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Sample records for salt tolerance related

  1. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals the Genetic Architecture Underlying Salt Tolerance-Related Traits in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Heping; Chen, Lunlin; Guo, Jianbin; Li, Qun; Wen, Jing; Yi, Bin; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Shen, Jinxiong

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture sustainability worldwide. Salt tolerance at the seedling stage is crucial for plant establishment and high yield in saline soils; however, little information is available on rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) salt tolerance. We evaluated salt tolerance in different rapeseed accessions and conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify salt tolerance-related quantitative trait loci (QTL). A natural population comprising 368 B. napus cult...

  2. A comparative study of salt tolerance parameters in 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Francesco; D'Urzo, Matilde Paino; Inan, Gunsu; Serra, Sara; Oh, Dong-Ha; Mickelbart, Michael V; Consiglio, Federica; Li, Xia; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Yun, Dae-Jin; Bohnert, Hans J; Bressan, Ray A; Maggio, Albino

    2010-08-01

    Salinity is an abiotic stress that limits both yield and the expansion of agricultural crops to new areas. In the last 20 years our basic understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance and adaptation to saline environments has greatly improved owing to active development of advanced tools in molecular, genomics, and bioinformatics analyses. However, the full potential of investigative power has not been fully exploited, because the use of halophytes as model systems in plant salt tolerance research is largely neglected. The recent introduction of halophytic Arabidopsis-Relative Model Species (ARMS) has begun to compare and relate several unique genetic resources to the well-developed Arabidopsis model. In a search for candidates to begin to understand, through genetic analyses, the biological bases of salt tolerance, 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana were compared: Barbarea verna, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hirschfeldia incana, Lepidium densiflorum, Malcolmia triloba, Lepidium virginicum, Descurainia pinnata, Sisymbrium officinale, Thellungiella parvula, Thellungiella salsuginea (previously T. halophila), and Thlaspi arvense. Among these species, highly salt-tolerant (L. densiflorum and L. virginicum) and moderately salt-tolerant (M. triloba and H. incana) species were identified. Only T. parvula revealed a true halophytic habitus, comparable to the better studied Thellungiella salsuginea. Major differences in growth, water transport properties, and ion accumulation are observed and discussed to describe the distinctive traits and physiological responses that can now be studied genetically in salt stress research.

  3. A comparative study of salt tolerance parameters in 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Orsini, Francesco

    2010-07-01

    Salinity is an abiotic stress that limits both yield and the expansion of agricultural crops to new areas. In the last 20 years our basic understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance and adaptation to saline environments has greatly improved owing to active development of advanced tools in molecular, genomics, and bioinformatics analyses. However, the full potential of investigative power has not been fully exploited, because the use of halophytes as model systems in plant salt tolerance research is largely neglected. The recent introduction of halophytic Arabidopsis-Relative Model Species (ARMS) has begun to compare and relate several unique genetic resources to the well-developed Arabidopsis model. In a search for candidates to begin to understand, through genetic analyses, the biological bases of salt tolerance, 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana were compared: Barbarea verna, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hirschfeldia incana, Lepidium densiflorum, Malcolmia triloba, Lepidium virginicum, Descurainia pinnata, Sisymbrium officinale, Thellungiella parvula, Thellungiella salsuginea (previously T. halophila), and Thlaspi arvense. Among these species, highly salt-tolerant (L. densiflorum and L. virginicum) and moderately salt-tolerant (M. triloba and H. incana) species were identified. Only T. parvula revealed a true halophytic habitus, comparable to the better studied Thellungiella salsuginea. Major differences in growth, water transport properties, and ion accumulation are observed and discussed to describe the distinctive traits and physiological responses that can now be studied genetically in salt stress research. 2010 The Author.

  4. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals the Genetic Architecture Underlying Salt Tolerance-Related Traits in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxiong Shen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture sustainability worldwide. Salt tolerance at the seedling stage is crucial for plant establishment and high yield in saline soils; however, little information is available on rapeseed (Brassica napus L. salt tolerance. We evaluated salt tolerance in different rapeseed accessions and conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS to identify salt tolerance-related quantitative trait loci (QTL. A natural population comprising 368 B. napus cultivars and inbred lines was genotyped with a Brassica 60K Illumina Infinium SNP array. The results revealed that 75 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs distributed across 14 chromosomes were associated with four salt tolerance-related traits. These SNPs integrated into 25 QTLs that explained 4.21–9.23% of the phenotypic variation in the cultivars. Additionally, 38 possible candidate genes were identified in genomic regions associated with salt tolerance indices. These genes fell into several functional groups that are associated with plant salt tolerance, including transcription factors, aquaporins, transporters, and enzymes. Thus, salt tolerance in rapeseed involves complex molecular mechanisms. Our results provide valuable information for studying the genetic control of salt tolerance in B. napus seedlings and may facilitate marker-based breeding for rapeseed salt tolerance.

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals the Genetic Architecture Underlying Salt Tolerance-Related Traits in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Heping; Chen, Lunlin; Guo, Jianbin; Li, Qun; Wen, Jing; Yi, Bin; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Shen, Jinxiong

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture sustainability worldwide. Salt tolerance at the seedling stage is crucial for plant establishment and high yield in saline soils; however, little information is available on rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) salt tolerance. We evaluated salt tolerance in different rapeseed accessions and conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify salt tolerance-related quantitative trait loci (QTL). A natural population comprising 368 B. napus cultivars and inbred lines was genotyped with a Brassica 60K Illumina Infinium SNP array. The results revealed that 75 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across 14 chromosomes were associated with four salt tolerance-related traits. These SNPs integrated into 25 QTLs that explained 4.21-9.23% of the phenotypic variation in the cultivars. Additionally, 38 possible candidate genes were identified in genomic regions associated with salt tolerance indices. These genes fell into several functional groups that are associated with plant salt tolerance, including transcription factors, aquaporins, transporters, and enzymes. Thus, salt tolerance in rapeseed involves complex molecular mechanisms. Our results provide valuable information for studying the genetic control of salt tolerance in B. napus seedlings and may facilitate marker-based breeding for rapeseed salt tolerance.

  6. Macroevolutionary patterns of salt tolerance in angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromham, Lindell

    2015-01-01

    Background Halophytes are rare, with only 0·25 % of angiosperm species able to complete their life cycle in saline conditions. This could be interpreted as evidence that salt tolerance is difficult to evolve. However, consideration of the phylogenetic distribution of halophytes paints a different picture: salt tolerance has evolved independently in many different lineages, and halophytes are widely distributed across angiosperm families. In this Viewpoint, I will consider what phylogenetic analysis of halophytes can tell us about the macroevolution of salt tolerance. Hypothesis Phylogenetic analyses of salt tolerance have shown contrasting patterns in different families. In some families, such as chenopods, salt tolerance evolved early in the lineage and has been retained in many lineages. But in other families, including grasses, there have been a surprisingly large number of independent origins of salt tolerance, most of which are relatively recent and result in only one or a few salt-tolerant species. This pattern of many recent origins implies either a high transition rate (salt tolerance is gained and lost often) or a high extinction rate (salt-tolerant lineages do not tend to persist over macroevolutionary timescales). While salt tolerance can evolve in a wide range of genetic backgrounds, some lineages are more likely to produce halophytes than others. This may be due to enabling traits that act as stepping stones to developing salt tolerance. The ability to tolerate environmental salt may increase tolerance of other stresses or vice versa. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses suggest that enabling traits and cross-tolerances may make some lineages more likely to adapt to increasing salinization, a finding that may prove useful in assessing the probable impact of rapid environmental change on vegetation communities, and in selecting taxa to develop for use in landscape rehabilitation and agriculture. PMID:25452251

  7. Soybean NIMA-Related Kinase1 Promotes Plant Growth and Improves Salt and Cold Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wen-Jia; Tao, Jian-Jun; Cheng, Tong; Shen, Ming; Ma, Jin-Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Lin, Qin; Ma, Biao; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2017-07-01

    NEK (NIMA-related kinase) is known as a family of serine/threonine kinases which mainly participate in microtubule-related mitotic events in fungi, mammals and other eukaryotes. Our previous studies found that Arabidopsis NEK6 plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stress. We further investigated roles of the NEK family in soybean and found that at least eight members can respond to abiotic stresses. Among them, only GmNEK1, a novel NEK member which is distantly related to Arabidopsis NEK6, enhanced plant growth and promoted salt and cold tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. The growth of soybean plants harboring GmNEK1-overexpressing hairy roots under saline condition was also improved. A series of stress-related genes including RH3, CORI3 and ALDH10A8 were found to be up-regulated in GmNEK1-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants and soybean hairy roots. Moreover, soybean plants with GmRH3-overexpressing hairy roots exhibited increased salt tolerance, while soybean plants with GmRH3-RNAi (RNA interference) roots were more sensitive to salt stress than the wild-type plants. Our study uncovers a novel role for GmNEK1 in promoting plant adaptive growth under adverse conditions at least partially through up-regulation of GmRH3. Manipulation of these genes in soybean or other crops may improve growth and production under stress conditions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Drought and salt tolerances in wild relatives for wheat and barley improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Eviatar; Chen, Guoxiong

    2010-04-01

    Drought and salinity are the major abiotic stresses that dramatically threaten the food supply in the world. Tribe Triticeae, including wheat and barley, possesses tremendous potential for drought and salt tolerance that has been extensively and practically identified, tested, and transferred to wheat cultivars with proven expression of tolerance in experimental trials. Triticum dicoccoides and Hordeum spontaneum, the progenitors of cultivated wheat and barley, have adapted to a broad range of environments and developed rich genetic diversities for drought and salt tolerances. Drought- and salt-tolerant genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been identified in T. dicoccoides and H. spontaneum and have great potential in wheat and barley improvement. Advanced backcross QTL analysis, the introgression libraries based on wild wheat and wild barley as donors, and positional cloning of natural QTLs will play prevailing roles in elucidating the molecular control of drought and salt tolerance. Combining tolerant genes and QTLs in crop breeding programs aimed at improving tolerance to drought and salinity will be achieved within a multidisciplinary context. Wild genetic resistances to drought and salinity will be shifted in the future from field experiments to the farmer.

  9. Genetic Diversity of Salt Tolerance in Miscanthus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Lin; van der Schoot, Hanneke; Dehghan, Shiva; Alvim Kamei, Claire L.; Schwarz, Kai-Uwe; Meyer, Heike; Visser, Richard G. F.; van der Linden, C. Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Miscanthus is a woody rhizomatous C4 grass that can be used as a CO2 neutral biofuel resource. It has potential to grow in marginal areas such as saline soils, avoiding competition for arable lands with food crops. This study explored genetic diversity for salt tolerance in Miscanthus and discovered mechanisms and traits that can be used to improve the yield under salt stress. Seventy genotypes of Miscanthus (including 57 M. sinensis, 5 M. sacchariflorus, and 8 hybrids) were evaluated for salt tolerance under saline (150 mM NaCl) and normal growing conditions using a hydroponic system. Analyses of shoot growth traits and ion concentrations revealed the existence of large variation for salt tolerance in the genotypes. We identified genotypes with potential for high biomass production both under control and saline conditions that may be utilized for growth under marginal, saline conditions. Several relatively salt tolerant genotypes had clearly lower Na+ concentrations and showed relatively high K+/Na+ ratios in the shoots under salt stress, indicating that a Na+ exclusion mechanism was utilized to prevent Na+ accumulation in the leaves. Other genotypes showed limited reduction in leaf expansion and growth rate under saline conditions, which may be indicative of osmotic stress tolerance. The genotypes demonstrating potentially different salt tolerance mechanisms can serve as starting material for breeding programs aimed at improving salinity tolerance of Miscanthus. PMID:28261243

  10. A comparative study of salt tolerance parameters in 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Orsini, Francesco; D'Urzo, Matilde Paino; Inan, Gunsu; Serra, Sara; Oh, Dong-Ha; Mickelbart, Michael V.; Consiglio, Federica; Li, Xia; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Yun, Dae-Jin; Bohnert, Hans J.; Bressan, Ray A.; Maggio, Albino

    2010-01-01

    Salinity is an abiotic stress that limits both yield and the expansion of agricultural crops to new areas. In the last 20 years our basic understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance and adaptation to saline environments has greatly improved owing to active development of advanced tools in molecular, genomics, and bioinformatics analyses. However, the full potential of investigative power has not been fully exploited, because the use of halophytes as model systems in plant salt ...

  11. Native-Invasive Plants vs. Halophytes in Mediterranean Salt Marshes: Stress Tolerance Mechanisms in Two Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hassan, Mohamad; Chaura, Juliana; López-Gresa, María P; Borsai, Orsolya; Daniso, Enrico; Donat-Torres, María P; Mayoral, Olga; Vicente, Oscar; Boscaiu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Dittrichia viscosa is a Mediterranean ruderal species that over the last decades has expanded into new habitats, including coastal salt marshes, ecosystems that are per se fragile and threatened by human activities. To assess the potential risk that this native-invasive species represents for the genuine salt marsh vegetation, we compared its distribution with that of Inula crithmoides, a taxonomically related halophyte, in three salt marshes located in "La Albufera" Natural Park, near the city of Valencia (East Spain). The presence of D. viscosa was restricted to areas of low and moderate salinity, while I. crithmoides was also present in the most saline zones of the salt marshes. Analyses of the responses of the two species to salt and water stress treatments in controlled experiments revealed that both activate the same physiological stress tolerance mechanisms, based essentially on the transport of toxic ions to the leaves-where they are presumably compartmentalized in vacuoles-and the accumulation of specific osmolytes for osmotic adjustment. The two species differ in the efficiency of those mechanisms: salt-induced increases in Na(+) and Cl(-) contents were higher in I. crithmoides than in D. viscosa, and the osmolytes (especially glycine betaine, but also arabinose, fructose and glucose) accumulated at higher levels in the former species. This explains the (slightly) higher stress tolerance of I. crithmoides, as compared to D. viscosa, established from growth inhibition measurements and their distribution in nature. The possible activation of K(+) transport to the leaves under high salinity conditions may also contribute to salt tolerance in I. crithmoides. Oxidative stress level-estimated from malondialdehyde accumulation-was higher in the less tolerant D. viscosa, which consequently activated antioxidant responses as a defense mechanism against stress; these responses were weaker or absent in the more tolerant I. crithmoides. Based on these results, we

  12. Native-invasive plants vs. halophytes in Mediterranean salt marshes: Stress tolerance mechanisms in two related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad eAl Hassan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dittrichia viscosa is a Mediterranean ruderal species that over the last decades has expanded into new habitats, including coastal salt marshes, ecosystems that are per se fragile and threatened by human activities. To assess the potential risk that this native-invasive species represents for the genuine salt marsh vegetation, we compared its distribution with that of Inula crithmoides, a taxonomically related halophyte, in three salt marshes located in ‘La Albufera’ Natural Park, near the city of Valencia (East Spain. The presence of D. viscosa was restricted to areas of low and moderate salinity, while I. crithmoides was also present in the most saline zones of the salt marshes. Analyses of the responses of the two species to salt and water stress treatments in controlled experiments revealed that both activate the same physiological stress tolerance mechanisms, based essentially on the transport of toxic ions to the leaves – where they are presumably compartmentalized in vacuoles – and the accumulation of specific osmolytes for osmotic adjustment. The two species differ in the efficiency of those mechanisms: salt-induced increases in Na+ and Cl- contents were higher in I. crithmoides than in D. viscosa, and the osmolytes (especially glycine betaine, but also arabinose, fructose and glucose accumulated at higher levels in the former species. This explains the (slightly higher stress tolerance of I. crithmoides, as compared to D. viscosa, established from growth inhibition measurements and their distribution in nature. The possible activation of K+ transport to the leaves under high salinity conditions may also contribute to salt tolerance in I. crithmoides. Oxidative stress level – estimated from malondialdehyde accumulation – was higher in the less tolerant D. viscosa, which consequently activated antioxidant responses as a defense mechanism against stress; these responses were weaker or absent in the more tolerant I. crithmoides

  13. Inhibition of ethylene synthesis reduces salt-tolerance in tomato wild relative species Solanum chilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, Emna; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Benahmed, Hela; Lepoint, Gilles; Vanpee, Brigitte; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to salinity induces a burst in ethylene synthesis in the wild tomato halophyte plant species Solanum chilense. In order to gain information on the role of ethylene in salt adaptation, plants of Solanum chilense (accession LA4107) and of cultivated glycophyte Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Ailsa Craig) were cultivated for 7days in nutrient solution containing 0 or 125mM NaCl in the presence or absence of the inhibitor of ethylene synthesis (aminovinylglycine (AVG) 2μM). Salt-induced ethylene synthesis in S. chilense occurred concomitantly with an increase in stomatal conductance, an efficient osmotic adjustment and the maintenance of carbon isotope discrimination value (Δ13C). In contrast, in S. lycopersicum, salt stress decreased stomatal conductance and Δ13C values while osmotic potential remained higher than in S. chilense. Inhibition of stress-induced ethylene synthesis by AVG decreased stomatal conductance and Δ13C in S. chilense and compromised osmotic adjustment. Solanum chilense behaved as an includer and accumulated high amounts of Na in the shoot but remained able to maintain K nutrition in the presence of NaCl. This species however did not stimulate the expression of genes coding for high-affinity K transport but genes coding for ethylene responsive factor ERF5 and JREF1 were constitutively more expressed in S. chilense than in S. lycopersicum. It is concluded that ethylene plays a key role in salt tolerance of S. chilense. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. [Salt tolerance evaluation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) at its germinating and seedling stages and selection of related indices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-wei; Lu, Hai-ling; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Bing-lin; Zhou, Zhi-guo

    2011-08-01

    A sand culture experiment was conducted to study the salt tolerance of 13 cotton cultivars at their germinating and seedling stages under the stress of different concentration NaCl, and a cluster analysis was made on the salt tolerance, according to the subjection values of salt toxicity coefficients of multi-indices and the sum subjection value. It was observed that the appropriate concentration of NaCl for the evaluation of salt tolerance was 150 mmol x L(-1). The salt tolerance differed with cultivar and growth stage. Among the 13 cultivars, the CCRI-44 and CCRI-177 were steadily salt-tolerant at both germinating and seedling stages, the CCRI-103, Dexiamian 1, and NuCOTN 33B were steadily and moderately salt-tolerant, while the CCRI-102, Sumian 12, and Simian 3 were steadily salt-sensitive. Germination rate, germination potential, germination index, vigor index, and fresh mass could be served as the indicators to evaluate the salt tolerance of the cultivars at germinating stage, while plant height, leaf expansion rate, shoot dry mass, root dry mass, root vigor, and net photosynthetic rate could be applied to assess the salt tolerance at seedling stage.

  15. Salicylic acid confers salt tolerance in potato plants by improving water relations, gaseous exchange, antioxidant activities and osmoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faried, Hafiz Nazar; Ayyub, Chaudhary Muhammad; Amjad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Rashid; Wattoo, Fahad Masoud; Butt, Madiha; Bashir, Mohsin; Shaheen, Muhammad Rashid; Waqas, Muhammad Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    Potato is an important vegetable; however, salt stress drastically affects its growth and yield. A pot experiment was therefore conducted to assess salicylic acid efficacy in improving performance of potato cultivars, grown under salt stress (50 mmol L-1 ). Salicylic acid at 0.5 mmol L-1 was sprayed on to potato plants after 1 week of salinity application. Salt stress effects were ameliorated by salicylic acid effectively in both the studied cultivars. N-Y LARA proved more responsive to salicylic acid application than 720-110 NARC, which confirmed genetic variation between cultivars. Salicylic acid scavenged reactive oxygen species by improving antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidases) and regulating osmotic adjustment (proline, phenolic contents), which led to enhanced water relation and gaseous exchange attributes, and thereby increased potassium availability and reduced sodium content in potato leaves. Moreover, potato tuber yield showed a positive correlation with potassium content, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities. Salt tolerance efficacy of salicylic acid is authenticated in improving potato crop performance under salt stress. Salicylic acid effect was more pronounced in N-Y LARA, reflecting greater tolerance than 720-110 NARC, which was confirmed as a susceptible cultivar. Hence salicylic acid at 0.5 mmol L-1 and cultivation of N-Y LARA may be recommended in saline soil. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Plant salt tolerance: adaptations in halophytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flowers, Timothy J; Colmer, Timothy D

    2015-01-01

    ..., and to develop salt-tolerant crops. In this Preface to a Special Issue on halophytes and saline adaptations, the evolution of salt tolerance in halophytes, their life-history traits and progress in understanding...

  17. Diversity and Evolution of Salt Tolerance in the Genus Vigna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohtaro Iseki

    Full Text Available Breeding salt tolerant plants is difficult without utilizing a diversity of wild crop relatives. Since the genus Vigna (family Fabaceae is comprised of many wild relatives adapted to various environmental conditions, we evaluated the salt tolerance of 69 accessions of this genus, including that of wild and domesticated accessions originating from Asia, Africa, Oceania, and South America. We grew plants under 50 mM and 200 mM NaCl for two weeks and then measured the biomass, relative quantum yield of photosystem II, leaf Na+ concentrations, and leaf K+ concentrations. The accessions were clustered into four groups: the most tolerant, tolerant, moderately susceptible, and susceptible. From the most tolerant group, we selected six accessions, all of which were wild accessions adapted to coastal environments, as promising sources of salt tolerance because of their consistently high relative shoot biomass and relative quantum yield. Interestingly, variations in leaf Na+ concentration were observed between the accessions in the most tolerant group, suggesting different mechanisms were responsible for their salt tolerance. Phylogenetic analysis with nuclear DNA sequences revealed that salt tolerance had evolved independently at least four times in the genus Vigna, within a relatively short period. The findings suggested that simple genetic changes in a few genes might have greatly affected salt tolerances. The elucidation of genetic mechanisms of salt tolerances in the selected accessions may contribute to improving the poor salt tolerance in legume crops.

  18. Genes and Salt Tolerance: Bringing Them Together

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rana Munns

    2005-01-01

    Salinity tolerance comes from genes that limit the rate of salt uptake from the soil and the transport of salt throughout the plant, adjust the ionic and osmotic balance of cells in roots and shoots...

  19. Relation between salt tolerance and biochemical changes in cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettaieb Rebey, Iness; Bourgou, Soumaya; Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Msaada, Kamel; Ksouri, Riadh; Marzouk, Brahim

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the effects of salinity on growth, fatty acid, essential oil, and phenolic composition of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds as well as the antioxidant activities of their extracts were investigated. Plants were treated with different concentrations of NaCl treatment: 0, 50, 75, and 125 mmoL. Plant growth was significantly reduced with the severity of saline treatment. This also caused important reductions in the seed yield and yield components. Besides, NaCl treatments affected fatty acid composition. Petroselinic and linoleic acids proportions diminished consistently with the increase in NaCl concentration, whereas palmitic acid proportion increased. Furthermore, NaCl enhanced essential oil production in C. cyminum seeds and induced marked changes on the essential oil quality. Essential oil chemotype was modified from γ-terpinene/1-phenyl-1,2 ethanediol in control to γ-terpinene/β-pinene in salt stressed plants. Total polyphenol content was higher in treated seeds, and salinity improved the amount of individual phenolic compounds. Moreover, antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by four different test systems, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, β-carotene/linoleic acid chelating, and reducing power assays. The highest antioxidant activities were reveled in severe stressed plants. In this case, cumin seeds produced under saline conditions may function as a potential source of essential oil and antioxidant compounds, which could support the utilization of this plant in a large field of applications such as food industry. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Cadmium hampers salt tolerance of Sesuvium portulacastrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Mariem; Martos, Soledad; Pérez-Martín, Laura; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Gunsé, Benet

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that salinity reduces cadmium toxicity in halophytes. However, the possible interference of Cd with the mechanisms of salt tolerance is poorly explored. The aim of this study was to see whether Cd affects salt tolerance mechanisms in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum. S. portulacastrum plants obtained from cuttings were grown in hydroponics for 3 weeks and then exposed to low (0.09 mM) or moderate (200 mM) NaCl concentrations, alone or in combination with 25 μM CdCl 2 . Microscopy observation revealed two strategies of salt tolerance: euhalophytism and secretion of salt by bladder cells. Cadmium exposure hardly influenced the total leaf Na + concentrations. However, Cd supply delayed the salt-induced upregulation of AHA1 (plasma membrane H + -ATPase 1) and SOS1 (plasma membrane Na + transporter "Salt Overly Sensitive 1"), genes that are essential for salt tolerance. Moreover, Cd induced the activation of BADH, coding for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, indicating enhanced osmotic stress due to Cd. Sodium-green fluorescence in protoplasts from plants grown with low or high NaCl, alone or in combination with Cd, revealed higher Na + concentrations in the cytoplasm of Cd-exposed plants. Taken together the results indicate interference of Cd with salt tolerance mechanisms in S. portulacastrum. This may have consequences for the efficient use of halophytes in phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated saline soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Salt Tolerance of Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Ayanna U. [Purdue University; Talaty, Nari [Purdue University; Cooks, R G [Purdue University; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Suppression of ion intensity in the presence of high salt matrices is common in most mass spectrometry ionization techniques. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is an ionization method that exhibits salt tolerance, and this is investigated. DESI analysis was performed on three different drug mixtures in the presence of 0, 0.2, 2, 5, 10, and 20% NaCl:KCl weight by volume from seven different surfaces. At physiological concentrations individual drugs in each mixture were observed with each surface. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) was used to provide additional confirmation for select compounds. Multiple stage experiments, to MS5, were performed for select compounds. Even in the absence of added salt, the benzodiazepine containing mixture yielded sodium and potassium adducts of carbamazepine which masked the ions of interest. These adducts were eliminated by adding 0.1% 7M ammonium acetate to the standard methanol:water (1:1) spray solvent. Comparison of the salt tolerance of DESI with that of electrospray ionization (ESI) demonstrated much better signal/noise characteristics for DESI in this study. The salt tolerance of DESI was also studied by performing limit of detection and dynamic range experiments. Even at a salt concentration significantly above physiological concentrations, select surfaces were effective in providing spectra that allowed the ready identification of the compounds of interest. The already high salt tolerance of DESI can be optimized further by appropriate choices of surface and spray solution.

  2. Evaluation of salt tolerance in almond [Prunus dulcis (L.) Batsch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-07-12

    Jul 12, 2012 ... al., 2006; Jafarzadeh and Aliasgarzad, 2007). Woody plants are usually relatively salt-tolerant during the seed germination stage but much more sensitive during the young seedling stage and progressively more tolerant with increasing age through the reproductive stage (Najafian et al., 2008). Temperate ...

  3. Salt Tolerant and Sensitive Rice Varieties Display Differential Methylome Flexibility under Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Liliana J.; Azevedo, Vanessa; Maroco, João; Oliveira, M. Margarida; Santos, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation has been referred as an important player in plant genomic responses to environmental stresses but correlations between the methylome plasticity and specific traits of interest are still far from being understood. In this study, we inspected global DNA methylation levels in salt tolerant and sensitive rice varieties upon salt stress imposition. Global DNA methylation was quantified using the 5-methylcytosine (5mC) antibody and an ELISA-based technique, which is an affordable and quite pioneer assay in plants, and in situ imaging of methylation sites in interphase nuclei of tissue sections. Variations of global DNA methylation levels in response to salt stress were tissue- and genotype-dependent. We show a connection between a higher ability of DNA methylation adjustment levels and salt stress tolerance. The salt-tolerant rice variety Pokkali was remarkable in its ability to quickly relax DNA methylation in response to salt stress. In spite of the same tendency for reduction of global methylation under salinity, in the salt-sensitive rice variety IR29 such reduction was not statistically supported. In ‘Pokkali’, the salt stress-induced demethylation may be linked to active demethylation due to increased expression of DNA demethylases under salt stress. In ‘IR29’, the induction of both DNA demethylases and methyltransferases may explain the lower plasticity of DNA methylation. We further show that mutations for epigenetic regulators affected specific phenotypic parameters related to salinity tolerance, such as the root length and biomass. This work emphasizes the role of differential methylome flexibility between salt tolerant and salt sensitive rice varieties as an important player in salt stress tolerance, reinforcing the need to better understand the connection between epigenetic networks and plant responses to environmental stresses. PMID:25932633

  4. Salt Tolerant and Sensitive Rice Varieties Display Differential Methylome Flexibility under Salt Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana J Ferreira

    Full Text Available DNA methylation has been referred as an important player in plant genomic responses to environmental stresses but correlations between the methylome plasticity and specific traits of interest are still far from being understood. In this study, we inspected global DNA methylation levels in salt tolerant and sensitive rice varieties upon salt stress imposition. Global DNA methylation was quantified using the 5-methylcytosine (5mC antibody and an ELISA-based technique, which is an affordable and quite pioneer assay in plants, and in situ imaging of methylation sites in interphase nuclei of tissue sections. Variations of global DNA methylation levels in response to salt stress were tissue- and genotype-dependent. We show a connection between a higher ability of DNA methylation adjustment levels and salt stress tolerance. The salt-tolerant rice variety Pokkali was remarkable in its ability to quickly relax DNA methylation in response to salt stress. In spite of the same tendency for reduction of global methylation under salinity, in the salt-sensitive rice variety IR29 such reduction was not statistically supported. In 'Pokkali', the salt stress-induced demethylation may be linked to active demethylation due to increased expression of DNA demethylases under salt stress. In 'IR29', the induction of both DNA demethylases and methyltransferases may explain the lower plasticity of DNA methylation. We further show that mutations for epigenetic regulators affected specific phenotypic parameters related to salinity tolerance, such as the root length and biomass. This work emphasizes the role of differential methylome flexibility between salt tolerant and salt sensitive rice varieties as an important player in salt stress tolerance, reinforcing the need to better understand the connection between epigenetic networks and plant responses to environmental stresses.

  5. Hyperspectral imaging to identify salt-tolerant wheat lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Ali; Yang, Ce; Miller, Marisa E.; Kianian, Shahryar; Marchetto, Peter

    2017-05-01

    In order to address the worldwide growing demand for food, agriculture is facing certain challenges and limitations. One of the important threats limiting crop productivity is salinity. Identifying salt tolerate varieties is crucial to mitigate the negative effects of this abiotic stress in agricultural production systems. Traditional measurement methods of this stress, such as biomass retention, are labor intensive, environmentally influenced, and often poorly correlated to salinity stress alone. In this study, hyperspectral imaging, as a non-destructive and rapid method, was utilized to expedite the process of identifying relatively the most salt tolerant line among four wheat lines including Triticum aestivum var. Kharchia, T. aestivum var. Chinese Spring, (Ae. columnaris) T. aestivum var. Chinese Spring, and (Ae. speltoides) T. aestivum var. Chinese Spring. To examine the possibility of early detection of a salt tolerant line, image acquisition was started one day after stress induction and continued on three, seven, and 12 days after adding salt. Simplex volume maximization (SiVM) method was deployed to detect superior wheat lines in response to salt stress. The results of analyzing images taken as soon as one day after salt induction revealed that Kharchia and (columnaris)Chinese Spring are the most tolerant wheat lines, while (speltoides) Chinese Spring was a moderately susceptible, and Chinese Spring was a relatively susceptible line to salt stress. These results were confirmed with the measuring biomass performed several weeks later.

  6. [Study on salt stress tolerance of Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Hangbaiju' and 'Huangju' and F1 seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangcai; Huang, Ying; Tang, Xingli; Li, Danxia

    2011-09-01

    To study the salt stress tolerance of Hongxinju, Huangju and F1 seedlings from orthogonal and reciprocal cross under different salt treatments. Grope for transmissibility of salt tolerance between parents and F1 seedlings, and relativity between flavone, chlorogenic acid contents and salt tolerance. The materials were put in 5 different concentrations of Hoagland nutrient solution (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 mmol x L(-1)) containing NaCl, keeping grads while raising the consistency of NaCl day by day. The injured leaf area per plant, proline, betaine, MDA, flavones and chlorogenic acid contents were measured and analyzed after treatment. As NaCl concentration was below 120 mmol x L(-1), the salt tolerance of Hongxinju was higher than that of Huangju, the salt tolerance of Hongxinju x Huangju higher than that of parents, the salt tolerance of Huangju x Hongxinju was at the level of parents. As NaCl concentration between 120 to 160 mmol x L(-1), the salt tolerance of Huangju was higher than that of Hongxinju, the salt tolerance of Huangju x Hongxinju higher than that of parents and the salt tolerance of Hongxinju x Huangju was at the level of parents. Salt tolerance of F1 is more influenced by female parent, relativity showed between flavonoids, chlorogenic acid contents and salt tolerance.

  7. SALT TOLERANCE OF CROP PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdia, M. A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Several environmental factors adversely affect plant growth and development and final yield performance of a crop. Drought, salinity, nutrient imbalances (including mineral toxicities and deficiencies and extremes of temperature are among the major environmental constraints to crop productivity worldwide. Development of crop plants with stress tolerance, however, requires, among others, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms and genetic controls of the contributing traits at different plant developmental stages. In the past 2 decades, biotechnology research has provided considerable insights into the mechanism of biotic stress tolerance in plants at the molecular level. Furthermore, different abiotic stress factors may provoke osmotic stress, oxidative stress and protein denaturation in plants, which lead to similar cellular adaptive responses such as accumulation of compatible solutes, induction of stress proteins, and acceleration of reactive oxygen species scavenging systems. Recently, the authores try to improve plant tolerance to salinity injury through either chemical treatments (plant hormones, minerals, amino acids, quaternary ammonium compounds, polyamines and vitamins or biofertilizers treatments (Asymbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria and mycorrhiza or enhanced a process used naturally by plants to minimise the movement of Na+ to the shoot, using genetic modification to amplify the process, helping plants to do what they already do - but to do it much better."

  8. Genetic diversity of salt tolerance in Miscanthus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Charlie; Schoot, van der Hanneke; Dehghan, Shiva; Alvim Kamei, Claire L.; Schwarz, Kai Uwe; Meyer, Heike; Visser, Richard G.F.; Linden, van der Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Miscanthus is a woody rhizomatous C4 grass that can be used as a CO2 neutral biofuel resource. It has potential to grow in marginal areas such as saline soils, avoiding competition for arable lands with food crops. This study explored genetic diversity for salt tolerance in Miscanthus and discovered

  9. [The expression of gene related to salt tolerance from Sinorhizobium meliloti 042BM in Escherichia coli and purification of its fusion protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shi-chao; Wang, Lei; Li, Xiao-hong; Qi, Su-wei; Yang, Su-sheng

    2005-06-01

    A 1.9kb DNA fragment related to salt tolerance of S. meliloti strain 042BM containing two open reading frames were obtained by PCR amplification and ligated into shuttle vector pBBR1-MCS2. The complementation experiment showed that ORF2 is related to salt tolerance and named as rstA gene. Then the gene was cloned into the expression vector pThio-HisA, B and C, respectively, and recombinant expression vectors pGSA, pGB and pGC were constructed, and transformed into E. coli Top10. Inducing by IPTG and analyzing with SDS-PAGE, the fusion protein encoded by pGSA was obtained,and it is 36% content of whole cell protein. It was isolated and purified by affinity chromography on ProBond, and the inclusion body precipitated by saturated sulfate ammonium, and 95% purity of fusion protein was obtained. The final product displayed a single band with a corresponding molecular weight 43kD in SDS-PAGE, and was verified by the Western blot.

  10. Field Observed Salt Tolerance of California Pistachios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanden, Blake; Fergusion, Lousie; Kallsen, Craig

    2017-04-01

    The general concept of crop salt tolerance is over simplified: consisting of a single soil saturation extract salinity threshold with a "% relative yield" decline function. This approach minimizes the real world variability in actual tree growth and yield due to additional specific ion toxicity and soil texture/anoxia. The current salinity tolerance function for California pistachios is essentially the same as cotton. It was developed from a small plot study in an 8 to 13 year old orchard in northwestern Kern County from 1997-2002 with a threshold of 9.4 dS/m ECe and an 8.4% relative yield decline above that level. These values were confirmed for seedling growth in saline sand-tank studies at the USDA Salinity Lab in Riverside, California. A second large scale field study applied fresh and saline irrigation treatments (0.5 to 5.2 dS/m EC) from planting through 10th leaf. Trees were commercially harvested starting in 2011. Average 2011-14 root zone salinity ranged from 2.5 to 13.2 dS/m and caused a significant edible inshell yield reduction of 108 to 264 kg/ha (depending on rootstock) in the combined 4 year yield: a 1 to 3% decline for every unit EC (dS/m) increase over 6 ds/m. A greatly expanded salinity survey including 10 commercial fields (9th - 15th leaf) in western Kern County with 140 individual tree data points ranging from an average root zone (1.5 m depth) salinity of 1.6 to 20.5 dS/m resulted in a similar yield reduction of 162 to 394 kg/ha (3 year cumulative inshell yield) for every unit ECe > 6.5 dS/m.

  11. Relative contribution of Na+/K+homeostasis, photochemical efficiency and antioxidant defense system to differential salt tolerance in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Qiao, Wenqing; Liu, Xiaohong; Shi, Jianbin; Xu, Qinghua; Zhou, Hong; Yan, Gentu; Huang, Qun

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the role of specific components of different coping strategies to salt load were identified. A pot experiment was conducted with four cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars (differing in salt-sensitivity) under salinity stress. Based on observed responses in growth performance and physiological characteristics, CZ91 was the most tolerant of the four cultivars, followed by cultivars CCRI44 and CCRI49, with Z571 being much more sensitive to salt stress. To perform this tolerant response, they implement different adaptative mechanisms to cope with salt-stress. The superior salt tolerance of CZ91 was conferred by at least three complementary physiological mechanisms: its ability to regulate K + and Na + transport more effectively, its higher photochemical efficiency and better antioxidant defense capacity. However, only one or a few specific components of these defense systems play crucial roles in moderately salt tolerant CCRI44 and CCRI49. Lower ROS load in CCRI44 may be attributed to simultaneous induction of antioxidant defenses by maintaining an unusually high level of SOD, and higher activities of CAT, APX, and POD during salt stress. CCRI49 could reduce the excess generation of ROS not only by maintaining a higher selective absorption of K + over Na + in roots across the membranes through SOS1, AKT1, and HAK5, but also by displaying higher excess-energy dissipation (e.g., higher ETR, P R and qN) during salt stress. Overall, our data provide a mechanistic explanation for differential salt stress tolerance among these cultivars and shed light on the different strategies employed by cotton cultivars to minimize the ill effects of stress. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Can elevated CO(2) improve salt tolerance in olive trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, Juan Carlos; Syvertsen, James P; García-Sánchez, Francisco

    2008-04-18

    We compared growth, leaf gas exchange characteristics, water relations, chlorophyll fluorescence, and Na(+) and Cl(-) concentration of two cultivars ('Koroneiki' and 'Picual') of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees in response to high salinity (NaCl 100mM) and elevated CO(2) (eCO(2)) concentration (700microLL(-1)). The cultivar 'Koroneiki' is considered to be more salt sensitive than the relatively salt-tolerant 'Picual'. After 3 months of treatment, the 9-month-old cuttings of 'Koroneiki' had significantly greater shoot growth, and net CO(2) assimilation (A(CO(2))) at eCO(2) than at ambient CO(2), but this difference disappeared under salt stress. Growth and A(CO(2)) of 'Picual' did not respond to eCO(2) regardless of salinity treatment. Stomatal conductance (g(s)) and leaf transpiration were decreased at eCO(2) such that leaf water use efficiency (WUE) increased in both cultivars regardless of saline treatment. Salt stress increased leaf Na(+) and Cl(-) concentration, reduced growth and leaf osmotic potential, but increased leaf turgor compared with non-salinized control plants of both cultivars. Salinity decreased A(CO(2)), g(s), and WUE, but internal CO(2) concentrations in the mesophyll were not affected. eCO(2) increased the sensitivity of PSII and chlorophyll concentration to salinity. eCO(2) did not affect leaf or root Na(+) or Cl(-) concentrations in salt-tolerant 'Picual', but eCO(2) decreased leaf and root Na(+) concentration and root Cl(-) concentration in the more salt-sensitive 'Koroneiki'. Na(+) and Cl(-) accumulation was associated with the lower water use in 'Koroneiki' but not in 'Picual'. Although eCO(2) increased WUE in salinized leaves and decreased salt ion uptake in the relatively salt-tolerant 'Koroneiki', growth of these young olive trees was not affected by eCO(2).

  13. Prospects for improving the salt tolerance of forest trees: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.A.; Chambers, J.L.; Stine, M.

    1994-01-01

    Three major themes related to the improvement of salt tolerance in forest tree species are examined. First, evidence demonstrating that substantial intraspecific variation in salt tolerance exists in many species is presented. This evidence is important because it suggests that efforts to improve salt tolerance through conventional plant breeding techniques are justified. Second, the physiological and genetic mechanisms controlling salt tolerance are discussed briefly. Although salt tolerance involves the integration of numerous physiological processes, there is considerable evidence that differences in the ability to exclude Na+ and Cl- from leaves are the most important factors underlying intraspecific differences in tolerance. It is also becoming apparent that, although salt tolerance is a multigenic trait, major genes play an important role. Third, progress to date in improving salt tolerance of forest tree species is assessed. Compared with agricultural crops, relatively little progress has been made with either conventional or biotechnological methods, but field trials designed to test clones identified as salt tolerant in screening trials are underway now in several countries. We conclude that there is justification for cautious optimism about the prospects for improving salt tolerance in forest tree species.

  14. SlDEAD31, a Putative DEAD-Box RNA Helicase Gene, Regulates Salt and Drought Tolerance and Stress-Related Genes in Tomato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingku Zhu

    Full Text Available The DEAD-box RNA helicases are involved in almost every aspect of RNA metabolism, associated with diverse cellular functions including plant growth and development, and their importance in response to biotic and abiotic stresses is only beginning to emerge. However, none of DEAD-box genes was well characterized in tomato so far. In this study, we reported on the identification and characterization of two putative DEAD-box RNA helicase genes, SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 from tomato, which were classified into stress-related DEAD-box proteins by phylogenetic analysis. Expression analysis indicated that SlDEAD30 was highly expressed in roots and mature leaves, while SlDEAD31 was constantly expressed in various tissues. Furthermore, the expression of both genes was induced mainly in roots under NaCl stress, and SlDEAD31 mRNA was also increased by heat, cold, and dehydration. In stress assays, transgenic tomato plants overexpressing SlDEAD31 exhibited dramatically enhanced salt tolerance and slightly improved drought resistance, which were simultaneously demonstrated by significantly enhanced expression of multiple biotic and abiotic stress-related genes, higher survival rate, relative water content (RWC and chlorophyll content, and lower water loss rate and malondialdehyde (MDA production compared to wild-type plants. Collectively, these results provide a preliminary characterization of SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 genes in tomato, and suggest that stress-responsive SlDEAD31 is essential for salt and drought tolerance and stress-related gene regulation in plants.

  15. Complex molecular mechanisms underlying seedling salt tolerance in rice revealed by comparative transcriptome and metabolomic profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Sheng; Zhao, Xiu-Qin; Li, Min; Huang, Li-Yu; Xu, Jian-Long; Zhang, Fan; Cui, Yan-Ru; Fu, Bin-Ying; Li, Zhi-Kang

    2016-01-01

    To understand the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying seedling salt tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.), the phenotypic, metabolic, and transcriptome responses of two related rice genotypes, IR64 and PL177, with contrasting salt tolerance were characterized under salt stress and salt+abscisic acid (ABA) conditions. PL177 showed significantly less salt damage, lower Na+/K+ ratios in shoots, and Na+ translocation from roots to shoots, attributed largely to better salt exclusion from its roots and salt compartmentation of its shoots. Exogenous ABA was able to enhance the salt tolerance of IR64 by selectively decreasing accumulation of Na+ in its roots and increasing K+ in its shoots. Salt stress induced general and organ-specific increases of many primary metabolites in both rice genotypes, with strong accumulation of several sugars plus proline in shoots and allantoin in roots. This was due primarily to ABA-mediated repression of genes for degradation of these metabolites under salt. In PL177, salt specifically up-regulated genes involved in several pathways underlying salt tolerance, including ABA-mediated cellular lipid and fatty acid metabolic processes and cytoplasmic transport, sequestration by vacuoles, detoxification and cell-wall remodeling in shoots, and oxidation–reduction reactions in roots. Combined genetic and transcriptomic evidence shortlisted relatively few candidate genes for improved salt tolerance in PL177. PMID:26512058

  16. Salt Tolerance in Rice: Focus on Mechanisms and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inja Naga Bheema Lingeswara Reddy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Salt tolerance is an important constrain for rice, which is generally categorized as a typical glycophyte. Soil salinity is one of the major constraints affecting rice production worldwide, especially in the coastal areas. Susceptibility or tolerance of rice plants to high salinity is a coordinated action of multiple stress responsive genes, which also interacts with other components of stress signal transduction pathways. Salt tolerant varieties can be produced by marker-assisted selection or genetic engineering by introducing salt-tolerance genes. In this review, we have updated on mechanisms and genes which can help in transferring of the salt tolerance into high-yielding rice varieties. We have focused on the need for integrating phenotyping, genomics, metabolic profiling and phenomics into transgenic and breeding approaches to develop high-yielding as well as salt tolerant rice varieties.

  17. Transcriptome analysis reveals that distinct metabolic pathways operate in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive upland cotton varieties subjected to salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinyan; Shi, Gongyao; Guo, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Liwei; Xu, Wenying; Wang, Yumei; Su, Zhen; Hua, Jinping

    2015-09-01

    Salinity stress is one of the most devastating abiotic stresses in crop plants. As a moderately salt-tolerant crop, upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a major cash crop in saline areas and a suitable model for salt stress tolerance research. In this study, we compared the transcriptome changes between the salt-tolerant upland cotton cultivar Zhong 07 and salt-sensitive cultivar Zhong G5 in response to NaCl treatments. Transcriptional regulation, signal transduction and secondary metabolism in two varieties showed significant differences, all of which might be related to mechanisms underlying salt stress tolerance. The transcriptional profiles presented here provide a foundation for deciphering the mechanism underlying salt tolerance. Based on our findings, we proposed several candidate genes that might be used to improve salt tolerance in upland cotton. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Classification and salt tolerance analysis of barley varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Fares, C.; Ceccarelli, S.; Grando, S.; Oweis, T.

    2006-01-01

    Six varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare), five of which were provided by ICARDA, were tested in a green house experiment for their salt tolerance. Afterwards the ICARDA variety Melusine, selected from this experiment for its combination of high yield and salt tolerance, was compared in a lysimeter

  19. Genetic Approaches to Develop Salt Tolerant Germplasm

    KAUST Repository

    Tester, Mark A.

    2015-08-19

    Forty percent of the world\\'s food is produced under irrigation, and this is directly threatened by over-exploitation and changes in the global environment. One way to address this threat is to develop systems for increasing our ability to use lower quality water, in particular saline water. Low cost partial desalination of brackish water, use of saline water for cooling and increases in the salinity tolerance of crops can all contribute to the development of this new agricultural system. In this talk, the focus will be on the use of forward genetic approaches for discovery of genes related to salinity tolerance in barley and tomatoes. Rather than studying salinity tolerance as a trait in itself, we dissect salinity tolerance into a series of components that are hypothesised to contribute to overall salinity tolerance (following the paradigm of Munns & Tester, 2008). For example, one significant component of tolerance of most crop plants to moderate soil salinity is due to the ability to maintain low concentrations of Na+ in the leaves, and much analysis of this aspect has been done (e.g. Roy et al., 2013, 2014). A major site for the control of shoot Na+ accumulation is at the plasma membrane of the mature stele of the root. Alleles of HKT, a major gene underlying this transport process have been characterized and, in work led by Dr Rana Munns (CSIRO), have now been introgressed into commercial durum wheat and led to significantly increased yields in saline field conditions (Munns et al., 2012). The genotyping of mapping populations is now highly efficient. However, the ability to quantitatively phenotype these populations is now commonly limiting forward progress in plant science. The increasing power of digital imaging and computational technologies offers the opportunity to relieve this phenotyping bottleneck. The Plant Accelerator is a 4500m2 growth facility that provides non-destructive phenotyping of large populations of plants (http

  20. A computational systems biology study for understanding salt tolerance mechanism in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juexin Wang

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the most common abiotic stresses in agriculture production. Salt tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa is an important trait controlled by various genes. The mechanism of rice salt tolerance, currently with limited understanding, is of great interest to molecular breeding in improving grain yield. In this study, a gene regulatory network of rice salt tolerance is constructed using a systems biology approach with a number of novel computational methods. We developed an improved volcano plot method in conjunction with a new machine-learning method for gene selection based on gene expression data and applied the method to choose genes related to salt tolerance in rice. The results were then assessed by quantitative trait loci (QTL, co-expression and regulatory binding motif analysis. The selected genes were constructed into a number of network modules based on predicted protein interactions including modules of phosphorylation activity, ubiquity activity, and several proteinase activities such as peroxidase, aspartic proteinase, glucosyltransferase, and flavonol synthase. All of these discovered modules are related to the salt tolerance mechanism of signal transduction, ion pump, abscisic acid mediation, reactive oxygen species scavenging and ion sequestration. We also predicted the three-dimensional structures of some crucial proteins related to the salt tolerance QTL for understanding the roles of these proteins in the network. Our computational study sheds some new light on the mechanism of salt tolerance and provides a systems biology pipeline for studying plant traits in general.

  1. Invasive Knotweeds are Highly Tolerant to Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouifed, Soraya; Byczek, Coline; Laffray, Daniel; Piola, Florence

    2012-12-01

    Japanese knotweed s.l. are some of the most invasive plants in the world. Some genotypes are known to be tolerant to the saline concentrations found in salt marshes. Here we focus on tolerance to higher concentrations in order to assess whether the species are able to colonize and establish in highly stressful environments, or whether salt is an efficient management tool. In a first experiment, adult plants of Fallopia japonica, Fallopia × bohemica and Fallopia sachalinensis were grown under salt stress conditions by watering with saline concentrations of 6, 30, 120, or 300 g L-1 for three weeks to assess the response of the plants to a spill of salt. At the two highest concentrations, their leaves withered and fell. There were no effects on the aboveground parts at the lowest concentrations. Belowground dry weight and number of buds were reduced from 30 and 120 g L-1 of salt, respectively. In a second experiment, a single spraying of 120 g L-1 of salt was applied to individuals of F. × bohemica and their stems were clipped to assess the response to a potential control method. 60 % of the plants regenerated. Regeneration was delayed by the salt treatment and shoot growth slowed down. This study establishes the tolerance of three Fallopia taxa to strong salt stress, with no obvious differences between taxa. Their salt tolerance could be an advantage in their ability to colonize polluted environments and to survive to spills of salt.

  2. Halophytes: Potential Resources for Salt Stress Tolerance Genes and Promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Mishra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Halophytes have demonstrated their capability to thrive under extremely saline conditions and thus considered as one of the best germplasm for saline agriculture. Salinity is a worldwide problem, and the salt-affected areas are increasing day-by-day because of scanty rainfall, poor irrigation system, salt ingression, water contamination, and other environmental factors. The salinity stress tolerance mechanism is a very complex phenomenon, and some pathways are coordinately linked for imparting salinity tolerance. Though a number of salt responsive genes have been reported from the halophytes, there is always a quest for promising stress-responsive genes that can modulate plant physiology according to the salt stress. Halophytes such as Aeluropus, Mesembryanthemum, Suaeda, Atriplex, Thellungiella, Cakile, and Salicornia serve as a potential candidate for the salt-responsive genes and promoters. Several known genes like antiporters (NHX, SOS, HKT, VTPase, ion channels (Cl−, Ca2+, aquaporins, antioxidant encoding genes (APX, CAT, GST, BADH, SOD and some novel genes such as USP, SDR1, SRP etc. were isolated from halophytes and explored for developing stress tolerance in the crop plants (glycophytes. It is evidenced that stress triggers salt sensors that lead to the activation of stress tolerance mechanisms which involve multiple signaling proteins, up- or down-regulation of several genes, and finally the distinctive or collective effects of stress-responsive genes. In this review, halophytes are discussed as an excellent platform for salt responsive genes which can be utilized for developing salinity tolerance in crop plants through genetic engineering.

  3. Fungicide, antibiotic, heavy metal resistance and salt tolerance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungicide, antibiotic, heavy metal resistance and salt tolerance of root nodule isolates from Vicia palaestina. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fungicides, antibiotics, heavy metal and salt on growth of Rhizobium isolates which isolated from the Vicia palaestina ...

  4. An Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene fromSynechocystissp. Confers Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, So Young; Ku, Seong Sub; Sim, Hee-Jung; Kim, Sang-Kyu; Park, Ji Hyun; Lyu, Jae Il; So, Eun Jin; Choi, So Yeon; Kim, Jonghyun; Ahn, Myung Suk; Kim, Suk Weon; Park, Hyunwoo; Jeong, Won Joong; Lim, Yong Pyo; Min, Sung Ran; Liu, Jang Ryol

    2017-01-01

    Synechocystis salt-responsive gene 1 ( sysr1 ) was engineered for expression in higher plants, and gene construction was stably incorporated into tobacco plants. We investigated the role of Sysr1 [a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) superfamily] by examining the salt tolerance of sysr1 -overexpressing ( sysr1 -OX) tobacco plants using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and bioassays. The sysr1 -OX plants exhibited considerably increased ADH activity and tolerance to salt stress conditions. Additionally, the expression levels of several stress-responsive genes were upregulated. Moreover, airborne signals from salt-stressed sysr1 -OX plants triggered salinity tolerance in neighboring wild-type (WT) plants. Therefore, Sysr1 enhanced the interconversion of aldehydes to alcohols, and this occurrence might affect the quality of green leaf volatiles (GLVs) in sysr1 -OX plants. Actually, the Z -3-hexenol level was approximately twofold higher in sysr1 -OX plants than in WT plants within 1-2 h of wounding. Furthermore, analyses of WT plants treated with vaporized GLVs indicated that Z -3-hexenol was a stronger inducer of stress-related gene expression and salt tolerance than E -2-hexenal. The results of the study suggested that increased C 6 alcohol ( Z -3-hexenol) induced the expression of resistance genes, thereby enhancing salt tolerance of transgenic plants. Our results revealed a role for ADH in salinity stress responses, and the results provided a genetic engineering strategy that could improve the salt tolerance of crops.

  5. Overexpression of a Vesicle Trafficking Gene, OsRab7, Enhances Salt Tolerance in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojue Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High soils salinity is a main factor affecting agricultural production. Studying the function of salt-tolerance-related genes is essential to enhance crop tolerance to stress. Rab7 is a small GTP-binding protein that is distributed widely among eukaryotes. Endocytic trafficking mediated by Rab7 plays an important role in animal and yeast cells, but the current understanding of Rab7 in plants is still very limited. Herein, we isolated a vesicle trafficking gene, OsRab7, from rice. Transgenic rice over-expressing OsRab7 exhibited enhanced seedling growth and increased proline content under salt-treated conditions. Moreover, an increased number of vesicles was observed in the root tip of OsRab7 transgenic rice. The OsRab7 over-expression plants showed enhanced tolerance to salt stress, suggesting that vacuolar trafficking is important for salt tolerance in plants.

  6. Physical chemistry and evolution of salt tolerance in halobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, J. K.

    1980-01-01

    The cellular constituents of extremely halophilic bacteria not only tolerate high salt concentration, but in many cases require it for optical functioning. The characteristics affected by salt include enzyme activity, stability, allosteric regulation, conformation and subunit association. The salt effects are of two major kinds: electrostatic shielding of negative charges by cations at low salt concentration, and hydrophobic stabilization by salting-out type salts at high salt concentration. The composition of halobacterial proteins shows an excess of acidic amino acids and a deficiency of nonpolar amino acids, which accounts for these effects. Since the cohesive forces are weaker and the repulsing forces are stronger in these proteins, preventing aggregation in salt, these structures are no longer suited for functioning in the absence of high salt concentrations. Unlike these nonspecific effects, ribosomes in halobacteria show marked preference for potassium over sodium ions. To ensure the proper intracellular ionic composition, powerful ion transport systems have evolved in the halobacteria, resulting in the extrusion of sodium ions and their replacement by potassium. It is likely that such membrane transport system for ionic movements is a necessary requisite for salt tolerance.

  7. Molecular design of modified polyacrylamide for the salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lin; Chen, Panke; Ding, Bin; Luo, Jianhui; Jiang, Bo; Zhou, Ge

    2012-09-01

    In our work, three kinds of functional monomers were selected to modify polyacrylamide (PAM) or partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) by molecular dynamics simulation so as to achieve the stronger salt-tolerance of modified HM-HPAM. The radius of gyration (R (g)), the hydrodynamic radius (R (H)), the effective length (L (ef)) and the intrinsic viscosity ([η]) for modified PAM or HPAM were studied in aqueous solutions with different ionic strength at 298 K. The results showed that modified HM-HPAM has a stronger salt tolerance and the salt tolerance increases gradually from HM-HPAM1 to HM-HPAM3 because the monomers with different steric hindrance would reduce the curliness of molecular chains and, consequently, improve the salt tolerance. So, introducing the steric hindrance monomer into polymer will increase the salt tolerance of the polymer and it is indicated that the simulated results agree with the experimental results very well. Furthermore, the radial distribution function (RDF) has been used to investigate the effect of NaCl on the hydration of the -COO- groups of the HM-HPAM from microscopic view.

  8. Comparison of Salt Tolerance in Soja Based on Metabolomics of Seedling Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxia Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important economic crop that is continually threatened by abiotic stresses, especially salt stress. Wild soybean is an important germplasm resource for the breeding of cultivated soybean. The root system plays a very important role in plant salt tolerance. To explore the salt tolerance-related mechanisms among Soja, we have demonstrated the seedling roots' growth and metabolomics in wild soybean, semi-wild soybean, and cultivated soybean under two types of salt stress by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We characterized 47 kinds of differential metabolites under neutral salt stress, and isoleucine, serine, l-allothreonine, glutamic acid, phenylalanine, asparagines, aspartic acid, pentadecanoic acid, lignoceric acid, oleic acid, galactose, tagatose, d-arabitol, dihydroxyacetone, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and glucuronic acid increased significantly in the roots of wild soybean seedlings. However, these metabolites were suppressed in semi-wild and cultivated soybeans. Amino acid, fatty acid, sugars, and organic acid synthesis and the secondary metabolism of antioxidants increased significantly in the roots of wild soybean seedling. Under alkaline salt stress, wild soybean contained significantly higher amounts of proline, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, l-allothreonine, isoleucine, serine, alanine, arachidic acid, oleic acid, cis-gondoic acid, fumaric acid, l-malic acid, citric acid, malonic acid, gluconic acid, 5-methoxytryptamine, salicylic acid, and fluorene than semi-wild and cultivated soybeans. Our study demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and receiver operating characteristics (especially the metabolism of phenolic substances of the seedling roots were important to resisting salt stress and showed a regular decreasing trend from wild soybean to cultivated soybean. The metabolomics's changes were critical factors in the evolution of salt tolerance among Soja. This study

  9. Comparison of Salt Tolerance in Soja Based on Metabolomics of Seedling Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingxia; Guo, Rui; Jiao, Yang; Jin, Xiaofei; Zhang, Haiyan; Shi, Lianxuan

    2017-01-01

    Soybean is an important economic crop that is continually threatened by abiotic stresses, especially salt stress. Wild soybean is an important germplasm resource for the breeding of cultivated soybean. The root system plays a very important role in plant salt tolerance. To explore the salt tolerance-related mechanisms among Soja, we have demonstrated the seedling roots' growth and metabolomics in wild soybean, semi-wild soybean, and cultivated soybean under two types of salt stress by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We characterized 47 kinds of differential metabolites under neutral salt stress, and isoleucine, serine, l-allothreonine, glutamic acid, phenylalanine, asparagines, aspartic acid, pentadecanoic acid, lignoceric acid, oleic acid, galactose, tagatose, d-arabitol, dihydroxyacetone, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and glucuronic acid increased significantly in the roots of wild soybean seedlings. However, these metabolites were suppressed in semi-wild and cultivated soybeans. Amino acid, fatty acid, sugars, and organic acid synthesis and the secondary metabolism of antioxidants increased significantly in the roots of wild soybean seedling. Under alkaline salt stress, wild soybean contained significantly higher amounts of proline, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, l-allothreonine, isoleucine, serine, alanine, arachidic acid, oleic acid, cis-gondoic acid, fumaric acid, l-malic acid, citric acid, malonic acid, gluconic acid, 5-methoxytryptamine, salicylic acid, and fluorene than semi-wild and cultivated soybeans. Our study demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and receiver operating characteristics (especially the metabolism of phenolic substances) of the seedling roots were important to resisting salt stress and showed a regular decreasing trend from wild soybean to cultivated soybean. The metabolomics's changes were critical factors in the evolution of salt tolerance among Soja. This study provides new

  10. Trifolium isthmocarpum Brot, a salt-tolerant wild leguminous forage crop in salt-affected soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawtar Bennani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant scientists are investigating the potential of previously unexploited legume species where environmental and biological stresses constrain the use of more conventional forage crops or where these species are better suited to the needs of sustainable agriculture. Trifolium isthmocarpum Brot., Moroccan clover, occurs as a weed in different habitats in Morocco. It grows in moderately saline areas, where traditional forage legumes cannot be cultivated; however, it has not been widely studied despite its good palatability. The salt tolerance was studied between natural field conditions and glasshouse. The extensive field studies have recorded the species in many different habitats ranging from healthy agricultural lands to abandoned saline areas. The plants maintained high nodulation capacity (ranging between 60% and 97% and nitrogenase activities (average 2.04 µmol C2H4 plant-1 h-1 in different habitats. Shoot systems of plants collected from salt-affected soils exhibited higher concentrations of Na+ and Cl- than those collected from healthy soils. Greenhouse experiments showed that germination percentage and vigor value of the studied species was not significantly (P > 0.05 affected at 160 mM NaCl, and that 25% of the germination ability was maintained when growing on substrats containing 240 mM NaCl. The growth rate of seedlings was not signicantly affected by 160 mM NaCl but was reduced by 38% under 240 mM NaCl. Leaf succulence and indices of leaf water status did not differ among the salt treatments, whereas relative water content was reduced by only 8% and water content at saturation increased by about 12% at high salt concentrations in the growing medium. This study suggest recommending the cultivation of T. isthmocarpum in salt-affected soils, which are widespread and pose a problem for the farmers of Morocco and other countries in the world’s arid belt.

  11. Comparative proteomics of contrasting maize genotypes provides insights into salt-stress tolerance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Meijie; Zhao, Yanxin; Wang, Yuandong; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Panpan; Zhang, Yunxia; Song, Wei; Zhao, Jiuran

    2017-12-01

    Salt stress is a major abiotic factor limiting maize yield. To characterize the mechanism underlying maize salt tolerance, we compared the seedling root proteomes of salt-tolerant Jing724 and salt-sensitive D9H. The germination rate and growth parameter values (weight and length) were higher for Jing724 than for D9H under saline conditions. Using an iTRAQ-based method, we identified 513 differentially regulated proteins (DRPs), with 83 and 386 DRPs specific to Jing724 and D9H, respectively. In salt-stressed Jing724, the DRPs were primarily associated with the pentose phosphate pathway, glutathione metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism. Key DRPs, such as glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase, NADPH-producing dehydrogenase, glutamate synthase, and glutamine synthetase, were identified based on pathway enrichment and protein-protein interaction analyses. Moreover, salt-responsive proteins in Jing724 seedlings were implicated in energy management, maintenance of redox homeostasis, detoxification of ammonia, regulation of osmotic homeostasis, stress defense and adaptation, biotic cross-tolerance, and regulation of gene expression. Quantitative analyses of superoxide dismutase activity, malondialdehyde content, relative electrolyte leakage, and proline content were consistent with the predicted changes based on DRP functions. Furthermore, changes in the abundance of eight representative DRPs were correlated with the corresponding mRNA levels. Our results may be useful for elucidating the molecular networks mediating salt tolerance.

  12. Salt-induced root protein profile changes in seedlings of maize inbred lines with differing salt tolerances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is one of the severest growth limited-factors to agriculture production. To gain in-depth knowledge of salt-stress response mechanisms, the proteomics analysis from two maize (Zea mays L. inbred lines was carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. There were 57 salt-regulated proteins identified, 21 and 36 proteins were differentially regulated in inbred lines 'Nongda 1145' (salt-resistant and 'D340' (salt-sensitive, respectively. The identified proteins were distributed in 11 biological processes and seven molecular functions. Under salt stress, proteins related to antioxidation and lignin synthesis were increased in both inbred lines. The relative abundance of proteins involved in translation initiation, elongation, and protein proteolysis increased in 'Nongda 1145' and decreased in 'D340'. In addition, the abundance of proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, protein refolding, ATP synthase and transcription differed between the two inbred lines. Our results suggest that the enhanced ability of salt-tolerant inbred line 'Nongda 1145' to combat salt stress occurs via regulation of transcription factors promoting increased antioxidation and lignin biosynthesis, enhanced energy production, and acceleration of protein translation and protein proteolysis.

  13. Genetic transformation of Populus tomentosa to improve salt tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningxia Du; Xin Liu; Yun Li; Shouyi Chen; Jinsong Zhang; Da Ha; Wenguang Deng; Chunkui Sun; Yingzhi Zhang; Paula M Pijut

    2012-01-01

    Soil salinity can be a limiting factor for productivity in agriculture and forestry. In order to fully utilize saline lands productively in plantation forestry for pulp production, the genetic modification of tree species for salt tolerance may be required. The AhDREB1 gene, a DREB-like transcription factor gene, was transferred into ...

  14. Pleiotropic phenotypes of the salt-tolerant and cytosine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In Catharanthus roseus, three morphological cum salt-tolerant chemically induced mutants of Mendelian inheritance and their wild-type parent cv Nirmal were characterized for overall cytosine methylation at DNA repeats, expression of 119 protein- coding and seven miRNA-coding genes and 50 quantitative traits.

  15. Association mapping of salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Viet Long, L.; Dolstra, O.; Malosetti, M.; Kilian, B.; Graner, A.; Visser, R.G.F.; Linden, van der C.G.

    2013-01-01

    A spring barley collection of 192 genotypes from a wide geographical range was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for salt tolerance traits by means of an association mapping approach using a thousand SNP marker set. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay was found with marker distances

  16. genotypes for salt-tolerance using multivariate cluster analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... classification of Kumuangluang (KML), Khao Dawk Mali (KDML), Pokkali (POK), HJ, DPY, Chewmaejan 1. (CMJ1), CMJ2, UR1 and .... selection criteria. However, the effective criteria for identification of salt tolerant genotypes still need to be investigated, especially in mass population of a breeding program.

  17. Assessment of rice genotypes for salt tolerance using microsatellite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for salt tolerance named Saltol was mapped on chromosome 1 using F8 recombinant ... Key words: Rice, salinity, SSR markers, Saltol, chromosome 1, haplotype diversity. INTRODUCTION .... CA). Data analysis. For each of the defined loci, SSR allelic composition was.

  18. A ROP2-RIC1 pathway fine-tunes microtubule reorganization for salt tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changjiang; Lu, Hanmei; Li, Wei; Yuan, Ming; Fu, Ying

    2017-07-01

    The reorganization of microtubules induced by salt stress is required for Arabidopsis survival under high salinity conditions. RIC1 is an effector of Rho-related GTPase from plants (ROPs) and a known microtubule-associated protein. In this study, we demonstrated that RIC1 expression decreased with long-term NaCl treatment, and ric1-1 seedlings exhibited a higher survival rate under salt stress. We found that RIC1 reduced the frequency of microtubule transition from shortening to growing status and knockout of RIC1 improved the reassembly of depolymerized microtubules caused by either oryzalin treatment or salt stress. Further investigation showed that constitutively active ROP2 promoted the reassembly of microtubules and the survival of seedlings under salt stress. A rop2-1 ric1-1 double mutant rescued the salt-sensitive phenotype of rop2-1, indicating that ROP2 functions in salt tolerance through RIC1. Although ROP2 did not regulate RIC1 expression upon salt stress, a quick but mild increase of ROP2 activity was induced, led to reduction of RIC1 on microtubules. Collectively, our study reveals an ROP2-RIC1 pathway that fine-tunes microtubule dynamics in response to salt stress in Arabidopsis. This finding not only reveals a new regulatory mechanism for microtubule reorganization under salt stress but also the importance of ROP signalling for salinity tolerance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Thinopyrum ponticum Chromatin-Integrated Wheat Genome Shows Salt-Tolerance at Germination Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ye Yuan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A wild wheatgrass, Thinopyrum ponticum (2n = 10x = 70, which exhibits substantially higher levels of salt tolerance than cultivated wheat, was employed to transfer its salt tolerance to common wheat by means of wide hybridization. A highly salt-tolerant wheat line S148 (2n = 42 was obtained from the BC3F2 progenies between Triticum aestivum (2n = 42 and Th. ponticum. In the cross of S148 × salt-sensitive wheat variety Chinese Spring, the BC4F2 seeds at germination stage segregated into a ratio of 3 salt tolerant to 1 salt sensitive, indicating that the salt tolerance was conferred by a dominant gene block. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis revealed that S148 had a single pair of Th. ponticum–T. aestivum translocated chromosomes bearing the salt-tolerance. This is an initial step of molecular breeding for salt-tolerant wheat.

