6th class to 8th class) with 281 students being part of the final analysis. Tools of the study were hand-washing questionnaire and household survey performa; essay, poster, slogan writing competition; classroom interactions. Data were analyzed in the SPSS 16.0 software and Mcnemar test and Student paired t-test were used. After the program, 95% felt that hand should be washed frequently. Overall, there was a significant improvement in the knowledge regarding hand-washing and frequency of hand-washing practices after the intervention. 42% children shared this information with their parents. The intervention proved effective in improving awareness and highlights the potential of school for hand-washing promotion activities.

  4. How often do you wash your hands? A review of studies of hand-washing practices in the community during and after the SARS outbreak in 2003. (United States)

    Fung, Isaac C-H; Cairncross, Sandy


    We reviewed evidence of hand-washing compliance in community settings during the 2003 SARS outbreak. Literature was searched through PubMed, Cochrane Library, Wan Fang database and Google. English and Chinese papers were reviewed. Studies containing data on hand-washing, self-reported or directly observed, in community settings were selected. Case-control studies and studies in healthcare settings were excluded. Fourteen studies were reviewed. Self-reported hand-washing compliance increased in the first phase of the SARS outbreak and maintained a high level 22 months after the outbreak. The decline of hand-washing in Hong Kong after SARS was relatively slow. A significant gender difference in hand-washing compliance (female > male) was found in eight studies. The importance of family support and 'significant female others' in hand hygiene promotion are noted. The impact of education is uncertain. Perceived susceptibility to and severity of SARS, and perceived efficacy of hand-washing in preventing SARS, also predicted self-reported hand-washing compliance.

  5. Mixed salt crystallisation fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Helalizadeh, A


    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the mechanisms of mixed salt crystallisation fouling on heat transfer surfaces during convective heat transfer and sub-cooled flow boiling conditions. To-date no investigations on the effects of operating parameters on the deposition of mixtures of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate, which are the most common constituents of scales formed on heat transfer surfaces, have been reported. As part of this research project, a substantial number of experiments were performed to determine the mechanisms controlling deposition. Fluid velocity, heat flux, surface and bulk temperatures, concentration of the solution, ionic strength, pressure and heat transfer surface material were varied systematically. After clarification of the effect of these parameters on the deposition process, the results of these experiments were used to develop a mechanistic model for prediction of fouling resistances, caused by crystallisation of mixed salts, under convective heat transfer...

  6. Effects of egg washing and storage temperature on the quality of eggshell cuticle and eggs. (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Chi; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Wu, Ying-Chen; Lee, Yi-Chain; Tan, Fa-Jui


    This study investigated the quality of washed and unwashed eggs stored at 7°C (WC and UC for washed and unwashed eggs, respectively) and 25°C (WR and UR for washed and unwashed eggs, respectively) for 4weeks. The results show that the Haugh unit, albumin pH, thick albumin ratio, yolk index, air cell size, and S-ovalbumin content of UC were significantly the most superior, followed by those of WC, WR, and UR, in that order. Scanning electron microscopy and cuticle staining confirmed the damages and decreased cuticle coverage caused by washing and extended storage. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that cuticle composition changed significantly after washing and storage (Pegg quality, and egg washing reduced cuticle coverage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermodynamics of salt-doped polymers (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Gang


    There is much current interest in salt-doped polymers as materials for energy applications. For example, a promising system for rechargeable battery applications consists of diblock copolymers of an ion-dissolving block, such as polyethylene oxide (PEO) and a nonconducting block such as polystyrene. Experimentally, it has been shown that the addition of lithium salts significantly alters the order-order and order-disorder transition (ODT) temperatures. In particular, the ODT temperature can increase substantially upon adding even a small amount of lithium salt, and the domain spacing in the ordered phases also increases significantly. Both changes are found to depend on the anion type. In this talk, I describe a simple theory for explaining these phenomena. A key effect is the solvation energy of the anions by the polymers, which we approximate using the Born solvation model. The difference in the Born energy between different polymers provides a driving force towards phase separation. By studying the shift in the mean-field spinodal of the disordered phase, we can identify an effective χ parameter, with a systematic dependence on the anion radius, in agreement with available experimental data. Furthermore, by studying the behavior of the domain spacing with salt concentration, we clarify the relationship between different definitions of the effective χ parameter. We propose that the effective χ parameter determined from the structure factor of the disordered phase is a more robust measure of the change in miscibility between the two blocks. Finally, we demonstrate that salt doping induces a strongly first-order transition from the disordered phase to the lamellar phase, with different salt concentrations in the two phases.

  8. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM


    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  9. Salt in bread - succesful?) Reduction of content in danish bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuthsen, Pia; Saxholt, Erling; Trolle, Ellen

    High intakes of sodium are associated with high blood pressure, elevated risk of cardiovascular diseases and early death. In the Nordic countries reduction of average sodium intake to about 2-2.7 g/d, or 5-7 g salt/d, is recommended. Main sources of salt in the diet are processed foods e.g. bread...... of view a gradual reduction would do in order to adapt to lower salt preference. To demonstrate a possible reduction, current salt levels must be assessed, and in the present study salt content of bread, covering Danish consumption in 2014, was investigated. When monitoring a possible trend samples...... studied must represent the current consumption. Thus getting an overview of market shares is important, and quite a challenge as selection of bread is changing continuously. A strategic sampling plan was made representing all relevant types of bread, based on information from manufacturers...

  10. Microemulsion of Molten Salts (United States)


    then to an oil-rich, upper phase as salinity increases in a system of brine/octane/ TRS surfactant/tertiary amyl alcohol . Borkovec et al. (1988) have...11 4. Partial Pseudotemary Phase Diagram .................................. 12 5. Micrograph of Molten Salts/SDS/Pentanol/Decane System...negligible interfacial tension between microdomains. Theoretical work in ternary and pseudotemary systems has shown that the middle phase is a

  11. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers in Ain Shams University hospitals in Cairo. (United States)

    Abd Elaziz, K M; Bakr, I M


    Most nosocomial infections are thought to be transmitted by the hands of health care workers. The aim of this work was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers (HCW) in Ain-Shams University hospitals and to investigate the presence of the necessary facilities and supplies required for hand washing (HW) in ten wards. A cross-sectional descriptive and observational study was conducted for six months from June till November 2006. Observation of the HCW for hand washing practice was done at any opportunity of contact with the patients in the different wards by members of the infection control team. Knowledge & attitude of HCW towards hand hygiene was done through self-administered questionnaire to HCW in 10 different departments. The total opportunities observed were 2189 opportunities. Doctors showed a significantly higher compliance (37.5%) than other groups of HCW (P = 0.000), however only 11.6% of the opportunities observed for doctors were done appropriately. The most common type of HW practiced among HCW was the routine HW (64.2%) and the least was the antiseptic HW (3.9%). Having a short contact time and improper drying (23.2%) were the most common errors that lead to inappropriate HW. Most of the wards had available sinks (80%) but none of them had available paper towels. The mean knowledge score was higher in nurses compared to doctors (42.6 +/- 1.7 versus 39.1 +/- 10.5). Most of the nurses (97.3%) believe that administrative orders and continuous observation can improve hand washing practices. Implementation of multifaceted interventional behavioral hand hygiene program with continuous monitoring and performance feedback, increasing the supplies necessary for HW and institutional support are important for improving the compliance of hand hygiene guidelines.

  12. Cell saver autologous transfusion: metabolic consequences of washing blood with normal saline. (United States)

    Halpern, N A; Alicea, M; Seabrook, B; Spungen, A M; McElhinney, A J; Greenstein, R J


    To evaluate acid-base and electrolyte changes in high volume cell saver autologous blood transfusion when normal saline (0.9% NaCl) is used as the wash solution. Open-label study. Nine anesthetized and anticoagulated mongrel dogs underwent 15 cycles of cell saver autologous blood transfusion. Eight percent of the circulating blood volume (125 mL) was withdrawn, washed with normal saline, and retransfused for each cycle. Analyses of acid-base, electrolyte, and hematologic parameters were performed on both systemic and the washed blood. The washed blood had increased levels of sodium and chloride. There were decreased levels in pH, Pco2, total CO2 (bicarbonate), lactic acid, potassium, total and ionized calcium, magnesium, inorganic phosphorus, total protein, and albumin. Systemically, in the animals, by the end of the study, there were significant increases in the levels of chloride, inorganic phosphorus, hemoglobin, and hematocrit and significant decreases in the levels of pH, total CO2, total and ionized calcium, magnesium, total protein, and albumin. Acid-base, electrolyte, and hematologic changes occur when normal saline is used as the wash solution in high volume cell saver autologous blood transfusion. The washed blood with its elevation of sodium and chloride appears to reflect the constituents of the wash solution, normal saline. The depletion in the washed blood of PCO2, total CO2, potassium, total calcium, ionized calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, total protein, and albumin we feel is because of the absence of these electrolytes in the wash solution and their physical removal during salvaged blood separation and washing. The systemic acid-base and electrolyte changes primarily reflect the electrolyte pattern of the reinfused washed blood except for inorganic phosphorus. Inorganic phosphorus was maintained systemically, despite its wash out in the cell salvage process. This paradoxical finding may be caused by intracellular to extracellular inorganic

  13. Factors influencing hand washing behaviour in primary schools: process evaluation within a randomised controlled trial


    Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Nicholson, Alexandra L.; Basker, Elaine; Bell, Sarah; Campbell, Rona


    This paper explores factors that may influence hand washing behaviour among pupils and staff in primary schools. A qualitative process evaluation within a cluster randomised controlled trial included pupil focus groups (n=16, ages 6 to 11, semi-structured interviews (n=16 teachers) and observations of hand washing facilities (n=57). Pupils and staff in intervention and control schools demonstrated a similar level of understanding of how, when and why they should wash their hands. Lack of time...

  14. Effect of a school-based hand washing promotion program on knowledge and hand washing behavior of girl students in a middle school of Delhi


    Ankur Garg; Davendra Kumar Taneja; Suresh Kumar Badhan; Gopal Krishan Ingle


    The intervention study was conducted in a school of New Delhi to assess the effect of a school based hand-washing promotion program on knowledge and hand-washing behavior among school children and extent of information sharing with parents. Intervention was carried out on randomly selected 300 students (100 each from 6th class to 8th class) with 281 students being part of the final analysis. Tools of the study were hand-washing questionnaire and household survey performa; essay, poster, sloga...

  15. Wash durability and optimal drying regimen of four brands of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets after repeated washing under tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atieli Francis K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study was undertaken to determine the optimal wash-drying regimen and the effects of different washing procedures on the efficacy, and durability of four brands of newly introduced long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs under tropical conditions. Methods In the current study, the following four LLINs were tested: Olyset®, PermaNet ®2.0, BASF® and TNT®. Nets were divided into three sets; one set was washed by hand rubbing and air-dried either hanging or spread on the ground in direct sunlight or hanging or spread on the ground under the shade. A second set was washed using the WHO protocol (machine and the third set was washed by beating the nets on rocks. The biological activities of the nets were assessed by a three-minute bioassay cone test and the residual insecticide contents were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedure. Results Nets that were dried hanging under the shade retained more insecticide, 62.5% and recorded higher mortality compared to nets which were dried lying on the ground in direct sunlight 58.8%, nets dried under the shade spread on the ground 56.3%, and 57.8% for nets dried hanging in direct sunlight. It was also observed that nets washed by the standard WHO protocol, retained more insecticide and were more effective in killing mosquitoes compared to nets washed by local methods of hand rubbing and beating on rocks. There were significant differences between drying regimens (p ® and TNT there were no significant differences observed between the four drying regimens (p = 0.7944 and 0.4703 respectively. For BASF and Olyset, the differences were significant (p 0.0001. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that washing and drying regimen influence the insecticidal activity of LLINs. The standard WHOPES washing protocol underestimates the amount of insecticide washed from LLINs compared to the abrasive washing procedures that are used in the field

  16. [Biosynthesis of enniatin by washed cells of Fusarium sambucinum]. (United States)

    Minasian, A E; Chermenskĭ, D N; Bezborodov, A M


    Biosynthesis of the depsipeptide membrane ionophore--enniatin B by the washed mycelium Fusarium sambucinum Fuck 52 377 was studied. Metabolic precursors of enniatin B, alpha-ketovaleric acid, 14C-L-valine, and 14CH3-methionine, were added to the system after starvation. The amino acid content in the metabolic pool increased 1.5 times after addition of alpha-ketovaleric acid, 2.2 times after that of valine, and 2.5 times after addition of methionine. 14C-L-valine and 14CH3-methionine were incorporated into the molecule of enniatin B. Valine methylation in the molecule occurred at the level of synthesized depsipeptide. Amino acids of the metabolic pool performed the regulatory function in the synthesis.

  17. Nano-biphasic ionic liquid systems composed of hydrophobic phosphonium salts and a hydrophilic ammonium salt. (United States)

    Taguchi, Satomi; Ichikawa, Takahiro; Kato, Takashi; Ohno, Hiroyuki


    A combination of a phosphonium-type-zwitterions-lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide complex and a hydrophilic ammonium salt provides a nanosegregated liquid-crystalline matrix consisting of hydrophilic ionic liquid (IL) domains and hydrophobic IL domains. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  18. Contact allergens and irritants in household washing and cleaning products. (United States)

    Magnano, Michela; Silvani, Simonetta; Vincenzi, Colombina; Nino, Massimiliano; Tosti, Antonella


    Household cleaning products often contain potential allergens and irritants but allergic contact dermatitis from these products in general consumers is rarely reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of irritants and allergens as indicated on the labels or on the product information found on the website of household cleaning products marketed in Italy. We examined the labels and the product information of 291 liquid household washing and cleaning products, including 43 washing-up liquids, 63 laundry detergents, 61 fabric conditioners, 47 spray detergents, and 77 hard surface cleaning products. We obtained the data from the product information found on the websites for 263 products and directly on the product packages for 28 products. For each product we specifically recorded the presence of surfactants, preservatives, and fragrances listed in Annex III of Directive 76/768/EEC. The websites of two Italian brands do not respect EU regulations as they provide product information only with bar codes of the products. Preservatives and fragrances are the main allergens declared in the label of household cleaning products with methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) listed in 35.7% and limonene in 43.6% of the products. Surfactants were listed in 16.5% of the studied products. Our study shows that household cleaning products in Italian market contain several allergens, particularly preservatives and fragrances. For consumers, at least in Italy, it may not be easy to retrieve product information from the website for two widely sold brands. The information had to be taken from the actual package.

  19. Chelator induced phytoextraction and in situ soil washing of Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, Bostjan; Lestan, Domen


    In a soil column experiment, we investigated the effect of 5 mmol kg{sup -1} soil addition of citric acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA), diethylenetriamine-pentaacetate (DTPA) and [S,S]-stereoisomer of ethylenediamine-disuccinate (EDDS) on phytoextraction of Cu from a vineyard soil with 162.6 mg kg{sup -1} Cu, into the test plant Brassica rapa var. pekinensis. We also examined the use of a horizontal permeable barrier, composed of layers of nutrient enriched sawdust and apatite, for reduction of chelator induced Cu leaching. The addition of all chelators, except citric acid, enhanced Cu mobility and caused leaching of 19.5-23% of initial total Cu from the soil column. However, Cu plant uptake did not increase accordingly; the most effective was the EDDS treatment, in which plant Cu concentration reached 37.8{+-}1.3 mg kg{sup -1} Cu and increased by 3.3-times over the control treatment. The addition of none of the chelators in the concentration range from 5 to 15 mmol kg{sup -1} exerted any toxic effect on respiratory soil microorganisms. When EDDS was applied into the columns with horizontal permeable barriers, only 0.53{+-}0.32% of the initial total Cu was leached. Cu (36.7%) was washed from the 18 cm soil layer above the barrier and accumulated in the barrier. Our results indicate that rather than for a reduction of Cu leaching during rather ineffective chelate induced Cu phytoextraction, horizontal permeable barriers could be more effective in a new remediation technique of controlled in situ soil washing of Cu with biodegradable chelates.

