Sample records for salt synthesis mss

  1. Detecting agricultural to urban land use change from multi-temporal MSS digital data. [Salt Lake County, Utah

    Ridd, M. K.; Merola, J. A.; Jaynes, R. A.


    Conversion of agricultural land to a variety of urban uses is a major problem along the Wasatch Front, Utah. Although LANDSAT MSS data is a relatively coarse tool for discriminating categories of change in urban-size plots, its availability prompts a thorough test of its power to detect change. The procedures being applied to a test area in Salt Lake County, Utah, where the land conversion problem is acute are presented. The identity of land uses before and after conversion was determined and digital procedures for doing so were compared. Several algorithms were compared, utilizing both raw data and preprocessed data. Verification of results involved high quality color infrared photography and field observation. Two data sets were digitally registered, specific change categories internally identified in the software, results tabulated by computer, and change maps printed at 1:24,000 scale.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Processable Polyaniline Salts

    Gul, Salma; Bilal, Salma; Shah, Anwar-ul-Haq Ali


    Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the most promising candidates for possible technological applications. PANI has potential applications in batteries, anion exchanger, tissue engineering, inhibition of steel corrosion, fuel cell, sensors and so on. However, its insolubility in common organic solvents limits its range of applications. In the present study an attempt has been made to synthesize soluble polyaniline salt via inverse polymerization pathway using benzoyl peroxide as oxidant and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) as dopant as well as a surfactant. A mixture of chloroform and 2-butanol was used as dispersion medium for the first time. The influence of synthesis parameters such as concentration of aniline, benzoyl peroxide and DBSA on the yield and other properties of the resulting PANI salt was studied. The synthesized PANI salt was found to be completely soluble in DMSO, DMF, chloroform and in a mixture of toluene and 2-propanol. The synthesized polymer salt was also characterized with cyclic voltam-metry, SEM, XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. TGA was used to analyze the thermal properties of synthesized polymer. The extent of doping of the PANI salt was determined from UV-Vis spectra and TGA analysis. The activation energy for the degradation of the polymer was calculated with the help of TGA.

  3. Low temperature synthesis of Ba1–xSrxSnO3 (x = 0–1) from molten ...


    first time by molten salt synthesis (MSS) method using KOH as the flux at lower temperature (400°C) compared to other ... chemical methods have been adopted by many research- ers. .... financial support and Technology Business Incubator,.

  4. Synthesis, structure, and properties of azatriangulenium salts

    Laursen, B.W.; Krebs, Frederik C


    amines and, by virtue of its stepwise and irreversible nature, provides a powerful tool for the preparation of a wide variety of new heterocyclic carbenium salts. Several derivatives of the three new oxygen- and/or nitrogen-bridged triangulenium salts, azadioxa- (6), diazaoxa- (7......), and triazatriangulenium (4), have been synthesized and their physicochemical properties have been investigated. Crystal structures for compounds 2 b-PF6: 2d-PF6, 4b-BF4, 4c-BF4, 6e-BF4, and 8 are reported. The different packing modes found for the triazatriagulenium salts are discussed in relation to the electrostatic...

  5. Thallium (III) salts utilization in organic synthesis. Part II

    Ferraz, H.M.C.


    The utilizations of thallium (III) salts in organic synthesis with carbonylic and acitylenic substrates are presented. The reactions of carbonylic substra3ts with kitones and the oxidation reactions of acetylenic substrates are shown. Others reactions including thallium (III) salts and non aromatic unsatured substracts, as cleasage of ethers and epoxide using thallium trinitrate, hydrazones treatments with thallium triacetates, etc, are also mentioned. (C.G.C.) [pt

  6. Synthesis of phosphorothioates using thiophosphate salts

    Farjadian Fatemeh


    Full Text Available Abstract Reactions of O,O'-dialkyl thiophosphoric acids with alkyl halides, in the presence of a base, provide a direct synthetic route to phosphorothioates via O,O'-dialkyl thiophosphate anion formation. Studies on the reaction of ambident nucleophile ammonium O,O'-diethyl thiophosphate with benzyl halides and tosylate in different solvents show that only S-alkylation is obtained. Reaction of this ambident nucleophile with benzoyl chloride (a hard electrophile, gave the O-acylation product. A simple, efficient, and general method has been developed for the synthesis of phosphorothioates through a one-pot reaction of alkyl halides with the mixture of diethyl phosphite in the presence of triethylamine/sulfur/and acidic alumina under solvent-free conditions using microwave irradiation.

  7. Synthesis of quaternary aryl phosphonium salts: photoredox-mediated phosphine arylation.

    Fearnley, A F; An, J; Jackson, M; Lindovska, P; Denton, R M


    We report a synthesis method for the construction of quaternary aryl phoshonium salts at ambient temperature. The regiospecific reaction involves the coupling of phosphines with aryl radicals derived from diaryliodonium salts under photoredox conditions.

  8. Calix[6]arene mono-diazonium salt synthesis and covalent immobilization onto glassy carbon electrodes

    Cannizzo, Caroline; Jasmin, Jean-Philippe; Vautrin-Ul, Christine; Chausse, Annie; Wagner, Mathieu; Doizi, Denis; Lamouroux, Christine


    This Letter describes the fast synthesis of a mono-aminated calix[6]arene. The immobilization of this macrocycle onto glassy carbon electrodes via diazonium salt chemistry and the electrochemical characterization of the grafted organic layer are also reported. (authors)

  9. Synthesis of Quinolines through Three-Component Cascade Annulation of Aryl Diazonium Salts, Nitriles, and Alkynes.

    Wang, Hao; Xu, Qian; Shen, Sheng; Yu, Shouyun


    An efficient and rapid synthesis of multiply substituted quinolines is described. This method is enabled by a three-component cascade annulation of readily available aryl diazonium salts, nitriles, and alkynes. This reaction is catalyst- and additive-free. Various aryl diazonium salts, nitriles, and alkynes can participate in this transformation, and the yields are up to 83%.

  10. Effect of iron and salt on prodigiosin synthesis in Serratia marcescens.

    Silverman, M. P.; Munoz, E. F.


    Iron requirements of Serratia marcescens for growth and prodigiosin synthesis are investigated. Sodium chloride of sea salt is shown to be responsible for inhibition of prodigiosin synthesis in the microorganism. The role of sodium chloride in the terminal biosynthetic pathway of the pigment is discussed.

  11. Synthesis of thiazolium salts and their screening for catalytic activity

    Lee, Seul Ki; Kim, Do Joong; Park, Jin Kyoon [Dept. of Chemistry and Institute of Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    A facile synthetic method to prepare thiazolium-based ionic liquids in high yield was developed. The direct alkylation of thiazole was performed using a trialkyl orthoester as both the alkyl donor and the solvent. The synthesized thiazolium salts were subsequently screened for their ability to catalyze the benzoin condensation reaction. Of the salts that were tested, 3-butyl,4,5-dimethyl thiazolium salt, was found to be the best catalyst.

  12. Synthesis of anatoxin a via intramolecular cyclization of iminium salts

    Bates, H.A.; Rapoport, H.


    Anatoxin a (1) has been synthesized by exploiting intramolecular cyclization between an iminium salt and a nucleophilic carbon to construct the 9-azabicyclo[4.2.1]nonane ring system. Cyclization of malonate iminiumsalt 16 at alkaline pH afforded a low yield of bicyclic malonate 18 owing to an unfavorable equilibrium constant and lability of the iminium salt in base. In contrast, cyclization of ketoiminium salt 31 afforded a good yield of bicyclic ketone 34 in acidic methanol. Dihydropyrrolium salts 16 and 31 were generated quantitatively by decarbonylation of substituted N-methylprolines 15 and 30b, obtained by reduction of the corresponding pyrroles

  13. Plasmachemical synthesis of nanopowders of yttria and zirconia from dispersed water-salt-organic mixtures

    Novoselov, Ivan; Karengin, Alexander; Shamanin, Igor; Alyukov, Evgeny; Gusev, Alexander


    Article represents results on theoretical and experimental research of yttria and zirconia plasmachemical synthesis in air plasma from water-salt-organic mixtures "yttrium nitrate-water-acetone" and "zirconyl nitrate-water-acetone". On the basis of thermotechnical calculations the influence of organic component on lower heat value and adiabatic combustion temperature of water-salt-organic mixtures as well as compositions of mixtures providing their energy-efficient plasma treatment were determined. The calculations found the influence of mass fraction and temperature of air plasma supporting gas on the composition of plasma treatment products. It was determined the conditions providing yttria and zirconia plasmachemical synthesis in air plasma. During experiments it was b eing carried out the plasmachemical synthesis of yttria and zirconia powders in air plasma flow from water -salt-organic mixtures. Analysis of the results for obtained powders (scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, BET analysis) confirm nanostructure of yttria and zirconia.

  14. Cellulose synthesis genes CESA6 and CSI1 are important for salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Zhang, Shuang-Shuang; Sun, Le; Dong, Xinran; Lu, Sun-Jie; Tian, Weidong; Liu, Jian-Xiang


    Two salt hypersensitive mutants she1 and she2 were identified through genetic screening. SHE1 encodes a cellulose synthase CESA6 while SHE2 encodes a cellulose synthase-interactive protein CSI1. Both of them are involved in cellulose deposition. Our results demonstrated that the sustained cellulose synthesis is important for salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Novel phosphonium salts and bifunctional organocatalysts in asymmetric synthesis

    Moore, Graham


    This thesis details the syntheses of catalysts and their applications in asymmetric reactions. Initially, the project focused on phase transfer catalysts; quaternary phosphonium salts derived from diethyl tartrate or from commercially available phosphorus compounds and their use primarily in the alkylation of N,N-diphenyl methylene glycine tert-butyl ester. Although some of the salts showed the ability to catalyse the alkylation reaction, all products obtained were racemic. The project then f...

  16. Cassini Mission Sequence Subsystem (MSS)

    Alland, Robert


    This paper describes my work with the Cassini Mission Sequence Subsystem (MSS) team during the summer of 2011. It gives some background on the motivation for this project and describes the expected benefit to the Cassini program. It then introduces the two tasks that I worked on - an automatic system auditing tool and a series of corrections to the Cassini Sequence Generator (SEQ_GEN) - and the specific objectives these tasks were to accomplish. Next, it details the approach I took to meet these objectives and the results of this approach, followed by a discussion of how the outcome of the project compares with my initial expectations. The paper concludes with a summary of my experience working on this project, lists what the next steps are, and acknowledges the help of my Cassini colleagues.

  17. Differential effects of 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol on the neutral and acidic pathways of bile salt synthesis in the rat

    Koopen, NR; Post, SM; Wolters, H; Havinga, R; Stellaard, F; Boverhof, R; Kuipers, F; Princen, HMG

    Effects of 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE) on the neutral and acidic biosynthetic pathways of bile salt (BS) synthesis were evaluated in rats with an intact enterohepatic circulation and in rats with long-term bile diversion to induce BS synthesis, For this purpose, bile salt pool composition,

  18. Vinylphosphonium and 2-aminovinylphosphonium salts – preparation and applications in organic synthesis

    Anna Kuźnik


    Full Text Available The main synthetic routes towards vinylphosphonium salts and their wide applications in organic synthesis are discussed in this review. Particular attention is paid to the use of these compounds as building blocks for the synthesis of carbo- and heterocyclic systems after their prior transformation into the corresponding phosphorus ylides, followed by the intramolecular Wittig reaction with various types of nucleophiles containing a carbonyl function in their structures.


    conventional organic solvents [4-6] and in electrochemistry [7, 8]. ... for the high solubility of the salt in water and other polar solvents such as methanol ..... Hu, L.; Xie, B.; Li, J. Efficient Baeyer-Villiger electro-oxidation of ketones with molecular.


    and CHN elemental analysis as well as ultra high vacuum spectroscopic technique (XPS) were employed to confirm the ... electrons which are arranged in a divergent fashion as well as its rigid structure. Furthermore, it ... responsible for the high solubility of the salt in water and other polar solvents such as methanol.

  1. Chiral pyrrolidinium salts derived from menthol as precursor – synthesis and properties

    Janus Ewa


    Full Text Available Six new chiral pyrolidinium salts with chiral substituent at quaternary nitrogen atom were synthesized with high overall yields from (--menthol as cheap chiral precursor and were identified by NMR and HRMS spectroscopy. It was shown that anion type had the effect on chemical shift of protons adjacent to quaternary nitrogen atom and physical properties of these salts. Salts with NTf2 or NPf2 were in a liquid state at room temperature and characterized with the highest thermal stability among others. Furthermore, chiral ionic liquid with NTf2 anion was used as solvent in Diels-Alder reaction and gave higher yield and stereoselectivity than in ionic liquids with achiral cations. Synthesized chiral salts have the potential as chiral solvents in synthesis and auxiliaries in analytical methods to improve chiral recognition.

  2. Insights into the Metal Salt Catalyzed 5-Ethoxymethylfurfural Synthesis from Carbohydrates

    Xin Yu


    Full Text Available The use of common metal salts as catalysts for 5-ethoxymethylfurfural (EMF synthesis from carbohydrate transformation was performed. Initial screening suggested AlCl3 as an efficient catalyst for EMF synthesis (45.0% from fructose at 140 °C. Interestingly, CuSO4 and Fe2(SO43 were found to yield comparable EMF at lower temperature of 110 to 120 °C, and high yields of ethyl levulinate (65.4–71.8% were obtained at 150 °C. However, these sulfate salts were inactive in EMF synthesis from glucose and the major product was ethyl glucoside with around 80% yield, whereas EMF of 15.2% yield could be produced from glucose using CrCl3. The conversion of sucrose followed the accumulation of the reaction pathways of fructose and glucose, and a moderate yield of EMF could be achieved.

  3. Synthesis of polymer nanocomposites using layered hydroxide salts (LHS)

    Machado, Paula F. de M.P.B.; Lona, Liliane M.F.; Marangoni, Rafael; Wypych, Fernando


    In this work latexes of poly (methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via emulsion polymerization using layered hydroxide salts (LHS) as reinforcements: zinc hydroxide nitrate (Zn 5 (OH) 8 (NO 3 ) 2 ·2H 2 O) and copper hydroxide acetate (Cu 2 (OH) 3 CH 3 COO.H 2 O). The LHSs were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Mastersizer analysis indicated the particle diameter of the latexes. Molecular weights and conversion data were also obtained. (author)

  4. Synthesis of Backfunctionalized Imidazolinium Salts and NHC Carbene Complexes


    Backfunctionalized Imidazolinium salts and NHC carbene complexes – Initial Research – Unintended Discovery – Survey chemistry of aromatic systems – Expansion of...survey chemistry to aliphatics • Conclusions and Future Directions Introduction 3 Distribution A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited...AFRL – Tenant of Edwards AFB since late ‘50s – Full scale testing of the Atlas rockets (Gemini missions) – Initial testing of the F-1 engine (Apollo

  5. Molten salt synthesis of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramic powders

    Cai Zongying; Xing Xianran; Li Lu; Xu Yeming


    Lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (Pb 0.95 La 0.03 )(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PLZT) was synthesized by one step molten salt method with the starting materials of PbC 2 O 4 , La 2 O 3 , ZrO(NO 3 ) 2 .2H 2 O and TiO 2 in the NaCl-KCl eutectic mixtures in the temperature range of 700-1000 deg. C. The single phase of (Pb 0.95 La 0.03 )(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 powders was prepared at a temperature as low as 850 deg. C for 5 h. The effects of process parameters, such as soaking temperature and time, salt species, and the amount of flux with respect to the starting materials were investigated. The growth process of the PLZT particles in the molten salt undergoes a transition from a diffusion controlled mechanism to an interfacial reaction controlled mechanism at 900 deg. C

  6. Molten salt reactors. Synthesis of studies realized between 1973 and 1983. General synthesis

    Hery, M.; Lecocq, A.


    After a brief recall of the MSBR project, French studies on molten salt reactors are summed up. Theoretical and experimental studies for a graphite moderated 1000 MWe reactor using molten Li, Be, Th and U fluorides cooled by salt-lead direct contact are given. These studies concern the core, molten salt chemistry, graphite, metals (molybdenum, alloy TZM), corrosion, reactor components [fr



    nitrile into a methyl ester. Purification was affected by the precipitation of oxalate salt 3. No flash chromatography was performed over these three...precipitate was then filtered. The solids were washed with cold isopropanol followed by diethyl ether. The solids were air -dried to give 27.60 g of compound...brown oil. This crude material was used without further purification . Compound 4: 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ 7.39–7.34 (m, 3H), 7.28–7.25 (m, 2H), 3.75 (s, 3H

  8. Low-temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline ZrC coatings on flake graphite by molten salts

    Ding, Jun, E-mail:; Guo, Ding; Deng, Chengji; Zhu, Hongxi; Yu, Chao


    Highlights: • Uniform ZrC coatings are prepared on flake graphite at 900 °C. • ZrC coatings are composed of nanosized (30–50 nm) particles. • The template growth mechanism is believed to be dominant in the molten salt synthesis process. - Abstract: A novel molten salt synthetic route has been developed to prepare nanocrystalline zirconium carbide (ZrC) coatings on flake graphite at 900 °C, using Zr powder and flake graphite as the source materials in a static argon atmosphere, along with molten salts as the media. The effects of different molten salt media, the sintered temperature, and the heat preservation time on the phase and microstructure of the synthetic materials were investigated. The ZrC coatings formed on the flake graphite were uniform and composed of nanosized particles (30–50 nm). With an increase in the reaction temperature, the ZrC nanosized particles were more denser, and the heat preservation time and thickness of the ZrC coating also increased accordingly. Electron microscopy was used to observe the ZrC coatings on the flake graphite, indicating that a “template mechanism” played an important role during the molten salt synthesis.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of polyaniline as emeraldine salt

    Gawri, Isha; Khatta, Swati; Singh, K. P.; Tripathi, S. K.


    Polyaniline in emeraldine salt (PANI-ES) form was successfully synthesized by oxidative polymerization of aniline using ammonium peroxidisulphate as oxidant in the presence of hydrochloric acid as catalyst under ice bath condition. The as prepared powdered sample was characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Using XRD, the average crystalline size was found to be 5.63 nm and d-spacing corresponding to crystalline peak 2θ = 25.08° had come out to be 4.2 Å. Also FTIR absorption spectra showed all the characteristics bands of PANI –ES. The ohmic contact between the PANI-ES film and the substrate was confirmed by Current-Voltage (I-V) characterization.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of polyaniline as emeraldine salt

    Gawri, Isha; Khatta, Swati; Singh, K. P.; Tripathi, S. K., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014 (India)


    Polyaniline in emeraldine salt (PANI-ES) form was successfully synthesized by oxidative polymerization of aniline using ammonium peroxidisulphate as oxidant in the presence of hydrochloric acid as catalyst under ice bath condition. The as prepared powdered sample was characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Using XRD, the average crystalline size was found to be 5.63 nm and d-spacing corresponding to crystalline peak 2θ = 25.08° had come out to be 4.2 Å. Also FTIR absorption spectra showed all the characteristics bands of PANI –ES. The ohmic contact between the PANI-ES film and the substrate was confirmed by Current-Voltage (I-V) characterization.

  11. Synthesis of carbides of refractory metals in salt melts

    Ilyushchenko, N.G.; Anfinogenov, A.I.; Chebykin, V.V.; Chernov, Ya.B.; Shurov, N.I.; Ryaposov, Yu.A.; Dobrynin, A.I.; Gorshkov, A.V.; Chub, A.V.


    The ion-electron melts, obtained through dissolving the alkali and alkali-earth metals in the molten chlorides above the chloride melting temperature, were used for manufacturing the high-melting metal carbides as the transport melt. The lithium, calcium and magnesium chlorides and the mixture of the lithium chloride with the potassium or calcium chloride were used from the alkali or alkali-earth metals. The metallic lithium, calcium, magnesium or the calcium-magnesium mixtures were used as the alkali or alkali-earth metals. The carbon black or sugar was used as carbon. It is shown, that lithium, magnesium or calcium in the molten salts transfer the carbon on the niobium, tantalum, titanium, forming the carbides of the above metals. The high-melting metal carbides are obtained both from the metal pure powders and from the oxides and chlorides [ru

  12. Molten salt synthesis of ZnNb2O6 powder

    Guo Liangzhai; Dai Jinhui; Tian Jintao; Zhu Zhibin; He Tian


    Pure ZnNb 2 O 6 powder was successfully prepared by the molten salt synthesis method using Nb 2 O 5 and ZnO as raw materials and a mixture of NaCl and KCl as the solvent. The phase form and morphology of the prepared powder were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of reacting temperature on phase formation was investigated. The results indicated that the single phase ZnNb 2 O 6 powder can be obtained by the molten salt synthesis method at 600 deg. C, and the SEM photographs show that the grains of the powder are rod-like particles

  13. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Sulfur Derivatives of Quinolinium Salts

    Anna Empel


    Full Text Available A novel method for cleavage of the dithiine ring in 5,12-(dimethyl-thioqinantrenium bis-chloride 1 “via” reaction with sodium hydrosulfide leads to 1-methyl-3-mercaptoquinoline-4(1H-thione 2. Further transformation of thiol and thione functions of compound 2 leads to a series of sulfide and disulfide derivatives of quinolinium salts 4 and 6. 1-Methyl-4-chloro-3-benzylthioquinoline chloride 8 was obtained by N-alkylating 4-chloro-3-benzylthioquinoline using dimethyl sulfate. Antimicrobial activity of the obtained compounds was investigated using six Gram-positive and six Gram-negative bacterial strains, as well as Candida albicans yeast. Greater activity was demonstrated towards Gram-positive strains. MIC values for compounds and with benzylthio 4d and benzoylthio 4f substituents in 3-quinoline position were found to be in the 0.5–1 μg/mL range, at a level similar to that of ciprofloxacin (reference. Compounds 4d and 4f also demonstrated interesting antifungal properties (MIC = 1.

  14. Cyclosporin A and enterohepatic circulation of bile salts in rats : Decreased cholate synthesis but increased intestinal reabsorption

    Hulzebos, CV; Wolters, H; Plosch, T; Stengelin, S; Stellaard, F; Sauer, PJJ; Verkade, HJ; Kuipers, F

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) has been shown to inhibit synthesis and hepatobiliary transport of bile salts. However, effects of CsA on the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts in vivo are largely unknown. We characterized the effects of CsA on the enterohepatic circulation of cholate, with respect to

  15. Liver Receptor Homolog-1 Is Critical for Adequate Up-regulation of Cyp7a1 Gene Transcription and Bile Salt Synthesis During Bile Salt Sequestration

    Out, Carolien; Hageman, Jurre; Bloks, Vincent W.; Gerrits, Han; Gelpke, Maarten D. Sollewijn; Bos, Trijnie; Havinga, Rick; Smit, Martin J.; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) is a nuclear receptor that controls a variety of metabolic pathways. In cultured cells, LRH-1 induces the expression of CYP7A1 and CYP8B1, key enzymes in bile salt synthesis. However, hepatic Cyp7a1 mRNA levels were not reduced upon hepatocyte-specific Lrh-1 deletion

  16. Synthesis of a metabolically stable modified long-chain fatty acid salt and its photolabile derivative

    Stoll, G.H.; Voges, R.; Gerok, W.; Kurz, G. (Institut fuer Organische Chemie and Biochemie, Universitaet Freiburg (Germany))


    An analogue of the long-chain fatty acid salt, sodium stearate, was synthesized in which the hydrogen atoms at carbons 2, 3, and 18 were replaced by fluorine. The key step in the synthesis was the addition of 3-iodo-2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropanoic acid amide to 15,15,15-trifluoro-1-pentadecene. Radioactivity was introduced by catalytic reduction of 2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro-4-octadecenoic acid amide with carrier-free tritium gas yielding a product with the specific radioactivity of 2.63 TBq/mmol. The resulting 2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro-4-octadecenoic acid has a pKa of about 0.5 and is completely dissociated under normal physiological conditions. The fluorinated fatty acid salt analogue is readily taken up into hepatocytes and proved to be metabolically inert. In an approach to the identification of proteins involved in long-chain fatty acid salt transport across membranes and intracellular compartments, the photolabile derivative 11,11-azo-2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro(G-3H)octadecanoic acid sodium salt was synthesized with a specific radioactivity of 2.63 TBq/mmol. Photolysis of the photolabile derivative, using a light source with a maximum emission at 350 nm, occurred with a half-life of 1.5 min. The generated carbene reacted with 14C-labeled methanol and acetonitrile with covalent bond formation of 6-13%. Its efficacy for photoaffinity labeling was demonstrated by incorporation into serum albumin, the extracellular fatty acid salt-binding protein, as well as into the intracellular fatty acid salt-binding protein (FABP) of rat liver with the molecular weight of 14,000.

  17. Synthesis, Characterization, and Computational Modeling of N-(1-Ethoxyvinylpyridinium Triflates, an Unusual Class of Pyridinium Salts

    Jonathan D. Shapiro


    Full Text Available N-Substituted pyridinium salts constitute one of the most valuable reagent classes in organic synthesis, due to their versatility and ease of use. Herein we report a preliminary synthesis and detailed structural analysis of several N-(1-ethoxyvinylpyridinium triflates, an unusual class of pyridinium salts with potentially broad use as a reagent in organic synthesis. Treatment of pyridines with trifluoromethane sulfonic acid and ethoxyacetylene generates stable, isolable adducts which have been extensively characterized, due to their novelty. Three-dimensional structural stability is perpetuated by an array of C–H•••O hydrogen bonds involving oxygen atoms from the –SO3 groups of the triflate anion, and hydrogen atoms from the aromatic ring and vinyl group of the pyridinium cation. Predictions from density functional theory calculations of the energy landscape for rotation about the exocyclic C–N bond of 2-chloro-1-(1-ethoxyvinylpyridine-1-ium trifluoromethanesulfonate (7 and 1-(1-ethoxyvinylpyridine-1-ium trifluoromethanesulfonate (16 are also reported. Notably, the predicted global energy minimum of 7 was nearly identical to that found within the crystal structure.

  18. Effects of salt on the pattern of protein synthesis in barley roots

    Hurkman, W.J.; Tanaka, C.K.