  20. Thinopyrum ponticum chromatin-integrated wheat genome shows salt-tolerance at germination stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wen-Ye; Tomita, Motonori

    2015-02-26

    A wild wheatgrass, Thinopyrum ponticum (2n = 10x = 70), which exhibits substantially higher levels of salt tolerance than cultivated wheat, was employed to transfer its salt tolerance to common wheat by means of wide hybridization. A highly salt-tolerant wheat line S148 (2n = 42) was obtained from the BC3F2 progenies between Triticum aestivum (2n = 42) and Th. ponticum. In the cross of S148 × salt-sensitive wheat variety Chinese Spring, the BC4F2 seeds at germination stage segregated into a ratio of 3 salt tolerant to 1 salt sensitive, indicating that the salt tolerance was conferred by a dominant gene block. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis revealed that S148 had a single pair of Th. ponticum-T. aestivum translocated chromosomes bearing the salt-tolerance. This is an initial step of molecular breeding for salt-tolerant wheat.

  1. Thinopyrum ponticum chromatin-integrated wheat genome shows salt-tolerance at germination stage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuan, Wen-Ye; Tomita, Motonori

    2015-01-01

    A wild wheatgrass, Thinopyrum ponticum (2n = 10x = 70), which exhibits substantially higher levels of salt tolerance than cultivated wheat, was employed to transfer its salt tolerance to common wheat by means of wide hybridization...

  2. Dissipation of excess photosynthetic energy contributes to salinity tolerance: a comparative study of salt-tolerant Ricinus communis and salt-sensitive Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Neto, Milton C; Lobo, Ana K M; Martins, Marcio O; Fontenele, Adilton V; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio G

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between salt tolerance and photosynthetic mechanisms of excess energy dissipation were assessed using two species that exhibit contrasting responses to salinity, Ricinus communis (tolerant) and Jatropha curcas (sensitive). The salt tolerance of R. communis was indicated by unchanged electrolyte leakage (cellular integrity) and dry weight in leaves, whereas these parameters were greatly affected in J. curcas. The leaf Na+ content was similar in both species. Photosynthesis was intensely decreased in both species, but the reduction was more pronounced in J. curcas. In this species biochemical limitations in photosynthesis were more prominent, as indicated by increased C(i) values and decreased Rubisco activity. Salinity decreased both the V(cmax) (in vivo Rubisco activity) and J(max) (maximum electron transport rate) more significantly in J. curcas. The higher tolerance in R. communis was positively associated with higher photorespiratory activity, nitrate assimilation and higher cyclic electron flow. The high activity of these alternative electron sinks in R. communis was closely associated with a more efficient photoprotection mechanism. In conclusion, salt tolerance in R. communis, compared with J. curcas, is related to higher electron partitioning from the photosynthetic electron transport chain to alternative sinks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. An Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene from Synechocystis sp. Confers Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Synechocystis salt-responsive gene 1 (sysr1 was engineered for expression in higher plants, and gene construction was stably incorporated into tobacco plants. We investigated the role of Sysr1 [a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH superfamily] by examining the salt tolerance of sysr1-overexpressing (sysr1-OX tobacco plants using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and bioassays. The sysr1-OX plants exhibited considerably increased ADH activity and tolerance to salt stress conditions. Additionally, the expression levels of several stress-responsive genes were upregulated. Moreover, airborne signals from salt-stressed sysr1-OX plants triggered salinity tolerance in neighboring wild-type (WT plants. Therefore, Sysr1 enhanced the interconversion of aldehydes to alcohols, and this occurrence might affect the quality of green leaf volatiles (GLVs in sysr1-OX plants. Actually, the Z-3-hexenol level was approximately twofold higher in sysr1-OX plants than in WT plants within 1–2 h of wounding. Furthermore, analyses of WT plants treated with vaporized GLVs indicated that Z-3-hexenol was a stronger inducer of stress-related gene expression and salt tolerance than E-2-hexenal. The results of the study suggested that increased C6 alcohol (Z-3-hexenol induced the expression of resistance genes, thereby enhancing salt tolerance of transgenic plants. Our results revealed a role for ADH in salinity stress responses, and the results provided a genetic engineering strategy that could improve the salt tolerance of crops.

  4. Overexpression of DgWRKY4 Enhances Salt Tolerance in Chrysanthemum Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wu, Yin-Huan; Tian, Xiao-Qin; Bai, Zhen-Yu; Liang, Qian-Yu; Liu, Qing-Lin; Pan, Yuan-Zhi; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Bei-Bei

    2017-01-01

    High salinity seriously affects the production of chrysanthemum, so improving the salt tolerance of chrysanthemum becomes the focus and purpose of our research. The WRKY transcription factor (TF) family is highly associated with a number of processes of abiotic stress responses. We isolated DgWRKY4 from Dendranthema grandiflorum, and a protein encoded by this new gene contains two highly conserved WRKY domains and two C2H2 zinc-finger motifs. Then, we functionally characterized that DgWRKY4 was induced by salt, and DgWRKY4 overexpression in chrysanthemum resulted in increased tolerance to high salt stress compared to wild-type (WT). Under salt stress, the transgenic chrysanthemum accumulated less malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide anion (O2−) than WT, accompanied by more proline, soluble sugar, and activities of antioxidant enzymes than WT; in addition, a stronger photosynthetic capacity and a series of up-regulated stress-related genes were also found in transgenic chrysanthemum. All results demonstrated that DgWRKY4 is a positive regulatory gene responding to salt stress, via advancing photosynthetic capacity, promoting the operation of reactive oxygen species-scavenging system, maintaining membrane stability, enhancing the osmotic adjustment, and up-regulating transcript levels of stress-related genes. So, DgWRKY4 can serve as a new candidate gene for salt-tolerant plant breeding. PMID:28959270

  5. Overexpression of DgWRKY4 Enhances Salt Tolerance in Chrysanthemum Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High salinity seriously affects the production of chrysanthemum, so improving the salt tolerance of chrysanthemum becomes the focus and purpose of our research. The WRKY transcription factor (TF family is highly associated with a number of processes of abiotic stress responses. We isolated DgWRKY4 from Dendranthema grandiflorum, and a protein encoded by this new gene contains two highly conserved WRKY domains and two C2H2 zinc-finger motifs. Then, we functionally characterized that DgWRKY4 was induced by salt, and DgWRKY4 overexpression in chrysanthemum resulted in increased tolerance to high salt stress compared to wild-type (WT. Under salt stress, the transgenic chrysanthemum accumulated less malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and superoxide anion (O2− than WT, accompanied by more proline, soluble sugar, and activities of antioxidant enzymes than WT; in addition, a stronger photosynthetic capacity and a series of up-regulated stress-related genes were also found in transgenic chrysanthemum. All results demonstrated that DgWRKY4 is a positive regulatory gene responding to salt stress, via advancing photosynthetic capacity, promoting the operation of reactive oxygen species-scavenging system, maintaining membrane stability, enhancing the osmotic adjustment, and up-regulating transcript levels of stress-related genes. So, DgWRKY4 can serve as a new candidate gene for salt-tolerant plant breeding.

  6. Seed priming and transgenerational drought memory improves tolerance against salt stress in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Tahira; Farooq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Riaz; Zohaib, Ali; Wahid, Abdul

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of seed priming following terminal drought on tolerance against salt stress in bread wheat. Drought was imposed in field sown wheat at reproductive stage (BBCH growth stage 49) and was maintained till physiological maturity (BBCH growth stage 83). Seeds of bread wheat, collected from crop raised under terminal drought and/or well-watered conditions, were subjected to hydropriming and osmopriming (with 1.5% CaCl2) and were sown in soil-filled pots. After stand establishment, salt stress treatments viz. 10 mM NaCl (control) and 100 mM NaCl were imposed. Seed from terminal drought stressed source had less fat (5%), and more fibers (11%), proteins (22%) and total soluble phenolics (514%) than well-watered seed source. Salt stress reduced the plant growth, perturbed water relations and decreased yield. However, an increase in osmolytes accumulation (4-18%), malondialdehyde (MDA) (27-35%) and tissue Na+ contents (149-332%) was observed under salt stress. The seeds collected from drought stressed crop had better tolerance against salt stress as indicated by better yield (28%), improved water relations (3-18%), osmolytes accumulation (21-33%), and less MDA (8%) and Na contents (35%) than progeny of well-watered crop. Seed priming, osmopriming in particular, further improved the tolerance against salt stress through improvement in leaf area, water relations, leaf proline, glycine betaine and grain yield while lowering MDA and Na+ contents. In conclusion, changed seed composition during terminal drought and seed priming improved the salt tolerance in wheat by modulating the water relations, osmolytes accumulation and lipid peroxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Salt Tolerance and Polyphyly in the Cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis (Pleurocapsales)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumbers, John Robert; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2014-01-01

    Chroococcidiopsis Geitler (Geitler 1933) is a genus of cyanobacteria containing desiccation and radiation resistant species. Members of the genus live in habitats ranging from hot and cold deserts to fresh and saltwater environments. Morphology and cell division pattern have historically been used to define the genus. To better understand the genetic and phenotypic diversity of the genus, 15 species were selected that had been previously isolated from different locations, including salt and freshwater environments. Four markers were sequenced from these 15 species, the 16S rRNA, rbcL, desC1 and gltX genes. Phylogenetic trees were generated which identified two distinct clades, a salt-tolerant clade and a freshwater clade. This study demonstrates that the genus is polyphyletic based on saltwater and freshwater phenotypes. To understand the resistance to salt in more details, species were grown on a range of sea salt concentrations which demonstrated that the freshwater species were salt-intolerant whilst the saltwater species required salt for growth. This study shows an increased resolution of the phylogeny of Chroococcidiopsis and provides further evidence that the genus is polyphyletic and should be reclassified to improve clarity in the literature.

  8. Salt tolerance of estuarine benthic macroalgae in the Kattegat-Baltic Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Tolerance of benthic marine macroalgae to low salinities is believed to be a main determinant of their vertical distribution across the marine coastline and their horizontal distribution from oceanic regions into low-saline bays, fjords and estuaries. Salt tolerance should also be important...... for the distribution of the nearly 400 macroalgal species across the large salinity gradient in the Kattegat-Baltic Sea area ranging from 30 psu at the entrance to 3 psu in the inner parts 1500 km away. Previous evaluations of interspecific differences in salt tolerance in relation to horizontal distribution patterns......, Denmark (salinity: 16 psu, tide 10 cm) to maintain photosynthesis after 4 days exposure to declining salinities (16 to 0 psu). Overall, the algal community had a high short-term tolerance to low salinities because 35 of 44 species maintained more than half the photosynthetic capacity at salinities lower...

  9. Triterpenoid modulates the salt tolerance of lanosterol synthase deficientSaccharomyces cerevisiae, GIL77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inafuku, Masashi; Basyuni, Mohammad; Oku, Hirosuke

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effect of triterpenoid on the salt tolerance of lanosterol synthase deficient yeast mutant GIL77. The expression of the triterpenoid synthase gene under GAL1 promoter in GIL77 increased the triterpenoid concentration of both whole cell and plasma membrane fractions. Without the induction of the genes, the growth curve of BgbAS or RsM1 transformant depicted patterns similar to control cells in both the presence and absence of salt with growth inhibition at 500 mM NaCl. The induction of BgbAS and RsM1 gene expression slightly repressed growth compared with control cells in the absence of NaCl. The growth of GIL77 was significantly suppressed by the expression of BgbAS or RsM1 under salinity conditions. Of the triterpenoid synthase genes, BgbAS rather than RsM1 was found to strongly inhibit the growth of GIL77 cells under salt stressed conditions. The expression of the triterpenoid synthase gene in GIL77 also influenced their tolerance to other abiotic stresses. In contrast to the endogenous synthesis, the exogenous supply of triterpenoid in the culture medium appeared to occur in the plasma membrane fraction and enhanced the salt tolerance of GIL77. This study thus discussed the physiological significance of triterpenoid in relation to its possible role in modulating salt tolerance.

  10. Assessing the role of endophytic bacteria in the halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Torre, S; Barcia-Piedras, J M; Mateos-Naranjo, E; Redondo-Gómez, S; Camacho, M; Caviedes, M A; Pajuelo, E; Rodríguez-Llorente, I D

    2017-03-01

    There is an increasing interest to use halophytes for revegetation of salt affected ecosystems, as well as in understanding their mechanisms of salt tolerance. We hypothesized that bacteria from the phyllosphere of these plants might play a key role in its high tolerance to excessive salinity. Eight endophytic bacteria belonging to Bacillus and closely related genera were isolated from phyllosphere of the halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum growing in salty agricultural soils. The presence of plant-growth promoting (PGP) properties, enzymatic activities and tolerance towards NaCl was determined. Effects of inoculation on seeds germination and adult plant growth under experimental NaCl treatments (0, 510 and 1030 mM NaCl) were studied. Inoculation with a consortium including the best performing bacteria improved considerably the kinetics of germination and the final germination percentage of A. macrostachyum seeds. At high NaCl concentrations (1030 mM), inoculation of plants mitigated the effects of high salinity on plant growth and physiological performance and, in addition, this consortium appears to have increased the potential of A. macrostachyum to accumulate Na+ in its shoots, thus improving sodium phytoextraction capacity. Bacteria isolated from A. macrostachyum phyllosphere seem to play an important role in plant salt tolerance under stressing salt concentrations. The combined use of A. macrostachyum and its microbiome can be an adequate tool to enhance plant adaptation and sodium phytoextraction during restoration of salt degraded soils. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Triterpenoid modulates the salt tolerance of lanosterol synthase deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae, GIL77

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Inafuku

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of triterpenoid on the salt tolerance of lanosterol synthase deficient yeast mutant GIL77. The expression of the triterpenoid synthase gene under GAL1 promoter in GIL77 increased the triterpenoid concentration of both whole cell and plasma membrane fractions. Without the induction of the genes, the growth curve of BgbAS or RsM1 transformant depicted patterns similar to control cells in both the presence and absence of salt with growth inhibition at 500 mM NaCl. The induction of BgbAS and RsM1 gene expression slightly repressed growth compared with control cells in the absence of NaCl. The growth of GIL77 was significantly suppressed by the expression of BgbAS or RsM1 under salinity conditions. Of the triterpenoid synthase genes, BgbAS rather than RsM1 was found to strongly inhibit the growth of GIL77 cells under salt stressed conditions. The expression of the triterpenoid synthase gene in GIL77 also influenced their tolerance to other abiotic stresses. In contrast to the endogenous synthesis, the exogenous supply of triterpenoid in the culture medium appeared to occur in the plasma membrane fraction and enhanced the salt tolerance of GIL77. This study thus discussed the physiological significance of triterpenoid in relation to its possible role in modulating salt tolerance.

  12. Male Gametophytic Screening of Citrus Genotypes for Salt Stress Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barandan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Citrus species are classified as a sensitive group of trees to salt stress, but the levels of their sensitivity or tolerance to salt are different among cultivars. In order to evaluate the effects of salinity stress on pollen germination of some citrus cultivars, an experiment was performed in factorial, based on completely randomized design in three replications with Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni and Poncirus trifoliata as tolerant and sensitive controls along with 13 genotypes. Pollen grains of these genotypes were cultured in media containing different levels of sodium chloride (0, 0.87, 1.6, 2.4, 3.1 dS/m along with 15% sucrose, 0.7% agar and 100 mg/L boric acid. In order to understand the biochemical responses of pollen grains to salt stress, they were cultured in liquid media with three levels of salinity (i.e. 0, 0.87 and 1.6 dS/m and then the amounts of total protein and enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and ascorbate peroxidase (APX were evaluated. Significant differences of pollen germination (P ≤ 0.01 were observed in different salinity levels, but there were no significant differences in pollen tube growth. Pollen germination in Cleopatra was greater in comparison to Poncirus trifoliate, indicating that Cleopatra is a tolerant cultivar. The amounts of total protein and enzyme activities of SOD and APX were influenced by genotypes, salinity levels and their interactions (P ≤ 0.01. Considering the fastness and accuracy of this type of experiment, the evaluation of citrus pollen responses may, potentially, be hired as an initial screening criteria for detecting salt-sensitive varieties from the tolerant citrus ones.

  13. Evaluation and Exploration of Favorable QTL Alleles for Salt Stress Related Traits in Cotton Cultivars (G. hirsutum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Du

    Full Text Available Soil salinization is one of the major problems in global agricultural production. Cotton is a pioneer crop with regard to salt stress tolerance, and can be used for saline-alkali land improvement. The large-scale detection of salt tolerance traits in cotton accessions, and the identification of elite quantitative trait loci (QTLs/genes for salt-tolerance have been very important in salt tolerance breeding. Here, 43 advanced salt-tolerant and 31 highly salt-sensitive cultivars were detected by analyzing ten salt tolerance related traits in 304 upland cotton cultivars. Among them, 11 advanced salt-tolerance and eight highly salt-sensitive cultivars were consistent with previously reported results. Association analysis of ten salt-tolerance related traits and 145 SSRs was performed, and a total of 95 significant associations were detected; 17, 41, and 37 of which were associated with germinative index, seedling stage physiological index, and four seedling stage biochemical indexes, respectively. Of these associations, 20 SSR loci were simultaneously associated with two or more traits. Furthermore, we detected 117 elite alleles associated with salt-tolerance traits, 4 of which were reported previously. Among these loci, 44 (37.60% were rare alleles with a frequency of less than 5%, 6 only existed in advanced salt-tolerant cultivars, and 2 only in highly salt-sensitive cultivars. As a result, 13 advanced salt-tolerant cultivars were selected to assemble the optimal cross combinations by computer simulation for the development of salt-tolerant accessions. This study lays solid foundations for further improvements in cotton salt-tolerance by referencing elite germplasms, alleles associated with salt-tolerance traits, and optimal crosses.

  14. Genetic linkage map construction and QTL mapping of salt tolerance traits in Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailin Guo

    Full Text Available Zoysiagrass (Zoysia Willd. is an important warm season turfgrass that is grown in many parts of the world. Salt tolerance is an important trait in zoysiagrass breeding programs. In this study, a genetic linkage map was constructed using sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers and random amplified polymorphic DNA markers based on an F1 population comprising 120 progeny derived from a cross between Zoysia japonica Z105 (salt-tolerant accession and Z061 (salt-sensitive accession. The linkage map covered 1211 cM with an average marker distance of 5.0 cM and contained 24 linkage groups with 242 marker loci (217 sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers and 25 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Quantitative trait loci affecting the salt tolerance of zoysiagrass were identified using the constructed genetic linkage map. Two significant quantitative trait loci (qLF-1 and qLF-2 for leaf firing percentage were detected; qLF-1 at 36.3 cM on linkage group LG4 with a logarithm of odds value of 3.27, which explained 13.1% of the total variation of leaf firing and qLF-2 at 42.3 cM on LG5 with a logarithm of odds value of 2.88, which explained 29.7% of the total variation of leaf firing. A significant quantitative trait locus (qSCW-1 for reduced percentage of dry shoot clipping weight was detected at 44.1 cM on LG5 with a logarithm of odds value of 4.0, which explained 65.6% of the total variation. This study provides important information for further functional analysis of salt-tolerance genes in zoysiagrass. Molecular markers linked with quantitative trait loci for salt tolerance will be useful in zoysiagrass breeding programs using marker-assisted selection.

  15. Acclimation improves salt stress tolerance in Zea mays plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Camilla; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-08-20

    Plants exposure to low level salinity activates an array of processes leading to an improvement of plant stress tolerance. Although the beneficial effect of acclimation was demonstrated in many herbaceous species, underlying mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. In the present study we have addressed this issue by investigating ionic mechanisms underlying the process of plant acclimation to salinity stress in Zea mays. Effect of acclimation were examined in two parallel sets of experiments: a growth experiment for agronomic assessments, sap analysis, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, and confocal laser scanning imaging; and a lab experiment for in vivo ion flux measurements from root tissues. Being exposed to salinity, acclimated plants (1) retain more K(+) but accumulate less Na(+) in roots; (2) have better vacuolar Na(+) sequestration ability in leaves and thus are capable of accumulating larger amounts of Na(+) in the shoot without having any detrimental effect on leaf photochemistry; and (3) rely more on Na(+) for osmotic adjustment in the shoot. At the same time, acclimation affect was not related in increased root Na(+) exclusion ability. It appears that even in a such salt-sensitive species as maize, Na(+) exclusion from uptake is of a much less importance compared with the efficient vacuolar Na(+) sequestration in the shoot. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Citeromyces matritensis M37 is a salt-tolerant yeast that produces ethanol from salted algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okai, Masahiko; Betsuno, Ayako; Shirao, Ayaka; Obara, Nobuo; Suzuki, Kotaro; Takei, Toshinori; Takashio, Masachika; Ishida, Masami; Urano, Naoto

    2017-01-01

    Algae are referred to as a third-generation biomass for ethanol production. However, salinity treatment is a problem that needs to be solved, because algal hydrolysates often contain high salt. Here, we isolated the salt-tolerant ethanol-producing yeast Citeromyces matritensis M37 from the east coast of Miura Peninsula in Japan. This yeast grew under osmotic stress conditions (20% NaCl or 60% glucose). It produced 6.55 g/L ethanol from YPD medium containing 15% NaCl after 48 h, and the ethanol accumulation was observed even at 20% NaCl. Using salted Undaria pinnatifida (wakame), we obtained 6.33 g/L glucose from approx. 150 g/L of the salted wakame powder with acidic and heat pretreatment followed by enzymatic saccharification, and the ethanol production reached 2.58 g/L for C. matritensis M37. The ethanol concentration was 1.4 times higher compared with that using the salt-tolerant ethanol-producing yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii S11.

  17. Comparative metabolite profiling of two rice genotypes with contrasting salt stress tolerance at the seedling stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuqin Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rice is sensitive to salt stress, especially at the seedling stage, with rice varieties differing remarkably in salt tolerance (ST. To understand the physiological mechanisms of ST, we investigated salt stress responses at the metabolite level. METHODS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to profile metabolite changes in the salt-tolerant line FL478 and the sensitive variety IR64 under a salt-stress time series. Additionally, several physiological traits related to ST were investigated. RESULTS: We characterized 92 primary metabolites in the leaves and roots of the two genotypes under stress and control conditions. The metabolites were temporally, tissue-specifically and genotype-dependently regulated under salt stress. Sugars and amino acids (AAs increased significantly in the leaves and roots of both genotypes, while organic acids (OAs increased in roots and decreased in leaves. Compared with IR64, FL478 experienced greater increases in sugars and AAs and more pronounced decreases in OAs in both tissues; additionally, the maximum change in sugars and AAs occurred later, while OAs changed earlier. Moreover, less Na+ and higher relative water content were observed in FL478. Eleven metabolites, including AAs and sugars, were specifically increased in FL478 over the course of the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic responses of rice to salt stress are dynamic and involve many metabolites. The greater ST of FL478 is due to different adaptive reactions at different stress times. At early salt-stress stages, FL478 adapts to stress by decreasing OA levels or by quickly depressing growth; during later stages, more metabolites are accumulated, thereby serving as compatible solutes against osmotic challenge induced by salt stress.

  18. Comparative Metabolite Profiling of Two Rice Genotypes with Contrasting Salt Stress Tolerance at the Seedling Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Deng, Jianli; Li, Zhikang; Fu, Binying

    2014-01-01

    Background Rice is sensitive to salt stress, especially at the seedling stage, with rice varieties differing remarkably in salt tolerance (ST). To understand the physiological mechanisms of ST, we investigated salt stress responses at the metabolite level. Methods Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to profile metabolite changes in the salt-tolerant line FL478 and the sensitive variety IR64 under a salt-stress time series. Additionally, several physiological traits related to ST were investigated. Results We characterized 92 primary metabolites in the leaves and roots of the two genotypes under stress and control conditions. The metabolites were temporally, tissue-specifically and genotype-dependently regulated under salt stress. Sugars and amino acids (AAs) increased significantly in the leaves and roots of both genotypes, while organic acids (OAs) increased in roots and decreased in leaves. Compared with IR64, FL478 experienced greater increases in sugars and AAs and more pronounced decreases in OAs in both tissues; additionally, the maximum change in sugars and AAs occurred later, while OAs changed earlier. Moreover, less Na+ and higher relative water content were observed in FL478. Eleven metabolites, including AAs and sugars, were specifically increased in FL478 over the course of the treatment. Conclusions Metabolic responses of rice to salt stress are dynamic and involve many metabolites. The greater ST of FL478 is due to different adaptive reactions at different stress times. At early salt-stress stages, FL478 adapts to stress by decreasing OA levels or by quickly depressing growth; during later stages, more metabolites are accumulated, thereby serving as compatible solutes against osmotic challenge induced by salt stress. PMID:25265195

  19. Molecular breeding in Brassica for salt tolerance: importance of microsatellite (SSR) markers for molecular breeding in Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manu; Choi, Ju-Young; Kumari, Nisha; Pareek, Ashwani; Kim, Seong-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the important abiotic factors for any crop management in irrigated as well as rainfed areas, which leads to poor harvests. This yield reduction in salt affected soils can be overcome by improving salt tolerance in crops or by soil reclamation. Salty soils can be reclaimed by leaching the salt or by cultivation of salt tolerance crops. Salt tolerance is a quantitative trait controlled by several genes. Poor knowledge about mechanism of its inheritance makes slow progress in its introgression into target crops. Brassica is known to be a good reclamation crop. Inter and intra specific variation within Brassica species shows potential of molecular breeding to raise salinity tolerant genotypes. Among the various molecular markers, SSR markers are getting high attention, since they are randomly sparsed, highly variable and show co-dominant inheritance. Furthermore, as sequencing techniques are improving and softwares to find SSR markers are being developed, SSR markers technology is also evolving rapidly. Comparative SSR marker studies targeting Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica species which lie in the same family will further aid in studying the salt tolerance related QTLs and subsequent identification of the “candidate genes” and finding out the origin of important QTLs. Although, there are a few reports on molecular breeding for improving salt tolerance using molecular markers in Brassica species, usage of SSR markers has a big potential to improve salt tolerance in Brassica crops. In order to obtain best harvests, role of SSR marker driven breeding approaches play important role and it has been discussed in this review especially for the introgression of salt tolerance traits in crops. PMID:26388887

  20. Bacterial growth tolerance to concentrations of chlorate and perchlorate salts relevant to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Soudi, Amer F.; Farhat, Omar; Chen, Fei; Clark, Benton C.; Schneegurt, Mark A.

    2017-07-01

    The Phoenix lander at Mars polar cap found appreciable levels of (per)chlorate salts, a mixture of perchlorate and chlorate salts of Ca, Fe, Mg and Na at levels of ~0.6% in regolith. These salts are highly hygroscopic and can form saturated brines through deliquescence, likely producing aqueous solutions with very low freezing points on Mars. To support planetary protection efforts, we have measured bacterial growth tolerance to (per)chlorate salts. Existing bacterial isolates from the Great Salt Plains of Oklahoma (NaCl-rich) and Hot Lake in Washington (MgSO4-rich) were tested in high concentrations of Mg, K and Na salts of chlorate and perchlorate. Strong growth was observed with nearly all of these salinotolerant isolates at 1% (~0.1 M) (per)chlorate salts, similar to concentrations observed in bulk soils on Mars. Growth in perchlorate salts was observed at concentrations of at least 10% (~1.0 M). Greater tolerance was observed for chlorate salts, where growth was observed to 2.75 M (>25%). Tolerance to K salts was greatest, followed by Mg salts and then Na salts. Tolerances varied among isolates, even among those within the same phylogenetic clade. Tolerant bacteria included genera that also are found in spacecraft assembly facilities. Substantial microbial tolerance to (per)chlorate salts is a concern for planetary protection since tolerant microbes contaminating spacecraft would have a greater chance for survival and proliferation, despite the harsh chemical conditions found near the surface of Mars.

  1. Na+ compartmentalization related to salinity stress tolerance in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhen; He, Shoupu; Sun, Junling; Pan, Zhaoe; Gong, Wenfang; Lu, Yanli; Du, Xiongming

    2016-10-04

    The capacity for ion compartmentalization among different tissues and cells is the key mechanism regulating salt tolerance in plants. In this study, we investigated the ion compartmentalization capacity of two upland cotton genotypes with different salt tolerances under salt shock at the tissue, cell and molecular levels. We found that the leaf glandular trichome could secrete more salt ions in the salt-tolerant genotype than in the sensitive genotype, demonstrating the excretion of ions from tissue may be a new mechanism to respond to short-term salt shock. Furthermore, an investigation of the ion distribution demonstrated that the ion content was significantly lower in critical tissues and cells of the salt-tolerant genotype, indicating the salt-tolerant genotype had a greater capacity for ion compartmentalization in the shoot. By comparing the membrane H+-ATPase activity and the expression of ion transportation-related genes, we found that the H+-ATPase activity and Na+/H+ antiporter are the key factors determining the capacity for ion compartmentalization in leaves, which might further determine the salt tolerance of cotton. The novel function of the glandular trichome and the comparison of Na+ compartmentalization between two cotton genotypes with contrasting salt tolerances provide a new understanding of the salt tolerance mechanism in cotton.

  2. Morpho- biochemical evaluation of Brassica rapa sub-species for salt tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sohail Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is one of the key abiotic stresses that affect both the qualitative and quantitative characters of many Brassica rapa sub-species by disturbing its normal morphobiochemical processes. Therefore, the present research work was designed to study the effect of different NaCl events (0, 50,100 and 150 mmol on morphological and biochemical characters and to screen salt tolerant genotypes among brown, yellow and toria types of B. rapa sub-species. The plants were grown in test tubes with addition of four level of NaCl (0, 50,100 and 150 mmol. The effect of salinity on shoot and root length, shoot/ root fresh and dry weight, relative water content (RWC, proline and chlorophyll a, b, a+b contents was recorded after 4 weeks of sowing. The genotype 22861 (brown type showed excellent morphological and biochemical performance at all stress levels followed by Toria-Sathi and Toria-A respectively as compared to Check variety TS-1. The genotype 26158 (yellow type gave very poor performance and retard growth. The %RWC values and chlorophyll a, b and a+b contents were decreased several folds with the increase of salt concentration. While, the proline contents was increased with raising of salt stress. The brown and toria types showed maximum tolerance to salt stress at early germination stages as compare to yellows one. The present study will serve as model to develop quick salt tolerant genotypes among different plant sub-species against salt stress.

  3. Evaluation of a Simple Method to Screen Soybean Genotypes for Salt Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excessive salt can reduce soybean yield in grower fields. Salt tolerant cultivars are needed to prevent field yield losses where excess salt is a problem. Soybean genotypes have primarily been evaluated for reaction to salt in the greenhouse using a labor intensive and costly hydroponics method. ...

  4. Protocols for Pre-Field Screening of Mutants for Salt Tolerance in Rice, Wheat and Barley

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bado, Souleymane; Forster, Brian P; Ghanim, Abdelbagi M.A; Jankowicz-Cieslak, Joanna; Berthold, Günter; Luxiang, Liu

    2016-01-01

    .... It presents simple methods for measuring soil salinity, including soil sampling and the analysis of water-soluble salts, and describes a detailed, but simple, screening test for salt tolerance...

  5. Stress Tolerance Profiling of a Collection of Extant Salt-Tolerant Rice Varieties and Transgenic Plants Overexpressing Abiotic Stress Tolerance Genes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurotani, Ken-ichi; Yamanaka, Kazumasa; Toda, Yosuke; Ogawa, Daisuke; Tanaka, Maiko; Kozawa, Hirotsugu; Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Hakata, Makoto; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Hattori, Tsukaho; Takeda, Shin

    2015-01-01

    .... In this study, we investigated the profiles of stress tolerance of nine salt-tolerant rice varieties and transgenic rice lines carrying constitutively expressed genes that are potentially involved...

  6. The Populus trichocarpa PtHSP17.8 involved in heat and salt stress tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianbo; Zhang, Jin; Jia, Huixia; Li, Yu; Xu, Xiangdong; Wang, Lijuan; Lu, Mengzhu

    2016-08-01

    PtHSP17.8 was regulated by various abiotic stresses. Overexpression of PtHSP17.8 enhanced the tolerance to heat and salt stresses through maintain ROS homeostasis and cooperate with stress-related genes in Arabidopsis. Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) play important roles in response to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses, especially in heat tolerance. However, limited information is available on the stress tolerance roles of sHSPs in woody species. To explore the function of sHSPs in poplar, we isolated and characterized PtHSP17.8 from Populus trichocarpa. Phylogenetic analysis and subcellular localization revealed that PtHSP17.8 was a cytosolic class I sHSP. The gene expression profile of PtHSP17.8 in various tissues showed that it was significantly accumulated in stem and root, which was consistent with the GUS expression pattern driven by promoter of PtHSP17.8. The expression of PtHSP17.8 could be induced by various abiotic stresses and significantly activated by heat stress. Overexpression of PtHSP17.8 enhanced the tolerance to heat and salt stresses in Arabidopsis. The seedling survival rate, root length, relative water content, antioxidative enzyme activities, proline, and soluble sugar content were increased in transgenic Arabidopsis under heat and salt stresses, but not in normal condition. The co-expression network of PtHSP17.8 were constructed and demonstrated many stress responsive genes included. The stress-related genes in the co-expression network were up-regulated in the PtHSP17.8 overexpression seedlings. These results suggest that PtHSP17.8 confers heat and salt tolerances in plants.

  7. A comparison of hydroponic and soil-based screening methods to identify salt tolerance in the field in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Fatehi, Foad; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K.

    2012-01-01

    Success in breeding crops for yield and other quantitative traits depends on the use of methods to evaluate genotypes accurately under field conditions. Although many screening criteria have been suggested to distinguish between genotypes for their salt tolerance under controlled environmental conditions, there is a need to test these criteria in the field. In this study, the salt tolerance, ion concentrations, and accumulation of compatible solutes of genotypes of barley with a range of putative salt tolerance were investigated using three growing conditions (hydroponics, soil in pots, and natural saline field). Initially, 60 genotypes of barley were screened for their salt tolerance and uptake of Na+, Cl–, and K+ at 150 mM NaCl and, based on this, a subset of 15 genotypes was selected for testing in pots and in the field. Expression of salt tolerance in saline solution culture was not a reliable indicator of the differences in salt tolerance between barley plants that were evident in saline soil-based comparisons. Significant correlations were observed in the rankings of genotypes on the basis of their grain yield production at a moderately saline field site and their relative shoot growth in pots at ECe 7.2 [Spearman’s rank correlation (rs)=0.79] and ECe 15.3 (rs=0.82) and the crucial parameter of leaf Na+ (rs=0.72) and Cl– (rs=0.82) concentrations at ECe 7.2 dS m−1. This work has established screening procedures that correlated well with grain yield at sites with moderate levels of soil salinity. This study also showed that both salt exclusion and osmotic tolerance are involved in salt tolerance and that the relative importance of these traits may differ with the severity of the salt stress. In soil, ion exclusion tended to be more important at low to moderate levels of stress but osmotic stress became more important at higher stress levels. Salt exclusion coupled with a synthesis of organic solutes were shown to be important components of salt

  8. A comparison of hydroponic and soil-based screening methods to identify salt tolerance in the field in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Fatehi, Foad; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K

    2012-06-01

    Success in breeding crops for yield and other quantitative traits depends on the use of methods to evaluate genotypes accurately under field conditions. Although many screening criteria have been suggested to distinguish between genotypes for their salt tolerance under controlled environmental conditions, there is a need to test these criteria in the field. In this study, the salt tolerance, ion concentrations, and accumulation of compatible solutes of genotypes of barley with a range of putative salt tolerance were investigated using three growing conditions (hydroponics, soil in pots, and natural saline field). Initially, 60 genotypes of barley were screened for their salt tolerance and uptake of Na(+), Cl(-), and K(+) at 150 mM NaCl and, based on this, a subset of 15 genotypes was selected for testing in pots and in the field. Expression of salt tolerance in saline solution culture was not a reliable indicator of the differences in salt tolerance between barley plants that were evident in saline soil-based comparisons. Significant correlations were observed in the rankings of genotypes on the basis of their grain yield production at a moderately saline field site and their relative shoot growth in pots at EC(e) 7.2 [Spearman's rank correlation (rs)=0.79] and EC(e) 15.3 (rs=0.82) and the crucial parameter of leaf Na(+) (rs=0.72) and Cl(-) (rs=0.82) concentrations at EC(e) 7.2 dS m(-1). This work has established screening procedures that correlated well with grain yield at sites with moderate levels of soil salinity. This study also showed that both salt exclusion and osmotic tolerance are involved in salt tolerance and that the relative importance of these traits may differ with the severity of the salt stress. In soil, ion exclusion tended to be more important at low to moderate levels of stress but osmotic stress became more important at higher stress levels. Salt exclusion coupled with a synthesis of organic solutes were shown to be important components of

  9. Salt tolerance research in date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.), past, present, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaish, Mahmoud W; Kumar, Prakash P

    2015-01-01

    The date palm can adapt to extreme drought, to heat, and to relatively high levels of soil salinity. However, excessive amounts of salt due to irrigation with brackish water lead to a significant reduction in the productivity of the fruits as well as marked decrease in the viable numbers of the date palm trees. It is imperative that the nature of the existing salt-adaptation mechanism be understood in order to develop future date palm varieties that can tolerate excessive soil salinity. In this perspective article, several research strategies, obstacles, and precautions are discussed in light of recent advancements accomplished in this field and the properties of this species. In addition to a physiological characterization, we propose the use of a full range of OMICS technologies, coupled with reverse genetics approaches, aimed toward understanding the salt-adaption mechanism in the date palm. Information generated by these analyses should highlight transcriptional and posttranscriptional modifications controlling the salt-adaptation mechanisms. As an extremophile with a natural tolerance for a wide range of abiotic stresses, the date palm may represent a treasure trove of novel genetic resources for salinity tolerance.

  10. Salt Tolerance Research in Date Palm Tree (Phoenix dactylifera L., Past, Present and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud W Yaish

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The date palm can adapt to extreme drought, to heat, and to relatively high levels of soil salinity. However, excessive amounts of salt due to irrigation with brackish water lead to a significant reduction in the productivity of the fruits as well as marked decrease in the viable numbers of the date palm trees. It is imperative that the nature of the existing salt adaptation mechanism be understood in order to develop future date palm varieties that can tolerate excessive soil salinity. In this perspective article, several research strategies, obstacles, and precautions are discussed in light of recent advancements accomplished in this field and the properties of this species. In addition to a physiological characterization, we propose the use of a full range of OMICS technologies, coupled with reverse genetics approaches, aimed towards understanding the salt-adaption mechanism in the date palm. Information generated by these analyses should highlight transcriptional and posttranscriptional modifications controlling the salt-adaptation mechanisms. As an extremophile with a natural tolerance for a wide range of abiotic stresses, the date palm may represent a treasure trove of novel genetic resources for salinity tolerance.

  11. Characterization of Salt-Induced Epigenetic Segregation by Genome-Wide Loss of Heterozygosity and its Association with Salt Tolerance in Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In a breeding effort to develop salt tolerant (ST rice varieties by designed QTL pyramiding, large numbers of progenies derived from four crosses between salt- or drought- tolerant BC2F5 IR64 introgression lines, were subjected to severe salt stress, resulting in 422 ST plants. The progeny testing of the selected F3 lines under more severe salt stress resulted in identification of 16 promising homozygous lines with high levels of ST. Genetic characterization of the 422 ST F3 progeny and 318 random F2 plants from the same four crosses using 105 segregating SSR markers lead to three interesting discoveries: (1 salt stress can induce genome-wide epigenetic segregation (ES characterized by complete loss of heterozygosity (LOH and nearly complete loss of an allele (LOA in the F3 progenies of four rice populations in a single generation; (2 ∼25% of the stress-induced ES loci were transgenerational and inherited from their salt- and drought- selected parents; and (3 the salt-induced LOH and LOA loci (regions appeared to contain genes/alleles associated with ST and/or drought tolerance. 32 genomic regions that showed one or more types of salt-induced ES in the random and salt-selected progenies from these crosses. The same or different types of ES were detected with two large genomic regions on chromosomes 1 and 6 where more and the strongest ES were found across different populations. 14 genomic regions were found where the salt-induced ES regions were overlapping with QTL affecting ST related traits. The discovery of the three types of salt-induced ES showed several interesting characteristics and had important implications in evolution and future breeding for developing stress-resilient rice and crops.

  12. Salt stress-induced changes in antioxidative defense system and proteome profiles of salt-tolerant and sensitive Frankia strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Amrita; Singh, Anumeha; Singh, Satya S; Mishra, Arun K

    2017-04-16

    An appreciation of comparative microbial survival is most easily done while evaluating their adaptive strategies during stress. In the present experiment, antioxidative and whole cell proteome variations based on spectrophotometric analysis and SDS-PAGE and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis have been analysed among salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive Frankia strains. This is the first report of proteomic basis underlying salt tolerance in these newly isolated Frankia strains from Hippophae salicifolia D. Don. Salt-tolerant strain HsIi10 shows higher increment in the contents of superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase as compared to salt-sensitive strain HsIi8. Differential 2-DGE profile has revealed differential profiles for salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive strains. Proteomic confirmation of salt tolerance in the strains with inbuilt efficiency of thriving in nitrogen-deficient locales is a definite advantage for these microbes. This would be equally beneficial for improvement of soil nitrogen status. Efficient protein regulation in HsIi10 suggests further exploration for its potential use as biofertilizer in saline soils.

  13. Effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Gogoi, Nirmali; Hussain, Mubshar; Barthakur, Sharmistha; Paul, Sreyashi; Bharadwaj, Nandita; Migdadi, Hussein M; Alghamdi, Salem S; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-09-01

    Salt stress is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. Efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants are vital for sustainable crop production on marginal lands to ensure future food supplies. Grain legumes are a fascinating group of plants due to their high grain protein contents and ability to fix biological nitrogen. However, the accumulation of excessive salts in soil and the use of saline groundwater are threatening legume production worldwide. Salt stress disturbs photosynthesis and hormonal regulation and causes nutritional imbalance, specific ion toxicity and osmotic effects in legumes to reduce grain yield and quality. Understanding the responses of grain legumes to salt stress and the associated tolerance mechanisms, as well as assessing management options, may help in the development of strategies to improve the performance of grain legumes under salt stress. In this manuscript, we discuss the effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes. The principal inferences of the review are: (i) salt stress reduces seed germination (by up to more than 50%) either by inhibiting water uptake and/or the toxic effect of ions in the embryo, (ii) salt stress reduces growth (by more than 70%), mineral uptake, and yield (by 12-100%) due to ion toxicity and reduced photosynthesis, (iii) apoplastic acidification is a good indicator of salt stress tolerance, (iv) tolerance to salt stress in grain legumes may develop through excretion and/or compartmentalization of toxic ions, increased antioxidant capacity, accumulation of compatible osmolytes, and/or hormonal regulation, (v) seed priming and nutrient management may improve salt tolerance in grain legumes, (vi) plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may help to improve salt tolerance due to better plant nutrient availability, and (vii) the integration of screening, innovative breeding, and the development of

  14. Yeast functional screen to identify genes conferring salt stress tolerance in Salicornia europaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki eNakahara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a critical environmental factor that adversely affects crop productivity. Halophytes have evolved various mechanisms to adapt to saline environments. Salicornia europaea L. is one of the most salt-tolerant plant species. It does not have special salt-secreting structures like a salt gland or salt bladder, and is therefore a good model for studying the common mechanisms underlying plant salt tolerance. To identify candidate genes encoding key proteins in the mediation of salt tolerance in S. europaea, we performed a functional screen of a cDNA library in yeast. The library was screened for genes that allowed the yeast to grow in the presence of 1.3 M NaCl. We obtained three full-length S. europaea genes that confer salt tolerance. The genes are predicted to encode (1 a novel protein highly homologous to thaumatin-like proteins, (2 a novel coiled-coil protein of unknown function, and (3 a novel short peptide of 32 residues. Exogenous application of a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 32 residues improved salt tolerance of Arabidopsis. The approach described in this report provides a rapid assay system for large-scale screening of S. europaea genes involved in salt stress tolerance and supports the identification of genes responsible for such mechanisms. These genes may be useful candidates for improving crop salt tolerance by genetic transformation.

  15. Yeast functional screen to identify genes conferring salt stress tolerance in Salicornia europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Yoshiki; Sawabe, Shogo; Kainuma, Kenta; Katsuhara, Maki; Shibasaka, Mineo; Suzuki, Masanori; Yamamoto, Kosuke; Oguri, Suguru; Sakamoto, Hikaru

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is a critical environmental factor that adversely affects crop productivity. Halophytes have evolved various mechanisms to adapt to saline environments. Salicornia europaea L. is one of the most salt-tolerant plant species. It does not have special salt-secreting structures like a salt gland or salt bladder, and is therefore a good model for studying the common mechanisms underlying plant salt tolerance. To identify candidate genes encoding key proteins in the mediation of salt tolerance in S. europaea, we performed a functional screen of a cDNA library in yeast. The library was screened for genes that allowed the yeast to grow in the presence of 1.3 M NaCl. We obtained three full-length S. europaea genes that confer salt tolerance. The genes are predicted to encode (1) a novel protein highly homologous to thaumatin-like proteins, (2) a novel coiled-coil protein of unknown function, and (3) a novel short peptide of 32 residues. Exogenous application of a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 32 residues improved salt tolerance of Arabidopsis. The approach described in this report provides a rapid assay system for large-scale screening of S. europaea genes involved in salt stress tolerance and supports the identification of genes responsible for such mechanisms. These genes may be useful candidates for improving crop salt tolerance by genetic transformation.

  16. Salt tolerance is evolutionarily labile in a diverse set of angiosperm families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, Camile; Hua, Xia; Bromham, Lindell

    2015-05-19

    Salt tolerance in plants is rare, yet it is found across a diverse set of taxonomic groups. This suggests that, although salt tolerance often involves a set of complex traits, it has evolved many times independently in different angiosperm lineages. However, the pattern of evolution of salt tolerance can vary dramatically between families. A recent phylogenetic study of the Chenopodiaceae (goosefoot family) concluded that salt tolerance has a conserved evolutionary pattern, being gained early in the evolution of the lineage then retained by most species in the family. Conversely, a phylogenetic study of the Poaceae (grass family) suggested over 70 independent gains of salt tolerance, most giving rise to only one or a few salt tolerant species. Here, we use a phylogenetic approach to explore the macroevolutionary patterns of salt tolerance in a sample of angiosperm families, in order to ask whether either of these two patterns - deep and conserved or shallow and labile - represents a common mode of salt tolerance evolution. We analyze the distribution of halophyte species across the angiosperms and identify families with more or less halophytes than expected under a random model. Then, we explore the phylogenetic distribution of halophytes in 22 families using phylogenetic comparative methods. We find that salt tolerance species have been reported from over one-third of angiosperm families, but that salt tolerant species are not distributed evenly across angiosperm families. We find that salt tolerance has been gained hundreds of times over the history of the angiosperms. In a few families, we find deep and conserved gains of salt tolerance, but in the majority of families analyzed, we find that the pattern of salt tolerant species is best explained by multiple independent gains that occur near the tips of the phylogeny and often give rise to only one or a few halophytes. Our results suggest that the pattern of many independent gains of salt tolerance near the tips

  17. Potassium Retention under Salt Stress Is Associated with Natural Variation in Salinity Tolerance among Arabidopsis Accessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Sun

    Full Text Available Plants are exposed to various environmental stresses during their life cycle such as salt, drought and cold. Natural variation mediated plant growth adaptation has been employed as an effective approach in response to the diverse environmental cues such as salt stress. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is not well understood. In the present study, a collection of 82 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions (ecotypes was screened with a view to identify variation for salinity tolerance. Seven accessions showed a higher level of tolerance than Col-0. The young seedlings of the tolerant accessions demonstrated a higher K(+ content and a lower Na(+/K(+ ratio when exposed to salinity stress, but its Na(+ content was the same as that of Col-0. The K(+ transporter genes AtHAK5, AtCHX17 and AtKUP1 were up-regulated significantly in almost all the tolerant accessions, even in the absence of salinity stress. There was little genetic variation or positive transcriptional variation between the selections and Col-0 with respect to Na+-related transporter genes, as AtSOS genes, AtNHX1 and AtHKT1;1. In addition, under salinity stress, these selections accumulated higher compatible solutes and lower reactive oxygen species than did Col-0. Taken together, our results showed that natural variation in salinity tolerance of Arabidopsis seems to have been achieved by the strong capacity of K(+ retention.

  18. Spliceosomal protein U1A is involved in alternative splicing and salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Jinbao

    2017-12-01

    Soil salinity is a significant threat to sustainable agricultural production worldwide. Plants must adjust their developmental and physiological processes to cope with salt stress. Although the capacity for adaptation ultimately depends on the genome, the exceptional versatility in gene regulation provided by the spliceosome-mediated alternative splicing (AS) is essential in these adaptive processes. However, the functions of the spliceosome in plant stress responses are poorly understood. Here, we report the in-depth characterization of a U1 spliceosomal protein, AtU1A, in controlling AS of pre-mRNAs under salt stress and salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. The atu1a mutant was hypersensitive to salt stress and accumulated more reactive oxygen species (ROS) than the wild-type under salt stress. RNA-seq analysis revealed that AtU1A regulates AS of many genes, presumably through modulating recognition of 5′ splice sites. We showed that AtU1A is associated with the pre-mRNA of the ROS detoxification-related gene ACO1 and is necessary for the regulation of ACO1 AS. ACO1 is important for salt tolerance because ectopic expression of ACO1 in the atu1a mutant can partially rescue its salt hypersensitive phenotype. Our findings highlight the critical role of AtU1A as a regulator of pre-mRNA processing and salt tolerance in plants.

  19. Comparing salt tolerance of beet cultivars and their halophytic ancestor: consequences of domestication and breeding programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozema, J.; Cornelisse, D.; Zhang, Y.; Li, H.; Bruning, B.; Katschnig, D.; Broekman, R.A.; Ji, B.; van Bodegom, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt tolerance of higher plants is determined by a complex set of traits, the timing and rate of evolution of which are largely unknown. We compared the salt tolerance of cultivars of sugar beet and their ancestor, sea beet, in hydroponic studies and evaluated whether traditional domestication and

  20. Salt tolerance analysis of chickpea, faba bean and durum wheat varieties. II. Durum wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Nachit, M.M.; Oweis, T.

    2005-01-01

    Seven varieties of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum), provided by ICARDA, were tested in a greenhouse experiment for their salt tolerance. Afterwards two varieties, differing in salt tolerance, were irrigated with waters of three different salinity levels in a lysimeter experiment to analyse their

  1. Exploration of wild relatives of tomato for enhanced stress tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junming Li,

    2010-01-01

    Among the different abiotic and biotic stresses, Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora infestans and high salt concentrations are world-wide the most destructive. Several wild relatives of tomato were identified as source for tolerance to these stresses. Three introgression line (IL) populations derived

  2. Thinopyrum ponticum Chromatin-Integrated Wheat Genome Shows Salt-Tolerance at Germination Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Ye Yuan; Motonori Tomita

    2015-01-01

    A wild wheatgrass, Thinopyrum ponticum (2n = 10x = 70), which exhibits substantially higher levels of salt tolerance than cultivated wheat, was employed to transfer its salt tolerance to common wheat by means of wide hybridization. A highly salt-tolerant wheat line S148 (2n = 42) was obtained from the BC3F2 progenies between Triticum aestivum (2n = 42) and Th. ponticum. In the cross of S148 × salt-sensitive wheat variety Chinese Spring, the BC4F2 seeds at germination stage segregated into a ...

  3. Deciphering the salinity adaptation mechanism in Penicilliopsis clavariiformis AP, a rare salt tolerant fungus from mangrove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Rai, Anuradha; Singh, Ruchi; Chakdar, Hillol; Kumar, Sudheer; Srivastava, Alok Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Penicilliopsis clavariiformis AP, a rare salt tolerant fungus reported for the first time from India was identified through polyphasic taxonomy. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the fungus has unique features such as biverticillate penicilli bearing masses of oval to ellipsoidal conidia. The fungus has been characterized for salt tolerance and to understand the relevance of central carbon metabolism in salt stress adaptation. It showed optimal growth at 24 °C and able to tolerate up to 10% (w/v) NaCl. To understand the mechanism of adaptation to high salinity, activities of the key enzymes regulating glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and tricarboxylic acid cycle were investigated under normal (0% NaCl) and saline stress environment (10% NaCl). The results revealed a re-routing of carbon metabolism away from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), served as a cellular stress-resistance mechanism in fungi under saline environment. The detection and significant expression of fungus genes (Hsp98, Hsp60, HTB, and RHO) under saline stress suggest that these halotolerance conferring genes from the fungus could have a role in fungus protection and adaptation under saline environment. Overall, the present findings indicate that the rearrangement of the metabolic fluxes distribution and stress related genes play an important role in cell survival and adaptation under saline environment. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Population structure and marker-trait association of salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elakhdar, Ammar; El-Sattar, Mohamed Abd; Amer, Khairy; Rady, Assma; Kumamaru, Toshihiro

    Association mapping is becoming an important tool for identifying alleles and loci responsible for dissecting highly complex traits in barley. This study describes the population structure and marker-trait association using general linear model (GLM) analysis on a site of 60 barley genotypes, evaluated in six salinity environments. Ninety-eight SSR and SNP alleles were employed for the construction of a framework genetic map. The genetic structure analysis of the collection turned out to consist of two major sub-populations, mainly comprising hulled and naked types. LD significantly varied among the barley chromosomes, suggesting that this factor may affect the resolution of association mapping for QTL located on different chromosomes. Numerous significant marker traits were associated in different regions of the barley genome controlling salt tolerance and related traits; among them, 46 QTLs were detected on 14 associated traits over the two years, with a major QTL controlling salt tolerance on 1H, 2H, 4H and 7H, which are important factors in improving barley's salt tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Overexpression of AtSTO1 leads to improved salt tolerance in Populus tremula × P. alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Shaneka S; Michler, Charles H

    2014-10-01

    One of the major abiotic stress conditions limiting healthy growth of trees is salinity stress. The use of gene manipulation for increased tolerance to abiotic stress has been successful in many plant species. Overexpression of the Arabidopsis SALT TOLERANT1 (STO1) gene leads to increased concentrations of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase3, a vital enzyme in Arabidopsis abscisic acid biosynthesis. In the present work, the Arabidopsis STO1 gene (AtSTO1) was overexpressed in poplar to determine if the transgene would confer enhanced salt tolerance to the generated transgenics. The results of multiple greenhouse trials indicated that the transgenic poplar lines had greater levels of resistance to NaCl than wild-type plants. Analysis using RT-PCR indicated a variation in the relative abundance of the STO1 transcript in the transgenics that coincided with tolerance to salt. Several physiological and morphological changes such as greater overall biomass, greater root biomass, improved photosynthesis, and greater pith size were observed in the transgenics when compared to controls undergoing salt stress. These results indicated overexpression of AtSTO1 improved salt tolerance in poplar.

  6. Identification of salt tolerant rice cultivars via phenotypic and marker-assisted procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Salil Kumar; Islam, Mirza Mofazzal; Emon, Reza Mohammad; Begum, Shamsun Nahar; Siddika, Aysha; Sultana, Sharmin

    2007-12-15

    Eleven genotypes, including the salt tolerant cultivar Pokkali as check, were used to evaluate salinity tolerance phenotypically and genotypically. Three selected SSR primers viz., RM7075, RM336 and RM253 were used to evaluate rice genotypes for salt tolerance. Two setups were maintained for this study viz., the seedling and reproductive stages. Phenotyping at the seedling stage was done in hydroponic system using salinized (EC 12 dS m(-1)) nutrient solution and at the reproductive stage using salinized tap water (EC 6 dS m(-1)). IRRI standard protocol was followed to evaluate salinity tolerance in rice. The genotypes having similar banding pattern with Pokkali were considered as tolerant. Phenotypically, three genotypes Pokkali, THDB and TNDB-100 and five genotypes RD-2586, TNDB-100, Dhol Kochuri, PNR-519 and Pokkali were identified as salt tolerant at the seedling and reproductive stages, respectively. These genotypes were also identified as salt tolerant genotypically (with markers). Through phenotypic and genotypic study, five genotypes viz., Pokkali, Dhol Kochuri, RD-2586, TNDB-100 and PNR-519 were identified as salt tolerant. Therefore, these microsatellite markers used in this study could be efficiently used for identification of salt tolerant rice varieties in marker-assisted breeding and quantitative trait loci analysis.

  7. Molecular markers associated with salt tolerance in Egyptian wheats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinity affects plant growth by the osmotic stress of the salt around the roots, as well as by toxicity caused by excessive accumulation of salt in leaves. In the present study, seven common (Triticum aestivum) and two durum (T. turgidum ssp. Durum) wheat genotypes were subjected to salt stress for 2 weeks. Salt stress ...

  8. The Expression of Millettia pinnata Chalcone Isomerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Salt-Sensitive Mutants Enhances Salt-Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiqu Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates a new Millettia pinnata chalcone isomerase (MpCHI whose transcription level in leaf was confirmed to be enhanced after being treated by seawater or NaCl (500 mM via transcriptome sequencing and Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (QRT-PCR analyses. Its full length cDNA (666 bp was obtained by 3'-end and 5'-end Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE. The analysis via NCBI BLAST indicates that both aminoacid sequence and nucleotide sequence of the MpCHI clone share high homology with other leguminous CHIs (73%–86%. Evolutionarily, the phylogenic analysis further revealed that the MpCHI is a close relative of leguminous CHIs. The MpCHI protein consists of 221 aminoacid (23.64 KDa, whose peptide length, amino acid residues of substrate-binding site and reactive site are very similar to other leguminous CHIs reported previously. Two pYES2-MpCHI transformed salt-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants (Δnha1 and Δnhx1 showed improved salt-tolerance significantly compared to pYES2-vector transformed yeast mutants, suggesting the MpCHI or the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway could regulate the resistance to salt stress in M. pinnata.

  9. Enhanced salt tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) by rstB gene transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan-Jun; Wang, Tao

    2015-05-01

    Generating salt tolerance forage plant is essential for use of the land affected by high salinity. A salt tolerance gene rstB was used as a selectable marker gene in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco under a selective regime of 170mM NaCl. The transgenic plants showed clear improvement in salt tolerance. To improve salt tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), rstB gene was introduced into alfalfa genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. No abnormal phenotype was observed among the transgenic plants when compared with wild type (wt) plants. Significant enhancement of resistance to salt-shock treatment was noted on the rstB transgenic (T0) plants. Transgenic second-generation (T1) seeds showed improved germination rate and seedling growth under salt-stress condition. Hindered Na(+) accumulation, but enhanced Ca(2+) accumulation was observed on the rstB T1 plants when subjected to salt-stresses. Enhanced calcium accumulation in transgenic plants was also verified by cytohistochemical localization of calcium. Under salt-stress of 50mM NaCl, about 15% of the transgenic plants finished their life-cycle but the wt plants had no flower formation. The results demonstrated that the expression of rstB gene improved salt tolerance in transgenic alfalfa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Haplotyping of Rice Genotypes Using Simple Sequence Repeat Markers Associated with Salt Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Chowdhury

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is a major problem in most of the rice growing areas in the world. A major QTL Saltol associated with salt tolerance at the seedling stage has been mapped on chromosome 1 in rice. This study aimed to characterize the haplotype diversity at Saltol and additional QTLs associated with salt tolerance. Salt tolerance at the seedling stage was assessed in 54 rice genotypes in the scale of 1 to 9 score at EC = 10 dSm-1 under controlled environmental conditions. Seven new breeding lines including three KMR3/O. rufipogon introgression lines showed similar salt tolerant ability as FL478 and can be good sources of new genes/alleles for salt tolerance. Simple sequence repeat (SSR marker RM289 showed only two alleles and RM8094 showed seven alleles. Polymorphic information content value varied from 0.55 for RM289 to 0.99 for RM8094 and RM493. Based on 14 SSR markers, the 54 lines were clearly separated into two major clusters. Fourteen haplotypes were identified based on Saltol linked markers with FL478 as the reference. Alleles of RM8094 and RM3412 can discriminate between the salt tolerant and susceptible genotypes clearly and hence can be useful in marker-assisted selection at the seedling stage. Other markers RM10720 on chromosome 1 and RM149 and RM264 on chromosome 8 can also distinguish tolerant and susceptible lines but with lesser stringency.

  11. RAS1, a quantitative trait locus for salt tolerance and ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Zhonghai

    2010-03-08

    Soil salinity limits agricultural production and is a major obstacle for feeding the growing world population. We used natural genetic variation in salt tolerance among different Arabidopsis accessions to map a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for salt tolerance and abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity during seed germination and early seedling growth. A recombinant inbred population derived from Landsberg erecta (Ler; salt and ABA sensitive) x Shakdara (Sha; salt and ABA resistant) was used for QTL mapping. High-resolution mapping and cloning of this QTL, Response to ABA and Salt 1 (RAS1), revealed that it is an ABA- and salt stress-inducible gene and encodes a previously undescribed plant-specific protein. A premature stop codon results in a truncated RAS1 protein in Sha. Reducing the expression of RAS1 by transfer-DNA insertion in Col or RNA interference in Ler leads to decreased salt and ABA sensitivity, whereas overexpression of the Ler allele but not the Sha allele causes increased salt and ABA sensitivity. Our results suggest that RAS1 functions as a negative regulator of salt tolerance during seed germination and early seedling growth by enhancing ABA sensitivity and that its loss of function contributes to the increased salt tolerance of Sha.

  12. Transcriptome analysis of salt tolerant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under saline conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Can Hiz

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the important abiotic stress factors that limit crop production. Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major protein source in developing countries, is highly affected by soil salinity and the information on genes that play a role in salt tolerance is scarce. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs and related pathways by comprehensive analysis of transcriptomes of both root and leaf tissues of the tolerant genotype grown under saline and control conditions in hydroponic system. We have generated a total of 158 million high-quality reads which were assembled into 83,774 all-unigenes with a mean length of 813 bp and N50 of 1,449 bp. Among the all-unigenes, 58,171 were assigned with Nr annotations after homology analyses. It was revealed that 6,422 and 4,555 all-unigenes were differentially expressed upon salt stress in leaf and root tissues respectively. Validation of the RNA-seq quantifications (RPKM values was performed by qRT-PCR (Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR analyses. Enrichment analyses of DEGs based on GO and KEGG databases have shown that both leaf and root tissues regulate energy metabolism, transmembrane transport activity, and secondary metabolites to cope with salinity. A total of 2,678 putative common bean transcription factors were identified and classified under 59 transcription factor families; among them 441 were salt responsive. The data generated in this study will help in understanding the fundamentals of salt tolerance in common bean and will provide resources for functional genomic studies.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of salt tolerant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under saline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiz, Mahmut Can; Canher, Balkan; Niron, Harun; Turet, Muge

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the important abiotic stress factors that limit crop production. Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major protein source in developing countries, is highly affected by soil salinity and the information on genes that play a role in salt tolerance is scarce. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and related pathways by comprehensive analysis of transcriptomes of both root and leaf tissues of the tolerant genotype grown under saline and control conditions in hydroponic system. We have generated a total of 158 million high-quality reads which were assembled into 83,774 all-unigenes with a mean length of 813 bp and N50 of 1,449 bp. Among the all-unigenes, 58,171 were assigned with Nr annotations after homology analyses. It was revealed that 6,422 and 4,555 all-unigenes were differentially expressed upon salt stress in leaf and root tissues respectively. Validation of the RNA-seq quantifications (RPKM values) was performed by qRT-PCR (Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR) analyses. Enrichment analyses of DEGs based on GO and KEGG databases have shown that both leaf and root tissues regulate energy metabolism, transmembrane transport activity, and secondary metabolites to cope with salinity. A total of 2,678 putative common bean transcription factors were identified and classified under 59 transcription factor families; among them 441 were salt responsive. The data generated in this study will help in understanding the fundamentals of salt tolerance in common bean and will provide resources for functional genomic studies.

  14. Salinity tolerance of 'Valencia' orange trees on rootstocks with contrasting salt tolerance is not improved by moderate shade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, F; Syvertsen, J P; Martínez, V; Melgar, J C

    2006-01-01

    The effects of shading in combination with salinity treatments were studied in citrus trees on two rootstocks with contrasting salt tolerance to determine if shading could reduce the negative effects of salinity stress. Well-nourished 2-year-old 'Valencia' orange trees grafted on Cleopatra mandarin (Cleo, relatively salt tolerant) or Carrizo citrange (Carr, relatively salt sensitive), were grown either under a 50% shade cloth or left unshaded in full sunlight. Half the trees received no salinity treatment and half were salinized with 50 mM Cl- during two 9 week salinity periods in the spring and autumn interrupted by an 11 week rainy period. The shade treatment reduced midday leaf temperature and leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit regardless of salinity treatments. In non-salinized trees, shade increased midday CO2 assimilation rate (A(CO2)) and stomatal conductance, but had no effect on leaf transpiration (E(lf)). Shade also increased leaf chlorophyll and photosynthetic water use efficiency (A(CO2)/E(lf)) in leaves on both rootstocks and increased total plant dry weight in Cleo. The salinity treatment reduced leaf growth and leaf gas exchange parameters. Shade decreased Cl- concentrations in leaves of salinized Carr trees, but had no effect on leaf or root Cl- of trees on Cleo. There were no significant differences in leaf gas exchange parameters of shaded and unshaded salinized plants but the growth reduction from salinity stress was actually greater for shaded than for unshaded trees. Shaded trees on both rootstocks had higher leaf Na+ than unshaded trees after the first salinity period, and this shade-induced elevated leaf Na+ persisted after the second salinity period in trees on Carr. Thus, shading did not alleviate the negative effects of salinity on growth and Na+ accumulation.

  15. High efficiency transformation of banana [Musa acuminata L. cv. Matti (AA)] for enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stress through overexpression of a peanut salinity-induced pathogenesis-related class 10 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Anjana; Jain, Shalu; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Jain, Mukesh; Bhat, Vishnu; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp. L.) are important subsistence crops and premium export commodity in several countries, and susceptible to a wide range of environmental and biotic stress conditions. Here, we report efficient, rapid, and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of an Indian niche cultivar of banana [M. acuminata cv. Matti (AA)]. Apical meristem-derived highly proliferative multiple shoot clump (MSC) explants were transformed with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA-1301 carrying hptII and uidA. Sequential agro-infiltration (10 min, 400 mmHg), infection (additional 35 min, Agrobacterium density A 600 = 0.8) and co-cultivation (18 h) regimen in 100 µM acetosyringone containing liquid medium were critical factors yielding high transformation efficiency (~81 %) corroborated by transient GUS expression assay. Stable transgenic events were recovered following two cycles of meristem initiation and selection on hygromycin containing medium. Histochemical GUS assay in several tissues of transgenic plants and molecular analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of transgene. The protocol described here allowed recovery of well-established putative transgenic plantlets in as little as 5 months. The transgenic banana plants could be readily acclimatized under greenhouse conditions, and were phenotypically similar to the wild-type untransformed control plants (WT). Transgenic plants overexpressing Salinity-Induced Pathogenesis-Related class 10 protein gene from Arachis hypogaea (AhSIPR10) in banana cv. Matti (AA) showed better photosynthetic efficiency and less membrane damage (P < 0.05) in the presence of NaCl and mannitol in comparison to WT plants suggesting the role of AhSIPR10 in better tolerance of salt stress and drought conditions.

  16. Pleiotropic phenotypes of the salt-tolerant and cytosine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. centromeric DNA; DNA hypomethylation; drought tolerance; epigenetic regulation; gene expression changes; microRNA; plant development; ribosomal DNA; salinity tolerance; terpenoid indole alkaloids.