  20. Harmony: A Hand Wash Monitoring and Reminder System using Smart Watches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Sayeed Mondol


    Full Text Available Hand hygiene compliance is extremely important in hospitals, clinics and food businesses. Caregivers' compliance with hand hygiene is one of the most effective tools in preventing healthcare associated infections (HAIs in hospitals and clinics. In food businesses, hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent food contamination, and thus food borne illness. Washing hands properly is the cornerstone of hand hygiene. However, the hand wash compliance rate by the workers (care givers, waiters, chefs, food processors and so on is not up to the mark. Monitoring hand wash compliance along with a reminder system increases the compliance rate significantly. Quality of a hand wash is also important which can be achieved by washing hands in accordance with standard guidelines. In this paper, we present Harmony, a hand wash monitoring and reminder system that monitors hand wash events and their quality, provides real time feedback, reminds the person of interest when he/she is required to wash hands, and stores related data in a server for further use. Worker worn smart watches are the key components of Harmony that can differentiate hand wash gestures from other gestures with an average accuracy of about 88%. Harmony is robust, scalable, and easy to install, and it overcomes most of the problems of existing related systems.

  1. Protective Effect of Hand-Washing and Good Hygienic Habits Against Seasonal Influenza (United States)

    Liu, Mingbin; Ou, Jianming; Zhang, Lijie; Shen, Xiaona; Hong, Rongtao; Ma, Huilai; Zhu, Bao-Ping; Fontaine, Robert E.


    Abstract Previous observational studies have reported protective effects of hand-washing in reducing upper respiratory infections, little is known about the associations between hand-washing and good hygienic habits and seasonal influenza infection. We conducted a case-control study to test whether the risk of influenza transmission associated with self-reported hand-washing and unhealthy hygienic habits among residents in Fujian Province, southeastern China. Laboratory confirmed seasonal influenza cases were consecutively included in the study as case-patients (n = 100). For each case, we selected 1 control person matched for age and city of residence. Telephone interview was used to collect information on hand-washing and hygienic habits. The associations were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Compared with the poorest hand-washing score of 0 to 3, odds ratios of influenza infection decreased progressively from 0.26 to 0.029 as hand-washing score increased from 4 to the maximum of 9 (P hand-washing score, providing soap or hand cleaner beside the hand-washing basin, and receiving influenza vaccine. Regular hand-washing and good hygienic habits were associated with a reduced risk of influenza infection. These findings support the general recommendation for nonpharmaceutical interventions against influenza. PMID:26986125

  2. Effects of Temperature and Humidity History on Brittleness of α-Sulfonated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Salt Crystals. (United States)

    Watanabe, Hideaki; Morigaki, Atsunori; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Tobori, Norio; Aramaki, Kenji


    α-Sulfonated fatty acid methyl ester salts (MES), which were made from vegetable sources, are attractive candidates for eco-friendly washing detergents because they have various special features like excellent detergency, favorable biodegradability, and high stability against enzymes. To overcome some disadvantages of powder-type detergents like caking, sorting, and dusting, we studied how temperature and humidity history, as a model for long-term storage conditions, can affect crystalline structures and reduce the brittleness of MES powder. We characterized the crystalline structure of MES grains using small-angle X-ray scattering, wide-angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements and determined the yield values, which measure the brittleness of MES grains, in shear stress using dynamic viscoelasticity measurements. This study confirmed that MES crystals form three pseudo-polymorphs via thermal or humidity conditioning: metastable crystals (αsubcell), anhydrous crystals (β subcell), and dihydrate crystals (β' subcell). Further, we found that the yield value increases upon phase transition from the β subcell to the β' subcell and from the β' subcell to the αsubcell. Therefore, controlling the thermal and humidity conditioning of MES grains is an effective way to decrease the brittleness of MES powders and can be used to overcome the above mentioned disadvantages of powder-type detergents in the absence of co-surfactants.

  3. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab


    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...... sediments, the diapir extruded an overhang. Using the asymmetric Klodawa Salt Structure (KSS) in central Poland as a prototype, a series of analogue models were carried out to investigate the evolution history and salt supply driven by asymmetric differential loading. During extension of the model, a daipir...

  4. Climatology of salt transitions and implications for stone weathering. (United States)

    Grossi, C M; Brimblecombe, P; Menéndez, B; Benavente, D; Harris, I; Déqué, M


    This work introduces the notion of salt climatology. It shows how climate affects salt thermodynamic and the potential to relate long-term salt damage to climate types. It mainly focuses on specific sites in Western Europe, which include some cities in France and Peninsular Spain. Salt damage was parameterised using the number of dissolution-crystallisation events for unhydrated (sodium chloride) and hydrated (sodium sulphate) systems. These phase transitions have been calculated using daily temperature and relative humidity from observation meteorological data and Climate Change models' output (HadCM3 and ARPEGE). Comparing the number of transitions with meteorological seasonal data allowed us to develop techniques to estimate the frequency of salt transitions based on the local climatology. Results show that it is possible to associate the Köppen-Geiger climate types with potential salt weathering. Temperate fully humid climates seem to offer the highest potential for salt damage and possible higher number of transitions in summer. Climates with dry summers tend to show a lesser frequency of transitions in summer. The analysis of temperature, precipitation and relative output from Climate Change models suggests changes in the Köppen-Geiger climate types and changes in the patterns of salt damage. For instance, West Europe areas with a fully humid climate may change to a more Mediterranean like or dry climates, and consequently the seasonality of different salt transitions. The accuracy and reliability of the projections might be improved by simultaneously running multiple climate models (ensembles). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception


    Tournier, Carole; Knoop, Janine E.; Kooyman, Gonnie; Smit, Gerrit


    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various stimulation conditions involving relative changes in NaCl concentration of 20% and 38%. Changes in salt delivery profile had similar effect on saltiness perception when delivered either by a sipwise m...

  6. Rheology of rock salt for salt tectonics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yuan Li


    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical modeling of salt tectonics is a rapidly evolving field; however, the constitutive equations to model long-term rock salt rheology in nature still remain controversial. Firstly, we built a database about the strain rate versus the differential stress through collecting the data from salt creep experiments at a range of temperatures (20–200 °C in laboratories. The aim is to collect data about salt deformation in nature, and the flow properties can be extracted from the data in laboratory experiments. Moreover, as an important preparation for salt tectonics modeling, a numerical model based on creep experiments of rock salt was developed in order to verify the specific model using the Abaqus package. Finally, under the condition of low differential stresses, the deformation mechanism would be extrapolated and discussed according to microstructure research. Since the studies of salt deformation in nature are the reliable extrapolation of laboratory data, we simplified the rock salt rheology to dislocation creep corresponding to power law creep (n = 5 with the appropriate material parameters in the salt tectonic modeling.

  7. Reactive halogen species above salt lakes and salt pans


    Holla, Robert


    Salt lakes can be found on all continents and saline soils cover 2.5% of the land surface of the earth (FAO, 2012). This thesis investigates the presence of reactive halogen species (RHS) above salt lakes and saline soils to evaluate their relevance for tropospheric chemistry of the planetary boundary layer. Ground-based MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS measurements were conducted at salt lakes and two other sites with high halogen content. Prior to this work, RHS were found at three salt ...

  8. Improving understanding of the underlying physical process of sediment wash-off from urban road surfaces (United States)

    Muthusamy, Manoranjan; Tait, Simon; Schellart, Alma; Beg, Md Nazmul Azim; Carvalho, Rita F.; de Lima, João L. M. P.


    Among the urban aquatic pollutants, the most common is sediment which also acts as a transport medium for many contaminants. Hence there is an increasing interest in being able to better predict the sediment wash-off from urban surfaces. The exponential wash-off model is the most widely used method to predict the sediment wash-off. Although a number of studies proposed various modifications to the original exponential wash-off equation, these studies mostly looked into one parameter in isolation thereby ignoring the interactions between the parameters corresponding to rainfall, catchment and sediment characteristics. Hence in this study we aim (a) to investigate the effect of rainfall intensity, surface slope and initial load on wash-off load in an integrated and systematic way and (b) to subsequently improve the exponential wash-off equation focusing on the effect of the aforementioned three parameters. A series of laboratory experiments were carried out in a full-scale setup, comprising of a rainfall simulator, a 1 m2 bituminous road surface, and a continuous wash-off measuring system. Five rainfall intensities ranging from 33 to 155 mm/h, four slopes ranging from 2 to 16% and three initial loads ranging from 50 to 200 g/m2 were selected based on values obtained from the literature. Fine sediment with a size range of 300-600 μm was used for all of the tests. Each test was carried out for one hour with at least 9 wash-off samples per test collected. Mass balance checks were carried out for all the tests as a quality control measure to make sure that there is no significant loss of sand during the tests. Results show that the washed off sediment load at any given time is proportional to initial load for a given combination of rainfall intensity and surface slope. This indicates the importance of dedicated modelling of build-up so as to subsequently predict wash-off load. It was also observed that the maximum fraction that is washed off from the surface increases

  9. Hand-washing practices amongst mothers of under-5 children in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. (United States)

    Opara, Peace; Alex-Hart, Balafama; Okari, Tamunoiyowuna


    Hand-washing with soap and water (HWWS) can prevent a significant proportion of childhood diarrhoea and respiratory infections, the two main global causes of child mortality. However, good hand-washing practices are rare, especially in low-income countries, and findings suggest that hand-washing at critical times such as after defaecation or cleaning an infant's perineum are not common practice. The study explored hand-washing practices among mothers of children under-5 in Port Harcourt. This was a cross-sectional study of self-reported hand-washing practices among mothers of children under-5 presenting to the paediatric clinics of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Using a simple structured questionnaire, the data collected included biodata, perceptions, and self-reported behaviour concerning hand-washing at critical times. 154 mothers participated in the study. Sixty-four (41.6%) mothers usually washed their hands with soapy water in a container, 30 (19.5%) used soap and running water, and 60 (38.9%) used only water, either running or in a container. After cleaning an infant's perineal area, 60 (40.3%) and 39 (25.3%) used soap and running water and soapy water in a container, respectively, to wash their hands while 48 (31.2%) used plain water. Before feeding infants, 47 (30.5%) washed their hands with soap and running water. HWWS at critical times was significantly associated with mothers' level of education (P Hand-washing practices by mothers in Port Harcourt are poor. Extensive education of the public is required to reduce the risks of childhood infections associated with lack of hand-washing.

  10. Maternal and birth attendant hand washing and neonatal mortality in southern Nepal. (United States)

    Rhee, Victor; Mullany, Luke C; Khatry, Subarna K; Katz, Joanne; LeClerq, Steven C; Darmstadt, Gary L; Tielsch, James M


    More than 95% of neonatal deaths occur in developing countries, approximately 50% at home. Few data are available on the impact of hand-washing practices by birth attendants or caretakers on neonatal mortality. To evaluate the relationship between birth attendant and maternal hand-washing practices and neonatal mortality in rural Nepal. Observational prospective cohort study. Sarlahi District in rural southern Nepal. Newborn infants were originally enrolled in a community-based trial assessing the effect of skin and/or umbilical cord cleansing with chlorhexidine on neonatal mortality in southern Nepal. A total of 23,662 newborns were enrolled and observed through 28 days of life. Questionnaires were administered to mothers on days 1 and 14 after delivery to identify care practices and risk factors for mortality and infection. Three hand-washing categories were defined: (1) birth attendant hand washing with soap and water before assisting with delivery, (2) maternal hand washing with soap and water or antiseptic before handling the baby, and (3) combined birth attendant and maternal hand washing. Mortality within the neonatal period. Birth attendant hand washing was related to a statistically significant lower mortality rate among neonates (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-0.99), as was maternal hand washing (adjusted RR = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.38-0.82). There was a 41% lower mortality rate among neonates exposed to both hand-washing practices (adjusted RR = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.37-0.94). Birth attendant and maternal hand washing with soap and water were associated with significantly lower rates of neonatal mortality. Measures to improve or promote birth attendant and maternal hand washing could improve neonatal survival rates.

  11. Short communication: Automatic washing of hooves can help control digital dermatitis in dairy cows. (United States)

    Thomsen, Peter T; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Sørensen, Jan Tind


    The objectives of this study were to develop and test a system for automatic washing of the hooves of dairy cows and to evaluate the effect of frequent automatic washing on the prevalence of digital dermatitis (DD). An automatic hoof washer was developed in an experimental dairy herd and tested in 6 commercial dairy herds in 2 experiments (1 and 2). In the experimental herd, automatic hoof washing resulted in cleaner hooves. In experiments 1 and 2, cows were washed after each milking on the left side only, leaving the right side unwashed as a within-cow control. In experiment 1, hooves were washed with a water and 0.4% soap solution. In experiment 2, hooves were washed with water only. In each experiment, DD was scored in a hoof-trimming chute approximately 60 d after the start of hoof washing. Data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. The outcome was the DD status of each leg (DD positive or DD negative). Herd and cow within herd were included as random effects, and treatment (washing or control) was included as a fixed effect. The statistical analyses showed that the odds ratio of having DD was 1.48 in the control leg compared with the washed leg in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the odds ratio of having DD was 1.27 in the control leg compared with the washed leg. We concluded that automatic washing of hooves with water and soap can help decrease the prevalence of DD in commercial dairy herds. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Internalization of Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupes during dump tank washing and hydrocooling. (United States)

    Macarisin, Dumitru; Wooten, Anna; De Jesus, Antonio; Hur, Minji; Bae, Seonjae; Patel, Jitendra; Evans, Peter; Brown, Eric; Hammack, Thomas; Chen, Yi


    Recent listeriosis outbreaks and recalls associated with cantaloupes urge for studies to understand the mechanisms of cantaloupe contamination by Listeria monocytogenes. Postharvest practices such as washing and hydrocooling were suggested to facilitate the contamination of fresh fruits by human pathogens. This study assessed the potential of L. monocytogenes internalization into cantaloupes during dump tank washing and immersion-type hydrocooling in water contaminated with L. monocytogenes. The effect of cantaloupe cultivar, water temperature, and harvesting technique on L. monocytogenes internalization was also evaluated. Full slip (cantaloupe without any residual stem) Western and Eastern cultivar cantaloupes were pre-warmed to 42°C (to imitate peak-high field temperatures of freshly harvested cantaloupes) and then immersed in water at 6°C and 18°C containing 4 and 6logCFU/ml of L. monocytogenes. Clipped (cantaloupe with short stem residues obtained by clipping the stem at harvest) Western and Eastern cantaloupes were pre-warmed to 42°C and then immersed in water at 6°C containing 6logCFU/ml of L. monocytogenes. Additionally, full slip and clipped Western cantaloupes were equilibrated to 18°C and then immersed in water at 18°C containing 6logCFU/ml of L. monocytogenes (isothermal immersion without temperature differential). Water containing L. monocytogenes infiltrated both full slip and clipped cantaloupes through the stems/stem scars and was then distributed along the vascular system in hypodermal mesocarp reaching the calyx area of the fruit. The current study demonstrated that, under experimental conditions, L. monocytogenes can internalize into cantaloupes during immersion in water contaminated by L. monocytogenes, both in the presence and absence of temperature differential, and that temperature differential moderately enhanced the internalization of L. monocytogenes. The incidence and levels of L. monocytogenes internalized in the middle

  13. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai


    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  14. Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride To Purify Molten Salt Reactor Coolant and Heat Transfer Fluoride Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; McNamara, Bruce K.


    Abstract: The molten salt cooled nuclear reactor is included as one of the Generation IV reactor types. One of the challenges with the implementation of this reactor is purifying and maintaining the purity of the various molten fluoride salts that will be used as coolants. The method used for Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s molten salt experimental test reactor was to treat the coolant with a mixture of H2 and HF at 600°C. In this article we evaluate thermal NF3 treatment for purifying molten fluoride salt coolant candidates based on NF3’s 1) past use to purify fluoride salts, 2) other industrial uses, 3) commercial availability, 4) operational, chemical, and health hazards, 5) environmental effects and environmental risk management methods, 6) corrosive properties, and 7) thermodynamic potential to eliminate impurities that could arise due to exposure to water and oxygen. Our evaluation indicates that nitrogen trifluoride is a viable and safer alternative to the previous method.

  15. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Marthaler


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Conclusions. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%. In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67% and Switzerland (85%. In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method.