    The effect of salt stress on the incorporation of [ 3 5 S]methionine into protein was examined in roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare California Mariout 72). Plants were grown in nutrient solution with or without 200 millimolar NaCl. Roots of intact plants were labeled in vivo and proteins were extracted and analyzed by fluorography of two-dimensional gels. Although the protein patterns for control and salt-stressed plants were qualitatively similar, the net synthesis of a number of proteins was quantitatively changed. The most striking change was a significant increase of label in two protein pairs that had pls of approximately 6.3 and 6.5. Each pair consisted of proteins of approximately 26 and 27 kilodaltons (kD). In roots of control plants, the 27-kD proteins were more heavily labeled in the microsomal fraction relative to the 26-kD proteins, whereas the 26-kD proteins were enriched in the post 178,000g supernatant fraction; in roots of salt treated plants, the 26- and 27-kD proteins were more intensely labeled in both fractions. Labeling of the 26- and 27-kD proteins returned to control levels when salt-stressed plants were transferred to nutrient solution without NaCl. No cross-reaction was detected between the antibody to the 26-kD protein from salt-adapted tobacco cells and the 26- and 27-kD proteins of barley

  19. The Synthesis of Calcium Salt from Brine Water by Partial Evaporation and Chemical Precipitation

    Lalasari, L. H.; Widowati, M. K.; Natasha, N. C.; Sulistiyono, E.; Prasetyo, A. B.


    chemical precipitation using (NH4)2CO3 reagent are recommended in the synthesis of calcium salts from brine water because are simple, flexible and economical.

  20. Low temperature synthesis & characterization of lead-free BCZT ceramics using molten salt method

    Jai Shree, K.; Chandrakala, E.; Das, Dibakar


    Piezoelectric properties are greatly influenced by the synthesis route, microstructure, stoichiometry of the chemical composition, purity of the starting materials. In this study, molten salt method was used to prepare lead-free BCZT ceramics. Molten salt method is one of the simplestmethods to prepare chemically-purified, single phase powders in high yield often at lower temperatures and shorten reaction time. Calcination of the molten salt synthesized powders resulted in asingle-phase perovskite structure at 1000 °C which is ˜ 350 °C less than the conventional solid-sate reaction method. With increasing calcination temperature the average template size was increased (˜ 0.5-2 µm). Formation of well dispersive templates improves the sinterability at lower temperatures. Lead-free BCZT ceramics sintered at 1500 °C for 2 h resulted in homogenous and highly dense microstructure with ˜92% of the theoretical density and a grain size of ˜ 35 µm. This highly dense microstructure could enhance the piezoelectric properties of the system.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of a helicene-based imidazolium salt and its application in organic molecular electronics.

    Storch, Jan; Zadny, Jaroslav; Strasak, Tomas; Kubala, Martin; Sykora, Jan; Dusek, Michal; Cirkva, Vladimir; Matejka, Pavel; Krbal, Milos; Vacek, Jan


    Herein we demonstrate the synthesis of a helicene-based imidazolium salt. The salt was prepared by starting from racemic 2-methyl[6]helicene, which undergoes radical bromination to yield 2-(bromomethyl)[6]helicene. Subsequent treatment with 1-butylimidazole leads to the corresponding salt 1-butyl-3-(2-methyl[6]helicenyl)-imidazolium bromide. The prepared salt was subsequently characterized by using NMR spectroscopy and X-ray analysis, various optical spectrometric techniques, and computational chemistry tools. Finally, the imidazolium salt was immobilized onto a SiO2 substrate as a crystalline or amorphous deposit. The deposited layers were used for the development of organic molecular semiconductor devices and the construction of a fully reversible humidity sensor. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Molten salt-directed synthesis method for LiMn2O4 nanorods as a cathode material for a lithium-ion battery with superior cyclability

    Kebede, Mesfin A


    Full Text Available A molten salt synthesis technique has been used to prepare nanorods of Mn2O3 and single-crystal LiMn2O4 nanorods cathode material with superior capacity retention. The molten salt-directed synthesis involved the use of NaCl as the eutectic melt...

  3. Topotactic transformations of sodalite cages: synthesis and NMR study of mixed salt-free and salt-bearing sodalites.

    Trill, Henning; Eckert, Hellmut; Srdanov, Vojislav I


    A series of mixed sodalite samples, Na(8)[Al(6)Si(6)O(24)]Br(x).(H(3)O(2))(2-x), with the unit cell stoichiometries varying in the 0 < x <2 region, was made by hydrothermal synthesis and subsequently transformed into Na(6+x)[Al(6)Si(6)O(24)]Br(x).(4H(2)O)(2-x) and Na(6+x)[Al(6)Si(6)O(24)]Br(x).circle(2-x) sodalites. Here, circle refers to an empty sodalite cage. The three series, referred hereafter to as the Br/basic, Br/hydro, and Br/dry series, were characterized by powder diffraction X-ray and by (23)Na, (27)Al, and (81)Br magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR and high-resolution triple quantum (TQ) MAS NMR spectroscopy. We determined that incorporation of Br(-) anions is 130 times more preferred than incorporation of H(3)O(2)(-) anions during the formation of sodalite cages, which permitted precise control of the halide content in the solid. Monotonic trends in chemical shifts were observed as a function of cage occupancy, reflecting continuous changes in structural parameters. A linear correlation between (81)Br chemical shift and lattice constant with a slope of -86 ppm/A was observed for all three series. Likewise, (23)Na chemical shifts for Na(+) cations in salt-bearing sodalite cages correlate linearly with the lattice constant. Both results indicate a universal dependence of the (23)Na and (81)Br chemical shifts on the Na-Br distance. The (27)Al chemical shifts of Br/basic and Br/hydro sodalites obey an established relation between delta(cs) and the average T-O-T bond angle of 0.72 ppm/degrees. Br/dry sodalites show two aluminum resonances, characterized by significantly different chemical shifts and quadrupolar interaction parameters. In that series, local symmetry distortions are evident from strong quadrupolar perturbations in the NMR spectra. P(Q) values for (27)Al vary between 0.8 MHz in Br/basic sodalites and 4.4 MHz in the Br/dry series caused by deviations from the tetrahedral symmetry of the salt-free sodalite cages. For (23)Na, P(Q) values of 0.8, 0

  4. Synthesis of radiolabelled aryl azides from diazonium salts: experimental and computational results permit the identification of the preferred mechanism.

    Joshi, Sameer M; de Cózar, Abel; Gómez-Vallejo, Vanessa; Koziorowski, Jacek; Llop, Jordi; Cossío, Fernando P


    Experimental and computational studies on the formation of aryl azides from the corresponding diazonium salts support a stepwise mechanism via acyclic zwitterionic intermediates. The low energy barriers associated with both transition structures are compatible with very fast and efficient processes, thus making this method suitable for the chemical synthesis of radiolabelled aryl azides.

  5. Synthesis, Cyclopolymerization and Cyclo-Copolymerization of 9-(2-Diallylaminoethyladenine and Its Hydrochloride Salt

    Karyn Usher


    Full Text Available We report herein the synthesis and characterization of 9-(2-diallylaminoethyl adenine. We evaluated two different synthetic routes starting with adenine where the optimal route was achieved through coupling of 9-(2-chloroethyladenine with diallylamine. The cyclopolymerization and cyclo-copolymerization of 9-(2-diallylaminoethyladenine hydrochloride salt resulted in low molecular weight oligomers in low yields. In contrast, 9-(2-diallylaminoethyladenine failed to cyclopolymerize, however, it formed a copolymer with SO2 in relatively good yields. The molecular weights of the cyclopolymers were around 1,700–6,000 g/mol, as estimated by SEC. The cyclo-copolymer was stable up to 226 °C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a free-radical cyclo-copolymerization of a neutral alkyldiallylamine derivative with SO2. These polymers represent a novel class of carbocyclic polynucleotides.

  6. Molten salt synthesis of sodium lithium titanium oxide anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Yin, S.Y., E-mail: [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Feng, C.Q. [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Wu, S.J.; Liu, H.L.; Ke, B.Q. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Zhang, K.L. [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, D.H. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Catalysis and Material Science, College of Chemistry and Material Science, South Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)


    Highlights: • Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} has been successfully synthesized via a molten salt route. • Calcination temperature is an important effect on the component and microstructure of the product. • Pure phase Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} could be obtained at 700 °C for 2 h. - Abstract: The sodium lithium titanium oxide with composition Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 14} has been synthesized by a molten salt synthesis method using sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixture as a flux medium. Synthetic variables on the synthesis, such as sintering temperature, sintering time and the amount of lithium carbonate, were intensively investigated. Powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy images of the reaction products indicates that pure phase sodium lithium titanium oxide has been obtained at 700 °C, and impure phase sodium hexatitanate with whiskers produced at higher temperature due to lithium evaporative losses. The results of cyclic voltammetry and discharge–charge tests demonstrate that the synthesized products prepared at various temperatures exhibited electrochemical diversities due to the difference of the components. And the sample obtained at 700 °C revealed highly reversible insertion and extraction of Li{sup +} and displayed a single potential plateau at around 1.3 V. The product obtained at 700 °C for 2 h exhibits good cycling properties and retains the specific capacity of 62 mAh g{sup −1} after 500 cycles.

  7. Synthesis of [11C]cyanoalkyltriphenylphosphoranes via [11C]cyanide substitution on haloalkylphosphonium salts

    Hoernfeldt, K.


    The synthesis of the 11 C-labelled bifunctional precursors 3-[ 11 C]cyanoethyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (1'), 4-[ 11 C]cyanopropyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (2'), 5-[ 11 C]cyanobutyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (3'), 4-[ 11 C]cyanopropyltriphenylphosphonium iodide (4') and 5-[ 11 C]cyanobutyltriphenylphosphonium iodide (5') is presented. The label was introduced using [ 11 C]cyanide in a substitution reaction on the ω-halo-alkyltriphenylphosphonium salt (bromide or iodide salt). The phosphonium salts 1'-5' were formed in 33-99% radiochemical yield in 5-10 min reaction time. After addition of epichlorohydrin as generator of base, the precursors 1-3 were formed. The potential of the intermediates 1-3 in Wittig reactions was shown in model reactions with aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes. The aromatic olefins obtained from 1'-5' were formed in 85-96% radiochemical yield, with Z/E ratios between 67/33-75/25. The aliphatic olefins were obtained in 60-78% radiochemical yield from 4' and 5'. In the reaction with 1' and an aliphatic aldehyde, the yield decreased to 5-10%. The Z/E ratios were 100/0 for the aliphatic olefins. In an experiment starting with 2,7 GBq (73 mCi) hydrogen [ 11 C]cyanide, 451 MBq (12.2 mCi) olefin from 3' and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde was obtained in 44 min from hydrogen [ 11 C]cyanide production, with a 55% decay corrected radiochemical yield, the radiochemical purity was 96%. (Author)

  8. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods: Effects of zinc salt concentration, various solvents and alkaline mineralizers

    Edalati, Khatereh, E-mail: [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM) Campus, Azadi Sq., Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakiba, Atefeh [Department of Material Science and Metallurgy, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vahdati-Khaki, Jalil; Zebarjad, Seyed Mojtaba [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM) Campus, Azadi Sq., Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Highlights: • We synthesized ZnO nanorods by a simple hydrothermal process at 60 °C. • Effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent and alkaline mineralizer was studied. • Increasing concentration of zinc salt changed ZnO nucleation system. • NaOH yielded better results in the production of nanorods in both solvents. • Methanol performed better in the formation of nanorods using the two mineralizers. - Abstract: ZnO has been produced using various methods in the solid, gaseous, and liquid states, and the hydrothermal synthesis at low temperatures has been shown to be an environmentally-friendly one. The current work utilizes a low reaction temperature (60 °C) for the simple hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorod morphologies. Furthermore, the effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent type and alkaline mineralizer type on ZnO nanorods synthesis at a low reaction temperature by hydrothermal processing was studied. Obtained samples were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Increasing the concentration of the starting zinc salt from 0.02 to 0.2 M changed ZnO nucleation system from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous state. The XRD results confirmed the production hexagonal ZnO nanostructures of with a crystallite size of 40.4 nm. Varying the experimental parameters (mineralizer and solvent) yielded ZnO nanorods with diameters ranging from 90–250 nm and lengths of 1–2 μm.

  9. Molten salt reactors. Synthesis of studies realized between 1973 and 1983. Experimental loop file


    Four test loops were developed for the experimental study of a molten salt reactor with lead salt direct contact. A molten salt loop, completely in graphite, including the pump, showed that this material is convenient for salt containment and circulation. Reactor components like flowmeters, electromagnetic pumps, pressure gauge, valves developed for liquid sodium, were tested with liquid lead. A water-mercury loop was built for lead-molten salt simulation studies. Finally a lead-salt loop (COMPARSE) was built to study the behaviour of salt particles carried by lead in the heat exchanger. [fr

  10. Synthesis of Salt Soluble Proteins in Barley. Pulse-Labeling Study of Grain Filling in Liquid-Cultured Detached Spikes

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Hejgaard, Jørn


    The accumulation of salt-soluble proteins in the endosperm of developing barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains was examined. Detached spikes of barley were cultured at different levels of nitrogen nutrition and pulse-labeled with [14C] sucrose at specific times after anthesis. Proteins were extracted...... to increased nitrogen nutrition. Two major components, β-amylase and protein Z in particular, had a synthesis profile almost identical to that of the endosperm storage protein, hordein....

  11. Facile and sustainable synthesis of shaped iron oxide nanoparticles: effect of iron precursor salts on the shapes of iron oxides.

    Sayed, Farheen N; Polshettiwar, Vivek


    A facile and sustainable protocol for synthesis of six different shaped iron oxides is developed. Notably, all the six shapes of iron oxides can be synthesised using exactly same synthetic protocol, by simply changing the precursor iron salts. Several of the synthesised shapes are not reported before. This novel protocol is relatively easy to implement and could contribute to overcome the challenge of obtaining various shaped iron oxides in economical and sustainable manner.

  12. Dual Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α4β2 Antagonists/α7 Agonists: Synthesis, Docking Studies, and Pharmacological Evaluation of Tetrahydroisoquinolines and Tetrahydroisoquinolinium Salts

    Crestey, François; Jensen, Anders A; Soerensen, Christian


    We describe the synthesis of tetrahydroisoquinolines and tetrahydroisoquinolinium salts together with their pharmacological properties at various nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In general, the compounds were α4β2 nAChR antagonists, with the tetrahydroisoquinolinium salts being more potent than...

  13. New Diethyl Ammonium Salt of Thiobarbituric Acid Derivative: Synthesis, Molecular Structure Investigations and Docking Studies

    Assem Barakat


    Full Text Available The synthesis of the new diethyl ammonium salt of diethylammonium(E-5-(1,5-bis(4-fluorophenyl-3-oxopent-4-en-1-yl-1,3-diethyl-4,6-dioxo-2-thioxohexaydropyrimidin-5-ide 3 via a regioselective Michael addition of N,N-diethylthiobarbituric acid 1 to dienone 2 is described. In 3, the carboanion of the thiobarbituric moiety is stabilized by the strong intramolecular electron delocalization with the adjacent carbonyl groups and so the reaction proceeds without any cyclization. The molecular structure investigations of 3 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction as well as DFT computations. The theoretically calculated (DFT/B3LYP geometry agrees well with the crystallographic data. The effect of fluorine replacement by chlorine atoms on the molecular structure aspects were investigated using DFT methods. Calculated electronic spectra showed a bathochromic shift of the π-π* transition when fluorine is replaced by chlorine. Charge decomposition analyses were performed to study possible interaction between the different fragments in the studied systems. Molecular docking simulations examining the inhibitory nature of the compound show an anti-diabetic activity with Pa (probability of activity value of 0.229.

  14. Synthesis of methyl acetate from dimethyl ether using group VIII metal salts of phosphotungstic acid

    Sardesai, A.; Lee, S.; Tartamella, T.


    Dimethyl ether (DME) can be produced much more efficiently in a single-stage, liquid-phase process from natural gas-based syngas as compared to the conventional process via dehydration of methanol. This process, based on dual catalysts slurried in inert oil, alleviates the chemical equilibrium limitation governing the methanol synthesis reaction and concurrently improves per-pass syngas conversion and reactor productivity. The potential, therefore, for production of methyl acetate via dimethyl ether carbonylation is of industrial importance. In the present study, conversion of dimethyl ether and carbon monoxide to methyl acetate is investigated over a variety of group VIII metal-substituted phosphotungstic acid salts. Experimental results of this catalytic reaction using rhodium, iridium, ruthenium, and palladium catalysts are evaluated and compared in terms of selectivity toward methyl acetate. The effects of active metal, support types, multiple metal loading, and feed conditions on carbonylation activity of DME are examined. Iridium metal substituted phosphotungstic acid supported on Davisil type 643 (pore size 150 A, surface area 279 m{sup 2}/g, mesh size 230-425) silica gel shows the highest activity for DME carbonylation. (author)

  15. Synthesis, crystal structure and biological activity of 2-hydroxyethylammonium salt of p-aminobenzoic acid.

    Manuela E Crisan

    Full Text Available p-Aminobenzoic acid (pABA plays important roles in a wide variety of metabolic processes. Herein we report the synthesis, theoretical calculations, crystallographic investigation, and in vitro determination of the biological activity and phytotoxicity of the pABA salt, 2-hydroxyethylammonium p-aminobenzoate (HEA-pABA. The ability of neutral and anionic forms of pABA to interact with TIR1 pocket was investigated by calculation of molecular electrostatic potential maps on the accessible surface area, docking experiments, Molecular Dynamics and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics calculations. The docking study of the folate precursor pABA, its anionic form and natural auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA with the auxin receptor TIR1 revealed a similar binding mode in the active site. The phytotoxic evaluation of HEA-pABA, pABA and 2-hydroxyethylamine (HEA was performed on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col 0 at five different concentrations. HEA-pABA and pABA acted as potential auxin-like regulators of root development in Arabidopsis thaliana (0.1 and 0.2 mM and displayed an agravitropic root response at high concentration (2 mM. This study suggests that HEA-pABA and pABA might be considered as potential new regulators of plant growth.

  16. The Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Produced by Chemical Reduction of Silver Salt Solution

    Sri Budi Harmani; Dewi Sondari; Agus Haryono


    Described in this research are the synthesis of silver nanoparticle produced by chemical reduction of silver salt (silver nitrate AgNO 3 ) solution. As a reducer, sodium citrate (C 6 H 5 O 7 Na 3 ) was used. Preparation of silver colloid is done by using chemical reduction method. In typical experiment 150 ml of 1.10 -3 M AgNO 3 solution was heated with temperature variation such as 90, 100, 110 degree of Celsius. To this solution 15 ml of 1 % trisodium citrate was added into solution drop by drop during heating. During the process, solution was mixed vigorously. Solution was heated until colour's change is evident (pale yellow solution is formed). Then it was removed from the heating element and stirred until cooled to room temperature. Experimental result showed that diameter of silver nanoparticles in colloid solution is about 28.3 nm (Ag colloid, 90 o C); 19.9 nm (Ag colloid, 100 o C)and 26.4 nm (Ag colloid, 110 o C). Characterization of the silver nanoparticle colloid conducted by using UV-Vis Spectroscopy, Particles Size Analyzer (PSA) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) indicate the produced structures of silver nanoparticles. (author)

  17. Molten salt reactors. Synthesis of studies realized between 1973 and 1983. Chemistry file


    The chemistry of molten salt reactors was first acquired by foreign literature and developed by experimental studies. Salt preparation, analysis, chemical and electrochemical properties, interaction with metals or graphites and use of molten lead for direct cooling are examined. [fr

  18. Synthesis of racemic 2-deutero-3-fluoro-alanine and its salts, and intermediates therefor


    The racemates of 2-deutero-3-fluoro-alanine and its salts are prepared by reductive amination of 3-fluoro-pyruvic acid, its hydrate or salts thereof, via the intermediate 2-imino-3-fluoro propionic acid salt, using alkali metal borodeuterides as reducing agents. The racemates thus obtained are valuable in the production of the corresponding 2-deutero-3-fluoro-D-alanine, and its pharmacologically acceptable salts, and derivatives thereof, which are potent antibacterial agents

  19. Molten salt reactors. Synthesis of studies realized between 1973 and 1983. Carbon-materials file


    The study of a molten salt fueled reactor requires a thorough examination of carbon containing materials for moderator, reflectors and structural materials. Are examined: texture, structure, physical and mechanical properties, chemical purity, neutron irradiation, salt-graphite and salt-lead interactions for different types of graphite. [fr

  20. SPOT: How good for geology? A comparison with LANDSAT MSS

    Sesoeren, A.


    Geological interpretation possibilities of SPOT MSS and LANDSAT MSS positive prints enlarged to the same scale were compared, using as a test area part of the Jebel Amour (Algeria). The SPOT imagery offers many advantages, filling the gap between remote sensing from space and aerial photography. The best results by visual interpretation are obtained in combining SPOT for the required details with LANDSAT for the synoptic veiw. Further improvements are expected from the use of SPOT stereo-pairs.

  1. Synthesis of a Parkinson's Disease Treatment Drug, the "R,R"-Tartrate Salt "of R"-Rasagiline: A Three Week Introductory Organic Chemistry Lab Sequence

    Aguilar, Noberto; Garcia, Billy; Cunningham, Mark; David, Samuel


    A synthesis of the "R,R"-tartrate salt of the popular anti-Parkinson's drug "R"-rasagiline (Azilect) was adapted to introduce the organic laboratory student to a medically relevant synthesis. It makes use of concepts found in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum, appropriately fits into three approximately 4 h lab…

  2. Search for new radioprotective agents. Part 34. Synthesis of Bunte's salts and isothicarbamides of aromatic derivatives

    Tulecki, J.; Kalinowska-Torz, J.; Senczuk, L.; Skwarski, D.


    In exchange reactions involving sodium thiosulphate and the respective halogen derivatives, the following Bunte's salts hitherto undescribed in the available literature were obtained: sodium salt of 4-methyl-benzyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /1/, sodium salt of 4-metoxy-benzoyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /1/, sodum salt of 4 metoxy-benzoyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /3/, sodium salt of 4-ethoxy-benzoyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /5/, sodum salt of 2-methoxy-phenyl-carbamyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /7/, sodium salt of 4-ethoxy-phenly-carbamyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /8/, sodium salt of 4-methyl-phenyl-carbamyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /9/, sodium salt of 3-methyl-phenyl-carbamyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /10/, and sodium salt of 4-methyl-phenyl-carbamyl-ethylene-thiosulphuric acid /11/. In exchange reactions involving thiourea and the respective halogenderivatives, the following isothiocarbamides were obtained: 4-methyl-benzoyl-methylene-isothiocarbamide hydrochloride /2/, 4-methoxy-benzoyl-methylene-isotchiocarbamide hydrochloride /4/, 4-ethoxy-benzoyl-methylene-isothiocarbamide hydrochloride /6/, 4-methosy-phenyl-carbamyl-ethylene-isothiocarbamide hydrochloride /12/. (author)

  3. Optimization of synthesis technique and luminescent properties in Eu{sup 3+}-activated NaCaPO{sub 4} phosphor for solid state lighting applications

    Ratnam, B.V. [Department of Physics, Changwon National University, Changwon 51140 (Korea, Republic of); Sahu, Mukesh K.; Vishwakarma, Amit K.; Jha, Kaushal [Luminescent Materials Research Lab (LMRL), Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 (India); Woo, Hyun-Joo [Department of Physics, Changwon National University, Changwon 51140 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Kiwan, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Changwon National University, Changwon 51140 (Korea, Republic of); Jayasimhadri, M., E-mail: [Luminescent Materials Research Lab (LMRL), Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 (India)


    Europium activated NaCaPO{sub 4} phosphor has been synthesized by various synthesis techniques such as solid-state reaction (SSR), molten salt synthesis (MSS) and sol-gel combustion (SGC) method to optimize the synthesis procedure. The comparative investigations of structural and luminescent properties have been studied to know the best synthesis method. The XRD patterns and Rietveld refinement analysis of the synthesized phosphors confirmed the single phase orthorhombic structure of NaCaPO{sub 4}. Excitation spectra indicate the strong absorption in near ultraviolet (n-UV) region and the emission spectra exhibit strong emission band at 595 nm corresponds to {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 1} transition under n-UV (λ{sub ex}=392 nm) excitation. The SGC route synthesized phosphor exhibit intense emission than that of the SSR and MSS method. Therefore, the effect of dopant (Eu{sup 3+}) concentration on the emission intensity and concentration quenching mechanism has been discussed in detail for the Eu{sup 3+} doped NaCaPO{sub 4} phosphor synthesized by SGC method. The CIE chromaticity coordinates have been calculated for the phosphors synthesized by SSR, MSS and SGC methods to reveal the emitting color and also to know the utility of this phosphor for white LEDs.

  4. Size Tunable Synthesis of Highly Crystalline BaTiO3 Nanoparticles using Salt-Assisted Spray Pyrolysis

    Itoh, Yoshifumi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Okuyama, Kikuo; Maedler, Lutz; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.


    Highly crystalline, dense BaTiO 3 nanoparticles in a size range from 30 to 360nm with a narrow size distribution (σ g = 1.2-1.4) were prepared at various synthesis temperatures using a salt-assisted spray pyrolysis (SASP) method without the need for post-annealing. The effect of synthesis temperature on particle size, crystallinity and surface morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning/transmission electron microscopy. The nature of the crystalline structure was analyzed by Rietveld refinement and Raman spectroscopy. The particle size decreased with decreasing operation temperature. The crystal phase was transformed from tetragonal to cubic at a particles size of about 50nm at room temperature. SASP can be used to produce high weight fraction of tetragonal BaTiO 3 nanoparticles down to 64nm in a single step

  5. Incorporation of the zosteric sodium salt in silica nanocapsules: synthesis and characterization of new fillers for antifouling coatings

    Ruggiero, Ludovica; Crociani, Laura; Zendri, Elisabetta; El Habra, Naida; Guerriero, Paolo


    In the last decade many commercial biocides were gradually banned for toxicity. This work reports, for the first time, the synthesis and characterization of silica nanocontainers loaded with a natural product antifoulant (NPA), the zosteric sodium salt which is a non-commercial and environmentally friendly product with natural origin. The synthesis approach is a single step dynamic self-assembly with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as silica precursor. Unlike conventional mesoporous silica nanoparticles, the structure of these silica nanocontainers provides loading capacity and allows prolonged release of biocide species. The obtained nanocapsules have been characterized morphologically by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The encapsulation was checked by FTIR ATR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyses. The results of the release studies show the great potential of the here presented newly developed nanofillers in all applications where a controlled release of non-toxic and environmentally friendly biocides is required.