  17. Unraveling Salt Tolerance Mechanisms in Halophytes: A Comparative Study on Four Mediterranean Limonium Species with Different Geographic Distribution Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Al Hassan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We have performed an extensive study on the responses to salt stress in four related Limonium halophytes with different geographic distribution patterns, during seed germination and early vegetative growth. The aims of the work were twofold: to establish the basis for the different chorology of these species, and to identify relevant mechanisms of salt tolerance dependent on the control of ion transport and osmolyte accumulation. Seeds were germinated in vitro, in the presence of increasing NaCl concentrations, and subjected to “recovery of germination” tests; germination percentages and velocity were determined to establish the relative tolerance and competitiveness of the four Limonium taxa. Salt treatments were also applied to young plants, by 1-month irrigation with NaCl up to 800 mM; then, growth parameters, levels of monovalent and divalent ions (in roots and leaves, and leaf contents of photosynthetic pigments and common osmolytes were determined in control and stressed plants of the four species. Seed germination is the most salt-sensitive developmental phase in Limonium. The different germination behavior of the investigated species appears to be responsible for their geographical range size: L. narbonense and L. virgatum, widespread throughout the Mediterranean, are the most tolerant and the most competitive at higher soil salinities; the endemic L. santapolense and L. girardianum are the most sensitive and more competitive only at lower salinities. During early vegetative growth, all taxa showed a strong tolerance to salt stress, although slightly higher in L. virgatum and L. santapolense. Salt tolerance is based on the efficient transport of Na+ and Cl− to the leaves and on the accumulation of fructose and proline for osmotic adjustment. Despite some species-specific quantitative differences, the accumulation patterns of the different ions were similar in all species, not explaining differences in tolerance, except for the

  18. Purification, characterisation and salt-tolerance molecular mechanisms of aspartyl aminopeptidase from Aspergillus oryzae 3.042.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xianli; Yin, Yiyun; Zhou, Cunshan

    2018-02-01

    A salt-tolerant aspartyl aminopeptidase (approximately 57kDa) from Aspergillus oryzae 3.042 was purified and identified. Specific inhibitor experiments indicated that it was an aminopeptidase containing Zn2+. Its optimal and stable pH values and temperatures were 7 and 50°C, respectively. Its relative activity remained beyond 30% in 3M NaCl solution for 15d, and its Km and Vmax were slightly affected in 3M NaCl solution, indicating its excellent salt-tolerance. A comprehensive analysis including protein homology modelling, molecular dynamics simulation, secondary structure, acidic residues and hydrophobicity of interior residues demonstrated that aspartyl aminopeptidase had a greater stability than non-salt-tolerant protease in high salinity. Higher contents of ordered secondary structures, more salt bridges between hydrated surface acidic residues and specific basic residues and stronger hydrophobicity of interior residues were the salt-tolerance mechanisms of aspartyl aminopeptidase. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Genetic engineering of the biosynthesis of glycinebetaine leads to increased tolerance of photosynthesis to salt stress in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinghong; Liang, Zheng; Wen, Xiaogang; Lu, Congming

    2008-01-01

    Genetically engineered tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) with the ability to synthesis glycinebetaine (GB) in chloroplasts was established by introducing the BADH gene for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). The genetic engineering resulted in enhanced tolerance of growth of young seedlings to salt stress. This increased tolerance was not due to improved water status, since there were no significant differences in accumulation of sodium and chloride, leaf water potential, and relative water content between wild type and transgenic plants under salt stress. Salt stress resulted in a decrease in CO2 assimilation and such a decrease was much greater in wild type plants than in transgenic plants. Though salt stress showed no damage to PSII, there were a decrease in the maximal PSII electron transport rate in vivo and an increase in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and these changes were greater in wild type plants than in transgenic plants. In addition, salt stress inhibited the activities of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, chloroplastic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, and phosphoribulokinase and such a decrease was also greater in wild type plants than in transgenic plants, suggesting that GB protects these enzymes against salt stress. However, there were no significant changes in the activities of phosphoglycerate kinase, triose phosphate isomerase, ribulose-5-phosphate isomerase, transketolase, and sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase in both wild type and transgenic plants. The results in this study suggest that enhanced tolerance of CO2 assimilation to salt stress may be one of physiological bases for increased tolerance of growth of transgenic plants to salt stress.

  20. Inheritance of salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) accession PI483463.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Dong; Shannon, J Grover; Vuong, Tri D; Nguyen, Henry T

    2009-01-01

    Tolerant soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) cultivars aid in reducing salt damage in problem fields. New genes are important to reduce losses from salt injury. Objectives of this study were to determine inheritance of salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) PI483463 and to test allelism of tolerance genes from genotypes PI483463 and S-100, a common ancestor of southern in US cultivars. Tolerant (T) PI483463 was crossed to sensitive (S) cultivar Hutcheson to study inheritance. PI483463 (T) was crossed with S-100 (T) to test for allelism. Parents, F(1) plants, F(2) populations, and F(2:3) lines were assayed in a 100 mM salt solution to determine tolerance. F(2) from T x S cross segregated 3(T):1 (S) and the F(2:3) lines responded 1 (T): 2 (segregating):1 (S). F(2) plants from PI483463 (T) x S-100 (T) segregated 15 (T):1 (S) indicating different genes from the 2 sources. Results showed that G. soja line PI483463 had a single dominant gene for salt tolerance, which was different than the gene in G. max line S-100. The symbol, Ncl2, was designated for this new salt tolerance allele.

  1. Salt intrusion in tidal wetlands: European willow species tolerate oligohaline conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus-Michalczyk, Heike; Hanelt, Dieter; Ludewig, Kristin; Müller, David; Schröter, Brigitte; Jensen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experience salt intrusion due to the effects of climate change. This study clarifies that the European flood plain willows species Salix alba and Salix viminalis tolerate oligohaline conditions. Salix alba L. and Salix viminalis L. are distributed on flood plains up to transitional waters of the oligohaline to the mesohaline estuarine stretch in temperate climates. They experience spatial and temporal variations in flooding and salinity. In the past, willows dominated the vegetation above the mean high water line, attenuated waves and contributed to sedimentation. In recent centuries, human utilization reduced willow stands. Today, the Elbe estuary - a model system for an estuary in temperate zones - exhibits increasing flooding and salinity due to man-induced effects and climatic changes. Willows were described as having no salinity tolerance. In contrast, our soil water salinity measurements at willows in tidal wetlands prove that mature Salix individuals tolerate oligohaline conditions. To assess immature plant salinity tolerance, we conducted a hydroponic greenhouse experiment. Vegetative propagules originating from a freshwater and an oligohaline site were treated in four salinities. Related to growth rates and biomass production, we found interspecific similarities and a salinity tolerance up to salinity 2. Vitality and chlorophyll fluorescence indicated an acclimation of Salix viminalis to oligohaline conditions. We conclude, that the survival of S. alba and S. viminalis and the restoration of willow stands in estuarine flood plains - with regard to wave attenuation and sedimentation - might be possible, despite increasing salinity in times of climate change.

  2. Integrated RNA Sequencing and QTL Mapping to Identify Candidate Genes from Oryza rufipogon Associated with Salt Tolerance at the Seedling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a common abiotic stress affecting crop productivity. To identify favorable alleles from wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff. that enhance salinity tolerance of rice (O. sativa L., a set of introgression lines (ILs were developed. The ILs were derived from an O. rufipogon accession collected from Chaling (Hunan Province, China as the donor, and a widely grown O. sativa indica cultivar 93-11 as the recipient. Through evaluating the salt tolerance of 285 ILs at the seedling stage, a total of 10 quantitative trait loci (QTLs related to salt tolerance were identified on chromosomes 1, 5, 7 and 9–12, with individual QTLs explaining 2–8% of phenotypic variance. The O. rufipogon-derived alleles at four QTLs improved salt tolerance in the 93-11 background. At the same time, a salt-tolerant IL, 9L136, was identified and characterized. Compared with the recipient parent 93-11, a total of 1,391 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected specifically in 9L136 between salt stress and normal condition through genome-wide expression analysis. Of these, four DEGs located in the QTL regions carried by 9L136, suggesting that the four genes might be candidates associated with salt tolerance. Both the highly salt-tolerant ILs and the favorable O. rufipogon-derived QTLs identified in the present study will provide new genetic resources for improving the resistance of cultivated rice against salinity stress using molecular breeding strategies in the future.

  3. Integrated RNA Sequencing and QTL Mapping to Identify Candidate Genes from Oryza rufipogon Associated with Salt Tolerance at the Seedling Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Cao, Meng; Ma, Xin; Chen, Weikang; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Chuanqing; Tan, Lubin; Liu, Fengxia

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinity is a common abiotic stress affecting crop productivity. To identify favorable alleles from wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) that enhance salinity tolerance of rice (O. sativa L.), a set of introgression lines (ILs) were developed. The ILs were derived from an O. rufipogon accession collected from Chaling (Hunan Province, China) as the donor, and a widely grown O. sativa indica cultivar 93-11 as the recipient. Through evaluating the salt tolerance of 285 ILs at the seedling stage, a total of 10 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to salt tolerance were identified on chromosomes 1, 5, 7 and 9–12, with individual QTLs explaining 2–8% of phenotypic variance. The O. rufipogon-derived alleles at four QTLs improved salt tolerance in the 93-11 background. At the same time, a salt-tolerant IL, 9L136, was identified and characterized. Compared with the recipient parent 93-11, a total of 1,391 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected specifically in 9L136 between salt stress and normal condition through genome-wide expression analysis. Of these, four DEGs located in the QTL regions carried by 9L136, suggesting that the four genes might be candidates associated with salt tolerance. Both the highly salt-tolerant ILs and the favorable O. rufipogon-derived QTLs identified in the present study will provide new genetic resources for improving the resistance of cultivated rice against salinity stress using molecular breeding strategies in the future. PMID:28861103

  4. Genotypes Associated with Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Displaying Impaired or Enhanced Tolerances to Cold, Salt, Acid, or Desiccation Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hingston, Patricia A.; Chen, Jessica; Dhillon, Bhavjinder K

    2017-01-01

    -related stress tolerance phenotypes. To accomplish this, 166 L. monocytogenes isolates were sequenced and evaluated for their ability to grow in cold (4°C), salt (6% NaCl, 25°C), and acid (pH 5, 25°C) stress conditions as well as survive desiccation (33% RH, 20°C). The results revealed that the stress tolerance...... tolerate several other food-related stresses with some strains possessing higher levels of tolerances than others. The objective of this study was to use a combination of phenotypic analyses and whole genome sequencing to elucidate potential relationships between L. monocytogenes genotypes and food...... of L. monocytogenes is associated with serotype, clonal complex (CC), full length inlA profiles, and the presence of a plasmid which was identified in 55% of isolates. Isolates with full length inlA exhibited significantly (p tolerance relative to those harboring a premature stop...

  5. Salt tolerance at single cell level in giant-celled Characeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane eBeilby

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Characean plants provide an excellent experimental system for electrophysiology and physiology due to: (i very large cell size, (ii position on phylogenetic tree near the origin of land plants and (iii continuous spectrum from very salt sensitive to very salt tolerant species. A range of experimental techniques is described, some unique to characean plants. Application of these methods provided electrical characteristics of membrane transporters, which dominate the membrane conductance under different outside conditions. With this considerable background knowledge the electrophysiology of salt sensitive and salt tolerant genera can be compared under salt and/or osmotic stress. Both salt tolerant and salt sensitive Characeae show a rise in membrane conductance and simultaneous increase in Na+ influx upon exposure to saline medium. Salt tolerant Chara longifolia and Lamprothamnium sp. exhibit proton pump stimulation upon both turgor decrease and salinity increase, allowing the membrane PD to remain negative. The turgor is regulated through the inward K+ rectifier and 2H+/Cl- symporter. Lamprothamnium plants can survive in hypersaline media up to twice seawater strength and withstand large sudden changes in salinity. Salt-sensitive Chara australis succumbs to 50 - 100 mM NaCl in few days. Cells exhibit no pump stimulation upon turgor decrease and at best transient pump stimulation upon salinity increase. Turgor is not regulated. The membrane PD exhibits characteristic noise upon exposure to salinity. Depolarization of membrane PD to excitation threshold sets off trains of action potentials, leading to further loses of K+ and Cl-. In final stages of salt damage the H+/OH- channels are thought to become the dominant transporter, dissipating the proton gradient and bringing the cell PD close to 0. The differences in transporter electrophysiology and their synergy under osmotic and/or saline stress in salt sensitive and salt tolerant characean cells

  6. Marker-assisted backcrossing for identification of salt tolerant rice lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moniruzzaman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available SSR or microsatellite markers are proved to be ideal for making genetic maps, assisting selection and studying genetic diversity in germplasm. SSR markers are playing important role to identify gene for salt tolerance that can be helpful for plant breeders to develop new cultivars. The experiment was conducted during the period from July 2009 to November 2010 in the experimental field and Biotechnology Laboratory of Plant Breeding Division, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA, Mymensingh to identify salt tolerant rice line of BC1F1 progenies of Binadhan-5 x FL-478 using SSR markers. Salt tolerant genotype, FL-478 was crossed with high yielding variety, Binadhan-5. Randomly selected 40 BC1F1 progenies along with their two parents (Binadhan-5, FL-478 and F1 were genotyped with microsatellite or SSR markers for identification of salt tolerant rice lines. Parental polymorphism survey was assayed by 10 SSR markers and three polymorphic SSR markers viz., RM 336, RM 510, and RM 585 were selected to evaluate BC1F1 rice lines for salt tolerance. In respect of Primer RM 336, 11 lines were found as salt tolerant and 25 lines were heterozygous and 3 lines were susceptible. Primer RM 510 identified two tolerant, 14 heterozygous and 22 susceptible lines. And primer RM 585 identified 4 lines as tolerant and 35 lines as susceptible. Thus, these markers could be efficiently used in tagging salt tolerant genes, in marker-assisted selection and quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping. The selected BC1F1 could be used for developing BC2F1 and BC2F2 and mapping genes for salinity tolerance.

  7. Isolation of genes conferring salt tolerance from Piriformospora indica by random overexpression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlot, Sunayna; Joshi, Amita; Singh, Pratap; Tuteja, Renu; Dua, Meenakshi; Jogawat, Abhimanyu; Kumar, Manoj; Raj, Sumit; Dayaman, Vikram; Johri, Atul Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-08-01

    Piriformospora indica, a root endophytic fungus identified in the Indian Thar desert, colonizes the roots of plants and provides resistance towards biotic stress as well as tolerance to abiotic stress in the plants. Despite its positive impact on the host, little is known about the P. indica genes that are involved in salt stress tolerance. Therefore this study was conducted to identify and isolate high salinity-tolerance genes from P. indica. Thirty-six salinity-tolerance genes were obtained by functional screening, based on random over expression of a P. indica cDNA library in Escherichia coli grown on medium supplemented with 0.6 M NaCl. The salinity tolerance conferred by these 36 genes in bacteria was further confirmed by using another strain of E. coli (DH5α) transformants. However when the expression of these 36 genes was analysed in P. indica using quantitative RT-PCR, we found only six genes were up-regulated by salt stress. These six genes are involved in different cellular processes, such as metabolism, energy and biosynthetic processes, DNA repair, regulation of protein turnover, transport and salt stress tolerance. This work presents the basis for further molecular analyses of the mechanisms of salt tolerance in P. indica and for the use of this endophyte to confer salt tolerance to plants.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of salt tolerant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under saline conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hiz, Mahmut Can; Canher, Balkan; Niron, Harun; Turet, Muge

    2014-01-01

    .... Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major protein source in developing countries, is highly affected by soil salinity and the information on genes that play a role in salt tolerance is scarce...

  9. Comparative study of wild and transformed salt tolerant bacterial strains on Triticum aestivum growth under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Afrasayab

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleven salt tolerant bacteria isolated from different sources (soil, plants and their transformed strains were used to study their influence on Triticum aestivum var. Inqlab-91 growth under salt (100 mM NaCl stress. Salt stress caused reduction in germination (19.4%, seedling growth (46% and fresh weight (39% in non-inoculated plants. In general, both wild and transformed strains stimulated germination, seedling growth and fresh weight in salt free and salt stressed conditions. At 100 mM NaCl, Staphylococcus xylosus ST-1 caused 25% increments in seedling length over respective control. Soluble protein content significantly enhanced (49% under salt stress as compared to salt free control. At 100 mM NaCl parental strain PT-5 resulted about 32% enhancement in protein content over respective control treatment. Salt stress induced the promotion of auxin content in seedlings. Overall, Bacillus subtilis HAa2 and transformed E. coli-SP-7-T, caused 33% and 30% increases in auxin content, respectively, were recorded under salt stress in comparison to control.

  10. Overexpression AtNHX1 confers salt-tolerance of transgenic tall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saline soil is a serious problem worldwide, and it is necessary to improve the salt tolerance of plants so as to avoid the progressive deterioration of saline soil. Here we report that over-expression of AtNHX1 improves salt tolerance in transgenic tall fescue. The AtNHX1 gene driven with CaMV35S promoter was constructed ...

  11. Salt Stess On Soybean Glycine Max L Merr Improving Salt Stress Tolerance Through Seed Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maman Suryaman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean seeds rapidly deteriorate or loss of viability and vigor especially in stress conditions including by saline. This study was aimed to obtain the best seed viability and vigor of soybean treated by seed priming under salt stress. This study used a randomized completely block design with factorial pattern. First factor was the saline stress of NaCl concentration C which consisted of three levels c0 0 0.5 c1 c2 1.Second factor was the treatment of seed priming P that consisted of 4 levels p0 hydropriming p1 osmopriming p2 matripriming p3 vitamin priming. The experiment was repeated three times. Data collected consisted of germination capacity germination rate hypocotyl and epicotyl length the weight of seedling and the electrical conductivity. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by Duncans multiple range test at 5 percent. The results showed that osmopriming matripriming and vitamin priming improved total germination and germination rate of soybean seeds under salinity stress while seed priming with hydropriming caused significantly the reduction of germination total and germination rate in salinity stress of 1 percent. Increased salinity stress from 0 to 1 percent caused a reduction in hypocotyl and epicotyl length different with osmopriming matripriming and vitamin priming that produced hypocotyl and epicotyl longer than hydropriming. In all seed primings increased salinity stress from 0 to 1 percent lowered the weight of seedlings and most drastic reduction of seedling weight occurred in seeds treated with hydropriming. Among seed priming treatments osmopriming matripriming and vitamin priming were more able to reduce membrane leakage compared to hydropriming as indicated by lower electrical conductivity rates contributing the increase in tolerance to salt stress and high in seed viability and vigor.

  12. A novel α/β-hydrolase gene IbMas enhances salt tolerance in transgenic sweetpotato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degao Liu

    Full Text Available Salt stress is one of the major environmental stresses in agriculture worldwide and affects crop productivity and quality. The development of crops with elevated levels of salt tolerance is therefore highly desirable. In the present study, a novel maspardin gene, named IbMas, was isolated from salt-tolerant sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. line ND98. IbMas contains maspardin domain and belongs to α/β-hydrolase superfamily. Expression of IbMas was up-regulated in sweetpotato under salt stress and ABA treatment. The IbMas-overexpressing sweetpotato (cv. Shangshu 19 plants exhibited significantly higher salt tolerance compared with the wild-type. Proline content was significantly increased, whereas malonaldehyde content was significantly decreased in the transgenic plants. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and photosynthesis were significantly enhanced in the transgenic plants. H2O2 was also found to be significantly less accumulated in the transgenic plants than in the wild-type. Overexpression of IbMas up-regulated the salt stress responsive genes, including pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase, pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, SOD, psbA and phosphoribulokinase genes, under salt stress. These findings suggest that overexpression of IbMas enhances salt tolerance of the transgenic sweetpotato plants by regulating osmotic balance, protecting membrane integrity and photosynthesis and increasing reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity.

  13. Salt tolerance of halophytes, research questions reviewed in the perspective of saline agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozema, J.; Schat, H.

    2013-01-01

    Halophytes of the lower coastal salt marsh show increased salt tolerance, and under high salinity they grow faster than upper marsh species. We could not show reduced growth rate of halophytes compared with glycophytes when grown under non-saline conditions. This indicates limited energy costs

  14. Influence of intracellular Na + , K + and Cl - on the salt tolerance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the process of selection for salt tolerance, it is important to understand the physiological basis of ion management executed by the cells through the exclusion, accumulation or maintenance of ratios of specific ions. Intracellular accumulation of Na+, K+ and Cl- ions in the cells in vitro was studied as a factor in salt ...

  15. The salt tolerance of Quinoa measured under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Jensen, Christian Richardt

    Plant growth and economic yield decreases when high salt concentrations build-up in the root zone. Quinoa is a facultative halophyte crop, which can withstand saline conditions. There is no documentation of the threshold soil electrical conductivity that cause yield reduction in quinoa under field...... conditions. In this study the threshold electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract (ECe) and maximum ECe corresponding to no economic yield of quinoa (cv. Titicaca) were determined. The experimental factors were five levels of saline solution (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m-1) imposed during flowering...... and the minimum relative yield was 47% observed at 40 dS m-1 saline solution (FI40). The results showed that quinoa can grow under highly saline conditions although the seed yield decreases with increased ECe. The threshold ECe of quinoa was estimated to be between 3-6 dS m-1. There was 50% reduction in seed...

  16. Identification and Selection for Salt Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Ecotypes via Physiological Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan MONIRIFAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is a serious environmental problem throughout the world which may be partially relieved by breeding cultivars that can tolerate salt stress. Plant breeding may provide a relatively cost effective short-term solution to the salinity problem by producing cultivars able to remain productive at low to moderate levels of salinity. Five alfalfa cultivars, �Seyah-Roud�, �Ahar-Hourand�, �Oskou�, �Malekan� and �Sefida-Khan� were assessed for salt tolerance at mature plant stage. A greenhouse screening system was used to evaluate individual alfalfa plants grown in perlit medium, and irrigated with water containing different amounts of NaCl. Three salt levels were achieved by adding 0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl to Hoagland nutrient solution, respectively. Forage yield, sodium and potassium contents and K/Na ratio was determined. Also, leaf samples were analyzed for proline and chlorophyll contents. The ecotypes Seyha-Roud and �Sefida-Khan� had comparatively less sodium contents than �Oskou�, �Ahar-Hourand� and �Malekan� ecotypes, also potassium content increased under saline condition. Forage yield of different alfalfa ecotypes was significantly influenced by the salinity. The ecotypes �Malekan�, Ahar- Hourand and �Oskou� were successful in maintaining forage yield under salinity stress. Sodium contents increased due to salinity in all alfalfa ecotypes however ecotypes �Ahar-Hourand� and �Malekan� maintained the highest leaf Na concentration. They showed higher content of K than other ecotypes but had lower K/Na ratio. It was concluded that, two ecotypes �Malekan� and �Ahar-Hourand� were better.

  17. Exploration of wild relatives of tomato for enhanced stress tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Junming Li

    2010-01-01

    Among the different abiotic and biotic stresses, Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora infestans and high salt concentrations are world-wide the most destructive. Several wild relatives of tomato were identified as source for tolerance to these stresses. Three introgression line (IL) populations derived from S. habrochaites LA1777, S. pennellii LA716 and S. lycopersicoides LA2951 were employed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL). For B. cinerea resistance twenty four QTLs were identified in S....

  18. A banana aquaporin gene, MaPIP1;1, is involved in tolerance to drought and salt stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Hu, Wei; Liu, Juhua; Zhang, Jianbin; Jia, Caihong; Miao, Hongxia; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2014-03-08

    Aquaporin (AQP) proteins function in transporting water and other small molecules through the biological membranes, which is crucial for plants to survive in drought or salt stress conditions. However, the precise role of AQPs in drought and salt stresses is not completely understood in plants. In this study, we have identified a PIP1 subfamily AQP (MaPIP1;1) gene from banana and characterized it by overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Transient expression of MaPIP1;1-GFP fusion protein indicated its localization at plasma membrane. The expression of MaPIP1;1 was induced by NaCl and water deficient treatment. Overexpression of MaPIP1;1 in Arabidopsis resulted in an increased primary root elongation, root hair numbers and survival rates compared to WT under salt or drought conditions. Physiological indices demonstrated that the increased salt tolerance conferred by MaPIP1;1 is related to reduced membrane injury and high cytosolic K+/Na+ ratio. Additionally, the improved drought tolerance conferred by MaPIP1;1 is associated with decreased membrane injury and improved osmotic adjustment. Finally, reduced expression of ABA-responsive genes in MaPIP1;1-overexpressing plants reflects their improved physiological status. Our results demonstrated that heterologous expression of banana MaPIP1;1 in Arabidopsis confers salt and drought stress tolerances by reducing membrane injury, improving ion distribution and maintaining osmotic balance.

  19. Influence of salicylic acid on in vitro propagation and salt tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of salicylic acid on in vitro propagation and salt tolerance in Hibiscus acetosella and Hibiscus moscheutos (cv 'Luna Red'). HF Sakhanokho, RY Kelley. Abstract. Salicylic acid (SA) has been reported to improve in vitro regeneration as well as induce abiotic stress tolerance in plants. The effects of varying SA ...

  20. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Desert Herbaceous Achnatherum splendens (Achnatherum Seedlings and Identification of Salt Tolerance Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangtao Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Achnatherum splendens is an important forage herb in Northwestern China. It has a high tolerance to salinity and is, thus, considered one of the most important constructive plants in saline and alkaline areas of land in Northwest China. However, the mechanisms of salt stress tolerance in A. splendens remain unknown. Next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies can be used for global gene expression profiling. In this study, we examined sequence and transcript abundance data for the root/leaf transcriptome of A. splendens obtained using an Illumina HiSeq 2500. Over 35 million clean reads were obtained from the leaf and root libraries. All of the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq reads were assembled de novo into a total of 126,235 unigenes and 36,511 coding DNA sequences (CDS. We further identified 1663 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs between the salt stress treatment and control. Functional annotation of the DEGs by gene ontology (GO, using Arabidopsis and rice as references, revealed enrichment of salt stress-related GO categories, including “oxidation reduction”, “transcription factor activity”, and “ion channel transporter”. Thus, this global transcriptome analysis of A. splendens has provided an important genetic resource for the study of salt tolerance in this halophyte. The identified sequences and their putative functional data will facilitate future investigations of the tolerance of Achnatherum species to various types of abiotic stress.

  1. Evaluation of salt tolerance in almond [Prunus dulcis (L.) Batsch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-07-12

    Jul 12, 2012 ... stone fruit trees and almond are sensitive to salt stresses and their productivity gradually reduces at salt concen- ... order to improve stone fruit and almond rootstocks through hybridization between peach × almond, apricot × ..... J. Forest Poplar Res. 11(1): p. 202. Ranjbar A, Lemeur R, Damme P (2005).

  2. Assessment of rice genotypes for salt tolerance using microsatellite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenotypic response of the genotypes to salt stress with EC=12 was assessed under controlled environmental conditions at seedling stage using a visual score of 1 to 9 scale. Thirty three polymorphic SSR markers located on chromosome 1 were also used to determine the impact of these markers associated with salt ...

  3. Salt tolerance of a wild ecotype of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Gou; Liu, Jin-Xiang; Yao, Mei-Ling; Ma, Qi-Fu

    2016-12-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) is widely used in more than 120 countries for land management (e.g. rehabilitation of saline lands). A wild ecotype of vetiver grass was found in southern China in the 1950s, but little is known about its adaptability to saline stress. For the purpose of understanding its tolerance to salinity as well as corresponding tolerance mechanisms, in a greenhouse with natural lighting, seedlings were grown in culture solutions and subjected to a range of NaCl concentrations for 18 days. Compared to no NaCl treatment, 200 mM NaCl significantly reduced leaf water potential, leaf water content, leaf elongation rate, leaf photosynthetic rate and plant relative growth rate and increased leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content, but the parameters showed only slight reduction at 150 mM NaCl. In addition, salinity caused an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves. Moreover, increasing NaCl levels significantly increased Na+ but decreased K+ concentrations in both roots and leaves. The leaves had higher K+ concentrations at all NaCl levels, but lower Na+ concentrations compared to the roots, thereby maintaining higher K+/Na+ ratio in leaves. Our results showed that the salinity threshold of this wild vetiver grass is about 100 mM NaCl, i.e. highly tolerant to salt stress. This wild vetiver grass has a high ability to exclude Na+ and retain K+ in its leaves, which is a critical strategy for salt tolerance.

  4. Hydrogen sulfide regulates salt tolerance in rice by maintaining Na+/K+ balance, mineral homeostasis and oxidative metabolism under excessive salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Golam Mostofa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Being a salt sensitive crop, rice growth and development are frequently affected by soil salinity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has been recently explored as an important priming agent regulating diverse physiological processes of plant growth and development. Despite its enormous prospects in plant systems, the role of H2S in plant stress tolerance is still elusive. Here, a combined pharmacological, physiological and biochemical approach was executed aiming to examine the possible mechanism of H2S in enhancement of salt stress tolerance in rice. We show that pretreating rice plants with H2S donor sodium bisulfide (NaHS clearly improved, but application of H2S scavenger hypotaurine with NaHS decreased growth and biomass-related parameters under salt stress. NaHS-pretreated salt-stressed plants exhibited increased chlorophyll, carotenoid and soluble protein contents, as well as suppressed accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, contributing to oxidative damage protection. The protective mechanism of H2S against oxidative stress was correlated with the elevated levels of ascorbic acid, glutathione, redox states, and the enhanced activities of ROS- and methylglyoxal-detoxifying enzymes. Notably, decreased uptake of Na+, decreased Na+/K+ ratio and balanced mineral contents indicated a role of H2S in ion homeostasis under salt stress. Altogether, our results highlight that modulation of the level of endogenous H2S genetically or exogenously could be employed to attain better growth and development of rice, and perhaps other crops, under salt stress. Furthermore, our study reveals the importance of the implication of gasotransmitter like H2S for the management of salt stress, thus assisting rice plants to adapt to adverse environmental changes.

  5. Regulation of some salt defense-related genes in relation to physiological and biochemical changes in three sugarcane genotypes subjected to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonsawat, Wasinee; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Suwan, Therapatt; Mongkolsiriwatana, Chareerat; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Cha-um, Suriyan; Kirdmanee, Chalermpol

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinale L.; Poaceae) is a sugar-producing plant widely grown in tropic. Being a glycophytic species, it is very sensitive to salt stress, and salinity severely reduces growth rate and cane yield. The studies investigating the regulation of salt defense metabolite-related genes in relation to final biochemical products in both susceptible and tolerant genotypes of sugarcane are largely lacking. We therefore investigated the expression levels of sugarcane shaggy-like kinase (SuSK), sucrose transporter (SUT), proline biosynthesis (pyrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase; P5CS), ion homeostasis (NHX1), and catalase (CAT2) mRNAs, and contents of Na(+), soluble sugar, and free proline in three sugarcane genotypes (A19 mutant, K88-92, and K92-80) when subjected to salt stress (200 mM NaCl). The relative expression levels of salt defense-related genes in salt-stressed plantlets of sugarcane cv. K88-92 were upregulated in relation to salt exposure times when compared with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as housekeeping gene. In addition, final biochemical products, i.e., low Na(+), sucrose enrichment, and free proline accumulation, were evidently demonstrated in salt-stressed plantlets. Chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, total carotenoid concentrations, and maximum quantum yield of PSII (F v/F m) in positive check (K88-92) were maintained under salt stress, leading to high net photosynthetic rate (P n) and growth retention (root length, fresh weight, and leaf area). In contrast, photosynthetic abilities in negative check, K92-80, and A19 mutant lines grown under salt stress declined significantly in comparison to control, leading to a reduction in P n and an inhibition of overall growth characters. The study concludes that the genetic background of sugarcane cv. K88-92 may further be exploited to play a key role as parental clone for sugarcane breeding program for salt-tolerant purposes.

  6. FTIR Spectroscopy of Protein Isolates of Salt-Tolerant Soybean Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, S.; Akyuz, T.; Celik, O.; Atak, C.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of salinity on the conformation of proteins of four salt-tolerant M2 generation mutants of soybean plants (S04-05/150-2, S04-05/150-8, S04-05/150-106, and S04-05/150-114) was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Salinity is one of the important abiotic stress factors that limits growth and productivity of plants. The mutants belonging to the M2 generation were determined as tolerant to 90 mM NaCl. The relative contents of α-helix, β-sheet, turn, and irregular conformations for the soybean protein isolates were determined depending on the analysis of the amide I region. The comparison of the secondary structures of soybean proteins of the mutants with those of the control group indicated that the α-helix structure percentage was diminished while β-turn and disordered structures were increased as a result of the salt stress.

  7. The Antirrhinum AmDEL gene enhances flavonoids accumulation and salt and drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feibing; Zhu, Hong; Kong, Weili; Peng, Rihe; Liu, Qingchang; Yao, Quanhong

    2016-07-01

    A basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor gene from Antirrhinum, AmDEL , increases flavonoids accumulation and enhances salt and drought tolerance via up-regulating flavonoid biosynthesis, proline biosynthesis and ROS scavenging genes in transgenic Arabidopsis. In plants, transcriptional regulation is the most important tools for increasing flavonoid biosynthesis. The AmDEL gene, as a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene from Antirrhinum, has been shown to increase flavonoids accumulation in tomato. However, its role in tolerance to abiotic stresses has not yet been investigated. In this study, the codon-optimized AmDEL gene was chemically synthesized. Subcellular localization analysis in onion epidermal cells indicated that AmDEL protein was localized to the nucleus. Expression analysis in yeast showed that the full length of AmDEL exhibited transcriptional activation. Overexpression of AmDEL significantly increased flavonoids accumulation and enhanced salt and drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that overexpression of AmDEL resulted in the up-regulation of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, proline biosynthesis and ROS scavenging under salt and drought stresses. Meanwhile, Western blot and enzymatic analyses showed that the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chalcone isomerase, dihydroflavonol reductase, pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were also increased. Further components analyses indicated that the significant increase of proline and relative water content and the significant reduction of H2O2 and malonaldehyde content were observed under salt and drought stresses. In addition, the rates of electrolyte leakage and water loss were reduced in transgenic plants. These findings imply functions of AmDEL in accumulation of flavonoids and tolerance to salt and drought stresses. The AmDEL gene has the potential to be used to increase

  8. Antarctic Moss Multiprotein Bridging Factor 1c Overexpression in Arabidopsis Resulted in Enhanced Tolerance to Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemasundar Alavilli

    2017-07-01

    -regulated ribosome- and translation-related genes were not down-regulated in PaMBF1c overexpressing lines under salt stress. These differentially regulated genes by PaMBF1c overexpression could contribute to the enhanced tolerance in PaMBF1c overexpressing lines under salt stress.

  9. Using euhalophytes to understand salt tolerance and to develop saline agriculture: Suaeda salsa as a promising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jie; Wang, Baoshan

    2015-01-01

    Background As important components in saline agriculture, halophytes can help to provide food for a growing world population. In addition to being potential crops in their own right, halophytes are also potential sources of salt-resistance genes that might help plant breeders and molecular biologists increase the salt tolerance of conventional crop plants. One especially promising halophyte is Suaeda salsa, a euhalophytic herb that occurs both on inland saline soils and in the intertidal zone. The species produces dimorphic seeds: black seeds are sensitive to salinity and remain dormant in light under high salt concentrations, while brown seeds can germinate under high salinity (e.g. 600 mm NaCl) regardless of light. Consequently, the species is useful for studying the mechanisms by which dimorphic seeds are adapted to saline environments. S. salsa has succulent leaves and is highly salt tolerant (e.g. its optimal NaCl concentration for growth is 200 mm). A series of S. salsa genes related to salt tolerance have been cloned and their functions tested: these include SsNHX1, SsHKT1, SsAPX, SsCAT1, SsP5CS and SsBADH. The species is economically important because its fresh branches have high value as a vegetable, and its seed oil is edible and rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Because it can remove salts and heavy metals from saline soils, S. salsa can also be used in the restoration of salinized or contaminated saline land. Scope Because of its economic and ecological value in saline agriculture, S. salsa is one of the most important halophytes in China. In this review, the value of S. salsa as a source of food, medicine and forage is discussed. Its uses in the restoration of salinized or contaminated land and as a source of salt-resistance genes are also considered. PMID:25288631

  10. Comparative study of SOS2 and a novel PMP3-1 gene expression in two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) lines differing in salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadia, Mubshara; Jamil, Amer; Ashraf, Muhammad; Akram, Nudrat Aisha

    2013-06-01

    Gene expression pattern of two important regulatory proteins, salt overly sensitive 2 (SOS2) and plasma membrane protein 3-1 (PMP3-1), involved in ion homeostasis, was analyzed in two salinity-contrasting sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) lines, Hysun-38 (salt tolerant) and S-278 (moderately salt tolerant). The pattern was studied at selected time intervals (24 h) under 150 mM NaCl treatment. Using reverse transcription PCR, SOS2 gene fragment was obtained from young leaf and root tissues of opposing lines while that for PMP3-1 was obtained only from young root tissues. Both tolerant and moderately tolerant lines showed a gradual increase in SOS2 expression in sunflower root tissues. Leaf tissues showed the gradually increasing pattern of SOS2 expression in tolerant plants as compared to that for moderately tolerant ones that showed a relatively lower level of expression for this gene. We found the highest level of PMP 3-1 expression in the roots of tolerant sunflower line at 6 and 12 h postsalinity treatment. The moderately tolerant line showed higher expression of PMP3-1 at 12 and 24 h after salt treatment. Overall, the expression of genes for both the regulator proteins varied significantly in the two sunflower lines differing in salinity tolerance.

  11. Interactive role of nitric oxide and calcium chloride in enhancing tolerance to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Nasir; Siddiqui, Manzer H; Mohammad, Firoz; Naeem, M

    2012-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a small diffusible, ubiquitous bioactive molecule, acts as prooxidant as well as antioxidant, and also regulates remarkable spectrum of plant cellular mechanisms. The present work was undertaken to investigate the role of nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and/or calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) in the tolerance of excised mustard leaves to salt stress. After 24h, salt stressed leaves treated with SNP and/or CaCl(2), showed an improvement in the activities of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and nitrate reductase (NR), and leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and leaf ion concentration as compared with the leaves treated with NaCl only. Salinity stress caused a significant increase in H(2)O(2) content and membrane damage which is witnessed by enhanced levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and electrolyte leakage. By contrast, such increases were blocked by the application of 0.2mM SNP and 10mM CaCl(2) to salt stressed leaves. Application of SNP and/or CaCl(2) alleviated NaCl stress by enhancing the activities of antioxidative enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) and by enhancing proline (Pro) and glycinebetaine (GB) accumulation with a concomitant decrease in H(2)O(2) content, TBARS and electrolyte leakage, which is manifested in the tolerance of plants to salinity stress. Moreover, application of SNP with CaCl(2) was more effective to reduce the detrimental effects of NaCl stress on excised mustard leaves. In addition to this, ameliorating effect of SNP was not effective in presence of NO scavenger cPTIO [2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide]. To put all these in a nut shell, the results advocate that SNP in association with CaCl(2) plays a role in enhancing the tolerance of plants to salt stress by improving antioxidative defence system, osmolyte accumulation and ionic

  12. Study on salt tolerance with YHem1 transgenic canola (Brassica napus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin-E; Feng, Xin-Xin; Li, Cui; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Liang-Ju

    2015-06-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has been suggested for improving plant salt tolerance via exogenous application. In this study, we used a transgenic canola (Brassica napus), which contained a constituted gene YHem1 and biosynthesized more 5-ALA, to study salt stress responses. In a long-term pot experiment, the transgenic plants produced higher yield under 200 mmol L(-1) NaCl treatment than the wild type (WT). In a short-term experiment, the YHem1 transformation accelerated endogenous 5-ALA metabolism, leading to more chlorophyll accumulation, higher diurnal photosynthetic rates and upregulated expression of the gene encoding Rubisco small subunit. Furthermore, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, were significantly higher in the transgenic plants than the WT, while the levels of O2 ·(-) and malondialdehyde were lower than the latter. Additionally, the Na(+) content was higher in the transgenic leaves than that in the WT under salinity, but K(+) and Cl(-) were significantly lower. The levels of N, P, Cu, and S in the transgenic plants were also significantly lower than those in the WT, but the Fe content was significantly improved. As the leaf Fe content was decreased by salinity, it was suggested that the stronger salt tolerance of the transgenic plants was related to the higher Fe acquisition. Lastly, YHem1 transformation improved the leaf proline content, but salinity decreased rather than increased it. The content of free amino acids and soluble sugars was similarly decreased as salinity increased, but it was higher in the transgenic plants than that in the WT. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. Tobacco OPBP1 Enhances Salt Tolerance and Disease Resistance of Transgenic Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xujun Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Osmotin promoter binding protein 1 (OPBP1, an AP2/ERF transcription factor of tobacco, has been demonstrated to function in disease resistance and salt tolerance in tobacco. To increase stress tolerant capability of rice, we generated rice plants with an OPBP1 overexpressing construct. Salinity shock treatment with 250 mM NaCl indicated that most of the OPBP1 transgenic plants can survive, whereas the control seedlings cannot. Similar recovery was found by using the seedlings grown in 200 mM NaCl for two weeks. The OPBP1 transgenic and control plants were also studied for oxidative stress tolerance by treatment with paraquat, showing the transgenic lines were damaged less in comparison with the control plants. Further, the OPBP1 overexpression lines exhibited enhanced resistance to infections of Magnaporthe oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani pathogens. Gene expressing analysis showed increase in mRNA accumulation of several stress related genes. These results suggest that expression of OPBP1 gene increase the detoxification capability of rice.

  14. Salt tolerance traits increase the invasive success of Acacia longifolia in Portuguese coastal dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Maria Cristina; Panuccio, Maria Rosaria; Muscolo, Adele; Freitas, Helena

    2012-06-01

    Salt tolerance of two co-occurring legumes in coastal areas of Portugal, a native species--Ulex europaeus, and an invasive species--Acacia longifolia, was evaluated in relation to plant growth, ion content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Plants were submitted to four concentrations of NaCl (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM) for three months, under controlled conditions. The results showed that NaCl affects the growth of both species in different ways. Salt stress significantly reduced the plant height and the dry weight in Acacia longifolia whereas in U. europaeus the effect was not significant. Under salt stress, the root:shoot ratio (W(R):W(S)) and root mass ratio (W(R):W(RS)) increased as a result of increasing salinity in A. longifolia but the same was not observed in U. europaeus. In addition, salt stress caused a significant accumulation of Na+, especially in U. europaeus, and a decrease in K+ content and K+/Na+ ratio. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were higher in A. longifolia compared to U. europaeus. In A. longifolia, catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2.) activities increased significantly, while ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and peroxidase (POX, EC 1.11.1.7) activities remained unchanged in comparison with the control. In U. europaeus, NaCl concentration significantly reduced APX activity but did not significantly affect CAT, GR and POX activities. Our results suggest that the invasive species copes better with salinity stress in part due to a higher rates of CAT and GR activities and a higher K+/Na+ ratio, which may represent an additional advantage when competing with native species in co-occurring salty habitats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Uncoupling the Effects of Abscisic Acid on Plant Growth and Water Relations. Analysis of sto1/nced3, an Abscisic Acid-Deficient but Salt Stress-Tolerant Mutant in Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Bruno; Koiwa, Hisashi; Manabe, Yuzuki; Quist, Tanya M.; Inan, Gunsu; Saccardo, Franco; Joly, Robert J.; Hasegawa, Paul M.; Bressan, Ray A.; Maggio, Albino

    2004-01-01

    We have identified a T-DNA insertion mutation of Arabidopsis (ecotype C24), named sto1 (salt tolerant), that results in enhanced germination on both ionic (NaCl) and nonionic (sorbitol) hyperosmotic media. sto1 plants were more tolerant in vitro than wild type to Na+ and K+ both for germination and subsequent growth but were hypersensitive to Li+. Postgermination growth of the sto1 plants on sorbitol was not improved. Analysis of the amino acid sequence revealed that STO1 encodes a 9-cis-epoxicarotenoid dioxygenase (similar to 9-cis-epoxicarotenoid dioxygenase GB:AAF26356 [Phaseolus vulgaris] and to NCED3 GB:AB020817 [Arabidopsis]), a key enzyme in the abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthetic pathway. STO1 transcript abundance was substantially reduced in mutant plants. Mutant sto1 plants were unable to accumulate ABA following a hyperosmotic stress, although their basal ABA level was only moderately altered. Either complementation of the sto1 with the native gene from the wild-type genome or supplementation of ABA to the growth medium restored the wild-type phenotype. Improved growth of sto1 mutant plants on NaCl, but not sorbitol, medium was associated with a reduction in both NaCl-induced expression of the ICK1 gene and ethylene accumulation. Osmotic adjustment of sto1 plants was substantially reduced compared to wild-type plants under conditions where sto1 plants grew faster. The sto1 mutation has revealed that reduced ABA can lead to more rapid growth during hyperionic stress by a signal pathway that apparently is at least partially independent of signals that mediate nonionic osmotic responses. PMID:15466233

  16. Aerobic digestion of tannery wastewater in a sequential batch reactor by salt-tolerant bacterial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durai, G.; Rajasimman, M.; Rajamohan, N.

    2011-09-01

    Among the industries generating hyper saline effluents, tanneries are prominent in India. Hyper saline wastewater is difficult to treat by conventional biological treatment methods. Salt-tolerant microbes can adapt to these conditions and degrade the organics in hyper saline wastewater. In this study, the performance of a bench scale aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated to treat the tannery wastewater by the salt-tolerant bacterial strains namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus flexus, Exiguobacterium homiense and Styphylococcus aureus. The study was carried out under different operating conditions by changing the hydraulic retention time, organic loading rate and initial substrate concentration. From the results it was found that a maximum COD reduction of 90.4% and colour removal of 78.6% was attained. From this study it was found that the salt-tolerant microorganisms could improve the reduction efficiency of COD and colour of the tannery wastewater.

  17. Oxygation enhances growth, gas exchange and salt tolerance of vegetable soybean and cotton in a saline vertisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Surya P; Midmore, David J

    2009-07-01

    Impacts of salinity become severe when the soil is deficient in oxygen. Oxygation (using aerated water for subsurface drip irrigation of crop) could minimize the impact of salinity on plants under oxygen-limiting soil environments. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of oxygation (12% air volume/volume of water) on vegetable soybean (moderately salt tolerant) and cotton (salt tolerant) in a salinized vertisol at 2, 8, 14, 20 dS/m EC(e). In vegetable soybean, oxygation increased above ground biomass yield and water use efficiency (WUE) by 13% and 22%, respectively, compared with the control. Higher yield with oxygation was accompanied by greater plant height and stem diameter and reduced specific leaf area and leaf Na+ and Cl- concentrations. In cotton, oxygation increased lint yield and WUE by 18% and 16%, respectively, compared with the control, and was accompanied by greater canopy light interception, plant height and stem diameter. Oxygation also led to a greater rate of photosynthesis, higher relative water content in the leaf, reduced crop water stress index and lower leaf water potential. It did not, however, affect leaf Na+ or Cl- concentration. Oxygation invariably increased, whereas salinity reduced the K+ : Na+ ratio in the leaves of both species. Oxygation improved yield and WUE performance of salt tolerant and moderately tolerant crops under saline soil environments, and this may have a significant impact for irrigated agriculture where saline soils pose constraints to crop production.

  18. Assessment of rice genotypes for salt tolerance using microsatellite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... homeostasis in the rice shoots. To test the usefulness of microsatellite (SSR) markers associated with Saltol QTL, a collection of 36 diverse rice genotypes were used. Phenotypic response of the genotypes to salt stress with EC=12 was assessed under controlled environmental conditions at seedling stage ...

  19. Salt tolerance in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) seedlings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... This study was conducted to investigate the effect of salt stress on germination of 28 red clover. (Trifolium pratense L.) populations collected from Black Sea Region of Turkey. Seeds were germinated in 0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 mM NaCl concentration. Germination percentage (%), mean germination time.

  20. 77 FR 21676 - Silicic Acid, Sodium Salt etc.; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... chlorotrimethylsilane and iso-propyl alcohol, reaction with poly(oxypropylene)-poly(oxyethylene) glycol; when used as an... residues of Silicic acid, sodium salt, reaction products with chlorotrimethylsilane and iso-propyl alcohol...-OPP-2011-0934, by one of the following methods. Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov...

  1. Fungicide, antibiotic, heavy metal resistance and salt tolerance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... of fungicides, antibiotics, heavy metal and salt on growth of Rhizobium isolates. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Twenty Rhizobium bacteria were isolated by standard method. (Jordan, 1984) from nodules of Vicia palaestina in Şanliurfa,. Turkey. In all cases, large sized randomly chosen active (pink.

  2. Salt tolerance in red clover ( Trifolium pratense L.) seedlings | Asci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of salt stress on germination of 28 red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) populations collected from Black Sea Region of Turkey. Seeds were germinated in 0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 mM NaCl concentration. Germination percentage (%), mean germination time (MGT), promptness ...

  3. Identification of salt-tolerant Sinorhizobium sp. strain BL3 membrane proteins based on proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanthanuch, Waraporn; Tittabutr, Panlada; Mohammed, Shabaz

    2010-01-01

    Sinorhizobium sp. BL3 is a salt-tolerant strain that can fix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with leguminous host plants under salt-stress conditions. Since cell membranes are the first barrier to environmental change, it is interesting to explore the membrane proteins within this protective ba......-line SCX fractionation coupled to nanoLC-MS/MS. These techniques would be useful for further comparative analysis of membrane proteins that function in the response to environmental stress....

  4. MORPHO-MOLECULAR SCREENING OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L. GENOTYPES AT SEEDLING STAGE FOR SALT TOLERANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Julfiker Md. Masud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Providing adequate food to meet an escalating population is one of the gravest problems the humankind is now facing. To resolve this crisis identification of salt tolerant rice variety is very vital. So, in this research, ten rice genotypes were used to screen salinity tolerance at the seedling stage in hydroponic system using SSR markers. Salinity screening was done at glasshouse following IRRI standard protocol using two setups of salinized and non-salinized conditions. Genotypes under controlled condition had longer root and shoot length then salt stress genotypes. Parental polymorphism survey was done with ten SSR markers viz., RM336, RM510, RM7075, RM407, RM3201b, RM10748, AP3206f, RM3412, RM585, RM11504 and all were selected to evaluate salt tolerance in rice genotypes. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 (AP3206f to 9 (RM336, with an average of 6.1 alleles across 10 loci obtained in the study. The polymorphic information content values ranged from of 0.54 (AP3206f to a high of 0.86 (RM336 with an average of 0.74. The pair-wise comparisons of Nei’s (1973 genetic distance (D between varieties were computed from combined data for the 10 primers, ranged from 0.30 to 0.90 with an average of 0.86, while the similarity index based analysis ranged from 0.00 to 0.70. Finally, the FL-478, FL-378, Binadhan-8 and Binadhan-10 were selected as salt tolerant because they showed tolerance in phenotypic analysis. These phenotypically selected tolerant genotypes could be used for the selection of suitable parents and development of salt tolerant rice varieties.

  5. Relationship between Sodium Influx and Salt Tolerance of Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Apte, Shree Kumar; Reddy, Bontha Rajasekhar; Thomas, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between sodium uptake and cyanobacterial salt (NaCl) tolerance has been examined in two filamentous, heterocystous, nitrogen-fixing species of Anabaena. During diazotrophic growth at neutral pH of the growth medium, Anabaena sp. strain L-31, a freshwater strain, showed threefold higher uptake of Na+ than Anabaena torulosa, a brackish-water strain, and was considerably less salt tolerant (50% lethal dose of NaCl, 55 mM) than the latter (50% lethal dose of NaCl, 170 mM). Alkali...

  6. A retrotransposon in an HKT1 family sodium transporter causes variation of leaf Na+ exclusion and salt tolerance in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Cao, Yibo; Wang, Zhiping; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Shi, Junpeng; Liang, Xiaoyan; Song, Weibin; Chen, Qijun; Lai, Jinsheng; Jiang, Caifu

    2017-11-15

    Soil salinity is one of several major abiotic stresses that constrain maize productivity worldwide. An improved understanding of salt-tolerance mechanisms will thus enhance the breeding of salt-tolerant maize and boost productivity. Previous studies have indicated that the maintenance of leaf Na+ concentration is essential for maize salt tolerance, and the difference in leaf Na+ exclusion has previously been associated with variation in salt tolerance between maize varieties. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of a maize salt-tolerance quantitative trait locus (QTL), Zea mays Na+ Content1 (ZmNC1), which encodes an HKT-type transporter (designated as ZmHKT1). We show that a natural ZmHKT1 loss-of-function allele containing a retrotransposon insertion confers increased accumulation of Na+ in leaves, and salt hypersensitivity. We next show that ZmHKT1 encodes a plasma membrane-localized Na+ -selective transporter, and is preferentially expressed in root stele (including the parenchyma cells surrounding the xylem vessels). We also show that loss of ZmHKT1 function increases xylem sap Na+ concentration and causes increased root-to-shoot Na+ delivery, indicating that ZmHKT1 promotes leaf Na+ exclusion and salt tolerance by withdrawing Na+ from the xylem sap. We conclude that ZmHKT1 is a major salt-tolerance QTL and identifies an important new gene target in breeding for improved maize salt tolerance. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Screening of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. Accessions for High Salt Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Amirul Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. is an herbaceous leafy vegetable crop, comparatively more salt-tolerant than any other vegetables with high antioxidants, minerals, and vitamins. Salt-tolerant crop variety development is of importance due to inadequate cultivable land and escalating salinity together with population pressure. In this view a total of 25 purslane accessions were initially selected from 45 collected purslane accessions based on better growth performance and subjected to 5 different salinity levels, that is, 0.0, 10.0, 20.0, 30.0, and 40.0 dS m−1 NaCl. Plant height, number of leaves, number of flowers, and dry matter contents in salt treated purslane accessions were significantly reduced (P≤0.05 and the enormity of reduction increased with increasing salinity stress. Based on dry matter yield reduction, among all 25 purslane accessions 2 accessions were graded as tolerant (Ac7 and Ac9, 6 accessions were moderately tolerant (Ac3, Ac5, Ac6, Ac10, Ac11, and Ac12, 5 accessions were moderately susceptible (Ac1, Ac2, Ac4, Ac8, and Ac13, and the remaining 12 accessions were susceptible to salinity stress and discarded from further study. The selected 13 purslane accessions could assist in the identification of superior genes for salt tolerance in purslane for improving its productivity and sustainable agricultural production.

  8. Supraclassical consequence relations: Tolerating rare counterexamples

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, W

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We explore a family of supraclassical consequence relations obtained by varying the criteria according to which counterexamples to classical entailment may be deemed tolerable. This provides a different perspective on the rational consequence...

  9. Evaluation of salt tolerance in almond [ Prunus dulcis (L.) Batsch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of the plant's responses to the high salinity levels (6 and 9 dSm-1) were significant with no deleterious effects observed on plant growth triggered by lower salt concentrations of 1.5 and 3 dSm-1. A significant decrease in total chlorophyll and chlorophyll b content was also found at the high salinity levels but no ...

  10. Screening and Isolation of Salt Tolerant Bacteria from Tidal Floodplain Soils of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    D. Mondal

    2016-01-01

    Use of eco-friendly area specific salt tolerant bio-inoculants is better alternatives to chemical fertilizer for sustainable agriculture in the coastal saline soils. The study was conducted to isolate and characterize salinity tolerant bacteria like Rhizobium sp. which can be used as biofertilizer. Soil samples were collected from two salinity affected districts namely Khulna and Patuakhali situated in the southern part of Bangladesh. Nine colonies were isolated from pore-plate containing yea...

  11. A bi-functional xyloglucan galactosyltransferase is an indispensable salt stress tolerance determinant in arabidop

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wenbo

    2013-07-01

    Salinity is an abiotic stress that substantially limits crop production worldwide. To identify salt stress tolerance determinants, we screened for Arabidopsis mutants that are hypersensitive to salt stress and designated these mutants as short root in salt medium (rsa). One of these mutants, rsa3-1, is hypersensitive to NaCl and LiCl but not to CsCl or to general osmotic stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) over-accumulate in rsa3-1 plants under salt stress. Gene expression profiling with Affymetrix microarray analysis revealed that RSA3 controls expression of many genes including genes encoding proteins for ROS detoxification under salt stress. Map-based cloning showed that RSA3 encodes a xyloglucan galactosyltransferase, which is allelic to a gene previously named MUR3/KAM1. The RSA3/ MUR3/KAM1-encoded xylogluscan galactosyltransferase regulates actin microfilament organization (and thereby contributes to endomembrane distribution) and is also involved in cell wall biosynthesis. In rsa3-1, actin cannot assemble and form bundles as it does in the wild-type but instead aggregates in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, addition of phalloidin, which prevents actin depolymerization, can rescue salt hypersensitivity of rsa3-1. Together, these results suggest that RSA3/MUR3/KAM1 along with other cell wall-associated proteins plays a critical role in salt stress tolerance by maintaining the proper organization of actin microfilaments in order to minimize damage caused by excessive ROS. © 2013 The Author.

  12. Assessment of rice genotypes for salt tolerance using microsatellite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of phenotypic response of rice genotypes to salinity stress at the seedling stage indicated the varied genotypic responses. The genotypes were classified into five groups from highly tolerant (score 1) to highly sensitive (score 9). Number of alleles of the SSR markers ranged from 3 for RM10702 to 14 for RM8094.

  13. High tolerance to salinity and herbivory stresses may explain the expansion of Ipomoea cairica to salt marshes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasive plants are often confronted with heterogeneous environments and various stress factors during their secondary phase of invasion into more stressful habitats. A high tolerance to stress factors may allow exotics to successfully invade stressful environments. Ipomoea cairica, a vigorous invader in South China, has recently been expanding into salt marshes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine why this liana species is able to invade a stressful saline environment, we utilized I. cairica and 3 non-invasive species for a greenhouse experiment. The plants were subjected to three levels of salinity (i.e., watered with 0, 4 and 8 g L(-1 NaCl solutions and simulated herbivory (0, 25 and 50% of the leaf area excised treatments. The relative growth rate (RGR of I. cairica was significantly higher than the RGR of non-invasive species under both stress treatments. The growth performance of I. cairica was not significantly affected by either stress factor, while that of the non-invasive species was significantly inhibited. The leaf condensed tannin content was generally lower in I. cairica than in the non-invasive I. triloba and Paederia foetida. Ipomoea cairica exhibited a relatively low resistance to herbivory, however, its tolerance to stress factors was significantly higher than either of the non-invasive species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study examining the expansion of I. cairica to salt marshes in its introduced range. Our results suggest that the high tolerance of I. cairica to key stress factors (e.g., salinity and herbivory contributes to its invasion into salt marshes. For I. cairica, a trade-off in resource reallocation may allow increased resources to be allocated to tolerance and growth. This may contribute to a secondary invasion into stressful habitats. Finally, we suggest that I. cairica could spread further and successfully occupy salt marshes, and countermeasures based on herbivory could be

  14. Evaluating relative contribution of osmotolerance and tissue tolerance mechanisms toward salinity stress tolerance in three Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Bose, Jayakumar; Shabala, Lana; Eyles, Alieta; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-10-01

    Three different species of Brassica, with differential salt sensitivity were used to understand physiological mechanisms of salt tolerance operating in these species and to evaluate the relative contribution of different strategies to cope with salt load. Brassica napus was the most tolerant species in terms of the overall performance, with Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea being much more sensitive to salt stress with no obvious difference between them. While prominent reduction in net CO2 assimilation was observed in both sensitive species, physiological mechanisms beyond this reduction differed strongly. Brassica juncea plants possessed high osmotolerance and were able to maintain high transpiration rate but showed a significant reduction in leaf chlorophyll content and efficiency of leaf photochemistry. On the contrary, B. oleracea plants possessed the highest (among the three species) tissue tolerance but showed a very significant stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that the high tissue tolerance in B. oleracea was related to the ability of leaf mesophyll cells to maintain highly negative membrane potential in the presence of high apoplastic Na(+) . In addition to high osmotolerance, the most tolerant B. napus showed also lesser accumulation of toxic Na(+) and Cl(-) in the leaf, possessed moderate tissue tolerance and had a superior K(+) retention ability. Taken together, the results from this study indicate that the three Brassica species employ very different mechanisms to cope with salinity and, despite its overall sensitivity to salinity, B. oleracea could be recommended as a valuable 'donor' of tissue tolerance genes to confer this trait for marker-assisted breeding programs. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. Physiological Mechanism of Enhancing Salt Stress Tolerance of Perennial Ryegrass by 24-Epibrassinolide

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    Wenli Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BR regulate plant tolerance to salt stress but the mechanisms underlying are not fully understood. This study was to investigate physiological mechanisms of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR's impact on salt stress tolerance in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. The grass seedlings were treated with EBR at 0, 10, and 100 nM, and subjected to salt stress (250 mM NaCl. The grass irrigated with regular water without EBR served as the control. Salt stress increased leaf electrolyte leakage (EL, malondialdehyde (MDA, and reduced photosynthetic rate (Pn. Exogenous EBR reduced EL and MDA, increased Pn, chlorophyll content, and stomatal conductance (gs. The EBR applications also alleviated decline of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX activity when compared to salt treatment alone. Salt stress increased leaf abscisic acid (ABA and gibberellin A4 (GA4 content but reduced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, zeatin riboside (ZR, isopentenyl adenosine (iPA, and salicylic acid (SA. Exogenous EBR at 10 nm and 100 nM increased ABA, and iPA content under salt stress. The EBR treatment at 100 nM also increased leaf IAA, ZR, JA, and SA. In addition, EBR treatments increased leaf proline and ions (K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ content, and reduced Na+/K+ in leaf tissues. The results of this study suggest that EBR treatment may improve salt stress tolerance by increasing the level of selected hormones and antioxidant enzyme (SOD and CAT activity, promoting accumulation of proline and ions (K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in perennial ryegrass.

  16. Salt tolerant plants increase nitrogen removal from biofiltration systems affected by saline stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szota, Christopher; Farrell, Claire; Livesley, Stephen J; Fletcher, Tim D

    2015-10-15

    Biofiltration systems are used in urban areas to reduce the concentration and load of nutrient pollutants and heavy metals entering waterways through stormwater runoff. Biofilters can, however be exposed to salt water, through intrusion of seawater in coastal areas which could decrease their ability to intercept and retain pollutants. We measured the effect of adding saline stormwater on pollutant removal by six monocotyledonous species with different levels of salt-tolerance. Carex appressa, Carex bichenoviana, Ficinia nodosa, Gahnia filum, Juncus kraussii and Juncus usitatus were exposed to six concentrations of saline stormwater, equivalent to electrical conductivity readings of: 0.09, 2.3, 5.5, 10.4, 20.0 and 37.6 mS cm(-1). Salt-sensitive species: C. appressa, C. bichenoviana and J. usitatus did not survive ≥10.4 mS cm(-1), removing their ability to take up nitrogen (N). Salt-tolerant species, such as F. nodosa and J. kraussii, maintained N-removal even at the highest salt concentration. However, their levels of water stress and stomatal conductance suggest that N-removal would not be sustained at concentrations ≥10.4 mS cm(-1). Increasing salt concentration indirectly increased phosphorus (P) removal, by converting dissolved forms of P to particulate forms which were retained by filter media. Salt concentrations ≥10 mS cm(-1) also reduced removal efficiency of zinc, manganese and cadmium, but increased removal of iron and lead, regardless of plant species. Our results suggest that biofiltration systems exposed to saline stormwater ≤10 mS cm(-1) can only maintain N-removal when planted with salt-tolerant species, while P removal and immobilisation of heavy metals is less affected by species selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of a major QTL allele from wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) for increasing alkaline salt tolerance in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, D D; Lal, S K; Xu, D H

    2010-07-01

    Salt-affected soils are generally classified into two main categories, sodic (alkaline) and saline. Our previous studies showed that the wild soybean accession JWS156-1 (Glycine soja) from the Kinki area of Japan was tolerant to NaCl salt, and the quantitative trait locus (QTL) for NaCl salt tolerance was located on soybean linkage group N (chromosome 3). Further investigation revealed that the wild soybean accession JWS156-1 also had a higher tolerance to alkaline salt stress. In the present study, an F(6) recombinant inbred line mapping population (n = 112) and an F(2) population (n = 149) derived from crosses between a cultivated soybean cultivar Jackson and JWS156-1 were used to identify QTL for alkaline salt tolerance in soybean. Evaluation of soybean alkaline salt tolerance was carried out based on salt tolerance rating (STR) and leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value) after treatment with 180 mM NaHCO(3) for about 3 weeks under greenhouse conditions. In both populations, a significant QTL for alkaline salt tolerance was detected on the molecular linkage group D2 (chromosome 17), which accounted for 50.2 and 13.0% of the total variation for STR in the F(6) and the F(2) populations, respectively. The wild soybean contributed to the tolerance allele in the progenies. Our results suggest that QTL for alkaline salt tolerance is different from the QTL for NaCl salt tolerance found previously in this wild soybean genotype. The DNA markers closely associated with the QTLs might be useful for marker-assisted selection to pyramid tolerance genes in soybean for both alkaline and saline stresses.

  18. New Insights on plant salt tolerance mechanisms and their potential use for breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moez HANIN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinization is a major threat to agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions, where water scarcity and inadequate drainage of irrigated lands severely reduce crop yield. Salt accumulation inhibits plant growth and reduces the ability to uptake water and nutrients, leading to osmotic or water-deficit stress. Salt is also causing injury of the young photosynthetic leaves and acceleration of their senescence, as the Na+ cation is toxic when accumulating in cell cytosol resulting in ionic imbalance and toxicity of transpiring leaves. To cope with salt stress, plants have evolved mainly two types of tolerance mechanisms based on either limiting the entry of salt by the roots, or controlling its concentration and distribution. Understanding the overall control of Na+ accumulation and functional studies of genes involved in transport processes, will provide a new opportunity to improve the salinity tolerance of plants relevant to food security in arid regions. A better understanding of these tolerance mechanisms can be used to breed crops with improved yield performance under salinity stress. Moreover, associations of cultures with nitrogen-fixing bactéria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi could serve as an alternative and sustainable strategy to increase crop yields in salt affected fields.

  19. (SeNHX1) gene in tobacco improves tolerance to salt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... stress, transgenic plants over-expressing SeNHX1 accumulated 1.2 mg g-1 FW Na+ greater than wild type in old ... malondialdehyde (MDA) content in transgenic plants was significantly lower, but proline content and activity of ..... Evaluation of salt tolerance in cultivated and wild tomato species through in ...

  20. Enhancing and accelarating flavour formation by salt-tolerant yeasts in Japanese soy-sauce processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der C.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    In soy-sauce processes salt-tolerant yeasts are very important for the flavour formation. This flavour formation is, however, slow and poorly understood. In the last decades, a concerted research effort has increased the understanding and resulted in the derivation of mutants with an enhanced

  1. Bioinformatics approach of salt tolerance gene in mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Sumardi

    2017-01-01

    This study descibes bioinformatics approach on the analyze of the salt tolerance genes in mangrove plant, Rhizophora stylosa on DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank as well as similarity, phylogenetic, potential peptide, and subcellular localization. The DNA sequence between salt tolerance gene from R. stylosa exhibited 42-11% between themselves The target peptide value of mitochondria varied from 0.163 to 0.430, indicated it was possible to exist. These results suggested the importance of understanding the diversity and functional of properties of the different amino acids in mangrove OSC genes. To clarify the relationship among the salt-tolerant genes in R. stylosa, a phylogenetic tree was constructed. The phylogenetic tree shows that there are three clusters, first branch of Cu/Zn SOD and reverse transcriptase genes, the second branch consists of the majority genes and the last group was MAP3K alpha protein kinase only. The present study, therefore, suggested that salt tolerance genes form distinct clusters in the tree.

  2. Contrasting physiological responses to high salinity between two varieties of corn 'Lluteño' (salt tolerant and 'Jubilee' (salt sensitive

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    Libertad Carrasco-Ríos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available 'Lluteño' is the only one corn capable to prosper in the Valley of Lluta under saline conditions (EC = 9.1 dS m-1. This cultivar has been little studied and there is no current information about its growth and about the possible mechanisms involved in its tolerance to salts. The aim of this research was to compare the growth of young plants of corn (Zea mays L. 'Lluteño' to that of the bred 'Jubilee', both grown under different salt concentrations, to characterize the absorption and distribution of Na+ and other nutrients in the plant and to evaluate the effect of the saline conditions in the osmotic adjustment in both cultivars. The plants of 21 d old were subjected for 15 d to two saline treatments: 50 and 100 mM NaCl. The accumulation of DM was reduced from 5.12 to 1.80 g plant-1 in 'Jubilee' and 5.53 to 4.12 g plant-1 in 'Lluteño' (P d" 0.05. 'Lluteño' showed to be more tolerant to salt stress that 'Jubilee' by greatest accumulation of biomass under saline conditions, it was associated with a lower accumulation of Na+, steadiness of K+ and Ca²+ content and accumulation of osmolytes in leaves. The latter affecting positively the maintenance of relative water content and the osmotic adjustment of this cultivar in the leaves.

  3. Inducing salt tolerance in sweet corn by magnetic priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Karimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates seed germination and growth of sweet corn under NaCl stress (0, 50, and 100 mM, after exposing the seeds to weak (15 mT or strong (150 mT magnetic fields (MF for different durations (0, 6, 12, and 24 hours. Salinity reduced seed germination and plant growth. MF treatments enhanced rate and percentage of germination and improved plant growth, regardless of salinity. Higher germination rate was obtained by the stronger MF, however, the seedling were more vigorous after priming with 15 mT MF. Proline accumulation was observed in parallel with the loss of plant water content under 100 mM NaCl stress. MF prevented proline accumulation by improving water absorption. Positive correlation between H2O2 accumulation and membrane thermostability (MTI was found after MF treatments, which revealed that MF primed the plant for salinity by H2O2 signaling. However, over-accumulation of H2O2 after prolonged MF exposure adversely affected MTI under severe salt stress. In conclusion, magnetic priming for 6 hours was suggested for enhancing germination and growth of sweet corn under salt stress.