  16. The Asia Oceania Human Proteome Organisation Membrane Proteomics Initiative. Preparation and characterization of the carbonate-washed membrane standard (United States)

    Peng, Lifeng; Kapp, Eugene A.; Fenyö, David; Kwon, Min-Seok; Jiang, Pu; Wu, Songfeng; Jiang, Ying; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel; Ahmed, Nikhat; Baker, Mark S.; Cai, Zongwei; Chen, Yu-Ju; Van Chi, Phan; Chung, Maxey C. M.; He, Fuchu; Len, Alice C. L.; Liao, Pao-Chi; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Ngai, Sai Ming; Paik, Young-Ki; Pan, Tai-Long; Poon, Terence C. W.; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Simpson, Richard J.; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Svasti, Jisnuson; Tyan, Yu-Chang; Dreyer, Florian S.; McLauchlan, Danyl; Rawson, Pisana; Jordan, T. William


    The Asia Oceania Human Proteome Organisation has embarked on a Membrane Proteomics Initiative with goals of systematic comparison of strategies for analysis of membrane proteomes and discovery of membrane proteins. This multi-laboratory project is based on analysis of a subcellular fraction from mouse liver that contains endoplasmic reticulum and other organelles. Here we present the strategy used for preparation and initial characterisation of the membrane sample, including validation that the carbonate-washing step enriches for integral and lipid-anchored membrane proteins. Analysis of seventeen independent datasets from five types of proteomic workflows is in progress. PMID:20486120

  17. Exposure data for personal care products: hairspray, spray perfume, liquid foundation, shampoo, body wash, and solid antiperspirant. (United States)

    Loretz, Linda; Api, Anne Marie; Barraj, Leila; Burdick, Joel; Davis, De Ann; Dressler, William; Gilberti, Enrico; Jarrett, Gwendolyn; Mann, Steve; Laurie Pan, Y H; Re, Thomas; Renskers, Kevin; Scrafford, Carolyn; Vater, Sally


    Reliable exposure information for cosmetic and other personal care products and ingredients is needed in order to conduct safety assessments. Essential information includes both the amount of product applied, and the frequency of use. To obtain current data, studies to assess consumer use practices were undertaken. Six widely used personal care product types were included in the studies. Five of the products were cosmetics (spray perfume, hairspray, liquid foundation, shampoo, body wash) and one product was a cosmetic/over-the-counter drug product (solid antiperspirant). Three hundred and sixty women, ages 19-65 years, who regularly use the products of interest, were recruited at 10 different geographical locations within the US. The number of recruits was chosen to ensure a minimum of three hundred completed responses per product type. Subjects were provided with a new container of the brand of product they normally use and kept diaries and recorded detailed daily usage information over a two week period. Products were weighed at the start and completion of the study in order to determine the total amount of product used. Statistical analyses of the data were conducted to derive summary distributions of use patterns. The geometric mean and median usage per application, respectively, for the six product types were: spray perfume, 0.33 g and 0.23 g; hairspray, 2.58 g and 1.83 g (aerosol); 3.64 g and 2.66 g (pump); liquid foundation, 0.54 g and 0.36 g; shampoo, 11.76 g and 9.56 g; body wash, 11.3g and 9.5 g; and solid antiperspirant, 0.61 g and 0.45 g. The mean and median usage per day for the six product types were: spray perfume, 0.53 g and 0.34 g; hairspray, 3.57 g and 2.71 g (aerosol); 5.18 g and 3.74 g (pump); liquid foundation, 0.67 g and 0.45 g; shampoo, 12.80 g and 10.75 g; body wash, 14.5 g and 12.9 g; and solid antiperspirant, 0.79 g and 0.59 g. The mean number of applications per day for spray perfume, hairspray, liquid foundation, shampoo, body wash, and

  18. Supramolecular Assembly of Complementary Cyanine Salt J-Aggregates

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhong’an


    An understanding of structure–property relationships in cyanine dyes is critical for their design and application. Anionic and cationic cyanines can be organized into complementary cyanine salts, offering potential building blocks to modulate their intra/intermolecular interactions in the solid state. Here, we demonstrate how the structures of these complementary salts can be tuned to achieve highly ordered J-type supramolecular aggregate structures of heptamethine dyes in crystalline solids.

  19. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension (United States)


    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  20. Fostering Hand Washing before Lunch by Students Attending a Special Needs Young Adult Program (United States)

    Walmsley, Christopher; Mahoney, Amanda; Durgin, Amy; Poling, Alan


    A multiple baseline across groups design was used to investigate the effects of a treatment package on hand washing before lunch by five students with disabilities who attended a young adult educational program. To evaluate hand washing, a lotion called Glo Germ was applied to participants' hands. Glo Germ is visible under a black light, which…

  1. Washing Machines--Components & Operations; Appliance Repair 2: #9025.03. (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Designed to familiarize the student with the components and operations of automatic washing machines, this course outline offers instruction on the principles of washing and their relation to the automatic washer, the functions and operations of washer components, identification of various component malfunctions, washer installation, and the…

  2. Laundry in a washing machine as a mediator of secondary and tertiary DNA transfer. (United States)

    Voskoboinik, Lev; Amiel, Merav; Reshef, Ayeleth; Gafny, Ron; Barash, Mark


    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of secondary and tertiary DNA transfer during laundry. The modes of transfer tested were mixed and separate laundry of worn and unworn garments in household and public washing machines. In addition, the possibility of a background DNA carry-over from a washing machine's drum was investigated. In the mixed (worn and unworn garments washed together) laundry experiment, 22% of samples from new unworn socks with no traceable DNA prior to experiment produced DNA profiles post-laundry. In the tertiary DNA transfer experiment performed in a public washing machine (unworn garments only), no detectable DNA profiles were observed. Samples collected from the internal drum of 25 washing and drying machines did not produce detectable STR profiles. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of forensic DNA casework analysis. Graphical Abstract ᅟA real-life scenario of secondary DNA transfer between worn and unworn garments during machine washing has been evaluated. Experiments demonstrated this scenario is possible (22% of samples) and may in fact result in high quality DNA profiles. On the contrary, testing washing machine's interior for deposition of biological material between separate washing cycles to serve as a mediator of tertiary DNA transfer resulted in no DNA profiles.

  3. Investigation of water washes suitable for very small meat plants to reduce pathogens on beef surfaces. (United States)

    Yoder, Sally Flowers; Henning, William R; Mills, Edward W; Doores, Stephanie; Ostiguy, Nancy; Cutter, Catherine N


    Water washing with a handheld hose was performed on beef surfaces to ascertain the most effective combination of methods needed to remove potentially harmful microorganisms. For these experiments, beef brisket surfaces were experimentally inoculated with a fecal slurry containing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter jejuni. In a pilot study, surfaces were washed with cold water (15 degrees C) at various water pressures, spray distances, application times, and drip times, and remaining bacterial populations were determined following the enumeration and isolation of pathogens and naturally occurring hygiene indicators (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and E. coli). The most efficacious combinations of these washing conditions were applied subsequently to artificially contaminated beef brisket surfaces in conjunction with hot (77 degrees C), warm (54 degrees C), and additional cold (15 degrees C) water washes. In the cold water washing pilot study, combinations of physical washing conditions significantly reduced all bacterial populations (P water washing; E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were reduced by 3.8 and 4.1 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. Overall, higher water temperature, longer application times, and shorter spray distances more effectively removed pathogens from inoculated beef surfaces. These findings will be used to formulate water washing recommendations for very small meat processing establishments.

  4. 21 CFR 133.136 - Washed curd and soaked curd cheese. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washed curd and soaked curd cheese. 133.136... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.136 Washed curd and soaked curd cheese. (a) Description. (1...

  5. Assessment and speciation of chlorine demand in fresh-cut produce wash water (United States)

    Production of high quality, fresh-cut produce is a key driver for the produce industry. A critical area of concern is the chlorinated wash water used during post-harvest processing in large industrial processing facilities. Predominantly using a batch process, wash water is recycled over 8hr shift...

  6. Using Olfaction and Unpleasant Reminders to Reduce the Intention-behavior Gap in Hand Washing. (United States)

    Pellegrino, Robert; Crandall, Philip G; Seo, Han-Seok


    Lack of hand washing is a leading cause of food borne illnesses. To successfully increase hand hygiene compliance, interventions must have continual engagement with employees. This study used a real-time prospective memory (PM) scenario to measure the effectiveness of a control and sensory reminders of disgust to influence hand washing behavior and performance. First, a model of hand washing performance was built by having six participants' hands contaminated with GermGlo (a florescent micro-particle) and then washed their hands using predetermined protocols while monitored by an electronic hand hygiene verification (HHV) system. Next, eighty Hispanic/Latino participants, in a between-group experimental design, performed a PM experiment while one of four reminders were present (hand washing poster, disgusting image, disgusting sound, and disgusting odor) as the HHV recorded their hand washing performance. Visual cues, typical of hand washing campaigns, were not as effective at increasing hand hygiene compliance as disgust-induced sensory cues. Furthermore, olfactory disgust showed a significantly higher probability that individuals would engage in hand washing behaviors than all other conditions. This study provides new insight into the effectiveness of different senses and emotion to reduce the intention-behavior gap associated with modifying behaviors, and broadens current PM research to a real-time application.

  7. Evaluation of a Hand Washing Program for 2nd-Graders (United States)

    Tousman, Stuart; Arnold, Dani; Helland, Wealtha; Roth, Ruth; Heshelman, Nannatte; Castaneda, Oralia; Fischer, Emily; O'Neil, Kristen; Bileto, Stephanie


    The purpose of this project was to determine if a multiple-week learner-centered hand washing program could improve hand hygiene behaviors of 2nd-graders in a northern Illinois public school system. Volunteers from the Rockford Hand Washing Coalition went into 19 different classrooms for 4 consecutive weeks and taught a learner-centered program.…

  8. Hand-washing behaviour and nurses' knowledge after a training programme. (United States)

    Erkan, Tulay; Findik, Ummu Yildiz; Tokuc, Burcu


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the nurses' hand-washing behaviour and knowledge before and after a training programme. This prospective study involved 200 nurses who participated in hand-washing training at a university hospital in Turkey. The data were collected using a personal information form and pre- and post-test surveys that had been developed by the researchers. During the study, the nurses received 40 min of training on hand washing and a handbook prepared by the researchers. The hand-washing behaviour and knowledge of the nurses were assessed before training and 1 month after the training. To analyse the data, descriptive statistics, a t-test and a Mc Nemar chi-squared test were used. Following the training, there was a significant increase in the frequency of hand washing by the nurses (t = -2.202, P = 0.029), together with an increase in the time allowed for hand washing (P = 0.024, P hand-washing practices (t = -16.081, P hand washing should be implemented to improve the behaviour and knowledge of nurses. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Evaluating the Utility of Commercial Videotapes for Teaching Hand Washing to Children with Autism (United States)

    Rosenberg, Nancy E.; Schwartz, Ilene S.; Davis, Carol A.


    We evaluated the effects of using a commercially available video model to teach three preschoolers with autism to wash their hands. While one child learned 80% of the hand washing steps, 2 of the 3 children did not learn from the commercial model. All were subsequently exposed to a customized video model, which resulted in at least some…

  10. Glow gel hand washing in the waiting room: a novel approach to improving hand hygiene education. (United States)

    Fishbein, Anna B; Tellez, Itza; Lin, Henry; Sullivan, Christine; Groll, Mary E


    To characterize handwashing behaviors of children and assess the efficacy of a waiting room-based hand hygiene intervention at improving handwashing ability. Prospective randomized pilot study. Emergency department waiting room at a freestanding urban pediatric hospital. Children (8-18 years) and their parent. Participants were randomized to glow gel hand washing without hand hygiene education or glow gel hand washing with hand hygiene education. After participants washed with glow gel, "dirty areas" were illuminated using a black light, and hands were scored. A questionnaire about handwashing behavior was administered. All subjects returned 2-4 weeks after intervention to repeat glow gel hand washing and the questionnaire. Sixty pediatric patients and 57 parents were recruited, with 77% of patients returning for follow up. Patients were 50% male, 58% Latino, 28% African American, and 8% Caucasian. At the initial visit, 91% of children reported hand washing after using the bathroom and 78% reported hand washing before dinner. On the basis of objective scoring, all children improved handwashing ability when compared with the initial visit (P = .02) and were more likely to use warm water at follow up (P = .01). Parents did not significantly improve in handwashing ability (P = .73). Glow gel hand washing is an effective method to improve children's handwashing ability. This short-term intervention was effective even in the absence of specific hand hygiene education. This intervention could serve as a valuable public health measure to teach hand washing in healthcare settings.

  11. Factors Influencing Hand Washing Behaviour in Primary Schools: Process Evaluation within a Randomized Controlled Trial (United States)

    Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Nicholson, Alexandra L.; Basker, Elaine; Bell, Sarah; Campbell, Rona


    This article explores factors that may influence hand washing behaviour among pupils and staff in primary schools. A qualitative process evaluation within a cluster randomized controlled trial included pupil focus groups (n = 16, aged 6-11 years), semi-structured interviews (n = 16 teachers) and observations of hand washing facilities (n = 57).…

  12. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205...; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means a toilet, washing, or shower space that is accessible only from one single or double occupancy sleeping...

  13. Evaluation of novel pre-slaughter cattle wash formulations for meat and byproduct safety and quality (United States)

    To ensure safety and quality of meat and leather innovative new carcass washing formulations need to be developed and tested. This study investigated six novel spray wash solutions for their effectiveness on reducing microbial concentrations from fresh hide while concurrently examining their effects...

  14. An Examination of "Wash-Out" and Workplace Conditions of Beginning Physical Education Teachers (United States)

    Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma; Colem, Margaret M.


    The purposes of this study were to: (1) determine the extent of wash-out in two beginning physical education teachers; and (2) determine the workplace conditions these novice teachers experienced that may have influenced the extent of wash-out for them. The interactive factors influencing workplace conditions for physical education teachers…

  15. Effects of the particle size on the adhesive strength of washed cottonseed meal with white oak (United States)

    Water wash of cottonseed meal is more cost-efficient and environment-friendly than the protein isolation which involves alkaline extraction and acidic precipitation. Thus, water-washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) is more promising as biobased wood adhesives. In this work, we examined the effect of the pa...

  16. Are cannabinoids detected in hair after washing with Cannabio shampoo? (United States)

    Cirimele, V; Kintz, P; Jamey, C; Ludes, B


    Today, cannabis plants are used in shampoo preparations, in foodstuffs (e.g., oils, noodles, crackers, etc.), and in beverages (e.g., tea). These products often contain cannabidiol (CBD, 4079 ng/mL) and cannabinol (CBN, 380 ng/mL). In order to verify if normal hygiene practices with Cannabio shampoo can result in positive tests for cannabinoids in hair, three subjects washed their hair with this shampoo once daily for two weeks. After this period, hair specimens were collected. In the three hair specimens, THC, CBD, and CBN were never detected within their limits of detection, 0.05, 0.02, and 0.01 ng/mg, respectively. We concluded that the use of Cannabio shampoo during normal hygiene practices cannot be considered as a source of potential contamination of hair. In a second experiment, drug-free hair specimens (200 mg) were incubated in 10 mL water/Cannabio shampoo (20:1, v/v) for 30 min, 2 h, and 5 h. After incubation, hair strands were washed with water and separated into two portions. One portion was extracted directly; the second was decontaminated with methylene chloride and then extracted. After an incubation period of 30 min, the analysis of hair by GC-MS did not reveal the presence of THC, CBD, and CBN in hair, regardless of whether the hair was decontaminated. After an incubation period of 2 h, specimens tested positive for CBD (0.11 ng/mg without decontamination and 0.10 ng/mg with decontamination) and CBN (0.02 ng/mg without decontamination and 0.02 ng/mg after decontamination). After an incubation period of 5 h, specimens tested positive for CBD (0.25 ng/mg without decontamination and 0.14 ng/mg after decontamination) and CBN (0.02 ng/mg without decontamination and 0.02 ng/mg after decontamination). In all cases, THC was never detected. Extensive but unrealistic use of Cannabio shampoo can cause drug-free hair to test positive for CBD and CBN but not for the primary psychoactive drug THC.