  6. Synthesis and properties of new carboxyborate lithium salts as electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    Gładka, Dorota; Krajewski, Mariusz; Młynarska, Sandra; Galińska, Justyna; Zygadło-Monikowska, Ewa


    Bis(carboxytrifluoroborate lithium) salts [R(CH 2 COOBF 3 Li) 2 ] with oxyethylene groups R of oligomeric molar masses [R = O(CH 2 CH 2 O) n , where n = 3 or 11, BCB3 and BCB11, respectively] were synthesized via reaction of carboxylates salts with boron fluoride. The new salts were characterized by spectroscopic analysis. The physical properties of the salts were determined by oxyethylene chain length. For n = 3 the salt was crystalline with m p = 197 °C and for n = 11 it showed properties of an ionic liquid at ambient temperature. Their thermal stability was at least 250 °C. The values of lithium-ion transference numbers (T + ) of the solutions in polar aprotic solvents, determined by a well established steady-state technique, were in the range of 0.2–0.6. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis of solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) based on PEO and studied salts with different concentration (from 24 to 94 wt %) was carried out. The ionic conductivity of SPEs was in the order of 10 −8 –10 −7 S cm −1 at room temperature and 10 −4 S cm −1 at 80 °C. A distinguishing feature of SPEs with the studied new salts is the high immobilization of anions, which causes almost a monoconducting character of charge transport. Lithium transference numbers (T + ) exceed 0.9.

  7. Synthesis of morpholine derivatives and Bunte's salt as compounds of potential radioprotective activity

    Strzelczyk, M.; Kucharski, A. (Wojskowa Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland))


    The purpose of the present study was to obtain several compounds possessing radioprotective activity. The syntheses yielded seven undescribed compounds i.e.: benzyl ester of the N-morpholinecarbathionothioglicol acid, ester bis S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl)-2-thioethyl, morpholine salt of the N-morpholinecarbothionothiolic acid, sodium and potassium salt of S-morpholine-4-carbonyl, methylthiosulfate, sodium and potassium salt of beta-hydroxyethyl thiosulfate. Moreover, with the aid of other methods following compounds were synthetized: beta-S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl) ethyl thiopropioniane, amide of the S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl)-thioglicol acid, acid S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl)-thioglicol acid, sodium salt of the S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl)-thioglicol acid. The structure of these compounds was confirmed using elementary and spectral analysis.

  8. Synthesis, structural, solubility and anticancer activity studies of salts using nucleobases and sulfonic acids coformer

    Singh, Neetu; Singh, Udai P.; Nikhil, Kumar; Roy, Partha; Singh, Hariji


    The reactions of natural and unnatural nucleobases (cytosine (Cyt), adenine (Ade), 5-aminouracil (AU) and caffeine (Caff)) with sulfonic acids coformer (1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid, NDSA; 5-sulfosalicylic acid, SSA) resulted in the formation of salts viz. [NDSA.Cyt] (1), [NDSA.Ade] (2), [NDSA.AU] (3), [NDSA.Caff] (4), [SSA.Cyt] (5), [SSA.Ade] (6), [SSA.AU] (7), and [SSA.Caff] (8). The structural analysis revealed that salts 1, 4, 6 and 7 have intermolecular interactions between adjacent nucleobases which form two different homodimer shown in R22 (8) motif and assembled via complementary Nsbnd H⋯O and Nsbnd H⋯N interactions. However, in all other salts an intermediate supramolecular synthon pattern was observed between nucleobases and sulfonic acids. The lattice energy was also calculated by DFT to investigate whether salts were thermodynamically more stable than its coformer. The same was further confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetric (DSC-TG) analysis. The anticancer activity study of individual nucleobases and their NDSA salts were also performed on human breast (MCF-7) and lung (A 549) cancer cell. The salts formation of nucleobases with sulfonic acids improved their solubility, thereby demonstrating up to 8-fold increase in solubility of nucleobases.

  9. Investigation of sodalites for conditioning halide salts (NaCl and NaI): Comparison of two synthesis routes

    Bardez, Isabelle; Campayo, Lionel; Rigaud, Danielle; Chartier, Myriam; Calvet, Aurelie [CEA, Laboratoire d' Etudes des Materiaux Ceramiques pour le Conditionnement, Site de Marcoule, Batiment 208, B.P. 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze cedex (France)


    Sodalites with the general formula Na{sub 8}Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}X{sub 2} (where X = Cl or I) were investigated for ceramic conditioning of halide salts (NaCl and NaI). Because of the tendency of halides to volatilize at high temperature, two synthesis routes were tested to optimize the halide content in the sodalite phase. The first is based on heating at high temperature of a [nepheline NaAlSiO{sub 4} + salt] mixture prepared by a dry process. The second, performed at low temperature, consists of the reaction in aqueous media between kaolinite (Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and the salt. The present study compares these two syntheses and examines differences between chloro-sodalite and iodo-sodalite based on X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The next step will consist in sintering the resulting powder samples to obtain dense ceramics. (authors)

  10. Intercalation of Molybdate Ions into Ni/Zn Layered Double Hydroxide Salts: Synthesis, Characterization, and Preliminary Catalytic Activity in Methyl Transesterification of Soybean Oil

    Colombo, Kamila; Maruyama, Swami A.; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; Wypych, Fernando


    This study reports the synthesis and characterization of a Ni/Zn layered double hydroxide salt intercalated with acetate ions and the subsequent replacement of the acetate ions with molybdate ions via an ion exchange reaction, conducted at two different pH values. Regardless of the pH employed during the synthesis, the basal spacing in the Ni/Zn layered double hydroxide salt decreased from 13.08 Å to approximately 9.5 Å, which agreed with intercalation of hydrated molybdate anions. The non-ca...

  11. Toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt: synthesis, analytical detection, and pharmacokinetics in the horse.

    Dirikolu, L; Karpiesiuk, W; Lehner, A F; Tobin, T


    Toltrazuril sulfone (ponazuril) is a triazine-based antiprotozoal agent with clinical application in the treatment of equine protozoal myeloencephalomyelitis (EPM). In this study, we synthesized and determined the bioavailability of a sodium salt formulation of toltrazuril sulfone that can be used for the treatment and prophylaxis of EPM in horses. Toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt was rapidly absorbed, with a mean peak plasma concentration of 2400 ± 169 (SEM) ng/mL occurring at 8 h after oral-mucosal dosing and was about 56% bioavailable compared with the i.v. administration of toltrazuril sulfone in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The relative bioavailability of toltrazuril sulfone suspended in water compared with toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt was 46%, indicating approximately 54% less oral bioavailability of this compound suspended in water. In this study, we also investigated whether this salt formulation of toltrazuril sulfone can be used as a feed additive formulation without significant reduction in oral bioavailability. Our results indicated that toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt is relatively well absorbed when administered with feed with a mean oral bioavailability of 52%. Based on these data, repeated oral administration of toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt with or without feed will yield effective plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of toltrazuril sulfone for the treatment and prophylaxis of EPM and other protozoal diseases of horses and other species. As such, toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt has the potential to be used as feed additive formulations for both the treatment and prophylaxis of EPM and various other apicomplexan diseases. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. The DTU15 MSS (Mean Sea Surface) and DTU15LAT (Lowest Astronomical Tide) reference surface

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Stenseng, Lars; Piccioni, Gaia

    in the Arctic Ocean for DTU10MSS and DTU13MSS.A new reference surface for off-shore vertical referencing is introduced. This is called the DTU15LAT.The surface is derived from the DTU15MSS and the DTU10 Global ocean tide to give a 19 year Lowest Astronomical Tide referenced to either the Mean sea surface...

  13. Annulation of β-naphthols and 4-hydroxycoumarins with vinylsulfonium salts: synthesis of dihydrofuran derivatives.

    Chen, Zi-Cong; Tong, Lang; Du, Zhi-Bo; Mao, Zhi-Feng; Zhang, Xue-Jing; Zou, Yong; Yan, Ming


    A new synthetic approach to dihydrofuran derivatives via the annulation reaction of β-naphthols and 4-hydroxycoumarins with vinylsulfonium salts has been developed. A variety of dihydrofuran derivatives were prepared in moderate to good yields under mild conditions. The products could be readily transformed to the corresponding furans via the dehydrogenation with DDQ.

  14. Enhanced proline synthesis may determine resistance to salt stress in tomato cultivars

    Ali, S.; Khan, N.U.


    The physiological and biochemical responses of tomato cultivars were studied at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan during 2005-2006 for salt tolerance. Tomato cultivars were Roma Rio Super, Roma V.F., Chinese 87-5, Rio Grand and Super Blocky and subjected to salt stress (75 mM NaCl). Fresh weight, dry weight, and ions sodium and potassium accumulation, Na/sup +/K sup +/ ratio and proline content were determined after imposing the tomato cultivars to NaCl salt for 80 days. Salt stress significantly decreased the fresh and dry weight in Roma Rio Super, Roma V.F, Chinese 87-5 and Rio Grand, however, in Super Blocky the fresh and dry weight were enhanced under stress conditions. Salinity stress increased sodium uptake from 191.828 to 436.170 mu mg/sup -1/ D wt while potassium accumulation decreased from 1033.12 to 926.80 mu mg/sup -1/ D wt resulting in higher Na/sup +/ ratio in stressed (0.48 g) as compared to unstressed control (0.19). The mean proline contents also increased from 28.95 to 40.96 mu M Proline g/sup -1/ F. wt with the maximum increase (57.378%) in Super Blocky followed by Rio Grand (49.325%). (author)

  15. Synthesis of N-Substituted Piperidine Salts as Potential Muscarinic Ligands for Alzheimer's Applications

    Boulos, J.; Jakubík, Jan; Randáková, Alena; Avila, C.


    Roč. 50, č. 6 (2013), s. 1363-1367 ISSN 0022-152X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0681 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : N-piperidine substituted salts * muscarinic receptor antagonists * selectivity Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.873, year: 2013

  16. Low temperature molten salt synthesis of Y(sub2)Sn(sub2)O(sub7) anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Nithyadharseni, P


    Full Text Available Acta 182 (2015) 1060–1069 Low temperature molten salt synthesis of Y2Sn2O7 anode material for lithium ion batteries P. Nithyadharsenia,b, M.V. Reddya,c,*, Kenneth I. Ozoemenab,d, R. Geetha Balakrishnae, B.V.R. Chowdaria a Advanced Batteries...

  17. Molten salt synthesis of La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 powders for SOFC cathode electrode

    Gu, Sin-il; Shin, Hyo-soon; Hong, Youn-woo; Yeo, Dong-hun; Kim, Jong-hee; Nahm, Sahn; Yoon, Sang-ok


    For La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 (LSM) perovskite, used as the cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), it is known that the formation of a triple-phase-boundary is restrained due to the formation of a second phase at the YSZ/electrode interface at high temperature. To decrease the 2nd phase, lowering the sintering temperature has been used. LSM powder was synthesized by molten salt synthesis method to control its particle size, shape, and agglomeration. We have characterized the phase formation, particle size, shape, and sintering behavior of LSM in the synthesis using the variation of KCl, LiCl, KF and its mixed salts as raw materials. In the case of KCl and KCl-KF salts, the particle size and shape of the LSM was well controlled and synthesized. However, in the case of LiCl and KCl-LiCl salts, LiMnOx as 2nd phase and LSM were synthesized simultaneously. In the case of the mixed salt of KCl-KF, the growth mechanism of the LSM particle was changed from `diffusion-controlled' to `reaction-controlled' according to the amount of mixed salt. The sintering temperature can be decreased below 1000 °C by using the synthesized LSM powder.

  18. The DTU2010MSS Mean Sea Surface In The Arctic - For And With Cyrosat-2 Data

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per


    The new Mean Sea Surface DTU10MSS and associated DTU10MDT is presented and evaluated in the Arctic Ocean for the use with Cryosat-2 data. The DTU10MSS is currently the only available MSS which has true global coverage and hence is suitable for referencing when Cryosat-2 data are used in the Arctic....... The DTU10MSS generally has a vertical accuracy better than 10 cm in most areas of the world confirmed by extensive comparison with GPS leveled tide gauges around Britain and Norway. Finally the first comparisons with Cryosat-2 data are presented. The DTU10MSS is valuable for Cryosat-2 due to its true...

  19. One-pot sequential synthesis of O-(halo-substituted benzyl hydroxylammonium salts

    Saeed Emami


    Full Text Available In this study, we described a simple one-pot preparation of O-(halo-substituted benzyl hydroxylamine derivatives by O-benzylation of N-hydroxyurethane, followed by basic N-deprotection. The advantages of the method were the chemo- and regio-selectivity in obtaining the desired O-benzyl hydroxylammonium salts in a high yield as well as the simplicity of the purification process.

  20. Synthesis of complex oxides with garnet structure by spray drying of an aqueous salt solution

    Makeenko, A. V.; Larionova, T. V.; Klimova-Korsmik, O. G.; Starykh, R. V.; Galkin, V. V.; Tolochko, O. V.


    The use of spray drying to obtain powders of complex oxides with a garnet structure has demonstrated. The processes occurring during heating of the synthesized oxide-salt product, leading to the formation of a material with a garnet structure, have been investigated using DTA, TGA, XPS, and XRD. It has been shown that a single-phase garnet structure of system (Y x Gd(3- x))3Al5O12 can be synthesized over the entire range of compositions.

  1. Low-temperature molten salt synthesis and characterization of CoWO4 nano-particles

    Song Zuwei; Ma Junfeng; Sun Huyuan; Sun Yong; Fang Jingrui; Liu Zhengsen; Gao Chang; Liu Ye; Zhao Jingang


    CoWO 4 nano-particles were successfully synthesized at a low temperature of 270 deg. C by a molten salt method, and effects of such processing parameters as holding time and salt quantity on the crystallization and development of CoWO 4 crystallites were initially studied. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and photoluminescent spectra techniques (PL), respectively. Experimental results showed that the well-crystallized CoWO 4 nano-particles with ca. 45 nm in diameter could be obtained at 270 deg. C for a holding time of 8 h with 6:1 mass ratio of the salt to CoWO 4 precursor, and XRD analysis evidenced that the as-prepared sample was a pure monoclinic phase of CoWO 4 with wolframite structure. Their PL spectra revealed that the CoWO 4 nano-particles displayed a very strong PL peak at 453 nm with the excitation wavelength of 230 nm, and PL properties of CoWO 4 crystallites relied on their crystalline state, especially on their particle size.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and solubility of a new anthelmintic salt: Mebendazole nitrate

    Gutiérrez, Eduardo L.; Souza, Matheus S.; Diniz, Luan F.; Ellena, Javier


    Salt formation approach was taken to improve Mebendazole (MBZ) solubility. MBZ polymorph A was easily recrystallized as a 1:1 nitrate salt (MBZ N) in methanol. Single crystal X-ray diffraction data show that MBZ N crystallizes in the P 1 bar space group. By strong intermolecular H-bonding interactions, MBZ is associated with a nitrate anion forming a supramolecular R22(8) synthon. Crystal packing is stabilized by these H-bonds, through which each nitrate connects two molecules of MBZ forming chains along the b axis. The vibrational behavior studied by micro FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy is consistent with the crystal structure. Thermal analysis of the salt indicates that the compound is stable up to 150 °C, when an almost simultaneous elimination of HNO3 and CO2 occurs. MBZ N equilibrium solubility was evaluated in hydrochloric acid 0.1 M solution and compared with those of MBZ A and C. An improvement in a factor of 5 and 1.22 was found respectively.

  3. Synthesis of inulin derivatives with quaternary phosphonium salts and their antifungal activity.

    Chen, Yuan; Tan, Wenqiang; Li, Qing; Dong, Fang; Gu, Guodong; Guo, Zhanyong


    Inulin is a kind of renewable and biodegradable carbohydrate with good water solubility and numerous physiological functions. For further utilization of inulin, chemical modification can be applied to improve its bioactivities. In this paper, five novel inulin derivatives were synthesized via chemical modification with quaternary phosphonium salt. Their antifungal activity against three kinds of plant pathogens including Colletotrichum lagenarium, Phomopsis asparagi, and Fusarium oxysporum was assessed with radial growth assay in vitro. Results revealed that all the inulin derivatives exhibited improved antifungal activity compared with inulin. Particularly, inulin modified with triphenylphosphine (TPhPAIL) exhibited the best antifungal activity with inhibitory indices of 80.0%, 78.8%, and 87.4% against Colletotrichum lagenarium, Phomopsis asparagi, and Fusarium oxysporum at 1.0mg/mL respectively. The results clearly showed that chemical modification of inulin with quaternary phosphonium salt could efficiently improve derivatives' antifungal activity. Further analysis of results indicated that the antifungal activity was influenced by alkyl chain length or electron-withdrawing ability of the grafted quaternary phosphonium salts. Longer alkyl chain lengths or the stronger electron-withdrawing groups would lead to enhanced antifungal efficacy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The DTU13 MSS (Mean Sea Surface) and MDT (Mean Dynamic Topography) from 20 Years of Satellite Altimetry

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per; Stenseng, Lars


    The DTU13MSS is the latest release of the global high resolution mean sea surface (MSS) from DTU Space. The new MSS is based on multi-mission satellite altimetry from 10 different satellites. Three major advances have been made in order to release the new MSS. The time series have been extended t...

  5. Uma biblioteca de pontos de controle para imagens MSS Landsat

    Fernando Augusto Mitsuo Ii


    O objetivo deste trabalho e desenvolver um sistema para criacao, manutencao e gerenciamento de uma biblioteca de pontos de controle para imagens MSS Landsat. Um ponto de controle e uma caracteristica fisicamente detectavel numa cena, cuja localizacao geodesica e precisamente conhecida. O uso destes pontos e de fundamental importancia num sistema de correcao geometrica de imagens de satelite. A biblioteca permitira que pontos de controle pertencentes a uma dada cena sejam recuperados de uma ma...

  6. In situ ETEM synthesis of NiGa alloy nanoparticles from nitrate salt solution

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Sharafutdinov, Irek


    Metallic alloy nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized in situ in an environmental transmission electron microscope. Atomic level characterization of the formed alloy NPs is carried out at synthesis conditions by use of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and electron...

  7. Ultrasonic-assisted synthesis of aqueous CdTe/CdS QDs in salt water bath heating

    Zhu, Yinglian [College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, Shandong Province (China); College of Food Science and Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University of China, Qingdao 266109, Shandong Province (China); Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying [College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, Shandong Province (China); Wang, Dongfeng, E-mail: [College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, Shandong Province (China)


    Highlights: • Ultrasonic promotes formation of crystal nucleus and QDs were synthesized in 0.5 h. • The new heating method provides a PLQY of up to 97.13%. • The synthesis mechanism of the core shell structure of the CdTe/CdS QDs was inferred. • The preparation method was efficient, simple and clean. - Abstract: A novel simple method for fast and efficient synthesis of aqueous CdTe/CdS quantum dots (QDs) with core–shell structure was developed by using salt water bath heating with the ultrasonic-assisted technique in this paper. The formation of crystal nucleus was promoted by ultrasonic and CdTe/CdS QDs with blue fluorescence were synthesized only in 0.5 h. The heat source was bath heating in salt water solution at 60% NaCl and the heating temperature could reach 105 °C. The heating method solved the biggest drawback of low photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of ordinal bath heating in water. The preparation was cheap, simple and had less pollution to the environment. The properties of the CdTe/CdS QDs were thoroughly investigated by ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis), photoluminescence (PL), transmission electron microscope (TEM), laser size analysis, fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Different CdTe/CdS QDs with core shell structure were efficiently synthesized and the maximum PLQY could reach 97.13% when refluxing at 105 °C for 2 h. These QDs exhibited uniform dispersity, high fluorescence intensity, good optical property and long life of fluorescent. The synthesis mechanism of the core shell structure of the QDs was inferred that the Cd{sup 2+} might coordinate with sulfur (S) as well as thiol propionate (–SCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COO{sup −1}) to constitute two relatively thick compound layers on the QDs surface as passive shells.

  8. Inland wetland change detection using aircraft MSS [multispectral scanner] data

    Jensen, J.R.; Ramsey, E.W.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Sharitz, R.R.; Christensen, E.J.


    Nontidal wetlands in a portion of the Savannah River swamp forest affected by reactor cooling water discharges were mapped using March 31, 1981 and April 29, 1985 high-resolution aircraft multispectral scanner (MSS) data. Due to the inherent distortion in the aircraft MSS data and the complex spectral characteristics of the wetland vegetation, it was necessary to implement multiple techniques in the registration and classification of the MSS imagery of the Pen Branch Delta on each date. In particular, it was necessary to use a piecewise-linear registration process over relatively small regions to perform image-to-image registration. When performing unsupervised classification, an iterative ''cluster busting'' technique was used, which simplified the cluster labeling process. These procedures allowed important wetland vegetation categories to be identified on each date. The multiple-date classification maps were then evaluated using a post-classification comparison technique yielding change classes that were of value in determining the extent of inland wetland change in this region

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanoporous Carbon Materials; The Effect of Surfactant Concentrations and Salts

    Shokoofeh Geranmayeh


    Full Text Available Nanoporous carbon framework was synthesized using phenol and formaldehyde as carbon precursors and triblock copolymer (pluronic F127 as soft template via evaporation induced self-assembly. Hexagonal mesoporous carbon with specific surface area of 350 m2/g through optimizing the situation was obtained. The effects of different surfactant/phenol molar ratio and presence of salts on specific surface area, pore size and pore volume for all the prepared samples were studied by means of the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET formalism, powder X-ray diffraction technique and FT-IR spectroscopy.

  10. Study of composite adsorbent synthesis and characterization for the removal of Cs in the high-salt and high-radioactive wastewater

    Kim, Jimin; Lee, Keun Young; Kim, Kwang Wook; Lee, Eil Hee; Chung, Dong Yong; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Jae Hyuk [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    For the removal of cesium (Cs) from high radioactive/high salt-laden liquid waste, this study synthesized a highly efficient composite adsorbent (potassium cobalt ferrocyanide (PCFC)-loaded chabazite (CHA)) and evaluated its applicability. The composite adsorbent used CHA, which could accommodate Cs as well as other molecules, as a supporting material and was synthesized by immobilizing the PCFC in the pores of CHA through stepwise impregnation/precipitation with CoCl{sub 2} and K{sub 4}Fe (CN){sub 6} solutions. When CHA, with average particle size of more than 10 μm, is used in synthesizing the composite adsorbent, the PCFC particles were immobilized in a stable form. Also, the physical stability of the composite adsorbent was improved by optimizing the washing methodology to increase the purity of the composite adsorbent during the synthesis. The composite adsorbent obtained from the optimal synthesis showed a high adsorption rate of Cs in both fresh water (salt-free condition) and seawater (high-salt condition), and had a relatively high value of distribution coefficient (larger than 10{sup 4} mL·g{sup -1}) regardless of the salt concentration. Therefore, the composite adsorbent synthesized in this study is an optimized material considering both the high selectivity of PCFC on Cs and the physical stability of CHA. It is proved that this composite adsorbent can remove rapidly Cs contained in high radioactive/high salt-laden liquid waste with high efficiency.


    Enade Perdana Istyastono


    Full Text Available Inflammation is the response of living tissues to injury. The process affects physiological changes such as erythema, edema, asthma and fever. Non-steroid Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs have been developed since they could inhibit inflammation process because of its ability to inhibit biosynthesis of prostaglandin, one of inflammation mediators, through inhibition of cyclooxigenase (COX enzymes. Molecules, which have been reported having anti-inflammatory activity, for example, are curcumin, some curcumin derivatives and curcumin analogues. One of curcumin analogues that has been  developed is pentagamavunon-0 (PGV-0 whose IUPAC name is 2,5-bis(4'-hidroxy-3'-methoxy-benzylidenecyclo-pentanone. But PGV-0, which is like curcumin, practically insoluble in water, so it causes problems in the development. The aim of this research is to synthesize a derivative of PGV-0, a natrium salt of PGV-0 (natrium pentagamavunonate-0/Na-pentagamavunonate-0, which is hoped to have a better anti-inflammatory activity and solubility in water than PGV-0. PGV-0 was synthesized by reacting vanillin and cyclopentanone catalized by acid. Na-pentagamavunonate-0 was synthesized with PGV-0 as a starting material using an appropriate method. This research was able to synthesize new compound that was estimated as a natrium salt of PGV-0 (natrium pentagamavunonate-0/Na-pentagamavunonate-0.   Keywords: Curcumin, PGV-0, Na-pentagamavunonate-0, anti-inflammation

  12. Synthesis, growth, structural, optical and thermal properties of a new organic salt crystal: 3-nitroanilinium trichloroacetate

    Selvakumar, E.; Chandramohan, A.; Anandha Babu, G.; Ramasamy, P.


    A new organic non-linear optical salt 3-nitroanilinium trichloroacetate has been synthesized and single crystals grown by slow solvent evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature using methanol as the solvent. The 1H and 13C Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were recorded to establish the molecular structure of the title salt. The crystal structure of the title crystal has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and it belongs to monoclinic crystal system with non-centrosymmetric space group P21. Fourier transform infrared spectral study has been carried out to confirm the presence of various functional groups. The optical transmittance spectrum was recorded in the range 200-2500 nm, to find the optical transmittance window and lower cut off wavelength. The thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analyses were carried out to establish the thermal stability of the title crystal. The second harmonic generation in the title crystal was confirmed by the modified Kurtz-Perry powder test employing the Nd: YAG laser as the source for infrared radiation.

  13. Design, synthesis of novel chitosan derivatives bearing quaternary phosphonium salts and evaluation of antifungal activity.