  4. Physiological basis and transcriptional profiling of three salt-tolerant mutant lines of rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concha Domingo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a complex trait that affects growth and productivity in many crops, including rice. Mutation induction, a useful tool to generate salt tolerant plants, enables the analysis of plants with similar genetic background, facilitating the understanding of the salt tolerance mechanisms. In this work, we generated three salt tolerant mutant lines by irradiation of a salt-sensitive cultivar plants and screened M2 plants at seedling stage in the presence of high salinity. These three lines, SaT20, SaS62 and SaT58, showed different responses to salinity, but exhibited similar phenotype to wild type plants, except SaT20 that displayed shorter height when grown in the absence of salt. Under salt conditions, all three mutants and the parental line showed similar reduction in yield, although relevant differences in other physiological parameters, such as Na+ accumulation in healthy leaves of SaT20, were registered. Microarray analyses of gene expression profiles in roots revealed the occurrence of common and specific responses in the mutants. The three mutants showed up-regulation of responsive genes, the activation of oxido-reduction process and the inhibition of ion transport. The participation of jasmonate in the plant response to salt was evident by down-regulation of a gene coding for a jasmonate O-methyltransferase. Genes dealing with lipid transport and metabolism were, in general, up-regulated except in SaS62, that also exhibited down-regulation of genes involved in ion transport and Ca2+ signal transduction. The two most tolerant varieties, SaS62 and SaT20, displayed lower levels of transcripts involved in K+ uptake. The physiological study and the description of the expression analysis evidenced that the three lines showed different responses to salt: SaT20 showed a high Na+ content in leaves, SaS62 presented an inhibition of lipid metabolism and ion transport and SaT58 differs in both features in the response to salinity. The analysis of

  5. Proteomic Analyses Reveal the Mechanism of Dunaliella salina Ds-26-16 Gene Enhancing Salt Tolerance in Escherichia coli.

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    Yanlong Wang

    Full Text Available We previously screened the novel gene Ds-26-16 from a 4 M salt-stressed Dunaliella salina cDNA library and discovered that this gene conferred salt tolerance to broad-spectrum organisms, including E. coli (Escherichia coli, Haematococcus pluvialis and tobacco. To determine the mechanism of this gene conferring salt tolerance, we studied the proteome of E. coli overexpressing the full-length cDNA of Ds-26-16 using the iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification approach. A total of 1,610 proteins were identified, which comprised 39.4% of the whole proteome. Of the 559 differential proteins, 259 were up-regulated and 300 were down-regulated. GO (gene ontology and KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes enrichment analyses identified 202 major proteins, including those involved in amino acid and organic acid metabolism, energy metabolism, carbon metabolism, ROS (reactive oxygen species scavenging, membrane proteins and ABC (ATP binding cassette transporters, and peptidoglycan synthesis, as well as 5 up-regulated transcription factors. Our iTRAQ data suggest that Ds-26-16 up-regulates the transcription factors in E. coli to enhance salt resistance through osmotic balance, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress protection. Changes in the proteome were also observed in E. coli overexpressing the ORF (open reading frame of Ds-26-16. Furthermore, pH, nitric oxide and glycerol content analyses indicated that Ds-26-16 overexpression increases nitric oxide content but has no effect on glycerol content, thus confirming that enhanced nitric oxide synthesis via lower intercellular pH was one of the mechanisms by which Ds-26-16 confers salt tolerance to E. coli.

  6. IMPROVEMENT OF SALT TOLERANCE IN DURUM WHEAT BY ASCORBIC ACID APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fercha Azzedine

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine whether exogenously applied Ascorbic acid (AsA may enhance the salt tolerance in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. var. Waha. Two weeks old seedling, grown in plastic pots of 1kg, were subjected to salt stress by adding 25ml of NaCl (150mm, and treated or not with the addition of ascorbic acid (0.7 mM. Two weeks after salt stress, plants were harvested and the various measures were recorded.The effects of salt stress, in the presence and absence of vitamin C, on the leaf growth, leaf area (LA and some physiological and biochemical changes were investigated. It was established that the application of vitamin C mitigate to variable extent the adverse effect of salt stress on plant growth, may be due, in part, to increased leaf area, improved chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, enhanced proline accumulation and decreased H2O2 content.In conclusion, we can say that treatment with ascorbic acid improve salt tolerance in durum wheat through the enhancement of multiple processes.

  7. Differential contribution of individual dehydrin genes from Physcomitrella patens to salt and osmotic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruibal, Cecilia; Salamó, Imma Pérez; Carballo, Valentina; Castro, Alexandra; Bentancor, Marcel; Borsani, Omar; Szabados, László; Vidal, Sabina

    2012-07-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens can withstand extreme environmental conditions including drought and salt stress. Tolerance to dehydration in mosses is thought to rely on efficient limitation of stress-induced cell damage and repair of cell injury upon stress relief. Dehydrin proteins (DHNs) are part of a conserved cell protecting mechanism in plants although their role in stress tolerance is not well understood. Four DHNs and two DHN-like proteins were identified in the predicted proteome of P. patens. Expression of PpDHNA and PpDHNB was induced by salt and osmotic stress and controlled by abscisic acid. Subcellular localization of the encoded proteins suggested that these dehydrins are localized in cytosol and accumulate near membranes during stress. Comparative analysis of dhnA and dhnB targeted knockout mutants of P. patens revealed that both genes play a role in cellular protection during salt and osmotic stress, although PpDHNA has a higher contribution to stress tolerance. Overexpression of PpDHNA and PpDHNB genes in transgenic Arabidopsis improved rosette and root growth in stress conditions, although PpDHNA was more efficient in this role. These results suggest that specific DHNs contribute considerably to the high stress tolerance of mosses and offer novel tools for genetic engineering stress tolerance of higher plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Transcriptome analyses of a salt-tolerant cytokinin-deficient mutant reveal differential regulation of salt stress response by cytokinin deficiency.

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    Rie Nishiyama

    Full Text Available Soil destruction by abiotic environmental conditions, such as high salinity, has resulted in dramatic losses of arable land, giving rise to the need of studying mechanisms of plant adaptation to salt stress aimed at creating salt-tolerant plants. Recently, it has been reported that cytokinins (CKs regulate plant environmental stress responses through two-component systems. A decrease in endogenous CK levels could enhance salt and drought stress tolerance. Here, we have investigated the global transcriptional change caused by a reduction in endogenous CK content under both normal and salt stress conditions. Ten-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (WT and CK-deficient ipt1,3,5,7 plants were transferred to agar plates containing either 0 mM (control or 200 mM NaCl and maintained at normal growth conditions for 24 h. Our experimental design allowed us to compare transcriptome changes under four conditions: WT-200 mM vs. WT-0 mM, ipt1,3,5,7-0 mM vs. WT-0 mM, ipt1,3,5,7-200 mM vs. ipt1,3,5,7-0 mM and ipt1,3,5,7-200 mM vs. WT-200 mM NaCl. Our results indicated that the expression of more than 10% of all of the annotated Arabidopsis genes was altered by CK deficiency under either normal or salt stress conditions when compared to WT. We found that upregulated expression of many genes encoding either regulatory proteins, such as NAC, DREB and ZFHD transcription factors and the calcium sensor SOS3, or functional proteins, such as late embryogenesis-abundant proteins, xyloglucan endo-transglycosylases, glycosyltransferases, glycoside hydrolases, defensins and glyoxalase I family proteins, may contribute to improved salt tolerance of CK-deficient plants. We also demonstrated that the downregulation of photosynthesis-related genes and the upregulation of several NAC genes may cause the altered morphological phenotype of CK-deficient plants. This study highlights the impact of CK regulation on the well-known stress-responsive signaling pathways, which

  9. Relative expression of genes related with cold tolerance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For analysis, the Spanish cultivar, Susan, was used as check tolerance and Oryzica 1 as susceptible check. Oxidative stress was measured through lipid peroxidation. To find mechanisms of cold tolerance in Chilean cultivars, we determined the relative expression of genes related with oxidative stress, such as superoxide ...

  10. Identification of Rice Accessions Associated with K+/Na+ Ratio and Salt Tolerance Based on Physiological and Molecular Responses

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    Inja Naga Bheema Lingeswara Reddy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The key for rice plant survival under NaCl salt stress is maintaining a high K+/Na+ ratio in its cells. Selection for salt tolerance rice genotypes based on phenotypic performance alone will delay in progress in breeding. Use of molecular markers in tandem with physiological studies will help in better identification of salt tolerant rice accessions. Eight rice accessions along with the check Dongjin were screened using 1/2 Yoshida solution with 50 mmol/L NaCl at the seedling stage. The accessions IT001158, IT246674, IT260533 and IT291341 were classified as salt tolerant based on their K+/Na+ ratios. Seventeen SSR markers reported to be associated with K+/Na+ ratio were used to screen the accessions. Five SSR markers (RM8053, RM345, RM318, RM253 and RM7075 could differentiate accessions classified based on their K+/Na+ ratios. Banding pattern of the accessions was scored compared to the banding pattern of Dongjin. The study differentiated accessions based on their association of K+/Na+ ratio with molecular markers which are very reliable. These markers can play a significant role in screening large set of rice germplasms for salt tolerance and also help in identification of high-yielding varieties with better salt tolerance. The salt tolerant accessions can be taken forward into developing better varieties by conventional breeding and exploring genes for salt tolerance.

  11. CarNAC4, a NAC-type chickpea transcription factor conferring enhanced drought and salt stress tolerances in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xingwang; Liu, Yanmin; Wang, Shuang; Tao, Yuan; Wang, Zhankui; Shu, Yingjie; Peng, Hui; Mijiti, Abudoukeyumu; Wang, Ze; Zhang, Hua; Ma, Hao

    2016-03-01

    CarNAC4 is a typical stress-responsive NAC transcription factor and enhances drought and salt stress tolerances in transgenic Arabidopsis. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is relatively vulnerable to abiotic stress conditions, but the tolerance mechanisms for such stresses in chickpea are largely unknown. To identify stress-related factors in chickpea, we previously constructed a cDNA library of chickpea leaves exposed to drought stress conditions. A cDNA encoding a putative NAC transcription factor (CarNAC4) was identified as a putative stress-responsive gene. Our study indicated that the transcript levels of CarNAC4 were enhanced in response to several abiotic stresses and phytohormones. Promoter analysis demonstrated that multiple stress-related cis-acting elements exist in promoter region of CarNAC4. CarNAC4 is localized in the nucleus and binds to the DNA sequence containing CGT[G/A], while the C-terminal region of CarNAC4 contains a transcriptional activation domain. Over-expression of CarNAC4 in Arabidopsis plants improved tolerance to drought and salt stresses. Transgenic plants exhibited greater reduced rates of water loss and more proline accumulation than Col-0 plants under drought stress and less MDA contents than Col-0 plants under salt stress. In addition, over-expression of CarNAC4 enhanced the expression of stress-responsive genes such as RD29A, ERD10, COR15A, COR47, KIN1 and DREB2A. These results indicated that CarNAC4 functions as a transcription factor involved in the regulation of drought and salt stress response.

  12. Long term salinity stress in relation to lipid peroxidation, super oxide dismutase activity and proline content of salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant wheat cultivars Estrés salino a largo plazo en relación con peroxidación lipídica, actividad superóxido dismutasa y contenido de prolina de cultivares de trigo sensibles y tolerantes a la salinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Borzouei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a widespread root medium problem limiting productivity of cereal crops worldwide. The ability of plants to tolerate salt is determined by multiple biochemical pathways that facilitate retention and/or acquisition of water, protect chloroplast functions, and maintain ion homeostasis. Therefore, the ability of salt-sensitive ('Tajan' and salt-tolerant cultivar ('Bam' of Triticum aestivum L. to adapt to a saline environment were evaluated in a set of greenhouse experiments under salt stress during three growth stages (tillering, 50% anthesis, and 10 d after anthesis. Plants were irrigated by different saline waters with electrical conductivities of 1.3, 6, 8, 10, and 12 dS m-1, which were obtained by adding NaCl:CaCl2 in 10:1 molar ratio to fresh water. Differences in growth parameters, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and proline accumulation were tested in order to put forward the relative tolerance or sensitivity of cultivars. Results indicated that both parameters differ according to the cultivar's ability in coping oxidative stress caused by salinity. We observed a greater decline in the growth parameters and grain yield under salt stress in 'Tajan' than in 'Bam'. Malondialdehyde content was also higher in 'Tajan'. The improved performance of the 'Bam' under high salinity was accompanied by an increase in SOD (EC 1.15.1.1 activity and proline content at all growth stages. Growth parameters, lipid peroxidation and proline accumulation results are also in good correlation with supporting this cultivar is being relatively tolerant.La salinidad es un problema del medio radical ampliamente distribuido que limita la productividad de los cultivos de cereal en todo el mundo. La capacidad de las plantas para tolerar la sal está determinada por multiples vías bioquímicas que facilitan la retención y/o adquisición de agua, protegen las funciones del cloroplasto, y mantienen la homeostasis iónica. Por lo tanto, se

  13. Adult sea lamprey tolerates biliary atresia by altering bile salt composition and renal excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shi-Ying; Lionarons, Daniël A.; Hagey, Lee; Soroka, Carol J.; Mennone, Albert; Boyer, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a genetically programmed animal model for biliary atresia as it loses its bile ducts and gallbladder during metamorphosis. However, in contrast to patients with biliary atresia or other forms of cholestasis who develop progressive disease, the post-metamorphosis lampreys grow normally to adult size. To understand how the adult lamprey thrives without the ability to secrete bile, we examined bile salt homeostasis in larval and adult lampreys. Adult livers were severely cholestatic with levels of bile salts >1 mM, but no evidence of necrosis, fibrosis, or inflammation. Interestingly, both larvae and adults had normal plasma levels (~10 μM) of bile salts. In larvae, petromyzonol sulfate (PZS) was the predominant bile salt, whereas the major bile salts in adult liver were sulfated C27 bile alcohols. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that PZS was highly toxic. Pharmacokinetic studies in free-swimming adults revealed that ~35% of intravenously injected bromosulfophthalein (BSP) was eliminated over a 72 hr period. Collection of urine and feces demonstrated that both endogenous and exogenous organic anions, including biliverdin, bile salts and BSP, were predominantly excreted via the kidney with minor amounts also detected in feces. Gene expression analysis detected marked up-regulation of orthologs of known organic anion and bile salt transporters in the kidney with lesser effects in the intestine and gills in adults compared to larvae. These findings indicate that adult lampreys tolerate cholestasis by altering hepatic bile salt composition, while maintaining normal plasma bile salt levels predominantly through renal excretion of bile products. Therefore, we conclude that strategies to accelerate renal excretion of bile salt and other toxins should be beneficial for patients with cholestasis. PMID:23175353

  14. The Reaumuria trigyna transcription factor RtWRKY1 confers tolerance to salt stress in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chao; Zhao, Pingping; Zhang, Huirong; Li, Ningning; Zheng, Linlin; Wang, Yingchun

    2017-08-01

    Reaumuria trigyna (R. trigyna) is an endangered small shrub endemic to the Eastern Alxa-Western Ordos area in Inner Mongolia, China. Based on R. trigyna transcriptome data, the Group I WRKY transcription factor gene RtWRKY1 was cloned from R. trigyna. The full-length RtWRKY1 gene was 2100bp, including a 1261-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 573 amino acids. RtWRKY1 was mainly expressed in the stem and was induced by salt, cold stress, and ABA treatment. Overexpression of RtWRKY1 in Arabidopsis significantly enhanced the chlorophyll content, root length, and fresh weight of the transgenic lines under salt stress. RtWRKY1 transgenic Arabidopsis exhibited higher proline content, GSH-PX, POD, SOD, and CAT activities, and lower MDA content, Na+ content, and Na+/K+ ratio than wild-type Arabidopsis under salt stress conditions. Salt stress affected the expression of ion transport, proline biosynthesis, and antioxidant related genes, including AtAPX1, AtCAT1, AtSOD1, AtP5CS1, AtP5CS2, AtPRODH1, AtPRODH2, and AtSOS1 in transgenic lines. RtWRKY1 confers tolerance to salt stress in transgenic Arabidopsis by regulating plant growth, osmotic balance, Na+/K+ homeostasis, and the antioxidant system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide enhances salt tolerance by coupling the reestablishment of redox homeostasis and preventing salt-induced K⁺ loss in seedlings of Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Diwen; Mao, Yu; Zhou, Heng; Li, Feng; Wu, Mingzhu; Zhang, Jing; He, Ziyi; Cui, Weiti; Xie, Yanjie

    2014-08-01

    Despite the external application of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) conferring plant tolerance against various environmental cues, the physiological significance of l-cysteine desulfhydrase (L-DES)-associated endogenous H2S production involved in salt-stress signaling was poorly understood. To address this gap, the participation of in planta changes of H2S homeostasis involved in alfalfa salt tolerance was investigated. The increasing concentration of NaCl (from 50 to 300 mM) progressively caused the induction of total l-DES activity and the increase of endogenous H2S production. NaCl-triggered toxicity symptoms (175 mM), including seedling growth inhibition and lipid peroxidation, were alleviated by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS; 100 μM), a H2S donor, whereas aggravated by an inhibitor of l-DES or a H2S scavenger. A weaker or negative response was observed in lower or higher dose of NaHS. Further results showed that endogenous l-DES-related H2S modulated several genes/activities of antioxidant defence enzymes, and also regulated the contents of antioxidant compounds, thus counterbalancing the NaCl-induced lipid peroxidation. Moreover, H2S maintained K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis by preventing the NaCl-triggered K(+) efflux, which might be result form the impairment of SKOR expression. Together, our findings indicated that endogenous H2S homeostasis enhance salt tolerance by coupling the reestablishment of redox balance and restraining K(+) efflux in alfalfa seedlings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Proteome profile of salt gland-rich epidermis extracted from a salt-tolerant tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wee-Kee; Ang, Yiqian; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Lim, Tit-Meng; Kumar, Prakash; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-10-01

    Preparation of proteins from salt-gland-rich tissues of mangrove plant is necessary for a systematic study of proteins involved in the plant's unique desalination mechanism. Extraction of high-quality proteins from the leaves of mangrove tree species, however, is difficult due to the presence of high levels of endogenous phenolic compounds. In our study, preparation of proteins from only a part of the leaf tissues (i.e. salt gland-rich epidermal layers) was required, rendering extraction even more challenging. By comparing several extraction methods, we developed a reliable procedure for obtaining proteins from salt gland-rich tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. Protein extraction was markedly improved using a phenol-based extraction method. Greater resolution 1D protein gel profiles could be obtained. More promising proteome profiles could be obtained through 1D-LC-MS/MS. The number of proteins detected was twice as much as compared to TUTS extraction method. Focusing on proteins that were solely present in each extraction method, phenol-based extracts contained nearly ten times more proteins than those in the extracts without using phenol. The approach could thus be applied for downstream high-throughput proteomic analyses involving LC-MS/MS or equivalent. The proteomics data presented herein are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001691. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The maize WRKY transcription factor ZmWRKY17 negatively regulates salt stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ronghao; Dai, Wei; Zhang, Congsheng; Wang, Yan; Wu, Min; Zhao, Yang; Ma, Qing; Xiang, Yan; Cheng, Beijiu

    2017-12-01

    We cloned and characterized the ZmWRKY17 gene from maize. Overexpression of ZmWRKY17 in Arabidopsis led to increased sensitivity to salt stress and decreased ABA sensitivity through regulating the expression of some ABA- and stress-responsive genes. The WRKY transcription factors have been reported to function as positive or negative regulators in many different biological processes including plant development, defense regulation and stress response. This study isolated a maize WRKY gene, ZmWRKY17, and characterized its role in tolerance to salt stress by generating transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression of the ZmWRKY17 was up-regulated by drought, salt and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. ZmWRKY17 was localized in the nucleus with no transcriptional activation in yeast. Yeast one-hybrid assay showed that ZmWRKY17 can specifically bind to W-box, and it can activate W-box-dependent transcription in planta. Heterologous overexpression of ZmWRKY17 in Arabidopsis remarkably reduced plant tolerance to salt stress, as determined through physiological analyses of the cotyledons greening rate, root growth, relative electrical leakage and malondialdehyde content. Additionally, ZmWRKY17 transgenic plants showed decreased sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and early seedling growth. Transgenic plants accumulated higher content of ABA than wild-type (WT) plants under NaCl condition. Transcriptome and quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that some stress-related genes in transgenic seedlings showed lower expression level than that in the WT when treated with NaCl. Taken together, these results suggest that ZmWRKY17 may act as a negative regulator involved in the salt stress responses through ABA signalling.

  18. Isolation and characterization of maize PMP3 genes involved in salt stress tolerance.

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    Jing Fu

    Full Text Available Plasma membrane protein 3 (PMP3, a class of small hydrophobic polypeptides with high sequence similarity, is responsible for salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid. These small hydrophobic ploypeptides play important roles in maintenance of ion homeostasis. In this study, eight ZmPMP3 genes were cloned from maize and responsive to salt, drought, cold and abscisic acid. The eight ZmPMP3s were membrane proteins and their sequences in trans-membrane regions were highly conserved. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they were categorized into three groups. All members of group II were responsive to ABA. Functional complementation showed that with the exception of ZmPMP3-6, all were capable of maintaining membrane potential, which in turn allows for regulation of intracellular ion homeostasis. This process was independent of the presence of Ca(2+. Lastly, over-expression of ZmPMP3-1 enhanced growth of transgenic Arabidopsis under salt condition. Through expression analysis of deduced downstream genes in transgenic plants, expression levels of three ion transporter genes and four important antioxidant genes in ROS scavenging system were increased significantly in transgenic plants during salt stress. This tolerance was likely achieved through diminishing oxidative stress due to the possibility of ZmPMP3-1's involvement in regulation of ion homeostasis, and suggests that the modulation of these conserved small hydrophobic polypeptides could be an effective way to improve salt tolerance in plants.

  19. Arabidopsis phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C 4 negatively regulates seedling salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Keke; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Jiewei; Li, Yuan; Yang, Hailian; Ren, Dongtao

    2017-08-01

    Previous physiological and pharmacological studies have suggested that the activity of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) plays an important role in regulating plant salt stress responses by altering the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. However, the individual members of plant PLCs involved in this process need to be identified. Here, the function of AtPLC4 in the salt stress response of Arabidopsis seedlings was analysed. plc4 mutant seedlings showed hyposensitivity to salt stress compared with Col-0 wild-type seedlings, and the salt hyposensitive phenotype could be complemented by the expression of native promoter-controlled AtPLC4. Transgenic seedlings with AtPLC4 overexpression (AtPLC4 OE) exhibited a salt-hypersensitive phenotype, while transgenic seedlings with its inactive mutant expression (AtPLC4m OE) did not exhibit this phenotype. Using aequorin as a Ca2+ indicator in plc4 mutant and AtPLC4 OE seedlings, AtPLC4 was shown to positively regulate the salt-induced Ca2+ increase. The salt-hypersensitive phenotype of AtPLC4 OE seedlings was partially rescued by EGTA. An analysis of salt-responsive genes revealed that the transcription of RD29B, MYB15 and ZAT10 was inversely regulated in plc4 mutant and AtPLC4 OE seedlings. Our findings suggest that AtPLC4 negatively regulates the salt tolerance of Arabidopsis seedlings, and Ca2+ may be involved in regulating this process. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Fungus Aspergillus aculeatus Enhances Salt-Stress Tolerance, Metabolite Accumulation, and Improves Forage Quality in Perennial Ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoning; Han, Shijuan; Wang, Guangyang; Liu, Xiaoying; Amombo, Erick; Xie, Yan; Fu, Jinmin

    2017-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is an important forage grass with high yield and superior quality in temperate regions which is widely used in parks, sport field, and other places. However, perennial ryegrass is moderately tolerant to salinity stress compared to other commercial cultivars and salt stress reduces their growth and productivity. Aspergillus aculeatus has been documented to participate in alleviating damage induced by salinity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying A. aculeatus-mediated salt tolerance, and forage quality of perennial ryegrass exposed to 0, 200, and 400 mM NaCl concentrations. Physiological markers and forage quality of perennial ryegrass to salt stress were evaluated based on the growth rate, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes activity, lipid peroxidation, ionic homeostasis, the nutritional value of forage, and metabolites. Plants inoculated with A. aculeatus exhibited higher relative growth rate (RGR), turf and forage quality under salt stress than un-inoculated plants. Moreover, in inoculated plants, the fungus remarkably improved plant photosynthetic efficiency, reduced the antioxidant enzymes activity (POD and CAT), and attenuated lipid peroxidation (decreased H2O2 and MDA accumulation) induced by salinity, compared to un-inoculated plants. Furthermore, the fungus also acts as an important role in maintaining the lower Na/K ratio and metabolites and lower the amino acids (Alanine, Proline, GABA, and Asparagine), and soluble sugars (Glucose and Fructose) for inoculated plants than un-inoculated ones. Our results suggest that A. aculeatus may be involved in modulating perennial ryegrass tolerance to salinity in various ways.

  1. Overexpression of GsZFP1 enhances salt and drought tolerance in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lili; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Luo, Xiao; Wang, Zhenyu; Wu, Jing; Wang, Xuedong; Cui, Lin; Wang, Yang; Zhu, Yanming; Bai, Xi

    2013-10-01

    GsZFP1 encodes a Cys2/His2-type zinc-finger protein. In our previous study, when GsZFP1 was heterologously expressed in Arabidopsis, the transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited enhanced drought and cold tolerance. However, it is still unknown whether GsZFP1 is also involved in salt stress. GsZFP1 is from the wild legume Glycine soja. Therefore, the aims of this study were to further elucidate the functions of the GsZFP1 gene under salt and drought stress in the forage legume alfalfa and to investigate its biochemical and physiological functions under these stress conditions. Our data showed that overexpression of GsZFP1 in alfalfa resulted in enhanced salt tolerance. Under high salinity stress, greater relative membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were observed and more free proline and soluble sugars accumulated in transgenic alfalfa than in the wild-type (WT) plants; in addition, the transgenic lines accumulated less Na(+) and more K(+) in both the shoots and roots. Overexpression of GsZFP1 also enhanced the drought tolerance of alfalfa. The fold-inductions of stress-responsive marker gene expression, including MtCOR47, MtRAB18, MtP5CS, and MtRD2, were greater in transgenic alfalfa than those of WT under drought stress conditions. In conclusion, the transgenic alfalfa plants generated in this study could be used for farming in salt-affected as well as arid and semi-arid areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. A salt-stress-regulator from the Poplar R2R3 MYB family integrates the regulation of lateral root emergence and ABA signaling to mediate salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qing; Jiang, Tianzhi; Xu, Liangxiang; Liu, Hai; Mao, Hui; Wang, Xianqiang; Jiao, Bo; Duan, Yanjiao; Wang, Qiong; Dong, Qiannan; Yang, Li; Tian, Guozheng; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Yifeng; Liu, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haiyang; Fan, Di; Wang, Bangjun; Luo, Keming

    2017-05-01

    The roles of most MYB transcription factors (TFs) in the poplar remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that PtrSSR1, a salt-stress-regulator in the Populus trichocarpa R2R3 MYB gene family, mediates the tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis plants to salt stress. The transcripts of PtrSSR1 could be induced by salt stress rapidly in poplar. Subcellular localization and yeast assays indicated that PtrSSR1 encoded a nuclear protein with transactivation activity. The Arabidopsis transformants overexpressing PtrSSR1 clearly displayed lateral root emergence (LRE) inhibition compared with wild-type (Wt) under normal conditions; while upon NaCl treatment, the transformants showed improved tolerance, and the LRs emerged faster from salt-induced inhibition. A strong correlation could exist between the LRE mediated by PtrSSR1 and abscisic acid (ABA), mainly because the transformants displayed more sensitivity to exogenous ABA during both seed germination and LRE, and had a distinctly increased level of endogenous ABA. Furthermore, several ABA- and salt-related genes, such as NCED3, ABI1 and CBL1, were up-regulated. Thus, our results suggest that elevation in the endogenous ABA content bring alteration of plant LR development, and that the poplar R2R3 MYB TF PtrSSR1 vitally improve salt stress tolerance by integrating the regulation of LRE and ABA signaling in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Na+ compartmentalization related to salinity stress tolerance in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Peng; Shoupu He; Junling Sun; Zhaoe Pan; Wenfang Gong; Yanli Lu; Xiongming Du

    2016-01-01

    The capacity for ion compartmentalization among different tissues and cells is the key mechanism regulating salt tolerance in plants. In this study, we investigated the ion compartmentalization capacity of two upland cotton genotypes with different salt tolerances under salt shock at the tissue, cell and molecular levels. We found that the leaf glandular trichome could secrete more salt ions in the salt-tolerant genotype than in the sensitive genotype, demonstrating the excretion of ions from...

  4. Salinity affects production and salt tolerance of dimorphic seeds of Suaeda salsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengxia; Xu, Yan-Ge; Wang, Shuai; Shi, Weiwei; Liu, Ranran; Feng, Gu; Song, Jie

    2015-10-01

    The effect of salinity on brown seeds/black seeds ratio, seed weight, endogenous hormone concentrations, and germination of brown and black seeds in the euhalophyte Suaeda salsa was investigated. The brown seeds/black seeds ratio, seed weight of brown and black seeds and the content of protein increased at a concentration of 500 mM NaCl compared to low salt conditions (1 mM NaCl). The germination percentage and germination index of brown seeds from plants cultured in 500 mM NaCl were higher than those cultured in 1 mM NaCl, but it was not true for black seeds. The concentrations of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), ZR (free zeatin riboside) and ABA (abscisic acid) in brown seeds were much greater than those in black seeds, but there were no differences in the level of GAs (gibberellic acid including GA1 and GA3) regardless of the degree of salinity. Salinity during plant culture increased the concentration of GAs, but salinity had no effect on the concentrations of the other three endogenous hormones in brown seeds. Salinity had no effect on the concentration of IAA but increased the concentrations of the other three endogenous hormones in black seeds. Accumulation of endogenous hormones at different concentrations of NaCl during plant growth may be related to seed development and to salt tolerance of brown and black S. salsa seeds. These characteristics may help the species to ensure seedling establishment and population succession in variable saline environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Physiological Basis for the Tolerance of Yeast Zygosaccharomyces bisporus to Salt Stress

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    Akshya Sharma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zygosaccharomyces bisporus is a moderately halotolerant yeast isolated from highly sugary and salty foods. We performed various evident biochemical and in vivo experiments as first of its kind to sketch out the possible overlay of salt tolerance mechanism in this model organism. The growth and survival curve analysis revealed that 1.0 M NaCl concentration (sublethal enacts growth inhibitory effects with prompting immediate delay in cell division cycle; however, yeast cells adopted modified stress physiologically with further stretched stress spans which was accompanied by an upsurge in the level of cellular metabolites such as trehalose (reserve carbohydrate and chiefly glycerol (polyols as major compatible osmolytes, suggesting their role in defense mechanism against osmotic stress. To further elucidate the relation of osmotic stress cell physiology to salinity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyl, and reduced glutathione content were measured in salt-stressed cells demonstrating positive correlation of reactive oxygen species generation in Z. bisporus with an elevated concentration of lipid and protein oxidation, thereby damaging cell membrane and eventually causing cell death. We assessed NaCl exposure sourcing increased intracellular reactive oxygen species concentration, by an electron transfer-based colorimetric cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity assay justifying that cellular total antioxidant capacity which uses all the combined antioxidant activities present within vitamins, proteins, lipids, and glutathione reverses these deleterious stress effects. Henceforth, performance of Z. bisporus MTCC 4801 mounted because of stress regime seems to be multifactorial.

  6. Molecular Karyotyping and Exome Analysis of Salt-Tolerant Rice Mutant from Somaclonal Variation

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    Thanikarn Udomchalothorn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available LPT123-TC171 is a salt-tolerant (ST and drought-tolerant (DT rice line that was selected from somaclonal variation of the original Leuang Pratew 123 (LPT123 rice cultivar. The objective of this study was to identify the changes in the rice genome that possibly lead to ST and/or DT characteristics. The genomes of LPT123 and LPT123-TC171 were comparatively studied at the four levels of whole chromosomes (chromosome structure including telomeres, transposable elements, and DNA sequence changes by using next-generation sequencing analysis. Compared with LPT123, the LPT123-TC171 line displayed no changes in the ploidy level, but had a significant deficiency of chromosome ends (telomeres. The functional genome analysis revealed new aspects of the genome response to the in vitro cultivation condition, where exome sequencing revealed the molecular spectrum and pattern of changes in the somaclonal variant compared with the parental LPT123 cultivar. Mutation detection was performed, and the degree of mutations was evaluated to estimate the impact of mutagenesis on the protein functions. Mutations within the known genes responding to both drought and salt stress were detected in 493 positions, while mutations within the genes responding to only salt stress were found in 100 positions. The possible functions of the mutated genes contributing to salt or drought tolerance were discussed. It was concluded that the ST and DT characteristics in the somaclonal variegated line resulted from the base changes in the salt- and drought-responsive genes rather than the changes in chromosome structure or the large duplication or deletion in the specific region of the genome.

  7. Determination of Salt Tolerance of Stock (Matthiola tricuspidata) as a Potential Oil Crop

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRAL, Mehmet Ali

    2003-01-01

    In this study the salt tolerance of stock (Matthiola tricuspidata) was investigated. For this purpose, a control and 4 different concentrations of NaCl + CaCl2 were applied to plants grown under greenhouse conditions. Na, Cl and electrical conductivity (EC) analyses were conducted in soil, plant and leached samples. Yield, plant growth parameters and plant dry matter were also determined. All plants survived until the end of the experiments. Treatments affected the ion content and EC of leach...

  8. Soybean salt tolerance 1 (GmST1 reduces ROS production, enhances ABA sensitivity and abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxin eRen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses, including high soil salinity, significantly reduce crop production worldwide. Salt tolerance in plants is a complex trait and is regulated by multiple mechanisms. Understanding the mechanisms and dissecting the components on their regulatory pathways will provide new insights, leading to novel strategies for the improvement of salt tolerance in agricultural and economic crops of importance. Here we report that soybean salt tolerance 1, named GmST1, exhibited strong tolerance to salt stress in the Arabidopsis transgenic lines. The GmST1-overexpressed Arabidopsis also increased sensitivity to ABA and decreased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS under salt stress. In addition, GmST1 significantly improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis transgenic lines. GmST1 belongs to a 3-prime part of Glyma.03g171600 gene in the current version of soybean genome sequence annotation. However, comparative RT-PCR analysis around Glyma.03g171600 genomic region confirmed that GmST1 might serve as an intact gene in soybean leaf tissues. Unlike Glyma.03g171600 which was not expressed in leaves, GmST1 was strongly induced by salt treatment in the leaf tissues. By promoter analysis, a TATA box was detected to be positioned close to GmST1 start codon and a putative ABRE and a DRE cis-acting elements were identified at about 1kb upstream of GmST1 gene. The data also indicated that GmST1-transgenic lines survived under drought stress and showed a significantly lower water loss than non-transgenic lines. In summary, our results suggest that overexpression of GmST1 significantly improves Arabidopsis tolerance to both salt and drought stresses and the gene may be a potential candidate for genetic engineering of salt- and drought-tolerant crops.

  9. A Novel Thylakoid Ascorbate Peroxidase from Jatrophacurcas Enhances Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco

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    Zhibin Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbate peroxidase (APX plays an important role in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide in higher plants. In the present study, a novel APX gene (JctAPX was cloned from Jatropha curcas L. The deduced amino acid sequence was similar to that of APX of some other plant species. JctAPX has a chloroplast transit peptide and was localized to the chloroplasts by analysis with a JctAPX-green fluorescent protein (GFP fusion protein. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR analysis showed that JctAPX was constitutively expressed in different tissues from J. curcas and was upregulated by NaCl stress. To characterize its function in salt tolerance, the construct p35S: JctAPX was created and successfully introduced into tobacco by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Compared with wild type (WT, the transgenic plants exhibited no morphological abnormalities in the no-stress condition. However, under 200 mM NaCl treatment, JctAPX over-expressing plants showed increased tolerance to salt during seedling establishment and growth. In addition, the transgenic lines showed higher chlorophyll content and APX activity, which resulted in lower H2O2 content than WT when subjected to 400 mM NaCl stress. These results suggest that the increased APX activity in the chloroplasts from transformed plants increased salt tolerance by enhancing reactive oxygen species (ROS-scavenging capacity under short-term NaCl stress conditions.

  10. Salt tolerance and regulation of gas exchange and hormonal homeostasis by auxin-priming in wheat

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    Muhammad Iqbal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the regulatory effects of auxin-priming on gas exchange and hormonal homeostasis in spring wheat subjected to saline conditions. Seeds of MH-97 (salt-intolerant and Inqlab-91 (salt-tolerant cultivars were subjected to 11 priming treatments (three hormones x three concentrations + two controls and evaluated under saline (15 dS m-1 and nonsaline (2.84 dS m-1 conditions. The priming treatments consisted of: 5.71, 8.56, and 11.42 × 10-4 mol L-1 indoleacetic acid; 4.92, 7.38, and 9.84 × 10-4 mol L-1 indolebutyric acid; 4.89, 7.34, and 9.79 × 10-4 mol L-1 tryptophan; and a control with hydroprimed seeds. A negative control with nonprimed seeds was also evaluated. All priming agents diminished the effects of salinity on endogenous abscisic acid concentration in the salt-intolerant cultivar. Grain yield was positively correlated with net CO2 assimilation rate and endogenous indoleacetic acid concentration, and it was negatively correlated with abscisic acid and free polyamine concentrations. In general, the priming treatment with tryptophan at 4.89 × 10-4 mol L-1 was the most effective in minimizing yield losses and reductions in net CO2 assimilation rate, under salt stress conditions. Hormonal homeostasis increases net CO2 assimilation rate and confers tolerance to salinity on spring wheat.

  11. Overexpression of SDH confers tolerance to salt and osmotic stress, but decreases ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Pu; Ren, Jing-Jing; Yu, Qin; Zhou, Shu-Mei; Ren, Qiu-Ping; Kong, Lan-Jing; Wang, Xiu-Ling

    2017-11-10

    Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) catalyzes the reversible oxidation of sorbitol, xylitol and ribitol to their corresponding ketoses. In this study, we investigated the expression and role of Arabidopsis SDH in salt and osmotic stress tolerance, and abscisic acid (ABA) response. The expression patterns of SDH were investigated using transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing beta-glucuronidase (GUS) under the control of promoter with the first intron of SDH. qRT-PCR and histochemical assay of GUS activity were used to study SDH expression regulation by ABA, salt and osmotic stress. The SDH-overexpression lines of Arabidopsis were used to investigate the role of SDH involved in salt and osmotic stress, and ABA response. Arabidopsis SDH was predominantly expressed in source organs such as green cotyledons, fully expanded leaves and sepals, especially in the vascular tissues of theses organs. The SDH expression was inhibited by NaCl and mannitol treatments. Seed germination and post-germination growth of SDH-overexpressing lines exhibited decreased sensitivity toward salt and osmotic stress compared to wild-type plants. The transcript of SDH was induced by ABA. Overexpression of SDH decreased sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and post-germination growth. Expression of AAO3 was increased but ABI5 and MYB2 was decreased in SDH-overexpressing lines after ABA treatment. This study demonstrated that the expression of SDH is regulated by ABA, salt and osmotic stress. SDH functions in plant tolerance to salt and osmotic stress, and ABA response via specific regulating gene expression of ABA synthesis and signaling in Arabidopsis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Physiological, Biochemical, Epigenetic and Molecular Analyses of Wheat (Triticum aestivum Genotypes with Contrasting Salt Tolerance

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    Suresh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress exerts significant impact on plant’s growth, development, and productivity. Productivity of crop plants under salt stress is lagging behind because of our limited knowledge about physiological, biochemical, epigenetic, and molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance in plants. This study aimed to investigate physio-biochemical, molecular indices and defense responses of selected wheat cultivars to identify the most contrasting salt-responsive genotypes and the mechanisms associated with their differential responses. Physio-biochemical traits specifically membrane stability index, antioxidant potential, osmoprotectants and chlorophyll contents, measured at vegetative stage, were used for multivariate analysis to identify the most contrasting genotypes. Genetic and epigenetic analyses indicated the possible mechanisms associated with differential response of the wheat genotypes under salt stress. Better antioxidant potential, membrane stability, increased accumulation of osmolytes/phytophenolics, and higher K+/Na+ ratio under 200 mM NaCl stress identified Kharchia-65 to be the most salt-tolerant cultivar. By contrast, increased MDA level, reduced soluble sugar, proline, total chlorophyll, total phenolics contents, and lower antioxidant potential in HD-2329 marked it to be sensitive to the stress. Genetic and bioinformatics analyses of HKT1;4 of contrasting genotypes (Kharchia-65 and HD-2329 revealed deletions, transitions, and transversions resulting into altered structure, loss of conserved motifs (Ser-Gly-Gly-Gly and Gly-Arg and function in salt-sensitive (HD-2329 genotype. Expression analysis of HKTs rationalized the observed responses. Epigenetic variations in cytosine methylation explained tissue- and genotype-specific differential expression of HKT2;1 and HKT2;3.

  13. Genotypes Associated with Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Displaying Impaired or Enhanced Tolerances to Cold, Salt, Acid, or Desiccation Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingston, Patricia; Chen, Jessica; Dhillon, Bhavjinder K; Laing, Chad; Bertelli, Claire; Gannon, Victor; Tasara, Taurai; Allen, Kevin; Brinkman, Fiona S L; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth; Wang, Siyun

    2017-01-01

    The human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a large concern in the food industry where its continuous detection in food products has caused a string of recalls in North America and Europe. Most recognized for its ability to grow in foods during refrigerated storage, L. monocytogenes can also tolerate several other food-related stresses with some strains possessing higher levels of tolerances than others. The objective of this study was to use a combination of phenotypic analyses and whole genome sequencing to elucidate potential relationships between L. monocytogenes genotypes and food-related stress tolerance phenotypes. To accomplish this, 166 L. monocytogenes isolates were sequenced and evaluated for their ability to grow in cold (4°C), salt (6% NaCl, 25°C), and acid (pH 5, 25°C) stress conditions as well as survive desiccation (33% RH, 20°C). The results revealed that the stress tolerance of L. monocytogenes is associated with serotype, clonal complex (CC), full length inlA profiles, and the presence of a plasmid which was identified in 55% of isolates. Isolates with full length inlA exhibited significantly (p < 0.001) enhanced cold tolerance relative to those harboring a premature stop codon (PMSC) in this gene. Similarly, isolates possessing a plasmid demonstrated significantly (p = 0.013) enhanced acid tolerance. We also identified nine new L. monocytogenes sequence types, a new inlA PMSC, and several connections between CCs and the presence/absence or variations of specific genetic elements. A whole genome single-nucleotide-variants phylogeny revealed sporadic distribution of tolerant isolates and closely related sensitive and tolerant isolates, highlighting that minor genetic differences can influence the stress tolerance of L. monocytogenes. Specifically, a number of cold and desiccation sensitive isolates contained PMSCs in σB regulator genes (rsbS, rsbU, rsbV). Collectively, the results suggest that knowing the sequence type of an isolate in

  14. Overexpression of TaLEA gene from Tamarix androssowii improves salt and drought tolerance in transgenic poplar (Populus simonii × P. nigra.

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    Weidong Gao

    Full Text Available Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA genes were confirmed to confer resistance to drought and water deficiency. An LEA gene from Tamarixandrossowii (named TaLEA was transformed into Xiaohei poplar (Populussimonii × P. nigra via Agrobacterium. Twenty-five independent transgenic lines were obtained that were resistant to kanamycin, and 11 transgenic lines were randomly selected for further analysis. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR and ribonucleic acid (RNA gel blot indicated that the TaLEA gene had been integrated into the poplar genome. The height growth rate, malondialdehyde (MDA content, relative electrolyte leakage and damages due to salt or drought to transgenic and non-transgenic plants were compared under salt and drought stress conditions. The results showed that the constitutive expression of the TaLEA gene in transgenic poplars could induce an increase in height growth rate and a decrease in number and severity of wilted leaves under the salt and drought stresses. The MDA content and relative electrolyte leakage in transgenic lines under salt and drought stresses were significantly lower compared to those in non-transgenic plants, indicating that the TaLEA gene may enhance salt and drought tolerance by protecting cell membranes from damage. Moreover, amongst the lines analyzed for stress tolerance, the transgenic line 11 (T11 showed the highest tolerance levels under both salinity and drought stress conditions. These results indicated that the TaLEA gene could be a salt and drought tolerance candidate gene and could confer a broad spectrum of tolerance under abiotic stresses in poplars.

  15. Matroidal Structure of Generalized Rough Sets Based on Tolerance Relations

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    Hui Li

    2014-01-01

    of the generalized rough set based on the tolerance relation. The matroid can also induce a new relation. We investigate the connection between the original tolerance relation and the induced relation.

  16. Over‐expression of an Na+‐ and K+‐permeable HKT transporter in barley improves salt tolerance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mian, Afaq; Oomen, Ronald J.F.J; Isayenkov, Stanislav; Sentenac, Hervé; Maathuis, Frans J.M; Véry, Anne‐Aliénor

    2011-01-01

    ... + uptake, translocation and compartmentalization. Na + transporters belonging to the HKT family have been shown to be involved in tolerance to mild salt stress in glycophytes such as Arabidopsis, wheat and rice by contributing to Na...

  17. Induction of salt tolerance and up‐regulation of aquaporin genes in tropical corn by rhizobacterium Pantoea agglomerans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gond, S.K; Torres, M.S; Bergen, M.S; Helsel, Z; White, J.F

    2015-01-01

    Significance and Impact of the Study: The enhancement of salt tolerance capacity in tropical corn, an important food crop, has the capacity to increase its cultivation area and yield in saline soils...

  18. Proteomic comparison reveals the contribution of chloroplast to salt tolerance of a wheat introgression line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjing; Lv, Hongjun; Zhao, Mingming; Li, Yongchao; Qi, Yueying; Peng, Zhenying; Xia, Guangmin; Wang, Mengcheng

    2016-01-01

    We previously bred a salt tolerant wheat cv. SR3 with bread wheat cv. JN177 as the parent via asymmetric somatic hybridization, and found that the tolerance is partially attributed to the superior photosynthesis capacity. Here, we compared the proteomes of two cultivars to unravel the basis of superior photosynthesis capacity. In the maps of two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), there were 26 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), including 18 cultivar-based and 8 stress-responsive ones. 21 of 26 DEPs were identified and classified into four categories, including photosynthesis, photosynthesis system stability, linolenic acid metabolism, and protein synthesis in chloroplast. The chloroplast localization of some DEPs confirmed that the identified DEPs function in the chloroplast. The overexpression of a DEP enhanced salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. In line with these data, it is concluded that the contribution of chloroplast to high salinity tolerance of wheat cv. SR3 appears to include higher photosynthesis efficiency by promoting system protection and ROS clearance, stronger production of phytohormone JA by enhancing metabolism activity, and modulating the in chloroplast synthesis of proteins. PMID:27562633

  19. Overexpression of Populus trichocarpa Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase4 Enhances Salt Tolerance in Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjun Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK is one of the factors of cascade reactions affecting responses to signal pathway of environmental stimuli. Throughout the life of plants, MAPK family members participate in signal transduction pathways and regulate various intracellular physiological and metabolic reactions. To gain insights into regulatory function of MAPK kinase (MAPKK in Populus trichocarpa under salt stress, we obtained full-length cDNA of PtMAPKK4 and analyzed different expression levels of PtMAPKK4 gene in leaves, stems, and root organs. The relationship between PtMAPKK4 and salt stress was studied by detecting expression characteristics of mRNA under 150 mM NaCl stress using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that expression of PtMAPKK4 increased under salt (NaCl stress in leaves but initially reduced and then increased in roots. Thus, salt stress failed to induce PtMAPKK4 expression in stems. PtMAPKK4 possibly participates in regulation of plant growth and metabolism, thereby improving its salt tolerance. We used Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INVScI to verify subcellular localization of PtMAPKK4 kinase. The yeast strains containing pYES2-PtMAPKK4-GFP plasmid expressed GFP fusion proteins under the induction of d-galactose, and the products were located in nucleus. These results were consistent with network prediction and confirmed location of PtMAPKK4 enzyme in the nucleus. We tested NaCl tolerance in transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing PtMAPKK4 under the control of 35S promoter at germination stage to detect salt tolerance function of PtMAPKK4. Compared withK326 (a wild-type tobacco, lines overexpressing PtMAPKK4 showed a certain degree of improvement in tolerance, germination, and growth. NaCl inhibited growth of overexpressed line and K326 at the seedling stage. However, statistical analysis showed longer root length, higher fresh weight, and lower MDA content in transgenic lines in

  20. Soil bacteria conferred a positive relationship and improved salt stress tolerance in transgenic pea (Pisum sativum L.) harboring Na+/H+ antiporter

    OpenAIRE

    ALI, ZAHID; ULLAH, NASR; NASEEM, SAADIA; HAQ, MUHAMMAD INAM UL; JACOBSEN, HANS JOERG

    2015-01-01

    Among grain legumes, peas (Pisum sativum L.) are highly sensitive to salt stress. Acclimatization of plants to such conditions is mandatory. We provide improved salt stress tolerance response of transgenic pea plants overexpressing the Na+/H+ gene from Arabidopsis thaliana and a positive association with salt-tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). In addition to salt stress tolerance and phosphate solubilization, the selected rhizobacterial isolates were identified for indole a...

  1. Proteomic analysis on a high salt tolerance introgression strain of Triticum aestivum/Thinopyrum ponticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng-Cheng; Peng, Zhen-Ying; Li, Cui-Ling; Li, Fei; Liu, Chun; Xia, Guang-Min

    2008-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint to agricultural productivity. We successfully bred a new common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) introgression variety (Shanrong No. 3) with high salt-tolerance via asymmetric somatic hybridization between common wheat cultivar (Jinan 177) and UV-irradiated Agropyron elongatum (Thinopyrum ponticum Podp). We report here a comparative proteomic analysis to investigate variety-specific and salt-responsive proteins between seedling-roots of Shanrong No. 3 and Jinan 177. In total, 114 spots reproducibly presented differential expression patterns on 2-DE maps. Of them, 34 were variety-specific and 49 were salt-responsive. We identified 110 spots by MALDI-TOF MS and partially confirmed by MALDI-TOF-TOF MS, and functionally classified them into signal transduction, transcription and translation, transporting, chaperones, proteolysis and detoxification, etc. Meanwhile, we also found the alteration of protein expression of Shanrong No. 3 through inhibition of old proteins and production of novel ones, change in abundance and sensitivity of some nonsalt-responsive and salt-responsive proteins, as well as PTMs. Furthermore, comparison between proteome and transcripteome using cDNA microarray showed that there were only 20 proteins with abundances correlative to signal densities of corresponding EST probes. This study gives us a global insight into proteomic difference between Shanrong No. 3 and Jinan 177 in constitute and to salt-response.

  2. Quantitative proteomics of the tonoplast reveals a role for glycolytic enzymes in salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Hernández-Coronado, Marcela; Pantoja, Omar

    2009-12-01

    To examine the role of the tonoplast in plant salt tolerance and identify proteins involved in the regulation of transporters for vacuolar Na(+) sequestration, we exploited a targeted quantitative proteomics approach. Two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis analysis of free flow zonal electrophoresis separated tonoplast fractions from control, and salt-treated Mesembryanthemum crystallinum plants revealed the membrane association of glycolytic enzymes aldolase and enolase, along with subunits of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase V-ATPase. Protein blot analysis confirmed coordinated salt regulation of these proteins, and chaotrope treatment indicated a strong tonoplast association. Reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed that the glycolytic enzymes interacted with the V-ATPase subunit B VHA-B, and aldolase was shown to stimulate V-ATPase activity in vitro by increasing the affinity for ATP. To investigate a physiological role for this association, the Arabidopsis thaliana cytoplasmic enolase mutant, los2, was characterized. These plants were salt sensitive, and there was a specific reduction in enolase abundance in the tonoplast from salt-treated plants. Moreover, tonoplast isolated from mutant plants showed an impaired ability for aldolase stimulation of V-ATPase hydrolytic activity. The association of glycolytic proteins with the tonoplast may not only channel ATP to the V-ATPase, but also directly upregulate H(+)-pump activity.

  3. Heterologous Expression of Panax ginseng PgTIP1 Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance of Soybean Cotyledon Hairy Roots, Composite, and Whole Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing An

    2017-07-01

    shoots was simultaneously promoted. PgTIP1 transformation into soybean plants enhanced the expression of some stress-related genes (GmPOD, GmAPX1, GmSOS1, and GmCLC1 in the roots and leaves under salt treatment. This indicates that the causes of enhanced salt tolerance of heterologous PgTIP1-transformed soybean are associated with the positive regulation on water relations, ion homeostasis, and ROS scavenging under salt stress both at root-specific and whole plant levels.

  4. ESKIMO1 is a key gene involved in water economy as well as cold acclimation and salt tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Agnes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drought is a major social and economic problem resulting in huge yield reduction in the field. Today's challenge is to develop plants with reduced water requirements and stable yields in fluctuating environmental conditions. Arabidopsis thaliana is an excellent model for identifying potential targets for plant breeding. Drought tolerance in the field was successfully conferred to crops by transferring genes from this model species. While involved in a plant genomics programme, which aims to identify new genes responsible for plant response to abiotic stress, we identified ESKIMO1 as a key gene involved in plant water economy as well as cold acclimation and salt tolerance. Results All esk1 mutants were more tolerant to freezing, after acclimation, than their wild type counterpart. esk1 mutants also showed increased tolerance to mild water deficit for all traits measured. The mutant's improved tolerance to reduced water supply may be explained by its lower transpiration rate and better water use efficiency (WUE, which was assessed by carbon isotope discrimination and gas exchange measurements. esk1 alleles were also shown to be more tolerant to salt stress. Transcriptomic analysis of one mutant line and its wild-type background was carried out. Under control watering conditions a number of genes were differentially expressed between the mutant and the wild type whereas under mild drought stress this list of genes was reduced. Among the genes that were differentially expressed between the wild type and mutant, two functional categories related to the response to stress or biotic and abiotic stimulus were over-represented. Under salt stress conditions, all gene functional categories were represented equally in both the mutant and wild type. Based on this transcriptome analysis we hypothesise that in control conditions the esk1 mutant behaves as if it was exposed to drought stress. Conclusion Overall our findings suggest that the

  5. Variation in shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Tilbrook, Joanne

    2017-09-27

    Soil salinity can severely reduce crop growth and yield. Many studies have investigated salinity tolerance mechanisms in cereals using phenotypes that are relatively easy to measure. The majority of these studies measured the accumulation of shoot Na+ and the effect this has on plant growth. However, plant growth is reduced immediately after exposure to NaCl before Na+ accumulates to toxic concentrations in the shoot. In this study, nondestructive and destructive measurements are used to evaluate the responses of 24 predominately Australian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines at 0, 150 and 250mMNaCl. Considerable variation for shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity (shoot ion-independent tolerance) was found, withsome lines being able to maintain substantial growth rates under salt stress, whereas others stopped growing. Hordeum vulgare spp. spontaneum accessions and barley landraces predominantly had the best shoot ion independent tolerance, although two commercial cultivars, Fathom and Skiff, also had high tolerance. The tolerance of cv. Fathom may be caused by a recent introgression from H. vulgare L. spp. spontaneum. This study shows that the most salt-tolerant barley lines are those that contain both shoot ion-independent tolerance and the ability to exclude Na+ from the shoot (and thus maintain high K+: Na+ ratios).

  6. Cerium oxide nanoparticles alter the salt stress tolerance of Brassica napus L. by modifying the formation of root apoplastic barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Lorenzo; Zhang, Weilan; Ma, Xingmao

    2017-10-01

    Rapidly growing global population adds significant strains on the fresh water resources. Consequently, saline water is increasingly tapped for crop irrigation. Meanwhile, rapid advancement of nanotechnology is introducing more and more engineered nanoparticles into the environment and in agricultural soils. While some negative effects of ENPs on plant health at very high concentrations have been reported, more beneficial effects of ENPs at relatively low concentrations are increasingly noticed, opening doors for potential applications of nanotechnology in agriculture. In particular, we found that cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs) improved plant photosynthesis in salt stressed plants. Due to the close connections between salt stress tolerance and the root anatomical structures, we postulated that CeO2NPs could modify plant root anatomy and improve plant salt stress tolerance. This study aimed at testing the hypothesis with Brassica napus in the presence of CeO2NPs (0, 500 mg kg-1 dry sand) and/or NaCl (0, 50 mM) in a growth chamber. Free hand sections of fresh roots were taken every seven days for three weeks and the suberin lamellae development was examined under a fluorescence microscope. The results confirmed the hypothesis that CeO2NPs modified the formation of the apoplastic barriers in Brassica roots. In salt stressed plants, CeO2NPs shortened the root apoplastic barriers which allowed more Na+ transport to shoots and less accumulation of Na+ in plant roots. The altered Na+ fluxes and transport led to better physiological performance of Brassica and may lead to new applications of nanotechnology in agriculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Site Suitability Analysis for Dissemination of Salt-tolerant Rice Varieties in Southern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, D. D.; Singh, A. N.; Singh, U. S.

    2014-11-01

    Bangladesh is a country of 14.4 million ha geographical area and has a population density of more than 1100 persons per sq. km. Rice is the staple food crop, growing on about 72 % of the total cultivated land and continues to be the most important crop for food security of the country. A project "Sustainable Rice Seed Production and Delivery Systems for Southern Bangladesh" has been executed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in twenty southern districts of Bangladesh. These districts grow rice in about 2.9 million ha out of the country's total rice area of 11.3 million ha. The project aims at contributing to the Government of Bangladesh's efforts in improving national and household food security through enhanced and sustained productivity by using salinity-, submergence- and drought- tolerant and high yielding rice varieties. Out of the 20 project districts, 12 coastal districts are affected by the problem of soil salinity. The salt-affected area in Bangladesh has increased from about 0.83 million ha in 1973 to 1.02 million ha in 2000, and 1.05 million ha in 2009 due to the influence of cyclonic storms like "Sidr", "Laila" and others, leading to salt water intrusion in croplands. Three salinity-tolerant rice varieties have recently been bred by IRRI and field tested and released by the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) and Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA). These varieties are BRRI dhan- 47 and Bina dhan-8 and - 10. However, they can tolerate soil salinity level up to EC 8-10 dSm-1, whereas the EC of soils in several areas are much higher. Therefore, a large scale dissemination of these varieties can be done only when a site suitability analysis of the area is carried out. The present study was taken up with the objective of preparing the site suitability of the salt-tolerant varieties for the salinity-affected districts of southern Bangladesh. Soil salinity map prepared by Soil Resources Development Institute of

  8. Genotypes Associated with Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Displaying Impaired or Enhanced Tolerances to Cold, Salt, Acid, or Desiccation Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingston, Patricia; Chen, Jessica; Dhillon, Bhavjinder K.; Laing, Chad; Bertelli, Claire; Gannon, Victor; Tasara, Taurai; Allen, Kevin; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth; Wang, Siyun

    2017-01-01

    The human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a large concern in the food industry where its continuous detection in food products has caused a string of recalls in North America and Europe. Most recognized for its ability to grow in foods during refrigerated storage, L. monocytogenes can also tolerate several other food-related stresses with some strains possessing higher levels of tolerances than others. The objective of this study was to use a combination of phenotypic analyses and whole genome sequencing to elucidate potential relationships between L. monocytogenes genotypes and food-related stress tolerance phenotypes. To accomplish this, 166 L. monocytogenes isolates were sequenced and evaluated for their ability to grow in cold (4°C), salt (6% NaCl, 25°C), and acid (pH 5, 25°C) stress conditions as well as survive desiccation (33% RH, 20°C). The results revealed that the stress tolerance of L. monocytogenes is associated with serotype, clonal complex (CC), full length inlA profiles, and the presence of a plasmid which was identified in 55% of isolates. Isolates with full length inlA exhibited significantly (p stress tolerance of L. monocytogenes. Specifically, a number of cold and desiccation sensitive isolates contained PMSCs in σB regulator genes (rsbS, rsbU, rsbV). Collectively, the results suggest that knowing the sequence type of an isolate in addition to screening for the presence of full-length inlA and a plasmid, could help food processors and food agency investigators determine why certain isolates might be persisting in a food processing environment. Additionally, increased sequencing of L. monocytogenes isolates in combination with stress tolerance profiling, will enhance the ability to identify genetic elements associated with higher risk strains. PMID:28337186

  9. Effects of salt stress on wild type and vte4 mutant Arabidopsis thaliana: Model plant to engineer tolerance towards salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalatbari Amir Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental constraints impairing plant distribution and yield is believed to be salt stress. Additionally, engineered abiotic stress resistance or/and tolerance is considered as an indispensable target in order to enhance plant productivity. In this study, the effects of salinity on physiological and morphological of wild type (Columbia-0 and vte4 mutant Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated under different NaCl concentrations. These salt treatments, including control condition, 50mM and 100mM NaCl were imposed on the plants. Each salt treatment was replicated three times in a complete randomized design with factorial arrangement. Wild type and mutant A.thaliana plants were subjected to the abiotic stress (salinity for up to 11 days to evaluate the parameters of growth, development and water relations. As a result, the performance of wild type plants was stronger than vte4 mutant under different salt treatments. Under control condition, rosette dry weight, maximum quantum efficiency (PSII and specific leaf area obtained the highest values of 13.85 mg, considered, wild type A.thaliana recorded higher value of 0.82 gW/gFW for relative water content (RWC under 50mM NaCl whereas mutant plants gained the value of 0.78 gW/gFW under the same condition. However, root mass fraction indicated an increase for both wild type and vte4 mutant plants after 11 days of salt stress onset. The reduction of water potential was observed for wild type and mutant A.thaliana where it scored -1.3 MPa and -1.4, respectively. As a conclusion, these findings implied that under different salt treatments morphological and physiological responses of wild type and vte4 mutant were affected in which wild type plants showed more tolerance. Lack of γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ -TMT gene in vte4 seemed to impair defence mechanism of this mutant against salinity.

  10. Specific Investigations Related to Salt Rock Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vons, L. H.; Zelikson, A.; Charo, L.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper results are given of work in various countries in rather unrelated areas of research. Nevertheless, since the studies have been undertaken to better understand salt behaviour, both from mechanical and chemical points of view, some connection between the studies can be found. Studies...

  11. Overexpression of AtSTO1 leads to improved salt tolerance in Populus tremula × P. alba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneka S. Lawson; Charles H. Michler

    2014-01-01

    One of the major abiotic stress conditions limiting healthy growth of trees is salinity stress. The use of gene manipulation for increased tolerance to abiotic stress has been successful in many plant species. Overexpression of the Arabidopsis SALT TOLERANT1 (STO1) gene leads to increased concentrations of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase3, a vital...

  12. Discovery and characterization of two novel salt-tolerance genes in Puccinellia tenuiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Takano, Tetsuo; Liu, Shenkui

    2014-09-18

    Puccinellia tenuiflora is a monocotyledonous halophyte that is able to survive in extreme saline soil environments at an alkaline pH range of 9-10. In this study, we transformed full-length cDNAs of P. tenuiflora into Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using the full-length cDNA over-expressing gene-hunting system to identify novel salt-tolerance genes. In all, 32 yeast clones overexpressing P. tenuiflora cDNA were obtained by screening under NaCl stress conditions; of these, 31 clones showed stronger tolerance to NaCl and were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Four novel genes encoding proteins with unknown function were identified; these genes had no homology with genes from higher plants. Of the four isolated genes, two that encoded proteins with two transmembrane domains showed the strongest resistance to 1.3 M NaCl. RT-PCR and northern blot analysis of P. tenuiflora cultured cells confirmed the endogenous NaCl-induced expression of the two proteins. Both of the proteins conferred better tolerance in yeasts to high salt, alkaline and osmotic conditions, some heavy metals and H2O2 stress. Thus, we inferred that the two novel proteins might alleviate oxidative and other stresses in P. tenuiflora.

  13. Salt tolerant SUV3 overexpressing transgenic rice plants conserve physicochemical properties and microbial communities of rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Ranjan K; Ansari, Mohammad W; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Key concerns in the ecological evaluation of GM crops are undesirably spread, gene flow, other environmental impacts, and consequences on soil microorganism's biodiversity. Numerous reports have highlighted the effects of transgenic plants on the physiology of non-targeted rhizospheric microbes and the food chain via causing adverse effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop transgenics with insignificant toxic on environmental health. In the present study, SUV3 overexpressing salt tolerant transgenic rice evaluated in New Delhi and Cuttack soil conditions for their effects on physicochemical and biological properties of rhizosphere. Its cultivation does not affect soil properties viz., pH, Eh, organic C, P, K, N, Ca, Mg, S, Na and Fe(2+). Additionally, SUV3 rice plants do not cause any change in the phenotype, species characteristics and antibiotic sensitivity of rhizospheric bacteria. The population and/or number of soil organisms such as bacteria, fungi and nematodes were unchanged in the soil. Also, the activity of bacterial enzymes viz., dehydrogenase, invertase, phenol oxidases, acid phosphatases, ureases and proteases was not significantly affected. Further, plant growth promotion (PGP) functions of bacteria such as siderophore, HCN, salicylic acid, IAA, GA, zeatin, ABA, NH3, phosphorus metabolism, ACC deaminase and iron tolerance were, considerably, not influenced. The present findings suggest ecologically pertinent of salt tolerant SUV3 rice to sustain the health and usual functions of the rhizospheric organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduction of GIGANTEA expression in transgenic Brassica rapa enhances salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin A; Jung, Ha-Eun; Hong, Joon Ki; Hermand, Victor; Robertson McClung, C; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Joo Yeol; Lee, Soo In; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Jungsun; Yun, DaeJin; Kim, WeoYeon

    2016-09-01

    Here we report the enhancement of tolerance to salt stress in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage) through the RNAi-mediated reduction of GIGANTEA ( GI ) expression. Circadian clocks integrate environmental signals with internal cues to coordinate diverse physiological outputs. The GIGANTEA (GI) gene was first discovered due to its important contribution to photoperiodic flowering and has since been shown to be a critical component of the plant circadian clock and to contribute to multiple environmental stress responses. We show that the GI gene in Brassica rapa (BrGI) is similar to Arabidopsis GI in terms of both expression pattern and function. BrGI functionally rescued the late-flowering phenotype of the Arabidopsis gi-201 loss-of-function mutant. RNAi-mediated suppression of GI expression in Arabidopsis Col-0 and in the Chinese cabbage, B. rapa DH03, increased tolerance to salt stress. Our results demonstrate that the molecular functions of GI described in Arabidopsis are conserved in B. rapa and suggest that manipulation of gene expression through RNAi and transgenic overexpression could enhance tolerance to abiotic stresses and thus improve agricultural crop production.

  15. Silicon improves salt tolerance by increasing root water uptake in Cucumis sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Xing; Xu, Xuan-Bin; Hu, Yan-Hong; Han, Wei-Hua; Yin, Jun-Liang; Li, Huan-Li; Gong, Hai-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Silicon enhances root water uptake in salt-stressed cucumber plants through up-regulating aquaporin gene expression. Osmotic adjustment is a genotype-dependent mechanism for silicon-enhanced water uptake in plants. Silicon can alleviate salt stress in plants. However, the mechanism is still not fully understood, and the possible role of silicon in alleviating salt-induced osmotic stress and the underlying mechanism still remain to be investigated. In this study, the effects of silicon (0.3 mM) on Na accumulation, water uptake, and transport were investigated in two cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cultivars ('JinYou 1' and 'JinChun 5') under salt stress (75 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited the plant growth and photosynthesis and decreased leaf transpiration and water content, while added silicon ameliorated these negative effects. Silicon addition only slightly decreased the shoot Na levels per dry weight in 'JinYou 1' but not in 'JinChun 5' after 10 days of stress. Silicon addition reduced stress-induced decreases in root hydraulic conductivity and/or leaf-specific conductivity. Expressions of main plasma membrane aquaporin genes in roots were increased by added silicon, and the involvement of aquaporins in water uptake was supported by application of aquaporin inhibitor and restorative. Besides, silicon application decreased the root xylem osmotic potential and increased root soluble sugar levels in 'JinYou 1.' Our results suggest that silicon can improve salt tolerance of cucumber plants through enhancing root water uptake, and silicon-mediated up-regulation of aquaporin gene expression may in part contribute to the increase in water uptake. In addition, osmotic adjustment may be a genotype-dependent mechanism for silicon-enhanced water uptake in plants.