  17. An Analysis on the Moisture and Thermal Protective Performance of Firefighter Clothing Based on Different Layer Combinations and Effect of Washing on Heat Protection and Vapour Transfer Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Atalay


    Full Text Available Fabric assemblies for firefighting clothing have been tested for heat protection and comfort. The constituent materials and fabric structures have been specifically selected and tailored for firefighters’ clothing. In order to do this, four types of outer shell fabrics, four types of moisture barrier fabrics, and four types of heat barriers with different weights and material compositions were used to make a multilayered fabric assembly. Heat transfer (flame, heat transfer (radiant, and water vapour resistance tests were conducted according to the latest EN469 test standard which also recommends washing tests. These tests reveal that material content and material brand have considerable effect on the required performance levels of heat protection. In addition, while washing tests have improved water vapor transfer properties, they have a deteriorating effect on heat protection performance. Considering heat protection and moisture comfort properties, the optimal assemblies are thereby identified.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feriha DEMİRHAN


    Full Text Available It is very important that the dimensional changes of the fabrics of the textile materials such as fabrics remain in limits after washing. Especially at the export markets the dimensional stability is the most important factor of quality. Therefore; some standarts regarding the dimensional changes which can occur during washing for the knitted and woven fabrics had been agreed in the world and also in our country. When mentioning about "the dimensional changes after washing" we usually think of the length shrinkages or shortening which the fabric is mostly stretched on the length dırectıon. This explaines us where the most problems come from. In this study the dimensional changes of the various fabrics which occurs during line-dry and tumble dry process after washing has been examined and evaluated. Beside this, the shrinkages of the garments made from this fabrics after washing and ironing has been searched.

  19. Hand washing among Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip: attitudes and practices. (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abusara, Lara W; Odeh, Yazan M; Sbeih, Sbeih A; Massoud, May A


    Regular and proper hand washing is a low-cost and effective intervention to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. The authors' study aimed to assess the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics associated with attitudes and practices of hand washing before eating in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. It also assessed parents' participation in the personal hygiene of their children. Results revealed that almost all participants believed that it is always necessary to wash one's hands before eating. Females had higher rates than males for washing hands before eating as well as for helping with child hygiene. Not surprisingly, a positive relationship existed between educational level and attitudes and practice of washing hands before eating. The authors recommend that governments, ministries, and different nongovernmental organizations have an active role in developing and implementing programs in order to improve the health of their communities. Such programs should be conducted in all localities and at all levels including homes, schools, and public domains.

  20. Evaluation of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to reclaim domestic clothes wash water (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.


    An evaluation has been performed of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to determine its capability to recover water from domestic clothes wash water. A total of 32.89 kg (72.5 lb) of clothes were washed during eight wash cycles which used 1.4 lb of detergent, 145 gallons of hot water and 133.9 gallons of cold water. Water recovered at a weighted average process rate of 3.81 gallons per hour met the majority of the 23 requirements established for potable water by the U.S. Public Health Service. Average power consumed during this evaluation was approximately 71 watt-hours per gallon of water recovered. Filter replacement, which was required primarily for the control of micro-organisms in the recovered water averaged 4.86 filters per 100 gallons of wash water processed. The subsystem removed approximately 98 percent and virtually 100 percent of the phosphates and surfactants, respectively, from the wash water.

  1. Patient Attitudes and Participation in Hand Co-Washing in an Outpatient Clinic Before and After a Prompt. (United States)

    Doyle, Gregory A; Xiang, Jun; Zaman, Hina; Neiman-Hart, Holli; Maroon, Michael; Arghami, Elham; Durani, Hina; Salana, Hari; Komakula, Venugopal; King, Dana E


    Despite recent national emphasis, outpatient hand washing can be less than optimal. We tested a new approach involving both patient and physician hand washing. The study consisted of 384 questionnaires, 184 from phase 1 and 200 from phase 2. Patients stated doctors washed their hands 96.6% before examining them pre-intervention and 99.5% of the time post-intervention. Patients endorsed the importance of hand washing 98.7% of the time. "Co-washing" may offer a process to increase the practice of hand washing and decrease infection risk. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  2. Relationship Between Salt Intake, Salt-Taste Threshold and Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many studies have found an association between sodium intake and blood pressure. Salt taste threshold is thought to be another marker of sodium intake. Objective: This study sought to assess two markers of sodium intake, 24-hour-urinary sodium and salt-taste threshold. We also determined the relationship ...

  3. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, J.L.H.C.; Tournier, C.; Knoop, J.E.; Kooyman, G.; Smit, G.


    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various

  4. An evaluation of different soil washing solutions for remediating arsenic-contaminated soils. (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; Ma, Fujun; Zhang, Qian; Peng, Changsheng; Wu, Bin; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao


    Soil washing is a promising way to remediate arsenic-contaminated soils. Most research has mostly focused on seeking efficient extractants for removing arsenic, but not concerned with any changes in soil properties when using this technique. In this study, the removal of arsenic from a heavily contaminated soil employing different washing solutions including H 3 PO 4 , NaOH and dithionite in EDTA was conducted. Subsequently, the changes in soil physicochemical properties and phytotoxicity of each washing technique were evaluated. After washing with 2 M H 3 PO 4 , 2 M NaOH or 0.1 M dithionite in 0.1 M EDTA, the soil samples' arsenic content met the clean-up levels stipulated in China's environmental regulations. H 3 PO 4 washing decreased soil pH, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations but increased TN and TP contents. NaOH washing increased soil pH but decreased soil TOC, TN and TP contents. Dithionite in EDTA washing reduced soil TOC, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn and TP contents. A drastic color change was observed when the soil sample was washed with H 3 PO 4 or 0.1 M dithionite in 0.1 M EDTA. After adjusting the soil pH to neutral, wheat planted in the soil sample washed by NaOH evidenced the best growth of all three treated soil samples. These results will help with selecting the best washing solution when remediating arsenic-contaminated soils in future engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bacteriological aspects of hand washing: A key for health promotion and infections control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramezan Ali Ataee


    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to show the historical aspects of hands washing for healthy life and explains how can reduce the transmission of community-acquired infectious agents by healthcare workers and patients. This review article is prepared based on available database. The key words used were hands washing, risk assessment, hands hygiene, bacterial flora, contamination, infection, nosocomial, tap water, sanitizer, bacterial resistance, hands bacterial flora, washing methods, antiseptics, healthcare workers, healthcare personnel, from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar. Data were descriptively analyzed. The insistence on hand washing has a history of 1400 years. The research results indicate that the bacteria released from the female washed hands in wet and dry condition was lower than from the male′s hands with a significance level (3 CFU vs. 8 CFU; confidence interval 95%, P ≤ 0.001. The valuable results of the study indicated that released amount of bacterial flora from wet hands is more than 10 times in compared to dry hands. In addition, established monitoring systems for washing hands before and after patient′s manipulation as well as after toilet were dominant indices to prevent the transfer of infectious agents to the patients. Increasing awareness and belief of the healthcare workers have shown an important role by about 30% reduction in the transfection. Hand washing could reduce the episodes of transmission of infectious agents in both community and healthcare settings. However, hand washing is an important key factor to prevent transmission of infectious agents to patients. There is no standard method for measuring compliance. Thus, permanent monitoring of hand washing to reduce the transmission of infections is crucial. Finally, the personnel must believe that hand washing is an inevitable approach to infection control.

  6. A pilot survey on hand washing among some communities of West Bengal. (United States)

    Ray, S K; Dobe, M; Maji, S; Chakrabarty, D; Sinha Roy, A K; Basu, S S


    A cross-sectional observational study was carried out between April to May 2006 by interview method and observation technique with the objective to know the knowledge regarding hand washing in the community and it was done in the slum and nonslum urban areas and also one rural area. The result shows that in urban slum area 98% washed their hands with soap after defecation; Only 36%, 16% and 2% washed their hands with soap before meal, before serving food and before cooking respectively. However, it was observed that 69% used soap and water for hand washing after cleaning the child's faeces. In rural area 71% used soap and water after defecation while 26% used mud or ash. Only 13%, 1%, 1% and 5% used soap and water before meal, before serving food, before cooking and after cleaning the child's faeces. 82.35% of respondents in non slum area and 89% of respondents in rural area considered that diarrhoea and dysentery could be prevented by hand washing while they did not give importance to hand washing in prevention of diarrhoea over other methods like cleanliness, boiling and purification of water. ARI was much higher (25.72%) in rural area followed by slum area (13.77%) and non-slum area (3.87%). Out of 30 observations among 302 interview made on hand-washing only first step i.e. palm washing (transient rubbing the palm with soap) was followed by all the participants observed. Time taken for such hand-washing was only around five seconds (ideal 15-30 seconds) in urban slum and rural areas while in non slum area it varied between 7-10 seconds on an average. No one followed any other steps of hand-washing, recommended by IFH.

  7. Determining a patient's comfort in inquiring about healthcare providers' hand-washing behavior. (United States)

    Clare, Camille A; Afzal, Omara; Knapp, Kenneth; Viola, Deborah


    To determine whether a patient's level of assertiveness and other factors influences her comfort level in asking her provider to wash his or her hands. In this pilot study, we developed a survey to gather cross-sectional information on a variety of factors that might explain patient willingness to ask her health-care provider to wash his or her hands. Three primary predictor variables are analyzed: (1) patient assertiveness; (2) patient familiarity with her healthcare provider; and (3) whether the patient has observed hand-washing behavior. Fifty patients participated from the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Metropolitan Hospital Center. Less assertive patients are much less likely than assertive patients to ask physicians to wash hands (25% versus 68%; Fisher's exact test P = 0.0427). Among the 3 assertiveness questions included in the survey, the ability to ask physicians questions during visits is most strongly indicative of willingness to ask about hand washing. Familiarity with the names of regular health-care providers has a statistically significant impact on willingness to ask about hand washing. Evidence suggests that observing hand washing behavior affects willingness to ask, but differences are not statistically significant. Results by socioeconomic status such as age, education, income, and race/ethnicity are inconclusive. A patient's level of assertiveness alone is not sufficient to determine her willingness to inquire about the hand-washing behavior of her provider. A high percentage of patients did not see their provider engaging in adequate hand washing behavior. If patients feel comfortable with their provider to inquire about their care and request hand-washing behavior, health outcomes are affected by reducing the rates of health care-associated infections.

  8. Comparing the performance of indicators of hand-washing practices in rural Indian households. (United States)

    Biran, A; Rabie, T; Schmidt, W; Juvekar, S; Hirve, S; Curtis, V


    To compare the results obtained from 26 proxy indicators of domestic hand-washing practices with those obtained from direct, 'structured' observation of hand-washing in a sample of 387 households and to assess the potential of these indicators for use in the evaluation of hygiene promotion campaigns. Fieldwork in rural India between February 2005 and April 2006. Household-level data on hand-washing practices and the availability of soap and water were collected by structured observation, questionnaire survey, pocket voting, hand-wash demonstration and environmental check. Between them these techniques produced 27 binary indicators of hand-washing practices, each of which was used to classify households as 'hand-washing' or 'non-hand-washing. To assess the extent to which household classification based on each of 26 proxy indicators concurred with classification based on observation, we used the kappa statistic. The prevalence of households defined as 'hand-washing' according to each indicator was compared statistically with the prevalence according to structured observations by testing for a significant difference between two proportions. Agreement between all the proxy indicators and the observation data was poor and all but two of the indicators produced estimates of hand-washing prevalence that were significantly different from that resulting from observation. Although some interventions may be able to use proxy indicators as a guide to the magnitude and direction of their impact, these indicators do not provide an accurate guide to the actual practice or prevalence of hand-washing. Structured observation remains the best indicator of those tested.

  9. Bacteriological Aspects of Hand Washing: A Key for Health Promotion and Infections Control. (United States)

    Ataee, Ramezan Ali; Ataee, Mohammad Hosein; Mehrabi Tavana, Ali; Salesi, Mahmud


    The aim of this review is to show the historical aspects of hands washing for healthy life and explains how can reduce the transmission of community-acquired infectious agents by healthcare workers and patients. This review article is prepared based on available database. The key words used were hands washing, risk assessment, hands hygiene, bacterial flora, contamination, infection, nosocomial, tap water, sanitizer, bacterial resistance, hands bacterial flora, washing methods, antiseptics, healthcare workers, healthcare personnel, from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar. Data were descriptively analyzed. The insistence on hand washing has a history of 1400 years. The research results indicate that the bacteria released from the female washed hands in wet and dry condition was lower than from the male's hands with a significance level (3 CFU vs. 8 CFU; confidence interval 95%, P ≤ 0.001). The valuable results of the study indicated that released amount of bacterial flora from wet hands is more than 10 times in compared to dry hands. In addition, established monitoring systems for washing hands before and after patient's manipulation as well as after toilet were dominant indices to prevent the transfer of infectious agents to the patients. Increasing awareness and belief of the healthcare workers have shown an important role by about 30% reduction in the transfection. Hand washing could reduce the episodes of transmission of infectious agents in both community and healthcare settings. However, hand washing is an important key factor to prevent transmission of infectious agents to patients. There is no standard method for measuring compliance. Thus, permanent monitoring of hand washing to reduce the transmission of infections is crucial. Finally, the personnel must believe that hand washing is an inevitable approach to infection control.

  10. The in vitro quality of washed, prestorage leucocyte-depleted red blood cell concentrates. (United States)

    Weisbach, V; Riego, W; Strasser, E; Zingsem, J; Ringwald, J; Zimmermann, R; Eckstein, R


    No data are currently available on the quality of washed prestorage leucocyte-depleted red blood cell concentrates (RCCs). Five groups of RCCs stored in additive solution (SAG-M) were washed. The groups differed in the age of RCCs (2-5 days or 11-15 days), the temperature during the washing procedure and a 6-h storage period (4 degrees C or room temperature) and the washing solution (saline, SAG-M or 5% albumin). We measured ATP, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), haemolysis, blood cell count, Na(+), K(+), pH, pO(2), pCO(2) and lactate, before and after the washing procedure and hourly during the 6-h postwash storage period. The erythrocyte ATP content increased by 2-13%, relative to the baseline value, during the washing procedure. The 2,3-DPG level decreased by 15-35% in 2-6-day-old RCCs and by 30-40% in 11-15-day-old RCCs (relative to baseline values) during the washing procedure. In RCCs that were washed and stored at room temperature, and in 2-week-old RCCs, a further decrease in 2,3-DPG of up to 40%, relative to the baseline value, was observed during the 6-h postwash time-period. Washing of RCCs stored in SAG-M results in a considerable, significant loss of erythrocyte 2,3-DPG, especially in older RCCs. This loss increases in during a 6-h storage period postwash, even at 4 degrees C. This loss of erythrocyte quality might well outweigh the benefits of washed SAG-M RCCs during massive transfusion in neonates.

  11. [Microbiological characteristics of selected liquid soaps for hands washing]. (United States)

    Tyski, Stefan; Bocian, Ewa; Zawistowska, Anna; Mrówka, Agnieszka; Kruszewska, Hanna; Grzybowska, Wanda; Zareba, Tomasz


    According to common belief, supported by the authority of the World Health Organization - WHO, the common (social) hand washing is the simplest, cheapest and the most effective way of reduction the hospital-acquired infections. For this purpose products of"liquid soaps", present in a large number on the market, are most often applied. Microbiological status (microbiological purity and antimicrobial activity) of"liquid soaps" available on the Polish market is not known, because relevant routinely studies have not been performed. Only the antibacterial and / or antifungal activity of certain formulations is sometimes assessed, especially when the manufacturer suggests the standardized application of the products for surgical or hygienic procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality, especially microbiological purity and antimicrobial activity of the selected hands washing products, presents on the Polish market. The 12 selected commercial products, available on the market in Poland, dedicated for hands washing were included into study. Microbiological purity test was carried out in accordance with the Polish Pharmacopoeia (FP) monograph (FP monograph numbers correspond to numbers of the European Pharmacopoeia monograph- Ph. Eur.) No 2.6.12 "Microbiological examination of non-sterile products: microbial enumaration tests", and the monograph of FP No. 2.6.13 "Microbiological examination of non-sterile products: test for specified microorganisms". The following physico-chemical properties of soaps were examined: the pH of the formulations was measured according to the monograph FP No. 2.2.3. "Potentiometric determination of pH", the density of products was assayed according to the monograph FPNo. 2.2.5. "Relative density" and determination the water activity was performed by monograph FP No 2.9.39 "Water-solid interactions: determination of sorption-desorption isotherms and of water activity". Next, antibacterial and antifungal

  12. Chelant soil-washing technology for metal-contaminated soil. (United States)

    Voglar, David; Lestan, Domen


    We demonstrate here, in a pilot-scale experiment, the feasibility of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)based washing technology for soils contaminated with potentially toxic metals. Acid precipitation coupled to initial alkaline toxic metal removal and an electrochemical advanced oxidation process were used for average recovery of 76 +/- 2% of EDTA per batch and total recycle of water in a closed process loop. No waste water was generated; solid wastes were efficiently bitumen-stabilized before disposal. The technology embodiment, using conventional process equipment, such as a mixer for soil extraction, screen for soil/gravel separation, filter chamber presses for soil/liquid and recycled EDTA separation and soil rinsing, continuous centrifuge separator for removal of precipitated metals and electrolytic cells for process water cleansing, removed up to 72%, 25% and 66% of Pb, Zn and Cd from garden soil contaminated with up to 6960, 3797 and 32.6 mg kg(-1) of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively, in nine 60kg soil batches. Concentrations of Pb and Zn remaining in the remediated soil and bioaccessible from the simulated human intestinal phase soil were reduced by 97% and 96% and were brought under the level of determination for Cd. In the most cost-effective operation mode, the material and energy costs of remediation amounted to 50.5 Euros ton(-1) soil and the total cost to 299 Euros ton(-1).