    Tan, Wenqiang; Zhang, Jingjing; Luan, Fang; Wei, Lijie; Chen, Yuan; Dong, Fang; Li, Qing; Guo, Zhanyong


    Two novel chitosan derivatives modified with quaternary phosphonium salts were successfully synthesized, including tricyclohexylphosphonium acetyl chitosan chloride (TCPACSC) and triphenylphosphonium acetyl chitosan chloride (TPPACSC), and characterized by FTIR, 1 H NMR, and 13 C NMR spectra. The degree of substitution was also calculated by elemental analysis results. Their antifungal activities against Colletotrichum lagenarium, Watermelon fusarium, and Fusarium oxysporum were investigated in vitro using the radial growth assay, minimal inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration assay. The fungicidal assessment revealed that the synthesized chitosan derivatives had superior antifungal activity compared with chitosan. Especially, TPPACSC exhibited the best antifungal property with inhibitory indices of over 75% at 1.0mg/mL. The results obviously showed that quaternary phosphonium groups could effectively enhance antifungal activity of the synthesized chitosan derivatives. Meanwhile, it was also found that their antifungal activity was influenced by electron-withdrawing ability of the quaternary phosphonium salts. The synthetic strategy described here could be utilized for the development of chitosan as antifungal biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced bioreduction synthesis of ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroybutanoate by alkalic salt pretreatment.

    Chong, Ganggang; Di, Junhua; Ma, Cuiluan; Wang, Dajing; Wang, Chu; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Pengqi; Zhu, Jun; He, Yucai


    In this study, biomass-hydrolysate was used for enhancing the bioreduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE). Firstly, dilute alkalic salt pretreatment was attempted to pretreat bamboo shoot shell (BSS). It was found that enzymatic in situ hydrolysis of 20-50 g/L BSS pretreated with dilute alkalic salts (0.4% Na 2 CO 3 , 0.032% Na 2 S) at 7.5% sulfidity by autoclaving at 110 °C for 40 min gave sugar yields at 59.9%-73.5%. Moreover, linear relationships were corrected on solid recovery-total delignification-sugar yield. In BSS-hydrolysates, xylose and glucose could promote the reductase activity of recombinant E. coli CCZU-A13. Compared with glucose, hydrolysate could increase the reductase activity by 1.35-folds. Furthermore, the cyclohexane-hydrolysate (10:90, v/v) biphasic media containing ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, 40 mM) and l-glutamine (150 mM) was built for the effective biosynthesis of ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate [(R)-CHBE] (94.6% yield) from 500 mM COBE. In conclusion, this strategy has high potential for the effective biosynthesis of (R)-CHBE (>99% e.e.). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acid-promoted Bicyclization of Diaryl Alkynes: Synthesis of 2H-Indazoles with in situ Generated Diazonium Salt as Nitrogen Source.

    Zhang, Cheng; Chang, Sailan; Dong, Shanliang; Qiu, Lihua; Xu, Xinfang


    An unprecedented transition-metal-free tandem bicyclization of diaryl alkynes has been disclosed, which provides a streamlined access to a range of polycyclic 2H-indazoles in high to excellent yields. The salient features of this reaction include readily available starting materials, good functional group compatibility, mild reaction conditions, no column chromatography, high bond-formation efficiency, and ease in further transformations. Notably, this is the first example for the synthesis of 2H-indazoles with in situ generated diazonium salt as the nitrogen source, and a mechanistic rationale involving an acid-promoted tandem diazonium salt formation/bicyclization process is discussed.

  16. Ce O2-Zr O2 powder synthesis by alcohol dehydration of aqueous salt solutions

    Andrade Nono, M.C. de


    A method for the precipitation of Ce O 2 -Zr O 2 powder is reported. It involves the powder synthesis by precipitation from an aqueous of Y and Zr sulphates in ethanol and isopropanol followed by calcination. The powder characteristics and their relations with the green compaction and densification by sintering are shown and discussed. It is observed that the ethanol gives powders with the best compaction and sintering behavior. (author)

  17. Synthesis of carbon-13 and carbon-14 labeled paldimycin tri-sodium salt

    Hsi, R.S.P.; Witz, D.F.; Visser, J.; Stolle, W.T.; Ditto, C.L.


    Carbon-14 labeled paldimycin trisodium salt was prepared by addition of N-acetyl-L-cysteine to [ 14 C]paulomycin, the radioactive antibiotic produced by fermentation of Streptomyces paulus in the presence of L-methionine labeled with carbon-14 in the S-methyl group. Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of paulomycin produced when the fermentation was carried out in the presence of L-[S-methyl- 13 C]methionine showed that the isotope incorporation had occurred specifically at the methoxy group of ring C, i.e., the 2-deoxy sugar portion of paulomycin. With sustained slow feed of labeled precursors during the optimum antibiotic production period, carbon-14 isotope yields of up to 17.5% with specific activity of up to 11.4 μCi per milligram of paulomycin, and carbon-13 isotope yields of up to 24% with 17-fold isotope enrichment over natural abundance, were achieved. (author)

  18. Salt melt synthesis of curved nitrogen-doped carbon nanostructures: ORR kinetics boost

    Rybarczyk, Maria K.; Gontarek, Emilia; Lieder, Marek; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena


    Implementing metal-free electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and revealing crucial chemical or topographical parameters driving their activity are vital for the development of power cells. The carbon-based catalysts are very often synthesized through carbonization of biopolymers, in particular, those one containing nitrogen groups such as chitosan. Unfortunately, the resulting carbonaceous materials usually lack specific porosity and exhibit low catalytic activity. Here, we demonstrate that pyrolysis of chitosan in a ZnCl2 melt assisted by the presence of LiCl results not only in a highly porous activated carbon material with a specific surface area of 1317.97 m2/g and the total nitrogen content of 6.5%, but also induces unexpected curvature in the grown graphitic layers. This is the first work that shows curved graphene layers obtained from a biopolymer precursor by its pyrolytic decomposition in the melted salt media. On the other hand, a carbonaceous material obtained from chitosan but without the salts has very low specific surface area of 7.8 m2/g, possesses no specific structural features, and contains 4.7% of nitrogen. The electrochemical studies show, that the former material is highly active towards four-electron pathway of the ORR in terms of an onset potential (0.89 V vs RHE) and the turnover frequency (TOFmax = 0.095 e site-1 s-1). We attribute this high catalytic performance to the presence of the pyridinic and pyrrolic sites in the structure. The ORR kinetics is probably further promoted by curvature in the graphitic layers.

  19. Hydroxy double salts loaded with bioactive ions: Synthesis, intercalation mechanisms, and functional performance

    Kaassis, Abdessamad Y.A.; Xu, Si-Min; Guan, Shanyue; Evans, David G.; Wei, Min; Williams, Gareth R.


    The intercalation of the anions of diclofenac (Dic), naproxen (Nap), and valproic acid (Val) into three hydroxy double salts (HDSs) has been explored in this work. Experiments were performed with [Co 1.2 Zn 3.8 (OH) 8 ](NO 3 ) 2 ·2H 2 O (CoZn-NO 3 ), [Ni 2 Zn 3 (OH) 8 ](NO 3 ) 2 ·2H 2 O (NiZn-NO 3 ) and [Zn 5 (OH) 8 ](NO 3 ) 2 ·2H 2 O (Zn-NO 3 ). It proved possible to intercalate diclofenac and naproxen into all three HDSs. In contrast, Val could be intercalated into CoZn-NO 3 but when it was reacted with Zn-NO 3 the HDS structure was destroyed, and the product comprised ZnO. Successful intercalation was verified by X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, and elemental microanalysis. Molecular dynamics simulations showed the Dic and Nap ions to arrange themselves in an “X” shape in the interlayer space, forming a bilayer. Val was found to adopt a position with its aliphatic groups parallel to the HDS layer, again in a bilayer. In situ time resolved X-ray diffraction experiments revealed that intercalation of Dic and Nap into CoZn-NO 3 and Zn-NO 3 is mechanistically complex, with a number of intermediate phases observed. In contrast, the intercalation of all three guests into NiZn-NO 3 and of Val into CoZn-NO 3 are simple one step reactions proceeding directly from the starting material to the product. The HDS-drug composites were found to have sustained release profiles. - Graphical abstract: Seven new drug intercalates of hydroxy double salts (HDSs) have been prepared and characterised. The intercalation mechanisms have been explored, and the drug release properties of the HDS/drug composites quantified. Display Omitted

  20. Synthesis, Characterization and Conductivity Study of Poly(vinyl 4-HYDROXY-3-METHOXY Benzal) and its Sodio Salt in Solid State

    Borah, P.; Hussain, S.; Dutta, A.

    Among the various ion-conducting materials, polymer salt complexes are of current interest due to their possible application as solid electrolyte as well as their physical nature in advanced high-energy electrochemical devices such as batteries, fuel cells, electrochromic display devices, photo electro-chemical solar cells52-55 etc. The main advantages of polymeric electrolytes are their mechanical properties, ease of fabrication of thin films of desired sizes and their ability to form proper electrode-electrolyte contact. Polymer electrolyte usually consists of a polymer and a salt and is considered to be solid solutions in which the polymer functions as solvent. In the present paper the synthesis, characterization and the conductivity study of the polymer poly (vinyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzal) (PV-HMB) and its sodio salt (PV-HMB-Na) have been reported. The polymer was prepared by carrying out homogenous acetalization between the prepolymer poly vinylalcohol (PVA) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde (vanilline). PVA was dissolved in dimethyl formamide (DMF) and lithium chloride (LiCl) system i.e., in non-aqueous medium. The sodio salt was prepared by alkalization. The polymer and its salt were characterized by IR, 1H NMR and DSC. Frequency and temperature dependence of ac conductivity has been studied to learn about the electrical conduction behaviour in this material. The electrical conductivity of the new polymeric salt was found to be in the range 10-4 to 10-6 Scm-1. There is about 103 to 104 fold increase in the conductivity of the new polymer salt. Apparent activation energy of the polymer and its salt were found to be 0.139 and 0.08998 ev respectively.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of binder-free Cr3C2 coatings on nickel-based alloys for molten fluoride salt corrosion resistance

    Brupbacher, Michael C.; Zhang, Dajie; Buchta, William M.; Graybeal, Mark L.; Rhim, Yo-Rhin; Nagle, Dennis C.; Spicer, James B.


    Under various conditions, chromium carbides appear to be relatively stable in the presence of molten fluoride salts and this suggests that their use in corrosion resistant coatings for fluoride salt environments could be beneficial. One method for producing these coatings is the carburization of sprayed Cr coatings using methane-containing gaseous precursors. This process has been investigated for the synthesis of binder-free chromium carbide coatings on nickel-based alloy substrates for molten fluoride salt corrosion resistance. The effects of the carburization process on coating microstructure have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Both plasma-sprayed and cold-sprayed Cr coatings have been successfully converted to Cr 3 C 2 , with the mechanism of conversion being strongly influenced by the initial porosity in the as-deposited coatings

  2. Hydroxy double salts loaded with bioactive ions: Synthesis, intercalation mechanisms, and functional performance

    Kaassis, Abdessamad Y.A. [UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX (United Kingdom); Xu, Si-Min; Guan, Shanyue; Evans, David G. [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wei, Min, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Williams, Gareth R., E-mail: [UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX (United Kingdom)


    The intercalation of the anions of diclofenac (Dic), naproxen (Nap), and valproic acid (Val) into three hydroxy double salts (HDSs) has been explored in this work. Experiments were performed with [Co{sub 1.2}Zn{sub 3.8}(OH){sub 8}](NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O (CoZn-NO{sub 3}), [Ni{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}(OH){sub 8}](NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O (NiZn-NO{sub 3}) and [Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}](NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O (Zn-NO{sub 3}). It proved possible to intercalate diclofenac and naproxen into all three HDSs. In contrast, Val could be intercalated into CoZn-NO{sub 3} but when it was reacted with Zn-NO{sub 3} the HDS structure was destroyed, and the product comprised ZnO. Successful intercalation was verified by X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, and elemental microanalysis. Molecular dynamics simulations showed the Dic and Nap ions to arrange themselves in an “X” shape in the interlayer space, forming a bilayer. Val was found to adopt a position with its aliphatic groups parallel to the HDS layer, again in a bilayer. In situ time resolved X-ray diffraction experiments revealed that intercalation of Dic and Nap into CoZn-NO{sub 3} and Zn-NO{sub 3} is mechanistically complex, with a number of intermediate phases observed. In contrast, the intercalation of all three guests into NiZn-NO{sub 3} and of Val into CoZn-NO{sub 3} are simple one step reactions proceeding directly from the starting material to the product. The HDS-drug composites were found to have sustained release profiles. - Graphical abstract: Seven new drug intercalates of hydroxy double salts (HDSs) have been prepared and characterised. The intercalation mechanisms have been explored, and the drug release properties of the HDS/drug composites quantified. Display Omitted.

  3. Effets of Silver Salt Concentrations on Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using the Plant Nigella Saliva

    M.R. Saeri


    Full Text Available Bio-inspired silver nanoparticles were synthesized with the aid of a novel method, using leaves of the plant Nigella sativa. After drying the leaves in air, they were first sweltered in boiling distilled water and the liquid was filtered subsequently. The result was the brothused to reduce solutions including various concentrations of silver nitrate in a proper amount of pH. The displayed UV–visible spectra identified formation of silver nanoparticles whenever the colorless initial acclimated mixture turned brown. The centrifuged powder samples were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and energy dispersive X-ray diffraction analysis (EDX methods. The results clearly revealed that the final particles of precipitated powder are high purity agglomerates of silver nanoparticles. Besides, the effects of various amounts of the silver salt on particle size of nano silver were studied, using a particle size analyzer. FTIR results also indicated the role of different functional groups in the synthetic process.

  4. Synthesis of Quaternary Ammonium Salts Based on Diketopyrrolopyrroles Skeletons and Their Applications in Copper Electroplating.

    Chen, Biao; Xu, Jie; Wang, Limin; Song, Longfeng; Wu, Shengying


    A series of DPP derivatives bearing quaternary ammonium salt centers with different lengths of carbon chains have been designed and synthesized. Their inhibition actions on copper electroplating were first investigated. A total of four diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) derivatives showed different inhibition capabilities on copper electroplating. To investigate interactions between metal surface and additives, we used quantum chemical calculations. Static and dynamic surface tension of four DPP derivatives had been measured, and the results showed DPP-10C (1c) with a faster-decreasing rate of dynamic surface tension among the four derivatives, which indicated higher adsorption rate of additive on the cathode surface and gives rise to stronger inhibiting effect of copper electrodeposition. Then, DPP-10C (1c) as the representative additive, was selected for the systematic study of the leveling influence during microvia filling through comprehensive electroplating tests. In addition, field-emission scanning electron microscope images and X-ray diffraction results showed the surface morphology, which indicated that addition of DPP derivative (1c) could lead a fine copper deposit and cause the preferential orientations of copper deposits to change from [220] to [111], which happened in particular at higher concentrations.

  5. A combined salt-hard templating approach for synthesis of multi-modal porous carbons used for probing the simultaneous effects of porosity and electrode engineering on EDLC performance

    Bhandari, Nidhi; Dua, Rubal; Esté vez, Luis Antonio; Sahore, Ritu; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.


    ), resulting in high pore volume (∼3.9 cm3/g) while the salt template, zinc chloride, generates borderline-mesopores (∼2 nm), thus imparting high surface area (∼2100 m2/g). The versatility of the proposed synthesis technique is demonstrated using: (i) dual salt

  6. Synthesis and characterization of core-shell gold nanoparticles with poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) from a new precursor salt

    Behera, M.; Ram, S.


    In this article, we report a facile one-step chemical synthesis of gold (Au) nanoparticles (GNPs) from a new precursor salt i.e., gold hydroxide in the presence of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) polymer. The non-aqueous dispersion of GNPs was comprehensively characterized by UV-Visible, FTIR, zeta potential, and transmission electron microscope (TEM). A strong surface plasmon resonance band at 529 nm in the UV-Visible spectrum confirms the formation of GNPs in the Au colloid. The FTIR spectroscopic results showed that PVP molecules get chemisorbed onto the surface of GNP via O-atom of carbonyl group. A negative zeta potential of (-)16 mV reveals accumulation of nonbonding electrons of O-atom of carbonyl group of PVP molecules on the nanosurface of GNP. TEM images demonstrate a core-shell nanostructure with an Au-crystalline core covered by a thin amorphous PVP-shell. PVP-capped GNPs could be a potential candidate for bio-sensing, catalysis, and other applications.

  7. Molten salts activated by high-energy milling: A useful, low-temperature route for the synthesis of multiferroic compounds

    Hernández-Ramírez, Anayantzin; Martínez-Luévanos, Antonia [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, V. Carranza s/n, Saltillo, Coahuila 25280 (Mexico); Fuentes, Antonio F. [CINVESTAV Unidad Saltillo, Apdo. Postal 663, Saltillo, Coahuila 25000 (Mexico); Earth and Environmental Science, University of Michigan, 3514 C.C. Little Building, 1100 N. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005 (United States); Nelson, Anna-Gay D.; Ewing, Rodney C. [Earth and Environmental Science, University of Michigan, 3514 C.C. Little Building, 1100 N. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005 (United States); Montemayor, Sagrario M., E-mail: [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, V. Carranza s/n, Saltillo, Coahuila 25280 (Mexico); Earth and Environmental Science, University of Michigan, 3514 C.C. Little Building, 1100 N. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005 (United States)


    Highlights: • The synthesis route purposed demonstrates the formation of BiFeO{sub 3} at only 500 °C. • The magnetic and ferroelectric properties are comparable to those of bulk BiFeO{sub 3}. • By this route, several phases in Bi{sub 1−x}La{sub x}FeO{sub 3} system are obtained at only 500 °C. • The route developed here could be useful to synthesize other perovskite-type oxides. -- Abstract: There are only a few multiferroic compounds, among which BiFeO{sub 3} is the most important. Research the synthesis of bismuth ferrite, with novel and improved magnetic and electrical properties, has been mainly based on the use of hydrothermal or sol gel methods. However, these methods require either rather extreme conditions or several steps for synthesis. We demonstrate that the use of molten salts, activated by high energy milling, results in pure nanometric BiFeO{sub 3}, LaFeO{sub 3} and intermediate phases in the Bi{sub 1−x}La{sub x}FeO{sub 3} system. The chemical reagents used are Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}⋅5H{sub 2}O, La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}⋅6H{sub 2}O, Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}⋅9H{sub 2}O and NaOH. A brief milling process of the reagents creates an amorphous precursor and crystalline NaNO{sub 3}. The thermal treatment of the precursors, at 500 °C for two hours, produces a crystalline mixture of Bi{sub 1−x}La{sub x}FeO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 3}. Simple washing eliminates the NaNO{sub 3}. The characterization of intermediates and final products, through thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy, allows the inference of possible mechanism. In addition, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and ferroelectric tests show the typical magnetic and electric polarization loops characteristic of these materials even when formed at the nano-scale.

  8. Hydroxy double salts loaded with bioactive ions: Synthesis, intercalation mechanisms, and functional performance

    Y. A. Kaassis, Abdessamad; Xu, Si-Min; Guan, Shanyue; Evans, David G.; Wei, Min; Williams, Gareth R.


    The intercalation of the anions of diclofenac (Dic), naproxen (Nap), and valproic acid (Val) into three hydroxy double salts (HDSs) has been explored in this work. Experiments were performed with [Co1.2Zn3.8(OH)8](NO3)2·2H2O (CoZn-NO3), [Ni2Zn3(OH)8](NO3)2·2H2O (NiZn-NO3) and [Zn5(OH)8](NO3)2·2H2O (Zn-NO3). It proved possible to intercalate diclofenac and naproxen into all three HDSs. In contrast, Val could be intercalated into CoZn-NO3 but when it was reacted with Zn-NO3 the HDS structure was destroyed, and the product comprised ZnO. Successful intercalation was verified by X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, and elemental microanalysis. Molecular dynamics simulations showed the Dic and Nap ions to arrange themselves in an "X" shape in the interlayer space, forming a bilayer. Val was found to adopt a position with its aliphatic groups parallel to the HDS layer, again in a bilayer. In situ time resolved X-ray diffraction experiments revealed that intercalation of Dic and Nap into CoZn-NO3 and Zn-NO3 is mechanistically complex, with a number of intermediate phases observed. In contrast, the intercalation of all three guests into NiZn-NO3 and of Val into CoZn-NO3 are simple one step reactions proceeding directly from the starting material to the product. The HDS-drug composites were found to have sustained release profiles.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of completely soluble polyaniline salts via inverse emulsion polymerization using a mixture of chloroform and 2- butanol as a dispersing medium

    Gul, S.; Bilal, S.


    Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the most promising candidates for possible technological applications. PANI has potential applications in batteries, anion exchanger, tissue engineering, inhibition of steel corrosion, fuel cell, sensors and so on. However, its insolubility in common organic solvents limits its range of applications. In the present study an attempt has been made to synthesize soluble polyaniline salt via inverse polymerization pathway using benzoyl peroxide as oxidant and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) as dopant as well as a surfactant. A mixture of chloroform and 2-butanol was used as dispersion medium for the first time. The influence of synthesis parameters such as concentration of aniline, benzoyl peroxide and DBSA on the yield and other properties of the resulting PANI salt was studied. The synthesized PANI salt was found to be completely soluble in DMSO, DMF, chloroform and in a mixture of toluene and 2-propanol. The synthesized polymer salt was also characterized with cyclic voltammetry, SEM, XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. TGA was used to analyze the thermal properties of synthesized polymer. The extent of doping of the PANI salt was determined from UV-Vis spectra and TGA analysis. The activation energy for the degradation of the polymer was calculated with the help of TGA. (author)

  10. Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles in Ethylene Glycol by Chemical Reduction with Vanadium (+2 Salts

    Andrea Pietro Reverberi


    Full Text Available Copper nanoparticles have been synthesized in ethylene glycol (EG using copper sulphate as a precursor and vanadium sulfate as an atypical reductant being active at room temperature. We have described a technique for a relatively simple preparation of such a reagent, which has been electrolytically produced without using standard procedures requiring an inert atmosphere and a mercury cathode. Several stabilizing agents have been tested and cationic capping agents have been discarded owing to the formation of complex compounds with copper ions leading to insoluble phases contaminating the metallic nanoparticles. The elemental copper nanoparticles, stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, have been characterized for composition by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and for size by dynamic light scattering (DLS, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, giving a size distribution in the range of 40–50 nm for both stabilizing agents. From a methodological point of view, the process described here may represent an alternative to other wet-chemical techniques for metal nanoparticle synthesis in non-aqueous media based on conventional organic or inorganic reductants.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt and its application as drug carrier for ribavirin.

    Li, Si-Dong; Li, Pu-Wang; Yang, Zi-Ming; Peng, Zheng; Quan, Wei-Yan; Yang, Xi-Hong; Yang, Lei; Dong, Jing-Jing


    N-(2-hydroxyl) propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC) is hydro-soluble chitosan (CS) derivative, which can be obtained by the reaction between epoxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (ETA) and CS. The preparation parameters for the synthesis of HTCC were optimized by orthogonal experimental design. ETA was successfully grafted into the free amino group of CS. Grafting of ETA with CS had great effect on the crystal structure of HTCC, which was confirmed by the XRD results. HTCC displayed higher capability to form nanoparticles by crosslinking with negatively charged sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). Ribavrin- (RIV-) loaded HTCC nanoparticles were positively charged and were spherical in shape with average particle size of 200 nm. More efficient drug encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity were obtained for HTCC in comparison with CS, however, HTCC nanoparticles displayed faster release rate due to its hydro-soluble properties. The results suggest that HTCC is a promising CS derivative for the encapsulation of hydrophilic drugs in obtaining sustained release of drugs.

  12. Airborne MSS data processing for multichannel SWIR sensor

    Urai, Minoru; Yamaguchi, Yasushi


    This paper describes the specification of an airborne multi-channel spectrum scanner (MSS) and data processing. MSS has 13 channels of frequencies in the visible - heat infrared region. The channels 1 - 3 correspond to a visible image, the channels 4, 5 to the absorption bands of iron oxides, the channels 6 - 9 (2.2 (m)m band) to the absorption bands of O-H group and carbonates, and the channels 10 - 13 to absorption bands in the heat infrared region. By the least squares residual (LSR) method, a mineral having an absorption band of 2.2 (m)m was further examined. As a result, the LSR image displayed an orange-colored portion. This portion was identified to correspond to epidote. Silica, which has an absorption band of 8 - 10 (m)m in the heat infrared region, was displayed in blue color. A high frequency resolution sensor has a great potential for discrimination and identification of minerals. (2 figs, 2 tabs, 2 refs)

  13. Synthesis, physical and chemical properties of 2-((4-(R-amino-5-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthioacetic acids salts

    А.А. Safonov


    Full Text Available Thanks to the rapid development of science, humanity has achieved remarkable success in various fields. This also applies to the synthesis of biological compounds. Over the centuries, scientists have invented many methods and drugs that are being actively used to date. Derivatives of 1,2,4-triazole can be the foundation for the manufacture of new native drugs that will compete with foreign ones. The aim of work was synthesis and confirmation the structure of 2-((4-(R-amino-5-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthioacetate acids salts. Materials and methods. As starting substances we used 2-((4-(R-amino-5-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthioacetic acids, which were synthesized by previously described methods. The structure of synthesized compounds was confirmed by the complex use of modern physical-chemical methods of analysis: elemental analysis, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, HPLC-MS. Results. Salts of 2-((4-(R-amino-5-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthioacetic acids were synthesized by the interaction of the appropriate acids with organic (morpholin, methanamin, 2-hydroxyethanamin, inorganic basics (aqueous ammonia solution, sodium hydroxide and salts (zinc sulfate, ferrum (III chloride, magnesium sulfate, copper (II sulfate in alcoholic or aqueous media. Conclusions. A series of novel 2-((4-(R-amino-5-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthioacetic acids salts were synthesized. The structure of synthesized compounds is established using modern physical-chemical methods of analysis.

  14. Synthesis of strigolactones analogues by intramolecular [2+2] cycloaddition of ketene-iminium salts to olefins and their activity on Orobanche cumana seeds.