  16. Exogenous jasmonic acid can enhance tolerance of wheat seedlings to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, ZongBo; Guo, JunLi; Zhu, AiJing; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, ManMan

    2014-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is regarded as endogenous regulator that plays an important role in regulating stress responses, plant growth and development. To investigate the physiological mechanisms of salt stress mitigated by exogenous JA, foliar application of 2mM JA was done to wheat seedlings for 3days and then they were subjected to 150mM NaCl. Our results showed that 150mM NaCl treatment significantly decreased plant height, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, the concentration of glutathione (GSH), chlorophyll b (Chl b) and carotenoid (Car), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), enhanced the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the rate of superoxide radical (O2•-) generation in the wheat seedlings when compared with the control. However, treatments with exogenous JA for 3 days significantly enhanced salt stress tolerance in wheat seedlings by decreasing the concentration of MDA and H2O2, the production rate of O2•- and increasing the transcript levels and activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX and the contents of GSH, Chl b and Car, which, in turn, enhanced the growth of salt stressed seedlings. These results suggested that JA could effectively protect wheat seedlings from salt stress damage by enhancing activities of antioxidant enzymes and the concentration of antioxidative compounds to quench the excessive reactive oxygen species caused by salt stress and presented a practical implication for wheat cultivation in salt-affected soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Overexpression of Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase from Suaeda salsa Improves Salt Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Sui

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase is the first acyl esterifying enzyme in phosphatidylglycerol (PG synthesis process. In this study, we isolated and characterized the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT gene from Suaeda salsa (S. salsa and obtained the full length of the GPAT gene from S. salsa (SsGPAT by 5′ and 3′ RACE. The clone contained an open reading frame (ORF of 1167 bp nucleotides that comprised of 388 amino acid residues. Real-time PCR revealed that the mRNA accumulation of GPAT in S. salsa was induced by salt stress. The highest expression levels were observed when S. salsa leaves were exposed to 300 mM NaCl treatment. At the germination stage, the germination rate and root length of overexpressed Arabidopsis strains were significantly higher than WT under different concentrations of NaCl treatments, while the inhibitory effect was significantly severe in T-DNA insertion mutant strains. In the seedling stage, chlorophyll content, the photochemical efficiency of PSII, PSI oxidoreductive activity (ΔI/Io, and the unsaturated fatty acid content of PG decreased less in overexpressed strains and more in mutant strains than that in WT under salt stress. These results suggest that the overexpression of SsGPAT in Arabidopsis enhances salt tolerance and alleviates the photoinhibition of PSII and PSI under salt stress by improving the unsaturated fatty acid content of PG.

  18. Ectopic expression of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum sodium transporter McHKT2 provides salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Taiga; Furuhashi, Megumi; Sakaoka, Satomi; Morikami, Atsushi; Tsukagoshi, Hironaka

    2017-11-01

    Most plants do not tolerate highly saline environments; the development of salt stress tolerance is crucial for improving crop yield. An efficient way of finding genes involved in salt tolerance is to study and use data from halophytes. In this study, we used the Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (ice plant) expression data-set and selected for further study the gene McHKT2, which encodes for the Arabidopsis sodium transporter ortholog AtHKT1. In comparison with the HKT1 amino acid sequences from other plants, McHKT2 has several unique features. It seems to be localized to the plasma membrane, and its overexpression confers strong salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results indicate that McHKT2 is a suitable candidate protein that can induce salt tolerance in non-halophytes. Like McHKT2, using transcriptome data-sets from halophytes such as ice plant give us an efficiency way to obtain new gene resources that might involve in plant salt tolerance.

  19. Salt tolerant green crop species for sodium management in space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Shimoda, Toshifumi; Nose, Akihiro; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Ecological system and materials recycling loop of space agriculture are quite tight compared to natural ecological system on Earth. Sodium management will be a keen issue for space agricul-ture. Human nutritional requirements include sodium salt. Since sodium at high concentration is toxic for most of plant growth, excreted sodium of human waste should be removed from compost fertilizer. Use of marine algae is promising for harvesting potassium and other min-erals required for plant growth and returning remained sodium to satisfy human need of its intake. Farming salt tolerant green crop species is another approach to manage sodium problem in both space and terrestrial agriculture. We chose ice plant and New Zealand spinach. These two plant species are widely accepted green vegetable with many recipe. Ice plant can grow at the salinity level of sea water, and contain sodium salt up to 30% of its dry mass. Sodium distributes mainly in its bladder cells. New Zealand spinach is a plant species found in the front zone of sea shore, and tolerant against high salinity as well. Plant body size of both species at harvest is quite large, and easy to farm. Capability of bio-remediation of high saline soil is examined with ice plant and New Zealand spinach. Incubation medium was chosen to contain high concentration of sodium and potassium at the Na/K ratio of human excreta. In case Na/K ratio of plant body grown by this medium is greatly higher than that of incubation medium or soil, these halophytes are effective to remediate soil for farming less tolerant plant crop. Experimental results was less positive in this context.

  20. An Ipomoea batatas iron-sulfur cluster scaffold protein gene, IbNFU1, is involved in salt tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degao Liu

    Full Text Available Iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis involving the nitrogen fixation (Nif proteins has been proposed as a general mechanism acting in various organisms. NifU-like protein may play an important role in protecting plants against abiotic and biotic stresses. An iron-sulfur cluster scaffold protein gene, IbNFU1, was isolated from a salt-tolerant sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. line LM79 in our previous study, but its role in sweetpotato stress tolerance was not investigated. In the present study, the IbNFU1 gene was introduced into a salt-sensitive sweetpotato cv. Lizixiang to characterize its function in salt tolerance. The IbNFU1-overexpressing sweetpotato plants exhibited significantly higher salt tolerance compared with the wild-type. Proline and reduced ascorbate content were significantly increased, whereas malonaldehyde (MDA content was significantly decreased in the transgenic plants. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and photosynthesis were significantly enhanced in the transgenic plants. H2O2 was also found to be significantly less accumulated in the transgenic plants than in the wild-type. Overexpression of IbNFU1 up-regulated pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR genes under salt stress. The systemic up-regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging genes was found in the transgenic plants under salt stress. These findings suggest that IbNFU1gene is involved in sweetpotato salt tolerance and enhances salt tolerance of the transgenic sweetpotato plants by regulating osmotic balance, protecting membrane integrity and photosynthesis and activating ROS scavenging system.

  1. A Nucleus-localized Long Non-Coding RNA Enhances Drought and Salt Stress Tolerance

    KAUST Repository

    Qin, Tao

    2017-09-09

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) affect gene expression through a wide range of mechanisms and are considered as important regulators in many essential biological processes. A large number of lncRNA transcripts have been predicted or identified in plants in recent years. However, the biological functions for most of them are still unknown. In this study, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana lncRNA, Drought induced RNA (DRIR), as a novel positive regulator of plant response to drought and salt stress. DRIR was expressed at a low level under non-stress conditions but can be significantly activated by drought and salt stress as well as by abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. We identified a T-DNA insertion mutant, drirD, which had higher expression of the DRIR gene than the wild type plants. The drirD mutant exhibits increased tolerance to drought and salt stress. Overexpressing DRIR in Arabidopsis also increased tolerance to drought and salt stress of the transgenic plants. The drirD mutant and the overexpressing seedlings are more sensitive to ABA than the wild type in stomata closure and seedling growth. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis demonstrated that the expression of a large number of genes was altered in drirD and the overexpressing plants. These include genes involved in ABA signaling, water transport and other stress-relief processes. Our study reveals a mechanism whereby DRIR regulates plant response to abiotic stress by modulating the expression of a series of genes involved in stress response.

  2. The Arabidopsis RNA-Binding Protein AtRGGA Regulates Tolerance to Salt and Drought Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Ambrosone, Alfredo

    2015-03-17

    Salt and drought stress severely reduce plant growth and crop productivity worldwide. The identification of genes underlying stress response and tolerance is the subject of intense research in plant biology. Through microarray analyses, we previously identified in potato (Solanum tuberosum) StRGGA, coding for an Arginine Glycine Glycine (RGG) box-containing RNA-binding protein, whose expression was specifically induced in potato cell cultures gradually exposed to osmotic stress. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ortholog, AtRGGA, is a functional RNA-binding protein required for a proper response to osmotic stress. AtRGGA gene expression was up-regulated in seedlings after long-term exposure to abscisic acid (ABA) and polyethylene glycol, while treatments with NaCl resulted in AtRGGA down-regulation. AtRGGA promoter analysis showed activity in several tissues, including stomata, the organs controlling transpiration. Fusion of AtRGGA with yellow fluorescent protein indicated that AtRGGA is localized in the cytoplasm and the cytoplasmic perinuclear region. In addition, the rgga knockout mutant was hypersensitive to ABA in root growth and survival tests and to salt stress during germination and at the vegetative stage. AtRGGA-overexpressing plants showed higher tolerance to ABA and salt stress on plates and in soil, accumulating lower levels of proline when exposed to drought stress. Finally, a global analysis of gene expression revealed extensive alterations in the transcriptome under salt stress, including several genes such as ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE2, GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE TAU9, and several SMALL AUXIN UPREGULATED RNA-like genes showing opposite expression behavior in transgenic and knockout plants. Taken together, our results reveal an important role of AtRGGA in the mechanisms of plant response and adaptation to stress.

  3. Over-expression of histone H3K4 demethylase gene JMJ15 enhances salt tolerance in Arabidopsis

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    Yuan eShen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3 has been shown to be involved in stress-responsive gene expression and gene priming in plants. However, the role of H3K4me3 resetting in the processes is not clear. In this work we studied the expression and function of Arabidopsis H3K4 demethylase gene JMJ15. We show that the expression of JMJ15 was relatively low and was limited to a number of tissues during vegetative growth but was higher in young floral organs. Over-expression of the gene in gain-of-function mutants reduced the plant height with accumulation of lignin in stems, while the loss-of-function mutation did not produce any visible phenotype. The gain-of-function mutants showed enhanced salt tolerance, whereas the loss-of-function mutant was more sensitive to salt compared to the wild type. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that over-expression of JMJ15 down-regulated many genes which are preferentially marked by H3K4me3 and H3K4me2. Many of the down-regulated genes encode transcription regulators involved in stress responses. The data suggest that increased JMJ15 levels may regulate the gene expression program that enhances stress tolerance.

  4. Overexpression of WsSGTL1 gene of Withania somnifera enhances salt tolerance, heat tolerance and cold acclimation ability in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

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    Manoj K Mishra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sterol glycosyltrnasferases (SGT are enzymes that glycosylate sterols which play important role in plant adaptation to stress and are medicinally important in plants like Withania somnifera. The present study aims to find the role of WsSGTL1 which is a sterol glycosyltransferase from W. somnifera, in plant's adaptation to abiotic stress. METHODOLOGY: The WsSGTL1 gene was transformed in Arabidopsis thaliana through Agrobacterium mediated transformation, using the binary vector pBI121, by floral dip method. The phenotypic and physiological parameters like germination, root length, shoot weight, relative electrolyte conductivity, MDA content, SOD levels, relative electrolyte leakage and chlorophyll measurements were compared between transgenic and wild type Arabidopsis plants under different abiotic stresses--salt, heat and cold. Biochemical analysis was done by HPLC-TLC and radiolabelled enzyme assay. The promoter of the WsSGTL1 gene was cloned by using Genome Walker kit (Clontech, USA and the 3D structures were predicted by using Discovery Studio Ver. 2.5. RESULTS: The WsSGTL1 transgenic plants were confirmed to be single copy by Southern and homozygous by segregation analysis. As compared to WT, the transgenic plants showed better germination, salt tolerance, heat and cold tolerance. The level of the transgene WsSGTL1 was elevated in heat, cold and salt stress along with other marker genes such as HSP70, HSP90, RD29, SOS3 and LEA4-5. Biochemical analysis showed the formation of sterol glycosides and increase in enzyme activity. When the promoter of WsSGTL1 gene was cloned from W. somnifera and sequenced, it contained stress responsive elements. Bioinformatics analysis of the 3D structure of the WsSGTL1 protein showed functional similarity with sterol glycosyltransferase AtSGT of A. thaliana. CONCLUSIONS: Transformation of WsSGTL1 gene in A. thaliana conferred abiotic stress tolerance. The promoter of the gene in W.somnifera was found

  5. Anastatica hierochuntica, an Arabidopsis Desert Relative, Is Tolerant to Multiple Abiotic Stresses and Exhibits Species-Specific and Common Stress Tolerance Strategies with Its Halophytic Relative, Eutrema (Thellungiella) salsugineum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Gil; Shaked, Ruth; Kazachkova, Yana; Khan, Asif; Eppel, Amir; Cisneros, Aroldo; Acuna, Tania; Gutterman, Yitzhak; Tel-Zur, Noemi; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Fait, Aaron; Barak, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The search for novel stress tolerance determinants has led to increasing interest in plants native to extreme environments – so called “extremophytes.” One successful strategy has been comparative studies between Arabidopsis thaliana and extremophyte Brassicaceae relatives such as the halophyte Eutrema salsugineum located in areas including cold, salty coastal regions of China. Here, we investigate stress tolerance in the desert species, Anastatica hierochuntica (True Rose of Jericho), a member of the poorly investigated lineage III Brassicaceae. We show that A. hierochuntica has a genome approximately 4.5-fold larger than Arabidopsis, divided into 22 diploid chromosomes, and demonstrate that A. hierochuntica exhibits tolerance to heat, low N and salt stresses that are characteristic of its habitat. Taking salt tolerance as a case study, we show that A. hierochuntica shares common salt tolerance mechanisms with E. salsugineum such as tight control of shoot Na+ accumulation and resilient photochemistry features. Furthermore, metabolic profiling of E. salsugineum and A. hierochuntica shoots demonstrates that the extremophytes exhibit both species-specific and common metabolic strategies to cope with salt stress including constitutive up-regulation (under control and salt stress conditions) of ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, two metabolites involved in ROS scavenging. Accordingly, A. hierochuntica displays tolerance to methyl viologen-induced oxidative stress suggesting that a highly active antioxidant system is essential to cope with multiple abiotic stresses. We suggest that A. hierochuntica presents an excellent extremophyte Arabidopsis relative model system for understanding plant survival in harsh desert conditions. PMID:28144244

  6. The SbSOS1 gene from the extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata enhances Na+ loading in xylem and confers salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco

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    Yadav Narendra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil salinity adversely affects plant growth and development and disturbs intracellular ion homeostasis resulting cellular toxicity. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1 gene encodes a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that plays an important role in imparting salt stress tolerance to plants. Here, we report the cloning and characterisation of the SbSOS1 gene from Salicornia brachiata, an extreme halophyte. Results The SbSOS1 gene is 3774 bp long and encodes a protein of 1159 amino acids. SbSOS1 exhibited a greater level of constitutive expression in roots than in shoots and was further increased by salt stress. Overexpressing the S. brachiata SbSOS1 gene in tobacco conferred high salt tolerance, promoted seed germination and increased root length, shoot length, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight, relative water content (RWC, chlorophyll, K+/Na+ ratio, membrane stability index, soluble sugar, proline and amino acid content relative to wild type (WT plants. Transgenic plants exhibited reductions in electrolyte leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS and MDA content in response to salt stress, which probably occurred because of reduced cytosolic Na+ content and oxidative damage. At higher salt stress, transgenic tobacco plants exhibited reduced Na+ content in root and leaf and higher concentrations in stem and xylem sap relative to WT, which suggests a role of SbSOS1 in Na+ loading to xylem from root and leaf tissues. Transgenic lines also showed increased K+ and Ca2+ content in root tissue compared to WT, which reflect that SbSOS1 indirectly affects the other transporters activity. Conclusions Overexpression of SbSOS1 in tobacco conferred a high degree of salt tolerance, enhanced plant growth and altered physiological and biochemical parameters in response to salt stress. In addition to Na+ efflux outside the plasma membrane, SbSOS1 also helps to maintain variable Na+ content in different organs and also affect the other

  7. An ABRE-binding factor, OSBZ8, is highly expressed in salt tolerant cultivars than in salt sensitive cultivars of indica rice

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    Gupta Sudhiranjan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bZIP class Abscisic acid Responsive Element (ABRE-binding factor, OSBZ8 (38.5 kD has been considered to regulate ABA-mediated transcription in the suspension cultured cells of japonica rice. Still, nothing is known about the expression of OSBZ8 at protein level in vegetative tissue of salt sensitive and salt tolerant rice plants. In our previous study, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA of [32P]ABRE-DNA and nuclear extracts prepared from the lamina of Pokkali rice plants has detected the presence of an ABRE-binding factor. Northern analysis has also detected salinity stress induced accumulation of transcripts for bZIP class of factor. Therefore, OSBZ8 was considered to play an important role in the regulation of transcription in the vegetative tissue of rice. The aim of this study is to find out whether OSBZ8 has any role in regulating the NaCl-stress induced gene expression in vegetative tissue and whether the expression of OSBZ8 factor directly correlates with the stress tolerance of different varieties of indica type rice. Results Northern analysis of total RNA from roots and lamina of salt-sensitive M-I-48 and salt-tolerant Nonabokra, when probed with the N-terminal unique region of OSBZ8 (OSBZ8p, without the highly conserved basic region, a transcript of 1.3 kb hybridized and its level was much higher in tolerant cultivar. EMSA with Em1a, the strongest ABA Responsive Element till reported from the upstream of EmBP1, and the nuclear extracts from laminar tissue of untreated and salt-treated seedlings of three salt sensitive, one moderately sensitive and two salt tolerant indica rice cultivars showed specific binding of nuclear factor to ABRE element. Intensity of binding was low and inducible in salt sensitive rice cultivars while high and constitutive in salt tolerant cultivars. EMSA with 300 bp 5'upstream region of Rab16A gene, a well known salt stress and ABA-inducible gene of rice, showed formation of two

  8. An ABRE-binding factor, OSBZ8, is highly expressed in salt tolerant cultivars than in salt sensitive cultivars of indica rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kakali; Choudhury, Aryadeep Roy; Gupta, Bhaskar; Gupta, Sudhiranjan; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2006-01-01

    Background The bZIP class Abscisic acid Responsive Element (ABRE)-binding factor, OSBZ8 (38.5 kD) has been considered to regulate ABA-mediated transcription in the suspension cultured cells of japonica rice. Still, nothing is known about the expression of OSBZ8 at protein level in vegetative tissue of salt sensitive and salt tolerant rice plants. In our previous study, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) of [32P]ABRE-DNA and nuclear extracts prepared from the lamina of Pokkali rice plants has detected the presence of an ABRE-binding factor. Northern analysis has also detected salinity stress induced accumulation of transcripts for bZIP class of factor. Therefore, OSBZ8 was considered to play an important role in the regulation of transcription in the vegetative tissue of rice. The aim of this study is to find out whether OSBZ8 has any role in regulating the NaCl-stress induced gene expression in vegetative tissue and whether the expression of OSBZ8 factor directly correlates with the stress tolerance of different varieties of indica type rice. Results Northern analysis of total RNA from roots and lamina of salt-sensitive M-I-48 and salt-tolerant Nonabokra, when probed with the N-terminal unique region of OSBZ8 (OSBZ8p, without the highly conserved basic region), a transcript of 1.3 kb hybridized and its level was much higher in tolerant cultivar. EMSA with Em1a, the strongest ABA Responsive Element till reported from the upstream of EmBP1, and the nuclear extracts from laminar tissue of untreated and salt-treated seedlings of three salt sensitive, one moderately sensitive and two salt tolerant indica rice cultivars showed specific binding of nuclear factor to ABRE element. Intensity of binding was low and inducible in salt sensitive rice cultivars while high and constitutive in salt tolerant cultivars. EMSA with 300 bp 5'upstream region of Rab16A gene, a well known salt stress and ABA-inducible gene of rice, showed formation of two complexes, again very

  9. The Solanum lycopersicum WRKY3 Transcription Factor SlWRKY3 Is Involved in Salt Stress Tolerance in Tomato

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    Imène Hichri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Salinity threatens productivity of economically important crops such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.. WRKY transcription factors appear, from a growing body of knowledge, as important regulators of abiotic stresses tolerance. Tomato SlWRKY3 is a nuclear protein binding to the consensus CGTTGACC/T W box. SlWRKY3 is preferentially expressed in aged organs, and is rapidly induced by NaCl, KCl, and drought. In addition, SlWRKY3 responds to salicylic acid, and 35S::SlWRKY3 tomatoes showed under salt treatment reduced contents of salicylic acid. In tomato, overexpression of SlWRKY3 impacted multiple aspects of salinity tolerance. Indeed, salinized (125 mM NaCl, 20 days 35S::SlWRKY3 tomato plants displayed reduced oxidative stress and proline contents compared to WT. Physiological parameters related to plant growth (shoot and root biomass and photosynthesis (stomatal conductance and chlorophyll a content were retained in transgenic plants, together with lower Na+ contents in leaves, and higher accumulation of K+ and Ca2+. Microarray analysis confirmed that many stress-related genes were already up-regulated in transgenic tomatoes under optimal conditions of growth, including genes coding for antioxidant enzymes, ion and water transporters, or plant defense proteins. Together, these results indicate that SlWRKY3 is an important regulator of salinity tolerance in tomato.

  10. The cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, AtCNGC10, influences salt tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun-Mei; Babourina, Olga; Christopher, David A; Borsics, Tamas; Rengel, Zed

    2008-11-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs) in the plasma membrane transport K+ and other cations; however, their roles in the response and adaptation of plants to environmental salinity are unclear. Growth, cation contents, salt tolerance and K+ fluxes were assessed in wild-type and two AtCNGC10 antisense lines (A2 and A3) of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Compared with the wild-type, mature plants of both antisense lines had altered K+ and Na+ concentrations in shoots and were more sensitive to salt stress, as assessed by biomass and Chl fluorescence. The shoots of A2 and A3 plants contained higher Na+ concentrations and significantly higher Na+/K+ ratios compared with wild-type, whereas roots contained higher K+ concentrations and lower Na+/K+ ratios. Four-day-old seedlings of both antisense lines exposed to salt stress had smaller Na+/K+ ratios and longer roots than the wild-type. Under sudden salt treatment, the Na+ efflux was higher and the K+ efflux was smaller in the antisense lines, indicating that AtCNGC10 might function as a channel providing Na+ influx and K+ efflux at the root/soil interface. We conclude that the AtCNGC10 channel is involved in Na+ and K+ transport during cation uptake in roots and in long-distance transport, such as phloem loading and/or xylem retrieval. Mature A2 and A3 plants became more salt sensitive than wild-type plants because of impaired photosynthesis induced by a higher Na+ concentration in the leaves.

  11. Compost and residues from biogas plant as potting substrates for salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cam Van, Do Thi

    2013-08-01

    Compost and residues from biogas plant have been increasingly recognized as potting substrates in horticulture. To investigate the suitability of both materials to grow salt tolerant plants in 2010 a pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of INRES-Plant nutrition, University of Bonn. Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), rape (Brassica napus) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were chosen as experimental plants. To reduce the high salt content compost and residues from biogas plant were leached. To improve physical characteristics of raw materials, additives including Perlite, Styromull, Hygromull, Lecaton, Peat, Cocofiber were incorporated into compost or residues from biogas plant with the volumetric ratio of 4:1. Plant growth (DM) and nutrient uptake (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Na and S) of the experimental plants grown in compost-based or residue-based substrates with and without additives and standard soil as a control were determined. Preliminary results reveal that origin compost and residues from biogas plant without leaching are suitable potting substrates for those plants. For compost leaching may not be recommended while for residues from biogas plant the effect of leaching was not distinct and needs further investigations. The incorporation of additives into the basic materials partially resulted in higher plant dry matter yield and nutrient uptake. However, differences between the additives on both parameters were mainly insignificant. Incorporation of Hygromull or Peat, especially into residues from biogas plant favored plant growth and enhanced total nutrient uptake. In 2011, pot experiments were continued with the salt-sensitive ornamental plants, Pelargonium (Pelargonium zonale Toro) and Salvia (Salvia splendens). Two separate experiments were carried out for the mixtures of compost and additives (SPS standard soil type 73 based on Peat, Hygromull or Cocofiber) with different volumetric ratios (4:1, 1:1, 1:4) and the mixtures of Peat incorporated with small

  12. [Selection and identification of salt tolerant line of sainfoin from the seeds of first post-flight plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y Y; Wang, M G; Jia, J F

    2001-03-01

    Seeds of sainfoin (Onobrychis vicaefolia Scop.) were carried in the recoverable satellite 940703 and recovered from earth orbit from China in 1994. The progeny seeds were obtained by producing in field. The salt tolerant calluses were selected by screening seedling and callus on 1.5% NaCl-containing medium, reviving growth on NaCl- free medium and selecting callus on 1.2% NaCl-containing medium. The salt tolerant line callus maintained the normal ability to regenerate plant. The salt tolerant line callus exhibited cross-resistance to PEG stress. The variant appeared higher efficiency than control to accumulate proline under salt stress, however, under nonstress condition it had lower proline level than control, which suggested that the higher efficiency to synthesize proline under stress condition may be more important than higher level in tissue under nonstress condition. The mechanism of proline synthesis in the selected callus was considered to result from the alteration in gene sensitivity to water regulation at transcription level. Acrylamide gradient electrophoresis showed that new isoenzyme form with MW 175 kD and 75 kD of superoxide dismutase and esterase respectively appeared in salt torlerant callus. It was indicated that the combination of space mutagenesis with tissue culture could be used for the selection of salt tolerant sainfoin line in vitro.

  13. DCA1 Acts as a Transcriptional Co-activator of DST and Contributes to Drought and Salt Tolerance in Rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Gang Cui

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters, including drought and salt stress, seriously threaten food security. In previous work we cloned a key zinc finger transcription factor gene, Drought and Salt Tolerance (DST, a negative regulator of drought and salt tolerance that controls stomatal aperture in rice. However, the exact mechanism by which DST regulates the expression of target genes remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that DST Co-activator 1 (DCA1, a previously unknown CHY zinc finger protein, acts as an interacting co-activator of DST. DST was found to physically interact with itself and to form a heterologous tetramer with DCA1. This transcriptional complex appears to regulate the expression of peroxidase 24 precursor (Prx 24, a gene encoding an H2O2 scavenger that is more highly expressed in guard cells. Downregulation of DCA1 significantly enhanced drought and salt tolerance in rice, and overexpression of DCA1 increased sensitivity to stress treatment. These phenotypes were mainly influenced by DCA1 and negatively regulated stomatal closure through the direct modulation of genes associated with H2O2 homeostasis. Our findings establish a framework for plant drought and salt stress tolerance through the DCA1-DST-Prx24 pathway. Moreover, due to the evolutionary and functional conservation of DCA1 and DST in plants, engineering of this pathway has the potential to improve tolerance to abiotic stress in other important crop species.

  14. A Benzimidazole Proton Pump Inhibitor Increases Growth and Tolerance to Salt Stress in Tomato

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    Michael J. Van Oosten

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pre-treatment of tomato plants with micromolar concentrations of omeprazole (OP, a benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor in mammalian systems, improves plant growth in terms of fresh weight of shoot and roots by 49 and 55% and dry weight by 54 and 105% under salt stress conditions (200 mM NaCl, respectively. Assessment of gas exchange, ion distribution, and gene expression profile in different organs strongly indicates that OP interferes with key components of the stress adaptation machinery, including hormonal control of root development (improving length and branching, protection of the photosynthetic system (improving quantum yield of photosystem II and regulation of ion homeostasis (improving the K+:Na+ ratio in leaves and roots. To our knowledge OP is one of the few known molecules that at micromolar concentrations manifests a dual function as growth enhancer and salt stress protectant. Therefore, OP can be used as new inducer of stress tolerance to better understand molecular and physiological stress adaptation paths in plants and to design new products to improve crop performance under suboptimal growth conditions.Highlight: Omeprazole enhances growth of tomato and increases tolerance to salinity stress through alterations of gene expression and ion uptake and transport.

  15. Combined metagenomic and phenomic approaches identify a novel salt tolerance gene from the human gut microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culligan, Eamonn P.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Hill, Colin; Sleator, Roy D.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, a number of salt-tolerant clones previously isolated from a human gut metagenomic library were screened using Phenotype MicroArray (PM) technology to assess their functional capacity. PM's can be used to study gene function, pathogenicity, metabolic capacity and identify drug targets using a series of specialized microtitre plate assays, where each well of the microtitre plate contains a different set of conditions and tests a different phenotype. Cellular respiration is monitored colorimetrically by the reduction of a tetrazolium dye. One clone, SMG 9, was found to be positive for utilization/transport of L-carnitine (a well-characterized osmoprotectant) in the presence of 6% w/v sodium chloride (NaCl). Subsequent experiments revealed a significant growth advantage in minimal media containing NaCl and L-carnitine. Fosmid sequencing revealed putative candidate genes responsible for the phenotype. Subsequent cloning of two genes did not replicate the L-carnitine-associated phenotype, although one of the genes, a σ54-dependent transcriptional regulator, did confer salt tolerance to Escherichia coli when expressed in isolation. The original clone, SMG 9, was subsequently found to have lost the original observed phenotype upon further investigation. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates the usefulness of a phenomic approach to assign a functional role to metagenome-derived clones. PMID:24808895

  16. Ternary cycle treatment of high saline wastewater from pesticide production using a salt-tolerant microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Du, Ya-guang; Qu, Yi; Du, Dong-yun

    2013-01-01

    The material of this study is provided by biological aerobic treatment of high saline wastewater from pesticide production. The microorganism used for biodegradation has been identified by gene-sequencing as a strain of Bacillus sp. SCUN. The best growth condition for the salt-tolerant microorganism has been studied by varying the pH, immobilized microorganism dosage and temperature conditions. The feasibility of pretreating wastewater in ethyl chloride production containing 4% NaCl has been discussed. It was found that under the pH range of 6.0-8.0, immobilized microorganism dosage of 1.5 g/L, temperature of 30 °C, and NaCl concentration of 0-3%, the microorganism achieves the best growth for biodegradation. After domestication, the strain can grow under 4% NaCl. This salt-tolerant microorganism is effective in the pretreated high saline wastewater. With a newly developed ternary cycle treatment, the chemical oxygen demand removal approaches 58.3%. The theoretical basis and a new method for biological treatments in biodegradation of high saline wastewater in ethyl chloride production are discussed.

  17. Salt tolerance of Beta macrocarpa is associated with efficient osmotic adjustment and increased apoplastic water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, I; Badri, M; Mejri, M; Cruz, C; Siddique, K H M; Hessini, K

    2016-05-01

    The chenopod Beta macrocarpa Guss (wild Swiss chard) is known for its salt tolerance, but the mechanisms involved are still debated. In order to elucidate the processes involved, we grew wild Swiss chard exposed to three salinity levels (0, 100 and 200 mm NaCl) for 45 days, and determined several physiological parameters at the end of this time. All plants survived despite reductions in growth, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in plants exposed to salinity (100 and 200 mm NaCl). As expected, the negative effects of salinity were more pronounced at 200 mm than at 100 mm NaCl: (i) leaf apoplastic water content was maintained or increased despite a significant reduction in leaf water potential, revealing the halophytic character of B. macrocarpa; (ii) osmotic adjustment occurred, which presumably enhanced the driving force for water extraction from soil, and avoided toxic build up of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the mesophyll apoplast of leaves. Osmotic adjustment mainly occurred through accumulation of inorganic ions and to a lesser extent soluble sugars; proline was not implicated in osmotic adjustment. Overall, two important mechanisms of salt tolerance in B. macrocarpa were identified: osmotic and apoplastic water adjustment. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Knock-out of Arabidopsis AtNHX4 gene enhances tolerance to salt stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong-Tao; Liu, Hua; Gao, Xiao-Shu [Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhang, Hongxia, E-mail: hxzhang@sippe.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2009-05-08

    AtNHX4 belongs to the monovalent cation:proton antiporter-1 (CPA1) family in Arabidopsis. Several members of this family have been shown to be critical for plant responses to abiotic stress, but little is known on the biological functions of AtNHX4. Here, we provide the evidence that AtNHX4 plays important roles in Arabidopsis responses to salt stress. Expression of AtNHX4 was responsive to salt stress and abscisic acid. Experiments with CFP-AtNHX4 fusion protein indicated that AtNHX4 is vacuolar localized. The nhx4 mutant showed enhanced tolerance to salt stress, and lower Na{sup +} content under high NaCl stress compared with wild-type plants. Furthermore, heterologous expression of AtNHX4 in Escherichia coli BL21 rendered the transformants hypersensitive to NaCl. Deletion of the hydrophilic C-terminus of AtNHX4 dramatically increased the hypersensitivity of transformants, indicating that AtNHX4 may function in Na{sup +} homeostasis in plant cell, and its C-terminus plays a role in regulating the AtNHX4 activity.

  19. Increased salt tolerance with overexpression of cation/proton antiporter 1 genes: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuan-Chun; Augé, Robert M; Dong, Chao; Cheng, Zong-Ming Max

    2017-02-01

    Cation/proton antiporter 1 (CPA1) genes encode cellular Na(+) /H(+) exchanger proteins, which act to adjust ionic balance. Overexpression of CPA1s can improve plant performance under salt stress. However, the diversified roles of the CPA1 family and the various parameters used in evaluating transgenic plants over-expressing CPA1s make it challenging to assess the complex functions of CPA1s and their physiological mechanisms in salt tolerance. Using meta-analysis, we determined how overexpression of CPA1s has influenced several plant characteristics involved in response and resilience to NaCl stress. We also evaluated experimental variables that favour or reduce CPA1 effects in transgenic plants. Viewed across studies, overexpression of CPA1s has increased the magnitude of 10 of the 19 plant characteristics examined, by 25% or more. Among the ten moderating variables, several had substantial impacts on the extent of CPA1 influence: type of culture media, donor and recipient type and genus, and gene family. Genes from monocotyledonous plants stimulated root K(+) , root K(+) /Na(+) , total chlorophyll, total dry weight and root length much more than genes from dicotyledonous species. Genes transformed to or from Arabidopsis have led to smaller CPA1-induced increases in plant characteristics than genes transferred to or from other genera. Heterogeneous expression of CPA1s led to greater increases in leaf chlorophyll and root length than homologous expression. These findings should help guide future investigations into the function of CPA1s in plant salt tolerance and the use of genetic engineering for breeding of resistance. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Metabolic variation in rice cultivars of contrasting salt tolerance and its improvement by zinc in sodic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H P; Singh, T N

    2006-07-01

    The severity of Zn deficiency increased with increase in soil exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) with salt sensitive variety M1-48 scoring 6 at ESP 62 as against only score 3 by salt tolerant variety Pokkali under similar soil conditions. Strikingly, zinc contents were much higher in salt tolerant variety than in salt sensitive one. Zinc application increased zinc concentration in the roots by a factor of 2.85 to 3.87 in Pokkali whereas it rose from 2.37 to 4.35 times in M1-48 depending upon ESP but in the leaves it registered increase of 1.5 to 1.8 times only. In general, the concentrations of reducing sugar were less (about 2.2%) than that of non-reducing (about 3.8%) in both the varieties under normal soil conditions. However, the concentration of reducing sugar doubled (4.2-4.4%) at the highest ESP 62, whereas the concentration of non-reducing sugar though increased (4.1 to 5.1%) but not as vigorously as reducing one. Zinc application reduced the concentration of reducing sugar but not that of non-reducing at similar ESP values. In Pokkali, the concentrations of total sugar increased from 6% at ESP 20 to 9.34% at ESP 62, whereas it registered enhancements of 5.98 to 8.6% in M1-48 under similar conditions. The nitrate reductase (NR) activity decreased with increase in soil sodicity however, the varietal differences in NR activity were wider under Zn-stress than under conditions of applied zinc with Pokkali registering higher NR activities. Carbonic anhydrase activities were higher in salt tolerant variety. Inhibition in carbonic anhydrase activity amounted to 23 and 45% in salt-sensitive variely M1-48 whereas only 19 and 33% in salt-tolerant variety Pokkali at ESP 41 and 62, respectively. The effects of zinc application at higher soil sodicity were more obvious in salt-sensitive variety than in salt-tolerant one. The findings suggest that the tolerance to Zn stress runs parallel to salt tolerance abilities of rice varieties.

  1. A novel cold-adapted and highly salt-tolerant esterase from Alkalibacterium sp. SL3 from the sediment of a soda lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guozeng; Wang, Qiaohuang; Lin, Xianju; Ng, Tzi Bun; Yan, Renxiang; Lin, Juan; Ye, Xiuyun

    2016-02-26

    A novel esterase gene (estSL3) was cloned from the Alkalibacterium sp. SL3, which was isolated from the sediment of soda lake Dabusu. The 636-bp full-length gene encodes a polypeptide of 211 amino acid residues that is closely related with putative GDSL family lipases from Alkalibacterium and Enterococcus. The gene was successfully expressed in E. coli, and the recombinant protein (rEstSL3) was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and characterized. rEstSL3 exhibited the highest activity towards pNP-acetate and had no activity towards pNP-esters with acyl chains longer than C8. The enzyme was highly cold-adapted, showing an apparent temperature optimum of 30 °C and remaining approximately 70% of the activity at 0 °C. It was active and stable over the pH range from 7 to 10, and highly salt-tolerant up to 5 M NaCl. Moreover, rEstSL3 was strongly resistant to most tested metal ions, chemical reagents, detergents and organic solvents. Amino acid composition analysis indicated that EstSL3 had fewer proline residues, hydrogen bonds and salt bridges than mesophilic and thermophilic counterparts, but more acidic amino acids and less hydrophobic amino acids when compared with other salt-tolerant esterases. The cold active, salt-tolerant and chemical-resistant properties make it a promising enzyme for basic research and industrial applications.

  2. An Arabidopsis mitochondrial uncoupling protein confers tolerance to drought and salt stress in transgenic tobacco plants.

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    Kevin Begcy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants are challenged by a large number of environmental stresses that reduce productivity and even cause death. Both chloroplasts and mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species under normal conditions; however, stress causes an imbalance in these species that leads to deviations from normal cellular conditions and a variety of toxic effects. Mitochondria have uncoupling proteins (UCPs that uncouple electron transport from ATP synthesis. There is evidence that UCPs play a role in alleviating stress caused by reactive oxygen species overproduction. However, direct evidence that UCPs protect plants from abiotic stress is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tolerances to salt and water deficit were analyzed in transgenic tobacco plants that overexpress a UCP (AtUCP1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Seeds of AtUCP1 transgenic lines germinated faster, and adult plants showed better responses to drought and salt stress than wild-type (WT plants. These phenotypes correlated with increased water retention and higher gas exchange parameters in transgenic plants that overexpress AtUCP1. WT plants exhibited increased respiration under stress, while transgenic plants were only slightly affected. Furthermore, the transgenic plants showed reduced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in stressed leaves compared with WT plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Higher levels of AtUCP1 improved tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, and this protection was correlated with lower oxidative stress. Our data support previous assumptions that UCPs reduce the imbalance of reactive oxygen species. Our data also suggest that UCPs may play a role in stomatal closure, which agrees with other evidence of a direct relationship between these proteins and photosynthesis. Manipulation of the UCP protein expression in mitochondria is a new avenue for crop improvement and may lead to crops with greater tolerance for challenging environmental conditions.

  3. An Arabidopsis Mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein Confers Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begcy, Kevin; Mariano, Eduardo D.; Mattiello, Lucia; Nunes, Alessandra V.; Mazzafera, Paulo; Maia, Ivan G.; Menossi, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Background Plants are challenged by a large number of environmental stresses that reduce productivity and even cause death. Both chloroplasts and mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species under normal conditions; however, stress causes an imbalance in these species that leads to deviations from normal cellular conditions and a variety of toxic effects. Mitochondria have uncoupling proteins (UCPs) that uncouple electron transport from ATP synthesis. There is evidence that UCPs play a role in alleviating stress caused by reactive oxygen species overproduction. However, direct evidence that UCPs protect plants from abiotic stress is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Tolerances to salt and water deficit were analyzed in transgenic tobacco plants that overexpress a UCP (AtUCP1) from Arabidopsis thaliana. Seeds of AtUCP1 transgenic lines germinated faster, and adult plants showed better responses to drought and salt stress than wild-type (WT) plants. These phenotypes correlated with increased water retention and higher gas exchange parameters in transgenic plants that overexpress AtUCP1. WT plants exhibited increased respiration under stress, while transgenic plants were only slightly affected. Furthermore, the transgenic plants showed reduced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in stressed leaves compared with WT plants. Conclusions/Significance Higher levels of AtUCP1 improved tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, and this protection was correlated with lower oxidative stress. Our data support previous assumptions that UCPs reduce the imbalance of reactive oxygen species. Our data also suggest that UCPs may play a role in stomatal closure, which agrees with other evidence of a direct relationship between these proteins and photosynthesis. Manipulation of the UCP protein expression in mitochondria is a new avenue for crop improvement and may lead to crops with greater tolerance for challenging environmental conditions. PMID:21912606

  4. Overexpression of rice NAC gene SNAC1 improves drought and salt tolerance by enhancing root development and reducing transpiration rate in transgenic cotton.

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    Guanze Liu

    Full Text Available The SNAC1 gene belongs to the stress-related NAC superfamily of transcription factors. It was identified from rice and overexpressed in cotton cultivar YZ1 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. SNAC1-overexpressing cotton plants showed more vigorous growth, especially in terms of root development, than the wild-type plants in the presence of 250 mM NaCl under hydroponic growth conditions. The content of proline was enhanced but the MDA content was decreased in the transgenic cotton seedlings under drought and salt treatments compared to the wild-type. Furthermore, SNAC1-overexpressing cotton plants also displayed significantly improved tolerance to both drought and salt stresses in the greenhouse. The performances of the SNAC1-overexpressing lines under drought and salt stress were significantly better than those of the wild-type in terms of the boll number. During the drought and salt treatments, the transpiration rate of transgenic plants significantly decreased in comparison to the wild-type, but the photosynthesis rate maintained the same at the flowering stage in the transgenic plants. These results suggested that overexpression of SNAC1 improve more tolerance to drought and salt in cotton through enhanced root development and reduced transpiration rates.

  5. Improvement of salt tolerance in transgenic potato plants by glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, M J; Park, S C; Byun, M O

    2001-10-31

    In the previous experiment, we isolated and characterized glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) gene of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju. Expression levels of the GPD gene in the mycelia of P sajor-caju was significantly increased by exposing the mycelia to abiotic stresses, such as salt, cold, heat, and drought. We also showed that GPD confers abiotic stress resistance when introduced into yeast cells. The survival rate of the transgenic yeast cell that harbored the GPD gene was significantly higher when the yeast cells were subjected to salt, cold, heat, and drought stresses, compared with the yeast that was transformed with the pYES2 vector alone. In order to investigate the functional role of the P. sajor-caju GPD gene in higher plant cells, the complete P. sajor-caju GPD cDNA was fused into the CaMV35S promoter and then introduced into potato plants. Putative potato transformants were screened by using PCR. Twenty-one transformants were further analyzed with RT-PCR to confirm the expression of P. sajor-caju GPD. A RT-PCR Southern blot analysis revealed that 12 transgenics induced the P. sajor-caju GPD gene expression. A bioassay of these transformants revealed that the P. sajor-caju GPD gene was enough to confer salt stress resistance in the potato plant cell system. Results showed that P. sajor-caju GPD, which was continuously expressed in transgenic potato plants under normal growing conditions, resulted in improved tolerance against salt loading.

  6. Tn5-Mob transposon mediated transfer of salt tolerance and symbiotic characteristics between Rhizobia genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Wu, Z; Gao, W; Li, J

    1993-01-01

    Rhizobium meliloti 042B is a fast-growing, salt-tolerant and high efficiency nitrogen-fixing symbiont with alfalfa. Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 grows slowly, and cannot grow in YMA medium containing 0.1M NaCl, but nodulates and fixed nitrogen efficiently with soybean. Eighty-six transconjugants, called SR, were obtained by inserting Tn5-Mob randomly into genomes of 042B using pSUP5011 and helper plasmid RP4. Selecting 4 SR strains randomly and introducing DNA fragment of SR into USDA110 with helper plasmid R68.45 by triparental mating, 106 transconjugants, called BSR, were constructed. Most of BSR strains had the fast-growing phenotype and could tolerate 0.3-0.5M NaCl generally. Some of them produced melanine. When soybean and alfalfa were inoculated with these transconjugants BSR, 47 out of 90 BSR were found to nodulate in both of these plants, but no nitrogenase activity was observed with alfalfa; 26 strains could only nodulate and fix nitrogen in soybean; 13 strains could nodulate in alfalfa but did not fix nitrogen; 4 strains failed to nodulate in either soybean or alfalfa. Among them, 4 transconjugants which tolerated and fixed nitrogen efficiently in soybean were constructed.

  7. GmSALT3, which Confers Improved Soybean Salt Tolerance in the Field, Increases Leaf Cl– Exclusion prior to Na+ Exclusion but does not Improve Early Vigour under Salinity

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    Ying Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity reduces soybean growth and yield. The recently identified GmSALT3 (Glycine max salt Tolerance-associated gene on chromosome 3 has the potential to improve soybean yields in salinized conditions. To evaluate the impact of GmSALT3 on soybean performance under saline or non-saline conditions, three sets of near isogenic lines (NILs, with genetic similarity 95.6-99.3% between each pair of NIL-T and NIL-S, were generated from a cross between two varieties, 85-140 (salt-sensitive, S and Tiefeng 8 (salt-tolerant, T by using marker-assisted selection. Each NIL; 782-T, 820-T and 860-T, contained a common ~1000 kb fragment on chromosome 3 where GmSALT3 was located. We show that GmSALT3 does not contribute to an improvement in seedling emergence rate or early vigour under salt stress. However, when 12-day-old seedlings were exposed to NaCl stress, the NIL-T lines accumulated significantly less leaf Na+ compared with their corresponding NIL-S, while no significant difference of K+ concentration was observed between NIL-T and NIL-S; the magnitude of Na+ accumulation within each NIL-T set was influenced by the different genetic backgrounds. In addition, NIL-T lines accumulated less Cl– in the leaf and more in the root prior to any difference in Na+; in the field they accumulated less pod wall Cl– than the corresponding NIL-S lines. Under non-saline field conditions, no significant differences were observed for yield related traits within each pair of NIL-T and NIL-S lines, indicating there was no yield penalty for having the GmSALT3 gene. In contrast, under saline field conditions the NIL-T lines had significantly greater plant seed weight and 100-seed weight than the corresponding NIL-S lines, meaning GmSALT3 conferred a yield advantage to soybean plants in salinized fields. Our results indicated that GmSALT3 mediated regulation of both Na+ and Cl– accumulation in soybean, and contributes to improved soybean yield through maintaining a

  8. The maize AAA-type protein SKD1 confers enhanced salt and drought stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by interacting with Lyst-interacting protein 5.

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    Zongliang Xia

    Full Text Available ATPase associated with various cellular activities (AAA proteins are important regulators involved in diverse cellular functions. To date, the molecular mechanisms of AAA proteins involved in response to salt and drought stresses in plants are largely unknown. In this study, a putative SKD1 (suppressor of K(+ transport growth defect 1 ortholog from Zea mays (ZmSKD1, which encodes a putative AAA protein, was isolated. The transcript levels of ZmSKD1 were higher in aerial tissues and were markedly up-regulated by salt or drought stress. Over-expression of ZmSKD1 in tobacco plants enhanced their tolerances not only to salt but to drought. Moreover, reactive oxygen species accumulations in ZmSKD1 transgenic lines were relative less than those in wild-type plants during salt or PEG-induced water stress. The interaction between ZmSKD1 and NtLIP5 (Lyst-Interacting Protein 5 homolog from Nicotiana tabacum was confirmed by both yeast two-hybrid and immuno-precipitation assays; moreover, the α-helix-rich domain in the C-terminus of ZmSKD1 was identified to be required for its interaction with NtLIP5 using truncation mutations. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ZmSKD1could be involved in salt and drought stress responses and its over-expression enhances salt or drought stress tolerance possibly through interacting with LIP5 in tobacco. This study may facilitate our understandings of the biological roles of SKD1-mediated ESCRT pathway under stress conditions in higher plants and accelerate genetic improvement of crop plants tolerant to environmental stresses.

  9. Salinity-Induced Variation in Biochemical Markers Provides Insight into the Mechanisms of Salt Tolerance in Common (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Runner (P. coccineus) Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hassan, Mohamad; Morosan, Mihaela; López-Gresa, María del Pilar; Prohens, Jaime; Vicente, Oscar; Boscaiu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of biochemical markers is important for the understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance to salinity of Phaseolus beans. We have evaluated several growth parameters in young plants of three Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars subjected to four salinity levels (0, 50, 100, and 150 mM NaCl); one cultivar of P. coccineus, a closely related species reported as more salt tolerant than common bean, was included as external reference. Biochemical parameters evaluated in leaves of young plants included the concentrations of ions (Na+, K+, and Cl−), osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, and total soluble sugars), and individual soluble carbohydrates. Considerable differences were found among cultivars, salinity levels, and in their interaction for most traits. In general, the linear component of the salinity factor for the growth parameters and biochemical markers was the most important. Large differences in the salinity response were found, with P. vulgaris cultivars “The Prince” and “Maxidor” being, respectively, the most susceptible and tolerant ones. Our results support that salt stress tolerance in beans is mostly based on restriction of Na+ (and, to a lesser extent, also of Cl−) transport to shoots, and on the accumulation of myo-inositol for osmotic adjustment. These responses to stress during vegetative growth appear to be more efficient in the tolerant P. vulgaris cultivar “Maxidor”. Proline accumulation is a reliable marker of the level of salt stress affecting Phaseolus plants, but does not seem to be directly related to stress tolerance mechanisms. These results provide useful information on the responses to salinity of Phaseolus. PMID:27657045

  10. Salinity-Induced Variation in Biochemical Markers Provides Insight into the Mechanisms of Salt Tolerance in Common (Phaseolus vulgaris and Runner (P. coccineus Beans

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    Mohamad Al Hassan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of biochemical markers is important for the understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance to salinity of Phaseolus beans. We have evaluated several growth parameters in young plants of three Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars subjected to four salinity levels (0, 50, 100, and 150 mM NaCl; one cultivar of P. coccineus, a closely related species reported as more salt tolerant than common bean, was included as external reference. Biochemical parameters evaluated in leaves of young plants included the concentrations of ions (Na+, K+, and Cl−, osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, and total soluble sugars, and individual soluble carbohydrates. Considerable differences were found among cultivars, salinity levels, and in their interaction for most traits. In general, the linear component of the salinity factor for the growth parameters and biochemical markers was the most important. Large differences in the salinity response were found, with P. vulgaris cultivars “The Prince” and “Maxidor” being, respectively, the most susceptible and tolerant ones. Our results support that salt stress tolerance in beans is mostly based on restriction of Na+ (and, to a lesser extent, also of Cl− transport to shoots, and on the accumulation of myo-inositol for osmotic adjustment. These responses to stress during vegetative growth appear to be more efficient in the tolerant P. vulgaris cultivar “Maxidor”. Proline accumulation is a reliable marker of the level of salt stress affecting Phaseolus plants, but does not seem to be directly related to stress tolerance mechanisms. These results provide useful information on the responses to salinity of Phaseolus.

  11. IrrE, a global regulator of extreme radiation resistance in Deinococcus radiodurans, enhances salt tolerance in Escherichia coli and Brassica napus.

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    Jie Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Globally, about 20% of cultivated land is now affected by salinity. Salt tolerance is a trait of importance to all crops in saline soils. Previous efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants have met with only limited success. Bacteria of the genus Deinococcus are known for their ability to survive highly stressful conditions, and therefore possess a unique pool of genes conferring extreme resistance. In Deinococcus radiodurans, the irrE gene encodes a global regulator responsible for extreme radioresistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using plate assays, we showed that IrrE protected E. coli cells against salt shock and other abiotic stresses such as oxidative, osmotic and thermal shocks. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that IrrE functions as a switch to regulate different sets of proteins such as stress responsive proteins, protein kinases, glycerol-degrading enzymes, detoxification proteins, and growth-related proteins in E. coli. We also used quantitative RT-PCR to investigate expression of nine selected stress-responsive genes in transgenic and wild-type Brassica napus plants. Transgenic B. napus plants expressing the IrrE protein can tolerate 350 mM NaCl, a concentration that inhibits the growth of almost all crop plants. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of IrrE, a global regulator for extreme radiation resistance in D. radiodurans, confers significantly enhanced salt tolerance in both E. coli and B. napus. We thus propose that the irrE gene might be used as a potentially promising transgene to improve abiotic stress tolerances in crop plants.

  12. Is salinity tolerance related to osmolytes accumulation in Lygeum spartum L. seedlings?

    OpenAIRE

    Nedjimi, Bouzid

    2011-01-01

    Lygeum spartum L. (Poaceae) is a plant of commercial relevance used as raw material for manufacturing paper. This species is a newly found salt tolerant species, but its physiological responses to salinity are poorly understood. The effect of salt stress (50 and 100 mM NaCl) on growth, leaf water relations, soluble sugars and free amino acids in L. spartum has been investigated. Fresh and dry weights were reduced significantly above 50 mM NaCl. Transpiration, water potential (Ψω) and osmotic ...

  13. Salt Induces Features of a Dormancy-Like State in Seeds of Eutrema (Thellungiella salsugineum, a Halophytic Relative of Arabidopsis

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    Yana Kazachkova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The salinization of land is a major factor limiting crop production worldwide. Halophytes adapted to high levels of salinity are likely to possess useful genes for improving crop tolerance to salt stress, as well as providing a food source on marginal lands. However, despite being salt-tolerant plants, the seeds of many halophytes will not germinate on saline soils, yet little is understood regarding biochemical and gene expression changes underlying salt-mediated inhibition of halophyte seed germination. We have used the halophytic Arabidopsis relative model system, Eutrema (Thellungiella salsugineum to explore salt-mediated inhibition of germination. We show that E. salsugineum seed germination is inhibited by salt to a far greater extent than in Arabidopsis, and that this inhibition is in response to the osmotic component of salt exposure. E. salsugineum seeds remain viable even when germination is completely inhibited, and germination resumes once seeds are transferred to non-saline conditions. Moreover, removal of the seed coat from salt-treated seeds allows embryos to germinate on salt-containing medium. Mobilization of seed storage reserves is restricted in salt-treated seeds, while many germination-associated metabolic changes are arrested or progress to a lower extent. Salt-exposed seeds are further characterized by a reduced GA/ABA ratio and increased expression of the germination repressor genes, RGL2, ABI5 and DOG1. Furthermore, a salt-mediated increase in expression of a LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT gene and accretion of metabolites involved in osmoprotection indicates induction of processes associated with stress tolerance, and accumulation of easily mobilized carbon reserves. Overall, our results suggest that salt inhibits E. salsugineum seed germination by inducing a seed state with molecular features of dormancy while a physical constraint to radicle emergence is provided by the seed coat layers. This seed state could facilitate

  14. MAOHUZI6/ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE2 Regulate Ethylene Response of Roots and Coleoptiles and Negatively Affect Salt Tolerance in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Ma, Biao; He, Si-Jie; Xiong, Qing; Duan, Kai-Xuan; Yin, Cui-Cui; Chen, Hui; Lu, Xiang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2015-09-01

    Ethylene plays important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. The ethylene signaling pathway has been studied extensively, mainly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, the molecular mechanism of ethylene signaling is largely unknown in rice (Oryza sativa). Previously, we have isolated a set of rice ethylene-response mutants. Here, we characterized the mutant maohuzi6 (mhz6). Through map-based cloning, we found that MHZ6 encodes ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 (OsEIL1), a rice homolog of ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3), which is the master transcriptional regulator of ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Disruption of MHZ6/OsEIL1 caused ethylene insensitivity mainly in roots, whereas silencing of the closely related OsEIL2 led to ethylene insensitivity mainly in coleoptiles of etiolated seedlings. This organ-specific functional divergence is different from the functional features of EIN3 and EIL1, both of which mediate the incomplete ethylene responses of Arabidopsis etiolated seedlings. In Arabidopsis, EIN3 and EIL1 play positive roles in plant salt tolerance. In rice, however, lack of MHZ6/OsEIL1 or OsEIL2 functions improves salt tolerance, whereas the overexpressing lines exhibit salt hypersensitivity at the seedling stage, indicating that MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 negatively regulate salt tolerance in rice. Furthermore, this negative regulation by MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 in salt tolerance is likely attributable in part to the direct regulation of HIGH-AFFINITY K(+) TRANSPORTER2;1 expression and Na(+) uptake in roots. Additionally, MHZ6/OsEIL1 overexpression promotes grain size and thousand-grain weight. Together, our study provides insights for the functional diversification of MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 in ethylene response and finds a novel mode of ethylene-regulated salt stress response that could be helpful for engineering salt-tolerant crops. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Physiological Response to Salinity and Alkalinity of Rice Genotypes of Varying Salt Tolerance Grown in Field Lysimeters

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    Surekha Rao, P.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity and alkalinity seriously threaten rice production in south Asia. Improving screening methodologies to identify sources of tolerance for improved breeding for salt tolerant rice is of continuing importance. Rice genotypes of varying salt tolerance, such as tolerant (T, semi-tolerant (ST, and sensitive (S, were grown in field lysimeters in saline soil of ECe 4 and 8 mS cm-1 and alkali soil of pH 9.5 and 9.8 in North India and analyzed for chlorophyll (Chl, sugar, starch and proline in leaves. Chlorophyll a and b decreased due to salinity in all the tolerance groups. However, Chl a was not much affected but chl b increased with alkalinity. Under high stress both at ECe 8 and pH 9.8 Chl a and b were more in tolerant than in sensitive genotypes. The ratio of Chl a/b was similar in T, ST and S genotypes under salinity stress. Sugar accumulation was higher in T compared to S under normal conditions but under salinity or alkalinity stress the differences were not significant. Leaf starch was highest in T, intermediate in ST and lowest in S genotypes in normal as well as under salinity and alkalinity stress. There was decrease in starch with salinity and alkalinity stress only in T group but not in ST and S group. Proline increased significantly in all the tolerance groups even at low salinity of ECe 4 mS cm -1 or pH 9.5. The salt tolerant genotypes of rice maintained higher levels of Chl a and b, starch and proline under high salinity and alkalinity stress and are the robust criteria for tolerating high salinity and alkalinity.

  16. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Genes Mediating Salt Tolerance through Calcineurin/CchA-Independent Signaling in Aspergillus nidulans

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    Sha Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to changes in the environment is crucial for the viability of all organisms. Although the importance of calcineurin in the stress response has been highlighted in filamentous fungi, little is known about the involvement of ion-responsive genes and pathways in conferring salt tolerance without calcium signaling. In this study, high-throughput RNA-seq was used to investigate salt stress-induced genes in the parent, ΔcnaB, and ΔcnaBΔcchA strains of Aspergillus nidulans, which differ greatly in salt adaption. In total, 2,884 differentially expressed genes including 1,382 up- and 1,502 downregulated genes were identified. Secondary transporters, which were upregulated to a greater extent in ΔcnaBΔcchA than in the parent or ΔcnaB strains, are likely to play important roles in response to salt stress. Furthermore, 36 genes were exclusively upregulated in the ΔcnaBΔcchA under salt stress. Functional analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed that genes involved in transport, heat shock protein binding, and cell division processes were exclusively activated in ΔcnaBΔcchA. Overall, our findings reveal that secondary transporters and stress-responsive genes may play crucial roles in salt tolerance to bypass the requirement for the CchA-calcineurin pathway, contributing to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that influence fungal salt stress adaption in Aspergillus.

  17. Isolation of Salt Stress-Related Genes from Aspergillus glaucus CCHA by Random Overexpression in Escherichia coli

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    Jie Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The halotolerant fungus Aspergillus glaucus CCHA was isolated from the surface of wild vegetation around a saltern with the salinity range being 0–31%. Here, a full-length cDNA library of A. glaucus under salt stress was constructed to identify genes related to salt tolerance, and one hundred clones were randomly selected for sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. Among these, 82 putative sequences were functionally annotated as being involved in signal transduction, osmolyte synthesis and transport, or regulation of transcription. Subsequently, the cDNA library was transformed into E. coli cells to screen for putative salt stress-related clones. Five putative positive clones were obtained from E. coli cells grown on LB agar containing 1 M NaCl, on which they showed rapid growth compared to the empty vector control line. Analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines overexpressing CCHA-2142 demonstrated that the gene conferred increased salt tolerance to plants as well by protecting the cellular membranes, suppressing the inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis. These results highlight the utility of this A. glaucus cDNA library as a tool for isolating and characterizing genes related to salt tolerance. Furthermore, the identified genes can be used for the study of the underlying biology of halotolerance.

  18. A synergistic interaction between salt-tolerant Pseudomonas and Mesorhizobium strains improves growth and symbiotic performance of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fish.) under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Li, Li; Lindström, Kristina; Räsänen, Leena A

    2016-03-01

    Chinese liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fish.) is a salt-tolerant medicinal legume that could be utilized for bioremediation of salt-affected soils. We studied whether co-inoculation of the symbiotic Mesorhizobium sp. strain NWXJ19 or NWXJ31 with the plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas extremorientalis TSAU20 could restore growth, nodulation, and shoot/root nitrogen contents of salt-stressed G. uralensis, which was grown in potting soil and irrigated with 0, 50, and 75 mM NaCl solutions under greenhouse conditions. Irrigation with NaCl solutions clearly retarded the growth of uninoculated liquorice, and the higher the NaCl concentration (75 and 100 mM NaCl), the more adverse is the effect. The two Mesorhizobium strains, added either alone or in combination with P. extremorientalis TSAU20, responded differently to the salt levels used. The strain NWXJ19 was a good symbiont for plants irrigated with 50 mM NaCl, whereas the strain NWXJ31 was more efficient for plants irrigated with water or 75 mM NaCl solution. P. extremorientalis TSAU20 combined with single Mesorhizobium strains alleviated the salt stress of liquorice plants and improved yield and nodule numbers significantly in comparison with single-strain-inoculated liquorice. Both salt stress and inoculation raised the nitrogen content of shoots and roots. The nitrogen contents were at their highest, i.e., 30 and 35 % greater compared to non-stressed uninoculated plants, when plants were inoculated with P. extremorientalis TSAU20 and Mesorhizobium sp. NWXJ31 as well as irrigated with 75 mM NaCl solution. From this study, we conclude that dual inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria could be a new approach to improve the tolerance of G. uralensis to salt stress, thereby improving its suitability for the remediation of saline lands.

  19. Overexpression of Small Heat Shock Protein Enhances Heat- and Salt-Stress Tolerance of Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaskheli, Gul Bahar; Zuo, FangLei; Yu, Rui; Chen, ShangWu

    2015-07-01

    Bifidobacteria are probiotics that are incorporated live into various dairy products. They confer health-promotive effects via gastrointestinal tract colonization. However, to provide their health-beneficial properties, they must battle the various abiotic stresses in that environment, such as bile salts, acids, oxygen, and heat. In this study, Bifidobacterium longum salt- and heat-stress tolerance was enhanced by homologous overexpression of a small heat shock protein (sHsp). A positive contribution of overproduced sHsp to abiotic stress tolerance was observed when the bacterium was exposed to heat and salt stresses. Significantly higher survival of B. l ongum NCC2705 overexpressing sHsp was observed at 30 and 60 min into heat (55 °C) and salt (5 M NaCl) treatment, respectively. Thermotolerance analysis at 47 °C with sampling every 2 h also revealed the great potential tolerance of the engineered strain. Cell density and acid production rate increased for the sHsp-overexpressing strain after 8 and 10 h of both heat and salt stresses. In addition, tolerance to bile salts, low pH (3.5) and low temperature (4 °C) was also increased by homologous overexpression of the sHsp hsp20 in B. l ongum. Results revealed that hsp20 overexpression in B longum NCC2705 plays a positive cross-protective role in upregulating abiotic responses, ensuring the organism's tolerance to various stress conditions; therefore, sHsp-overexpressing B. l ongum is advised for fermented dairy foods and other probiotic product applications.

  20. Induction of salt tolerance and up-regulation of aquaporin genes in tropical corn by rhizobacterium Pantoea agglomerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gond, S K; Torres, M S; Bergen, M S; Helsel, Z; White, J F

    2015-04-01

    Bacteria were isolated from surface disinfected seeds of eight modern corn types and an ancestor of corn, 'teosinte' and identified using 16S rDNA sequences. From each of the modern corn types we obtained Bacillus spp. (including, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis); while from teosinte we obtained only Pantoea agglomerans and Agrobacterium species. Of these bacteria, only P. agglomerans could actively grow under hypersaline conditions and increase salt tolerance of tropical corn seedlings. In laboratory and greenhouse experiments where plants were watered with a 0.2 mol l(-1) NaCl solution, P. agglomerans was found to enhance the capacity of tropical corn to grow compared to uninoculated controls. The total dry biomass was significantly higher in P. agglomerans-treated plants compared to controls under saline water. Gene expression analysis showed the up-regulation of the aquaporin gene family especially plasma membrane integral protein (ZmPIP) genes in P. agglomerans-treated plants. The plasma membrane integral protein type 2 (PIP2-1) gene in tropical corn seedlings was highly up-regulated by P. agglomerans treatment under salt stress conditions. Microscopic examination of P. agglomerans inoculated seedlings revealed that the bacterium colonized root meristems densely, and as roots developed, the bacterium became sparsely located in cell junctions. The enhancement of salt tolerance capacity in tropical corn, an important food crop, has the capacity to increase its cultivation area and yield in saline soils. The application of rhizobacteria to improve salt tolerance of tropical corn is ecofriendly and cost effective. We show that P. agglomerans isolated from teosinte (an ancestor of corn) induces salt tolerance in tropical corn and up-regulation of aquaporin genes. This study shows that microbes that increase salt tolerance may be used to enhance crop growth in saline soils. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Salt stress tolerance of methylotrophic bacteria Methylophilus sp. and Methylobacterium sp. isolated from coal mine spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Deen Dayal; Kumar, Ajay; Shukla, Prabhu Nath; Singh, Ritu; Singh, P K; Pandey, Kapil Deo

    2013-01-01

    Two methylotrophic strains of Bina coalmine spoil BNV7b and BRV25 were identified based on physiological traits and 16S rDNA sequence as Methylophilus and Methylobacterium species.' The strains exhibited similar carbon utilization but differed in N utilization and their response to the metabolic inhibitors. Methylophilus sp. was less tolerant to salt stress and it viability declined to one tenth within 4 h of incubation in 2M NaCI due to membrane damage and leakage of the intracellular electrolytes as evident from malondiaaldehyde (MDA) assay. In 200 mM NaCI, they exhibited increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity while in 500 mM NaCI, enzyme activities declined in Methylophilus sp. and increased in Methylobacterium sp. Among exogenously applied osmoprotectants proline was most efficient; however, polyols (mannitol, sorbitol and glycerol) also supported growth under lethal NaCI concentration.

  2. Screening of the Salt Tolerant Plants for High Salinity Wastewater Treatment by the Artificial Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHANG Ke-chun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tanggu, as the core area in Binhai New Area, is currently one of the fastest developing areas in Tianjin City. Because of the saline alkali soil and other natural conditions, wastewater reuse is restricted by high salinity. The removal of high concentration chloride by Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa, Artemisia anethifolia Weber, Iris wilsonii, Salicornia europaea, and Spartina anglica in light polluted water was compared by the simulation experiment of artificial wetland. The plants with stronger removal ability were selected and the ecosystem condition with maximum removal rate was determined. The results showed that the removal effect of chloride by salt-tolerant plants in artificial wetland was: Phragmites australis>Suaeda salsa>Artemisia anethifolia>Iris wilsonii>Salicornia europaea>Spartina anglica. The removal efficiency reached balance after four days. This study provided a scientific basis for the high salinity wastewater treatment by artificial wetland.

  3. Differential responses of CO2 assimilation, carbohydrate allocation and gene expression to NaCl stress in perennial ryegrass with different salt tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Hu

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of NaCl stress on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. photosynthesis and carbohydrate flux. The objective of this study was to understand the carbohydrate metabolism and identify the gene expression affected by salinity stress. Seventy-four days old seedlings of two perennial ryegrass accessions (salt-sensitive 'PI 538976' and salt-tolerant 'Overdrive' were subjected to three levels of salinity stress for 5 days. Turf quality in all tissues (leaves, stems and roots of both grass accessions negatively and significantly correlated with GFS (Glu+Fru+Suc content, except for 'Overdrive' stems. Relative growth rate (RGR in leaves negatively and significantly correlated with GFS content in 'Overdrive' (P0.05 for turf quality. A greater up-regulation in the expression of SPS, SS, SI, 6-SFT gene was observed in 'Overdrive' than 'PI 538976'. A higher level of SPS and SS expression in leaves was found in 'PI 538976' relative to 'Overdrive'. Accumulation of hexoses in roots, stems and leaves can induce a feedback repression to photosynthesis in salt-stressed perennial ryegrass and the salt tolerance may be changed with the carbohydrate allocation in leaves and stems.