  13. Patients' Hand Washing and Reducing Hospital-Acquired Infection. (United States)

    Haverstick, Stacy; Goodrich, Cara; Freeman, Regi; James, Shandra; Kullar, Rajkiran; Ahrens, Melissa


    Hand hygiene is important to prevent hospital-acquired infections. Patients' hand hygiene is just as important as hospital workers' hand hygiene. Hospital-acquired infection rates remain a concern across health centers. To improve patients' hand hygiene through the promotion and use of hand washing with soap and water, hand sanitizer, or both and improve patients' education to reduce hospital-acquired infections. In August 2013, patients in a cardiothoracic postsurgical step-down unit were provided with individual bottles of hand sanitizer. Nurses and nursing technicians provided hand hygiene education to each patient. Patients completed a 6-question survey before the intervention, at hospital discharge and 1, 2, and 3 months after the intervention. Hospital-acquired infection data were tracked monthly by infection prevention staff. Significant correlations were found between hand hygiene and rates of infection with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (P = .003) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (P = .01) after the intervention. After the implementation of hand hygiene interventions, rates of both infections declined significantly and patients reported more staff offering opportunities for and encouraging hand hygiene. This quality improvement project demonstrates that increased hand hygiene compliance by patients can influence infection rates in an adult cardiothoracic step-down unit. The decreased infection rates and increased compliance with hand hygiene among the patients may be attributed to the implementation of patient education and the increased accessibility and use of hand sanitizer. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  14. Style-based classification of Chinese ink and wash paintings (United States)

    Sheng, Jiachuan; Jiang, Jianmin


    Following the fact that a large collection of ink and wash paintings (IWP) is being digitized and made available on the Internet, their automated content description, analysis, and management are attracting attention across research communities. While existing research in relevant areas is primarily focused on image processing approaches, a style-based algorithm is proposed to classify IWPs automatically by their authors. As IWPs do not have colors or even tones, the proposed algorithm applies edge detection to locate the local region and detect painting strokes to enable histogram-based feature extraction and capture of important cues to reflect the styles of different artists. Such features are then applied to drive a number of neural networks in parallel to complete the classification, and an information entropy balanced fusion is proposed to make an integrated decision for the multiple neural network classification results in which the entropy is used as a pointer to combine the global and local features. Evaluations via experiments support that the proposed algorithm achieves good performances, providing excellent potential for computerized analysis and management of IWPs.

  15. Reverse osmosis for wash water recovery in space vehicles. (United States)

    Lawrence, R. W.; Saltonstall, C. W., Jr.


    Tests were carried out on both synthetic and real wash water derived from clothes laundry to determine the utility of reverse osmosis in recovering the water for recycle use. A blend membrane made from cellulose di- and triacetates, and a cross-linked cellulose acetate/methacrylate were evaluated. Both were found acceptable. A number of detergents were evaluated, including a cationic detergent, sodium dodecyl sulfate, potassium palmitate, and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate. The tests were all made at a temperature of 165 F to minimize microbial growth. Long-term (15 to 30 day) runs were made at 600 and 400 psi on laundry water which was pretreated either by alum addition and sand filtration or by filtration only through 0.5 micron filters. A 30-day run was made using a 2-in. diameter by 22-in. long spiral module at 400 psig with filtering as the pretreatment. The membrane fouling by colloidal matter was found to be controllable. The unit produced initially 55 gal/day and 27 gal/day after 30 days.

  16. Experiments in connection with Salt Domes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.G.; Kuenen, Ph.H.


    The different theories concerning the origin of Salt Domes in Roumania, Germany, Texas, Louisiana, Colorado and Utah are discussed. In Roumania the salt occurs in cores of “Diapir” anticlines. The existance of hills of salt indicates, that the salt is still pushing upwards. In Germany the salt

  17. Sodium: How to Tame Your Salt Habit (United States)

    ... same amount of sodium as table salt. Use salt substitutes wisely. Some salt substitutes or light salts contain a mixture of table ... substitute — and get too much sodium. Also, many salt substitutes contain potassium chloride. Although potassium can lessen some ...

  18. Rheological characterization of hair shampoo in the presence of dead sea salt. (United States)

    Abu-Jdayil, B; Mohameed, H A; Sa'id, M; Snobar, T


    In Jordan, a growing industry has been established to produce different types of Dead Sea (DS) cosmetics that have DS salt (contains mainly NaCl, KCl, and MgCl(2)) in their formulas. In this work, the effect of DS salt on the rheology of hair shampoo containing the sodium lauryl ether sulfate as a main active matter was studied. The effects of DS salt and active matter concentration, and the temperature and time of salt mixing, on the rheological properties of hair shampoo were investigated. The salt-free shampoo showed a Newtonian behavior at 'low active matter' (LAM) and shear thinning at 'high active matter' (HAM). The presence of DS salt changed the rheological behavior of LAM shampoo from Newtonian (for the salt-free shampoo) to shear thinning. On the other hand, the behavior of HAM shampoo switched from shear thinning to Newtonian behavior in the presence of high concentration of DS salt. The addition of DS salt increased the apparent viscosity of shampoo to reach a maximum value that corresponded to a salt concentration of 1.5 wt.%. Further addition of DS salt led to a decrease in the shampoo viscosity to reach a value less than that of the salt-free sample at high salt concentration. Changing the mixing temperature (25-45 degrees C) and mixing time (15-120 min) of DS salt with shampoo has no significant influence on the rheological behavior. However, the mixing process increased the apparent viscosity of salt-free shampoo. The power law model fitted well the flow curves of hair shampoo with and without DS salt.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malwina Kolano; Danuta Flisiak


    .... The present article introduces strength-strain properties of white rock salt, building the nucleus of northeastern edge anticline, and pink rock salt that belongs to the series of youngest rock salt...

  20. Projected Salt Waste Production from a Commercial Pyroprocessing Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Simpson


    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel inevitably produces salt waste from electrorefining and/or oxide reduction unit operations. Various process design characteristics can affect the actual mass of such waste produced. This paper examines both oxide and metal fuel treatment, estimates the amount of salt waste generated, and assesses potential benefit of process options to mitigate the generation of salt waste. For reference purposes, a facility is considered in which 100 MT/year of fuel is processed. Salt waste estimates range from 8 to 20 MT/year from considering numerous scenarios. It appears that some benefit may be derived from advanced processes for separating fission products from molten salt waste, but the degree of improvement is limited. Waste form production is also considered but appears to be economically unfavorable. Direct disposal of salt into a salt basin type repository is found to be the most promising with respect to minimizing the impact of waste generation on the economic feasibility and sustainability of pyroprocessing.

  1. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)


    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  2. Bile salts secretion in cirrhosis. (United States)

    Correia, J P; Areias, E; Meneses, L; Tiago, E


    The bile salts secretion was studied in ten normal subjects and sixteen patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, in a basal period and during 60 minutes after Secretin injection. Total bile salts were measured by a modification of the enzymatic method of Iwata and Yamasaki and the individual bile salts were separated by silica gel thin-layer chromatography. During the 60 minutes after Secretin the mean concentration was 2.88 +/- 2.58 muM/ml in normals and 1.96 +/- 1.25 muM/ml in cirrhotics. The difference is not significant. During the first 20 minutes however the concentration was higher than 3 muM/ml in 8 out of 10 normals and lower than 2 muM/ml in 10 out 16 cirrhotics. The ratios of tri-to dihydroxy bile salts was similar in both groups. The ratios between bile salts conjugated with glycine and with taurine was higher in normals, and the ratio between free to conjugated bile salts was higher in cirrhotics. The lower concentration of total bile salts immediatly after Secretin, the higher proportion of taurin conjugates and of free bile salts could be important factors in the difficulties of fact digestion and absorption frequently found in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.

  3. Compressibility of granulated rock salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinebaugh, R.E.


    Crushed rock salt will be used extensively at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as a material for backfilling underground openings. This document addresses one of the characteristics of crushed salt which must be known to assess the consequences of its usage, namely, compressibility.

  4. History Leaves Salts Behind (United States)


    These plots, or spectra, show that a rock dubbed 'McKittrick' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site at Meridiani Planum, Mars, has higher concentrations of sulfur and bromine than a nearby patch of soil nicknamed 'Tarmac.' These data were taken by Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, which uses curium-244 to assess the elemental composition of rocks and soil. Only portions of the targets' full spectra are shown to highlight the significant differences in elemental concentrations between 'McKittrick' and 'Tarmac.' Intensities are plotted on a logarithmic scale.A nearby rock named Guadalupe similarly has extremely high concentrations of sulfur, but very little bromine. This 'element fractionation' typically occurs when a watery brine slowly evaporates and various salt compounds are precipitated in sequence.

  5. Effect of intensive hand washing education on hand washing behaviors in thai households with an influenza-positive child in urban Thailand. (United States)

    Kaewchana, Suchada; Simmerman, Mark; Somrongthong, Ratana; Suntarattiwong, Piyarat; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Chotipitayasunondh, Tawee


    This study assessed the effect of intensive education on self-reported frequency of hand washing (FHW), measured quality of hand washing (QHW), and measured scores of knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) after 7 days and 90 days home-based intensive education of participants (aged >7 years) in households with a influenza-positive child. The authors provided intensive hand washing education using interactive participation including individual training, self-monitoring diary, provision of soap, and so on. There were significant improvements on FHW and QHW on day 7, control group (n(1) = 135) reported 3.9 hand washing episodes/day, whereas the intervention group (n(2) = 140) reported 5.7 episodes/day; control group (n(1) = 164) obtained a 3.2 measured quality score, whereas the intervention group (n(2) = 166) obtained a score of 6.4. Pre-education and 90 days post-education, FHW significantly improved by 2 episodes/day and QHW increased by 3 scores/episode. Knowledge of influenza and hand washing following coughing/sneezing showed significant improvement, but attitude modification toward severity of influenza requires a more intensified and longer intervention.

  6. Genesis of Tuzla salt basin (United States)

    Sušić, Amir; Baraković, Amir; Komatina, Snezana


    Salt is condition for the survival of the human race, and holds a special place in the exploitation of mineral resources. It is the only mineral raw material used in direct feeding, and therefore has its own specialty. Salt is a crystalline mineral that is found in seawater, as well as in underground areas where it is formed by deposition of salt sediments. Occurrences of salt water near Tuzla and Gornja Tuzla have been known since the time of the Romans as "ad salinas". The name itself connects Bosnia with its richness in salt, because the word barefoot, which is preserved in a north-Albanian dialect, means a place where boiling salted water are obtained. At the time of the Bosnian kings, these regions are named Soli, which is in connection with occurences of saline sources. Geological studies of rock salt in the area of Tuzla basin are practically began after the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in the period from 1878 to 1918. Geological field work was conducted K. Paul, H. Hefer, E. Tietze and F. Katzer. Monomineral deposit of rock salt Tetima is made of halite and anhydrite mixed with marl belt, while the bay of salt in Tuzla is polymineral and contains a considerable amount of thenardite (Na2SO4) and rare minerals: nortupit, nahkolit, bradleit, probertit, glauberite and others. Both salt deposits were created as a product of chemical sedimentation in the lower Miocene Badenian sediments. The main objective of this paper is to show the genesis of the deposits and the spatial and genetic connection. In addition, genesis of geological research in the areas of Tuzla basin will be presented.

  7. Molten Salt Promoting Effect in Double Salt CO2 Absorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong S.; Chen, Haobo; Singh, Prabhakar; King, David L.


    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of molten salts as catalysts for CO2 absorption by MgO, and extend these observations to the MgO-containing double salt oxides. We will show that the phenomena involved with CO2 absorption by MgO and MgO-based double salts are similar and general, but with some important differences. This paper focuses on the following key concepts: i) identification of conditions that favor or disfavor participation of isolated MgO during double salt absorption, and investigation of methods to increase the absorption capacity of double salt systems by including MgO participation; ii) examination of the relationship between CO2 uptake and melting point of the promoter salt, leading to the recognition of the role of pre-melting (surface melting) in these systems; and iii) extension of the reaction pathway model developed for the MgO-NaNO3 system to the double salt systems. This information advances our understanding of MgO-based CO2 absorption systems for application with pre-combustion gas streams.

  8. Protective Effect of Hand-Washing and Good Hygienic Habits Against Seasonal Influenza: A Case-Control Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Mingbin; Ou, Jianming; Zhang, Lijie; Shen, Xiaona; Hong, Rongtao; Ma, Huilai; Zhu, Bao-Ping; Fontaine, Robert E


    Previous observational studies have reported protective effects of hand-washing in reducing upper respiratory infections, little is known about the associations between hand-washing and good hygienic...

  9. EBR-II Primary Tank Wash-Water Alternatives Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, R. L.; Heintzelman, J. B.; Merservey, R. H.; Squires, L. N.


    The EBR-II reactor at Idaho National Laboratory was a liquid sodium metal cooled reactor that operated for 30 years. It was shut down in 1994; the fuel was removed by 1996; and the bulk of sodium metal coolant was removed from the reactor by 2001. Approximately 1100 kg of residual sodium remained in the primary system after draining the bulk sodium. To stabilize the remaining sodium, both the primary and secondary systems were treated with a purge of moist carbon dioxide. Most of the residual sodium reacted with the carbon dioxide and water vapor to form a passivation layer of primarily sodium bicarbonate. The passivation treatment was stopped in 2005 and the primary system is maintained under a blanket of dry carbon dioxide. Approximately 670 kg of sodium metal remains in the primary system in locations that were inaccessible to passivation treatment or in pools of sodium that were too deep for complete penetration of the passivation treatment. The EBR-II reactor was permitted by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in 2002 under a RCRA permit that requires removal of all remaining sodium in the primary and secondary systems by 2022. The proposed baseline closure method would remove the large components from the primary tank, fill the primary system with water, react the remaining sodium with the water and dissolve the reaction products in the wash water. This method would generate a minimum of 100,000 gallons of caustic, liquid, low level radioactive, hazardous waste water that must be disposed of in a permitted facility. On February 19-20, 2008, a workshop was held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, to look at alternatives that could meet the RCRA permit clean closure requirements and minimize the quantity of hazardous waste generated by the cleanup process. The workshop convened a panel of national and international sodium cleanup specialists, subject matter experts from the INL, and the EBR-II Wash Water Project team that organized the workshop. The

  10. Transfer of fibres on the hands of living subjects and their persistence during hand washing. (United States)

    Hong, Sungwook; Han, Aleum; Kim, Sojung; Son, Dasom; Min, Heewon


    Textile fibres were transferred to the hands of ten living subjects and their persistence was determined after hand washing. Average number of fibres transferred was 300 ± 133 (female 288 ± 92, male 311 ± 163) per 100 cm(2) hand area in the 100 experiments. However the number of fibres transferred was not gender dependent but individual dependent. The hand texture of subjects was compared with the number of fibres transferred but the relationship was not observed. The number of fibres transferred varied significantly for the 10 repeated experiments performed under the same conditions for the same subject. The subjects were then asked to wash their hands with water. One test group washed their hands with standing water, and the other with running tap water. Afterwards, the number of fibres remaining on the test subjects' hands were investigated. Migration of the fibres on the surface of the observed hands did occur but total loss of transferred fibre after hand washing did not occur. The average number of fibres remaining per 100 cm(2) hand area was 14 ± 10 (range=3-72) for hand washing with standing water, and 10 ± 12 (range=0-79) for washing with running tap water. The results of this study show the possibility of finding fibres on the hands of a person involved in a criminal case even after hand washing before fibre collection. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The mediating roles of disgust sensitivity and danger expectancy in relation to hand washing behaviour. (United States)

    Thorpe, Susan J; Barnett, Julie; Friend, Katy; Nottingham, Kate


    Recent interest in the role of vulnerability factors in obsessional washing has suggested that disgust sensitivity, danger expectancy and health anxiety may be of interest. This study explores the differential impact of these factors on both behavioural and cognitive measures of washing behaviour and is based on a replication of the Jones and Menzies (1997) experiment, during which participants immersed their hands in a noxious compound while rating themselves on a range of measures: the time they subsequently took to wash their hands was measured and danger expectancies were found to be the best predictor of this. The present study added measures of disgust sensitivity and health anxiety to this experimental methodology while removing factors they found to be of little import to compulsive washing. Thirty non-clinical participants took part. Results confirmed that disgust sensitivity was related to the behavioural measure of washing time, but that this relationship was almost entirely mediated by the danger expectancy concerning judgements of severity of consequent disease. However, a different pattern emerged when the outcome measure was questionnaire based: danger expectancy was not at all related to this. Disgust sensitivity mediated the relationship between health anxiety and scores on a questionnaire measure of washing compulsions. Interestingly, these scores were not related to the behavioural measure of washing time. The implications of these relationships to the further development of subtypes of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are discussed.