    Lachia, Mathilde; Wolf, Hanno Christian; De Mesmaeker, Alain


    Strigolactones have been the latest identified phytohormones. Among the strigolactones analogues described recently, GR-24 remains the most studied derivative which is used as standard in this field. In order to improve several properties of GR-24 for potential agronomical applications, we investigated the effect of substituents on the B and C-rings on the activity for seed germination induction. We report here the synthesis of 9 GR-24 analogues via a [2+2] intramolecular cycloaddition of ketene-iminium salts and a summary of their activity for the germination of Orobanche cumana (broomrape) seeds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Two Dimensional Array of Piezoresistive Nanomechanical Membrane-Type Surface Stress Sensor (MSS with Improved Sensitivity

    Nico F. de Rooij


    Full Text Available We present a new generation of piezoresistive nanomechanical Membrane-type Surface stress Sensor (MSS chips, which consist of a two dimensional array of MSS on a single chip. The implementation of several optimization techniques in the design and microfabrication improved the piezoresistive sensitivity by 3~4 times compared to the first generation MSS chip, resulting in a sensitivity about ~100 times better than a standard cantilever-type sensor and a few times better than optical read-out methods in terms of experimental signal-to-noise ratio. Since the integrated piezoresistive read-out of the MSS can meet practical requirements, such as compactness and not requiring bulky and expensive peripheral devices, the MSS is a promising transducer for nanomechanical sensing in the rapidly growing application fields in medicine, biology, security, and the environment. Specifically, its system compactness due to the integrated piezoresistive sensing makes the MSS concept attractive for the instruments used in mobile applications. In addition, the MSS can operate in opaque liquids, such as blood, where optical read-out techniques cannot be applied.

  16. Ecology and sampling techniques of an understudied subterranean habitat: the Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (MSS).

    Mammola, Stefano; Giachino, Pier Mauro; Piano, Elena; Jones, Alexandra; Barberis, Marcel; Badino, Giovanni; Isaia, Marco


    The term Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (MSS) has been used since the early 1980s in subterranean biology to categorize an array of different hypogean habitats. In general terms, a MSS habitat represents the underground network of empty air-filled voids and cracks developing within multiple layers of rock fragments. Its origins can be diverse and is generally covered by topsoil. The MSS habitat is often connected both with the deep hypogean domain-caves and deep rock cracks-and the superficial soil horizon. A MSS is usually characterized by peculiar microclimatic conditions, and it can harbor specialized hypogean, endogean, and surface-dwelling species. In light of the many interpretations given by different authors, we reviewed 235 papers regarding the MSS in order to provide a state-of-the-art description of these habitats and facilitate their study. We have briefly described the different types of MSS mentioned in the scientific literature (alluvial, bedrock, colluvial, volcanic, and other types) and synthesized the advances in the study of the physical and ecological factors affecting this habitat-i.e., microclimate, energy flows, animal communities, and trophic interactions. We finally described and reviewed the available sampling methods used to investigate MSS fauna.

  17. An Eco-Friendly Ultrasound-Assisted Synthesis of Novel Fluorinated Pyridinium Salts-Based Hydrazones and Antimicrobial and Antitumor Screening

    Rezki, Nadjet; Al-Sodies, Salsabeel A.; Aouad, Mohamed R.; Bardaweel, Sanaa; Messali, Mouslim; El Ashry, El Sayed H.


    The present work reports an efficient synthesis of fluorinated pyridinium salts-based hydrazones under both conventional and eco-friendly ultrasound procedures. The synthetic approach first involves the preparation of halogenated pyridinium salts through the condensation of isonicotinic acid hydrazide (1) with p-fluorobenzaldehyde (2) followed by the nucleophilic alkylation of the resulting N-(4-fluorobenzylidene)isonicotinohydrazide (3) with a different alkyl iodide. The iodide counteranion of 5–10 was subjected to an anion exchange metathesis reaction in the presence of an excess of the appropriate metal salts to afford a new series of fluorinated pyridinium salts tethering a hydrazone linkage 11–40. Ultrasound irradiation led to higher yields in considerably less time than the conventional methods. The newly synthesized ILs were well-characterized with FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 11B, 19F, 31P and mass spectral analyses. The ILs were also screened for their antimicrobial and antitumor activities. Within the series, the salts tethering fluorinated counter anions 11–13, 21–23, 31–33 and 36–38 were found to be more potent against all bacterial and fungal strains at MIC 4–8 µg/mL. The in vitro antiproliferative activity was also investigated against four tumor cell lines (human ductal breast epithelial tumor T47D, human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7, human epithelial carcinoma HeLa and human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2) using the MTT assay, which revealed that promising antitumor activity was exhibited by compounds 5, 12 and 14. PMID:27213367

  18. Synthesis and theoretical studies on nitrogen-rich salts of bis[4-nitraminofurazanyl-3-azoxy]azofurazan (ADNAAF).

    Zheng, Chunmei; Chu, Yuting; Xu, Liwen; Lei, Wu; Wang, Fengyun; Xia, Mingzhu


    Multi-furazan compounds bis[4-nitramino- furazanyl-3-azoxy]azofurazan (ADNAAF) and its derivatives were first synthesized by our research group, and their structures were characterized by IR, 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR spectrums, and element analysis. ADNAAF was synthesized by nitration reaction of bis[4-aminofurazanyl-3-azoxy]azofurazan (ADAAF), and then reacted with ammonium hydroxide, hydrazine hydrate, and guanidine nitrate to obtain three salts marked as salt 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The thermal stabilities of the three salts were supported by the results of DSC analysis, which shows the decomposition temperatures are all above 190 °C. Their densities, enthalpies of formation, and detonation properties were studied by density functional theory (DFT) method. Salt 1 has the best detonation pressure (P), 37.42 GPa, and detonation velocity (D), 8.88 km/s, while salt 2 has the best nitrogen content and heat of detonation (Q), 1.27 kcal mol -1 . The detonation properties of salt 1 is similar to that of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazineane (RDX). It means that the ammonium cation can provide the better D and P than the cation of hydrazine and guanidine. The three cations offer the enthalpies of formations in the order of hydrazinium > guanidinium > ammonium. Graphical Abstract Nitrogen-rich salts of bis[4-nitraminofurazanyl-3-azoxy]azofurazan(ADNAAF).

  19. Leveraging In-Memory Technology to improve the acceptance of MSS - a managers' Perspective

    Mayer, Jörg H.; Esswein, Markus; Goeken, Matthias; Quick, Reiner


    Management support systems (MSS) help managers to perform their jobs more efficiently. With in-memory technology, a new IT enabler promises to support managers by benefits ranging from reducing time for MSS data entry and analysis to complete new topics of analysis. Hence, the present situation is favorable for an MSS redesign applying in-memory apps. Such apps are field-tested and ready-to-use, but from a business perspective they lack impact. Based on findings from a literature review and r...

  20. Morphology-controlled synthesis of CdWO4 nanorods and nanoparticles via a molten salt method

    Wang Yonggang; Ma Junfeng; Tao Jiantao; Zhu Xiaoyi; Zhou Jun; Zhao Zhongqiang; Xie Lijin; Tian Hua


    Cadmium tungstate (CdWO 4 ) nanoparticles and nanorods have been successfully synthesized by a molten salt method at 270 deg. C, and the morphology of the nanocrystals can be controlled by adjusting such reaction conditions as the calcined time and the weight ratio of the salt to the CdWO 4 precursor. The resultant sample is a pure phase of CdWO 4 without any other impurities

  1. Synthesis and research of the physical-chemical properties of 5-((2-bromphenyl-4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acid salts

    Ye. S. Pruglo


    Full Text Available At this stage of the development of modern science the scientists get a lot of questions in the field of medicine and pharmacy, and one of the most important among them is the study and search of new ways of synthesis of high-performance and low-toxic substances. Special attention is paid to 1,2,4-triazole and xanthine. On their basis some medical drugs were made, which are widely used in medicine. The aim of this work was the synthesis and study of properties of salts of 5-(2-bromophenyl-4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acid. Methods and results. As starting material theophylline was selected. Through a number of stages 5-(2-bromphenyl-4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thion was obtained. By the reaction of neutralization the salts with organic and inorganic bases were obtained. The physical-chemical properties of the compounds were determined. The structure of the substances was confirmed by elemental analysis on an Elementar Vario L cube (CHNS instrument; IR spectra (4000–400 cm-1 were taken on the ALPHA-T modules of the Bruker ALPHA FT-IR spectrometer. The 1H NMR spectra of the compounds were recorded using a Varian Mercury VX 200 spectrometer (solvent – DMSO-d6, internal standard: tetramethylsilane. The formation of salts was confirmed by the signals of the corresponding protonated amines. Chromato-mass spectral studies were carried out on the LC MS: Agilent 1260 Infinity HPLC System , ionization method – chemical ionization at atmospheric pressure (APCI. Conclusions. The interaction of the resulting thiol with monochloracetic acid in aqueous solution with double quantity of alkali and subsequent neutralization leads to corresponding carboxylic acid obtaining. It was confirmed that the greatest outputs of salts as the reaction products were observed when using water as the solvent with the subsequent replacement of acetone. the optimum conditions of obtaining salts of 5-(2-bromophenyl-4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acid

  2. The effect of Li2CO3 substitution on synthesis of LiBOB compounds as salt of electrolyte battery lithium ion

    Lestariningsih, Titik; Wigayati, Etty Marty; Sabrina, Qolby; Prihandoko, Bambang; Priyono, Slamet


    Development of the synthesis of LiB(C2O4)2 compounds continues to evolve along with the need for electrolyte salts to support the research of the manufacture of lithium ion batteries. A study had been conducted on the effect of Li2CO3 substitution on the synthesis of LiB(C2O4)2 or LiBOB compounds. LiBOB was a major candidate to replace LiPF6 as a highly toxic lithium battery electrolyte and harmful to human health. Synthesis of Lithium bis(oxalato) borate used powder metallurgy method. The raw materials used are H2C2O4.2H2O, Li2CO3 or LiOH and H2BO3 from Merck Germany products. The materials are mixed with 2: 1: 1 mol ratio until homogeneous. The synthesis of LiBOB refers to previous research, where the heating process was done gradually. The first stage heating is carried out at 120°C for 4 hours, then the next stage heating is carried out at 240°C for 7 hours. The sample variation in this study was to distinguish the lithium source from Li2CO3 and LiOH. Characterization was done by XRD to know the phase formed, FTIR to confirm that functional group of LiB(C2O4)2 compound, SEM to know the morphological structure, and TG/DTA to know the thermal properties. The results of the analysis shows that LiBOB synthesis using Lithium source from Li2CO3 has succeeded to form LiBOB compound with more LiBOB phase composition is 59.1% and 40.9% LiBOB hydrate phase, SEM morphology shows powder consist of elongated round particle porous and similar to LiBOB commercial and show higher thermal stability.

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis of ultralong and single-crystalline Cd(OH)2 nanowires using alkali salts as mineralizers.

    Tang, Bo; Zhuo, Linhai; Ge, Jiechao; Niu, Jinye; Shi, Zhiqiang


    Ultralong and single-crystalline Cd(OH)(2) nanowires were fabricated by a hydrothermal method using alkali salts as mineralizers. The morphology and size of the final products strongly depend on the effects of the alkali salts (e.g., KCl, KNO(3), and K(2)SO(4) or NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)). When the salt is absent, only nanoparticles are observed in TEM images of the products. The 1D nanostructure growth method presented herein offers an excellent tool for the design of other advanced materials with anisotropic properties. In addition, the Cd(OH)(2) nanowires might act as a template or precursor that is potentially converted into 1D cadmium oxide through dehydration or into 1D nanostructures of other functional materials (e.g., CdS, CdSe).

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of New 3-(4-Arylpiperazin-1-yl-2-hydroxypropyl 4-Propoxybenzoates and Their Hydrochloride Salts

    Pavlina Marvanova


    Full Text Available Five new 3-(4-arylpiperazin-1-yl-2-hydroxypropyl 4-propoxybenzoates were designed and synthesized as potential dual antihypertensive agents. The compounds were prepared as free bases and subsequently transformed to hydrochloride salts. The position of protonation of nitrogen atoms in the piperazine ring of hydrochloride salts was determined by means of 13C-CP/MAS and 15N-CP/MAS NMR and IR spectroscopy. Using these solid-state analytical techniques, it was found that both nitrogen atoms were protonated when excess hydrogen chloride was used for preparation of salts. On the other hand, when the equimolar amount of hydrogen chloride was used, piperazine nitrogen substituted by aryl was protonated.

  5. The synthesis of di(aminoguanidine) 5-nitroiminotetrazolate: some diprotic or monoprotic acids as precursors of energetic salts.

    Gao, Haixiang; Huang, Yangen; Ye, Chengfeng; Twamley, Brendan; Shreeve, Jean'ne M


    Syntheses of salts with 4,6-bis(nitroimino)-1,3,5-triazinan-2-one (DNAM), 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-cyclopentanetrione (DDCP), 3-nitroiminotriazolate, and 5-nitroiminotetrazolate as anions yielded moderately dense nitro-containing energetic salts that are thermally stable to >200 degrees C (measured by thermogravimetric analysis). Di(aminoguanidine) 5-nitroiminotetrazolate (8) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with an essentially planar 5-nitroiminotetrazolate dianion. Based on experimental and calculated densities, and theoretical calculations carried out by using the Gaussian 03 suite of programs, all of the salts have calculated detonation pressures and velocities that exceed those of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and a few have values that approach those of triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB).

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of New Silver (I N-Heterocyclic Ccarbene Ccomplex Dderived from Imidazol-2-ylidene salt

    Mohammedl Mujbe Hasson


    Full Text Available A new N, N'-imidazolium salt 1-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl-3- (4,6-dimorpholino -1,3,5-traizine-2-yl-1H-imidazol-3-ium chloride as a precursor of N - heterocyclic carbene ligand was prepared via the reaction of 1 - (2, 6 - diisopropyl phenyl - 1H - imidazole with 1, 3, 5 - triazine derivative bearing morpholine substituent (2, 6 -dimorpholine - 6- chloro-1, 3, 5-triaziazine. Linear coordi-nated Ag (І NHC complex was synthesised via deprotonation of the imidazolium salt and reac-tion with Ag2O in darkness at room temperature by in situ method. The complex was synthesised for using as transfer agent to prepare another transition metals complexes by transmetallation method in the future. The imidazolium salt and their silver complex have been characterized by 1 H and 13C NMR spectroscopy as well as mass spectrometry.

  7. Synthesis of zwitterionic salts of pyridinium-Meldrum acid and barbiturate through unique four-component reactions.

    Wang, Qi-Fang; Hui, Li; Hou, Hong; Yan, Chao-Guo


    An efficient synthetic procedure for the preparation of the unusual charge-separated pyridinium-Meldrum acid and N,N-dimethylbarbiturate acid zwitterionic salts was developed though a unique one-pot four-component reaction involving pyridine, aromatic aldehyde, Meldrum acid or N,N-dimethylbarbituric acid, and p-nitrobenzyl bromide in acetonitrile. By varying combinations of four components involving nitrogen-containing heterocycles, we conveniently established reactive alpha-halomethylene compounds, aldehydes and beta-dicarbonyl compounds a library of zwitterionic salts.

  8. Synthesis, physical and chemical properties of 2-((4-R-3-(morfolinomethylen-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthioacetic acid salts

    R. О. Shcherbyna


    Full Text Available Today’s medicine and pharmacy undoubtedly need new and effective drugs. The 1,2,4-triazole derivatives occupy a special place among the wide variety of active organic compounds. This interest is caused primarily by high biological activity of these derivatives, low toxicity and high accessibility in terms of synthesis. Thus, drugs from 1,2,4-triazoles are known and are used extensively in medicine. It is important that a sufficiently large number of scientists-synthetics are paying attention on the heterocyclic system. Although a huge amount of information in the scientific literature is devoted to the 1,2,4-triazole derivatives, the 2-((4-R-3-(morfolinometylen-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthioacetic acid salts are virtually unexplored. The purpose of the work. Synthesis and establishing of the physical and chemical parameters of new 2-((4-R-3-(morfolinometylen-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthioacetic acid salts. Materials and methods. The study of physical and chemical properties of the obtained compounds was conducted by the methods that are listed in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine 2.0. The melting point was defined on the device which determines the melting point MPA100. The elemental composition of the compounds was found on the analyzer Elementar Vario ЕL cube (CHNS . 1H NMR specters of obtained compounds were recorded by using a spectrometer Varian Mercury VX-200 (1H, 200 MHz and decrypted by a computer program SpinWorks 3.1.8. Chromatography-mass spectral studies were conducted on the gas-liquid chromatograph Agilent 1260 Infinity HPLC equipped with a mass spectrometer Agilent 6120 (ionization in electrospray (ESI. Results and discussion. As the source (starting compounds 2-((4-R-3-(morfolinometylen-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthioacetic acids (where, R = H, CH3, C2H5, C6H5, NH2 were taken. Further, by the action of ammonia hydroxide, sodium and potassium hidrogen carbonates, piperidine, morpholine, methylamine, monoethanolamine and tributylamine in

  9. Synthesis of molybdenum borides and molybdenum silicides in molten salts and their oxidation behavior in an air-water mixture

    Kuznetsov, S.A.; Kuznetsova, S.V.; Rebrov, E.V.; Mies, M.J.M.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Schouten, J.C.


    The formation of various coatings in molybdenum-boron and molybdenum-silicon systems was investigated. Boronizing and siliciding treatments were conducted in molten salts under inert gas atm. in the 850-1050 DegC temp. range for 7 h. The presence of boride (e.g. Mo2B, MoB, Mo2B5) and silicide

  10. Synthesis and piezoelectric properties of KxNa1-xNbO3 ceramic by molten salt method

    Li Yueming; Wang Jinsong; Liao Runhua; Huang Dan; Jiang Xiangping


    K x Na 1-x NbO 3 ceramic powder with perovskite structure was synthesized in molten salt with a Na 2 CO 3 /K 2 CO 3 molar ratio of 1:1, under different salt-to-oxide weight ratios of 1:10, 1:5, 1:3, 1:2.5 and 1:2 in the temperatures range of 650-900 o C. It is found that the synthesizing temperature and salt-to-oxide ratios had significant effects on the morphology of K x Na 1-x NbO 3 powder. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that a pure perovskite structure of K x Na 1-x NbO 3 powder could be synthesized at 650 o C. The microstructure observation revealed that the crystal morphology of K x Na 1-x NbO 3 powder changed from spheroid to cube, and then became irregular after further increasing temperature. The grain size of the synthesized powder increased by an increment of the molten salt content. The K x Na 1-x NbO 3 ceramics were prepared at x = 0.345 by adding 1.0 mol% ZnO as sintering aid, and the optimized dielectric and piezoelectric properties are obtained as following: d 33 = 120 pC/N, T c = 406 o C, Q m = 126 and k p = 0.302.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of a Helicene-Based Imidazolium Salt and Its Application in Organic Molecular Electronics

    Storch, Jan; Žádný, Jaroslav; Strašák, Tomáš; Kubala, M.; Sýkora, Jan; Dušek, Michal; Církva, Vladimír; Matějka, P.; Krbal, M.; Vacek, J.


    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2015), s. 2343-2347 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI3/628; GA TA ČR TA04010082 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : helicene * imidazolium salt * organic electronics Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.771, year: 2015

  12. One-Pot Catalyst-Free Synthesis of β- and γ-Hydroxy Sulfides using Diaryliodonium Salts and Microwave Irradiation

    A facile one-pot high-yield protocol is described for the preparation of β- and γ-hydroxy sulfides directly from diaryliodonium salts, potassium thiocyanate, and ethane-1,2-diol (ethylene glycol)/propane-1,3-diol (β-propylene glycol) without the need for any additional catalyst o...

  13. 5-Thio-D-glycopyranosylamines and their amidinium salts as potential transition-state mimics of glycosyl hydrolases: synthesis, enzyme inhibitory activities, X-ray crystallography, and molecular modeling

    Kavlekar, Lizie M.; Kuntz, Douglas A.; Wen, Xin


    The synthesis of new glycosidase inhibitors, namely, the glycosylamines of 5-thioglucose and 5-thiomannose and their corresponding amidinium salts are described. We report also the crystal structures of 5-thio-D-mannopyranosyl amine 1 and 5-thio-D-mannopyranosylamidinium bromide 2 bound in the en...

  14. Bulk processing of the Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ archive of the European Space Agency: an insight into the level 1 MSS processing

    Saunier, Sébastien; Northrop, Amy; Lavender, Samantha; Galli, Luca; Ferrara, Riccardo; Mica, Stefano; Biasutti, Roberto; Goryl, Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Meloni, Marco


    Whilst recent years have witnessed the development and exploitation of operational Earth Observation (EO) satellite constellation data, the valorisation of historical archives has been a challenge. The European Space Agency (ESA) Landsat Multi Spectral Scanner (MSS) products cover Greenland, Iceland, Continental Europe and North Africa represent an archive of over 600,000 processed Level 1 (L1) scenes that will accompany around 1 million ESA Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) products already available. ESA began acquiring MSS data in 1975 and it is well known that this dataset can be degraded due to missing data and a loss in accuracy. For these reasons, the content of the product format has been reviewed and the ESA Landsat processing baseline significantly updated to ensure products are fit for user purposes. This paper presents the new MSS product format including the updated metadata parameters for error traceability, and the specification of the Quality Assurance Band (BQA) engineered to allow the best pixel selection and also the application of image restoration techniques. This paper also discusses major improvements applied to the radiometric and geometric processing. For the benefits of the community, ESA is now able to maximize the number of L1 MSS products that can potentially be generated from the raw Level 0 (L0) data and ensure the highest possible data quality is reached. Also, by improving product format, processing and adding a pixel based quality band, the MSS archive becomes interoperable with recently reprocessed Landsat data and that from live missions by way of assuring product quality on a pixel basis.

  15. Synthesis, physical and chemical properties of 2-((5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acids and its salts

    A. M. Rud


    Full Text Available Today’s a creation of new domestic medicines is very important problem for pharmacy and medicine. Therefore, it is relevant to synthesize new domestic biologically active compounds. It is known that a large number of new 3-thio and 4-amino derivatives on the basis of 1,2,4-triazole have recently been synthesized, among which compounds with high pharmacological activity have been found. Based on the experience of previous studies and with the aim of creating new original drugs, our goal was to synthesize 2-((5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acids series and to obtain salts on its basis, which have high indicators of pharmacological activity based on the literature data. The goal of the work is a targeted synthesis of potential low-toxic and highly effective compounds with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activity among 5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione derivatives, confirmation of their individuality and structure, as well as the study of physical-chemical properties, for the further pharmacological screening. Materials and methods. 2-((5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acids were prepared by heating 5- (hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-thiones with chloroacetic acid. Subsequently, the synthesized thioacetic acids were subject for modification. Salts of 2-((5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acids were obtained by reacting thioacetic acids with equivalents of sodium or potassium hydroxides. To obtain Iron(II, Copper(II or Zinc(II salts, half-molar amounts of the appropriate sulfates were added to the obtained solutions. Salts of 2-((5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acids with organic bases were obtained by the reaction of acids with piperidine or morpholine in ethanol medium. Results. During the synthetic studies, 13 previously undescribed new compounds were obtained. The individuality of 2-((5-(hydroxy

  16. Synthesis, growth, structural, optical, thermal, electrical and mechanical properties of hydrogen bonded organic salt crystal: Triethylammonium-3, 5-dinitrosalicylate

    Rajkumar, Madhu; Chandramohan, Angannan


    Triethylammonium-3, 5-dinitrosalicylate, an organic salt was synthesized and single crystals grown by slow solvent evaporation solution growth technique using methanol as a solvent. The presence of various functional groups and mode of vibrations has been confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopic technique. The UV-vis-NIR Spectrum was recorded in the range 200-1200 nm to find optical transmittance window and lower cut off wavelength of the title crystal. The formation of the salt and the molecular structure was confirmed by NMR spectroscopic technique. Crystal system, crystalline nature, cell parameters and hydrogen bonding interactions of the grown crystal were determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis. The thermal characteristics of grown crystal were analyzed by thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analyses. Dielectric studies were carried out to study the distribution of charges within the crystal. The mechanical properties of the title crystal were studied by Vicker's microhardness technique.

  17. Tunable Cascade Reaction of Aryl Diazonium Salts and Trialkylamine: Synthesis of Monofluorinated Arylhydrazones and gem-Difluorinated Azo Compounds.

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, Zhengjuan; Shi, Feng; Tang, Pingping


    The first example of a mild and tunable cascade reaction of aryl diazonium salts and trialkylamine in the presence of Selectfluor to prepare monofluorinated arylhydrazones and gem-difluorinated azo compounds without metal has been explored. In the presence of H2O, the monofluorinated arylhydrazones were observed in moderate to good yield. In the absence of H2O, the gem-difluorinated azo compounds were obtained. The fluorinated arylhydrazones were utilized to synthesize fluorinated pyrazoles and other nitrogen-containing compounds.

  18. Synthesis of nanometer metallic powders or its oxides by γ-ray reduction of salts aqueous solution

    Zhang Manwei; Zhu Yingjie; Qian Yitai; Chen Zuyao


    The nanocrystal powders of pure Ag, Cu, Ni, Pt, Au, Pd, Cd, Sn, Pb and Co were obtained by γ-radiation reduction of their salt aqueons solution. The average particle sizes of them are 5-45 nm respectively. the factors affecting the particle size and the formation and growth of the nanocrystal particles into single crystal are illustrated and discussed. the pure nanocrystal Cu 2 O powders were also successfully prepared. The mechanism of its formation is discussed. (author)




    A series of unsaturated esters were prepared via condensation of sodium carboxylates and alkenyl halide under the condition of macroporous polystyrene grafted quarternary ammonium salt as recyclable phase transfer catalyst, NaI as co-catalyst, Cu powder as inhibitor and H2O as solvent. Under optimal conditions, products yields are 78.2~ 96.0%. The catalyst can be convenient recycled and reutilized for about five times without losing its activity obviously.

  20. Synthesis of magnetic systems producing field with maximal scalar characteristics

    Klevets, Nickolay I.