  4. Co-transforming bar and CsLEA enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiyu; Duan, Zhen; Zhang, Daiyu; Zhang, Jianquan; Di, Hongyan; Wu, Fan; Wang, Yanrong

    2016-03-25

    Drought and high salinity are two major abiotic factors that restrict alfalfa productivity. A dehydrin protein, CsLEA, from the desert grass Cleistogenes songorica was transformed into alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the bar gene as a selectable marker, and the drought and salt stress tolerances of the transgenic plants were assessed. Thirty-nine of 119 transformants were positive, as screened by Basta, and further molecularly authenticated using PCR and RT-PCR. Phenotype observations revealed that the transgenic plants grew better than the wild-type (WT) plants after 15d of drought stress and 10d of salt stress: the leaves of WT alfalfa turned yellow, whereas the transgenic alfalfa leaves only wilted; after rewatering, the transgenic plants returned to a normal state, though the WT plants could not be restored. Evaluation of physiologic and biochemical indices during drought and salt stresses showed a relatively lower Na(+) content in the leaves of the transgenic plants, which would reduce toxic ion effects. In addition, the transgenic plants were able to maintain a higher relative water content (RWC), higher shoot biomass, fewer photosystem changes, decreased membrane injury, and a lower level of osmotic stress injury. These results demonstrate that overexpression of the CsLEA gene can enhance the drought and salt tolerance of transgenic alfalfa; in addition, carrying the bar gene in the genome may increase herbicide resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Physiological and Growth Responses of Six Turfgrass Species Relative to Salinity Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamal Uddin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for salinity-tolerant turfgrasses is increasing due to augmented use of effluent or low-quality water (sea water for turf irrigation and the growing turfgrass industry in coastal areas. Experimental plants, grown in plastic pots filled with a mixture of river sand and KOSASR peat (9 : 1, were irrigated with sea water at different dilutions imparting salinity levels of 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, or 48 dS m-1. Salinity tolerance was evaluated on the basis of leaf firing, shoot and root growth reduction, proline content, and relative water content. Paspalum vaginatum was found to be most salt tolerant followed by Zoysia japonica and Zoysia matrella, while Digitaria didactyla, Cynodon dactylon “Tifdwarf,” and Cynodon dactylon “Satiri” were moderately tolerant. The results indicate the importance of turfgrass varietal selection for saline environments.

  6. Influence of salt tolerant Trichoderma spp. on growth of maize (Zea mays) under different salinity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Krishna; Manigundan, K; Amaresan, Natarajan

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, a total of 70 Trichoderma spp. were isolated from the rhizosphere soils of vegetable and spice crops that were grown in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Initial screening of Trichoderma spp. for salt tolerant properties showed 32 isolates were able to tolerate 10% NaCl. Furthermore, these isolates were screened for their potential plant growth-promoting characteristics such as IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and siderophore production. Among 32 isolates, nine isolates were able to produce IAA, siderophore, and solubilize phosphate. Jar trial was carried out on maize under axenic conditions at 1.67, 6.25, 11.25, 17.2, and 22.9 dS m -1 salt stress using the best nine isolates. Three isolates (TRC3, NRT2, and THB3) were effective in improving germination percentage, reducing reduction percentage of germination (RPG) and also in increasing the shoot and root length under axenic conditions. These three isolates were further tested under pot trial at 52 (sea water), 27, 15, 7, and 1.67 dS m -1 . TRC3 was found to be the most effective isolate compared to the other isolates and significantly increased the physiological parameters like shoot, root length, leaf area, total biomass, and stem and leaf fresh weight at all stress levels. Similarly, total chlorophyll content also increased by TRC3 over control. All three isolates, NRT2, TRC3, and THB3 showed lower accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) content whereas, proline and phenol content were higher than the uninoculated control plants under both normal and saline conditions. The results suggest that these isolates could be utilized for the alleviation of salinity stress in maize. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. H(2 enhances arabidopsis salt tolerance by manipulating ZAT10/12-mediated antioxidant defence and controlling sodium exclusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjie Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The metabolism of hydrogen gas (H(2 in bacteria and algae has been extensively studied for the interesting of developing H(2-based fuel. Recently, H(2 is recognized as a therapeutic antioxidant and activates several signalling pathways in clinical trials. However, underlying physiological roles and mechanisms of H(2 in plants as well as its signalling cascade remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, histochemical, molecular, immunological and genetic approaches were applied to characterize the participation of H(2 in enhancing Arabidopsis salt tolerance. An increase of endogenous H(2 release was observed 6 hr after exposure to 150 mM NaCl. Arabidopsis pretreated with 50% H(2-saturated liquid medium, mimicking the induction of endogenous H(2 release when subsequently exposed to NaCl, effectively decreased salinity-induced growth inhibition. Further results showed that H(2 pretreatment modulated genes/proteins of zinc-finger transcription factor ZAT10/12 and related antioxidant defence enzymes, thus significantly counteracting the NaCl-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS overproduction and lipid peroxidation. Additionally, H(2 pretreatment maintained ion homeostasis by regulating the antiporters and H(+ pump responsible for Na(+ exclusion (in particular and compartmentation. Genetic evidence suggested that SOS1 and cAPX1 might be the target genes of H(2 signalling. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings indicate that H(2 acts as a novel and cytoprotective regulator in coupling ZAT10/12-mediated antioxidant defence and maintenance of ion homeostasis in the improvement of Arabidopsis salt tolerance.

  8. Chrysanthemum WRKY gene DgWRKY5 enhances tolerance to salt stress in transgenic chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qian-Yu; Wu, Yin-Huan; Wang, Ke; Bai, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Qing-Lin; Pan, Yuan-Zhi; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Bei-Bei

    2017-07-06

    WRKY transcription factors play important roles in plant growth development, resistance and substance metabolism regulation. However, the exact function of the response to salt stress in plants with specific WRKY transcription factors remains unclear. In this research, we isolated a new WRKY transcription factor DgWRKY5 from chrysanthemum. DgWRKY5 contains two WRKY domains of WKKYGQK and two C2H2 zinc fingers. The expression of DgWRKY5 in chrysanthemum was up-regulated under various treatments. Meanwhile, we observed higher expression levels in the leaves contrasted with other tissues. Under salt stress, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes in transgenic chrysanthemum were significantly higher than those in WT, whereas the accumulation of H2O2, O2(-) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was reduced in transgenic chrysanthemum. Several parameters including root length, root length, fresh weight, chlorophyll content and leaf gas exchange parameters in transgenic chrysanthemum were much better compared with WT under salt stress. Moreover, the expression of stress-related genes DgAPX, DgCAT, DgNCED3A, DgNCED3B, DgCuZnSOD, DgP5CS, DgCSD1 and DgCSD2 was up-regulated in DgWRKY5 transgenic chrysanthemum compared with that in WT. These results suggested that DgWRKY5 could function as a positive regulator of salt stress in chrysanthemum.

  9. Long-Term Tolerability and Effectiveness of Once-Daily Mixed Amphetamine Salts (Adderall XR) in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, James J.; Biederman, Joseph; Wigal, Sharon B.; Lopez, Frank A.; McCracken, James T.; Spencer, Thomas; Zhang, Yuxin; Tulloch, Simon J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the long-term tolerability and effectiveness of extended-release mixed amphetamine salts (MAS XR; Adderall XR[R]) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: This was a 24-month, multicenter, open-label extension of TWO placebo-controlled studies of MAS XR in children with ADHD aged 6 to 12…

  10. Simultaneous Improvement and Genetic Dissection of Salt Tolerance of Rice (Oryza sativa L. by Designed QTL Pyramiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Pang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Breeding of multi-stress tolerant rice varieties with higher grain yields is the best option to enhance the rice productivity of abiotic stresses prone areas. It also poses the greatest challenge to plant breeders to breed rice varieties for such stress prone conditions. Here, we carried out a designed QTL pyramiding experiment to develop high yielding “Green Super Rice” varieties with significantly improved tolerance to salt stress and grain yield. Using the F4 population derived from a cross between two selected introgression lines, we were able to develop six mostly homozygous promising high yielding lines with significantly improved salt tolerance and grain yield under optimal and/or saline conditions in 3 years. Simultaneous mapping using the same breeding population and tunable genotyping-by-sequencing technology, we identified three QTL affecting salt injury score and leaf chlorophyll content. By analyzing 32M SNP data of the grandparents and graphical genotypes of the parents, we discovered 87 positional candidate genes for salt tolerant QTL. According to their functional annotation, we inferred the most likely candidate genes. We demonstrated that designed QTL pyramiding is a powerful strategy for simultaneous improvement and genetic dissection of complex traits in rice.

  11. Genetic diversity among salt-tolerant rice (Oryza sativa L. landraces cultivated in the coastal districts of Bangladesh

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    AKKAS ALI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine genetic diversity and relationships among the salt-tolerant rice landraces cultivated in the coastal districts of Bangladesh. DNA extracted from seedlings of nine salt-tolerant local rice landraces and three established salt-tolerant rice varieties was subjected to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis using a number of random decamer primers. Polymorphic bands generated with five primers were scored and used for determining polymorphic information contents (PIC and in deriving a dendrogram using the Jaccard similarity coefficient-based unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA. The five primers generated 84 reproducible bands of the size range 0.24-1.90 kbp and 73% of the bands were polymorphic. The UPGMA dendrogram showed five major clusters at genetic similarity of 0.55. The PIC values ranged from 0.71 to 0.90 with an average of 0.85. The pair-wise similarity index values ranged 28.8-97.1% among the twelve genotypes. The three established rice verities formed a single cluster and the local landraces formed four clusters. Our result revealed high level of genetic diversity among the local rice landraces. The RAPD markers identified could be useful in developing high-yield salt-tolerant rice strains with improved grain quality.

  12. High-Density Linkage Map Construction and Mapping of Salt-Tolerant QTLs at Seedling Stage in Upland Cotton Using Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latyr Diouf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over 6% of agricultural land is affected by salinity. It is becoming obligatory to use saline soils, so growing salt-tolerant plants is a priority. To gain an understanding of the genetic basis of upland cotton tolerance to salinity at seedling stage, an intra-specific cross was developed from CCRI35, tolerant to salinity, as female with Nan Dan (NH, sensitive to salinity, as the male. A genetic map of 5178 SNP markers was developed from 277 F2:3 populations. The map spanned 4768.098 cM, with an average distance of 0.92 cM. A total of 66 QTLs for 10 traits related to salinity were detected in three environments (0, 110, and 150 mM salt treatment. Only 14 QTLs were consistent, accounting for 2.72% to 9.87% of phenotypic variation. Parental contributions were found to be in the ratio of 3:1, 10 QTLs from the sensitive and four QTLs from the resistant parent. Five QTLs were located in At and nine QTLs in the Dt sub-genome. Moreover, eight clusters were identified, in which 12 putative key genes were found to be related to salinity. The GBS-SNPs-based genetic map developed is the first high-density genetic map that has the potential to provide deeper insights into upland cotton salinity tolerance. The 12 key genes found in this study could be used for QTL fine mapping and cloning for further studies.

  13. Influence of the24-epibrassinolide on tolerance to salt stress in rice seedlings

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    Cristina Ferreira Larré

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Salinity can be considered a limiting factor to the growth and development of plants to affect various physiological processes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 24 – epibrassinolide in emergence, seedling growth, leaf area and chlorophyll concentration in two cultivars of rice in salt stress condition. The study was conducted at the research laboratory of seeds and greenhouse of the Department of Botany UFPel. Rice seeds of cvs. BRS Bojurú tolerant to salinity and BRS Querência not tolerant, were soaked for two hours in water, 100 mMNaCl and 100 mMNaCl solutions supplemented with 24 – epibrassinolide at concentrations of 0.01, 0,1 and 1.0 mM and sown in expanded polypropylene tray. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments, two cultivars and four replications. Means were compared by Tukey test (p < 5 %, within each cultivar. In cv. BRS Querência the application of 24 – epibrassinolide increased chlorophyll concentration, leaf area, seedling length and dry mass of shoots, reducing the effects caused by salinity. However, cv. BRS Bojurú, tolerant to salinity, the application of the 24 – epibrassinolide 0.01 mM did not affect the growth characteristics, but the concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mM reduced the same, no affecting the concentration of chlorophyll. The 24 – epibrassinolide in cv. BRS Querencia, induces an increase in all growth characteristics, minimizing the deleterious effects of salinity on the sensitive cultivar. In cv. BRS Bojurú, higher concentrations reduce the growth characteristics, not by changing the concentration of chlorophyll.

  14. Root respiratory burst oxidase homologue-dependent H2O2 production confers salt tolerance on a grafted cucumber by controlling Na+ exclusion and stomatal closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mengliang; Huang, Yuan; Sun, Shitao; Sun, Jingyu; Cao, Haishun; Shabala, Sergey; Bie, Zhilong

    2017-11-14

    Plant salt tolerance can be improved by grafting onto salt-tolerant rootstocks. However, the underlying signaling mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain largely unknown. To address this issue, we used a range of physiological and molecular techniques to study responses of self-grafted and pumpkin-grafted cucumber plants exposed to 75 mM NaCl stress. Pumpkin grafting significantly increased the salt tolerance of cucumber plants, as revealed by higher plant dry weight, chlorophyll content and photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), and lower leaf Na+ content. Salinity stress resulted in a sharp increase in H2O2 production, reaching a peak 3 h after salt treatment in the pumpkin-grafted cucumber. This enhancement was accompanied by elevated relative expression of respiratory burst oxidase homologue (RBOH) genes RbohD and RbohF and a higher NADPH oxidase activity. However, this increase was much delayed in the self-grafted plants, and the difference between the two grafting combinations disappeared after 24 h. The decreased leaf Na+ content of pumpkin-grafted plants was achieved by higher Na+ exclusion in roots, which was driven by the Na+/H+ antiporter energized by the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, as evidenced by the higher plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity and higher transcript levels for PMA and SOS1. In addition, early stomatal closure was also observed in the pumpkin-grafted cucumber plants, reducing water loss and maintaining the plant's hydration status. When pumpkin-grafted plants were pretreated with an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium (DPI), the H2O2 level decreased significantly, to the level found in self-grafted plants, resulting in the loss of the salt tolerance. Inhibition of the NADPH oxidase-mediated H2O2 signaling in the root also abolished a rapid stomatal closure in the pumpkin-grafted plants. We concluded that the pumpkin-grafted cucumber plants increase their salt tolerance via a mechanism involving the root-sourced respiratory burst

  15. Effects of heat, cold, acid and bile salt adaptations on the stress tolerance and protein expression of kefir-isolated probiotic Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Ju; Tang, Hsin-Yu; Chiang, Ming-Lun

    2017-09-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 is a probiotic strain isolated from Taiwanese kefir grains. The present study evaluated the effects of heat, cold, acid and bile salt adaptations on the stress tolerance of L. kefiranofaciens M1. The regulation of protein expression of L. kefiranofaciens M1 under these adaptation conditions was also investigated. The results showed that adaptation of L. kefiranofaciens M1 to heat, cold, acid and bile salts induced homologous tolerance and cross-protection against heterologous challenge. The extent of induced tolerance varied depending on the type and condition of stress. Proteomic analysis revealed that 27 proteins exhibited differences in expression between non-adapted and stress-adapted L. kefiranofaciens M1 cells. Among these proteins, three proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism (triosephosphate isomerase, enolase and NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), two proteins involved in pH homeostasis (ATP synthase subunits AtpA and AtpB), two stress response proteins (chaperones DnaK and GroEL) and one translation-related protein (30S ribosomal protein S2) were up-regulated by three of the four adaptation treatments examined. The increased synthesis of these stress proteins might play a critical protective role in the cellular defense against heat, cold, acid and bile salt stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Screening maize ( Zea mays L.) hybrids for salt stress tolerance at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant breeding may provide a relatively cost effective short-term solution to the salinity problem by producing cultivars that are able to remain productive at low to moderate levels of salinity. To determine the most tolerant hybrid to salinity stress, an experiment was performed as factorial form under completely randomized ...

  17. Silicon enhanced salt tolerance by improving the root water uptake and decreasing the ion toxicity in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiwen; Liu, Peng; Chen, Daoqian; Yin, Lina; Li, Hongbing; Deng, Xiping

    2015-01-01

    Although the effects of silicon application on enhancing plant salt tolerance have been widely investigated, the underlying mechanism has remained unclear. In this study, seedlings of cucumber, a medium silicon accumulator plant, grown in 0.83 mM silicon solution for 2 weeks were exposed to 65 mM NaCl solution for another 1 week. The dry weight and shoot/root ratio were reduced by salt stress, but silicon application significantly alleviated these decreases. The chlorophyll concentration, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and leaf water content were higher in plants treated with silicon than in untreated plants under salt stress conditions. Further investigation showed that salt stress decreased root hydraulic conductance (Lp), but that silicon application moderated this salt-induced decrease in Lp. The higher Lp in silicon-treated plants may account for the superior plant water balance. Moreover, silicon application significantly decreased Na+ concentration in the leaves while increasing K+ concentration. Simultaneously, both free and conjugated types of polyamines were maintained at high levels in silicon-treated plants, suggesting that polyamines may be involved in the ion toxicity. Our results indicate that silicon enhances the salt tolerance of cucumber through improving plant water balance by increasing the Lp and reducing Na+ content by increasing polyamine accumulation. PMID:26442072

  18. The Effects of Cation Ratios on Root Lamella Suberization in Rice (Oryza sativa L. with Contrasting Salt Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Momayezi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is an important produced cereal in the world. We evaluated the effect of salt compositions including NaCl and Na2SO4 on suberin lamellae as a major barrier to radial ion and water movements in two rice genotypes representing contrasting salt tolerance levels under salinity stress. Two rice genotypes, Fajr as salt tolerant and Khazar as salt sensitive, were transplanted in sand culture under glasshouse condition. Rice seedlings were treated with five salt compositions including NaCl, Na2SO4, 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 2 : 1 molar ratios for 40 days. It was proven that suberin lamellae in endodermis of root cell wall were thickened with Na2SO4 treatment. The results demonstrated that the number of passage cells was higher in Fajr genotype than that in Khazar genotype under saline condition. Calcium concentration in root tissue decreased as the SO42- concentration in root media increased. It can be concluded that Fajr genotype is able to keep some passage cells open to maintain Ca2+ uptake. The Ca2+/Na+ ratio in shoot tissue can be also a reliable index for the early recognition of salt stress in these rice genotypes.

  19. Knocking Down the Expression of GMPase Gene OsVTC1-1 Decreases Salt Tolerance of Rice at Seedling and Reproductive Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Wang, Yayun; Wang, Juan; Liu, Hai; Zhao, Hui; Deng, Zaian; Zhang, Zhili; Huang, Rongfeng; Zhang, Zhijin

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a severe environmental stress that greatly impairs production of crops worldwide. Previous studies have shown that GMPase plays an important role in tolerance of plants to salt stress at vegetative stage. However, the function of GMPase in plant responses to salt stress at reproductive stage remains unclear. Studies have shown that heterologous expression of rice GMPase OsVTC1-1 enhanced salt tolerance of tobacco seedlings, but the native role of OsVTC1-1 in salt stress tolerance of rice is unknown. To illustrate the native function of GMPase in response of rice to salt stress, OsVTC1-1 expression was suppressed using RNAi-mediated gene silencing. Suppressing OsVTC1-1 expression obviously decreased salt tolerance of rice varieties at vegetative stage. Intriguingly, grain yield of OsVTC1-1 RNAi rice was also significantly reduced under salt stress, indicating that OsVTC1-1 plays an important role in salt tolerance of rice at both seedling and reproductive stages. OsVTC1-1 RNAi rice accumulated more ROS under salt stress, and supplying exogenous ascorbic acid restored salt tolerance of OsVTC1-1 RNAi lines, suggesting that OsVTC1-1 is involved in salt tolerance of rice through the biosynthesis regulation of ascorbic acid. Altogether, results of present study showed that rice GMPase gene OsVTC1-1 plays a critical role in salt tolerance of rice at both vegetative and reproductive stages through AsA scavenging of excess ROS.

  20. OsPEX11, a peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11, contributes to salt stress tolerance in Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Peng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisomes are single membrane-bound organelles, whose basic enzymatic constituents are catalase and H2O2-producing flavin oxidases. Previous reports showed that peroxisome is involved in numerous processes including primary and secondary metabolism, plant development and abiotic stress responses. However, knowledge on the function of different peroxisome genes from rice and its regulatory roles in salt and other abiotic stresses is limited. Here, a novel prey protein, OsPEX11 (Os03g0302000, was screened and identified by yeast two-hybrid and GST pull down assays. Phenotypic analysis of OsPEX11 overexpression seedlings demonstrated that they had better tolerance to salt stress than wild type and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings. Compared with wild type and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings, overexpression of OsPEX11 had lower level of lipid peroxidation, Na+/K+ ratio, higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD and CAT and proline accumulation. Furthermore, qPCR data suggested that OsPEX11 acted as a positive regulator of salt tolerance by reinforcing the expression of several well-known rice transporters (OsHKT2;1, OsHKT1;5, OsLti6a, OsLti6b, OsSOS1, OsNHX1 and OsAKT1 involved in Na+/K+ homeostasis in transgenic plants under salinity. Ultrastructural observations of OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings showed that they were less sensitive to salt stress than wild type and overexpression lines. These results provide experimental evidence that OsPEX11 is an important gene implicated in Na+ and K+ regulation, and plays a critical role in salt stress tolerance by modulating the expression of cation transporters and antioxidant defense. Thus, OsPEX11 could be considered in transgenic breeding for improvement of salt stress tolerance in rice crop.

  1. A new Em-like protein from Lactuca sativa, LsEm1, enhances drought and salt stress tolerance in Escherichia coli and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dian-Jun; Man, Li-Li; Zhang, Chun-Lan; Peng-Liu; Li, Zhi-Gang; Zheng, Gen-Chang

    2018-02-07

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are closely related to abiotic stress tolerance of plants. In the present study, we identified a novel Em-like gene from lettuce, termed LsEm1, which could be classified into group 1 LEA proteins, and shared high homology with Cynara cardunculus Em protein. The LsEm1 protein contained three different 20-mer conserved elements (C-element, N-element, and M-element) in the C-termini, N-termini, and middle-region, respectively. The LsEm1 mRNAs were accumulated in all examined tissues during the flowering and mature stages, with a little accumulation in the roots and leaves during the seedling stage. Furthermore, the LsEm1 gene was also expressed in response to salt, dehydration, abscisic acid (ABA), and cold stresses in young seedlings. The LsEm1 protein could effectively reduce damage to the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and protect LDH activity under desiccation and salt treatments. The Escherichia coli cells overexpressing the LsEm1 gene showed a growth advantage over the control under drought and salt stresses. Moreover, LsEm1-overexpressing rice seeds were relatively sensitive to exogenously applied ABA, suggesting that the LsEm1 gene might depend on an ABA signaling pathway in response to environmental stresses. The transgenic rice plants overexpressing the LsEm1 gene showed higher tolerance to drought and salt stresses than did wild-type (WT) plants on the basis of the germination performances, higher survival rates, higher chlorophyll content, more accumulation of soluble sugar, lower relative electrolyte leakage, and higher superoxide dismutase activity under stress conditions. The LsEm1-overexpressing rice lines also showed less yield loss compared with WT rice under stress conditions. Furthermore, the LsEm1 gene had a positive effect on the expression of the OsCDPK9, OsCDPK13, OsCDPK15, OsCDPK25, and rab21 (rab16a) genes in transgenic rice under drought and salt stress conditions, implying that overexpression of these

  2. 40 CFR 180.3 - Tolerances for related pesticide chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... have related pharmacological effects: Chlorinated organic pesticides, arsenic-containing chemicals... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tolerances for related pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Definitions and...

  3. Genetic diversity of improved salt tolerant calli of maize (Zea mays L.) using RAPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputro, Triono Bagus; Dianawati, Siti; Sholihah, Nur Fadlillatus; Ermavitalini, Dini

    2017-06-01

    Maize is one of important cultivated plants in the world, in terms of production rates, utilization rates and demands. Unfortunately, the increment of demands were not followed by the increase of production rates since the cultivation area were significantly decrease. Coastal area is the marginal land that have a good potential to extend the cultivation area. The main challenge of this area is the high content of salt. The aims of this research were try to induce a new varian of local maize through in vitro culture and observe its genetic variation using RAPD. Bluto variety from Madura island was used as an explant in callus induction. Induction of callus were conducted using MS basal medium supplemented with 3 mg/L of 2,4 D under dark condition. While the selection stage was conducted using MS basal medium supplemented with 3 mg/L of 2,4 D with the addition of various concentration of NaCl (0 mg/L; 2500 mg/L; 5000 mg/L; and 7500 mg/L). The research were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications. The exposion of NaCl were significantly decrease the mass of maize callus. The highest addition of callus weight was 210 mgs in control treatment, while the lowest is in 7500 mg/L with 3 mgs. The RAPD technique was utilized to characterize the genotype of maize callus. Out of five primers, only three primers can produce polymorphic bands named OPA10, OPB07 and OPC02. Taken together, the surviving callus of Bluto varians can be further developed as potential somaclone that has high tolerance to salt stress.

  4. Over-expression of a novel JAZ family gene from Glycine soja, increases salt and alkali stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Cai, Hua; Luo, Xiao; Bai, Xi; Deyholos, Michael K; Chen, Qin; Chen, Chao; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming

    2012-09-21

    Salt and alkali stress are two of the main environmental factors limiting crop production. Recent discoveries show that the JAZ family encodes plant-specific genes involved in jasmonate signaling. However, there is only limited information about this gene family in abiotic stress response, and in wild soybean (Glycine soja), which is a species noted for its tolerance to alkali and salinity. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from G. soja. Transcript abundance of GsJAZ2 increased following exposure to salt, alkali, cold and drought. Over-expression of GsJAZ2 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. The expression levels of some alkali stress response and stress-inducible marker genes were significantly higher in the GsJAZ2 overexpression lines as compared to wild-type plants. Subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein showed that GsJAZ2 was localized to the nucleus. These results suggest that the newly isolated wild soybean GsJAZ2 is a positive regulator of plant salt and alkali stress tolerance. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Selection of efficient salt-tolerant bacteria containing ACC deaminase for promotion of tomato growth under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannika Chookietwattana* and Kedsukon Maneewan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available For successful application of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB in salt-affected soil, bioinoculant with salt-tolerant property is required in order to provide better survival and perform well in the field. The present study aimed to select the most efficient salt-tolerant bacterium containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC deaminase from eighty four bacterial strains and to investigate the effects of the selected bacterium on the germination and growth of tomato (Licopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Seeda under saline conditions. The Bacillus licheniformis B2r was selected for its ability to utilize ACC as a sole nitrogen source under salinity stress. It also showed a high ACC deaminase activity at 0.6 M NaCl salinity. Tomato plants inoculated with the selected bacterium under various saline conditions (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM NaCl revealed a significant increase in the germination percentage, germination index, root length, and seedling dry weight especially at salinity levels ranging from 30-90 mM NaCl. The work described in this report is an important step in developing an efficient salt-tolerant bioinoculant to facilitate plant growth in saline soil.

  6. Over-expression of a novel JAZ family gene from Glycine soja, increases salt and alkali stress tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Dan; Cai, Hua; Luo, Xiao; Bai, Xi [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Deyholos, Michael K. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada); Chen, Qin [Lethbridge Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 5403-1 Ave., South P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, AB, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Chen, Chao; Ji, Wei [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Zhu, Yanming, E-mail: ymzhu@neau.edu.cn [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)

    2012-09-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from Glycine soja. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of GsJAZ2 enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The transcriptions of stress marker genes were higher in GsJAZ2 overexpression lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GsJAZ2 was localized to nucleus. -- Abstract: Salt and alkali stress are two of the main environmental factors limiting crop production. Recent discoveries show that the JAZ family encodes plant-specific genes involved in jasmonate signaling. However, there is only limited information about this gene family in abiotic stress response, and in wild soybean (Glycine soja), which is a species noted for its tolerance to alkali and salinity. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from G. soja. Transcript abundance of GsJAZ2 increased following exposure to salt, alkali, cold and drought. Over-expression of GsJAZ2 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. The expression levels of some alkali stress response and stress-inducible marker genes were significantly higher in the GsJAZ2 overexpression lines as compared to wild-type plants. Subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein showed that GsJAZ2 was localized to the nucleus. These results suggest that the newly isolated wild soybean GsJAZ2 is a positive regulator of plant salt and alkali stress tolerance.

  7. High salt and high pH tolerance of new isolated Rhizobium etli strains from Egyptian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseldin, Abdelaal; Werner, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    Saline and alkaline soils are major problems contributing to the low productivity of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in arid and semi-arid regions such as Egypt. Therefore our study was directed toward selecting strains more tolerant to these environmental stresses. Among seven Rhizobium etli strains isolated from Egyptian soils, we found a high degree of diversity. Strains EBRI 21 and EBRI 26 are highly tolerant to a salt concentration up to 4% NaCl. A positive correlation was found between the salt tolerance and the adaptation to alkaline pH (9). Strains EBRI 2 and EBRI 26 were adapted to elevated temperatures (42 degrees C). The minimum level of low pH for the majority of Rhizobium etli strains from Egypt was pH 4.7 while the Colombian strain Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 survived well at pH 4. At 0.4% NaCl, the symbiotic efficiency of the salt-tolerant strain EBRI 26 was superior in cultivar Giza 6 compared with the salt-sensitive strain EBRI 2 (18.2 compared with 13.9 nM: C2H4 h(-1) mg(-1) nodule fresh weight). In the bean cultivar Saxa, nitrogen fixation was much more affected by high salt concentration (0.4% NaCl) than in the cultivar Giza 6 with both strains (3.9 and 3.8 nM: C2H4 h(-1) mg(-1) nodule fresh weight, respectively). In general, stress of alkalinity had a less detrimental effect on nodulation and N2 fixation than stress of salinity.

  8. Contrasting responses of salinity-stressed salt-tolerant and intolerant winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars to ozone pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y H; Li, X; Li, Y G; Miao, B H; Xu, H; Simmons, M; Yang, X H

    2012-03-01

    Contrasting winter wheat cultivars, salt-tolerant DK961 and intolerant JN17, which sown in no salinity (-S) and salinity (+S) boxes were exposed to charcoal filtered air (CF) and elevated O(3) (+O(3)) in open top chambers (OTCs) for 30 days. In -S DK961 and JN17 plants, +O(3) DK961 and JN17 plants had significantly lower light-saturated net photosynthetic rates (A(sat), 26% and 24%), stomatal conductance (g(s), 20% and 32%) and chlorophyll contents (10% and 21%), while O(3) considerably increased foliar electrolyte leakage (13% and 39%), malondialdehyde content (9% and 23%), POD activity and ABA content. However, responses of these parameters to O(3) were significant in DK961 but not in JN17 in +S treatment. Correlation coefficient of DK961 reached significance level of 0.01, but it was not significant in JN17 under interaction of O(3) and salinity. O(3)-induced reductions were larger in shoot than in root in both cultivars. Results indicate that the salt-tolerant cultivar sustained less damage from salinity than did the intolerant cultivar but was severely injured by O(3) under +S condition. Therefore, selecting for greater salt tolerance may not lead to the expected gains in yield in areas of moderate (100 mM) salinity when O(3) is present in high concentrations. In contrast, salinity-induced stomatal closure effectively reduced sensitivity to O(3) in the salt-intolerant cultivar. Hence we suggest salt-tolerant winter wheat cultivars might be well adapted to areas of high (>100 mM) salinity and O(3) stress, while intolerant cultivars might be adaptable to areas of mild/moderate salinity but high O(3) pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. [Natural nucleotide polymorphism of the Srlk gene that determines salt stress tolerance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskaia, M S; Pavlov, A V; Dziubenko, E A; Dziubenko, N I; Potokina, E K

    2014-04-01

    Based on legume genome syntheny, the nucleotide sequence of Srlk gene, key role of which in response to salt stress was demonstrated for the model species Medicago truncatula, was identified in the major forage and siderate crop alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In twelve alfalfa samples originating from regions with contrasting growing conditions, 19 SNPs were revealed in the Srlk gene. For two nonsynonymous SNPs, molecular markers were designed that could be further used to analyze the association between Srlk gene nucleotide polymorphism and the variability in salt stress tolerance among alfalfa cultivars.

  10. Silicon enhanced salt tolerance by improving the root water uptake and decreasing the ion toxicity in cucumber

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shiwen; Liu, Peng; Chen, Daoqian; Yin, Lina; Li, Hongbing; Deng, Xiping

    2015-01-01

    Although the effects of silicon application on enhancing plant salt tolerance have been widely investigated, the underlying mechanism has remained unclear. In this study, seedlings of cucumber, a medium silicon accumulator plant, grown in 0.83 mM silicon solution for 2 weeks were exposed to 65 mM NaCl solution for another 1 week. The dry weight and shoot/root ratio were reduced by salt stress, but silicon application significantly alleviated these decreases. The chlorophyll concentration, net...

  11. Overexpression of a Pathogenesis-Related Protein 10 Enhances Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingni Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis-related proteins play multiple roles in plant development and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we characterize a rice defense related gene named “jasmonic acid inducible pathogenesis-related class 10” (JIOsPR10 to gain an insight into its functional properties. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed up-regulation of JIOsPR10 under salt and drought stress conditions. Constitutive over-expression JIOsPR10 in rice promoted shoot and root development in transgenic plants, however, their productivity was unaltered. Further experiments exhibited that the transgenic plants showed reduced susceptibility to rice blast fungus, and enhanced salt and drought stress tolerance as compared to the wild type. A comparative proteomic profiling of wild type and transgenic plants showed that overexpression of JIOsPR10 led to the differential modulation of several proteins mainly related with oxidative stresses, carbohydrate metabolism, and plant defense. Taken together, our findings suggest that JIOsPR10 plays important roles in biotic and abiotic stresses tolerance probably by activation of stress related proteins.

  12. Roles of NIA/NR/NOA1-dependent nitric oxide production and HY1 expression in the modulation of Arabidopsis salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanjie; Mao, Yu; Lai, Diwen; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Tianqing; Shen, Wenbiao

    2013-07-01

    Despite substantial evidence on the separate roles of Arabidopsis nitric oxide-associated 1 (NOA1)-associated nitric oxide (NO) production and haem oxygenase 1 (HY1) expression in salt tolerance, their integrative signalling pathway remains largely unknown. To fill this knowledge gap, the interaction network among nitrate reductase (NIA/NR)- and NOA1-dependent NO production and HY1 expression was studied at the genetic and molecular levels. Upon salinity stress, the majority of NO production was attributed to NIA/NR/NOA1. Further evidence confirmed that HY1 mutant hy1-100, nia1/2/noa1, and nia1/2/noa1/hy1-100 mutants exhibited progressive salt hypersensitivity, all of which were significantly rescued by three NO-releasing compounds. The salinity-tolerant phenotype and the stronger NO production in gain-of-function mutant of HY1 were also blocked by the NO synthetic inhibitor and scavenger. Although NO- or HY1-deficient mutants showed a compensatory mode of upregulation of HY1 or slightly increased NO production, respectively, during 2 d of salt treatment, downregulation of ZAT10/12-mediated antioxidant gene expression (cAPX1/2 and FSD1) was observed after 7 d of treatment. The hypersensitive phenotypes and stress-related genes expression profiles were differentially rescued or blocked by the application of NO- (in particular) or carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing compounds, showing a synergistic mode. Similar reciprocal responses were observed in the nia1/2/noa1/hy1-100 quadruple mutant, with the NO-releasing compounds exhibit the maximal rescuing responses. Overall, the findings present the combination of compensatory and synergistic modes, linking NIA/NR/NOA1-dependent NO production and HY1 expression in the modulation of plant salt tolerance.

  13. A R2R3-type MYB gene, OsMYB2, is involved in salt, cold, and dehydration tolerance in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, An; Dai, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2012-01-01

    MYB-type transcription factors play a diverse role in plant development and response to abiotic stress. This study isolated a rice R2R3-type MYB gene, OsMYB2, and functionally characterized its role in tolerance to abiotic stress by generating transgenic rice plants with overexpressing and RNA interference OsMYB2. Expression of OsMYB2 was up-regulated by salt, cold, and dehydration stress. OsMYB2 was localized in the nucleus with transactivation activity. No difference in growth and development between the OsMYB2-overexpressing and wild-type plants was observed under normal growth conditions, but the OsMYB2-overexpressing plants were more tolerant to salt, cold, and dehydration stresses and more sensitive to abscisic acid than wild-type plants. The OsMYB2-overexpressing plants accumulated greater amounts of soluble sugars and proline than wild-type plants under salt stress. Overexpression of OsMYB2 enhanced up-regulation of genes encoding proline synthase and transporters. The OsMYB2-overexpressing plants accumulated less amounts of H2O2 and malondialdehyde. The enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes, including peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, may underlie the lower H2O2 contents in OsMYB2-overexpressing plants. There was greater up-regulation of stress-related genes, including OsLEA3, OsRab16A, and OsDREB2A, in the OsMYB2-overexpressing plants. Microarray analysis showed that expression of numerous genes involving diverse functions in stress response was altered in the OsMYB2-overexpressing plants. These findings suggest that OsMYB2 encodes a stress-responsive MYB transcription factor that plays a regulatory role in tolerance of rice to salt, cold, and dehydration stress. PMID:22301384

  14. Screening for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Rice: Salt, Cold, and Drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Diego M; Almadanim, M Cecília; Lourenço, Tiago; Abreu, Isabel A; Saibo, Nelson J M; Oliveira, M Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the primary source of food for more than half of the world population. Most rice varieties are severely injured by abiotic stresses, with strong social and economic impact. Understanding rice responses to stress may help breeding for more tolerant varieties. However, papers dealing with stress experiments often describe very different experimental designs, thus making comparisons difficult. The use of identical setups is the only way to generate comparable data. This chapter is organized into three sections, describing the experimental conditions established at the Genomics of Plant Stress (GPlantS) unit of ITQB to assess the response of rice plants to three different abiotic stresses--high salinity, cold stress, and drought. All sections include a detailed description of the materials and methodology, as well as useful notes gathered from the GPlantS team's experience. We use rice seedlings as plants at this stage show high sensitivity to abiotic stresses. For the salt and cold stress assays we use hydroponic cultures, while for the drought assay plants are grown in soil and subjected to water withholding. All setups enable visual score determination and are suitable for sample collection along the imposition of stress. The proposed methodologies are simple and affordable to implement in most labs, allowing the discrimination of several rice genotypes at the molecular and phenotypic level.

  15. Transgenic rice expressing a cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) plasma membrane gene MePMP3-2 exhibits enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y; Cui, Y C; Ren, C; Rocha, P S C F; Peng, M; Xu, G Y; Wang, M L; Xia, X J

    2016-02-05

    Plasma membrane proteolipid 3 (PMP3) is a class of small hydrophobic proteins found in many organisms including higher plants. Some plant PMP3 genes have been shown to respond to abiotic stresses and to participate in the processes of plant stress tolerance. In this study, we isolated the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) MePMP3-2 gene and functionally characterized its role in tolerance to abiotic stress by expressing it in rice (Oryza sativa L.). MePMP3-2 encodes a 77-amino acid protein belonging to a subgroup of plant PMP3s that have long hydrophylic C-terminal tails of unknown function. In silico analysis and co-localization studies indicated that MePMP3-2 is a plasma membrane protein with two transmembrane domains, similar to other PMP3s. In cassava leaves, MePMP3-2 expression was up-regulated by salt and drought stresses. Heterologous constitutive expression of MePMP3-2 in rice did not alter plant growth and development but increased tolerance to salt and drought stresses. In addition, under stress conditions MePMP3-2 transgenic plants accumulated less malondialdehyde, had increased levels of proline, and exhibited greater up-regulation of the stress-related genes OsProT and OsP5CS, but led to only minor changes in OsDREB2A and OsLEA3 expression. These findings indicate that MePMP3-2 may play an important role in salt and drought stress tolerance in transgenic rice.

  16. Difference in root K+ retention ability and reduced sensitivity of K+-permeable channels to reactive oxygen species confer differential salt tolerance in three Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Bose, Jayakumar; Shabala, Lana; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-08-01

    Brassica species are known to possess significant inter and intraspecies variability in salinity stress tolerance, but the cell-specific mechanisms conferring this difference remain elusive. In this work, the role and relative contribution of several key plasma membrane transporters to salinity stress tolerance were evaluated in three Brassica species (B. napus, B. juncea, and B. oleracea) using a range of electrophysiological assays. Initial root growth assay and viability staining revealed that B. napus was most tolerant amongst the three species, followed by B. juncea and B. oleracea At the mechanistic level, this difference was conferred by at least three complementary physiological mechanisms: (i) higher Na(+) extrusion ability from roots resulting from increased expression and activity of plasma membrane SOS1-like Na(+)/H(+) exchangers; (ii) better root K(+) retention ability resulting from stress-inducible activation of H(+)-ATPase and ability to maintain more negative membrane potential under saline conditions; and (iii) reduced sensitivity of B. napus root K(+)-permeable channels to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The last two mechanisms played the dominant role and conferred most of the differential salt sensitivity between species. Brassica napus plants were also more efficient in preventing the stress-induced increase in GORK transcript levels and up-regulation of expression of AKT1, HAK5, and HKT1 transporter genes. Taken together, our data provide the mechanistic explanation for differential salt stress sensitivity amongst these species and shed light on transcriptional and post-translational regulation of key ion transport systems involved in the maintenance of the root plasma membrane potential and cytosolic K/Na ratio as a key attribute for salt tolerance in Brassica species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Genetic engineering of the biosynthesis of glycinebetaine leads to alleviate salt-induced potassium efflux and enhances salt tolerance in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dandan; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Cuicui; Meng, Qingwei; Li, Gang; Chen, Tony H H; Yang, Xinghong

    2017-04-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. 'Moneymaker') was transformed with the choline oxidase gene codA from Arthrobacter globiformis, which was modified to allow for targeting to both chloroplasts and the cytosol. Glycine betaine (GB) was accumulated in transformed plants, while no detectable GB was found in wild-type (WT) plants. Compared to WT plants, transgenic lines showed significantly higher photosynthetic rates (Pn) and antioxidant enzyme activities and lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in the leaves when exposed to salt stress. Furthermore, compared with WT plants, K+ efflux decreased and Na+ efflux increased in roots of transgenic plants under salt stress; resulted in lower Na+/K+ ratios in transgenic lines. The exogenous application of GB also significantly reduced NaCl-induced K+ efflux and increased Na+ efflux in WT plants. A qRT-PCR assay indicated that GB enhanced NaCl-induced expression of genes encoding the K+ transporter, Na+/H+ antiporter, and H+-ATPase. These results suggest that the enhanced salt tolerance conferred by codA in transgenic tomato plants might be due to the regulation of ion channel and transporters by GB, which would allow high potassium levels and low sodium levels to be maintained in transgenic plants under salt stress condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. MAOHUZI6/ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE2 Regulate Ethylene Response of Roots and Coleoptiles and Negatively Affect Salt Tolerance in Rice1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Ma, Biao; He, Si-Jie; Xiong, Qing; Duan, Kai-Xuan; Yin, Cui-Cui; Chen, Hui; Lu, Xiang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene plays important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. The ethylene signaling pathway has been studied extensively, mainly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, the molecular mechanism of ethylene signaling is largely unknown in rice (Oryza sativa). Previously, we have isolated a set of rice ethylene-response mutants. Here, we characterized the mutant maohuzi6 (mhz6). Through map-based cloning, we found that MHZ6 encodes ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 (OsEIL1), a rice homolog of ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3), which is the master transcriptional regulator of ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Disruption of MHZ6/OsEIL1 caused ethylene insensitivity mainly in roots, whereas silencing of the closely related OsEIL2 led to ethylene insensitivity mainly in coleoptiles of etiolated seedlings. This organ-specific functional divergence is different from the functional features of EIN3 and EIL1, both of which mediate the incomplete ethylene responses of Arabidopsis etiolated seedlings. In Arabidopsis, EIN3 and EIL1 play positive roles in plant salt tolerance. In rice, however, lack of MHZ6/OsEIL1 or OsEIL2 functions improves salt tolerance, whereas the overexpressing lines exhibit salt hypersensitivity at the seedling stage, indicating that MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 negatively regulate salt tolerance in rice. Furthermore, this negative regulation by MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 in salt tolerance is likely attributable in part to the direct regulation of HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER2;1 expression and Na+ uptake in roots. Additionally, MHZ6/OsEIL1 overexpression promotes grain size and thousand-grain weight. Together, our study provides insights for the functional diversification of MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 in ethylene response and finds a novel mode of ethylene-regulated salt stress response that could be helpful for engineering salt-tolerant crops. PMID:25995326

  19. Expression of heterologous transporters in Saccharomyces kudriavzevii: A strategy for improving yeast salt tolerance and fermentation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibalova-Culakova, Hana; Alonso-Del-Real, Javier; Querol, Amparo; Sychrova, Hana

    2018-03-02

    S. kudriavzevii has potential for fermentations and other biotechnological applications, but is sensitive to many types of stress. We tried to increase its tolerance and performance via the expression of various transporters from different yeast species. Whereas the overexpression of Z. rouxii fructose uptake systems (ZrFfz1 and ZrFsy1) or a glycerol importer (ZrStl1) did not improve the ability of S. kudriavzevii to consume fructose and survive osmotic stress, the expression of alkali-metal-cation exporters (ScEna1, ScNha1, YlNha2) improved S. kudriavzevii salt tolerance, and that of ScNha1 also the fermentation performance. The level of improvement depended on the type and activity of the transporter suggesting that the natural sensitivity of S. kudriavzevii cells to salts is based on a non-optimal functioning of its own transporters. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Distinctive molecular and biochemical characteristics of a glycoside hydrolase family 20 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase and salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junpei; Song, Zhifeng; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Rui; Wu, Qian; Li, Junjun; Tang, Xianghua; Xu, Bo; Ding, Junmei; Han, Nanyu; Huang, Zunxi

    2017-04-11

    Enzymatic degradation of chitin has attracted substantial attention because chitin is an abundant renewable natural resource, second only to lignocellulose, and because of the promising applications of N-acetylglucosamine in the bioethanol, food and pharmaceutical industries. However, the low activity and poor tolerance to salts and N-acetylglucosamine of most reported β-N-acetylglucosaminidases limit their applications. Mining for novel enzymes from new microorganisms is one way to address this problem. A glycoside hydrolase family 20 (GH 20) β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (GlcNAcase) was identified from Microbacterium sp. HJ5 harboured in the saline soil of an abandoned salt mine and was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant enzyme showed specific activities of 1773.1 ± 1.1 and 481.4 ± 2.3 μmol min -1 mg -1 towards p-nitrophenyl β-N-acetylglucosaminide and N,N'-diacetyl chitobiose, respectively, a V max of 3097 ± 124 μmol min -1 mg -1 towards p-nitrophenyl β-N-acetylglucosaminide and a K i of 14.59 mM for N-acetylglucosamine inhibition. Most metal ions and chemical reagents at final concentrations of 1.0 and 10.0 mM or 0.5 and 1.0% (v/v) had little or no effect (retaining 84.5 - 131.5% activity) on the enzyme activity. The enzyme can retain more than 53.6% activity and good stability in 3.0-20.0% (w/v) NaCl. Compared with most GlcNAcases, the activity of the enzyme is considerably higher and the tolerance to salts and N-acetylglucosamine is much better. Furthermore, the enzyme had higher proportions of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, glycine, random coils and negatively charged surfaces but lower proportions of cysteine, lysine, α-helices and positively charged surfaces than its homologs. These molecular characteristics were hypothesised as potential factors in the adaptation for salt tolerance and high activity of the GH 20 GlcNAcase. Biochemical characterization revealed that the GlcNAcase had novel salt

  1. Mapping QTL for Sex and Growth Traits in Salt-Tolerant Tilapia (Oreochromis spp. X O. mossambicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Lin

    Full Text Available In aquaculture, growth and sex are economically important traits. To accelerate genetic improvement in increasing growth in salt-tolerant tilapia, we conducted QTL mapping for growth traits and sex with an F2 family, including 522 offspring and two parents. We used 144 polymorphic microsatellites evenly covering the genome of tilapia to genotype the family. QTL analyses were carried out using interval mapping for all individuals, males and females in the family, respectively. Using all individuals, three suggestive QTL for body weight, body length and body thickness respectively were detected in LG20, LG22 and LG12 and explained 2.4% to 3.1% of phenotypic variance (PV. When considering only males, five QTL for body weight were detected on five LGs, and explained 4.1 to 6.3% of PV. Using only females from the F2 family, three QTL for body weight were detected on LG1, LG6 and LG8, and explained 7.9-14.3% of PV. The QTL for body weight in males and females were located in different LGs, suggesting that in salt-tolerant tilapia, different set of genes 'switches' control the growth in males and females. QTL for sex were mapped on LG1 and LG22, indicating multigene sex determination in the salt-tolerant tilapia. This study provides new insights on the locations and effects of QTL for growth traits and sex, and sets the foundation for fine mapping for future marker-assisted selection for growth and sex in salt-tolerant tilapia aquaculture.

  2. Alleviation of salt stress in citrus seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi depends on the rootstock salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Josefa M; Pérez-Tornero, Olaya; Morte, Asunción

    2014-01-01

    Seedlings of Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) and Alemow (Citrus macrophylla Wester) were inoculated with a mixture of AM fungi (Rhizophagus irregularis and Funneliformis mosseae) (+AM), or left non-inoculated (-AM). From forty-five days after fungal inoculation onwards, half of +AM or -AM plants were irrigated with nutrient solution containing 50 mM NaCl. Three months later, AM significantly increased plant growth in both Cleopatra mandarin and Alemow rootstocks. Plant growth was higher in salinized +AM plants than in non-salinized -AM plants, demonstrating that AM compensates the growth limitations imposed by salinity. Whereas AM-inoculated Cleopatra mandarin seedlings had a very good response under saline treatment, inoculation in Alemow did not alleviate the negative effect of salinity. The beneficial effect of mycorrhization is unrelated with protection against the uptake of Na or Cl and the effect of AM on these ions did not explain the different response of rootstocks. This response was related with the nutritional status since our findings confirm that AM fungi can alter host responses to salinity stress, improving more the P, K, Fe and Cu plant nutrition in Cleopatra mandarin than in Alemow plants. AM inoculation under saline treatments also increased root Mg concentration but it was higher in Cleopatra mandarin than in Alemow. This could explain why AM fungus did not completely recovered chlorophyll concentrations in Alemow and consequently it had lower photosynthesis rate than control plants. AM fungi play an essential role in citrus rootstock growth and biomass production although the intensity of this response depends on the rootstock salinity tolerance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. An alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) ethylene response factor gene, MsERF11, enhances salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingting; Yang, Qingchuan; Zhang, Xinquan; Ding, Wang; Gruber, Margaret

    2012-09-01

    A novel orthologue of ethylene response factor gene, MsERF11, was isolated from alfalfa in this study. It has an open reading frame of 807 bp, encoding a predicted polypeptide of 268 amino acids. Sequence similarity analysis clearly suggested that MsERF11 encoded an ethylene response factor protein. The results of transient expression of MsERF11 in onion epidermal cells indicated that MsERF11 is a nuclear protein. The expression pattern of MsERF11 gene was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR and a higher level of expression was observed in leaves than was observed in roots, stems, flower buds and flowers. Furthermore, the expression was induced by PEG6000, NaCl, Al2(SO4)3 and six different hormones. Over-expressing MsERF11 resulted in enhanced tolerances to salt stress in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. This research indicates that MsERF11 has the potential to be used for improving crop's salt tolerance in areas where salinity is a limiting factor for agricultural productivity. MsERF11 was isolated from alfalfa. Its expression was induced by different abiotic stresses and hormones. Over-expressing MsERF11 resulted in enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

  4. Salicornia europaea L. Na⁺/H⁺ antiporter gene improves salt tolerance in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L Q; Niu, Y D; Huridu, H; Hao, J F; Qi, Z; Hasi, A

    2014-07-24

    In order to obtain a salt-tolerant perennial alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), we transferred the halophyte Salicornia europaea L. Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene, SeNHX1, to alfalfa by using the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. The transformants were confirmed by both PCR and RT-PCR analyses. Of 197 plants that were obtained after transformation, 36 were positive by PCR analysis using 2 primer pairs for the CaMV35S-SeNHX1 and SeNHX1-Nos fragments; 6 plants survived in a greenhouse. RT-PCR analysis revealed that SeNHX1 was expressed in 5 plants. The resultant transgenic alfalfa had better salt tolerance. After stress treatment for 21 days with 0.6% NaCl, the chlorophyll and MDA contents in transgenic plants were lower, but proline content and SOD, POD, and CAT activities were higher than those in wild-type plants. These results suggest that the salt tolerance of transgenic alfalfa was improved by the overexpression of the SeNHX1 gene.

  5. Tolerance to drought and salt stress in plants: Unraveling the signaling networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dortje eGolldack

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance of plants to abiotic stressors such as drought and salinity is triggered by complex multicomponent signaling pathways to restore cellular homeostasis and promote survival. Major plant transcription factor families such as bZIP, NAC, AP2/ERF and MYB orchestrate regulatory networks underlying abiotic stress tolerance. Sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2 and MAPK pathways contribute to initiation of stress adaptive downstream responses and promote plant growth and development. As a convergent point of multiple abiotic cues, cellular effects of environmental stresses are not only imbalances of ionic and osmotic homeostasis but also impaired photosynthesis, cellular energy depletion, and redox imbalances. Recent evidence of regulatory systems that link sensing and signaling of environmental conditions and the intracellular redox status have shed light on interfaces of stress and energy signaling. ROS (reactive oxygen species cause severe cellular damage by peroxidation and de-esterification of membrane lipids, however, current models also define a pivotal signaling function of ROS in triggering tolerance against stress. Recent research advances suggest and support a regulatory role of ROS in the cross talks of stress triggered hormonal signaling such as the abscisic acid (ABA pathway and endogenously induced redox and metabolite signals. Here, we discuss and review the versatile molecular convergence in the abiotic stress responsive signaling networks in the context of ROS and lipid derived signals and the specific role of stomatal signaling.

  6. Salt-tolerant and -sensitive alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cultivars have large variations in defense responses to the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera litura under normal and salt stress condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yunting; Liu, Qing; Hettenhausen, Christian; Cao, Guoyan; Tan, Qing; Zhao, Weiye; Lin, Honghui; Wu, Jianqiang

    2017-01-01

    In nature, plants are often exposed to multiple stress factors at the same time. Yet, little is known about how plants modulate their physiology to counteract simultaneous abiotic and biotic stresses, such as soil salinity and insect herbivory. In this study, insect performance bioassays, phytohormone measurements, quantification of transcripts, and protein determination were employed to study the phenotypic variations of two alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cultivars in response to insect Spodoptera litura feeding under normal and salt stress condition. When being cultivated in normal soil, the salt-tolerant alfalfa cultivar Zhongmu-1 exhibited lower insect resistance than did the salt-sensitive cultivar Xinjiang Daye. Under salinity stress, the defense responses of Xinjiang Daye were repressed, whereas Zhongmu-1 did not show changes in resistance levels. It is likely that salinity influenced the resistance of Xinjiang Daye through suppressing the accumulation of jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile), which is the bioactive hormone inducing herbivore defense responses, leading to attenuated trypsin proteinase inhibitor (TPI) activity. Furthermore, exogenous ABA supplementation suppressed the insect herbivory-induced JA/JA-Ile accumulation and levels of JAR1 (jasmonate resistant 1) and TPI, and further decreased the resistance of Xinjiang Daye, whereas Zhongmu-1 showed very little response to the increased ABA level. We propose a mechanism, in which high levels of abscisic acid induced by salt treatment may affect the expression levels of JAR1 and consequently decrease JA-Ile accumulation and thus partly suppress the defense of Xinjiang Daye against insects under salt stress. This study provides new insight into the mechanism by which alfalfa responds to concurrent abiotic and biotic stresses.

  7. Desulfonatronobacter acetoxydans sp. nov.,: a first acetate-oxidizing, extremely salt-tolerant alkaliphilic SRB from a hypersaline soda lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, D Y; Chernyh, N A; Poroshina, M N

    2015-09-01

    Recent intensive microbiological investigation of sulfidogenesis in soda lakes did not result in isolation of any pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) able to directly oxidize acetate. The sulfate-dependent acetate oxidation at haloalkaline conditions has, so far, been only shown in two syntrophic associations of novel Syntrophobacteraceae members and haloalkaliphilic hydrogenotrophic SRB. In the course of investigation of one of them, obtained from a hypersaline soda lake in South-Western Siberia, a minor component was observed showing a close relation to Desulfonatronobacter acidivorans--a "complete oxidizing" SRB from soda lakes. This organism became dominant in a secondary enrichment with propionate as e-donor and sulfate as e-acceptor. A pure culture, strain APT3, was identified as a novel member of the family Desulfobacteraceae. It is an extremely salt-tolerant alkaliphile, growing with butyrate at salinity up to 4 M total Na(+) with a pH optimum at 9.5. It can grow with sulfate as e-acceptor with C3-C9 VFA and also with some alcohols. The most interesting property of strain APT3 is its ability to grow with acetate as e-donor, although not with sulfate, but with sulfite or thiosulfate as e-acceptors. The new isolate is proposed as a new species Desulfonatronobacter acetoxydans.

  8. Trait-based model development to support breeding programs. A case study for salt tolerance and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleari, Livia; Movedi, Ermes; Confalonieri, Roberto

    2017-06-28

    Eco-physiological models are increasingly used to analyze G × E × M interactions to support breeding programs via the design of ideotypes for specific contexts. However, available crop models are only partly suitable for this purpose, since they often lack clear relationships between parameters and traits breeders are working on. Taking salt stress tolerance and rice as a case study, we propose a paradigm shift towards the building of ideotyping-specific models explicitly around traits involved in breeding programs. Salt tolerance is a complex trait relying on different physiological processes that can be alternatively selected to improve the overall crop tolerance. We developed a new model explicitly accounting for these traits and we evaluated its performance using data from growth chamber experiments (e.g., R2 ranged from 0.74 to 0.94 for the biomass of different plant organs). Using the model, we were able to show how an increase in the overall tolerance can derive from completely different physiological mechanisms according to soil/water salinity dynamics. The study demonstrated that a trait-based approach can increase the usefulness of mathematical models for supporting breeding programs.

  9. Manipulation of alternative oxidase can influence salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chevaun Anne; Melino, Vanessa Jane; Sweetman, Crystal; Soole, Kathleen Lydia

    2009-12-01

    The growth and development of plants can be limited by environmental stresses such as salinity. It has been suggested that the non-phosphorylating alternative respiratory pathway in plants, mediated by the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [NAD(P)H DH] and alternative oxidase (AOX), is important during environmental stresses. The involvement of this alternative pathway in a stress response may be linked to its capacity to uncouple carbon metabolism from adenylate control and/or the minimization of the formation of destructive reactive oxygen species (ROS). Salinity stress is a widespread, adverse environmental stress, which leads to an ionic imbalance, hyperosmotic stress and oxidative stress, the latter being the result of ROS formation. In this study, we show that salinity stress of Arabidopsis thaliana plants resulted in the formation of ROS, increased levels of Na+ in both the shoot and the root and an increase in transcription of Ataox1a, Atndb2 and Atndb4 genes, indicating the formation of an abridged non-phosphorylating electron transport chain in response to salinity stress. Furthermore, plants constitutively over-expressing Ataox1a, with increased AOX capacity, showed lower ROS formation, 30-40% improved growth rates and lower shoot Na+ content compared with controls, when grown under salinity stress conditions. Thus, more active AOX in roots and shoots can improve the salt tolerance of Arabidopsis as defined by its ability to grow more effectively in the presence of NaCl, and maintain lower shoot Na+ content. AOX does have an important role in stress adaptation in plants, and these results provide some validation of the hypothesis that AOX can play a critical role in cell re-programming under salinity stress.

  10. Relative expression of genes related with cold tolerance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-18

    Jun 18, 2014 ... exposure to cold of the rice cultivars Diamante-INIA and Zafiro-INIA and one experimental line from ... Mediterranean climate and it is located between the ..... injury and tolerance in developing maize seedlings:changes in.

  11. A Bowman-Birk type protease inhibitor is involved in the tolerance to salt stress in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lei; Li, Cuiling; Chen, Fang; Zhao, Shuangyi; Xia, Guangmin

    2008-08-01

    A salt-responsive gene WRSI5 was characterized from salt-tolerant cultivar Shanrong No. 3 (SR3), an introgression line via asymmetric somatic hybrid between Triticum aestivum L. cv. Jinan177 (JN177) and Thinopyrum ponticum Podp. The peptide encoded by WRSI5 contains a Bowman-Birk domain sharing a high level of sequence identity to monocotyledonous protease inhibitors. When expressed in vitro, the WRSI5 gene product exhibited trypsin, but not chymotrypsin inhibition. The expression level of WRSI5 was increased in SR3 roots exposed to salt, drought or oxidative stress. In situ hybridization showed that it is induced in the endodermal cells of the mature region of the SR3 root tip, with no signal detectable in the corresponding region of the salt-susceptible cultivar JN177. SR3 has a higher selectivity for K(+) over Na(+), and therefore limits the transport of Na(+) from the root to the shoot. When overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, WRSI5 improves the ability of seedlings to grow on a medium containing 150 mM NaCl. We suggest that WRSI5 plays an important role in regulating the plant growth rate or long-distance Na(+) transport in SR3 plants exposed to salt stress.

  12. Approaches in modulating proline metabolism in plants for salt and drought stress tolerance: Phytohormones, mineral nutrients and transgenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Masood, Asim; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Khan, M Iqbal R; Anjum, Naser A

    2017-06-01

    Major abiotic stress factors such as salt and drought adversely affect important physiological processes and biochemical mechanisms and cause severe loss in crop productivity worldwide. Plants develop various strategies to stand healthy against these stress factors. The accumulation of proline (Pro) is one of the striking metabolic responses of plants to salt and drought stress. Pro biosynthesis and signalling contribute to the redox balance of cell under normal and stressful conditions. However, literature is meager on the sustainable strategies potentially fit for modulating Pro biosynthesis and production in stressed plants. Considering the recent literature, this paper in its first part overviews Pro biosynthesis and transport in plants and also briefly highlights the significance of Pro in plant responses to salt and drought stress. Secondly, this paper discusses mechanisms underlying the regulation of Pro metabolism in salt and drought-exposed plant via phytohormones, mineral nutrients and transgenic approaches. The outcome of the studies may give new opportunities in modulating Pro metabolism for improving plant tolerance to salt and drought stress and benefit sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitative Proteomics of the Tonoplast Reveals a Role for Glycolytic Enzymes in Salt Tolerance[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Hernández-Coronado, Marcela; Pantoja, Omar

    2009-01-01

    To examine the role of the tonoplast in plant salt tolerance and identify proteins involved in the regulation of transporters for vacuolar Na+ sequestration, we exploited a targeted quantitative proteomics approach. Two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis analysis of free flow zonal electrophoresis separated tonoplast fractions from control, and salt-treated Mesembryanthemum crystallinum plants revealed the membrane association of glycolytic enzymes aldolase and enolase, along with subunits of the vacuolar H+-ATPase V-ATPase. Protein blot analysis confirmed coordinated salt regulation of these proteins, and chaotrope treatment indicated a strong tonoplast association. Reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed that the glycolytic enzymes interacted with the V-ATPase subunit B VHA-B, and aldolase was shown to stimulate V-ATPase activity in vitro by increasing the affinity for ATP. To investigate a physiological role for this association, the Arabidopsis thaliana cytoplasmic enolase mutant, los2, was characterized. These plants were salt sensitive, and there was a specific reduction in enolase abundance in the tonoplast from salt-treated plants. Moreover, tonoplast isolated from mutant plants showed an impaired ability for aldolase stimulation of V-ATPase hydrolytic activity. The association of glycolytic proteins with the tonoplast may not only channel ATP to the V-ATPase, but also directly upregulate H+-pump activity. PMID:20028841

  14. Pathway analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome of salt sensitive and tolerant poplar species reveals evolutionary adaption of stress tolerance mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt-Kopplin Philippe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populus euphratica is a salt tolerant and Populus × canescens a salt sensitive poplar species. Because of low transcriptional responsiveness of P. euphratica to salinity we hypothesized that this species exhibits an innate activation of stress protective genes compared with salt sensitive poplars. To test this hypothesis, the transcriptome and metabolome of mature unstressed leaves of P. euphratica and P. × canescens were compared by whole genome microarray analyses and FT-ICR-MS metabolite profiling. Results Direct cross-species comparison of the transcriptomes of the two poplar species from phylogenetically different sections required filtering of the data set. Genes assigned to the GO slim categories 'mitochondria', 'cell wall', 'transport', 'energy metabolism' and 'secondary metabolism' were significantly enriched, whereas genes in the categories 'nucleus', 'RNA or DNA binding', 'kinase activity' and 'transcription factor activity' were significantly depleted in P. euphratica compared with P. × canescens. Evidence for a general activation of stress relevant genes in P. euphratica was not detected. Pathway analyses of metabolome and transcriptome data indicated stronger accumulation of primary sugars, activation of pathways for sugar alcohol production, and faster consumption of secondary metabolites in P. euphratica compared to P. × canescens. Physiological measurements showing higher respiration, higher tannin and soluble phenolic contents as well as enrichment of glucose and fructose in P. euphratica compared to P. × canescens corroborated the results of pathway analyses. Conclusion P. euphratica does not rely on general over-expression of stress pathways to tolerate salt stress. Instead, it exhibits permanent activation of control mechanisms for osmotic adjustment (sugar and sugar alcohols, ion compartmentalization (sodium, potassium and other metabolite transporters and detoxification of reactive oxygen species

  15. Great Salt Lake halophilic microorganisms as models for astrobiology: evidence for desiccation tolerance and ultraviolet irradiation resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Bonnie K.; Eddington, Breanne; Riddle, Misty R.; Webster, Tabitha N.; Avery, Brian J.

    2007-09-01

    Great Salt Lake (GSL) is home to halophiles, salt-tolerant Bacteria and Archaea, which live at 2-5M NaCl. In addition to salt tolerance, GSL halophiles exhibit resistance to both ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and desiccation. First, to understand desiccation resistance, we sought to determine the diversity of GSL halophiles capable of surviving desiccation in either recently formed GSL halite crystals or GSL Artemia (brine shrimp) cysts. From these desiccated environments, surviving microorganisms were cultured and isolated, and genomic DNA was extracted from the individual species for identification by 16S rRNA gene homology. From the surface-sterilized cysts we also extracted DNA of the whole microbial population for non-cultivation techniques. We amplified the archaeal or bacterial 16S rRNA gene from all genomic DNA, cloned the cyst population amplicons, and sequenced. These sequences were compared to gene databases for determination of closest matched species. Interestingly, the isolates from the crystal dissolution are distinct from those previously isolated from GSL brine. The cyst population results reveal species not found in crystals or brine, and may indicate microorganisms that live as endosymbionts of this hypersaline arthropod. Second, we explored UV resistance in a GSL haloarchaea species, "H. salsolis." This strain resists UV irradiation an order of magnitude better than control species, all of which have intact repair systems. To test the hypothesis that halophiles have a photoprotection system, which prevents DNA damage from occurring, we designed an immunoassay to detect thymine dimers following UV irradiation. "H. salsolis" showed remarkable resistance to dimer formation. Evidence for both UV and desiccation resistance in these salt-tolerant GSL halophiles makes them well-suited as models for Astrobiological studies in pursuit of questions about life beyond earth.