  12. Influence of pollutant build-up on variability in wash-off from urban road surfaces. (United States)

    Wijesiri, Buddhi; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Goonetilleke, Ashantha


    Variability in the pollutant wash-off process is a concept which needs to be understood in-depth in order to better assess the outcomes of stormwater quality models, and thereby strengthen stormwater pollution mitigation strategies. Current knowledge about the wash-off process does not extend to a clear understanding of the influence of the initially available pollutant build-up on the variability of the pollutant wash-off load and composition. Consequently, pollutant wash-off process variability is poorly characterised in stormwater quality models, which can result in inaccurate stormwater quality predictions. Mathematical simulation of particulate wash-off from three urban road surfaces confirmed that the wash-off load of particle size fractions 150 μm after a storm event vary with the build-up of the respective particle size fractions available at the beginning of the storm event. Furthermore, pollutant load and composition associated with the initially available build-up of build-up of pollutants associated with > 150 μm particles on wash-off process variability is significant only for relatively shorter duration storm events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between Washing Residue on the Feet and Tinea Pedis in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimie Takehara


    Full Text Available Tinea pedis (TP may lead to the development of foot ulcers in diabetic patients; thus, its prevention in diabetic patients is important. TP occurs after dermatophytes on the skin scales of TP patients attach to the feet. Therefore, it is necessary to remove the scales and dermatophytes, and this can be performed using various methods, including foot washing. This study aimed to objectively examine the association between the presence of TP and foot-washing habits. We included 33 diabetic patients, and, of these, 17 had TP. The presence of washing residue on the feet was determined by applying a fluorescent cream to the participants’ feet, and images of the feet were captured under ultraviolet light before and after foot washing. Our results showed that diabetic patients with TP had higher levels of washing residue on their feet than those without TP. The importance of washing feet to prevent TP needs to be emphasized through educational programs for diabetic patients. Furthermore, the development of an effective foot-washing technique is essential.

  14. Changes within the stabilizing layer of ZnO nanoparticles upon washing. (United States)

    Schindler, Torben; Schmutzler, Tilo; Schmiele, Martin; Lin, Wei; Segets, Doris; Peukert, Wolfgang; Appavou, Marie-Sousia; Kriele, Armin; Gilles, Ralph; Unruh, Tobias


    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are highly relevant for various industrial applications, however, after synthesis of the NPs residual chemicals need to be removed from the colloidal raw product by washing, as they may influence the performance of the final device. In the present study we focus on the effect of washing by antisolvent flocculation with subsequent redispersion of the NPs on the stabilizing acetate shell. Purification of the ZnO nanoparticles is reported to be optimal with respect to zeta potential that has a maximum after one washing cycle. In this work, we will shed light on this observation using small angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS, SANS) by demonstrating that after the first washing cycle the content of acetate in the ligand shell around the ZnO NPs increases. In detail, it was observed that the diffuse acetate shell shrinks to the size of a monolayer upon washing but the acetate content of this monolayer is higher than within the diffuse shell of the particles of the native dispersion. A second washing cycle reduces the acetate concentration within the stabilizing shell and the stability of the dispersion drops accordingly. After another (third) washing cycle strong agglomeration was observed for all investigated samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Cristina Frigieri

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The main objective of this work was to study the technical viability of using the cellulose bleaching effluent, at several stages of the process, seeking fresh water reduction in pulp washing, and evaluating its effect on pulp quality. Eucalyptus spp. industrial cellulosic pulp with oxygen was used in this experiment. The same bleaching sequence D(E+PDP was performed ten times, under the same conditions (temperature, consistency and time. Counter current washing was used in the bleaching stages, and each sequence was carried out with different washing factors: 9, 6, 3, 0 m3 of distilled water/ton of pulp, trying to reach brightness of 92 ± 0,5% ISO. The ten sequences sought to achieve the stability of the effluent organic load, measured by the chemical oxygen demand (COD. Then, the COD results were compared to the brightness ones from the bleached pulp. The evaluated results from the ten sequences and four different washings showed an increasing in COD due to the organic load accumulation, resulting from the reuse of effluent from previous sequences. This COD increasing provided the lower brightness results during the cycles, besides the water reduction, evidencing the necessity of washing between bleaching stages. In this study, the obtained result for the pulp washing up to 3m3/t was tolerable and even recommended. On the other hand, the pulp without any washing (0m3/t, due to the lack of enough brightness, it is commercially unviable.

  16. Use of alternative curing salts for processing salamis. (United States)

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Chung, Ku-Young; Jo, Cheorun; Nam, Ki-Chang


    This study was performed to determine effects of different curing salts on the quality of salamis and to assess feasibility of using NaCl-alternative salts. Various types of curing salts (KCl or MgCl2) as well as NaCl (sun-dried or refined) were incorporated for processing of salamis. The proximate composition, fatty acids, nucleotide-related compounds, and free amino acids of the salamis were analyzed during 40 days of ripening. The substitution of NaCl by KCl caused higher fat and ash content, but lower moisture content of the salami after 20 days of ripening (pcuring salts such as KCl and MgCl2 could substitute NaCl in consideration of quality factor of a fermented meat product. Especially replacement of NaCl with KCl will be a suitable strategy for developing relatively low sodium salami products without compromising product quality.

  17. SALT-RESPONSIVE ERF1 Regulates Reactive Oxygen Species–Dependent Signaling during the Initial Response to Salt Stress in Rice[W (United States)

    Schmidt, Romy; Mieulet, Delphine; Hubberten, Hans-Michael; Obata, Toshihiro; Hoefgen, Rainer; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Fisahn, Joachim; San Segundo, Blanca; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Schippers, Jos H.M.; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd


    Early detection of salt stress is vital for plant survival and growth. Still, the molecular processes controlling early salt stress perception and signaling are not fully understood. Here, we identified SALT-RESPONSIVE ERF1 (SERF1), a rice (Oryza sativa) transcription factor (TF) gene that shows a root-specific induction upon salt and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment. Loss of SERF1 impairs the salt-inducible expression of genes encoding members of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade and salt tolerance–mediating TFs. Furthermore, we show that SERF1-dependent genes are H2O2 responsive and demonstrate that SERF1 binds to the promoters of MAPK KINASE KINASE6 (MAP3K6), MAPK5, DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING2A (DREB2A), and ZINC FINGER PROTEIN179 (ZFP179) in vitro and in vivo. SERF1 also directly induces its own gene expression. In addition, SERF1 is a phosphorylation target of MAPK5, resulting in enhanced transcriptional activity of SERF1 toward its direct target genes. In agreement, plants deficient for SERF1 are more sensitive to salt stress compared with the wild type, while constitutive overexpression of SERF1 improves salinity tolerance. We propose that SERF1 amplifies the reactive oxygen species–activated MAPK cascade signal during the initial phase of salt stress and translates the salt-induced signal into an appropriate expressional response resulting in salt tolerance. PMID:23800963

  18. Salt mechanical behavior numeric simulation in oil wells; Simulacao numerica do comportamento mecanico do sal em pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravina, Carlos Cabral


    Drilling incidents such as stuck pipe and collapsed casing string take place when when some type of salt formations are drilled because of the high pronounced plastic behavior of the salt and the creep behavior as a function of this type of rock. The creep behavior becomes faster and more severe if temperature an/or pressure acting on the salt go up. The deeper the salt is found, the earlier and more intense the troubles caused by salt creep will be evidence. (author)

  19. Iodized Salt Sales in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Maalouf


    Full Text Available Iodized salt has been an important source of dietary iodine, a trace element important for regulating human growth, development, and metabolic functions. This analysis identified iodized table salt sales as a percentage of retail salt sales using Nielsen ScanTrack. We identified 1117 salt products, including 701 salt blends and 416 other salt products, 57 of which were iodized. When weighted by sales volume in ounces or per item, 53% contained iodized salt. These findings may provide a baseline for future monitoring of sales of iodized salt.

  20. [Preparation and antimicrobial effect of aromatic, natural and bacteriostatic foot wash with skin care]. (United States)

    Gao, Su-Hua; Zhao, Guo-Xiang; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Ling-Ling


    To prepare the aromatic, natural and bacteriostatic foot wash with skin care and research the inhibition effect on the different bacteria and pathogenic fungus which cause dermatophytosis. It was prepared by using Sophoraflavescens and Dictamnus dasycarpus as materials with the addition of Aloe extract, essential oil, surfactant, etc. The antifungal and antibacterial activity was researched by the levitation liquid quantitative method. The foot wash smelled faintly scent. The use of this product can produce a rich foam. The inhibitory rate were all more than 90%. The preparation process of the foot wash was simple. It has obviously bacteriostatic and fungistatic effect.

  1. Superstorm Sandy marine debris wash-ups on Long Island - What happened to them? (United States)

    Swanson, R Lawrence; Lwiza, Kamazima; Willig, Kaitlin; Morris, Kaitlin


    Superstorm Sandy generated huge quantities of debris in the Long Island, NY coastal zone. However, little appears to have been washed offshore to eventually be returned to Long Island's beaches as marine debris wash-ups. Information for our analysis includes debris collection statistics, very high resolution satellite images, along with wind and sea level data. Rigorous debris collection efforts along with meteorological conditions following the storm appear to have reduced the likelihood of debris wash-ups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Video Surveillance Audit of Hand-washing Practices in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. (United States)

    Shah, Rutvi; Patel, Dipen V; Shah, Kushal; Phatak, Ajay; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar


    To audit hand-washing practices by video-surveillance. Six main steps (step 2 to step 7) of World Health Organizations hand hygiene technique with soap and water were used for evaluation. Handwashing was categorized as excellent, acceptable and unacceptable. Of 1081 recordings, 403 (37.3%) were excellent, 521 (48.2%) were acceptable and 157 (14.5%) were unacceptable handwash. Unacceptable handwashing was more prevalent in the night in comparison to daytime (17.5% vs 12.5%). Thirteen people washed their face after washing their hands. Innovative interventions are required to improve handwashing during night shifts.

  3. Influence of instructional posters on cleanness of the hands after hand washing


    松島, 拓; 赤坂, 球亜; 安藤, 瞳; 井上, みわ; 三又, 由紀; 千田, 好子


    The objective of this study was to compare the cleanness of the hands after following two different posters. The subjects were 82 nursing students. They were divided into 2 groups of 41 each. For instructions one group was given a poster showing the procedures of hand washing, and the other group was given a poster showing areas to be washed carefully. After a fluorescent dye was sprayed on the fingers and the wrists, the testees washed their hands with antimicrobial soap under running water....

  4. Detection of bovine leukosis virus in bronchoalveolar lung washings and nasal secretions. (United States)

    Roberts, D H; Lucas, M H; Wibberley, G; Bushnell, S


    Cattle and sheep persistently infected with bovine leukosis virus (BLV) were studied for the presence of the virus in bronchoalveolar lung washings and nasal secretions. The virus was demonstrated in the cellular fraction of the lung washings in six out of nine cattle and in one out of six sheep. In no instance was bovine leukosis isolated from the cell-free bronchoalveolar lung washings. The virus was isolated from the nasal secretion of only one of six naturally infected milking cows despite frequent sampling; the virus-infected nasal secretion was from a sick 10-year-old cow. Bovine leukosis virus was not isolated from cellular fractions of nasal secretions.

  5. Does stress induce salt intake? (United States)

    Torres, Susan J; Turner, Anne I; Nowson, Caryl A


    Psychological stress is a common feature of modern day societies, and contributes to the global burden of disease. It was proposed by Henry over 20 years ago that the salt intake of a society reflects the level of stress, and that stress, through its effect on increasing salt intake, is an important factor in the development of hypertension. This review evaluates the evidence from animal and human studies to determine if stress does induce a salt appetite and increase salt consumption in human subjects. Findings from animal studies suggest that stress may drive salt intake, with evidence for a potential mechanism via the sympatho-adrenal medullary system and/or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. In contrast, in the few laboratory studies conducted in human subjects, none has found that acute stress affects salt intake. However, one study demonstrated that life stress (chronic stress) was associated with increased consumption of snack foods, which included, but not specifically, highly salty snacks. Studies investigating the influence of chronic stress on eating behaviours are required, including consumption of salty foods. From the available evidence, we can conclude that in free-living, Na-replete individuals, consuming Na in excess of physiological requirements, stress is unlikely to be a major contributor to salt intake.

  6. Dietary Salt Exacerbates Experimental Colitis. (United States)

    Tubbs, Alan L; Liu, Bo; Rogers, Troy D; Sartor, R Balfour; Miao, Edward A


    The Western diet is characterized by high protein, sugar, fat, and low fiber intake, and is widely believed to contribute to the incidence and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, high sodium chloride salt content, a defining feature of processed foods, has not been considered as a possible environmental factor that might drive IBD. We set out to bridge this gap. We examined murine models of colitis on either a high salt diet (HSD) or a low salt diet. We demonstrate that an HSD exacerbates inflammatory pathology in the IL-10-deficient murine model of colitis relative to mice fed a low salt diet. This was correlated with enhanced expression of numerous proinflammatory cytokines. Surprisingly, sodium accumulated in the colons of mice on an HSD, suggesting a direct effect of salt within the colon. Similar to the IL-10-deficient model, an HSD also enhanced cytokine expression during infection by Salmonella typhimurium This occurred in the first 3 d of infection, suggesting that an HSD potentiates an innate immune response. Indeed, in cultured dendritic cells we found that high salt media potentiates cytokine expression downstream of TLR4 activation via p38 MAPK and SGK1. A third common colitis model, administration of dextran sodium sulfate, was hopelessly confounded by the high sodium content of the dextran sodium sulfate. Our results raise the possibility that high dietary salt is an environmental factor that drives increased inflammation in IBD. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Synthetic fibers as microplastics in the marine environment: A review from textile perspective with a focus on domestic washings. (United States)

    Salvador Cesa, Flavia; Turra, Alexander; Baruque-Ramos, Julia


    The ubiquity of plastic materials in the environment has been, for long, a matter of discussion. Smaller particles, named microplastics (microplastics and can be originated from domestic washings, as machine filters and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are not specifically designed to retain them. Once in the environment, fibers can reach concentrations up to thousands of particles per cubic meter, being available to be ingested by a broad range of species. In this scenario, this review adds and details the textile perspective to the microplastics exploring nomenclature, characteristics and factors influencing emission, but also evidencing gaps in knowledge needed to overcome this issue. Preliminarily, general information about marine litter and plastics, followed by specific aspects regarding textile fibers as microplastics, were introduced. Then fiber sources to microplastic pollution were discussed, mainly focusing on domestic washings that pass through WWTPs. Studies that reveal domestic washing as microplastic sources are scarce and there is a considerable lack of standardization in methods as well as incorporation of textile aspects in experimental design. Knowledge gaps include laundry parameters (e.g., water temperature, use of chemicals) and textile articles characteristics (e.g., yarn type, fabric structure) orchestrated by consumers' choice. The lack of information on the coverage and efficiency of sewage treatment systems to remove textile fibers also prevent a global understanding of such sources. The search of alternatives and applicable solutions should come from an integrated, synergic and global perspective, of both environmental and textile area, which still need to be fostered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. High-throughput protein precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography: salt effects and thermodynamic interrelation. (United States)