    A method of synthesis of the magnetic systems (MSs) consisting of uniformly magnetized blocks is proposed. This method allows to synthesize MSs providing maximum value of any magnetic field scalar characteristic. In particular, it is possible to synthesize the MSs providing the maximum of a field projection on a given vector, a gradient of a field modulus and a gradient of a field energy on a given directing vector, a field magnitude, a magnetic flux through a given surface, a scalar product of a field or a force by a directing function given in some area of space, etc. The synthesized MSs provide maximal efficiency of permanent magnets utilization. The usage of the proposed method of MSs synthesis allows to change a procedure of projecting in principal, namely, to execute it according to the following scheme: (a) to choose the sizes, a form and a number of blocks of a system proceeding from technological (economical) reasons; (b) using the proposed synthesis method, to find an orientation of site magnetization providing maximum possible effect of magnet utilization in a system obtained in (a). Such approach considerably reduces a time of MSs projecting and guarantees maximal possible efficiency of magnets utilization. Besides it provides absolute assurance in 'ideality' of a MS design and allows to obtain an exact estimate of the limit parameters of a field in a working area of a projected MS. The method is applicable to a system containing the components from soft magnetic material with linear magnetic properties

  1. LANDSAT-4 MSS and Thematic Mapper data quality and information content analysis

    Anuta, P.; Bartolucci, L.; Dean, E.; Lozano, F.; Malaret, E.; Mcgillem, C. D.; Valdes, J.; Valenzuela, C.


    LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) data were analyzed to obtain information on data quality and information content. Geometric evaluations were performed to test band-to-band registration accuracy. Thematic mapper overall system resolution was evaluated using scene objects which demonstrated sharp high contrast edge responses. Radiometric evaluation included detector relative calibration, effects of resampling, and coherent noise effects. Information content evaluation was carried out using clustering, principal components, transformed divergence separability measure, and supervised classifiers on test data. A detailed spectral class analysis (multispectral classification) was carried out to compare the information content of the MSS and TM for a large number of scene classes. A temperature-mapping experiment was carried out for a cooling pond to test the quality of thermal-band calibration. Overall TM data quality is very good. The MSS data are noisier than previous LANDSAT results.

  2. Synthesis of S-doped ZnO by the interaction of sulfur with zinc salt in PEG200

    Xie, Xin-Yuan; Zhan, Pei; Li, Li-Yun; Zhou, Dan-Jie; Guo, Dan-Yi; Meng, Jian-Xin; Bai, Yan; Zheng, Wen-Jie


    Graphical abstract: S-doped ZnO nanoparticles (S-ZnO) were synthesized via a one-step and green method by using zinc acetate dihydrate as a precursor, S powder as a dopant and PEG200 as a solvent with the number of moles of sulfur (n S ) smaller than that of zinc salt (n Zn ). A possible mechanism was proposed to elucidate the formation of S-ZnO. PL spectra show strong green emission band, which could be applied to ZnO optoelectronic devices that work in the visible spectrum. - Highlights: • A green and one-step method was developed to synthesize S-doped ZnO nanoparticles. • The molar ratio of Zn(II) and S influences the composition of the products greatly. • The interactive mechanism of S with zinc salt in PEG was elucidated. • PL spectra of S-doped ZnO nanoparticles show strong green emission band. - Abstract: S-doped ZnO nanoparticles (S-ZnO) were synthesized via a one-step and green method. In this method, zinc acetate dihydrate was used as a precursor and sulfur was the dopant. The reaction between zinc salt and S occurred in PEG200 media. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV–Vis spectroscopy and room temperature photoluminescence were used to characterize the products. The results show that the molar ratio of Zn(II) and S determines the composition, structure, surface morphology, and luminescence properties of the products greatly. When the number of moles of sulfur (n S ) is smaller than that of zinc salt (n Zn ), the products are S-ZnO with diameters of 40–55 nm and they have ultraviolet absorption peaks at 363 nm. The incorporation of S into ZnO is supported by broadening and lower Bragg angle shift in XRD pattern. FTIR spectra show that PEG200 adsorbs onto the surfaces of the S-ZnO as a capping agent. PL spectra show that the effective sulfur doping

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Benzimidazolium Salts as Novel Ionic Liquids and their Catalytic Behavior in the Reaction of Alkylation

    Wei Guo HUANG; Bo CHEN; Yuan Yuan WANG; Li Yi DAI; Yong Kui SHAN


    A new series of ionic liquids have been prepared containing benzimidazolium cation (abbreviated as Bim). These salts were characterized by DSC, NMR, elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. They showed different properties compared to imidazolium cation due to the introduction of benzene ring. The alkylation of benzene/diphenyl ether with 1-dodecene was carried in C4eBimBr-AlCl3 ionic liquids showing high catalytic activity when the mole ratio of C4eBimB:AlCl3 was 1:2.

  4. Radical Cation Salt-initiated Aerobic C-H Phosphorylation of N-Benzylanilines: Synthesis of a-Aminophosphonates.

    Jia, Xiao Dong; Liu, Xiaofei; Yuan, Yu; Li, Pengfei; Hou, Wentao; He, Kaixuan


    A radical cation salt-initiated phosphorylation of N-benzylanilines was realized through the aerobic oxidation of sp3 C-H bond, providing a series of α-aminophosphonates in high yields. The investigation of the reaction scope revealed that this mild catalyst system is superior in good functional group tolerance and high reaction efficiency. The mechanistic study implied that the cleavage of the sp3 C-H bond was involved in the rate-determining step. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A combined salt-hard templating approach for synthesis of multi-modal porous carbons used for probing the simultaneous effects of porosity and electrode engineering on EDLC performance

    Bhandari, Nidhi


    A new approach, based on a combination of salt and hard templating for producing multi-modal porous carbons is demonstrated. The hard template, silica nanoparticles, generate mesopores (∼22 nm), and in some cases borderline-macropores (∼64 nm), resulting in high pore volume (∼3.9 cm3/g) while the salt template, zinc chloride, generates borderline-mesopores (∼2 nm), thus imparting high surface area (∼2100 m2/g). The versatility of the proposed synthesis technique is demonstrated using: (i) dual salt templates with hard template resulting in magnetic, nanostructured-clay embedded (∼27% clay content), high surface area (∼1527 m2/g) bimodal carbons (∼2 and 70 nm pores), (ii) multiple hard templates with salt template resulting in tri-modal carbons (∼2, 12 and 28 nm pores), (iii) low temperature (450 °C) synthesis of bimodal carbons afforded by the presence of hygroscopic salt template, (iv) easy coupling with physical activation approaches. A selected set of thus synthesized carbons were used to evaluate, for the first time, the simultaneous effects of carbon porosity and pressure applied during electrode fabrication on EDLC performance. Electrode pressing was found to be more favorable for carbons containing hard-templated mesopores (∼87% capacitance retention at current density of 40 A/g) as compared to those without (∼54% capacitance retention). © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Mean Sea Surface DTU10mss - Comparison With Gps And Tide Gauges

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per; Bondo, Torsten


    Satellite altimetry and the Global Position System (GPS) are conveniently given in the same reference frame and can therefore be used to construct a vertical reference surface for offshore navigation. Here a new Mean Sea Surface DTU10MSS is presented with a vertical accuracy better than 10 cm...... in most areas of the world confirmed by extensive comparison with GPS leveled tide gauges around Britain and Norway. It is proposed that this model is used as a global vertical reference. This paper briefly outlines the update of the previous DTU model to DTU10MSS and presents comparisons on GPS positions...

  7. Application of MSS-neutron spin echo spectrometer to pulsed neutron sources

    Tasaki, S.; Ebisawa, T.; Hino, M.; Kawai, T.


    A multilayer spin splitter (MSS) is a neutron device that gives phase difference between field-parallel and -antiparallel spin component of a superposing state. Since the phase difference is equivalent to the Larmor precession angle, MSS enables us to construct a new type of neutron spin echo (NSE) spectrometer. The new NSE spectrometer has its properties that 1. since the phase shift is neutron flight path length, the spectrometer can be drastically small, 2. the neutron spin echo time is proportional to the neutron wavelength. (author)

  8. Low temperature molten salt synthesis of Y2Sn2O7 anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Nithyadharseni, P.; Reddy, M.V.; Ozoemena, Kenneth I.; Balakrishna, R. Geetha; Chowdari, B.V.R.


    Highlights: • For the first time Y 2 Sn 2 O 7 compound was prepared at very low temperature by molten salt method. • We studied the effect of reheating on electrochemical properties. • All the compounds showed particle size of below 500 nm. • The all compounds showed a stable and good capacity retention during cycling. - Abstract: For the first time, yttrium tin oxide (Y 2 Sn 2 O 7 ) compound is prepared at low temperature (400 °C) with cubic pyrochlore structure via molten salt method using KOH as a flux for their electrochemical applications. The final product is reheated at three different temperatures of 600, 800 and 1000 °C for 6 h in air, are physically and chemically characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electrochemical studies of galvanostatic cycling (GC), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Galvanostatic cycling of Y 2 Sn 2 O 7 compounds are carried out with three different current densities of 60, 100 and 250 mA g −1 and the potential range of 0.005–1.0 V vs. Li. The EIS is carried out to study the electrode kinetics during discharge and charge at various voltages and corresponding variation of resistance and capacitance values are discussed.

  9. Synthesis of nano-composite surfaces via the co-deposition of metallic salts and nano particles

    MacFarlane, J.W.; Tesh, S.J.; Crane, R.A.; Hallam, K.R.; Scott, T.B.


    Highlights: • Nanofaceted surfaces are prepared by a low current density (<0.1 A cm{sup 2}) electrodeposition method. • Surfaces are formed of nanoparticles anchored to a conductive (carbon) substrate. • Formed surfaces show a high nano-reactivity and surface area. • Demonstration of INP/FeCl{sub 3} nanocomposite for water filtration effectively removing BTEX contamination. -- Abstract: A novel, low energy method for coating different nano-particles via electro-deposition to a recyclable carbon glass supporting structure is demonstrated. In the resulting composite, the nano-material is bound to the substrate surface, thereby removing the potential for causing harmful interactions with the environment. Nano-particles were suspended in a salt solution and deposited at low current densities (<0.1 A cm{sup −2}) producing thin (<100 nm), uniform nano-faceted surfaces. A co-deposition mechanism of nano-particles and cations from the salt solution is proposed and explored. This has been successfully demonstrated for iron, sliver, titanium in the current work. Furthermore, the removal of the surface coatings can be achieved via a reversed current applied over the system, allowing for the recovery of surface bound metal contaminants. The demonstrated applicability of this coating method to different nano-particle types, is useful in many areas within the catalysis and water treatment industries. One such example, is demonstrated, for the treatment of BTEX contamination and show a greatly improved efficiency to current leading remediation agents.

  10. Reactivity of Heteropolytungstate and Heteropolymolybdate Metal Transition Salts in the Synthesis of Dimethyl Carbonate from Methanol and CO2

    Amro Al-Amro


    Full Text Available A series of Keggin-type heteropoly compounds (HPC having different countercations (Co, Fe and different addenda atoms (W, Mo were synthesized and characterized by means of Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD. The catalytic properties of the prepared catalysts for the dimethyl carbonate (DMC synthesis from CO2 and CH3OH were investigated. The experimental results showed that the catalytic activity is significantly influenced by the type of the countercation and addenda atoms transition metal. Among the catalysts examined, Co1.5PW12O40 is the most active for the DMC synthesis, owing to the synergetic effect between Co and W. Investigating the effect of the support showed that the least acidic one (Al2O3 enhanced the conversion but decreased the DMC selectivity in favor of that of methyl formate (MF, while that of dimethoxy methane remained stable.

  11. A highly selective method for the synthesis of symmetrical trisubstituted pyridines using transition and non-transition metal salts

    Sebuov, F.A.; Dzhemilev, U.M.; Ruttan, O.G.


    A study was carried out on the reaction of C 2 -C 6 aliphatic acid chlorides with t-BuOH, isobutylene and NH 3 by the action of transition and non-transition metal salts (A1C1 3 , ZnC1 2 , InC1 3 , TiC1 4 , TiC1 3 , WC1 6 , FeC1 3 , CoC1 2 , NiC1 2 and PdC1 2 ) and bimetallic systems A1C1 3 -NiC1 2 and A1C1 3 -PdC1 2 in a search for new catalysts for this reaction which provide for the formation of 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine (I), which has practical importance, and to determine the possibility of using other acid chlorides and isobutylene in this reaction

  12. Synthesis, structure, and thermal properties of soluble hydrazinium germanium(IV) and tin(IV) selenide salts.

    Mitzi, David B


    The crystal structures of two hydrazinium-based germanium(IV) and tin(IV) selenide salts are determined. (N(2)H(5))(4)Ge(2)Se(6) (1) [I4(1)cd, a = 12.708(1) Angstroms, c = 21.955(2) Angstroms, Z = 8] and (N(2)H(4))(3)(N(2)H(5))(4)Sn(2)Se(6) (2) [P, a = 6.6475(6) Angstroms, b = 9.5474(9) Angstroms, c = 9.8830(10) Angstroms, alpha = 94.110(2) degrees, beta = 99.429(2) degrees, gamma = 104.141(2) degrees, Z = 1] each consist of anionic dimers of edge-sharing metal selenide tetrahedra, M(2)Se(6)(4-) (M = Ge or Sn), separated by hydrazinium cations and, for 2, additional neutral hydrazine molecules. Substantial hydrogen bonding exists among the hydrazine/hydrazinium molecules as well as between the hydrazinium cations and the selenide anions. Whereas the previously reported tin(IV) sulfide system, (N(2)H(5))(4)Sn(2)S(6), decomposes cleanly to microcrystalline SnS(2) when heated to 200 degrees C in an inert atmosphere, higher temperatures (>300 degrees C) are required to dissociate selenium from 1 and 2 for the analogous preparations of single-phase metal selenides. The metal chalcogenide salts are highly soluble in hydrazine, as well as in a variety of amines and DMSO, highlighting the potential usefulness of these compounds as precursors for the solution deposition of the corresponding metal chalcogenide films.

  13. Synthesis of LiFePO4/C cathode material from ferric oxide and organic lithium salts

    Shi Zhongqi; Huang Ming; Huai Yongjian; Lin Ziji; Yang Kerun; Hu Xuebu; Deng Zhenghua


    Research highlights: → LiFePO 4 can be synthesized from Fe 2 O 3 by a sequence of free-radical reactions. → Organic lithium salts can avoid the composition segregation of the precursor. → Low cost ferric oxide and environmentally friendly distilled water are used. - Abstract: LiFePO 4 /C cathode material has been simply synthesized via a modified in situ solid-state reaction route using the raw materials of Fe 2 O 3 , NH 4 H 2 PO 4 , Li 2 C 2 O 4 and lithium polyacrylate (PAALi). The sintering temperature of LiFePO 4 /C precursor is studied by thermo-gravimetric (TG)/differential thermal analysis (DTA). The physical properties of LiFePO 4 /C are then investigated through analysis using by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the electrochemical properties are investigated by electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), cyclic voltammogram (CV) and constant current charge/discharge test. The LiFePO 4 /C composite with the particle size of ∼200 nm shows better discharge capacity (156.4 mAh g -1 ) than bare LiFePO 4 (52.3 mAh g -1 ) at 0.2 C due to the improved electronic conductivity which is demonstrated by EIS. The as-prepared LiFePO 4 /C through this method also shows excellent high-rate characteristic and cycle performance. The initial discharge capacity of the sample is 120.5 mAh g -1 and the capacity retention rate is 100.6% after 50 cycles at 5 C rate. The results prove that the using of organic lithium salts can obtain a high performance LiFePO 4 /C composite.

  14. Cytotoxicity, interaction with dentine and efficacy on multispecies biofilms of a modified salt solution intended for endodontic disinfection in a new in vitro biofilm model.

    van der Waal, S V; Scheres, N; de Soet, J J; Wesselink, P R; Crielaard, W


    To investigate the cytotoxicity of a modified salt solution (MSS) and evaluate the antimicrobial properties of MSS on in vitro biofilm models. In a metabolic assay, fibroblasts derived from periodontal ligaments (PDL) of human extracted teeth were cultured and challenged with MSS or controls. Then, in active attachment biofilm models, the efficacy of MSS in the presence of dentine powder and in eliminating mature biofilms was investigated. In the dentine assay, a biofilm of Enterococcus faecalis was employed. For the final assay, microorganisms were retrieved from infected root canals and cultured to produce biofilms. After the treatments with MSS or the controls, the biofilms were collected, serially diluted and plated. The colony-forming units were counted. One-way anova was used to analyse the differences between the groups. A P 0.05). In endodontic biofilms, the culturable bacteria were equally reduced by MSS, 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) or 2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (P > 0.05). Modified salt solution is noncytotoxic in vitro and has good antimicrobial properties equal to CHX and NaOCl. Although the results are promising, ex vivo and in vivo studies are needed before its use as an interappointment root canal dressing can be considered. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of new 3-(4-arylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-hydroxypropyl 4-propoxybenzoates and their hydrochloride salts

    Marvanova, P.; Padrtova, T.; Pekárek, T.; Brus, Jiří; Czernek, Jiří; Mokrý, P.; Humpa, O.; Oravec, Michal; Jampílek, J.


    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2016), 707_1-707_13 ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03636S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : arylcarbonyloxyaminopropanols * phenylpiperazines * synthesis Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (UEK-B) OBOR OECD: Polymer science; Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) (UEK-B) Impact factor: 2.861, year: 2016

  16. [On-board medical support system (MSS) of flights of promising aerospace sets (design)].

    Ushakov, I B; Bednenko, V S


    It was suggested as the main compositive fractions MSS to consider the base system of automated evaluation of blood redistribution (BR) in body means of crew members protection and prophylaxis (CMPP) of unfavourable effects of flight factors to organism and also the automated circuit of CMPP' control. The advanced MSS includes 4 original measuring channels for registration of the base physiologic indices (electrocardiogram, venous-arterial pulsegram of neck vessels, reogram of head, earlap vessels pulsegram) the dynamic of which allows to determine with the help of computer the BR-integral parameter. The CMPP automated control circuit unites the separate protecting means in common system and executes the individual selection of regimes and CM PP-composition in accord with, first of all, body reactions manifestation and, secondly, individual physiologic status of spaceman. As CMPP was selected the negative pressure production around lower body part. Approlation of constructed active laboratory engineering mock-up MSS has performed investigations with participation of 29 subjects (Volunteers) under the modeling of hemodynamic shifts, developing in human body in short-term antiorthostatic hypokinesia (-10 degrees), as well as, in combined effect of antiorthostatic hypokinesia (-10 degrees), Coriolis acceleration and optokinetic stimulation. Results of investigations have showed, that the use of advanced MSS gives the indices of operator professional activity on the average of 17-32% under the decrease of hemodynamic stressful.

  17. Robust method for determining steady state initial values for MSS plant models

    Ringham, M.R.; Carlson, J.R.


    Results of an EPRI sponsored project (RP 2504-3 amend i) demonstrated that the methodology embodied in the existing System Performance and Analysis Code (SPANC) can be employed to provide initial values for MSS plant models. An EASY5 version of the TMI plant two loop approximation with primary coolant flow recirculation through a failed pump was selected for demonstration purposes. The project entailed replacing the 1967 ASME steam properties in SPANC with the simplified MSS functions. The MSS component models were then recast into equivalent steady state models compatible with the SPANC executive system. A special input routine was written to modify the MSS data to the SPANC data format. The accuracy of the obtained initial values was approximately four significant figures, sufficient to converge on the EASY5 steady state algorithms. Convergence is relatively insensitive to the initial guess in SPANC and are obtained at a computer cost of approximately two minutes on the UNIVAC 1100/60. Since plant configuration is established by data input in SPANC, it can easily be altered to provide initial values for an MMS simulation of all TMI type plants

  18. Deforestation in Mwanza District, Malawi, from 1981 to 1992 as determined from Landsat MSS imagery

    Andrew T. Hudak; Carol A. Wessman


    Malawi is critically short of fuelwood, the primary energy source for its poverty-stricken populace. Deforestation from 1981 to 1992 in Mwanza District in southern Malawi was assessed using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values calculated from multitemporal Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images. A control site, where vegetation change was assumed to...

  19. Impact of the Valence Charge of Transition Metals on the Cobalt- and Rhodium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Indenamines, Indenols, and Isoquinolinium Salts: A Catalytic Cycle Involving MIII/MV [M = Co, Rh] for [4+2] Annulation.

    Chiou, Mong-Feng; Jayakumar, Jayachandran; Cheng, Chien-Hong; Chuang, Shih-Ching


    Reaction mechanisms for the synthesis of indenamines, indenols, and isoquinolinium salts through cobalt- and rhodium-catalysis were investigated using density functional theory calculations. We found that the valence charge of transition metals dramatically influences the reaction pathways. Catalytic reactions involving lower-oxidation-state transition metals (M I /M III , M = Co and Rh) generally favor a [3+2] cyclization pathway, whereas those involving higher oxidation states (M III /M V ) proceed through a [4+2] cyclization pathway. A catalytic cycle with novel M III /M V as a crucial species was successfully revealed for isoquinolinium salts synthesis, which highly valent M V was not only encountered in the [RhCp*]-catalysis but also in the [CoCp*]-catalysis.

  20. Synthesis of LiFePO{sub 4}/C cathode material from ferric oxide and organic lithium salts

    Shi Zhongqi; Huang Ming [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100039 (China); Huai Yongjian [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100039 (China); China Aviation Lithium Battery Co., Ltd, Luoyang, Henan 471003 (China); Lin Ziji; Yang Kerun [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100039 (China); Hu Xuebu [Department of Chemistry and Materials, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610068 (China); Zhongke Laifang Power Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Deng Zhenghua, E-mail: [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100039 (China); Zhongke Laifang Power Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)


    Research highlights: {yields} LiFePO{sub 4} can be synthesized from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by a sequence of free-radical reactions. {yields} Organic lithium salts can avoid the composition segregation of the precursor. {yields} Low cost ferric oxide and environmentally friendly distilled water are used. - Abstract: LiFePO{sub 4}/C cathode material has been simply synthesized via a modified in situ solid-state reaction route using the raw materials of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} and lithium polyacrylate (PAALi). The sintering temperature of LiFePO{sub 4}/C precursor is studied by thermo-gravimetric (TG)/differential thermal analysis (DTA). The physical properties of LiFePO{sub 4}/C are then investigated through analysis using by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the electrochemical properties are investigated by electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), cyclic voltammogram (CV) and constant current charge/discharge test. The LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite with the particle size of {approx}200 nm shows better discharge capacity (156.4 mAh g{sup -1}) than bare LiFePO{sub 4} (52.3 mAh g{sup -1}) at 0.2 C due to the improved electronic conductivity which is demonstrated by EIS. The as-prepared LiFePO{sub 4}/C through this method also shows excellent high-rate characteristic and cycle performance. The initial discharge capacity of the sample is 120.5 mAh g{sup -1} and the capacity retention rate is 100.6% after 50 cycles at 5 C rate. The results prove that the using of organic lithium salts can obtain a high performance LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite.

  1. Voltammetric behavior, biocidal effect and synthesis of some new nanomeric fused cyclic thiosemicarbazones and their mercuric(II salts

    M.S.T. Makki


    Full Text Available New nanomeric 3-thioxo-5-methoxy-4,5-dihydro-6-methyl-9-unsubstituted/substituted-1,2,4-triazino[5,6-b]indoles (2a–c and 3-thioxo-5-methoxy-4,5-dihydro-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,4-triaino[5,6]-cyclobut-6-ene (3 were prepared via reaction of thiosemicarbazide with 5-unsubstitutedand/substituted-indol-2,3-diones and/or 3,4-dihydroxycyclobutane-1,2-dione in methanol–concentrated HCl at room temperature. A series of mercury(II–ligand salts e.g. compound 4b and Hg(II complexes 5a,b and 6 of cyclic Schiff base were prepared. Structures of these compounds were established by elemental analysis and spectral measurements. The redox characteristics of selected compounds were studied for use as chelating agents for stripping voltammetric determination of mercuric(II ions in aqueous media. The compounds were also screened for their use as molluscicidal agents against Biomophalaria Alexandrina Snails responsible for Bilhariziasis.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and spectroscopic properties of a new Nd{sup 3+}-doped Co-picromerite-type Tutton salt

    Souamti, A., E-mail: [Laboratoire d' Application de la Chimie aux Ressources et Substances Naturelles et à l' Environnement, Département de Chimie, Université de Carthage, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Zarzouna, Bizerte 7021 (Tunisia); Martín, I.R. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna (Spain); Zayani, L. [Laboratoire d' Application de la Chimie aux Ressources et Substances Naturelles et à l' Environnement, Département de Chimie, Université de Carthage, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Zarzouna, Bizerte 7021 (Tunisia); Hernández-Rodríguez, M.A.; Soler-Carracedo, K.; Lozano-Gorrín, A.D. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna (Spain); Lalla, E. [Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP), Horia Hulubei, National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN HH), 30, Reactorului Street, P.O. Box MG-6, 077125 Magurele, jud. Ilfov (Romania); Chehimi, D. Ben Hassen [Laboratoire d' Application de la Chimie aux Ressources et Substances Naturelles et à l' Environnement, Département de Chimie, Université de Carthage, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Zarzouna, Bizerte 7021 (Tunisia)


    Single crystals of Nd{sup 3+}-doped Co-picromerite has been synthesized by the slow evaporation method. After two weeks on hold, the crystals obtained were characterized by different techniques, indeed X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) shows that these compounds crystallize in the monoclinic system with space group P21/a. Complete dehydration of the double salt was obtained before reaching 200 °C with a phase transition of KS around 570 °C. The IR spectroscopic study confirms the vibrational modes of the sulfate groups and water molecules. Exciting at 473 nm, the emission peaks associated with the 4F{sub 5/2}→4I{sub 9/2}, 4F{sub 3/2}→4I{sub 9/2} and 4F{sub 3/2}→4I{sub 11/2} transitions were observed. The luminescence decay curve was analyzed in the frame of the Inokuti-Hirayama model in order to obtain the intrinsic lifetime and the energy transfer parameter among Nd{sup 3+}ions.