  16. Simultaneous decolorization of sulfonated azo dyes and reduction of hexavalent chromium under high salt condition by a newly isolated salt-tolerant strain Bacillus circulans BWL1061.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weijie; Liu, Cong; Liu, Liang; You, Yanting; Jiang, Jihong; Zhou, Zhengkun; Dong, Zhen

    2017-07-01

    The co-existence of dyes, Cr(VI) and high concentration of salt in dyeing wastewater causes serious and complex environmental problems. In this study, a salt-tolerant strain Bacillus circulans BWL1061 was reported to simultaneously remove 50mg/L methyl orange and 50mg/L Cr(VI) under the anaerobic condition with 60g/L NaCl. During the decolorization process, the Cr(VI) reduction occurred preferentially over the dye decolorization due to the dominate utilization of electron by Cr(VI). The analysis of enzyme activities suggested that azoreductase, NADH-DCIP reductase, and laccase were associated with decolorization of methyl orange. A possible degradation pathway was proposed based on the metabolites analysis. The decolorization of methyl orange is involved in the symmetric cleavage of azo bond, which formed N,N-dimethyl p-phenylenediamine and 4-amino sulfonic acid, or the asymmetric cleavage of azo bond, which formed 4-(dimethylamino) phenol and 4-diazenylbenzene sulfonic acid. Phytotoxicity assays showed that strain BWL1061 could decrease the toxicity of methyl orange to Triticum aestivum, Pogostemon cablin and Isatis indigotica Fort during the decolorization process. In this study, Bacillus circulans is reported for the first time that could simultaneously remove azo dyes and Cr (VI) under high salt condition. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Genome-wide analysis of AP2/ERF family genes from Lotus corniculatus shows LcERF054 enhances salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhan-Min; Zhou, Mei-Liang; Xiao, Xing-Guo; Tang, Yi-Xiong; Wu, Yan-Min

    2014-09-01

    Lotus corniculatus is used in agriculture as a main forage plant. Members of the Apetala2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) family play important roles in regulating gene expression in response to many forms of stress, including drought and salt. Here, starting from database of the L. corniculatus var. japonicus genome, we identified 127 AP2/ERF genes by insilico cloning method. The phylogeny, gene structures, and putative conserved motifs in L. corniculatus var. japonicus ERF proteins were analyzed. Based on the number of AP2/ERF domains and the function of the genes, 127 AP2/ERF genes from L. corniculatus var. japonicus were classified into five subfamilies named the AP2, dehydration-responsive element binding factor (DREB), ERF, RAV, and a soloist. Outside the AP2/ERF domain, many L. corniculatus var. japonicus-specific conserved motifs were detected. Expression profile analysis of AP2/ERF genes by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that 19 LcERF genes, including LcERF054 (KJ004728), were significantly induced by salt stress. The results showed that the LcERF054 gene encodes a nuclear transcription activator. Overexpression of LcERF054 in Arabidopsis enhanced the tolerances to salt stress, showed higher germination ratio of seeds, and had elevated levels of relative moisture contents, soluble sugars, proline, and lower levels of malondialdehyde under stress conditions compared to wild-type plants. The expression of hyperosmotic salinity response genes COR15A, LEA4-5, P5CS1, and RD29A was found to be elevated in the LcERF054-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants compared to wild type. These results revealed that the LcERF genes play important roles in L. corniculatus cv Leo under salt stress and that LcERFs are attractive engineering targets in applied efforts to improve abiotic stress tolerances in L. corniculatus cv Leo or other crops.

  18. Overexpression of SbSI-1, A Nuclear Protein from Salicornia brachiata Confers Drought and Salt Stress Tolerance and Maintains Photosynthetic Efficiency in Transgenic Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Jyoti; Udawat, Pushpika; Dubey, Ashish K; Haque, Md Intesaful; Rathore, Mangal S; Jha, Bhavanath

    2017-01-01

    A novel Salicornia brachiata Salt Inducible (SbSI-1) gene was isolated and overexpressed in tobacco for in planta functional validation subjected to drought and salt stress. SbSI-1 is a nuclear protein. The transgenic tobacco overexpressing SbSI-1 gene exhibited better seed germination, growth performances, pigment contents, cell viability, starch accumulation, and tolerance index under drought and salt stress. Overexpression of SbSI-1 gene alleviated the build-up of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and curtailed the ROS-induced oxidative damages thus improved the physiological health of transgenic tobacco under stressed conditions. The higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, lower accumulation of ROS, higher membrane stability, relative water content, and polyphenol contents indicated the better survival of the transgenic tobacco than wild-type (WT) tobacco under stressed conditions. Transgenic tobacco had a higher net photosynthetic rate, PSII operating efficiency, and performance index under drought and salt stress. Higher accumulation of compatible solutes and K+/Na+ ratio in transgenic tobacco than WT showed the better osmotic and redox homeostasis under stressed conditions. The up-regulation of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (NtSOD, NtAPX, and NtCAT) and transcription factors (NtDREB2 and NtAP2) in transgenic tobacco under stressed conditions showed the role of SbSI-1 in ROS alleviation and involvement of this gene in abiotic stress tolerance. Multivariate data analysis exhibited statistical distinction among growth responses, physiological health, osmotic adjustment, and photosynthetic responses of WT and transgenic tobacco under stressed conditions. The overexpression of SbSI-1 gene curtailed the ROS-induced oxidative damages and maintained the osmotic homeostasis under stress conditions thus improved physiological health and photosynthetic efficiencies of the transgenic tobacco overexpressing SbSI-1 gene.

  19. Overexpression of SbSI-1, A Nuclear Protein from Salicornia brachiata Confers Drought and Salt Stress Tolerance and Maintains Photosynthetic Efficiency in Transgenic Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Kumari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel SalicorniabrachiataSalt Inducible (SbSI-1 gene was isolated and overexpressed in tobacco for in planta functional validation subjected to drought and salt stress. SbSI-1 is a nuclear protein. The transgenic tobacco overexpressing SbSI-1 gene exhibited better seed germination, growth performances, pigment contents, cell viability, starch accumulation, and tolerance index under drought and salt stress. Overexpression of SbSI-1 gene alleviated the build-up of reactive oxygen species (ROS and curtailed the ROS-induced oxidative damages thus improved the physiological health of transgenic tobacco under stressed conditions. The higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, lower accumulation of ROS, higher membrane stability, relative water content, and polyphenol contents indicated the better survival of the transgenic tobacco than wild-type (WT tobacco under stressed conditions. Transgenic tobacco had a higher net photosynthetic rate, PSII operating efficiency, and performance index under drought and salt stress. Higher accumulation of compatible solutes and K+/Na+ ratio in transgenic tobacco than WT showed the better osmotic and redox homeostasis under stressed conditions. The up-regulation of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (NtSOD, NtAPX, and NtCAT and transcription factors (NtDREB2 and NtAP2 in transgenic tobacco under stressed conditions showed the role of SbSI-1 in ROS alleviation and involvement of this gene in abiotic stress tolerance. Multivariate data analysis exhibited statistical distinction among growth responses, physiological health, osmotic adjustment, and photosynthetic responses of WT and transgenic tobacco under stressed conditions. The overexpression of SbSI-1 gene curtailed the ROS-induced oxidative damages and maintained the osmotic homeostasis under stress conditions thus improved physiological health and photosynthetic efficiencies of the transgenic tobacco overexpressing SbSI-1 gene.

  20. Elevated compartmentalization of Na+ into vacuoles improves salt and cold stress tolerance in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weijuan; Deng, Gaifang; Wang, Hongxia; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Peng

    2015-08-01

    Salinity and low temperature are the main limiting factors for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) growth and agricultural productivity. Various studies have shown that plant NHX-type antiporter plays a crucial role in regulating plant tolerance to salt stress by intracellular Na(+) compartmentalization. The Arabidopsis thaliana AtNHX1 gene that encodes a vacuolar Na(+) /H(+) antiporter was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Xushu-22 by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to confer abiotic stress tolerance. Stable insertion of AtNHX1 into the sweet potato genome and its expression was confirmed by Southern blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A remarkably higher Na(+) /H(+) exchange activity of tonoplast membrane from transgenic sweet potato lines (NOE) in comparison with wild-type (WT) plants confirmed the vacuolar antiporter function in mediating Na(+) /H(+) exchange. Under salt stress, NOE plants accumulated higher Na(+) and K(+) levels in their tissues compared with WT plants, maintaining high K(+) /Na(+) ratios. Consequently, NOE plants showed enhanced protection against cell damage due to the increased proline accumulation, preserved cell membrane integrity, enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging (e.g. increased superoxide dismutase activity), and reduced H2 O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) production. Moreover, the transgenic plants showed improved cold tolerance through multiple mechanisms of action, revealing the first molecular evidence for NHX1 function in cold response. The transgenic plants showed better biomass production and root yield under stressful conditions. These findings demonstrate that overexpressing AtNHX1 in sweet potato renders the crop tolerant to both salt and cold stresses, providing a greater capacity for the use of AtNHX1 in improving crop performance under combined abiotic stress conditions. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. bHLH106 Integrates Functions of Multiple Genes through Their G-Box to Confer Salt Tolerance on Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Ahmad

    Full Text Available An activation-tagging methodology was applied to dedifferentiated calli of Arabidopsis to identify new genes involved in salt tolerance. This identified salt tolerant callus 8 (stc8 as a gene encoding the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor bHLH106. bHLH106-knockout (KO lines were more sensitive to NaCl, KCl, LiCl, ABA, and low temperatures than the wild-type. Back-transformation of the KO line rescued its phenotype, and over-expression (OX of bHLH106 in differentiated plants exhibited tolerance to NaCl. Green fluorescent protein (GFP fused with bHLH106 revealed that it was localized to the nucleus. Prepared bHLH106 protein was subjected to electrophoresis mobility shift assays against E-box sequences (5'-CANNTG-3'. The G-box sequence 5'-CACGTG-3' had the strongest interaction with bHLH106. bHLH106-OX lines were transcriptomically analyzed, and resultant up- and down-regulated genes selected on the criterion of presence of a G-box sequence. There were 198 genes positively regulated by bHLH106 and 36 genes negatively regulated; these genes possessed one or more G-box sequences in their promoter regions. Many of these genes are known to be involved in abiotic stress response. It is concluded that bHLH106 locates at a branching point in the abiotic stress response network by interacting directly to the G-box in genes conferring salt tolerance on plants.

  2. Overexpression of a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) WRKY gene, GhWRKY34, in Arabidopsis enhances salt-tolerance of the transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Na-Na; Gong, Si-Ying; Lu, Rui; Li, Yang; Li, Xue-Bao

    2015-11-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most serious threats in world agriculture, and often influences cotton growth and development, resulting in a significant loss in cotton crop yield. WRKY transcription factors are involved in plant response to high salinity stress, but little is known about the role of WRKY transcription factors in cotton so far. In this study, a member (GhWRKY34) of cotton WRKY family was functionally characterized. This protein containing a WRKY domain and a zinc-finger motif belongs to group III of cotton WRKY family. Subcellular localization assay indicated that GhWRKY34 is localized to the cell nucleus. Overexpression of GhWRKY34 in Arabidopsis enhanced the transgenic plant tolerance to salt stress. Several parameters (such as seed germination, green cotyledons, root length and chlorophyll content) in the GhWRKY34 transgenic lines were significantly higher than those in wild type under NaCl treatment. On the contrary, the GhWRKY34 transgenic plants exhibited a substantially lower ratio of Na(+)/K(+) in leaves and roots dealing with salt stress, compared with wild type. Growth status of the GhWRKY34 transgenic plants was much better than that of wild type under salt stress. Expressions of the stress-related genes were remarkably up-regulated in the transgenic plants under salt stress, compared with those in wild type. Based on the data presented in this study, we hypothesize that GhWRKY34 as a positive transcription regulator may function in plant response to high salinity stress through maintaining the Na(+)/K(+) homeostasis as well as activating the salt stress-related genes in cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of Plant-Growth-Promoting Fungi Trichoderma longibrachiatum T6 Enhances Tolerance of Wheat to Salt Stress through Improvement of Antioxidative Defense System and Gene Expression.

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    Zhang, Shuwu; Gan, Yantai; Xu, Bingliang

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is a serious problem worldwide that reduces agricultural productivity. Trichoderma longibrachiatum T6 (T6) has been shown to promote wheat growth and induce plant resistance to parasitic nematodes, but whether the plant-growth-promoting fungi T6 can enhance plant tolerance to salt stress is unknown. Here, we determined the effect of plant-growth-promoting fungi T6 on wheat seedlings' growth and development under salt stress, and investigated the role of T6 in inducing the resistance to NaCl stress at physiological, biochemical, and molecular levels. Wheat seedlings were inoculated with the strain of T6 and then compared with non-inoculated controls. Shoot height, root length, and shoot and root weights were measured on 15 days old wheat seedlings grown either under 150 mM NaCl or in a controlled setting without any NaCl. A number of colonies were re-isolated from the roots of wheat seedlings under salt stress. The relative water content in the leaves and roots, chlorophyll content, and root activity were significantly increased, and the accumulation of proline content in leaves was markedly accelerated with the plant growth parameters, but the content of leaf malondialdehyde under saline condition was significantly decreased. The antioxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) in wheat seedlings were increased by 29, 39, and 19%, respectively, with the application of the strain of T6 under salt stress; the relative expression of SOD, POD, and CAT genes in these wheat seedlings were significantly up-regulated. Our results indicated that the strain of T6 ameliorated the adverse effects significantly, protecting the seedlings from salt stress during their growth period. The possible mechanisms by which T6 suppresses the negative effect of NaCl stress on wheat seedling growth may be due to the improvement of the antioxidative defense system and gene expression in the stressed wheat plants.

  4. Overexpression of S-Adenosyl-l-Methionine Synthetase 2 from Sugar Beet M14 Increased Arabidopsis Tolerance to Salt and Oxidative Stress

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    Chunquan Ma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The sugar beet monosomic addition line M14 is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss, and shows tolerance to salt stress. Our study focuses on exploring the molecular mechanism of the salt tolerance of the sugar beet M14. In order to identify differentially expressed genes in M14 under salt stress, a subtractive cDNA library was generated by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH. A total of 36 unique sequences were identified in the library and their putative functions were analyzed. One of the genes, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (SAMS, is the key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM, a precursor of polyamines. To determine the potential role of SAMS in salt tolerance, we isolated BvM14-SAMS2 from the salt-tolerant sugar beet M14. The expression of BvM14-SAMS2 in leaves and roots was greatly induced by salt stress. Overexpression of BvM14-SAMS2 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced salt and H2O2 tolerance. Furthermore, we obtained a knock-down T-DNA insertion mutant of AtSAMS3, which shares the highest homology with BvM14-SAMS2. Interestingly, the mutant atsam3 showed sensitivity to salt and H2O2 stress. We also found that the antioxidant system and polyamine metabolism play an important role in salt and H2O2 tolerance in the BvM14-SAMS2-overexpressed plants. To our knowledge, the function of the sugar beet SAMS has not been reported before. Our results have provided new insights into SAMS functions in sugar beet.

  5. Cloning of the Lycopene β-cyclase Gene in Nicotiana tabacum and Its Overexpression Confers Salt and Drought Tolerance

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    Yanmei Shi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are important pigments in plants that play crucial roles in plant growth and in plant responses to environmental stress. Lycopene β cyclase (β-LCY functions at the branch point of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, catalyzing the cyclization of lycopene. Here, a β-LCY gene from Nicotiana tabacum, designated as Ntβ-LCY1, was cloned and functionally characterized. Robust expression of Ntβ-LCY1 was found in leaves, and Ntβ-LCY1 expression was obviously induced by salt, drought, and exogenous abscisic acid treatments. Strong accumulation of carotenoids and expression of carotenoid biosynthesis genes resulted from Ntβ-LCY1 overexpression. Additionally, compared to wild-type plants, transgenic plants with overexpression showed enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stress with higher abscisic acid levels and lower levels of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species. Conversely, transgenic RNA interference plants had a clear albino phenotype in leaves, and some plants did not survive beyond the early developmental stages. The suppression of Ntβ-LCY1 expression led to lower expression levels of genes in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway and to reduced accumulation of carotenoids, chlorophyll, and abscisic acid. These results indicate that Ntβ-LCY1 is not only a likely cyclization enzyme involved in carotenoid accumulation but also confers salt and drought stress tolerance in Nicotiana tabacum.

  6. Understanding salt tolerance mechanisms in wheat genotypes by exploring antioxidant enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amjad, M.; Akhtar, J.; Haq, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    ), shoot fresh weight (SFW), shoot-root ratio, and K+:Na+ ratio, compared to the most salt sensitive genotypes (S-9189 and S-9476). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased significantly in SARC-1 and SARC-2 with increasing salt stress, while there was no difference in S-9189 and S- 9476...

  7. The Opuntia streptacantha OpsHSP18 Gene Confers Salt and Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Muñoz, Silvia; Gómez-Anduro, Gracia; Delgado-Sánchez, Pablo; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stress limits seed germination, plant growth, flowering and fruit quality, causing economic decrease. Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are chaperons with roles in stress tolerance. Herein, we report the functional characterization of a cytosolic class CI sHSP (OpsHSP18) from Opuntia streptacantha during seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines subjected to different stress and hormone treatments. The over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene in A. thaliana increased the seed germination rate under salt (NaCl) and osmotic (glucose and mannitol) stress, and in ABA treatments, compared with WT. On the other hand, the over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene enhanced tolerance to salt (150 mM NaCl) and osmotic (274 mM mannitol) stress in Arabidopsis seedlings treated during 14 and 21 days, respectively. These plants showed increased survival rates (52.00 and 73.33%, respectively) with respect to the WT (18.75 and 53.75%, respectively). Thus, our results show that OpsHSP18 gene might have an important role in abiotic stress tolerance, in particular in seed germination and survival rate of Arabidopsis plants under unfavorable conditions. PMID:22949853

  8. Does Salicylic Acid (SA) Improve Tolerance to Salt Stress in Plants? A Study of SA Effects On Tomato Plant Growth, Water Dynamics, Photosynthesis, and Biochemical Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, Hajer; Wasti, Salma; Manaa, Arafet; Gharbi, Emna; Chalh, Abdellah; Vandoorne, Bertrand; Lutts, Stanley; Ben Ahmed, Hela

    2016-03-01

    Environmental stresses such as salinity directly impact crop growth, and by extension, world food supply and societal prosperity. It is estimated that over 800 million hectares of land throughout the world are salt-affected. In arid and semi-arid regions, salt concentration can be close to that in the seawater. Hence, there are intensive efforts to improve plant tolerance to salinity and other environmental stressors. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule for modulating plant responses to stress. In the present study, we examined, on multiple plant growth related endpoints, whether SA applied through the rooting medium could mitigate the adverse effects of salinity on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv. Marmande. The latter is a hitherto understudied tomato plant from the above perspective; it is a classic variety that produces the large ribbed tomatoes in the Mediterranean and consumed worldwide. We found salt stress negatively affected the growth of cv. Marmande tomato plants. However, the SA-treated plants had greater shoot and root dry mass, leaf area compared to untreated plants when exposed to salt stress. Application of SA restores photosynthetic rates and photosynthetic pigment levels under salt (NaCl) exposure. Leaf water, osmotic potential, stomatal conductance transpiration rate, and biochemical parameters were also ameliorated in SA-treated plants under saline stress conditions. Overall, these data illustrate that SA increases cv. Marmande tomato growth by improving photosynthesis, regulation and balance of osmotic potential, induction of compatible osmolyte metabolism, and alleviating membrane damage. We suggest salicylic acid might be considered as a potential growth regulator to improve tomato plant salinity stress resistance, in the current era of global climate change.

  9. Purification and photobiochemical profile of photosystem 1 from a high-salt tolerant, oleaginous Chlorella (Trebouxiophycaea, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Michael D; Lowry, David; Rowan, Troy N; van Dijk, Karin; Redding, Kevin E

    2015-06-01

    The eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been studied extensively within the biofuel industry as a model organism, as researchers look towards algae to provide chemical feedstocks (i.e., lipids) for the production of liquid transportation fuels. C. reinhardtii, however, is unsuitable for high-level production of such precursors due to its relatively poor lipid accumulation and fresh-water demand. In this study we offer insight into the primary light harvesting and electron transfer reactions that occur during phototropic growth in a high-salt tolerant strain of Chlorella (a novel strain introduced here as NE1401), a single-celled eukaryotic algae also in the phylum Chlorophyta. Under nutrient starvation many eukaryotic algae increase dramatically the amount of lipids stored in lipid bodies within their cell interiors. Microscopy and lipid analyses indicate that Chlorella sp. NE1401 may become a superior candidate for algal biofuels production. We have purified highly active Photosystem 1 (PS1) complexes to study in vitro, so that we may understand further the photobiochemisty of this promising biofuel producer and how its characteristics compare and contrast with that of the better understood C. reinhardtii. Our findings suggest that the PS1 complex from Chlorella sp. NE1401 demonstrates similar characteristics to that of C. reinhardtii with respect to light-harvesting and electron transfer reactions. We also illustrate that the relative extent of the light state transition performed by Chlorella sp. NE1401 is smaller compared to C. reinhardtii, although they are triggered by the same dynamic light stresses.

  10. The modulation of leaf metabolism plays a role in salt tolerance of Cymodocea nodosa exposed to hypersaline stress in mesocosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia ePiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available By the proteomic approach we tested the physiological responses of the euryhaline seagrass Cymodocea nodosa to deliberate manipulation of salinity in a mesocosm system. Plants were subjected to a chronic hypersaline condition (43 psu to compare their proteins expression and plant photochemistry responses after 15 and 30 days of exposure with those of plants cultured under normal/ambient saline conditions (37 psu. Results showed a general decline in the expression level of leaf proteins in hypersaline stressed plants, with more intense reductions on the long-lasting exposure. Specifically, the carbon-fixing enzyme RuBisCo displayed a lower expression level in stressed plants relative to controls; while contrarily, the key enzymes involve in the regulation of glycolisis, the cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phopsphate dehydrogenase, the enolase 2 and triose-phosphate isomerase, showed significant higher expression levels. Responses that suggest a shift of the carbon metabolism in stressed plants. Hypersaline stress also induced a significant alteration of the photosynthetic physiology of the C. nodosa by means of the down-regulation of structural proteins and enzymes of both PSII and PSI; however we found an over-expression of the cytochrome b559 alpha subunit of the PSII initial complex, which is a receptor for the PSII core proteins involved in biogenesis or repair processes and therefore potentially involved in the absence of effects at the photochemical level of stressed plants. As expected hypersalinity also affects the vacuolar metabolism increasing the leaf cell turgor pressure and enhancing the up-take of Na+ by the over-expression of the tonoplast specific intrinsic protein pyrophosphate-energized inorganic pyrophosphatase (H(+-PPase that is coupled with the Na+/H+-antiporter. The modulation of carbon metabolism and the enhancement of vacuole capacity in Na+ sequestration and osmolarity changes are discussed in relation to salt tolerance of C

  11. Alternative oxidase pathway is involved in the exogenous SNP-elevated tolerance of Medicago truncatula to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wei; Zhang, Da-wei; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Shuo-xun; Pu, Xiao-jun; Deng, Xing-guang; Luo, Shi-shuai; Lin, Hong-hui

    2016-04-01

    Exogenous application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) would enhance the tolerance of plants to stress conditions. Some evidences suggested that nitric oxide (NO) could induce the expression of alternative oxidase (AOX). In this study, Medicago truncatula (Medicago) was chosen to study the role of AOX in the SNP-elevated resistance to salt stress. Our results showed that the expression of AOX genes (especially AOX1 and AOX2b1) and cyanide-resistant respiration rate (Valt) could be significantly induced by salt stress. Exogenous application of SNP could further enhance the expression of AOX genes and Valt. Exogenous application of SNP could alleviate the oxidative damage and photosynthetic damage caused by salt stress. However, the stress resistance was significantly decreased in the plants which were pretreated with n-propyl gallate (nPG). More importantly, the damage in nPG-pretreated plants could not be alleviated by application of SNP. Further study showed that effects of nPG on the activities of antioxidant enzymes were minor. These results showed that AOX pathway played an important role in the SNP-elevated resistance of Medicago to salt stress. AOX could contribute to regulating the accumulation of reactive oxygen (ROS) and protect of photosystem, and we proposed that all these were depend on the ability of maintaining the homeostasis of redox state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiation-induced in vitro mutagenesis system for salt tolerance and other agronomic characters in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.

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    Ashok A. Nikam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Gamma ray-induced in vitro mutagenesis and selection for salt (NaCl tolerance were investigated in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.. Embryogenic callus cultures were irradiated (10 to 80 Gy and subjected to in vitro selection by exposure of irradiated callus to NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mmol L− 1. Increasing NaCl concentrations resulted in growth reduction and increased membrane damage. Salt-selected callus lines were characterized by the accumulation of proline, glycine betaine, and Na+ and K+ concentration. Higher accumulation of proline and glycine betaine was observed in NaCl stressed callus irradiated at 20 Gy. Na+ concentration increased and K+ concentration decreased with increasing salt level. Irradiated callus showed 50–60% regeneration under NaCl stress, and in vitro-regenerated plants were acclimatized in the greenhouse, with 80–85% survival. A total of 138 irradiated and salt-selected selections were grown to maturity and their agronomic performance was evaluated under normal and saline conditions. Of these, 18 mutant clones were characterized for different agro-morphological characters and some of the mutant clones exhibited improved sugar yield with increased Brix%, number of millable canes, and yield. The result suggest that radiation-induced mutagenesis offers an effective way to enhance genetic variation in sugarcane.

  13. Salt tolerance, salt accumulation, and ionic homeostasis in an epidermal bladder-cell-less mutant of the common ice plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarie, Sakae; Shimoda, Toshifumi; Shimizu, Yumi; Baumann, Kathleen; Sunagawa, Haruki; Kondo, Ayumu; Ueno, Osamu; Nakahara, Teruhisa; Nose, Akihiro; Cushman, John C

    2007-01-01

    The aerial surfaces of the common or crystalline ice plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L., a halophytic, facultative crassulacean acid metabolism species, are covered with specialized trichome cells called epidermal bladder cells (EBCs). EBCs are thought to serve as a peripheral salinity and/or water storage organ to improve survival under high salinity or water deficit stress conditions. However, the exact contribution of EBCs to salt tolerance in the ice plant remains poorly understood. An M. crystallinum mutant lacking EBCs was isolated from plant collections mutagenized by fast neutron irradiation. Light and electron microscopy revealed that mutant plants lacked EBCs on all surfaces of leaves and stems. Dry weight gain of aerial parts of the mutant was almost half that of wild-type plants after 3 weeks of growth at 400 mM NaCl. The EBC mutant also showed reduced leaf succulence and leaf and stem water contents compared with wild-type plants. Aerial tissues of wild-type plants had approximately 1.5-fold higher Na(+) and Cl(-) content than the mutant grown under 400 mM NaCl for 2 weeks. Na(+) and Cl(-) partitioning into EBCs of wild-type plants resulted in lower concentrations of these ions in photosynthetically active leaf tissues than in leaves of the EBC-less mutant, particularly under conditions of high salt stress. Potassium, nitrate, and phosphate ion content decreased with incorporation of NaCl into tissues in both the wild type and the mutant, but the ratios of Na(+)/K(+) and Cl(-)/NO(3)(-)content were maintained only in the leaf and stem tissues of wild-type plants. The EBC mutant showed significant impairment in plant productivity under salt stress as evaluated by seed pod and seed number and average seed weight. These results clearly show that EBCs contribute to succulence by serving as a water storage reservoir and to salt tolerance by maintaining ion sequestration and homeostasis within photosynthetically active tissues of M. crystallinum.

  14. Overexpression of AmRosea1 Gene Confers Drought and Salt Tolerance in Rice

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    Mingzhu Dou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic expression of the MYB transcription factor of AmROSEA1 from Antirrhinum majus has been reported to change anthocyanin and other metabolites in several species. In this study, we found that overexpression of AmRosea1 significantly improved the tolerance of transgenic rice to drought and salinity stresses. Transcriptome analysis revealed that a considerable number of stress-related genes were affected by exogenous AmRosea1 during both drought and salinity stress treatments. These affected genes are involved in stress signal transduction, the hormone signal pathway, ion homeostasis and the enzymes that remove peroxides. This work suggests that the AmRosea1 gene is a potential candidate for genetic engineering of crops.

  15. Co-overexpressing a Plasma Membrane and a Vacuolar Membrane Sodium/Proton Antiporter Significantly Improves Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, Necla; Sun, Li; Jarrett, Philip; Yang, Xiaojie; Mishra, Neelam; Chen, Lin; Kadioglu, Asim; Shen, Guoxin; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis gene AtNHX1 encodes a vacuolar membrane-bound sodium/proton (Na+/H+) antiporter that transports Na+ into the vacuole and exports H+ into the cytoplasm. The Arabidopsis gene SOS1 encodes a plasma membrane-bound Na+/H+ antiporter that exports Na+ to the extracellular space and imports H+ into the plant cell. Plants rely on these enzymes either to keep Na+ out of the cell or to sequester Na+ into vacuoles to avoid the toxic level of Na+ in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of AtNHX1 or SOS1 could improve salt tolerance in transgenic plants, but the improved salt tolerance is limited. NaCl at concentration >200 mM would kill AtNHX1-overexpressing or SOS1-overexpressing plants. Here it is shown that co-overexpressing AtNHX1 and SOS1 could further improve salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, making transgenic Arabidopsis able to tolerate up to 250 mM NaCl treatment. Furthermore, co-overexpression of AtNHX1 and SOS1 could significantly reduce yield loss caused by the combined stresses of heat and salt, confirming the hypothesis that stacked overexpression of two genes could substantially improve tolerance against multiple stresses. This research serves as a proof of concept for improving salt tolerance in other plants including crops. PMID:26985021

  16. MsZEP, a novel zeaxanthin epoxidase gene from alfalfa (Medicago sativa), confers drought and salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yafang; Chang, Leqin; Zhang, Tong; An, Jie; Liu, Yushi; Cao, Yuman; Zhao, Xia; Sha, Xuyang; Hu, Tianming; Yang, Peizhi

    2016-02-01

    The zeaxanthin epoxidase gene ( MsZEP ) was cloned and characterized from alfalfa and validated for its function of tolerance toward drought and salt stresses by heterologous expression in Nicotiana tabacum. Zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) plays important roles in plant response to various environment stresses due to its functions in ABA biosynthetic and the xanthophyll cycle. To understand the expression characteristics and the biological functions of ZEP in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a novel gene, designated as MsZEP (KM044311), was cloned, characterized and overexpressed in Nicotiana tabacum. The open reading frame of MsZEP contains 1992 bp nucleotides and encodes a 663-amino acid polypeptide. Amino acid sequence alignment indicated that deduced MsZEP protein was highly homologous to other plant ZEP sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MsZEP was grouped into a branch with other legume plants. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that MsZEP gene expression was clearly tissue-specific, and the expression levels were higher in green tissues (leaves and stems) than in roots. MsZEP expression decreased in shoots under drought, cold, heat and ABA treatment, while the expression levels in roots showed different trends. Besides, the results showed that nodules could up-regulate the MsZEP expression under non-stressful conditions and in the earlier stage of different abiotic stress. Heterologous expression of the MsZEP gene in N. tabacum could confer tolerance to drought and salt stress by affecting various physiological pathways, ABA levels and stress-responsive genes expression. Taken together, these results suggested that the MsZEP gene may be involved in alfalfa responses to different abiotic stresses and nodules, and could enhance drought and salt tolerance of transgenic tobacco by heterologous expression.

  17. Assessment of variation in antioxidative defense system in salt-treated pea (Pisum sativum) cultivars and its putative use as salinity tolerance markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Zahra; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2009-11-01

    The present work describes whether the changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the levels of some non-enzymatic antioxidants could be used as markers of salt tolerance in nine genetically diverse pea (Pisum sativum) cultivars. All cultivars were exposed to four levels of NaCl i.e., 0, 40, 80 and 120mM in sand culture. Plant fresh biomass, total phenolics, total soluble proteins, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in leaves while different forms of tocopherols (alpha-, gamma- and Delta-tocopherol) in fresh seed of salt-stressed and non-stressed plants were analyzed. On the basis of percent inhibition in shoot biomass at the highest salt level (120mM) cultivars 2001-35, 2001-55 and Climax were ranked as tolerant (percent inhibition less than 60%), 2001-20, 9800-5 and 9800-10 moderately tolerant (percent inhibition 60-70%), and 2001-40, 9200 and Tere 2 salt sensitive (percent inhibition more than 70%). Salt stress markedly enhanced the activities of SOD and POD, levels of total phenolics and gamma- and Delta-tocopherols, and decreased the total soluble proteins and CAT activity, while the internal levels of H(2)O(2) remained unaffected in all pea cultivars. Although salt-induced oxidative stress occurred in all pea cultivars, the response of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivars with respect to the generation of enzymatic and non-enzymatic metabolites measured in the present study was not consistent. Of different antioxidant enzymes and metabolites analyzed, only CAT activity was found to be a reliable marker of salt tolerance in the set of pea cultivars examined.

  18. Overexpression of the PP2A-C5 gene confers increased salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rongbin; Zhu, Yinfeng; Shen, Guoxin; Zhang, Hong

    2017-02-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) was shown to play important roles in biotic and abiotic stress signaling pathways in plants. PP2A is made of 3 subunits: a scaffolding subunit A, a regulatory subunit B, and a catalytic subunit C. It is believed that the B subunit recognizes specific substrates and the C subunit directly acts on the selected substrates, whereas the A subunit brings a B subunit and a C subunit together to form a specific PP2A holoenzyme. Because there are multiple isoforms for each PP2A subunit, there could be hundreds of novel PP2A holoenzymes in plants. For an example, there are 3 A subunits, 17 B subunits, and 5 C subunits in Arabidopsis, which could form 255 different PP2A holoenzymes. Understanding the roles of these PP2A holoenzymes in various signaling pathways is a challenging task. In a recent study, 1 we discovered that PP2A-C5, the catalytic subunit 5 of PP2A, plays an important role in salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. We found that a knockout mutant of PP2A-C5 (i.e. pp2a-c5-1) was very sensitive to salt treatments, whereas PP2A-C5-overexpressing plants were more tolerant to salt stresses. Genetic analyses between pp2a-c5-1 and Salt-Overly-Sensitive (SOS) mutants indicated that PP2A-C5 does not function in the same pathway as SOS genes. Using yeast 2-hybrid analysis, we found that PP2A-C5 interacts with several vacuolar membrane bound chloride channel proteins. We hypothesize that these vacuolar chloride channel proteins might be PP2A-C5's substrates in vivo, and the action of PP2A-C5 on these channel proteins could increase or activate their activities, thereby result in accumulation of the chloride and sodium contents in vacuoles, leading to increased salt tolerance in plants.

  19. Chronic administration of the HNO donor Angeli's salt does not lead to tolerance, cross-tolerance, or endothelial dysfunction: comparison with GTN and DEA/NO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Jennifer C; Kemp-Harper, Barbara K; Widdop, Robert E

    2011-05-01

    Nitroxyl (HNO) displays distinct pharmacology to its redox congener nitric oxide (NO(•)) with therapeutic potential in the treatment of heart failure. It remains unknown if HNO donors are resistant to tolerance development following chronic in vivo administration. Wistar-Kyoto rats received a 3-day subcutaneous infusion of one of the NO(•) donors, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) or diethylamine/NONOate (DEA/NO), or the HNO donor Angeli's salt (AS). GTN infusion (10 μg/kg/min) resulted in significantly blunted depressor responses to intravenous bolus doses of GTN, demonstrating tolerance development. By contrast, infusion with AS (20 μg/kg/min) or DEA/NO (2 μg/kg/min) did not alter their subsequent depressor responses. Similarly, ex vivo vasorelaxation responses in isolated aortae revealed that GTN infusion elicited a significant 6-fold decrease in the sensitivity to GTN and reduction in the maximum response to acetylcholine (ACh). Chronic infusion of AS or DEA/NO had no effect on subsequent vasorelaxation responses to themselves or to ACh. No functional cross-tolerance between nitrovasodilators was evident, either in vivo or ex vivo, although an impaired ability of a nitrovasodilator to increase tissue cGMP content was not necessarily indicative of a reduced functional response. In conclusion, HNO donors may represent novel therapies for cardiovascular disease with therapeutic potential over clinically used organic nitrates.

  20. The effect of salt tolerant nitrogen fixing bacteria on the growth of paddy rice (Oryza sativa. L

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    Suliasih Suliasih

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fixing bacteria (Azospirillum and Azotobacter were isolated from coastal mangrove in Pulau seribu. The aims of the experiment was to find out isolates of nitrogen fixing bacteria which were tolerant to high salinity. The isolates can be used as a biofertilizer to support coastal agriculture.A total of 28 isolates (14 isolates of Azospirillum and 14 isolates of Azotobacter were tested their tolerance to salt by growing them in their respective media containing 1% 2% and 3 % NaCl,. Salt tolerant isolates obtained, then used as inoculants in paddy. The experiment laid out factorial based randomized complete block design which was comprised of 7 fertilizer treatments and 5 watering treatments with 5 replicates for each treatment at green house of Microbiology Division, Research Center of Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences. The first factor was fertilizer treatments 1. Compost + mixed bacteria (K1, 2. Control without inoculant , 3. Compost, 4. NPK, 5. Compost + NPK + mixed microbial, 6. Azotobacter isolates; 7. Azospirillum isolates. The second factor was watering treatments, plant was watered by : 1. Freshwater, 2. freshwater + sea water at mixture ratio 1:1, 3. Sea water, 4. sea water + 2% NaCl (20 g NaCl / l , 5. freshwater + 5% NaCl (50 g NaCl / l.The result showed that there were 9 isolates of Azospirillum and 4 isolates of Azotobacter which were tolerant to grow at media with 3% NaCl The green house experimental result revealed that the plants were treated with bacteria can survive up to the level of salinity 12.43 dS-1m.

  1. An Alfin-like gene from Atriplex hortensis enhances salt and drought tolerance and abscisic acid response in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jian-Jun; Wei, Wei; Pan, Wen-Jia; Lu, Long; Li, Qing-Tian; Ma, Jin-Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Ma, Biao; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2018-02-09

    Alfin-like (AL) is a small plant-specific gene family with prominent roles in root growth and abiotic stress response. Here, we aimed to identify novel stress tolerance AL genes from the stress-tolerant species Atriplex hortensis. Totally, we isolated four AhAL genes, all encoding nuclear-localized proteins with cis-element-binding and transrepression activities. Constitutive expression of AhAL1 in Arabidopsis facilitated plants to survive under saline condition, while expressing anyone of the other three AhAL genes led to salt-hypersensitive response, indicating functional divergence of AhAL family. AhAL1 also conferred enhanced drought tolerance, as judged from enhanced survival, improved growth, decreased malonaldehyde (MDA) content and reduced water loss in AhAL1-expressing plants compared to WT. In addition, abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated stomatal closure and inhibition of seed germination and primary root elongation were enhanced in AhAL1-transgenic plants. Further analysis demonstrated that AhAL1 could bind to promoter regions of GRF7, DREB1C and several group-A PP2C genes and repress their expression. Correspondingly, the expression levels of positive stress regulator genes DREB1A, DREB2A and three ABFs were all increased in AhAL1-expressing plants. Based on these results, AhAL1 was identified as a novel candidate gene for improving abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants.

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Loci for Salt Tolerance during Germination in Autotetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long-Xi; Liu, Xinchun; Boge, William; Liu, Xiang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is one of major abiotic stresses limiting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) production in the arid and semi-arid regions in US and other counties. In this study, we used a diverse panel of alfalfa accessions previously described by Zhang et al. (2015) to identify molecular markers associated with salt tolerance during germination using genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). Phenotyping was done by germinating alfalfa seeds under different levels of salt stress. Phenotypic data of adjusted germination rates and SNP markers generated by GBS were used for marker-trait association. Thirty six markers were significantly associated with salt tolerance in at least one level of salt treatments. Alignment of sequence tags to the Medicago truncatula genome revealed genetic locations of the markers on all chromosomes except chromosome 3. Most significant markers were found on chromosomes 1, 2, and 4. BLAST search using the flanking sequences of significant markers identified 14 putative candidate genes linked to 23 significant markers. Most of them were repeatedly identified in two or three salt treatments. Several loci identified in the present study had similar genetic locations to the reported QTL associated with salt tolerance in M. truncatula. A locus identified on chromosome 6 by this study overlapped with that by drought in our previous study. To our knowledge, this is the first report on mapping loci associated with salt tolerance during germination in autotetraploid alfalfa. Further investigation on these loci and their linked genes would provide insight into understanding molecular mechanisms by which salt and drought stresses affect alfalfa growth. Functional markers closely linked to the resistance loci would be useful for MAS to improve alfalfa cultivars with enhanced resistance to drought and salt stresses.

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Loci for Salt Tolerance during Germination in Autotetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long-Xi; Liu, Xinchun; Boge, William; Liu, Xiang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is one of major abiotic stresses limiting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) production in the arid and semi-arid regions in US and other counties. In this study, we used a diverse panel of alfalfa accessions previously described by Zhang et al. (2015) to identify molecular markers associated with salt tolerance during germination using genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). Phenotyping was done by germinating alfalfa seeds under different levels of salt stress. Phenotypic data of adjusted germination rates and SNP markers generated by GBS were used for marker-trait association. Thirty six markers were significantly associated with salt tolerance in at least one level of salt treatments. Alignment of sequence tags to the Medicago truncatula genome revealed genetic locations of the markers on all chromosomes except chromosome 3. Most significant markers were found on chromosomes 1, 2, and 4. BLAST search using the flanking sequences of significant markers identified 14 putative candidate genes linked to 23 significant markers. Most of them were repeatedly identified in two or three salt treatments. Several loci identified in the present study had similar genetic locations to the reported QTL associated with salt tolerance in M. truncatula. A locus identified on chromosome 6 by this study overlapped with that by drought in our previous study. To our knowledge, this is the first report on mapping loci associated with salt tolerance during germination in autotetraploid alfalfa. Further investigation on these loci and their linked genes would provide insight into understanding molecular mechanisms by which salt and drought stresses affect alfalfa growth. Functional markers closely linked to the resistance loci would be useful for MAS to improve alfalfa cultivars with enhanced resistance to drought and salt stresses. PMID:27446182

  4. A robust salt-tolerant superoleophobic alginate/graphene oxide aerogel for efficient oil/water separation in marine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuqi; Zhang, Hui; Fan, Mizi; Zheng, Peitao; Zhuang, Jiandong; Chen, Lihui

    2017-04-01

    Marine pollution caused by frequent oil spill accidents has brought about tremendous damages to marine ecological environment. Therefore, the facile large-scale preparation of three-dimensional (3D) porous functional materials with special wettability is in urgent demand. In this study, we report a low-cost and salt-tolerant superoleophobic aerogel for efficient oil/seawater separation. The aerogel is prepared through incorporating graphene oxide (GO) into alginate (ALG) matrix by using a facile combined freeze-drying and ionic cross-linking method. The 3D structure interconnected by ALG and GO ensures the high mechanical strength and good flexibility of the developed aerogel. The rough microstructure combined with the hydrophilicity of the aerogel ensures its excellent underwater superoleophobic and antifouling properties. High-content polysaccharides contained in the aerogel guarantees its excellent salt-tolerant property. More impressively, the developed aerogel can retain its underwater superoleophobicity even after 30 days of immersion in seawater, indicating its good stability in marine environments. Furthermore, the aerogel could separate various oil/water mixtures with high separation efficiency (>99%) and good reusability (at least 40 cycles). The facile fabrication process combined with the excellent separation performance makes it promising for practical applications in marine environments.

  5. Relationship between in vitro characterization and comparative efficacy of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for improving cucumber salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sajid Mahmood; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Naveed, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Crowley, David E

    2016-05-01

    Phosphate solubilization, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-deaminase activity and production of siderophores and indole acetic acid (IAA) are well-known traits of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Here we investigated the expression of these traits as affected by salinity for three PGPR strains (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus megaterium and Variovorax paradoxus) at two salinity levels [2 and 5 % NaCl (w/v)]. Among the three strains, growth of B. megaterium was the least affected by high salinity. However, P. fluorescens was the best strain for maintaining ACC-deaminase activity, siderophore and IAA production under stressed conditions. V. paradoxus was the least tolerant to salts and had minimal growth and low PGPR trait expression under salt stress. Results of experiment examining the impact of bacterial inoculation on cucumber growth at three salinity levels [1 (normal), 7 and 10 dS m(-1)] revealed that P. fluorescens also had good rhizosphere competence and was the most effective for alleviating the negative impacts of salinity on cucumber growth. The results suggest that in addition to screening the PGPR regarding their effect on growth under salinity, PGPR trait expression is also an important aspect that may be useful for selecting the most promising PGPR bacterial strains for improving plant tolerance to salinity stress.

  6. A robust salt-tolerant superoleophobic alginate/graphene oxide aerogel for efficient oil/water separation in marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuqi; Zhang, Hui; Fan, Mizi; Zheng, Peitao; Zhuang, Jiandong; Chen, Lihui

    2017-04-11

    Marine pollution caused by frequent oil spill accidents has brought about tremendous damages to marine ecological environment. Therefore, the facile large-scale preparation of three-dimensional (3D) porous functional materials with special wettability is in urgent demand. In this study, we report a low-cost and salt-tolerant superoleophobic aerogel for efficient oil/seawater separation. The aerogel is prepared through incorporating graphene oxide (GO) into alginate (ALG) matrix by using a facile combined freeze-drying and ionic cross-linking method. The 3D structure interconnected by ALG and GO ensures the high mechanical strength and good flexibility of the developed aerogel. The rough microstructure combined with the hydrophilicity of the aerogel ensures its excellent underwater superoleophobic and antifouling properties. High-content polysaccharides contained in the aerogel guarantees its excellent salt-tolerant property. More impressively, the developed aerogel can retain its underwater superoleophobicity even after 30 days of immersion in seawater, indicating its good stability in marine environments. Furthermore, the aerogel could separate various oil/water mixtures with high separation efficiency (>99%) and good reusability (at least 40 cycles). The facile fabrication process combined with the excellent separation performance makes it promising for practical applications in marine environments.

  7. A robust salt-tolerant superoleophobic aerogel inspired by seaweed for efficient oil-water separation in marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuqi; Zhang, Hui; Fan, Mizi; Zhuang, Jiandong; Chen, Lihui

    2016-09-14

    Oil-water separation has recently become an important subject due to the increasing incidence of oil spills. Materials with underwater superoleophobic properties have aroused considerable interest due to their cost-effectiveness, environmental friendliness and anti-fouling properties. This paper presents a robust salt-tolerant superoleophobic aerogel inspired by seaweed used without any further chemical modification for oil-seawater separation. The green aerogel is prepared by freeze-drying of sodium alginate (SA)-nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) using Ca(2+) ions as the crosslinking agent. The three-dimensional (3D) interconnected network structure of the developed aerogel ensures its high mechanical strength and good flexibility. The natural hydrophilicity of the polysaccharides contained in the aerogel ensures its excellent underwater superoleophobicity, antifouling and salt-tolerance properties. More impressively, the as-prepared aerogel can even keep its underwater superoleophobicity and high hydrophilicity after being immersed in seawater for 30 days, indicating its good stability in marine environments. Furthermore, the aerogel could separate oil-seawater mixtures with a high separation efficiency (of up to 99.65%) and good reusability (at least 40 cycles). The facile and green fabrication process combined with the excellent separation performance and good reusability makes it possible to develop engineering materials for oil-water separation in marine environments.

  8. Kinetics analysis of a salt-tolerant perchlorate-reducing bacterium: effects of sodium, magnesium, and nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yeyuan; Roberts, Deborah J

    2013-08-06

    Salt-tolerant perchlorate-reducing bacteria can be used to regenerate ion-exchange brines or resins exhausted with perchlorate. A salt-tolerant perchlorate-reducing Marinobacter vinifirmus strain P4B1 was recently purified. This study determined the effects of Na(+) and Mg(2+) concentrations on the perchlorate reduction rate of P4B1. The results showed that strain P4B1 could utilize perchlorate and grow in the presence of 1.8% to 10.2% NaCl. Lower NaCl concentrations allowed faster perchlorate reduction. The addition of Mg(2+) to the culture showed significant effects on perchlorate reduction when perchlorate was the sole electron acceptor. A molar Mg(2+)/Na(+) ratio of ∼0.11 optimized perchlorate degradation and cell growth. When perchlorate and nitrate were both present, nitrate reduction did not start significantly until perchlorate was below 100 mg/L. Tests with washed cell suspensions indicated that strain P4B1 had both perchlorate and nitrate reduction enzymes. When the culture was exposed to both perchlorate and nitrate, the nitrate reduction enzyme activity was low. The maximum specific substrate utilization rate (Vm) and the half saturation coefficient (KS) for P4B1 (30 g/L NaCl) determined in this study were 0.049 ± 0.003 mg ClO4(-)/mg VSS-h and 18 ± 4 mg ClO4(-)/L, respectively.

  9. Comparative study on fermentation performance in the genome shuffled Candida versatilis and wild-type salt tolerant yeast strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Guo, Hong-Lian; Wang, Chun-Ling; Hou, Li-Hua; Cao, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Jin-Fu; Lu, Fu-Ping

    2017-01-01

    The fermentation performance of a genome-shuffled strain of Candida versatilis S3-5, isolated for improved tolerance to salt, and wild-type (WT) strain were analysed. The fermentation parameters, such as growth, reducing sugar, ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds, were detected during soy sauce fermentation process. The results showed that ethanol produced by the genome shuffled strain S3-5 was increasing at a faster rate and to a greater extent than WT. At the end of the fermentation, malic acid, citric acid and succinic acid formed in tricarboxylic acid cycle after S3-5 treatment elevated by 39.20%, 6.85% and 17.09% compared to WT, respectively. Moreover, flavour compounds such as phenethyl acetate, ethyl vanillate, ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl myristate, ethyl pentadecanoate, ethyl palmitate and phenylacetaldehyde produced by S3-5 were 2.26, 2.12, 2.87, 34.41, 6.32, 13.64, 2.23 and 78.85 times as compared to WT. S3-5 exhibited enhanced metabolic ability as compared to the wild-type strain, improved conversion of sugars to ethanol, metabolism of organic acid and formation of volatile compounds, especially esters, Moreover, S3-5 might be an ester-flavour type salt-tolerant yeast. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Productivity of sodic soils can be enhanced through the use of salt tolerant rice varieties and proper agronomic practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Y P; Mishra, V K; Singh, Sudhanshu; Sharma, D K; Singh, D; Singh, U S; Singh, R K; Haefele, S M; Ismail, A M

    2016-04-01

    Regaining the agricultural potential of sodic soils in the Indo-Gangetic plains necessitates the development of suitable salt tolerant rice varieties to provide an entry for other affordable agronomic and soil manipulation measures. Thus selection of high yielding rice varieties across a range of sodic soils is central. Evaluation of breeding lines through on-station and on-farm farmers' participatory varietal selection (FPVS) resulted in the identification of a short duration (110-115 days), high yielding and disease resistant salt-tolerant rice genotype 'CSR-89IR-8', which was later released as 'CSR43' in 2011. Several agronomic traits coupled with good grain quality and market value contributed to commercialization and quick adoption of this variety in the sodic areas of the Indo-Gangetic plains of eastern India. Management practices required for rice production in salt affected soils are evidently different from those in normal soils and practices for a short duration salt tolerant variety differ from those for medium to long duration varieties. Experiments were conducted at the Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (ICAR-CSSRI), Regional Research Station, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India during 2011 and 2013 wet seasons, to test the hypothesis that combining matching management practices (Mmp) with an improved genotype would enhance productivity and profitability of rice in sodic soils. Mmp were developed on-station by optimizing existing best management practices (Bmp) recommended for the region to match the requirements of CSR43. The results revealed that transplanting 4 seedlings hill-1 at a spacing of 15 × 20 cm produced significantly higher yield over other treatments. The highest additional net gain was US$ 3.3 at 90 kg ha-1 N, and the lowest was US$ 0.4 at 150 kg ha-1 N. Above 150 kg ha-1, the additional net gain became negative, indicating decreasing returns from additional N. Hence, 150 kg N ha-1

  11. Salt tolerance of precocious-dwarf cashew rootstocks: physiological and growth indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro Paulo Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The cashew crop (Anacardium occiedentale L. is of great economic and social importance for Northeast Brazil, a region usually affected by water and soil salinity. The present study was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the effects of four salinity levels established through electrical conductivity of irrigation water (ECw: 0.7, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8 dS m-1, at 25ºC, on growth and physiological indexes of five rootstocks of dwarf-precocious cashew varieties CCP06, CCP09, CCP1001, EMBRAPA50, and EMBRAPA51. Plant height, leaf area, dry weight of root, shoot and total; water content of leaves, root/shoot ratio, leaf area ratio, absolute and relative growth rates and rate of net assimilation were evaluated. The majority of the evaluated variables were found to be affected by ECw and the effects varied among clones; however, no significant interactive effects were observed for factors. The value of ECw = 1.39 dS m-1 was considered as a threshold tolerance for the precocious cashew rootstocks used in this study. The dwarf-precocious cashew is moderately sensible to soil salinity during the formation phase of rootstock. Clones EMBRAPA51 and EMBRAPA50 presented, respectively, the least and the best development indexes.

  12. Exogenous nitric oxide improves salt tolerance during establishment of Jatropha curcas seedlings by ameliorating oxidative damage and toxic ion accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, Cibelle Gomes; Miranda, Rafael de Souza; Alencar, Nara Lídia M; Costa, José Hélio; Prisco, José Tarquinio; Gomes-Filho, Enéas

    2017-05-01

    Jatropha curcas is an oilseed species that is considered an excellent alternative energy source for fossil-based fuels for growing in arid and semiarid regions, where salinity is becoming a stringent problem to crop production. Our working hypothesis was that nitric oxide (NO) priming enhances salt tolerance of J. curcas during early seedling development. Under NaCl stress, seedlings arising from NO-treated seeds showed lower accumulation of Na + and Cl - than those salinized seedlings only, which was consistent with a better growth for all analyzed time points. Also, although salinity promoted a significant increase in hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) content and membrane damage, the harmful effects were less aggressive in NO-primed seedlings. The lower oxidative damage in NO-primed stressed seedlings was attributed to operation of a powerful antioxidant system, including greater glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (AsA) contents as well as catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) enzyme activities in both endosperm and embryo axis. Priming with NO also was found to rapidly up-regulate the JcCAT1, JcCAT2, JcGR1 and JcGR2 gene expression in embryo axis, suggesting that NO-induced salt responses include functional and transcriptional regulations. Thus, NO almost completely abolished the deleterious salinity effects on reserve mobilization and seedling growth. In conclusion, NO priming improves salt tolerance of J. curcas during seedling establishment by inducing an effective antioxidant system and limiting toxic ion and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. A Glycine soja ABA-responsive receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, GsRLCK, positively controls plant tolerance to salt and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, XiaoLi; Sun, Mingzhe; Luo, Xiao; Ding, XiaoDong; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi; Liu, XiaoFei; Zhu, YanMing

    2013-06-01

    Receptor such as protein kinases are proposed to work as sensors to initiate signaling cascades in higher plants. However, little is known about the precise functions of receptor such as protein kinases in abiotic stress response in plants, especially in wild soybean. Here, we focused on characterization of the biological functions of a receptor-like cytoplasmic serine/threonine protein kinase gene, GsRLCK, which was previously identified as a putative salt-alkali stress-related gene from the transcriptome profiles of Glycine soja. Bioinformatic analysis showed that GsRLCK protein contained a conserved kinase catalytic domain and two transmembrane domains at the N-terminus, but no typical extracellular domain. Consistently, GsRLCK-eGFP fusion protein was observed on the plasma membrane, but eGFP alone was distributing throughout the cytoplasm in onion epidermal cells. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed the induced expression of GsRLCK by ABA, salt, alkali, and drought stresses. However, the expression levels of GsRLCK seemed to be similar in different tissues, except soybean pod. Phenotypic assays demonstrated that GsRLCK overexpression decreased ABA sensitivity and altered expression levels of ABA-responsive genes. Furthermore, we also found that GsRLCK conferred increased tolerance to salt and drought stresses and increased expression levels of a handful of stress-responsive genes, when overexpressing in Arabidopsis. In a word, we gave exact evidence that GsRLCK was a novel receptor-like cytoplasmic protein kinase and played a crucial role in plant responses to ABA, salt, and drought stresses.

  14. Salt-tolerance mechanisms induced in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni: Effects on mineral nutrition, antioxidative metabolism and steviol glycoside content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantabella, Daniel; Piqueras, Abel; Acosta-Motos, José Ramón; Bernal-Vicente, Agustina; Hernández, José A; Díaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2017-06-01

    In order to cope with challenges linked to climate change such as salinity, plants must develop a wide spectrum of physiological and molecular mechanisms to rapidly adapt. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plants are a case in point. According to our findings, salt stress has no significant effect on plant growth in these plants, which accumulate sodium (Na + ) in their roots, thus avoiding excessive Na + accumulation in leaves. Furthermore, salt stress (NaCl stress) increases the potassium (K + ), calcium (Ca 2+ ), chloride ion (Cl - ) and proline concentrations in Stevia leaves, which could contribute to osmotic adjustment. We also found that long-term NaCl stress does not produce changes in chlorophyll concentrations in Stevia leaves, reflecting a mechanism to protect the photosynthesis process. Interestingly, an increase in chlorophyll b (Chlb) content occured in the oldest plants studied. In addition, we found that NaCl induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in Stevia leaves and that this accumulation was more evident in the presence of 5 g/L NaCl, the highest concentration used in the study. Nevertheless, Stevia plants are able to induce (16 d) or maintain (25 d) antioxidant enzymes to cope with NaCl-induced oxidative stress. Low salt levels did not affect steviolbioside and rebaudioside A contents. Our results suggest that Stevia plants induce tolerance mechanisms in order to minimize the deleterious effects of salt stress. We can thus conclude that saline waters can be used to grow Stevia plants and for Steviol glycosides (SGs) production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Cold stress increases salt tolerance of the extremophytes Eutrema salsugineum (Thellungiella salsuginea) and Eutrema (Thellungiella) botschantzevii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamustakimova, A O; Leonova, Т G; Taranov, V V; de Boer, A H; Babakov, A V

    2017-01-01

    A comparative study was performed to analyze the effect of cold acclimation on improving the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana, Eutrema salsugineum and Eutrema botschantzevii plants to salt stress. Shoot FW, sodium and potassium accumulation, metabolite content, expression of proton pump genes VAB1, VAB2,VAB3, VP2, HA3 and genes encoding ion transporters SOS1, HKT1, NHX1, NHX2, NHX5 located in the plasma membrane or tonoplast were determined just after the cold treatment and the onset of the salt stress. In the same cold-acclimated E. botschantzevii plants, the Na(+) concentration after salt treatment was around 80% lower than in non-acclimated plants, whereas the K(+) concentration was higher. As a result of cold acclimation, the expression of, VAB3, NHX2, NHX5 genes and of SOS1, VP2, HA3 genes was strongly enhanced in E. botschantzevii and in E. salsugineum plants correspondently. None of the 10 genes analyzed showed any expression change in A. thaliana plants after cold acclimation. Altogether, the results indicate that cold-induced adaptation to subsequent salt stress exists in the extremophytes E. botschantzevii and to a lesser extend in E. salsugineum and is absent in Arabidopsis. This phenomenon may be attributed to the increased expression of ion transporter genes during cold acclimation in the Eutrema species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of NaCl priming on salt tolerance in sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... studied extensively. Generally, decreasing seed size reduced seedling establishment (Damirkaya et al., 2006;. Mauromicale and Cavallaro 1997). In field condition poor ... stresses such as salinity, water deficiency and high and ..... overcome salt and drought stress during germination in sunflower.

  17. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated...... by the desire to experiment and to become otherwise. The objective is to discuss what gets lost, conceptually as well as politically, when we neglect the subsistence of active tolerance within other practices of tolerance, and to develop a theory of active tolerance in which tolerance's mobilizing character...... the current models of restraint and benevolence, other ways of understanding the politics of democratic pluralism might be developed, which will enable us to conceive of tolerance's future in terms different than those currently on offer. Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics develops...

  18. A novel wheat α-amylase inhibitor gene, TaHPS, significantly improves the salt and drought tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanhong; Huang, Xi; Shen, Yinzhu; Huang, Zhanjing

    2013-06-01

    On the basis of microarray analyses of the salt-tolerant wheat mutant RH8706-49, a previously unreported salt-induced gene, designated as TaHPS [Triticum aestivum hypothetical (HPS)-like protein], was cloned. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that expression of the gene was induced by abscisic acid, salt and drought. The encoded protein was found to be localized mainly in the plasma membranes. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaHPS were more tolerant to salt and drought stresses than non-transgenic wild-type (WT) plants. Under salt stress, the root cells of the transgenic plants secreted more Na⁺ and guard cells took up more Ca²⁺ ions. Compared with wild-type plants, TaHPS-expressing transgenic plants showed significantly lower amylase activity and glucose and malic acid levels. Our results showed that the expression of TaHPS inhibited amylase activity, which subsequently led to a closure of stomatal apertures and thus improved plant tolerance to salt and drought. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  19. Salt marsh stability modelled in relation to sea level rise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jesper; Bartholdy, Anders; Kroon, Aart

    2010-01-01

    Accretion on a natural backbarrier salt marsh was modeled as a function of high tide level, initial salt marsh level and distance to the source. Calibration of the model was based on up to ca 80 year old marker horizons, supplemented by 210Pb/137Cs datings and subsequent measurements of clay...... thickness. Autocompaction was incorporated in the model, and shown to play a major role for the translation of accretion rates measured as length per unit time to accumulation rates measured as mass per area per unit time. This is important, even for shallow salt marsh deposits for which it is demonstrated...... marsh base. In general, deeper located markers will indicate successively smaller accretion rates with the same sediment input. Thus, stability analysis made on the basis of newly established marker horizons will be biased and indicate salt marsh stabilities far above the correct level. Running...

  20. Microsatellite signature of ecological selection for salt tolerance in a wild sunflower hybrid species, Helianthus paradoxus

    Science.gov (United States)

    EDELIST, CÉCILE; LEXER, CHRISTIAN; DILLMANN, CHRISTINE; SICARD, DELPHINE; RIESEBERG, LOREN H.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid sunflower species Helianthus paradoxus inhabits sporadic salt marshes in New Mexico and southwest Texas, USA, whereas its parental species, Helianthus annuus and Helianthus petiolaris, are salt sensitive. Previous studies identified three genomic regions — survivorship quantitative trait loci (QTLs) — that were under strong selection in experimental hybrids transplanted into the natural habitat of H. paradoxus. Here we ask whether these same genomic regions experienced significant selection during the origin and evolution of the natural hybrid, H. paradoxus. This was accomplished by comparing the variability of microsatellites linked to the three survivorship QTLs with those from genomic regions that were neutral in the experimental hybrids. As predicted if one or more selective sweeps had occurred in these regions, microsatellites linked to the survivorship QTLs exhibited a significant reduction in diversity in populations of the natural hybrid species. In contrast, no difference in diversity levels was observed between the two microsatellite classes in parental populations. PMID:17107488

  1. Physiological and biochemical perspectives of non-salt tolerant plants during bacterial interaction against soil salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Baek, Kwang Hyun

    2017-07-01

    Climatic changes on earth affect the soil quality of agricultural lands, especially by increasing salt deposition in soil, which results in soil salinity. Soil salinity is a major challenge to growth and reproduction among glycophytes (including all crop plants). Soil bacteria present in the rhizosphere and/or roots naturally protect plants from the adverse effects of soil salinity by reprogramming the stress-induced physiological changes in plants. Bacteria can enrich the soil with major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) in a form easily available to plants and prevent the transport of excess sodium to roots (exopolysaccharides secreted by bacteria bind with sodium ions) for maintaining ionic balance and water potential in cells. Salinity also affects plant growth regulators and suppresses seed germination and root and shoot growth. Bacterial secretion of indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellins compensates for the salt-induced hormonal decrease in plants, and bacterial 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase synthesis decreases ethylene production to stimulate plant growth. Furthermore, bacteria modulate the redox state of salinity-affected plants by enhancing antioxidants and polyamines, which leads to increased photosynthetic efficiency. Bacteria-induced accumulation of compatible solutes in stressed plants regulates plant cellular activities and prevents salt stress damage. Plant-bacterial interaction reprograms the expression of salt stress-responsive genes and proteins in salinity-affected plants, resulting in a precise stress mitigation metabolism as a defense mechanism. Soil bacteria increase the fertility of soil and regulate the plant functions to prevent the salinity effects in glycophytes. This review explains the current understanding about the physiological changes induced in glycophytes during bacterial interaction to alleviate the adverse effects of soil salinity stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  2. Modest Salt Reduction Lowers Blood Pressure and Albumin Excretion in Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Rebecca J; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-06-01

    The role of salt restriction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus is controversial, with a lack of well controlled, longer term, modest salt reduction trials in this group of patients, in spite of the marked increase in cardiovascular risk. We carried out a 12-week randomized double-blind, crossover trial of salt restriction with salt or placebo tablets, each for 6 weeks, in 46 individuals with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance and untreated normal or high normal blood pressure (BP). From salt to placebo, 24-hour urinary sodium was reduced by 49±9 mmol (2.9 g salt). This reduction in salt intake led to fall in clinic BP from 136/81±2/1 mm Hg to 131/80±2/1 mm Hg, (systolic BP; P24-hour BP was reduced by 3/2±1/1 mm Hg (systolic BP, Pdiabetes mellitus with normal or mildly raised BP. The reduction in urinary albumin excretion may carry additional benefits in reducing cardiovascular disease above the effects on BP. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Evaluation for salt stress tolerance of pepper genotypes to be used as rootstocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penella, C.; Nebauer, S.G.; Lopéz-Galarza, S.; SanBautista, A.; Gorbe, E.; Calatayud, A.

    2013-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental constraint on crop productivity and grafting can be a sustainable strategy to enhance plant tolerance under adverse growth conditions. Screening different graft combinations under field conditions can be a slow and expensive processes. In this study, plants of 18

  4. Salt tolerance analysis of chickpea, faba bean and durum wheat varieties. I. Chickpea and faba bean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Oweis, T.

    2005-01-01

    Two varieties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba), differing in drought tolerance according to the classification of the International Center for Agronomic Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), were irrigated with waters of three different salinity levels in a lysimeter experiment

  5. Effect of priming on germinability and salt tolerance in seeds and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In some species, pre-germination treatments such as priming can increase germinability and the speed of the process, besides conferring tolerance to abiotic stress. The central effect of priming is the slow and controlled absorption of water in seed tissues, allowing the membranes to reorganize and synthesize protective ...

  6. Evaluation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae GAS1 with respect to its involvement in tolerance to low pH and salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushika, Akinori; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Goshima, Tetsuya; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2017-08-01

    We previously showed that overexpression of IoGAS1, which was isolated from the multiple stress-tolerant yeast Issatchenkia orientalis, endows Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with the ability to grow and ferment under acidic and high-salt conditions. The deduced amino acid sequence of the IoGAS1 gene product exhibits 60% identity with the S. cerevisiae Gas1 protein, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein essential for maintaining cell wall integrity. However, the functional roles of ScGAS1 in stress tolerance and pH regulation remain unclear. In the present study, we characterized ScGAS1 regarding its roles in tolerance to low pH and high salt concentrations. Transcriptional analysis indicated that, as for the IoGAS1 gene, ScGAS1 expression was pH dependent, with maximum expression at pH 3.0; the presence of salt increased endogenous expression of both GAS1 genes at almost all pH levels. These results suggested that ScGAS1, like IoGAS1, is involved in a novel acid- and salt-stress adaptation mechanism in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of ScGAS1 in S. cerevisiae improved growth and ethanol production from glucose under acid stress without added salt, although the stress tolerance of the ScGAS1-overexpressing strain was inferior to that of the IoGAS1-overexpressing strain. However, overexpression of ScGAS1 did not result in increased tolerance of S. cerevisiae to combined acid and salt stress, even though ScGAS1 appears to be a salt-responsive gene. Thus, ScGAS1 is directly implicated in tolerance to low pH but does not confer salinity tolerance, supporting the view that ScGAS1 and IoGAS1 have overlapping yet distinct roles in stress tolerance in yeast. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression of chickpea CIPK25 enhances root growth and tolerance to dehydration and salt stress in transgenic tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Meena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Calcium signaling plays an important role in adaptation and developmental processes in plants and animals. A class of calcium sensors, known as Calcineurin B-like (CBL proteins sense specific temporal changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and regulate activities of a group of ser/thr protein kinases called CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs. Although a number of CIPKs have been shown to play crucial roles in the regulation of stress signaling, no study on the function of CIPK25 or its orthologues has been reported so far. In the present study, an orthologue of Arabidopsis CIPK25 was cloned from chickpea (Cicer arietinum. CaCIPK25 gene expression in chickpea increased upon salt, dehydration, and different hormonal treatments. CaCIPK25 gene showed differential tissue-specific expression. 5'-upstream activation sequence (5'-UAS of the gene and its different truncated versions were fused to a reporter gene and studied in Arabidopsis to identify promoter regions directing its tissue-specific expression. Replacement of a conserved threonine residue with an aspartic acid at its catalytic site increased the kinase activity of CaCIPK25 by 2.5-fold. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing full-length and the high active versions of CaCIPK25 displayed a differential germination period and longer root length in comparison to the control plants. Expression of CaCIPK25 and its high active form differentially increased salt and water-deficit tolerance demonstrated by improved growth and reduced leaf chlorosis suggesting that the kinase activity of CaCIPK25 was required for these functions. Expressions of the abiotic stress marker genes were enhanced in the CaCIPK25-expressing tobacco plants. Our results suggested that CaCIPK25 functions in root development and abiotic stress tolerance.

  8. The role of salinity tolerance and competition in the distribution of an endangered desert salt marsh endemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFalco, Lesley; Scoles, Sara; Beamguard, Emily R.