    Nfor, Beckley K; Hylkema, Nienke N; Wiedhaup, Koenraad R; Verhaert, Peter D E M; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Ottens, Marcel


    Salt-induced protein precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) are two widely used methods for protein purification. In this study, salt effects in protein precipitation and HIC were investigated for a broad combination of proteins, salts and HIC resins. Interrelation between the critical thermodynamic salting out parameters in both techniques was equally investigated. Protein precipitation data were obtained by a high-throughput technique employing 96-well microtitre plates and robotic liquid handling technology. For the same protein-salt combinations, isocratic HIC experiments were performed using two or three different commercially available stationary phases-Phenyl Sepharose low sub, Butyl Sepharose and Resource Phenyl. In general, similar salt effects and deviations from the lyotropic series were observed in both separation methods, for example, the reverse Hofmeister effect reported for lysozyme below its isoelectric point and at low salt concentrations. The salting out constant could be expressed in terms of the preferential interaction parameter in protein precipitation, showing that the former is, in effect, the net result of preferential interaction of a protein with water molecules and salt ions in its vicinity. However, no general quantitative interrelation was found between salting out parameters or the number of released water molecules in protein precipitation and HIC. In other words, protein solubility and HIC retention factor could not be quantitatively interrelated, although for some proteins, regular trends were observed across the different resins and salt types. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigations of novel unsaturated bile salts of male sea lamprey as potential chemical cues (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Yun, Sang-Seon; Li, Weiming


    Sulfated bile salts function as chemical cues that coordinate reproduction in sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. 7α, 12α, 24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulfate (3kPZS) is the most abundant known bile salt released by sexually mature male sea lampreys and attracts ovulated females. However, previous studies showed that the male-produced pheromone consists of unidentified components in addition to 3kPZS. Here, analysis of water conditioned with mature male sea lampreys indicated the presence of 4 oxidized, unsaturated compounds with molecular weights of 466 Da, 468 Da, and 2 of 470 Da. These compounds were not detectable in water conditioned with immature male sea lampreys. By using mass spectrometry, 4 A-ring unsaturated sulfated bile salts were tentatively identified from male washings as 2 4-ene, a 1-ene, and a 1,4-diene analogs. These were synthesized to determine if they attracted ovulated female sea lampreys to spawning nests in natural streams. One of the novel synthetic bile salts, 3 keto-1-ene PZS, attracted ovulated females to the point of application at a concentration of 10-12 M. This study reveals the structural diversity of bile salts in sea lamprey, some of which have been demonstrated to be pheromonal cues.

  10. Autochthonous facility-specific microbiota dominates washed-rind Austrian hard cheese surfaces and its production environment. (United States)

    Quijada, Narciso M; Mann, Evelyne; Wagner, Martin; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Hernández, Marta; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan


    Cheese ripening involves the succession of complex microbial communities that are responsible for the organoleptic properties of the final products. The food processing environment can act as a source of natural microbial inoculation, especially in traditionally manufactured products. Austrian Vorarlberger Bergkäse (VB) is an artisanal washed-rind hard cheese produced in the western part of Austria without the addition of external ripening cultures. Here, the composition of the bacterial communities present on VB rinds and on different processing surfaces from two ripening cellars was assessed by near full length 16S rRNA gene amplification, cloning and sequencing. Non-inoculated aerobic bacteria dominated all surfaces in this study. VB production conditions (long ripening time, high salt concentration and low temperatures) favor the growth of psychro- and halotolerant bacteria. Several bacterial groups, such as coryneforms, Staphylococcus equorum and Halomonas dominated VB and were also found on most environmental surfaces. Analysis of OTUs shared between different surfaces suggests that VB rind bacteria are inoculated naturally during the ripening from the processing environment and that cheese surfaces exert selective pressure on these communities, as only those bacteria better adapted flourished on VB rinds. This study analyzed VB processing environment microbiota and its relationship with VB rinds for the first time, elucidating that the processing environment and the cheese microbiota should be considered as microbiologically linked ecosystems with the goal of better defining the events that take place during cheese maturation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception. (United States)

    Busch, Johanneke L H C; Tournier, Carole; Knoop, Janine E; Kooyman, Gonnie; Smit, Gerrit


    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various stimulation conditions involving relative changes in NaCl concentration of 20% and 38%. Changes in salt delivery profile had similar effect on saltiness perception when delivered either by a sipwise method or by a gustometer. The impact of concentration variations and frequency of concentration changes was further investigated with the gustometer method. Five second boosts and 2 s pulses were delivered during 3 sequential 10-s intervals, whereas the delivered total salt content was the same for all conditions. Two second pulses were found to increase saltiness perception, but only when the pulses were delivered during the first seconds of stimulation. Results suggest that the frequency, timing, and concentration differences of salt stimuli can affect saltiness. Specifically, a short and intense stimulus can increase salt perception, possibly through a reduction of adaptation.

  12. Salt intake, plasma sodium, and worldwide salt reduction. (United States)

    He, Feng J; Macgregor, Graham A


    There is overwhelming evidence that a reduction in salt intake from the current level of approximately 9-12 g/d in most countries of the world to the recommended level of 5-6 g/d lowers blood pressure (BP) in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals. A further reduction to 3-4 g/d has a greater effect. Prospective studies and outcome trials have demonstrated that a lower salt intake is related to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Cost-effectiveness analyses have documented that salt reduction is more or at the very least just as cost-effective as tobacco control in reducing cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The mechanisms whereby salt raises blood pressure and increases cardiovascular risk are not fully understood. The existing concepts focus on the tendency for an increase in extracellular fluid volume. Increasing evidence suggests that small increases in plasma sodium may have a direct effect on BP and the cardiovascular system, independent of extracellular volume. All countries should adopt a coherent and workable strategy to reduce salt intake in the whole population. Even a modest reduction in population salt intake will have major beneficial effects on health, along with major cost savings.

  13. Washing our hands of the congenital cytomegalovirus disease epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannon Michael J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each year in the United States, an estimated 40,000 children are born with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV infection, causing an estimated 400 deaths and leaving approximately 8000 children with permanent disabilities such as hearing or vision loss, or mental retardation. More children are affected by serious CMV-related disabilities than by several better-known childhood maladies, including Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, and spina bifida. Discussion Congenital CMV is a prime target for prevention not only because of its substantial disease burden but also because the biology and epidemiology of CMV suggest that there are ways to reduce viral transmission. Because exposure to the saliva or urine of young children is a major cause of CMV infection among pregnant women, it is likely that good personal hygiene, especially hand-washing, can reduce the risk of CMV acquisition. Experts agree that such measures are likely to be efficacious (i.e., they will work if consistently followed and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that physicians counsel pregnant women about preventing CMV acquisition through careful attention to hygiene. However, because of concerns about effectiveness (i.e., Will women consistently follow hygienic practices as the result of interventions?, the medical and public health communities appear reluctant to embrace primary CMV prevention via improved hygienic practices, and educational interventions are rare. Current data on the effectiveness of such measures in preventing CMV infection are promising, but limited. There is strong evidence, however, that educational interventions can prevent other infectious diseases with similar transmission modes, suggesting that effective interventions can also be found for CMV. Until a CMV vaccine becomes available, effective educational interventions are needed to inform women about congenital CMV prevention. Summary Perhaps no single

  14. Las Vegas wash water quality and implications to fish and wildlife (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Recent investigations have documented degraded water quality conditions in Las Vegas Wash and Las Vegas Bay of Lake Mead, Clark County, Nevada (Bureau of Reclamation...

  15. Title V Operating Permit: QEP Field Services Company - Coyote Wash Compressor Station (United States)

    Response to public comments and the Title V Operating Permit for the QEP Field Services Company, Coyote Wash Compressor Station, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, Utah.

  16. Self-reported hand washing behaviors and foodborne illness: a propensity score matching approach. (United States)

    Ali, Mir M; Verrill, Linda; Zhang, Yuanting


    Hand washing is a simple and effective but easily overlooked way to reduce cross-contamination and the transmission of foodborne pathogens. In this study, we used the propensity score matching methodology to account for potential selection bias to explore our hypothesis that always washing hands before food preparation tasks is associated with a reduction in the probability of reported foodborne illness. Propensity score matching can simulate random assignment to a condition so that pretreatment observable differences between a treatment group and a control group are homogenous on all the covariates except the treatment variable. Using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2010 Food Safety Survey, we estimated the effect of self-reported hand washing behavior on the probability of self-reported foodborne illness. Our results indicate that reported washing of hands with soap always before food preparation leads to a reduction in the probability of reported foodborne illness.

  17. Internalization of Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupes during dump tank washing and hydrocooling (United States)

    Recent listeriosis outbreaks and recalls associated with cantaloupes urge for studies to understand the mechanisms of cantaloupe contamination by Listeria monocytogenes. Postharvest practices such as washing and hydrocooling were suggested to facilitate the contamination of fresh fruits by human pat...

  18. Hand-Washing: The Main Strategy for Avoiding Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Dingmei; Li, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Wangjian; Guo, Pi; Ma, Zhanzhong; Chen, Qian; Du, Shaokun; Peng, Jing; Deng, Yu; Hao, Yuantao


    .... Results of the primary logistic regression analyses revealed that age, history of cold food consumption, hand-washing routines, and airing out bedding were significantly associated with HFMD cases...

  19. Healthy school environment: effectiveness of hand washing instruction in an elementary school setting. (United States)

    Celik, Laurel A; Pancoe, Diane L


    Hand washing remains the single most important action for preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Although easy and inexpensive, promoting hand hygiene in an elementary school can be a challenge. This study was a collaborativeproject between the co-investigators (a registered nurse at an urban elementary school and a senior high school student working on a senior International Baccalaureate research project), the 5th-grade science teacher, and a physician from the local children's hospital. The study purposes were to (a) determine the effectiveness of a 30-minute hand washing educational intervention at decreasing organisms on the hands of 5th-grade students and (b) introduce the 5th-grade students to the scientific method. Forty-one percent of the 5th-grade students used an effective hand washing technique after receiving instruction on proper hand washing.

  20. Washing away your (good or bad) luck: physical cleansing affects risk-taking behavior. (United States)

    Xu, Alison Jing; Zwick, Rami; Schwarz, Norbert


    Many superstitious practices entail the belief that good or bad luck can be "washed away." Consistent with this belief, participants who recalled (Experiment 1) or experienced (Experiment 2) an episode of bad luck were more willing to take risk after having as opposed to not having washed their hands, whereas participants who recalled or experienced an episode of good luck were less willing to take risk after having as opposed to not having washed their hands. Thus, the psychological effects of physical cleansings extend beyond the domain of moral judgment and are independent of people's motivation: incidental washing not only removes undesirable traces of the past (such as bad luck) but also desirable ones (such as good luck), which people would rather preserve.

  1. Washing Habits and Machine with Intake of hot and cold Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bente Lis; Nørgaard, Jørgen


    with slightly adapted washing habits, or 17% of normal today. If the heat is supplied from combined heat and power production as in the actual experiment, CO2-emission is reduced by 81%. With hot water from oil or gas heaters the reduction will be slightly lower, while with solar hot water it will be larger.......Domestic washing machines typically spend around 80% of the electricity on heating water. Most of this can be replaced by more appropriate heat sources like district heat from combined heat and power production, or gas heating system. In recent years some washing machine manufacturers have marketed...... machines which can take in both hot and cold water and mix it to the temperature wanted. Such one machine has been tested in daily household use over 5 months, with habits of very few hot water washes. The result is an electricity consumption corresponding to 67 kWh per year for an average household...

  2. Salt reduction in foods using naturally brewed soy sauce. (United States)

    Kremer, Stefanie; Mojet, Jozina; Shimojo, Ryo


    In recent years, health concerns related to salt/sodium chloride consumption have caused an increased demand for salt-reduced foods. Consequently, sodium chloride (NaCl) reduction in foods has become an important challenge. The more so, since a decrease in NaCl content is often reported to be associated with a decrease in consumer acceptance. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether or not it would be possible to reduce the NaCl content in standard Western European foods by replacing it with naturally brewed soy sauce. Three types of foods were investigated: salad dressing (n = 56), soup (n = 52), and stir-fried pork (n = 57). In the 1st step, an exchange rate (ER) by which NaCl can be replaced with soy sauce without a significant change in the overall taste intensity was established per product type, by means of alternative forced choice tests. In the 2nd step, the same consumers evaluated 5 samples per product type with varying NaCl and/or soy sauce content on pleasantness and several sensory attributes. The results showed that it was possible to achieve a NaCl reduction in the tested foods of, respectively, 50%, 17%, and 29% without leading to significant losses in either overall taste intensity or product pleasantness. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with naturally brewed soy sauce without lowering the overall taste intensity and to reduce the total NaCl content in these foods without decreasing their consumer acceptance. Health concerns related to salt consumption cause an increased demand for salt-reduced foods. Consequently, the development of foods with reduced salt content without decreasing the consumer acceptance is an important challenge for the food industry. A new possible salt reduction approach is described in the present article: The replacement of salt with naturally brewed soy sauce.

  3. Characterization of Salt-Induced Epigenetic Segregation by Genome-Wide Loss of Heterozygosity and its Association with Salt Tolerance in Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li


    Full Text Available In a breeding effort to develop salt tolerant (ST rice varieties by designed QTL pyramiding, large numbers of progenies derived from four crosses between salt- or drought- tolerant BC2F5 IR64 introgression lines, were subjected to severe salt stress, resulting in 422 ST plants. The progeny testing of the selected F3 lines under more severe salt stress resulted in identification of 16 promising homozygous lines with high levels of ST. Genetic characterization of the 422 ST F3 progeny and 318 random F2 plants from the same four crosses using 105 segregating SSR markers lead to three interesting discoveries: (1 salt stress can induce genome-wide epigenetic segregation (ES characterized by complete loss of heterozygosity (LOH and nearly complete loss of an allele (LOA in the F3 progenies of four rice populations in a single generation; (2 ∼25% of the stress-induced ES loci were transgenerational and inherited from their salt- and drought- selected parents; and (3 the salt-induced LOH and LOA loci (regions appeared to contain genes/alleles associated with ST and/or drought tolerance. 32 genomic regions that showed one or more types of salt-induced ES in the random and salt-selected progenies from these crosses. The same or different types of ES were detected with two large genomic regions on chromosomes 1 and 6 where more and the strongest ES were found across different populations. 14 genomic regions were found where the salt-induced ES regions were overlapping with QTL affecting ST related traits. The discovery of the three types of salt-induced ES showed several interesting characteristics and had important implications in evolution and future breeding for developing stress-resilient rice and crops.