  3. Strong magnetoelectric coupling in CoFe2O4-BaTiO3 composites prepared by molten-salt synthesis method

    Nie Junwu; Xu Guoyue; Yang Ying; Cheng Chuanwei


    Magnetoelectric nano-composites (1 - x)CoFe 2 O 4 + (x)BaTiO 3 with x varies as 0, 0.5, 0.65 and 1.0 in molar ratio were prepared by molten-salt synthesis method. The structural analysis carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique has confirmed that both phases are present in all the nano-composites powders and ceramic composites. The TEM images show that the nano-particle crystallite size is about 50-80 nm, which is consistent to the result calculated by XRD. The dielectric constant was studied as a function of frequency for ceramic composites sintered by using those nano-composite powders. The saturation magnetization (Ms) and remnant polarization (Pr) were calculated from the magnetic hysteresis loop and electric hysteresis loop, respectively. And a large ME coefficient of about 17.04 mV cm -1 Oe -1 was observed for 0.5CoFe 2 O 4 + 0.5BaTiO 3 ME composite under the ac superimposed magnetic signal with 20 kHz frequency by using the lock-in technique

  4. Molten salt synthesis of nitrogen and oxygen enriched hierarchically porous carbons derived from biomass via rapid microwave carbonization for high voltage supercapacitors

    Cheng, Yinfeng; Li, Baoqiang; Huang, Yanjuan; Wang, Yaming; Chen, Junchen; Wei, Daqing; Feng, Yujie; Jia, Dechang; Zhou, Yu


    Nitrogen and oxygen enriched hierarchically porous carbons (NOHPCs) derived from biomass have been successfully prepared by rapid microwave carbonization coupled with molten salt synthesis method in only 4 min. ZnCl2 plays important roles as microwave absorber, chemical activation agent and porogen in this process. NOHPC-1:10 sample possesses the maximum specific surface area of 1899 m2 g-1 with a pore volume of 1.16 cm3 g-1 and mesopore ratio of 70%, as well as nitrogen content of 5.30 wt% and oxygen content of 14.12 wt%. When evaluated as an electrode in a three-electrode system with 6 M KOH electrolyte, the material exhibits a high specific capacitance of 276 F g-1 at 0.2 A g-1, with a good rate capability of 90.9% retention at 10 A g-1. More importantly, the symmetric supercapacitor based on NOHPC-1:10 in 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte exhibits a high energy density of 13.9 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 120 W kg-1 in a wide voltage window of 0-1.6 V, an excellent cycling stability with 95% of capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles. Our strategy provides a facile and rapid way for the preparation of advanced carbon materials derived from biomass towards energy storage applications.

  5. Synthesis of Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 39} by molten salts method and its Mössbauer spectrum

    Flores Morales, Shirley Saraí; León Flores, Jesús A.; Pérez Mazariego, José Luis, E-mail:; Marquina Fábrega, Vivianne; Gómez González, Raúl W.


    A sample of Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 39} was synthesized by the molten salts method in 2 h at 750 °C with KCl-KBr as reaction media. The sample was characterized with X-ray powder diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction confirms that a sillenite type structure with a cell parameter a=10.190(4) Å was achieved, with only small traces of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In order to get a Mössbauer spectrum with a good signal to noise ratio, the synthesis was made using 95% enriched α–{sup 57}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a Mössbauer spectrum for the Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 39} has been recorded. The nonappearance of a magnetic sextet confirms its paramagnetic behavior. The measured Mössbauer parameters (IS=0.20±0.004 mm/s and QS=0.2±0.07 mm/s) correspond to Fe{sup +3} in very symmetric surroundings, and rule out some interpretations given to the doublet observed in some Mössbauer spectra of BiFeO{sub 3}.

  6. Scope and limitations of the Heck-Matsuda-coupling of phenol diazonium salts and styrenes: a protecting-group economic synthesis of phenolic stilbenes.

    Schmidt, Bernd; Elizarov, Nelli; Berger, René; Hölter, Frank


    4-Phenol diazonium salts undergo Pd-catalyzed Heck reactions with various styrenes to 4'-hydroxy stilbenes. In almost all cases higher yields and fewer side products were observed, compared to the analogous 4-methoxy benzene diazonium salts. In contrast, the reaction fails completely with 2- and 3-phenol diazonium salts. For these substitution patterns the methoxy-substituted derivatives are superior.

  7. Studies of the magnetic properties of Ni-Zn-Cu ferrite and its synthesis by using metal nitrate salts

    Koh, Jae Gui


    Ni-Zn-Cu ferrite was synthesized by decomposing the metal nitrates Ni(NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O, Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O, Zn(NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O, and Fe(NO 3 ) 3 ·9H 2 O at 200 .deg. C for 20 hours. The ferrite powder was calcined at 400 .deg. C and pulverized for 3, 6, 9, or 12 hours in a steel ball mill. Then, it was sintered from 700 .deg. C to 1000 .deg. C in 100 .deg. C steps for 1 hour at each step. Thus, we could study the effects of the synthesis conditions on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Ni-Zn-Cu ferrite. We could chemically bond initial specimens in liquid at a low-temperature of 150 .deg. C owing to the low melting points, less than 200 .deg. C, of the metal nitrates instead of mechanical ball-mill pulverization, thus narrowing the distance between the particles a molecular one and lowering the sintering point at least by 200 .deg. C to 300 .deg. C. The initial permeability was 50 to 470, and the maximum magnetic induction and coercive force were 0.2410 T and 39.79 A/m to 95.496 A/m, respectively, which are similar to values for Ni-Zn-Cu ferrite synthesized using a conventional process.

  8. One-step synthesis of graphene-Au nanoparticle hybrid materials from metal salt-loaded micelles

    Liu, X; Zhang, X W; Meng, J H; Wang, H L; Yin, Z G; Wu, J L; Gao, H L


    In this study, we present a facile one-step method to synthesize graphene-Au nanoparticle (NP) hybrid materials by using HAuCl 4 -loaded poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-P2VP) micelles as solid carbon sources. N-doped graphene with controllable thickness can be grown from PS-P2VP micelles covered by a Ni capping layer by an annealing process; simultaneously, the HAuCl 4 in the micelles were reduced into Au NPs under a reductive atmosphere to form Au NPs on graphene. The decoration of Au NPs leads to an obviously enhanced electrical conductivity and a slightly increased work function of graphene due to the electron transfer effect. The graphene-Au NP hybrid materials also exhibit a localized surface plasmon resonance feature of Au NPs. This work provides a novel and accessible route for the one-step synthesis of graphene-Au NP hybrid materials with high quality, which might be useful for future applications in optoelectronic devices. (paper)

  9. Synthesis of tungsten oxide (W{sub 18}O{sub 49}) nanosheets utilizing EDTA salt by microwave irradiation method

    Hariharan, V.; Parthibavarman, M. [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Sekar, C., E-mail: [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Department of Bioelectronics and Biosensors, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamilnadu (India)


    Research highlights: > We have synthesized tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3-{delta}}) nanoparticles by microwave irradiation method for the first time using EDTA as surface modulator. The variation in stoichiometric oxygen content of the annealed samples clearly indicates the role of EDTA in reaction medium. The variation in oxygen content also modified the transparency of the end product confirming the change in optical conductivity. - Abstract: We report the synthesis of crystalline W{sub 18}O{sub 49} with nanosheet like morphology by low cost microwave irradiation method without employing hydrothermal process for the first time. Initially, WO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O was synthesized using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as surface modulator. The product was annealed at 600 {sup o}C for 6 h in ambient atmosphere in order to obtain anhydrous tungsten oxide W{sub 18}O{sub 49}. Powder X-ray diffraction results confirmed the as prepared WO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O to be orthorhombic and W{sub 18}O{sub 49} to be monoclinic phase, respectively. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) revealed that the W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanosheets have the average dimensions of the order of 250 nm in length and around 150 nm in width. UV-visible diffusion reflectance spectroscopic (DRS) studies revealed the band gap energies to be 3.28 and 3.47 eV for WO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O and W{sub 18}O{sub 49} samples, respectively. The growth mechanism of two dimensional W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanosheets is discussed.

  10. A 10-bit 120-MS/s pipelined ADC with improved switch and layout scaling strategy

    Zhou Jia; Xu Lili; Li Fule; Wang Zhihua


    A 10 bit, 120 MS/s two-channel pipelined analog-to digital converter (ADC) is presented. The ADC is featured with improved switch by using the body effect to improve its conduction performance. A scaling down strategy is proposed to get more efficiency in the OTAs layout design. Implemented in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology, the ADC's prototype occupied an area of 2.05 × 1.83 mm 2 . With a sampling rate of 120-MS/s and an input of 4.9 MHz, the ADC achieves a spurious-free-dynamic range of 74.32 dB and signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio of 55.34 dB, while consuming 220-mW/channel at 3-V supply. (paper)

  11. Forest cover of North America in the 1970s mapped using Landsat MSS data

    Feng, M.; Sexton, J. O.; Channan, S.; Townshend, J. R.


    The distribution and changes in Earth's forests impact hydrological, biogeochemical, and energy fluxes, as well as ecosystems' capacity to support biodiversity and human economies. Long-term records of forest cover are needed across a broad range of investigation, including climate and carbon-cycle modeling, hydrological studies, habitat analyzes, biological conservation, and land-use planning. Satellite-based observations enable mapping and monitoring of forests at ecologically and economically relevant resolutions and continental or even global extents. Following early forest-mapping efforts using coarser resolution remote sensing data such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), forests have been mapped regionally at developed by the Global Land Cover Facility (GLCF) as reference, we developed an automated approach to detect forests using MSS data by leveraging the multispectral and phenological characteristics of forests observed in MSS time-series. The forest-cover map is produced with layers representing the year of observation, detection of forest-cover change relative to 1990, and the uncertainty of forest-cover and -change layers. The approach has been implemented with open-source libraries to facilitate processing large volumes of Landsat MSS images on high-performance computing machines. As the first result of our global mapping effort, we present the forest cover for North America. More than 25,000 Landsat MSS scenes were processed to provide a 120-meter resolution forest cover for North America, which will be made publicly available on the GLCF website (

  12. Determining the rate of forest conversion in Mato Grosso, Brazil, using Landsat MSS and AVHRR data

    Nelson, Ross; Horning, Ned; Stone, Thomas A.


    AVHRR-LAC thermal data and Landsat MSS and TM spectral data were used to estimate the rate of forest clearing in Mato Grosso, Brazil, between 1981 and 1984. The Brazilian state was stratified into forest and nonforest. A list sampling procedure was used in the forest stratum to select Landsat MSS scenes for processing based on estimates of fire activity in the scenes. Fire activity in 1984 was estimated using AVHRR-LAC thermal data. State-wide estimates of forest conversion indicate that between 1981 and 1984, 353,966 ha + or - 77,000 ha (0.4 percent of the state area) were converted per year. No evidence of reforestation was found in this digital sample. The relationship between forest clearing rate (based on MSS-TM analysis) and fire activity (estimated using AVHRR data) was noisy (R-squared = 0.41). The results suggest that AVHRR data may be put to better use as a stratification tool than as a subsidiary variable in list sampling.

  13. Cyclic α-Alkoxyphosphonium Salts from (2-(Diphenylphosphino)phenyl)methanol and Aldehydes and Their Application in Synthesis of Vinyl Ethers and Ketones via Wittig Olefination.

    Huang, Wenhua; Rong, Hong-Ying; Xu, Jie


    Cyclic α-alkoxyphosphonium salts have been synthesized from (2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl)methanol and aldehydes in 36-89% yields. These phosphonium salts are bench-stable solids and undergo Wittig olefination with aldehydes under basic conditions (K2CO3 or t-BuOK) to form benzylic vinyl ethers, which are readily hydrolyzed to 1,2-disubstituted ethanones under acidic conditions. The formation mechanism of these phosphonium salts via hemiacetal is also proposed.

  14. Salt Tolerance

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang


    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  15. Sea salt

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.


    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  16. Synthesis and characterization of α-MoO3 microspheres packed with nanoflakes

    Sharma, Rabindar K; Reddy, G B


    In this paper, we report the fabrication of three-dimensional molybdenum oxide (α-MoO 3 ) microspheres (MSs) packed with nanoflakes by facile and eco-friendly physical vapour deposition processes. Synthesis processes include sequences of plasma-assisted sublimation and thermal evaporation routes on a nickel-coated glass substrate in three individual stages. It is observed that nanostructured films deposited in the first and second stages function as seed layers for the growth of MoO 3 MSs. The structural study divulged that the MoO 3 MSs are polycrystalline in nature with pure orthorhombic phase. The morphological study endorses the uniform growth of MSs on a large area scale having diameters in the range of 0.7–2 µm with the finely packed single crystalline nanoflakes with mean thicknesses of nearly 60 nm. These single crystalline flakes are not individual but in the form of randomly distributed bunches embedded on the surface of MSs. Vibrational study of molybdenum and oxygen atoms in the MSs is carried out by Raman and Fourier transform infrared analysis, which further assured the existence of a pure orthorhombic crystal phase of MoO 3 MSs and also justified the x-ray diffractogram findings. The MoO 3 MSs show intense photoluminescence emission at room temperature with the five prominent peaks located at 424, 457, 486, 521 and 536 nm in accordance with the improvement in the degree of crystallinity. The possible growth strategy of α-MoO 3 MSs packed with nanoflakes is proposed in this paper briefly. (paper)

  17. Design of a 12-bit 80MS/s pipeline analog-to-digital converter for PLC-VDSL applications

    Ruiz-Amaya, Jesus; Delgado-Restituto, Manuel; Fernandez-Bootello, Juan F.; de la Rosa, Jose M.


    This paper describes the design of a 12-bit 80MS/s pipeline Analog-to-Digital converter implemented in 0.13mm CMOS logic technology. The design has been computer-aided by a developed toolbox for the simulation, synthesis and verification of Nyquist-Rate Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Converters in MATLAB. The embedded simulator uses SIMULINK C-coded S-functions to model all required subcircuits including their main error mechanisms. This approach allows to drastically speed up the simulation CPU-time and makes the proposed tool an advantageous alternative for fast exploration of requirements and as a design validation tool. The converter is based on a 10-stage pipeline preceded by a sample/hold with bootstrapping technique. Each stage gives 1.5 effective bits, except for the first one which provides 2.5 effective bits to improve linearity. The Analog-to-Digital architecture uses redundant bits for digital correction, it is planned to be implemented without using calibration and employs a subranging pipeline look-ahead technique to increase speed. Substrate biased MOSFETs in the depletion region are used as capacitors, linearized by a series compensation. Simulation results show that the Multi-Tone Power Ratio is higher than 56dB for several DMT test signals and the estimated Signal-to-Noise Ratio yield is supposed to be better than 62 dB from DC to Nyquist frequency. The converter dissipates less than 150mW from a 3.3V supply and occupies less than 4 mm2 die area. The results have been checked with all process corners from -40° to 85° and power supply from 3V to 3.6V.

  18. Additional disinfection with a modified salt solution in a root canal model.

    van der Waal, Suzette V; Oonk, Charlotte A M; Nieman, Selma H; Wesselink, Paul R; de Soet, Johannes J; Crielaard, Wim


    The aim of this study is to investigate the disinfecting properties of a modified salt solution (MSS) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) in a non-direct-contact ex-vivo model. Seventy-four single-canal roots infected with Enterococcus faecalis were treated with 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigation or with NaOCl irrigation with subsequent dressing with MSS or Ca(OH)2. After removal of the dressings, the roots were filled with bacterial growth medium and incubated for seven days to enable the surviving bacteria to repopulate the root canal lumen. Growth was determined by sampling the root canals with paper points before treatment (S1), after treatment (S2) and incubation after treatment (S3). The colony forming units were counted at S1 and S2. At S3, growth was determined as no/yes regrowth. The Kruskal-Wallis, McNemar and χ(2) test were used for statistical analyses. At S2, in the NaOCl group, growth was found in 5 of 19 root canals. After the removal of MSS or Ca(OH)2 bacteria were retrieved from one root canal in both groups. At S3, repopulation of the root canals had occurred in 14 of 19 roots after sole NaOCl irrigation, 6 of 20 roots after MSS-dressing and in 14 of 20 roots after Ca(OH)2-dressing. MSS was more effective in preventing regrowth than Ca(OH)2 (P=0.009). The modified salt solution prevented regrowth in roots which indicates that it can eliminate persistent bacteria. Dressing the root canals with Ca(OH)2 did not provide additional disinfection after NaOCl irrigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Summary of Current Radiometric Calibration Coefficients for Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+, and EO-1 ALI Sensors

    Chander, Gyanesh; Markham, Brian L.; Helder, Dennis L.


    This paper provides a summary of the current equations and rescaling factors for converting calibrated Digital Numbers (DNs) to absolute units of at-sensor spectral radiance, Top-Of- Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, and at-sensor brightness temperature. It tabulates the necessary constants for the Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) sensors. These conversions provide a basis for standardized comparison of data in a single scene or between images acquired on different dates or by different sensors. This paper forms a needed guide for Landsat data users who now have access to the entire Landsat archive at no cost.

  20. Synthesis of copolymers suitable for the storage and slow release of reactants. Cases of copper salts for intra-uterine devices

    Gaussens, Gilbert; Duchemin-Berthet, Jeanne.


    This research has been carried out to determine whether a grafted poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate) matrix could be prepared which would release useful amounts of copper salts when used in intra-uterine devices. Intra-uterine devices were prepared by grafting hydroxyethyl acrylate onto ethylene-vinylacetate copolymers (EVA). The kinetics of the grafting reaction were studied. The grafting reaction was initiated by cobalt 60 gamma rays using the simultaneous method. The conditions of copper salts absorption by the grafted copolymers were selected. The average quantity of copper salts released daily from the intra-uterine device was meaured as a function of grafting ratio and the amount of copper salt initially incorporated in the grafted polymeric matrix. In vitro experiments samples showed constant release rates during a period of 18 months

  1. Synthesis of 5-organo-, 9-organo-, and 9,11-diorgano-nido-7,8-dicarbaundecaborate salts by a cross-combination reaction

    Zakharkin, L.I.; Ol'shevskaya, V.A.; Petrovskij, P.V.


    It has been shown for the first time that salts of 5-iodine and 9,11-diiodine-nido-7,8-dicarbaundecaborates, containing iodine atoms near polyhedron pentagonal surface boron atoms, enter cross-combination reaction with magnesium organic compounds during catalysis by palladium complexes with formation of 5-organo-, 9-organo-, and 9,11-diorgano-nido-7,8-dicarbaundecaborate salts [ru

  2. Salt cookbook

    Saha, Anirban


    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  3. Historia de los MSS BH 133 y 128 de Alfonso de Palencia

    Durán Barceló, Javier


    Full Text Available El investigador que inspeccione los volúmenes UCM BH MSS 133 y 128 de Alfonso de Palencia encontrará un buen número de marcas y cotas librarias acumuladas a lo largo de su historia. Como veremos en este trabajo, estas signaturas tienen su correspondencia en los inventarios y catálogos de la biblioteca del Colegio de San Ildefonso desde 1720, 1745, 1800 y 1878. Además, la historia de estos manuscritos se puede rastrear hasta la fundación del Colegio mediante un examen analítico de los primitivos inventarios de la librería ildefonsina incluso más allá del año 1517.The researcher who inspects volumes UCM BH MSS 133 and 128 of Alfonso de Palencia will encounter a great variety of old call numbers and librarian marks accumulated throughout their history. As we will find out in this paper, these call numbers have also a parallel existence in the inventories and catalogues of the Library of the Colegio de San Ildefonso produced since 1720, 1745, 1800 y 1878. But the history of these manuscripts can be also traced back to the foundation of the College, as it is demonstrated by an analytical examination of the earlier Library inventories as far as 1517 and beyond.

  4. An 8 bit 1 MS/s SAR ADC with 7.72-ENOB

    Duan, Jihai; Zhu, Zhiyong; Deng, Jinli; Xu, Weilin


    This paper presents a low power 8-bit 1 MS/s SAR ADC with 7.72-bit ENOB. Without an op-amp, an improved segmented capacitor DAC is proposed to reduce the capacitance and the chip area. A dynamic latch comparator with output offset voltage storage technology is used to improve the precision. Adding an extra positive feedback in the latch is to increase the speed. What is more, two pairs of CMOS switches are utilized to eliminate the kickback noise introduced by the latch. The proposed SAR ADC was fabricated in SMIC 0.18 {{μ }}{{m}} CMOS technology. The measured results show that this design achieves an SFDR of 61.8 dB and an ENOB of 7.72 bits, and it consumes 67.5 μW with the FOM of 312 fJ/conversion-step at 1 MS/s sample under 1.8 V power supply. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61161003, 61264001, 61166004) and the Guangxi Key Laboratory of Precision Navigation Technology and Application Foundation (No. DH201501).

  5. A 10-bit 50-MS/s subsampling pipelined ADC based on SMDAC and opamp sharing

    Chen Lijie; Zhou Yumei; Wei Baoyue, E-mail: [Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)


    This paper describes a 10-bit, 50-MS/s pipelined A/D converter (ADC) with proposed area- and power-efficient architecture. The conventional dedicated sample-hold-amplifier (SHA) is eliminated and the matching requirement between the first multiplying digital-to-analog converter (MDAC) and sub-ADC is also avoided by using the SHA merged with the first MDAC (SMDAC) architecture, which features low power and stabilization. Further reduction of power and area is achieved by sharing an opamp between two successive pipelined stages, in which the effect of opamp offset and crosstalk between stages is decreased. So the 10-bit pipelined ADC is realized using just four opamps. The ADC demonstrates a maximum signal-to-noise distortion ratio and spurious free dynamic range of 52.67 dB and 59.44 dB, respectively, with a Nyquist input at full sampling rate. Constant dynamic performance for input frequencies up to 49.7 MHz, which is the twofold Nyquist rate, is achieved at 50 MS/s. The ADC prototype only occupies an active area of 1.81 mm{sup 2} in a 0.35 {mu}m CMOS process, and consumes 133 mW when sampling at 50 MHz from a 3.3-V power supply.

  6. Results of agriclimatological studies using multiple satellite sensors like NOAA AVHRR; GMS IR and LANDSAT MSS and TM

    Choudhury, A.M.


    Bangladesh Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization (SPARRSO) routinely receives NOAA and GMS imagery and uses them in agrometeorological monitoring, it also uses LANDSAT MSS and TM data for this purpose. Analysis of multiple satellite sensor data shows advantages for high resolution sensors. However, in the ease of crop monitoring, a good correlation has been obtained between results obtained with NOAA AVHRR and LANDSAT MSS for vegetation index. Crop estimation has been made using all kinds of sensors and it has been found that higher resolution data always give more accurate results. (author). 3 refs

  7. Use of feature extraction techniques for the texture and context information in ERTS imagery. [discrimination of land use categories in Kansas from MSS textural-spectral features

    Haralick, R. M.; Kelly, G. L. (Principal Investigator); Bosley, R. J.


    The author has identified the following significant results. The land use category of subimage regions over Kansas within an MSS image can be identified with an accuracy of about 70% using the textural-spectral features of the multi-images from the four MSS bands.

  8. Polymer-Supported Cinchona Alkaloid-Derived Ammonium Salts as Recoverable Phase-Transfer Catalysts for the Asymmetric Synthesis of α-Amino Acids

    Carmen Nájera


    Full Text Available Alkaloids such as cinchonidine, quinine and N-methylephedrine have been N-alkylated using polymeric benzyl halides or co-polymerized and then N-alkylated, thus affording a series of polymer-supported chiral ammonium salts which have been employed as phase-transfer catalysts in the asymmetric benzylation of an N-(diphenylmethyleneglycine ester. These new polymeric catalysts can be easily recovered by simple filtration after the reaction and reused. The best ee’s were achieved when Merrifield resin-anchored cinchonidinium ammonium salts were employed.

  9. Synthesis and investigation of the physical-chemical properties of 2-(5-((theophylline-7'-ylmethyl-4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acid salts

    A. S. Gotsulya


    Full Text Available At this stage of modern science development scientists get a lot of questions in the field of medicine and pharmacy. The study and search of new ways for synthesis of high-performance and low-toxic substances is one of the most important questions among them. Special attention is paid to 1,2,4-triazole and xanthine. On their basis some medical drugs have been previously made and are widely used in nowadays medicine. The aim of this work was the synthesis of salts of 2-(5-((theophylline-7'-ylmethyl-4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acid and the study of their properties. Methods and results. Theophylline has been selected as starting material. Through a number of stages 7'-((3-thio-4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylmethyltheophylline has been obtained. Salts with organic and inorganic bases have been obtained by the neutralization reaction in aqueous medium. The structure of the compounds has been confirmed with elemental analysis on Elemental Vario EL cube (Elementar Analysensysteme, Germany, IR spectra (4000–400 cm-1 have been taken off the module ALPHA-T of Bruker ALPHA FT-IR spectrometer (Bruker optics, Germany. Gear Liquid Chromatography System with Mass spectrometric detector (Agilent Technologies, USA: Agilent 1260 Infinity HPLC System; single quadrupole mass spectrometer Agilent 6120 with electrospray ionization (ESI; Open LAB CDS Software. The formation of salts has been confirmed by the signals corresponding to protonated amines. Conclusions. The optimal conditions of obtaining salts of 2-(5-((theophylline-7'-ylmethyl-4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acid with inorganic and organic bases have been determined. Corresponding carboxylic acid has been obtained by interaction of the resulting thiol with monochloroacetic acid in aqueous solution with double quantity of alkali and subsequent neutralization by hydrochloric acid. It has been confirmed that the greatest outputs of the reaction products were observed while using

  10. Synthesis of 3,3-disubstituted oxindoles by visible-light-mediated radical reactions of aryl diazonium salts with N-arylacrylamides.

    Fu, Weijun; Xu, Fengjuan; Fu, Yuqin; Zhu, Mei; Yu, Jiaqi; Xu, Chen; Zou, Dapeng


    A mild and efficient visible-light-mediated diarylation of N-arylacrylamides with aryl diazonium salts under mild conditions has been developed. This method provides convenient access to a variety of useful 3,3-disubstituted oxindoles by constructing two C-C bonds in one step.

  11. Synthesis of protective Mo-Si-B coatings in molten salts and their oxidation behavior in an air-water mixture

    Kuznetsov, S.A.; Rebrov, E.V.; Mies, M.J.M.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Schouten, J.C.