    2017-01-01

    Rare plants are often associated with distinctive soil types, and understanding why endemic species occur in unique environments is fundamental for their management. At Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in southern Nevada, USA, we evaluated whether the limited distribution of endangered Amargosa niterwort (Nitrophila mohavensis) is explained by this species’ tolerance of saline soils on salt-encrusted mud flats compared with the broadly distributed desert saltgrass (Distichlis spicata var. stricta). We simultaneously explored whether niterwort distribution is restricted from expanding due to interspecific competition with saltgrass. Surface soils collected throughout niterwort’s range were unexpectedly less saline with lower extractable Na, seasonal electroconductivity, and Na absorption ratio, and higher soil moisture than in adjacent saltgrass or mixed shrub habitats. Comparison of niterwort and saltgrass growth along an experimental salinity gradient in a greenhouse demonstrated lower growth of niterwort at all but the highest NaCl concentrations. Although growth of niterwort ramets was similar when transplanted into both habitats at the refuge below Crystal Reservoir, niterwort reproductive effort was considerably higher in saltgrass compared to its own habitat, implying reallocation of resources to sexual reproduction to maximize fitness when the probability of ramet mortality increases with greater salinity stress. Saltgrass was not a demonstrated direct competitor of niterwort; however, this species is known to increase soil salinity by exuding salt ions and through litterfall. Niterwort conservation will benefit from protecting hydrological processes that reduce salinity stress and preventing saltgrass colonization into niterwort habitat.

  9. Possible roles of nitrogen fixation and mineral uptake induced by rhizobacterial inoculation on salt tolerance of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Komy, Hesham M A; Abdel-Samad, Hamdia M; Hetta, Ahmed M A; Barakat, Nasser A

    2004-01-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the possible roles of nitrogen fixation and/or enhanced mineral uptake by Azospirillum lipoferum and Bacillus polymexa inoculation in improving salt tolerance of maize plants. Plants were inoculated and grown under salt stress (osmotic potential: -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2 Mpa). Both microorganisms were able to fix nitrogen up to -0.9 Mpa salinity level accompanied with increased total N-yield compared with the control plants. In order to investigate the role of bacterial inoculation on enhanced mineral uptake, the growth and some physiological parameters of inoculated plants were compared with plants fertilized by K and P foliar application. Plant inoculation with the N2-fixers or plant spraying with KH2PO4 resulted in an increase in fresh and dry matter as well as water content of plants. Treated plants exhibited changed plant mineral content which was associated with increased Mg/K and decreased P/K, Ca/K and Na/K ratios. This was accompanied by accumulation of soluble sugars, amino acids in shoots and roots of plants resulting in a concomitant increase in the osmotic potential of the cell sap as a possible mechanism of adaptation to salinity.

  10. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated by the d...... these alternatives by returning to the notion of tolerance as the endurance of pain, linking this notion to exemplars and theories relevant to the politics of multiculturalism, religious freedom, and free speech....

  11. Hyperactive mutant of a wheat plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter improves the growth and salt tolerance of transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Lai, Zesen; Yin, Xiaochang; Yu, Shan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Cong, Xinli; Luo, Yuehua; Xu, Haixia; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-12-01

    Wheat SOS1 (TaSOS1) activity could be relieved upon deletion of the C-terminal 168 residues (the auto-inhibitory domain). This truncated form of wheat SOS1 (TaSOS1-974) was shown to increase compensation (compared to wild-type TaSOS1) for the salt sensitivity of a yeast mutant strain, AXT3K, via increased Na+ transportation out of cells during salinity stress. Expression of the plasma membrane proteins TaSOS1-974 or TaSOS1 improved the growth of transgenic tobacco plants compared with wild-type plants under normal conditions. However, plants expressing TaSOS1-974 grew better than TaSOS1-transformed plants. Upon salinity stress, Na+ efflux and K+ influx rates in the roots of transgenic plants expressing TaSOS1-974 or TaSOS1 were greater than those of wild-type plants. Furthermore, compared to TaSOS1-transgenic plants, TaSOS1-974-expressing roots showed faster Na+ efflux and K+ influx, resulting in less Na+ and more K+ accumulation in TaSOS1-974-transgenic plants compared to TaSOS1-transgenic and wild-type plants. TaSOS1-974-expressing plants had the lowest MDA content and electrolyte leakage among all tested plants, indicating that TaSOS1-974 might protect the plasma membrane against oxidative damage generated by salt stress. Overall, TaSOS1-974 conferred higher salt tolerance in transgenic plants compared to TaSOS1. Consistent with this result, transgenic plants expressing TaSOS1-974 showed a better growth performance than TaSOS1-expressing and wild-type plants under saline conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated by the d...... these alternatives by returning to the notion of tolerance as the endurance of pain, linking this notion to exemplars and theories relevant to the politics of multiculturalism, religious freedom, and free speech.......Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated...... by the desire to experiment and to become otherwise. The objective is to discuss what gets lost, conceptually as well as politically, when we neglect the subsistence of active tolerance within other practices of tolerance, and to develop a theory of active tolerance in which tolerance's mobilizing character...

  13. A ζ-carotene desaturase gene, IbZDS, increases β-carotene and lutein contents and enhances salt tolerance in transgenic sweetpotato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijie; Kang, Chen; Song, Xuejin; Yu, Ling; Liu, Degao; He, Shaozhen; Zhai, Hong; Liu, Qingchang

    2017-09-01

    ζ-Carotene desaturase (ZDS) is one of the key enzymes in carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. However, the ZDS gene has not been applied to carotenoid improvement of plants. Its roles in tolerance to abiotic stresses have not been reported. In this study, the IbZDS gene was isolated from storage roots of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) cv. Nongdafu 14. Its overexpression significantly increased β-carotene and lutein contents and enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic sweetpotato (cv. Kokei No. 14) plants. Significant up-regulation of lycopene β-cyclase (β-LCY) and β-carotene hydroxylase (β-CHY) genes and significant down-regulation of lycopene ε-cyclase (ε-LCY) and ε-carotene hydroxylase (ε-CHY) genes were found in the transgenic plants. Abscisic acid (ABA) and proline contents and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities were significantly increased, whereas malonaldehyde (MDA) content was significantly decreased in the transgenic plants under salt stress. The salt stress-responsive genes encoding pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR), SOD, CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and POD were found to be significantly up-regulated in the transgenic plants under salt stress. This study indicates that the IbZDS gene has the potential to be applied for improving β-carotene and lutein contents and salt tolerance in sweetpotato and other plants. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. comparative study with commercial rootstocks to determine the tolerance to heavy metal (Pb in the drought and salt stress tolerant eggplant breeding lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlüde Nur TOPAL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Negative effects of heavy metals on plants are peroxidation of lipids in cell membranes, production of free oxygen radicals, disorders in photosynthesis, damages in DNAs and as a result death of the cell. Plant development, productivity and quality of the fruits are decreased in the plants that are exposed to Pb stress which is one of the most toxic heavy metals. Usage of rootstocks which is mainly used against biotic stress conditions also seems to be defined as a solution to abiotic stress conditions such as heavy metal stresses. In eggplant production, wild species and hybrids are used as rootstocks against soil based pathogens and nematode. Reactions of improvement lines derived from local gene resources for rootstock improvement to heavy metal stress which is one of the abiotic stresses were determined. While determining the resistance against Pb stress, commercially used eggplant rootstocks are compared. In this study 4 eggplant cultivars (S. melongena: Burdur Bucak, Mardin Kızıltepe, Artvin Hopa and Kemer whose resistance potential against salt and drought stresses had been previously revealed and 6 rootstocks of wild eggplant species or hybrids (AGR-703, Doyran, Hawk, Hikyaku, Köksal-F1 and Vista-306 were tested against Pb stress. Eggplant seedlings were applied to 0, 150 and 300 ppm Pb solutions (Pb(NO32 during 4-5 true leaf stage. 20 days after the stress application wet and dry weight of green parts and roots, height of the body part and leaf areas were measured. Pb tolerance of Köksal F1 and AGR703 rootstocks were higher than other commercial rootstocks. Mardin Kızıltepe and Burdur Merkez genotypes which have high tolerances against abiotic stress gave lower values with respect to Artvin Hopa and Kemer which are sensitive genotypes and many other rootstocks while comparing the reduction ratios of stress signs such as shoot fresh weight and shoot length according to control under Pb stress.

  15. A putative novel transcription factor, AtSKIP, is involved in abscisic acid signalling and confers salt and osmotic tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Gah-Hyun; Zhang, Xia; Chung, Moon-Soo; Lee, Dong Ju; Woo, Young-Min; Cheong, Hyeon-Sook; Kim, Cheol Soo

    2010-01-01

    We identified and functionally characterized the AtSKIP gene (At1g77180), an Arabidopsis homologue of SNW/SKIP, under abiotic stresses. Although the SNW/SKIP protein has been implicated as a critical transcription cofactor, its biological functions have yet to be reported in any plant. Recently, we have isolated Salt-tolerance genes (SATs) via the overexpression screening of yeast with a maize cDNA library. One of the selected genes (SAT2) appeared to confer elevated tolerance to salt. Maize SAT2 cDNA encodes a homologue of the human SNW/SKIP transcriptional coregulator. Treatment with salt, mannitol and abscisic acid induced AtSKIP expression. Ectopic expression of the AtSKIP gene modulated the induction of salt tolerance, dehydration resistance and insensitivity towards abscisic acid under stress conditions. By contrast, atskip antisense lines displayed reduced tolerance to abiotic stresses during germination. Moreover, a decrease in AtSKIP expression resulted in an abnormal phenotype. We further determined that the AtSKIP protein activated the transcription of a reporter gene in yeast. Green fluorescent protein-tagged AtSKIP was localized in the nuclei of both onion cells and transgenic Arabidopsis cells. Taken together, these results suggest that AtSKIP functions as both a positive regulator and putative potential transcription factor in the abiotic stress signalling pathway.

  16. Erv14 cargo receptor participates in yeast salt tolerance via its interaction with the plasma-membrane Nha1 cation/proton antiporter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rosas-Santiago, P.; Zimmermannová, Olga; Vera-Estrella, R.; Sychrová, Hana; Pantoja, O.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1858, č. 1 (2016), s. 67-74 ISSN 0005-2736 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Erv14p * Nha1p * protein–protein interaction * mislocalization * salt-tolerance * yeast Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.498, year: 2016

  17. Functional environmental screening of a metagenomic library identifies stlA; a unique salt tolerance locus from the human gut microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamonn P Culligan

    Full Text Available Functional environmental screening of metagenomic libraries is a powerful means to identify and assign function to novel genes and their encoded proteins without any prior sequence knowledge. In the current study we describe the identification and subsequent analysis of a salt-tolerant clone from a human gut metagenomic library. Following transposon mutagenesis we identified an unknown gene (stlA, for "salt tolerance locus A" with no current known homologues in the databases. Subsequent cloning and expression in Escherichia coli MKH13 revealed that stlA confers a salt tolerance phenotype in its surrogate host. Furthermore, a detailed in silico analysis was also conducted to gain additional information on the properties of the encoded StlA protein. The stlA gene is rare when searched against human metagenome datasets such as MetaHit and the Human Microbiome Project and represents a novel and unique salt tolerance determinant which appears to be found exclusively in the human gut environment.

  18. The Cotton WRKY Gene GhWRKY41 Positively Regulates Salt and Drought Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Chu

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors constitute a very large family of proteins in plants and participate in modulating plant biological processes, such as growth, development and stress responses. However, the exact roles of WRKY proteins are unclear, particularly in non-model plants. In this study, Gossypium hirsutum WRKY41 (GhWRKY41 was isolated and transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana. Our results showed that overexpression of GhWRKY41 enhanced the drought and salt stress tolerance of transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana. The transgenic plants exhibited lower malondialdehyde content and higher antioxidant enzyme activity, and the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated in transgenic plants exposed to osmotic stress. A β-glucuronidase (GUS staining assay showed that GhWRKY41 was highly expressed in the stomata when plants were exposed to osmotic stress, and plants overexpressing GhWRKY41 exhibited enhanced stomatal closure when they were exposed to osmotic stress. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that GhWRKY41 may enhance plant tolerance to stress by functioning as a positive regulator of stoma closure and by regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging and the expression of antioxidant genes.

  19. Consumer attitudes, knowledge, and behavior related to salt consumption in sentinel countries of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Linders, Hubert; Ricardo, Camila Zancheta; Legetic, Branka; Campbell, Norm R C

    2012-10-01

    To describe individual attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding salt intake, its dietary sources, and current food-labeling practices related to salt and sodium in five sentinel countries of the Americas. A convenience sample of 1 992 adults (≥ 18 years old) from Argentina, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, and Ecuador (approximately 400 from each country) was obtained between September 2010 and February 2011. Data collection was conducted in shopping malls or major commercial areas using a questionnaire containing 33 questions. Descriptive estimates are presented for the total sample and stratified by country and sociodemographic characteristics of the studied population. Almost 90% of participants associated excess intake of salt with the occurrence of adverse health conditions, more than 60% indicated they were trying to reduce their current intake of salt, and more than 30% believed reducing dietary salt to be of high importance. Only 26% of participants claimed to know the existence of a recommended maximum value of salt or sodium intake and 47% of them stated they knew the content of salt in food items. More than 80% of participants said that they would like food labeling to indicate high, medium, and low levels of salt or sodium and would like to see a clear warning label on packages of foods high in salt. Additional effort is required to increase consumers' knowledge about the existence of a maximum limit for intake and to improve their capacity to accurately monitor and reduce their personal salt consumption.

  20. Volatile-Mediated Effects Predominate in Paraburkholderia phytofirmans Growth Promotion and Salt Stress Tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, Thomas; Rojas, Sandy; Timmermann, Tania; Pinedo, Ignacio; Poupin, María J.; Garrido, Tatiana; Richter, Pablo; Tamayo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stress has a growing impact on plant growth and agricultural activity worldwide. Specific plant growth promoting rhizobacteria have been reported to stimulate growth and tolerance to abiotic stress in plants, and molecular mechanisms like phytohormone synthesis and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deamination are usual candidates proposed to mediate these bacterial effects. Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN is able to promote growth of several plant hosts, and improve their tolerance to chilling, drought and salinity. This work investigated bacterial determinants involved in PsJN stimulation of growth and salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana, showing bacteria enable plants to survive long-term salinity treatment, accumulating less sodium within leaf tissues relative to non-inoculated controls. Inactivation of specific bacterial genes encoding ACC deaminase, auxin catabolism, N-acyl-homoserine-lactone production, and flagellin synthesis showed these functions have little influence on bacterial induction of salinity tolerance. Volatile organic compound emission from strain PsJN was shown to reproduce the effects of direct bacterial inoculation of roots, increasing plant growth rate and tolerance to salinity evaluated both in vitro and in soil. Furthermore, early exposure to VOCs from P. phytofirmans was sufficient to stimulate long-term effects observed in Arabidopsis growth in the presence and absence of salinity. Organic compounds were analyzed in the headspace of PsJN cultures, showing production of 2-undecanone, 7-hexanol, 3-methylbutanol and dimethyl disulfide. Exposure of A. thaliana to different quantities of these molecules showed that they are able to influence growth in a wide range of added amounts. Exposure to a blend of the first three compounds was found to mimic the effects of PsJN on both general growth promotion and salinity tolerance. To our knowledge, this is the first report on volatile compound-mediated induction of plant abiotic

  1. Salt and cadmium stress tolerance caused by overexpression of the Glycine Max Na+/H+ Antiporter (GmNHX1) gene in duckweed (Lemna turionifera 5511).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Han, Yujie; Wu, Di; Yong, Wang; Liu, Miaomiao; Wang, Sutong; Liu, Wenxin; Lu, Meiyi; Wei, Ying; Sun, Jinsheng

    2017-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution has aroused increasing attention due to its toxicity. It has been proved that Na+/H+ Antiporter (NHX1) encodes a well-documented protein in Na+/H+ trafficking, which leads to salt tolerance. This study showed that Glycine max Na+/H+ Antiporter (GmNHX1) improved short-term cadmium and salt resistance in Lemna turionifera 5511. Expression of GmNHX1 prevented root from abscission and cell membrane damage, which also can enhance antioxidant system, inhibited of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and cause a less absorption of Cd under cadmium and salt stress. The cadmium tolerance suggested that NHX1 was involved under the cadmium stress. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. A high-quality genome assembly of quinoa provides insights into the molecular basis of salt bladder-based salinity tolerance and the exceptional nutritional value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Changsong; Chen, Aojun; Xiao, Lihong; Muller, Heike M; Ache, Peter; Haberer, Georg; Zhang, Meiling; Jia, Wei; Deng, Ping; Huang, Ru; Lang, Daniel; Li, Feng; Zhan, Dongliang; Wu, Xiangyun; Zhang, Hui; Bohm, Jennifer; Liu, Renyi; Shabala, Sergey; Hedrich, Rainer; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Zhang, Heng

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is a halophytic pseudocereal crop that is being cultivated in an ever-growing number of countries. Because quinoa is highly resistant to multiple abiotic stresses and its seed has a better nutritional value than any other major cereals, it is regarded as a future crop to ensure global food security. We generated a high-quality genome draft using an inbred line of the quinoa cultivar Real. The quinoa genome experienced one recent genome duplication about 4.3 million years ago, likely reflecting the genome fusion of two Chenopodium parents, in addition to the γ paleohexaploidization reported for most eudicots. The genome is highly repetitive (64.5% repeat content) and contains 54 438 protein-coding genes and 192 microRNA genes, with more than 99.3% having orthologous genes from glycophylic species. Stress tolerance in quinoa is associated with the expansion of genes involved in ion and nutrient transport, ABA homeostasis and signaling, and enhanced basal-level ABA responses. Epidermal salt bladder cells exhibit similar characteristics as trichomes, with a significantly higher expression of genes related to energy import and ABA biosynthesis compared with the leaf lamina. The quinoa genome sequence provides insights into its exceptional nutritional value and the evolution of halophytes, enabling the identification of genes involved in salinity tolerance, and providing the basis for molecular breeding in quinoa. PMID:28994416

  3. A high-quality genome assembly of quinoa provides insights into the molecular basis of salt bladder-based salinity tolerance and the exceptional nutritional value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Changsong; Chen, Aojun; Xiao, Lihong; Muller, Heike M; Ache, Peter; Haberer, Georg; Zhang, Meiling; Jia, Wei; Deng, Ping; Huang, Ru; Lang, Daniel; Li, Feng; Zhan, Dongliang; Wu, Xiangyun; Zhang, Hui; Bohm, Jennifer; Liu, Renyi; Shabala, Sergey; Hedrich, Rainer; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Zhang, Heng

    2017-11-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is a halophytic pseudocereal crop that is being cultivated in an ever-growing number of countries. Because quinoa is highly resistant to multiple abiotic stresses and its seed has a better nutritional value than any other major cereals, it is regarded as a future crop to ensure global food security. We generated a high-quality genome draft using an inbred line of the quinoa cultivar Real. The quinoa genome experienced one recent genome duplication about 4.3 million years ago, likely reflecting the genome fusion of two Chenopodium parents, in addition to the γ paleohexaploidization reported for most eudicots. The genome is highly repetitive (64.5% repeat content) and contains 54 438 protein-coding genes and 192 microRNA genes, with more than 99.3% having orthologous genes from glycophylic species. Stress tolerance in quinoa is associated with the expansion of genes involved in ion and nutrient transport, ABA homeostasis and signaling, and enhanced basal-level ABA responses. Epidermal salt bladder cells exhibit similar characteristics as trichomes, with a significantly higher expression of genes related to energy import and ABA biosynthesis compared with the leaf lamina. The quinoa genome sequence provides insights into its exceptional nutritional value and the evolution of halophytes, enabling the identification of genes involved in salinity tolerance, and providing the basis for molecular breeding in quinoa.

  4. Ectopic overexpression of SsCBF1, a CRT/DRE-binding factor from the nightshade plant Solanum lycopersicoides, confers freezing and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang

    Full Text Available The C-repeat (CRT/dehydration-responsive element (DRE binding factor (CBF/DREB1 transcription factors play a key role in cold response. However, the detailed roles of many plant CBFs are far from fully understood. A CBF gene (SsCBF1 was isolated from the cold-hardy plant Solanum lycopersicoides. A subcellular localization study using GFP fusion protein indicated that SsCBF1 is localized in the nucleus. We delimited the SsCBF1 transcriptional activation domain to the C-terminal segment comprising amino acid residues 193-228 (SsCBF1(193-228. The expression of SsCBF1 could be dramatically induced by cold, drought and high salinity. Transactivation assays in tobacco leaves revealed that SsCBF1 could specifically bind to the CRT cis-elements in vivo to activate the expression of downstream reporter genes. The ectopic overexpression of SsCBF1 conferred increased freezing and high-salinity tolerance and late flowering phenotype to transgenic Arabidopsis. RNA-sequencing data exhibited that a set of cold and salt stress responsive genes were up-regulated in transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that SsCBF1 behaves as a typical CBF to contribute to plant freezing tolerance. Increased resistance to high-salinity and late flowering phenotype derived from SsCBF1 OE lines lend more credence to the hypothesis that plant CBFs participate in diverse physiological and biochemical processes related to adverse conditions.

  5. Seed salt-soluble protein expression as marker of local Medicago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It appears that, this globulin protein is related to salt tolerance and could be used as SDS-AGE markers for differentiating between tolerating and sensible M. ciliaris populations to salt stress. Keywords: Oran Great Sebkha, annual Medicago ciliaris, seed storage salt-soluble proteins, sodium dodecyl sulfate- poly acrylamide ...

  6. Salt and oxidative stress tolerance in Debaryomyces hansenii and Debaryomyces fabryi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michán, C.; Martínez, J.L.; Alvarez, M.C.; Turk, M.; Sychrová, Hana; Ramos, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2013), s. 180-188 ISSN 1567-1356 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10012; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/0307 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200110901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Debaryomyces * stress tolerance * ROS content * sodium content * membrane fluidity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.436, year: 2013

  7. Estimated daily salt intake in relation to blood pressure and blood lipids: the role of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuesen, Betina H; Toft, Ulla; Buhelt, Lone P; Linneberg, Allan; Friedrich, Nele; Nauck, Matthias; Wallaschofski, Henri; Jørgensen, Torben

    2015-12-01

    Excessive salt intake causes increased blood pressure which is considered the leading risk for premature death. One major challenge when evaluating associations between daily salt intake and markers of non-communicable diseases is that a high daily salt intake correlates with obesity, which is also a well described risk factor for poor cardiometabolic outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of estimated daily salt intake with blood pressure and blood lipids and to investigate the effect of taking different measures of obesity into account. We included 3294 men and women aged 18-69 years from a general population based study in Copenhagen, Denmark. Estimated 24-hour sodium excretion was calculated by measurements of creatinine and sodium concentration in spot urine in combination with information of sex, age, height and weight. The relations of estimated 24-hour sodium excretion with blood pressure and blood lipids were evaluated by linear regression models. The daily mean estimated intake of salt was 10.80 g and 7.52 g among men and women, respectively. Daily salt intake was significantly associated with blood pressure (β-estimates 1.18 mm Hg/g salt (systolic) and 0.74 mm Hg/g salt (diastolic), p lipids were highly affected by adjustment for obesity. Associations of estimated daily salt intake with blood pressure and blood lipids were highly affected by adjustment for obesity. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  8. From QTL to variety-harnessing the benefits of QTLs for drought, flood and salt tolerance in mega rice varieties of India through a multi-institutional network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Renu; Singh, Yashi; Xalaxo, Suchit; Verulkar, S; Yadav, Neera; Singh, Shweta; Singh, Nisha; Prasad, K S N; Kondayya, K; Rao, P V Ramana; Rani, M Girija; Anuradha, T; Suraynarayana, Y; Sharma, P C; Krishnamurthy, S L; Sharma, S K; Dwivedi, J L; Singh, A K; Singh, P K; Nilanjay; Singh, N K; Kumar, Rajesh; Chetia, S K; Ahmad, T; Rai, M; Perraju, P; Pande, Anita; Singh, D N; Mandal, N P; Reddy, J N; Singh, O N; Katara, J L; Marandi, B; Swain, P; Sarkar, R K; Singh, D P; Mohapatra, T; Padmawathi, G; Ram, T; Kathiresan, R M; Paramsivam, K; Nadarajan, S; Thirumeni, S; Nagarajan, M; Singh, A K; Vikram, Prashant; Kumar, Arvind; Septiningshih, E; Singh, U S; Ismail, A M; Mackill, D; Singh, Nagendra K

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a staple cereal of India cultivated in about 43.5Mha area but with relatively low average productivity. Abiotic factors like drought, flood and salinity affect rice production adversely in more than 50% of this area. Breeding rice varieties with inbuilt tolerance to these stresses offers an economically viable and sustainable option to improve rice productivity. Availability of high quality reference genome sequence of rice, knowledge of exact position of genes/QTLs governing tolerance to abiotic stresses and availability of DNA markers linked to these traits has opened up opportunities for breeders to transfer the favorable alleles into widely grown rice varieties through marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB). A large multi-institutional project, "From QTL to variety: marker-assisted breeding of abiotic stress tolerant rice varieties with major QTLs for drought, submergence and salt tolerance" was initiated in 2010 with funding support from Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, in collaboration with International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. The main focus of this project is to improve rice productivity in the fragile ecosystems of eastern, northeastern and southern part of the country, which bear the brunt of one or the other abiotic stresses frequently. Seven consistent QTLs for grain yield under drought, namely, qDTY1.1, qDTY2.1, qDTY2.2, qDTY3.1, qDTY3.2, qDTY9.1 and qDTY12.1 are being transferred into submergence tolerant versions of three high yielding mega rice varieties, Swarna-Sub1, Samba Mahsuri-Sub1 and IR 64-Sub1. To address the problem of complete submergence due to flash floods in the major river basins, the Sub1 gene is being transferred into ten highly popular locally adapted rice varieties namely, ADT 39, ADT 46, Bahadur, HUR 105, MTU 1075, Pooja, Pratikshya, Rajendra Mahsuri, Ranjit, and Sarjoo 52. Further, to address the problem of soil salinity, Saltol, a major QTL for salt tolerance is being transferred into

  9. [Isolation of maize genes related to aluminum tolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hua; Zheng, Yong-Lian; He, Li-Yuan; Li, Jian-Sheng

    2005-10-01

    To investigate gene expression profile in response to aluminum stress and to cloning the key genes related to aluminum tolerance, are crucial to genetic improvement of plant aluminum tolerance. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization method was adopted to construct SSH-cDNA libraries at seedling stage of two maize inbred lines (Fig. 1), of which Mo17 is sensitive to aluminum toxicity and TL94B is tolerant. As a result, a forward SSH-cDNA library including 762 clones and a reverse SSH-cDNA library including 382 clones were constructed for Mo17. In the same way, a forward SSH-cDNA library including 760 clones and a reverse SSH-cDNA library including 380 clones were constructed for TL94B. Identification of these SSH-cDNA libraries shows that the length of inserted fragments ranges from 250 bp to 1.0 kb (Fig. 2), of which nearly 18% are positive clones. Through differential hybridization screening (Fig. 3), 124 and 47 positive clones were screened from forward and reverse SSH-cDNA libraries of Mo17 respectively; 103 and 64 positive clones from forward and reverse SSH-cDNA libraries of TL94B respectively. Total 338 positive clones from four SSH-cDNA libraries were sequenced, and all of the sequences of inserted fragments were analyzed using bioinformatical methods. A total of 232 kinds of EST sequences were obtained. Among these ESTs, 70.2% had significant homology with known genes, and the remaining 29.8% were function-unknown including 21 kinds of newly found ESTs (Table 1). An aluminum tolerant gene, GDP dissociation inhibitor gene, was detected its expression character by Northern hybridization (Fig. 4). These results indicate that the responses of maize to aluminum stress involve the interactions among different signal/metabolism pathways, such as signal transduction of stress-related factors, transcription and regulation of responsive genes, synthesis and transport of substances, changes in cell structures and functions.

  10. Evidence for plasmid-mediated salt tolerance in the human gut microbiome and potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broaders, Eileen; O'Brien, Ciarán; Gahan, Cormac G M; Marchesi, Julian R

    2016-03-01

    The human gut microbiome is critical to health and wellbeing. It hosts a complex ecosystem comprising a multitude of bacterial species, which contributes functionality that would otherwise be absent from the host. Transient and commensal bacteria in the gut must withstand many stresses. The influence of mobile genetic elements such as plasmids in stress adaptation within the ecosystem is poorly understood. Using a mobilomic approach we found evidence for plasmid-mediated osmotolerance as a phenotype amongst the Proteobacteria in healthy faecal slurries. A transconjugant carrying multiple plasmids acquired from healthy faecal slurry demonstrated increased osmotolerance in the presence of metal salts, particularly potassium chloride, which was not evident in the recipient. Pyrosequencing and analysis of the total plasmid DNA demonstrated the presence of plasmid-borne osmotolerance systems (including KdpD and H-NS) which may be linked to the observed phenotype. This is the first report of a transferable osmotolerance phenotype in gut commensals and may have implications for the transfer of osmotolerance in other niches. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. PpCBF3 from Cold-Tolerant Kentucky Bluegrass Involved in Freezing Tolerance Associated with Up-Regulation of Cold-Related Genes in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Lili Zhuang

    Full Text Available Dehydration-Responsive Element Binding proteins (DREB/C-repeat (CRT Binding Factors (CBF have been identified as transcriptional activators during plant responses to cold stress. The objective of this study was to determine the physiological roles of a CBF gene isolated from a cold-tolerant perennial grass species, Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L., which designated as PpCBF3, in regulating plant tolerance to freezing stress. Transient transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplast with PpCBF3-eGFP fused protein showed that PpCBF3 was localized to the nucleus. RT-PCR analysis showed that PpCBF3 was specifically induced by cold stress (4°C but not by drought stress [induced by 20% polyethylene glycol 6000 solution (PEG-6000] or salt stress (150 mM NaCl. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing PpCBF3 showed significant improvement in freezing (-20°C tolerance demonstrated by a lower percentage of chlorotic leaves, lower cellular electrolyte leakage (EL and H2O2 and O2.- content, and higher chlorophyll content and photochemical efficiency compared to the wild type. Relative mRNA expression level analysis by qRT-PCR indicated that the improved freezing tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PpCBF3 was conferred by sustained activation of downstream cold responsive (COR genes. Other interesting phenotypic changes in the PpCBF3-transgenic Arabidopsis plants included late flowering and slow growth or 'dwarfism', both of which are desirable phenotypic traits for perennial turfgrasses. Therefore, PpCBF3 has potential to be used in genetic engineering for improvement of turfgrass freezing tolerance and other desirable traits.

  12. Bottle gourd rootstock-grafting affects nitrogen metabolism in NaCl-stressed watermelon leaves and enhances short-term salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjuan; Lu, Xiaomin; Yan, Bei; Li, Bin; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2013-05-01

    The plant growth, nitrogen absorption, and assimilation in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf.) were investigated in self-grafted and grafted seedlings using the salt-tolerant bottle gourd rootstock Chaofeng Kangshengwang (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) exposed to 100mM NaCl for 3d. The biomass and NO3(-) uptake rate were significantly increased by rootstock while these values were remarkably decreased by salt stress. However, compared with self-grafted plants, rootstock-grafted plants showed higher salt tolerance with higher biomass and NO3(-) uptake rate under salt stress. Salinity induced strong accumulation of nitrate, ammonium and protein contents and a significant decrease of nitrogen content and the activities of nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in leaves of self-grafted seedlings. In contrast, salt stress caused a remarkable decrease in nitrate content and the activities of GS and GOGAT, and a significant increase of ammonium, protein, and nitrogen contents and NR activity, in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings. Compared with that of self-grafted seedlings, the ammonium content in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings was much lower under salt stress. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity was notably enhanced in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings, whereas it was significantly inhibited in leaves of self-grafted seedlings, under salinity stress. Three GDH isozymes were isolated by native gel electrophoresis and their expressions were greatly enhanced in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings than those of self-grafted seedlings under both normal and salt-stress conditions. These results indicated that the salt tolerance of rootstock-grafted seedlings might (be enhanced) owing to the higher nitrogen absorption and the higher activities of enzymes for nitrogen assimilation induced by the rootstock. Furthermore, the detoxification of ammonium by GDH when the GS/GOGAT pathway

  13. Is salinity tolerance related to osmolytes accumulation in Lygeum spartum L. seedlings?

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    Bouzid Nedjimi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lygeum spartum L. (Poaceae is a plant of commercial relevance used as raw material for manufacturing paper. This species is a newly found salt tolerant species, but its physiological responses to salinity are poorly understood. The effect of salt stress (50 and 100 mM NaCl on growth, leaf water relations, soluble sugars and free amino acids in L. spartum has been investigated. Fresh and dry weights were reduced significantly above 50 mM NaCl. Transpiration, water potential (Ψω and osmotic potential (Ψπ decreased with elevated NaCl. No change was observed in the turgor potential (Ψτ. Subsequently, the composition of free amino acids estimated by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC indicated a significant increase in free amino acid content. It appears that valine was the main amino acid accumulated significantly by the plants for both NaCl treatments. However, tyrosine levels decrease by salt treatment compared to control. Contents of Na+ and Cl− increased with an increase in salinity. The concentration of Na+ of salinized plants (100 mM NaCl was ∼70-fold greater than that measured in control plants, and this was associated with significant reductions in leaf K+ and Ca2+ concentrations. In addition, a significant accumulation of soluble sugars, probably associated with osmotic adjustment and protection of membrane stability, occurred in roots of salinized plants. Based upon these results, a possible physiological role of soluble sugars and free amino acids was suggested in L. spartum to maintain turgor.

  14. Over-expression of the peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase (SbpAPX) gene cloned from halophyte Salicornia brachiata confers salt and drought stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Natwar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-06-01

    Salicornia brachiata Roxb., an extreme halophyte, is a naturally adapted higher plant model for additional gene resources to engineer salt tolerance in plants. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) plays a key role in protecting plants against oxidative stress and thus confers abiotic stress tolerance. A full-length SbpAPX cDNA, encoding peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase, was cloned from S. brachiata. The open reading frame encodes for a polypeptide of 287 amino acid residues (31.3-kDa protein). The deduced amino acid sequence of the SbpAPX gene showed characteristic peroxisomal targeting sequences (RKRAI) and a C-terminal hydrophobic region of 39 amino acid residues containing a transmembrane domain (TMD) of 23 amino acid residues. Northern blot analysis showed elevated SbpAPX transcript in response to salt, cold, abscisic acid and salicylic acid stress treatments. The SbpAPX gene was transformed to tobacco for their functional validation under stresses. Transgenic plants over-expressing SbpAPX gene showed enhanced salt and drought stress tolerance compared to wild-type plants. Transgenic plants showed enhanced vegetative growth and germination rate both under normal and stressed conditions. Present study revealed that the SbpAPX gene is a potential candidate, which not only confers abiotic stress tolerance to plants but also seems to be involved in plant growth.

  15. Disruption of AtWNK8 Enhances Tolerance of Arabidopsis to Salt and Osmotic Stresses via Modulating Proline Content and Activities of Catalase and Peroxidase

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    Hong Liao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With no lysine kinases (WNKs play important roles in plant growth and development. However, its role in salt and osmotic stress tolerance is unclear. Here, we report that AtWNK8 is mainly expressed in primary root, hypocotyl, stamen and pistil and is induced by NaCl and sorbitol treatment. Compared to the wild-type, the T-DNA knock-out wnk8 mutant was more tolerant to severe salinity and osmotic stresses, as indicated by 27% and 198% more fresh weight in the NaCl and sorbitol treatment, respectively. The wnk8 mutant also accumulated 1.43-fold more proline than the wild-type in the sorbitol treatment. Under NaCl and sorbitol stresses, catalase (CAT activity in wnk8 mutant was 1.92- and 3.7-times of that in Col-0, respectively. Similarly, under salt and osmotic stress conditions, peroxidase (POD activities in wnk8 mutant were 1.81- and 1.58-times of that in Col-0, respectively. Taken together, we revealed that maintaining higher CAT and POD activities might be one of the reasons that the disruption of AtWNK8 enhances the tolerance to salt stress, and accumulating more proline and higher activities of CAT and POD might result in the higher tolerance of WNK8 to osmotic stress.

  16. Consumer knowledge, attitudes and salt-related behavior in the Middle-East: the case of Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreddine, Lara; Akl, Christelle; Al-Shaar, Laila; Almedawar, Mohamad M; Isma'eel, Hussain

    2014-11-13

    Sodium intake is high in Lebanon, a country of the Middle East region where rates of cardiovascular diseases are amongst the highest in the world. This study examines salt-related knowledge, attitude and self-reported behaviors amongst adult Lebanese consumers and investigates the association of socio-demographic factors, knowledge and attitudes with salt-related behaviors. Using a multicomponent questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted in nine supermarkets in Beirut, based on systematic random sampling (n = 442). Factors associated with salt-related behaviors were examined by multivariate regression analysis. Specific knowledge and attitude gaps were documented with only 22.6% of participants identifying processed foods as the main source of salt, 55.6% discerning the relationship between salt and sodium, 32.4% recognizing the daily limit of salt intake and 44.7% reporting being concerned about the amount of salt in their diet. The majority of participants reported behavioral practices that increase salt intake with only 38.3% checking for salt label content, 43.7% reporting that their food purchases are influenced by salt content and 38.6% trying to buy low-salt foods. Knowledge, attitudes and older age were found to significantly predict salt-related behaviors. Findings offer valuable insight on salt-related knowledge, attitude and behaviors in a sample of Lebanese consumers and provide key information that could spur the development of evidence-based salt-reduction interventions specific to the Middle East.

  17. Consumer Knowledge, Attitudes and Salt-Related Behavior in the Middle-East: The Case of Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Nasreddine

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium intake is high in Lebanon, a country of the Middle East region where rates of cardiovascular diseases are amongst the highest in the world. This study examines salt-related knowledge, attitude and self-reported behaviors amongst adult Lebanese consumers and investigates the association of socio-demographic factors, knowledge and attitudes with salt-related behaviors. Using a multicomponent questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted in nine supermarkets in Beirut, based on systematic random sampling (n = 442. Factors associated with salt-related behaviors were examined by multivariate regression analysis. Specific knowledge and attitude gaps were documented with only 22.6% of participants identifying processed foods as the main source of salt, 55.6% discerning the relationship between salt and sodium, 32.4% recognizing the daily limit of salt intake and 44.7% reporting being concerned about the amount of salt in their diet. The majority of participants reported behavioral practices that increase salt intake with only 38.3% checking for salt label content, 43.7% reporting that their food purchases are influenced by salt content and 38.6% trying to buy low-salt foods. Knowledge, attitudes and older age were found to significantly predict salt-related behaviors. Findings offer valuable insight on salt-related knowledge, attitude and behaviors in a sample of Lebanese consumers and provide key information that could spur the development of evidence-based salt-reduction interventions specific to the Middle East.

  18. Tolerance as a factor of harmonization of interethnic and interfaith relations

    OpenAIRE

    Ielnikova M. N.

    2013-01-01

    The article tolerance is considered as an important factor of harmonization of interethnic and interfaith relations. Analyzed the levels of tolerance of existence: civilization, international (inter-state), the ethnic, social and individual.

  19. Over-expression of a Zea mays L. protein phosphatase 2C gene (ZmPP2C) in Arabidopsis thaliana decreases tolerance to salt and drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixia; Hu, Xiaoli; Song, Jian; Zong, Xiaojuan; Li, Dapeng; Li, Dequan

    2009-03-15

    ZmPP2C (AY621066) is a protein phosphatase type-2c previously isolated from roots of Zea mays (LD9002). In this study, constitutive expression of ZmPP2C in Arabidopsis thaliana under the control of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter decreased plant tolerance to salt and drought during seed germination and vegetative growth. When growing on media with NaCl or mannitol, the ZmPP2C-overexpressed plants displayed more severe damages, with weaker growth phenotypes corresponding to a series of physiological changes: lower net photosynthesis rate (Pn) and free proline content, higher malondialdehyde (MDA) level, higher relative membrane permeability (RMP), and water loss. Under these stress conditions, they also showed decreased transcription of the stress-related genes RD29A, RD29B, P5CS1, and P5CS2, and ABA-related genes ABI1 and ABI2. Further, the transgenic plants became less sensitive to abscisic acid (ABA). ZmPP2C over-expression significantly attenuated ABA inhibition on seed germination and root growth of the transgenic plants. These results demonstrate that ZmPP2C is involved in plant stress signal transduction, and ZmPP2C gene over-expression in Arabidopsis thaliana may be exploited to study its potential roles in stress-induced signaling pathway.

  20. Performance of a newly isolated salt-tolerant yeast strain Pichia occidentalis G1 for degrading and detoxifying azo dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li; Shao, Yifan; Ning, Shuxiang; Tan, Liang

    2017-06-01

    A salt-tolerant yeast named G1 which could decolorize various azo dyes was recently isolated and identified as Pichia occidentalis. Systematic researches on characterization, degradation pathway, detoxification effects and enzymes analysis of this yeast were done. The results showed that the optimal metabolism and growth parameters for strain G1 were: 2.0gL-1 glucose, 0.6gL-1 ammonium sulfate, 0.08gL-1 yeast extract, 30gL-1 NaCl, 160rmin-1, 30°C and pH 5.0. More than 98% of 50mgL-1 Acid Red B (ARB) could be decolorized within 16h under the optimal conditions. Additionally, strain G1 degraded and obviously detoxified ARB through a possible pathway successively consisting of decolorization, deamination/desulfonation and TCA cycle processes. Moreover, NADH-DCIP reductase was estimated as the key reductase for decolorization and ligninases including lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase were important oxidoreductases for further degradation of decolorization intermediates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Natronospira proteinivora gen. nov., sp. nov, an extremely salt-tolerant, alkaliphilic gammaproteobacterium from hypersaline soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Kublanov, Ilya V; Khijniak, Tatiana V

    2017-08-01

    Brine samples from Kulunda Steppe soda lakes (Altai, Russia) were inoculated into a hypersaline alkaline mineral medium with β-keratin (chicken feather) as a substrate. The micro-organisms dominating the enrichment culture were isolated by limiting serial dilution on the same medium with casein as a substrate. The cells of strain BSker1T were motile, curved rods. The strain was an obligately aerobic heterotroph utilizing proteins and peptides as growth substrates. The isolate was an obligate alkaliphile with a pH range for growth from pH 8.5 to 10.25 (optimum at pH 9.5), and it was extremely salt tolerant, growing with between 1 and 4.5 M total Na+ (optimally at 2-2.5 M). BSker1T had a unique composition of polar lipid fatty acids, dominated by two C17 species. The membrane polar lipids included multiple unidentified phospholipids and two aminolipids. According to phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, the isolate forms a novel branch within the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae (class Gammaproteobacteria) with the highest sequence similarity to the members of this family being 91 %. On the basis of distinct phenotypic and genotypic properties, strain BSker1T (=JCM 31341T=UNIQEM U1008T) is proposed to be classified as a representative of a novel genus and species, Natronospira proteinivora gen. nov., sp. nov.

  2. Effect of salt-tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on wheat plants and soil health in a saline environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, S K; Singh, D P

    2015-01-01

    Salt-tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (ST-PGPR) significantly influence the growth and yield of wheat crops in saline soil. Wheat growth improved in pots with inoculation of all nine ST-PGPR (ECe = 4.3 dS·m(-1) ; greenhouse experiment), while maximum growth and dry biomass was observed in isolate SU18 Arthrobacter sp.; simultaneously, all ST-PGPR improved soil health in treated pot soil over controls. In the field experiment, maximum wheat root dry weight and shoot biomass was observed after inoculation with SU44 B. aquimaris, and SU8 B. aquimaris, respectively, after 60 and 90 days. Isolate SU8 B. aquimaris, induced significantly higher proline and total soluble sugar accumulation in wheat, while isolate SU44 B. aquimaris, resulted in higher accumulation of reducing sugars after 60 days. Percentage nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) in leaves of wheat increased significantly after inoculation with ST-PGPR, as compared to un-inoculated plants. Isolate SU47 B. subtilis showed maximum reduction of sodium (Na) content in wheat leaves of about 23% at both 60 and 90 days after sowing, and produced the best yield of around 17.8% more than the control. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. The effect of Piriformospora indica inoculation on salt and drought stress tolerance in Stevia rebaudiana under in vitro conditions

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    Fahimeh Seraj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of Piriformospora indica under salt and drought stresses on some vegetative characteristics and physiological parameters of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni medicinal plant, an experiment was conducted in factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with three replicates at Genetics and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute in Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University. Factors include three levels of osmatic potential (0, -5, and -10 bar and with three osmotic sources including NaCl (Na, Mannitol (M and NaCl+Mannitol (N+M and inoculation of mycorrhizae like fungi at two levels (non-inoculated and inoculation with fungi. The plantlets were treated for 30 days and then some morphological and physiological parameters were measured. Results of ANOVA showed that there was a significant interaction between osmatic source and levels with fungi inoculation for the most determined parameters. Inoculation of stevia plantlets with P. indica at osmatic level of -5 bar caused either by M or M+Na markedly improved dry weight of leaf (112 and 156%, respectively and aerial parts (49 and 144%, respectively as compared to the uninoculated control. Fungi inoculation positively improved vegetative parameters of stevia plant under most osmatic levels and sources. The most ameliorate effect, however, was observed where M as drought stress or M+Na were adjusted to -5 bar. Therefore, the results of this study represented a positive effect of P. indica inoculation in inproving osmotic tolerance of stevia medicinal plant.

  4. A SNARE-like superfamily protein SbSLSP from the halophyte Salicornia brachiata confers salt and drought tolerance by maintaining membrane stability, K+/Na+ ratio, and antioxidant machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinkar eSingh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available About 1000 salt-responsive ESTs were identified from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata. Among these, a novel salt-inducible gene SbSLSP, (Salicornia brachiata SNARE-like superfamily protein showed up-regulation upon salinity and dehydration stress. The presence of cis-regulatory motifs related to abiotic stress in the putative promoter region supports our finding that SbSLSP gene is inducible by abiotic stress. The SbSLSP protein showed a high sequence identity to hypothetical/uncharacterised proteins from Beta vulgaris, Spinacia oleracea, Eucalyptus grandis and Prunus persica and with SNARE-like superfamily proteins from Zostera marina and Arabidopsis thaliana. Bioinformatics analysis predicted a clathrin adaptor complex small-chain domain and N-myristoylation site in the SbSLSP protein. Subcellular localisation studies indicated that the SbSLSP protein is mainly localised in the plasma membrane. Using transgenic tobacco lines, we establish that overexpression of SbSLSP resulted in elevated tolerance to salt and drought stress. The improved tolerance was confirmed by alterations in a range of physiological parameters, including high germination and survival rate, higher leaf chlorophyll contents, and reduced accumulation of Na+ ion and reactive oxygen species (ROS. Furthermore, overexpressing lines also showed lower water loss, higher cell membrane stability and increased accumulation of proline and ROS-scavenging enzymes. Overexpression of SbSLSP also enhanced the transcript levels of ROS-scavenging and signalling enzyme genes. This study is the first investigation of the function of the SbSLSP gene as a novel determinant of salinity/drought tolerance. The results suggest that SbSLSP could be a potential candidate to increase salinity and drought tolerance in crop plants for sustainable agriculture in semi-arid saline soil.

  5. Characterization of salt-tolerant β-glucosidase with increased thermostability under high salinity conditions from Bacillus sp. SJ-10 isolated from jeotgal, a traditional Korean fermented seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Yu-Ri; Kim, Joong Kyun; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Ha, Jeong-Chul; Kong, In-Soo

    2015-07-01

    The β-glucosidase gene, bglC, was cloned from Bacillus sp. SJ-10 isolated from the squid jeotgal. Recombinant BglC protein overexpression was induced in Escherichia coli. The optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme, using p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPβGlc) as a substrate, were pH 6 and 40 °C, respectively. Enzymatic activity increased by 3.3- and 3.5-fold in the presence of 15% NaCl and KCl, respectively. Furthermore, enzyme thermostability improved in the presence of NaCl or KCl. At 45 °C in the presence of salts, the enzyme was stable for 2 h and maintained 80% activity. In the absence of salts, BglC completely lost activity after 110 min at 45 °C. Comparison of the kinetic parameters at various salt concentrations revealed that BglC had approximately 1.5- and 1.2-fold higher affinity and hydrolyzed pNPβGlc 1.9- and 2.1-fold faster in the presence of 15% NaCl and KCl, respectively. Additionally, the Gibb's free energy for denaturation was higher in the presence of 15% salt than in the absence of salt at 45 and 50 °C. Since enzymatic activity and thermostability were enhanced under high salinity conditions, BglC is an ideal salt-tolerant enzyme for further research and industrial applications.

  6. Assessing tolerance for wildlife: Clarifying relations between concepts and measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruskotter, Jeremy T.; Singh, Ajay; Fulton, David C.; Slagle, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Two parallel lines of inquiry, tolerance for and acceptance of wildlife populations, have arisen in the applied literature on wildlife conservation to assess probability of successfully establishing or increasing populations of controversial species. Neither of these lines is well grounded in social science theory, and diverse measures have been employed to assess tolerance, which inhibits comparability across studies. We empirically tested behavioral measures of tolerance against self-reports of previous policy-relevant behavior and behavioral intentions. Both composite behavioral measures were strongly correlated (r > .70) with two attitudinal measures of tolerance commonly employed in the literature. The strong correlation between attitudinal and behavioral measures suggests existing attitudinal measures represent valid, parsimonious measures of tolerance that may be useful when behavioral measures are too cumbersome or misreporting of behavior is anticipated. Our results demonstrate how behavioral measures of tolerance provide additional, useful information beyond general attitudinal measures.

  7. Over-expression of a glutathione S-transferase gene, GsGST, from wild soybean (Glycine soja) enhances drought and salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming; Li, Yong; Yang, Liang; Zhao, Xiaowen; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi

    2010-08-01

    Glycine soja is a species of soybean that survives in adverse environments including high salt and drought conditions. We constructed a cDNA library from G. soja seedlings treated with NaCl and isolated a glutathione S-transferase gene (GsGST: GQ265911) from the library. The cDNA encoding GsGST contains an open reading frame of 660 bp and the predicted protein belongs to the tau class of GST family proteins. Tobacco plants over-expressing the GsGST gene showed sixfold higher GST activity than wild-type plants. Transgenic tobacco plants exhibited enhanced dehydration tolerance. T(2) transgenic tobacco plants showed higher tolerance at the seedling stage than wild-type plants to salt and mannitol as demonstrated by longer root length and less growth retardation.

  8. Physiological mechanisms for high salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja) from Yellow River Delta, China: photosynthesis, osmotic regulation, ion flux and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Yan, Kun; Shao, Hongbo; Zhao, Shijie

    2013-01-01

    Glycine soja (BB52) is a wild soybean cultivar grown in coastal saline land in Yellow River Delta, China. In order to reveal the physiological mechanisms adapting to salinity, we examined photosynthesis, ion flux, antioxidant system and water status in Glycine soja under NaCl treatments, taking a cultivated soybean, ZH13, as control. Upon NaCl exposure, higher relative water content and water potential were maintained in the leaf of BB52 than ZH13, which might depend on the more accumulation of osmotic substances such as glycinebetaine and proline. Compared with ZH13, activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and contents of ascorbate, glutathione and phenolics were enhanced to a higher level in BB52 leaf under NaCl stress, which could mitigate the salt-induced oxidative damage in BB52. Consistently, lipid peroxidation indicated by malondialdehyde content was lower in BB52 leaf. Photosynthetic rate (Pn) was decreased by NaCl stress in BB52 and ZH13, and the decrease was greater in ZH13. The decreased Pn in BB52 was mainly due to stomatal limitation. The inhibited activation of rubisco enzyme in ZH13 due to the decrease of rubisco activase content became an important limiting factor of Pn, when NaCl concentration increased to 200 mM. Rubisco activase in BB52 was not affected by NaCl stress. Less negative impact in BB52 derived from lower contents of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the tissues, and non-invasive micro-test technique revealed that BB52 roots had higher ability to extrude Na(+) and Cl(-). Wild soybean is a valuable genetic resource, and our study may provide a reference for molecular biologist to improve the salt tolerance of cultivated soybean in face of farmland salinity.

  9. Reducing cytoplasmic polyamine oxidase activity in Arabidopsis increases salt and drought tolerance by reducing reactive oxygen species production and increasing defense gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H.M. eSagor

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The link between polyamine oxidases (PAOs, which function in polyamine catabolism, and stress responses remains elusive. Here, we address this issue using Arabidopsis pao mutants in which the expression of the five PAO genes is knocked-out or knocked-down. As the five single pao mutants and wild type (WT showed similar response to salt stress, we tried to generate the mutants that have either the cytoplasmic PAO pathway (pao1 pao5 or the peroxisomal PAO pathway (pao2 pao3 pao4 silenced. However, the latter triple mutant was not obtained. Thus, in this study, we used two double mutants, pao1 pao5 and pao2 pao4. Of interest, pao1 pao5 mutant was NaCl- and drought-tolerant, whereas pao2 pao4 showed similar sensitivity to those stresses as WT. To reveal the underlying mechanism of salt tolerance, further analyses were performed. Na uptake of the mutant (pao1 pao5 decreased to 75% of WT. PAO activity of the mutant was reduced to 62% of WT. The content of reactive oxygen species (ROS such as hydrogen peroxide, a reaction product of PAO action, and superoxide anion in the mutant became 81% and 72% of the levels in WT upon salt treatment. The mutant contained 2.8-fold higher thermospermine compared to WT. Moreover, the mutant induced the genes of salt overly sensitive-, abscisic acid (ABA-dependent- and ABA-independent- pathways more strongly than WT upon salt treatment. The results suggest that the Arabidopsis plant silencing cytoplasmic PAOs shows salinity tolerance by reducing ROS production and strongly inducing subsets of stress-responsive genes under stress conditions.

  10. A proteomics approach to study the molecular basis of enhanced salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) conferred by the root mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikhani, Mehdi; Khatabi, Behnam; Sepehri, Mozhgan; Nekouei, Mojtaba Khayam; Mardi, Mohsen; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2013-06-01

    Piriformospora indica is a root-interacting mutualistic fungus capable of enhancing plant growth, increasing plant resistance to a wide variety of pathogens, and improving plant stress tolerance under extreme environmental conditions. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which P. indica can improve plant tolerance to stresses will pave the way to identifying the major mechanisms underlying plant adaptability to environmental stresses. We conducted greenhouse experiments at three different salt levels (0, 100 and 300 mM NaCl) on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar "Pallas" inoculated with P. indica. Based on the analysis of variance, P. indica had a significant impact on the barley growth and shoot biomass under normal and salt stress conditions. P. indica modulated ion accumulation in colonized plants by increasing the foliar potassium (K(+))/sodium (Na(+)) ratio, as it is considered a reliable indicator of salt stress tolerance. P. indica induced calcium (Ca(2+)) accumulation and likely influenced the stress signal transduction. Subsequently, proteomic analysis of the barley leaf sheath using two-dimensional electrophoresis resulted in detection of 968 protein spots. Of these detected spots, the abundance of 72 protein spots changed significantly in response to salt treatment and P. indica-root colonization. Mass spectrometry analysis of responsive proteins led to the identification of 51 proteins. These proteins belonged to different functional categories including photosynthesis, cell antioxidant defense, protein translation and degradation, energy production, signal transduction and cell wall arrangement. Our results showed that P. indica induced a systemic response to salt stress by altering the physiological and proteome responses of the plant host.

  11. Exploitation of agro-climatic environment for selection of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase producing salt tolerant indigenous plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sankalp; Dixit, Vijay Kant; Khan, Mohammad Haneef; Kumar Mishra, Shashank; Dviwedi, Gyanendra; Yadav, Sumit; Lehri, Alok; Singh Chauhan, Puneet

    2017-12-01

    A comprehensive survey for 09 agro-climatic zones of Uttar Pradesh, India was conducted to isolate and characterize salt tolerant 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase possessing plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacteria for salt stress amelioration in rice. Here, we have isolated 1125 bacteria having the ability to tolerate 1M NaCl and out of those, 560 were screened for utilizing ACC as sole nitrogen source. 560 isolates were subjected for bacteria coated seed germination assay under 100mM salt (NaCl) stress resulting to 77 isolates which were further evaluated for seed germination assay, PGP and abiotic stress tolerance ability in vitro. This evaluation revealed 15 potent rhizobacteria representing each agro-climatic zone and salt stress mitigation in vitro. In particular, the biomass obtained for bacteria coated rice seedlings were corroborated with the performance of isolates exhibiting maximum average indole acetic acid (IAA) production respective to the agro-climatic zone. Surprisingly based on 16S rRNA, much of the propitious isolates belonged to same specific epithet exhibited variedly in their characteristics. Overall, Bacillus spp. was explored as dominant genera in toto with highest distribution in Western Plain zone followed by Central zone. Therefore, this study provides a counter-intuitive perspective of selection of native microflora for their multifarious PGP and abiotic stress tolerance abilities based on the agro-climatic zones to empower the establishment and development of more suitable inoculants for their application in agriculture under local stress environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. K+ Efflux and Retention in Response to NaCl Stress Do Not Predict Salt Tolerance in Contrasting Genotypes of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T.; Jean, Yuel-Kai; Kabir, Imtiaz; Tolay, Inci; Torun, Ayfer A.; Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Sudden elevations in external sodium chloride (NaCl) accelerate potassium (K+) efflux across the plasma membrane of plant root cells. It has been proposed that the extent of this acceleration can predict salt tolerance among contrasting cultivars. However, this proposal has not been considered in the context of plant nutritional history, nor has it been explored in rice (Oryza sativa L.), which stands among the world’s most important and salt-sensitive crop species. Using efflux analysis with 42K, coupled with growth and tissue K+ analyses, we examined the short- and long-term effects of NaCl exposure to plant performance within a nutritional matrix that significantly altered tissue-K+ set points in three rice cultivars that differ in salt tolerance: IR29 (sensitive), IR72 (moderate), and Pokkali (tolerant). We show that total short-term K+ release from roots in response to NaCl stress is small (no more than 26% over 45 min) in rice. Despite strong varietal differences, the extent of efflux is shown to be a poor predictor of plant performance on long-term NaCl stress. In fact, no measure of K+ status was found to correlate with plant performance among cultivars either in the presence or absence of NaCl stress. By contrast, shoot Na+ accumulation showed the strongest correlation (a negative one) with biomass, under long-term salinity. Pharmacological evidence suggests that NaCl-induced K+ efflux is a result of membrane disintegrity, possibly as result of osmotic shock, and not due to ion-channel mediation. Taken together, we conclude that, in rice, K+ status (including efflux) is a poor predictor of salt tolerance and overall plant performance and, instead, shoot Na+ accumulation is the key factor in performance decline on NaCl stress. PMID:23460903

  13. K+ efflux and retention in response to NaCl stress do not predict salt tolerance in contrasting genotypes of rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devrim Coskun

    Full Text Available Sudden elevations in external sodium chloride (NaCl accelerate potassium (K(+ efflux across the plasma membrane of plant root cells. It has been proposed that the extent of this acceleration can predict salt tolerance among contrasting cultivars. However, this proposal has not been considered in the context of plant nutritional history, nor has it been explored in rice (Oryza sativa L., which stands among the world's most important and salt-sensitive crop species. Using efflux analysis with (42K, coupled with growth and tissue K(+ analyses, we examined the short- and long-term effects of NaCl exposure to plant performance within a nutritional matrix that significantly altered tissue-K(+ set points in three rice cultivars that differ in salt tolerance: IR29 (sensitive, IR72 (moderate, and Pokkali (tolerant. We show that total short-term K(+ release from roots in response to NaCl stress is small (no more than 26% over 45 min in rice. Despite strong varietal differences, the extent of efflux is shown to be a poor predictor of plant performance on long-term NaCl stress. In fact, no measure of K(+ status was found to correlate with plant performance among cultivars either in the presence or absence of NaCl stress. By contrast, shoot Na(+ accumulation showed the strongest correlation (a negative one with biomass, under long-term salinity. Pharmacological evidence suggests that NaCl-induced K(+ efflux is a result of membrane disintegrity, possibly as result of osmotic shock, and not due to ion-channel mediation. Taken together, we conclude that, in rice, K(+ status (including efflux is a poor predictor of salt tolerance and overall plant performance and, instead, shoot Na(+ accumulation is the key factor in performance decline on NaCl stress.

  14. Monitoring the Short-Term Response to Salt Exposure of Two Genetically Distinct Phragmites australis Clones with Different Salinity Tolerance Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenbach, Luciana; Brix, Hans

    2014-01-01

    in the 15-minute experiment. The Greeny-type also recovered after the 70-minute exposure, but not the Land-type. We conclude that the response to osmotic stress is genotype-dependent and that the salt-tolerant clone possesses very efficient signaling pathways to detect changes in the soil water potential......Aims: Two genetically distinct clones of Phragmites australis were used to investigate the immediate response induced by osmotic stress. The study aimed at elucidating if the response time, the inhibition rate and the recovery from salinity stress vary between these two genotypes. The experimental...... salt concentrations (20 and 40 parts per thousand salinity). Important findings: The osmotic stress induced stomata closure and reduction of Pmax and E for both clones. The clone-specific responses as measured through physiological parameters were negatively correlated with exposure time and salt...

  15. MusaDHN-1, a novel multiple stress-inducible SK(3)-type dehydrin gene, contributes affirmatively to drought- and salt-stress tolerance in banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Srinivas, Lingam; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2011-11-01

    Dehydrins are highly hydrophilic proteins involved in playing key adaptive roles in response to abiotic stress conditions having dehydration as a common component. In the present study, a novel banana SK(3)-type dehydrin, MusaDHN-1, was identified and later characterized using transgenic banana plants to investigate its functions in abiotic stress tolerance. Expression profiling in native banana plants demonstrated that MusaDHN-1 was induced in leaves by drought, salinity, cold, oxidative and heavy metal stress as well as by treatment with signalling molecules like abscisic acid, ethylene and methyl jasmonate. Promoter analysis carried out by making a MusaDHN-1 promoter: β-glucuronidase fusion construct reconfirmed the abiotic stress inducibility of MusaDHN-1. Transgenic banana plants constitutively overexpressing MusaDHN-1 were phenotypically normal and displayed improved tolerance to drought and salt-stress treatments in both in vitro and ex vitro assays. Enhanced accumulation of proline and reduced malondialdehyde levels in drought and salt-stressed MusaDHN-1 overexpressing plants further established their superior performance in stressed conditions. This study is the first to report generation of transgenic banana plants engineered for improved drought and salt-stress tolerance.

  16. Overexpression of an Arabidopsis heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein gene, AtRNP1, affects plant growth and reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhenyu, E-mail: wzy72609@163.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Zhao, Xiuyang, E-mail: xiuzh@psb.vib-ugent.be [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Wang, Bing, E-mail: wangbing@ibcas.ac.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Liu, Erlong, E-mail: liuel14@lzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Chen, Ni, E-mail: 63710156@qq.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Zhang, Wei, E-mail: wzhang1216@yahoo.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Bio-Energy Crops, School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Liu, Heng, E-mail: hengliu@lzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China)

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) participate in diverse regulations of plant growth and environmental stress responses. In this work, an Arabidopsis hnRNP of unknown function, AtRNP1, was investigated. We found that AtRNP1 gene is highly expressed in rosette and cauline leaves, and slightly induced under drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. We performed homologous overexpression of AtRNP1 and found that the transgenic plants showed shortened root length and plant height, and accelerated flowering. In addition, the transgenic plants also showed reduced tolerance to drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. Further studies revealed that under both normal and stress conditions, the proline contents in the transgenic plants are markedly decreased, associated with reduced expression levels of a proline synthase gene and several stress-responsive genes. These results suggested that the overexpression of AtRNP1 negatively affects plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. - Highlights: • AtRNP1 is a widely expressed gene and its expression is slightly induced under abiotic stresses. • AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 affects plant growth. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses. • AtRNP1 overexpression plants show decreased proline accumulation and stress-responsive gene expressions.

  17. Mode of Action Temu Kunci (Kaempferia pandurata Essential Oil on E. coli K1.1 Cell Determined by Leakage of Material Cell and Salt Tolerance Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIKSUSANTI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Kaempferia pandurata consist of terpen and oxygenated terpen that exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. It's mode of action against the gram-negative bacterium E. coli K1.1 has been investigated using a range of treatments. The mode action of the essential oil were analyzed by it's ability to leakage E. coli K1.1 cell, to change permeability of the cell, and to alter salt tolerance of the cell. Ion leakage from the cell were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Salt tolerance assays was conducted by investigating the ability of E. coli K1.1 treated with temu kunci essential oil to grow on NA supplemented with NaCl. Protein and acid nucleic leakage were analyzed by UV spectrophotometer. There were inorganic compound leakage (potassium, calcium ion and organic compound leakage (nucleic acid, protein from cytoplasmic membrane, after exposing this organism to essential oil of Kaempferia pandurata. The more concentration of oil added, the more leakage was observed due to the loss of absorbing material such as nucleic acid (260 nm and protein (280 nm, the loss of potassium and calcium ion, and loss of the salt tolerance of E. coli K1.1.

  18. ZmMKK4, a novel group C mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase in maize (Zea mays), confers salt and cold tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangpei; Pan, Jiaowen; Zhang, Maoying; Xing, Xin; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Yang; Li, Dapeng; Li, Dequan

    2011-08-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are signalling modules that transduce extracellular signalling to a range of cellular responses. Plant MAPK cascades have been implicated in development and stress response. In this study, we isolated a novel group C MAPKK gene, ZmMKK4, from maize. Northern blotting analysis revealed that the ZmMKK4 transcript expression was up-regulated by cold, high salt and exogenous H(2)O(2,) but down-regulated by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA). Over-expression of ZmMKK4 in Arabidopsis conferred tolerance to cold and salt stresses by increased germination rate, lateral root numbers, plant survival rate, chlorophyll, proline and soluble sugar contents, and antioxidant enzyme [peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT)] activities compared with control plants. Furthermore, ZmMKK4 enhanced a 37 kDa kinase activity after cold and salt stresses. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcript levels of stress-responsive transcription factors and functional genes were higher in ZmMKK4-over-expressing plants than in control plants. In addition, ZmMKK4 protein is localized in the nucleus. Taken together, these results indicate that ZmMKK4 is a positive regulator of salt and cold tolerance in plants. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Constitutive and stress-inducible overexpression of a native aquaporin gene (MusaPIP2;6) in transgenic banana plants signals its pivotal role in salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Shareena; Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2015-05-01

    High soil salinity constitutes a major abiotic stress and an important limiting factor in cultivation of crop plants worldwide. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a aquaporin gene, MusaPIP2;6 which is involved in salt stress signaling in banana. MusaPIP2;6 was firstly identified based on comparative analysis of stressed and non-stressed banana tissue derived EST data sets and later overexpression in transgenic banana plants was performed to study its tangible functions in banana plants. The overexpression of MusaPIP2;6 in transgenic banana plants using constitutive or inducible promoter led to higher salt tolerance as compared to equivalent untransformed control plants. Cellular localization assay performed using transiently transformed onion peel cells indicated that MusaPIP2;6 protein tagged with green fluorescent protein was translocated to the plasma membrane. MusaPIP2;6-overexpressing banana plants displayed better photosynthetic efficiency and lower membrane damage under salt stress conditions. Our results suggest that MusaPIP2;6 is involved in salt stress signaling and tolerance in banana.

  20. Salt tolerance and osmotic adjustment of Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae) and the invasive M haplotype of Phragmites australis (Poaceae) along a salinity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Edward A.; Glenn, Edward P.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Brown, J. Jed; Nelson, Stephen G.

    2006-01-01

    An invasive variety of Phragmites australis (Poaceae, common reed), the M haplotype, has been implicated in the spread of this species into North American salt marshes that are normally dominated by the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae, smooth cordgrass). In some European marshes, on the other hand, Spartina spp. derived from S. alterniflora have spread into brackish P. australis marshes. In both cases, the non-native grass is thought to degrade the habitat value of the marsh for wildlife, and it is important to understand the physiological processes that lead to these species replacements. We compared the growth, salt tolerance, and osmotic adjustment of M haplotype P. australis and S. alterniflora along a salinity gradient in greenhouse experiments. Spartina alterniflora produced new biomass up to 0.6 M NaCl, whereas P. australis did not grow well above 0.2 M NaCl. The greater salt tolerance of S. alterniflora compared with P. australis was due to its ability to use Na+ for osmotic adjustment in the shoots. On the other hand, at low salinities P. australis produced more shoots per gram of rhizome tissue than did S. alterniflora. This study illustrates how ecophysiological differences can shift the competitive advantage from one species to another along a stress gradient. Phragmites australis is spreading into North American coastal marshes that are experiencing reduced salinities, while Spartina spp. are spreading into northern European brackish marshes that are experiencing increased salinities as land use patterns change on the two continents.