  4. Influence of pre-salt topographic features on supra-salt deformation in Mediterranean basins: Geology vs. physical models (United States)

    Ferrer, Oriol; Vidal-Royo, Oskar; Gratacós, Oscar; Roca, Eduard; Muñoz, Josep Anton; Esestime, Paolo; Rodriguez, Karyna; Yazmin Piragauta, Mary; Feliu, Nil


    The presence of a thick Messinian evaporite unit is a well known feature of the Mediterranean basins. This salt unit is composed of three sub-units (Lower, Mobile and Upper Units) in the Northwest Mediterranean. In contrast, in the Eastern Mediterranean it is characterized by a multilayered evaporite sequence. In both regions the salt acted as a detachment favoring the downslope gravitational failure of the overlying sediments in a thin-skinned deformation regime (e.g. Liguro-Provençal or Levant basins). As a result, these salt-bearing passive margins exhibit the classical three-domain structural zonation characterized by upslope extension, intermediate translation and downslope contraction. Nevertheless, the presence of pre-salt reliefs (e.g. irregularly eroded palaeotopography or volcanic edifices) is rather common in the translational domain of the Northwestern Mediterranean (e.g. Liguro-Provençal and West Corsica margins). In this scenario, pre-salt reliefs act as flow barriers and hinder salt drainage. When their summit lies close or above the top salt, these structures may partially or fully block salt flow. They also disrupt locally the structural zonation of the passive margin and constrain cover deformation. In contrast, in the Eastern Mediterranean the Eratosthenes seamount is characterized by a large scale submerged massif (ca. 120 km in size) that significantly influenced the structural evolution of the surrounding areas. This inherited relief acted as a buttress and deflected the Messinian salt flow constraining supra-salt deformation (e.g. Levant Basin and Nile margin). In addition, the geometry of the Eratosthenes seamount also restrained the structural style of the allochthonous salt that was expulsed during the development of the Cyprus subduction zone to the north. Using an experimental approach (sandbox models) and new analysis techniques, we investigate salt and supra-salt deformation in response to two different types of pre-salt relief: 1

  5. Assessment of Cr and Ni phytotoxicity from cutlery-washing waste-waters using biomass and chlorophyll production tests on mustard Sinapis alba L. seedlings. (United States)

    Fargasová, Agáta; Molnárová, Marianna


    The aim of this work was to determine phytotoxicity of washing waste-waters from a cutlery production line with high content of Cr and Ni. These waters were previously classified, without verification, as dangerous and it is now necessary to question the justice of the present classification under the new legislation for waste management (Waste Law No. 223/2001) in the Slovak Republic. Young seedling of the dicotyledon terrestrial plant mustard Sinapis alba L. were used for determination of the dry and fresh root and shoot biomass and photosynthetic pigment production. Observed parameters were evaluated in laboratory experiments with three types of washing waste-waters from a cutlery production line. All contamination of tested washing waste-waters came from heavy metals (Ni, Cr), non-polar extractable compounds (NEC; residues of oils and waxes from polishing of stainless steel cutlery) and detergents (used for cutlery degreasing). Photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b, and total carotenoids) were extracted in 96% ethanol and measured spectrophotometrically at 665, 649, and 470 nm. All phytotoxicity tests were carried out in triplicate, and they included a control in tap water. All tested washing waters reduced root dry mass, whereas the shoot dry mass was either unaffected or it increased. The tested washing waters' effect was stronger on fresh mass production than on dry mass production. This indicated problems in water reception and translocation. The adverse effect on photosynthetic pigments production increased only slowly with remaining washing waste-water concentration. Almost all Chl a/b ratios were the same as for the control and this indicated no significant differences in the reduction of either a or b chlorophylls. As opposed to chlorophylls, carotenoids content increased in the presence of tested washing waste-waters and equaled or exceeded their content in the control. As the ratio of Chl(a + b)/Car was lower than that for the control for almost

  6. Evaluation of the wastewater from the washing of multipurpose ponds with rainbow trout farming (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Alexandra Luna Imbacuán


    Full Text Available Fish production generates two types of water flow: a continuous one related to the normal operation and an intermittent one associated to the cleaning of the seeding ponds. The multipurpose ponds (multipro are novel systems that provide advantages compared to conventional design ones, so the recent study searches to was focused to determine the physical and chemical quality and treatability of their washing effluents. The multipurpose ponds (multipro, worked to a real scale, by using initial and final seed densities of 5 kg/m3 and 8.9 kg/m3 respectively. The ponds were cleaned every 72 hours, and different samples were taken to determine the chemical-physical characteristics following the standard methods. The main results show that the effluent from cleaning represents a volume of 1.5 % of the total generated in the normal daily operation. Additionally, the effluent showed average values of 128 mg/L of total suspended solids (TSS, 94 mg/L of chemical oxygen demand (COD, 25 mg/L of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, 4.7 mg/L of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (NTK and 0.6 mg/L of total phosphorus (PT. The biodegradability index was 0.30, which implies a limited possibility for direct treatment by means of biological processes. It is suggested to study the primary sedimentation or filtration through a geotextile. The selection of the treatment unit is made according to the characteristics of the particles in the water column.

  7. Chemical changes in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix minced muscle during frozen storage: Effect of a previous washing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini, Hedayat


    Full Text Available Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix has acquired great attention because of its increasing farming production and application in the surimi-product commercialization. This work focuses on the effect of a washing process followed by frozen storage (6 months; -18 °C on the quality of minced silver carp muscle. A previous washing step has led to a positive effect on fish quality according to marked content decreases in expressible moisture, volatile amines, free fatty acids and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; such quality performances were maintained throughout the frozen storage. On the other hand, most indexes tested showed quality losses throughout the frozen storage in both washed and unwashed fish material; however, water holding capacity (WHC remained unchanged in washed fish throughout the frozen storage. Among quality indexes, a special attention should be given to the expressible moisture value and accordingly the WHC, as being closely related to the gelforming ability in order to obtain surimi-type commercial products.La carpa plateada (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ha adquirido un gran interés debido a su creciente producción acuícola y a su empleo en la elaboración de surimi. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo el estudio del efecto que sobre la calidad de músculo de carpa plateada desmenuzada puede tener un proceso de lavado seguido de conservación en congelación (6 meses; -18 °C. Así, se observó un efecto positivo del lavado sobre la calidad de acuerdo con un descenso en los contenidos de humedad exprimible, aminas volátiles, ácidos grasos libres y sustancias reactivas con el ácido tiobarbitúrico; esta mejora de calidad se mantuvo durante la conservación en congelación. Asimismo, la mayoría de los índices de calidad estudiados reflejaron pérdidas de calidad durante la conservación en congelación independientemente del tratamiento previo; sin embargo, la capacidad de retención de agua permaneci

  8. Water usage characteristics of car wash facilities in Ortahisar district of Trabzon province


    Karabacak, Volkan; Topbaş, Murat; Karakullukçu, Serdar; Demirtaş, Yusuf; Çankaya, Sertaç; Çan, Gamze; Beyhun, N. Ercüment


    Introduction. Water management is ontop of the agenda for all countries Aimof the study. The aim of this study was to determine the water usage in thecar wash facilities of Ortahisar district of Trabzon province, such as thefeatures of the water used in drinking and car washing, the disposal ofwastewater and case of water interruption situation in the facilities. Material and methods. This descriptivestudy was conducted in Ortahisar district of Trabzon province. The studypopulation of the res...

  9. Corrosion Control of Central Vehicle Wash Facility Pump Components Using Alternative Alloy Coatings (United States)


    Vehicle Wash Facility (CVWF) provides a rapid, economical method for washing tracked and wheeled tactical vehicles. The standard CVWF consists of a...of the prewash ERDC/CERL TR-16-10 6 pumps. The pump shaft is visible and the motor has been placed at the nearer left corner of the slab ...timers were installed in the pump control panel so that the hours of operation can be tracked by DPW personnel for purposes of scheduling in- spection

  10. Planning a layout design for the washing line of Parker Hannifin Oy


    Lartey, Daniel


    The aim of this thesis was to design a new layout and select the best conveyor system to enhance material flow to the complex industrial washing machines at the washing line. The purpose was also to prepare an Approval for Execution (AFE) plan to enable the commissioning organization to review the current and future benefits and payback time before the project is implemented. The thesis was commissioned by Parker Hannifin Oy in Urjala. In spring 2011 Parker Hannifin Oy decided to streamli...

  11. Effect of exhaust emissions on carbon monoxide levels in employees working at indoor car wash facilities


    Topacoglu, H; Katsakoglou, S; Ipekci, A


    Background: Exhaust emissions from motor vehicles threaten the environment and human health. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, especially the use of exhaust gas CO in suicidal attempts is well known in the literature. Recently, indoor car wash facilities established in large shopping malls with closed parking, lots is a new risk area that exposes car wash employees to prolonged periods of high level CO emissions from cars. The aim of this study was to investigate how carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) bl...

  12. Comparison of four methods of hand washing in situations of inadequate water supply. (United States)

    Ogunsola, F T; Adesiji, Y O


    Hand washing is the single most important means of preventing hospital acquired infections, but requires for effectiveness, a constant supply of running water and proper facilities. Most developing countries do not have constant running water facilities, so alternate methods have been developed and used in clinics and hospitals. To compare and validate alternate methods of hand washing developed for use in Nigeria. The hands of 12 volunteers were pre-contaminated with known isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The volunteers washed their hands as described by Ayliffe. The hands and equipment were cultured pre- and post-contamination and post-hand washing. The water used for the hand wash was also cultured pre-hand washing to control for water-based contamination. Each method was evaluated three times and various parts of the equipment were cultured to determine the areas contaminated by the hands during the hand wash. "Elbow-way" was shown to be the best and the gold standard Sink and Tap for promoting an effective hand washing, as there was no evidence of post-contamination. The worst was the single-bowl method in which the hands of all the 12 (100%) volunteers were contaminated from the bowl, followed by the two-bowl initiative 10 (83%) and the bucket and bowl 9 (75%). The bucket and bowl as well as the single-bowl methods most commonly used in hospitals result in gross contamination of the bowls and bucket and are therefore unsafe and should be discouraged. The elbow way on the other hand appears to be an easy and safe alternative in situations where there is no running water.

  13. Ineffective hand washing and the contamination of carrots after using a field latrine. (United States)

    Monaghan, J M; Hutchison, M L


    A study was undertaken to simulate the likely effects of a field worker with poor hygienic practices that had returned to work too soon after recovering from an infection by an enteric pathogen. The studies simulated a variety of hand-washing practices from no washing to washing with soap and water followed by an application of alcohol gel after using a field latrine. The numbers of generic Escherichia coli isolated from workers' hands declined with increasing thoroughness of hand-washing treatments with unwashed hands > water > water and soap > water, soap and alcohol gel. Where gloves were worn the counts obtained for the treatments were significantly reduced, but it was observed that unwashed hands contaminated gloves during the process of putting them on. Hand contamination following the use of a field latrine transferred contamination to carrots. These results suggest that if no gloves are worn it would be best practice to wash hands with water and soap and apply alcohol gel after using a field latrine. Wearing gloves reduced the risk of contaminating handled produce but workers should still wash their hands after using a field latrine before applying gloves. This study shows that inadequate hand hygiene in the field following the use of a field latrine can transfer bacterial contamination to hand-harvested carrots. Where fresh produce crops are to be handled by workers, wearing gloves reduces the risk of contaminating produce but workers should still wash their hands after using a field latrine before applying gloves. If no gloves are worn it would be best practice to wash hands with water and soap and apply alcohol gel after using a field latrine. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Effectiveness of hand-washing teaching programs for families of children in paediatric intensive care units. (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Chuan; Chiang, Li-Chi


    The authors developed a video-centred teaching program based on social learning principles to demonstrate hand-washing technique. A comparison was made between families who viewed the video and families who were taught the same techniques with the aid of an illustrated poster in terms of compliance and improvement in hand-washing skills. Nosocomial infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in paediatric intensive care unit patients. Hand hygiene is considered the most important preventive action against hospital-acquired infections. A number of studies have shown that increased compliance with hand-washing guidelines for health-care workers leads to decreases in nosocomial infection rates. Furthermore, recommendations have been made to ensure that parents who visit their children in intensive care units wash their hands first. Quasi-experimental time series. Compliance and accuracy measurements were collected during one to five visits following the initial teaching intervention. A total of 123 families, who visited paediatric intensive care units, were recruited and assigned to two groups - one experimental (61 families) and the other a comparison group (62). Participants in the comparison group were taught hand-washing skills using simple illustrations. A 20-item hand-washing checklist was used to examine hand-washing compliance and accuracy. No significant differences were noted in terms of demographics between the two groups. Results from a general estimated equation analysis showed that families in the experimental group had higher compliance and accuracy scores at statistically significant levels. The video-based teaching program was effective in increasing compliance and accuracy with a hand-washing policy among families with children in intensive care units. The education program is a simple, low-cost, low technology intervention for substantially reducing the incidence of nosocomial infection.

  15. Host cell protein clearance during protein A chromatography: development of an improved column wash step. (United States)

    Shukla, Abhinav A; Hinckley, Peter


    Host cell protein (HCP) contaminant clearance is a significant concern during downstream process development for biopharmaceuticals. Protein A chromatography as a capture step for monoclonal antibodies and Fc fusion proteins can clear a large proportion of these impurities from cell culture harvest. Nevertheless, remaining levels of this process-related impurity class do present significant constraints on the rapid development of effective and robust polishing steps. Conventionally, an intermediate pH wash is employed between column loading and elution to minimize HCP levels after Protein A chromatography. A significant mechanistic finding presented in this work is that HCP contaminants that persist following Protein A capture predominantly comprise species that associate with the product in preference to direct interaction with the chromatographic resin. This suggests that the development of improved column wash techniques to maximize HCP clearance ought to focus on disrupting protein-HCP interactions rather than Protein A-HCP interactions. A higher wash pH to preserve product--Protein A binding along with the use of additive combinations to disrupt interactions between HCPs and the product are investigated. This strategy was successfully applied to develop a broadly applicable wash condition that has the potential for eliminating the need for product specific optimization of wash conditions. A combination of 1 M urea and 10% isopropanol in the wash buffer were successfully applied as a platform wash condition for Protein A chromatography. Use of this (and other similar) wash conditions are anticipated to aid the rapid development of effective downstream processes for monoclonal antibodies and Fc fusion proteins resulting in their rapid introduction into clinical trials.

  16. Microbiology of solar salt ponds (United States)

    Javor, B.


    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  17. Recycling of aluminum salt cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Karvelas, D.E.


    The secondary aluminum industry generates more than 110 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of salt-cake waste every year. This waste stream contains about 3--5% aluminum, 15--30% aluminum oxide, 30--40% sodium chloride, and 20--30% potassium chloride. As much as 50% of the content of this waste is combined salt (sodium and potassium chlorides). Salt-cake waste is currently disposed of in conventional landfills. In addition, over 50 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of black dross that is not economical to reprocess a rotary furnace for aluminum recovery ends up in landfills. The composition of the dross is similar to that of salt cake, except that it contains higher concentrations of aluminum (up to 20%) and correspondingly lower amounts of salts. Because of the high solubility of the salts in water, these residues, when put in landfills, represent a potential source of pollution to surface-water and groundwater supplies. The increasing number of environmental regulations on the generation and disposal of industrial wastes are likely to restrict the disposal of these salt-containing wastes in conventional landfills. Processes exist that employ the dissolution and recovery of the salts from the waste stream. These wet-processing methods are economical only when the aluminum concentration in that waste exceeds about 10%. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a study in which existing technologies were reviewed and new concepts that are potentially more cost-effective than existing processes were developed and evaluated. These include freeze crystallization, solvent/antisolvent extraction, common-ion effect, high-pressure/high-temperature process, and capillary-effect systems. This paper presents some of the technical and economic results of the aforementioned ANL study.

  18. Homolytic reduction of onium salts. (United States)

    Fensterbank, Louis; Goddard, Jean-Philippe; Malacria, Max; Ollivier, Cyril


    Onium salts have proved to be efficient sources of carbon-centered radicals. They can undergo homolytic reduction by single electron transfer (SET) and participate in subsequent synthetic transformations. This review aims to provide an overview on the behavior of onium salts including diazonium, sulfonium, selenonium, telluronium, phosphonium and iodonium cations toward various reductive methods such as radiolysis, electrolysis, photolysis or the use of SET reagents. Mechanistic and synthetic aspects are presented. Applications in polymers and materials science are not covered.

  19. Microplastics in Spanish Table Salt


    I?iguez, Maria E.; Conesa, Juan A.; Fullana, Andres


    Marine debris is widely recognized as a global environmental problem. One of its main components, microplastics, has been found in several sea salt samples from different countries, indicating that sea products are irremediably contaminated by microplastics. Previous studies show very confusing results, reporting amounts of microparticles (MPs) in salt ranging from zero to 680 MPs/kg, with no mention of the possible causes of such differences. Several errors in the experimental procedures use...

  20. Effect of treatments and washing cycles on the quality of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Boarin Alcalde


    Full Text Available The extraction of proteins from wastes reduces production costs and environmental pollution. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of two treatments involving decanting/sieving or centrifugation and the number of washing cycles on the quality of protein concentrate obtained from mechanically separated meat (MSM of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Results were analyzed in terms of final yield and proximate composition (moisture, protein, fat and ash after each washing cycle. Moisture did not vary statistically with the treatments and after the third washing cycle. However, the process involving centrifugation was more efficient for protein concentration because the final protein content increased 2.0 folds (79.82%, dry basis and fat decreased 6.1 folds (8.29%, dry basis. After four washing cycles, it was obtained a protein concentrate with 79.82% protein, 8.29% lipid and 0.45% ash (dry basis, and 80.0% yield, using the centrifugation procedure. Visual whiteness was highly improved after four washing cycles using both processes. It was concluded that the centrifugation process with four washing cycles was the most appropriate method for producing protein concentrate from MSM of Nile tilapia.