    Abstract The formation of various phases during boronizing of silicided molybdenum substrates (MoSi2/Mo) was investigated. Boronizing treatments were conducted in molten salts under an inert gas atmosphere in the 700–1000 °C temperature range for 3–7 h. Depending on the process type (non-current or

  12. Low temperature synthesis of CaZrO3 nanoceramics from CaCl2–NaCl molten eutectic salt

    Rahman Fazli


    Full Text Available CaZrO3 nanoceramics were successfully synthesized at 700 C using the molten salt method, and the effects of processing parameters, such as temperature, holding time, and amount of salt on the crystallization of CaZrO3 were investigated. CaCl2, Na2CO3, and nano-ZrO2 were used as starting materials. On heating, CaCl2–NaCl molten eutectic salt provided a liquid medium for the reaction of CaCO3 and ZrO2 to form CaZrO3. The results demonstrated that CaZrO3 started to form at about 600C and that, after the temperature was increased to 1,000C, the amounts of CaZrO3 in the resultant powders increased with a concomitant decrease in CaCO3and ZrO2 contents. After washing with hot distilled water, the samples heated for 3 h at 700C were single-phase CaZrO3 with 90–95 nm particle size. Furthermore, the synthesized CaZrO3 particles retained the size and morphology of the ZrO2 powders which indicated that a template mechanism dominated the formation of CaZrO3 by molten-salt method.

  13. 47 CFR 25.147 - Licensing provision for NGSO MSS feeder downlinks in the band 6700-6875 MHz.


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing provision for NGSO MSS feeder downlinks in the band 6700-6875 MHz. 25.147 Section 25.147 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space...

  14. A low-voltage low-power 10-bit 200 MS/s pipelined ADC in 90 nm CMOS

    Abdinia, S.; Yavari, M.


    This paper presents a low-power 10-bit 200 MS/s pipelined ADC in a 90 nm CMOS technology with 1 V supply voltage. To decrease the power dissipation efficiently, a new architecture using a combination of two power reduction techniques named double-sampling and opamp-sharing has been used to reduce

  15. Bath Salts

    ... deaths and been blamed for a handful of suicides and murders. Two of the chemicals in bath salts (mephedrone and MDPV) are Schedule I class drugs. That means they have a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use . People who are ...

  16. A 12-bit 40 MS/s pipelined ADC with over 80 dB SFDR

    Wei Qi; Yin Xiumei; Han Dandan; Yang Huazhong, E-mail: [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)


    This paper describes a 12-bit 40 MS/s calibration-free pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is optimized for high spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) performance and low power dissipation. With a 4.9 MHz sine wave input, the prototype ADC implemented in a 0.18-{mu}m 1P6M CMOS process shows measured differential nonlinearity and integral nonlinearity within 0.78 and 1.32 least significant bits at the 12-bit level without any trimming or calibration. The ADC, with a total die area of 3.1 x 2.1 mm{sup 2}, demonstrates a maximum signal-to-noise distortion ratio (SNDR) and SFDR of 66.32 and 83.38 dB, respectively, at a 4.9 MHz analog input and a power consumption of 102 mW from a 1.8 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  17. A 14-bit 50 MS/s sample-and-hold circuit for pipelined ADC

    Yue Sen; Zhao Yiqiang; Pang Ruilong; Sheng Yun


    A high performance sample-and-hold (S/H) circuit used in a pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is presented. Capacitor flip-around architecture is used in this S/H circuit with a novel gain-boosted differential folded cascode operational transconductance amplifier. A double-bootstrapped switch is designed to improve the performance of the circuit. The circuit is implemented using a 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process. Measurement results show that the effective number of bits is 14.03 bits, the spurious free dynamic range is 94.62 dB, the signal to noise and distortion ratio is 86.28 dB, and the total harmonic distortion is −91:84 dB for a 5 MHz input signal with 50 MS/s sampling rate. A pipeline ADC with the designed S/H circuit has been implemented. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  18. Structural mapping from MSS-LANDSAT imagery: A proposed methodology for international geological correlation studies

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Crepani, E.; Martini, P. R.


    A methodology is proposed for international geological correlation studies based on LANDSAT-MSS imagery, Bullard's model of continental fit and compatible structural trends between Northeast Brazil and the West African counterpart. Six extensive lineaments in the Brazilian study area are mapped and discussed according to their regional behavior and in relation to the adjacent continental margin. Among the first conclusions, correlations were found between the Sobral Pedro II Lineament and the megafaults that surround the West African craton; and the Pernambuco Lineament with the Ngaurandere Linemanet in Cameroon. Ongoing research to complete the methodological stages includes the mapping of the West African structural framework, reconstruction of the pre-drift puzzle, and an analysis of the counterpart correlations.

  19. Effectiveness of EDTA and Modified Salt Solution to Detach and Kill Cells from Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm.

    de Almeida, Josiane; Hoogenkamp, Michel; Felippe, Wilson T; Crielaard, Wim; van der Waal, Suzette V


    Disruption of the matrix of endodontic biofilms will aid in their removal from a root canal. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of EDTA and a modified salt solution (MSS) to detach bacteria from biofilms. Forty-eight-hour-old Enterococcus faecalis biofilms were grown on glass coverslips and then treated for 1 hour by immersion in 17% EDTA or MSS. Phosphate-buffered saline served as a negative control. Then, residual biofilm cells on the substrate and the detached cells in the supernatant were collected. Viability was verified by the colony-forming unit (CFU) counting method. Propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment in conjunction with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was also performed to detect the presence of E. faecalis 16S ribonucleic RNA genes. Data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey or Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. The Pearson R test evaluated the correlation between results from CFU and PMA (α = 5%). qPCR showed that EDTA detached 99% of biofilm cells, and MSS detached 94% of biofilm cells (both P < .001). In contrast to EDTA, MSS was highly antimicrobial. The treatment promoted an ample log 7 reduction of the attached cells (P < .001), and almost no live cells were detected in the supernatant (P < .001). Positive correlations between CFU and qPCR with PMA were observed (r = 0.959 and r = 0.729). EDTA detached cells in biofilms with a minor antimicrobial effect. Besides a great antimicrobial effect, MSS also detached biofilm cells. These dispersals of biofilms give insights into new endodontic biofilm removal strategies. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Somatic mutation profiles of MSI and MSS colorectal cancer identified by whole exome next generation sequencing and bioinformatics analysis.

    Bernd Timmermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC is with approximately 1 million cases the third most common cancer worldwide. Extensive research is ongoing to decipher the underlying genetic patterns with the hope to improve early cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this direction, the recent progress in next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the field of cancer genomics. However, one caveat of these studies remains the large amount of genetic variations identified and their interpretation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present the first work on whole exome NGS of primary colon cancers. We performed 454 whole exome pyrosequencing of tumor as well as adjacent not affected normal colonic tissue from microsatellite stable (MSS and microsatellite instable (MSI colon cancer patients and identified more than 50,000 small nucleotide variations for each tissue. According to predictions based on MSS and MSI pathomechanisms we identified eight times more somatic non-synonymous variations in MSI cancers than in MSS and we were able to reproduce the result in four additional CRCs. Our bioinformatics filtering approach narrowed down the rate of most significant mutations to 359 for MSI and 45 for MSS CRCs with predicted altered protein functions. In both CRCs, MSI and MSS, we found somatic mutations in the intracellular kinase domain of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1A, BMPR1A, a gene where so far germline mutations are associated with juvenile polyposis syndrome, and show that the mutations functionally impair the protein function. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that with deep sequencing of tumor exomes one may be able to predict the microsatellite status of CRC and in addition identify potentially clinically relevant mutations.

  1. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute


    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also

  2. Stereoselectivity in ene reactions with 1O2: matrix effects in polymer supports, photo-oxygenation of organic salts and asymmetric synthesis.

    Griesbeck, Axel G; Bartoschek, Anna; Neudörfl, Jörg; Miara, Claus


    The ene reaction of chiral allylic alcohols is applied as a tool for the investigation of intrapolymer effects by means of the stereoselectivity of the singlet-oxygen addition. The diastereo selectivity strongly depends on the structure of the polymer, the substrate loading degree and also on the degree of conversion demonstrating additional supramolecular effects evolving during the reaction. The efficiency and the stability of polymer-bound sensitizers were evaluated by the ene reaction of singlet oxygen with citronellol. The ene reaction with chiral ammonium salts of tiglic acid was conducted under solution phase conditions or in polystyrene beads under chiral contact ion-pair conditions. The products thus obtained precipitate during the photoreaction as ammonium salts. Moderate asymmetric induction was observed for this procedure for the first time.

  3. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of di-(3, 8-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octane) diquaternary ammonium salts as unique analgesics.

    Liu, Hong; Cheng, Tie-Ming; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Li, Run-Tao


    Based on the structure characteristics of the lead compounds, 1, 1' octanedioyl-4, 4'-dimethyl-4, 4'-dibenzyl dipiperazinium dibromide (2) and 3, 8-disubstituted-3, 8-diazabicyclo [3.2.1]octanes (DBO), di-(3, 8-diazabicyclo [3.2.1]octane) diquaternary ammonium salts 3 a-c were designed and synthesized through a highly practical procedure. Target compounds 3 a-c and the hydrochloride salts of their precursors 10 a-c were evaluated for their in vivo analgesic and sedative activities. Interestingly, the introduction of an endoethylenic bridge in the piperazine of lead compound 2 causes loss of the analgesic activity and increases the toxicity dramatically. This result shows that the flexible conformation of piperazine in compound 2 is favorable for interaction with the receptor, and the quaternization of compounds 10 a-c is the main reason for the toxicity increase.

  4. Synthesis of 8-phenyl-10H-pyrido[1,2-α]indole salts from 2,3,3-trimethyl-3H-indole chlorides with cinnamaldehyde

    Shachkus, A.A.; Degutis, Yu.A.


    Reaction of 2,3,3-trimethyl-3H-indole chloride with cinnamic and 4-dimethylaminocinnamic aldehydes led to salts of 8-phenyl and 8-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-10,10-dimethyl-10H-pyrido[1,2-α]indole. PMR spectra were recorded on a Tesla BS-487C (80 MHz) instrument (internal standard HMDS) and IR spectra on a UR-20 spectrometer (KBr pellets)

  5. Synthesis, analysis, cholinesterase-inhibiting activity and molecular modelling studies of 3-(dialkylamino)-2-hydroxypropyl 4-[(alkoxy-carbonyl)amino]benzoates and their quaternary ammonium salts

    Padrtova, T.; Marvanová, P.; Odehnalová, K.; Kubínová, R.; Parravicini, V.; Garro, A.; Enriz, R. D.; Humpa, O.; Oravec, Michal; Mokrý, P.


    Roč. 22, č. 12 (2017), č. článku 2048. ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) EF16_013/0001609 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Acetylcholinesterase * Arylcarbonyloxyaminopropanols * Butyrylcholinesterase * Quaternary ammonium salts * Tertiary amines Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 2.861, year: 2016

  6. Large-scale synthesis of Pb1-xLa xTiO3 ceramic powders by molten salt method

    Cai Zongying; Xing Xianran; Yu Ranbo; Liu Guirong; Xing Qifeng


    The ferroelectric perovskite type lanthanum doped lead titanate (PLT) ceramic powders were synthesized in one step with the starting materials of PbC 2 O 4 , La 2 O 3 and TiO 2 in NaCl-KCl molten salts in the temperature range of 700-950 deg. C. It was found that molten salt method was a large scale and easy preparation way to produce PLT powders with high dispersity. Tetragonal phase Pb 1-x La x TiO 3 ceramic powders were identified by XRD in the composition range 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3 and mono-dispersed particles with spheric shape and less than 100 nm size were observed by SEM. The grain sizes of Pb 1-x La x TiO 3 ceramic powders increased with the increase of La content and decreased with calcination temperature. The grain growth progress and the possible reaction mechanism in molten salts and its influencing factors were discussed in this work. The grain growth process was the main influencing factor of the grain size, which depended on the solubility in the flux

  7. Discovery of novel histidine-derived lipo-amino acids: applied in the synthesis of ultra-short antimicrobial peptidomimetics having potent antimicrobial activity, salt resistance and protease stability.

    Ahn, Mija; Murugan, Ravichandran N; Jacob, Binu; Hyun, Jae-Kyung; Cheong, Chaejoon; Hwang, Eunha; Park, Hyo-Nam; Seo, Ji-Hyung; Srinivasrao, G; Lee, Kyung S; Shin, Song Yub; Bang, Jeong Kyu


    Here we report for the first time the synthesis of Histidine (His) derived lipo-amino acids having pendant lipid tails at N(τ)- and N(π)-positions on imidazole group of His and applied it into synthesis of lipo-peptides. The attachment of His-derived lipo-amino acid into the very short inactive cationic peptides endows potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria without hemolytic activity. Furthermore, our designed His-derived lipo-peptidomimetics (HDLPs) consisting of two or three residues displayed strong anti-MRSA activity and protease stability as well as retained potent antimicrobial activity under high salt concentration. Our results demonstrate that the novel lipo-amino acid is highly flexible to synthesize and carry out the extensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) on lipo-antimicrobial peptidomimetics and represents a unique amenable platform for modifying parameters important for antimicrobial activity. Through this study, we proved that the discovery of His-derived lipo-amino acid and the corresponding HDLPs are an excellent candidate as a lead compound for the development of novel antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Metal and alloy nanoparticles by amine-borane reduction of metal salts by solid-phase synthesis: atom economy and green process.

    Sanyal, Udishnu; Jagirdar, Balaji R


    A new solid state synthetic route has been developed toward metal and bimetallic alloy nanoparticles from metal salts employing amine-boranes as the reducing agent. During the reduction, amine-borane plays a dual role: acts as a reducing agent and reduces the metal salts to their elemental form and simultaneously generates a stabilizing agent in situ which controls the growth of the particles and stabilizes them in the nanosize regime. Employing different amine-boranes with differing reducing ability (ammonia borane (AB), dimethylamine borane (DMAB), and triethylamine borane (TMAB)) was found to have a profound effect on the particle size and the size distribution. Usage of AB as the reducing agent provided the smallest possible size with best size distribution. Employment of TMAB also afforded similar results; however, when DMAB was used as the reducing agent it resulted in larger sized nanoparticles that are polydisperse too. In the AB mediated reduction, BNH(x) polymer generated in situ acts as a capping agent whereas, the complexing amine of the other amine-boranes (DMAB and TMAB) play the same role. Employing the solid state route described herein, monometallic Au, Ag, Cu, Pd, and Ir and bimetallic CuAg and CuAu alloy nanoparticles of <10 nm were successfully prepared. Nucleation and growth processes that control the size and the size distribution of the resulting nanoparticles have been elucidated in these systems.

  9. Synthesis of hollandite-type LixMnO2 by Li+ ion-exchange in molten salt and lithium insertion characteristics

    Kadoma, Yoshihiro; Oshitari, Satoru; Ui, Koichi; Kumagai, Naoaki


    The Li + ion-exchange reaction of K + -type α-K 0.14 MnO 1.93 .nH 2 O containing different amounts of water molecules (n = 0-0.15) with a large (2 x 2) tunnel structure has been investigated in a LiNO 3 -LiCl molten salt at 300 deg. C. The Li + ion-exchanged products were examined by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy measurements. The K + ions and the hydrogens of the water molecules in the (2 x 2) tunnels of α-MnO 2 were exchanged by Li + ions in the molten salt, resulting in the Li + -type α-MnO 2 containing different amounts of Li + ions and lithium oxide (Li 2 O) in the (2 x 2) tunnels with maintaining the original hollandite structure. The electrochemical properties and structural variation with initial discharge and charge-discharge cycling of the Li + ion-exchanged α-MnO 2 samples have been investigated as insertion compounds in the search for new cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. The Li + ion-exchanged α-MnO 2 samples provided higher capacities and higher Li + ion diffusivity than the parent K + -type materials on initial discharge and charge-discharge cyclings, probably due to the structural stabilization with the existence of Li 2 O in the (2 x 2) tunnels

  10. An 11-bit 200 MS/s subrange SAR ADC with low-cost integrated reference buffer

    He, Xiuju; Gu, Xian; Li, Weitao; Jiang, Hanjun; Li, Fule; Wang, Zhihua


    This paper presents an 11-bit 200 MS/s subrange SAR ADC with an integrated reference buffer in 65 nm CMOS. The proposed ADC employs a 3.5-bit flash ADC for coarse conversion, and a compact timing scheme at the flash/SAR boundary to speed up the conversion. The flash decision is used to control charge compensating for the reference voltage to reduce its input-dependent fluctuation. Measurement results show that the fabricated ADC has achieved significant improvement by applying the reference charge compensation. In addition, the ADC achieves a maximum signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio of 59.3 dB at 200 MS/s. It consumes 3.91 mW from a 1.2 V supply, including the reference buffer. Project supported by the Zhongxing Telecommunication Equipment Corporation and Beijing Microelectronics Technology Institute.

  11. Synthesis of stilbene derivatives via visible-light-induced cross-coupling of aryl diazonium salts with nitroalkenes using -NO2 as a leaving group.

    Zhang, Na; Quan, Zheng-Jun; Zhang, Zhang; Da, Yu-Xia; Wang, Xi-Cun


    The straightforward visible-light-induced synthesis of stilbene compounds via the cross-coupling of nitroalkenes and diazonium tetrafluoroborates under transition-metal-free conditions is described. The protocol uses green LEDs as light sources and eosin Y as an organophotoredox catalyst. Broad substrate scope and exclusive selectivity for the (E)-configuration of stilbenes are observed. This protocol proceeds via a radical pathway, with nitroalkenes serving as the radical acceptor, and the nitro group is cleaved during the process.

  12. Application of MSS/LANDSAT images to the structural study of recent sedimentary areas: Campos Sedimentary Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Barbosa, M. P.


    Visual and computer aided interpretation of MSS/LANDSAT data identified linear and circular features which represent the ""reflexes'' of the crystalline basement structures in the Cenozoic sediments of the emergent part of the Campos Sedimentary Basin.

  13. Depolarization in Delivering Public Services? Impacts of Minimum Service Standards (MSS on the Quality of Health Services in Indonesia

    Mohammad Roudo


    Full Text Available Abstract. Some scholars argue that decentralization policy tends to create polarization, i.e. an increase of inequality/disparity among districts. To deal with this problem, Minimum Service Standards (MSS were introduced as a key strategy in decentralizing Indonesia. In this research, we tried to find out through MSS performance measurements whether imposing standards can be effective in a decentralized system by seeking its impacts on polarization/depolarization in the delivery of public services, specifically in the health sector. This question is basically a response to the common criticism that decentralization is good to create equality between central government and local governments but often does not work to achieve equality among local governments. Using self-assessment data from a sample of 54 districts from 534 districts in Indonesia, from 2010 to 2013, we found that the existence of depolarization in the delivery of public services could potentially occur among regions by reducing the gap between their public service performance and the targets of MSS. We acknowledge that there are weaknesses in the validity of the self-assessment data, caused by a lack of knowledge and skills to execute the self-assessment according to the official guidelines, by the overrating of target achievements, as well as the lack of data from independent sources to confirm the self-assessment outcomes. We also acknowledge that differences in financial capacity are still the main determinant why one district is more successful in achieving the MSS targets compared to other districts. Keywords. Decentralization, Public Service, Minimum Standard Service

  14. 14-bit 100 MS/s 121 mW pipelined ADC

    Chen Yongzhen; Chen Chixiao; Feng Zemin; Ye Fan; Ren Junyan


    This paper presents a high-speed high-resolution pipelined ADC with low power and small area. The proposed ADC is designed based on the analysis of the stage scaling theory and the residual amplifiers are shared by two cascading MDACs to reduce power consumption. Shared op-amps with two split input paths are presented in this paper to eliminate the nonlinearity effects such as memory effect and crosstalk. Dynamic pre-amplified comparators are employed to decrease the static power consumption and suppress the kick-back in the comparators. This ADC is implemented in SMIC 0.18 μm CMOS process with an area of 3.1 mm 2 . With a sampling rate of 100 MS/s, spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) and signal-to-noise plus distortion ratio (SNDR) of the ADC are 82.7 dB and 69.1 dB, respectively. For signals up to 100 MHz, the SFDR and SNDR achieve 81.4 dB and 65.8 dB. The power consumption is 121 mW with a 1.8 V supply voltage. (paper)

  15. A single-channel 10-bit 160 MS/s SAR ADC in 65 nm CMOS

    Lu Yuxiao; Sun Lu; Li Zhe; Zhou Jianjun


    This paper demonstrates a single-channel 10-bit 160 MS/s successive-approximation-register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in 65 nm CMOS process with a 1.2 V supply voltage. To achieve high speed, a new window-opening logic based on the asynchronous SAR algorithm is proposed to minimize the logic delay, and a partial set-and-down DAC with binary redundancy bits is presented to reduce the dynamic comparator offset and accelerate the DAC settling. Besides, a new bootstrapped switch with a pre-charge phase is adopted in the track and hold circuits to increase speed and reduce area. The presented ADC achieves 52.9 dB signal-to-noise distortion ratio and 65 dB spurious-free dynamic range measured with a 30 MHz input signal at 160 MHz clock. The power consumption is 9.5 mW and a core die area of 250 × 200 μm 2 is occupied. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. An IP-oriented 11-bit 160 MS/s 2-channel current-steering DAC

    Xu Ning; Li Fule; Zhang Chun; Wang Zhihua


    This paper presents an 11-bit 160 MS/s 2-channel current-steering digital-to-analog converter (DAC) IP. The circuit and layout are carefully designed to optimize its performance and area. A 6-2-3 segmented structure is used for the trade-off among linearity, area and layout complexity. The sizes of current source transistors are calculated out according to the process matching parameter. The unary current cells are placed in a one-dimension distribution to simplify the layout routing, spare area and wiring layer. Their sequences are also carefully designed to reduce integral nonlinearity. The test result presents an SFDR of 72 dBc at 4.88 MHz input signal with DNL ⩽ 0.25 LSB, INL ⩽ 0.8 LSB. The full-scale output current is 5 mA with a 2.5 V analog power supply. The core of each channel occupies 0.08 mm 2 in a 1P-8M 55 nm CMOS process. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  17. A 10 MS/s 8-bit charge-redistribution ADC for hybrid pixel applications in 65 m CMOS

    Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Hemperek, Tomasz; Krüger, Hans; Koch, Manuel; Germic, Leonard; Wermes, Norbert


    The design and measurement results of an 8-bit SAR ADC, based on a charge-redistribution DAC, are presented. This ADC is characterized by superior power efficiency and small area, realized by employing a lateral metal–metal capacitor array and a dynamic two-stage comparator. To avoid the need for a high-speed clock and its associated power consumption, an asynchronous logic was implemented in a logic control cell. A test chip has been developed in a 65 nm CMOS technology, including eight ADC channels with different layout flavors of the capacitor array, a transimpedance amplifier as a signal input structure, a serializer, and a custom-made LVDS driver for data transmission. The integral (INL) and differential (DNL) nonlinearities are measured below 0.5 LSB and 0.8 LSB, respectively, for the best channel operating at a sampling frequency of 10 MS/s. The area occupies 40μm×70μm for one ADC channel. The power consumption is estimated as 4μW at 1 MS/s and 38μW at 10 MS/s with a supply rail of 1.2 V. These excellent performance features and the natural radiation hardness of the design, due to the thin gate oxide thickness of transistors, are very interesting for front-end electronics ICs of future hybrid-pixel detector systems

  18. A 10 MS/s 8-bit charge-redistribution ADC for hybrid pixel applications in 65 m CMOS

    Kishishita, Tetsuichi, E-mail:; Hemperek, Tomasz; Krüger, Hans; Koch, Manuel; Germic, Leonard; Wermes, Norbert


    The design and measurement results of an 8-bit SAR ADC, based on a charge-redistribution DAC, are presented. This ADC is characterized by superior power efficiency and small area, realized by employing a lateral metal–metal capacitor array and a dynamic two-stage comparator. To avoid the need for a high-speed clock and its associated power consumption, an asynchronous logic was implemented in a logic control cell. A test chip has been developed in a 65 nm CMOS technology, including eight ADC channels with different layout flavors of the capacitor array, a transimpedance amplifier as a signal input structure, a serializer, and a custom-made LVDS driver for data transmission. The integral (INL) and differential (DNL) nonlinearities are measured below 0.5 LSB and 0.8 LSB, respectively, for the best channel operating at a sampling frequency of 10 MS/s. The area occupies 40μm×70μm for one ADC channel. The power consumption is estimated as 4μW at 1 MS/s and 38μW at 10 MS/s with a supply rail of 1.2 V. These excellent performance features and the natural radiation hardness of the design, due to the thin gate oxide thickness of transistors, are very interesting for front-end electronics ICs of future hybrid-pixel detector systems.

  19. A 10MS/s 8-bit charge-redistribution ADC for hybrid pixel applications in 65m CMOS

    Kishishita, T; Krüger, H; Koch, M; Germic, L; Wermes, N


    The design and measurement results of an 8-bit SAR ADC, based on a charge-redistribution DAC, are presented. This ADC is characterized by superior power efficiency and small area, realized by employing a lateral metal–metal capacitor array and a dynamic two-stage comparator. To avoid the need for a highspeed clock and its associated power consumption, an asynchronous logic was implemented in a logic control cell. A test chip has been developed in a 65 nm CMOS technology, including eight ADC channels with different layout flavors of the capacitor array, a transimpedance amplifier as a signal input structure, a serializer, and a custom-made LVDS driver for data transmission. The integral (INL) and differential (DNL) nonlinearities are measured below 0.5 LSB and 0.8 LSB, respectively, for the best channel operating at a sampling frequency of 10 MS/s. The area occupies 40 μm 70 μm for one ADC channel. The power consumption is estimated as 4 μW at 1 MS/s and 38 μW at 10 MS/s with a supply rail of 1.2 V. Th...

  20. A 100 MS/s 9 bit 0.43 mW SAR ADC with custom capacitor array

    Jingjing, Wang; Zemin, Feng; Rongjin, Xu; Chixiao, Chen; Fan, Ye; Jun, Xu; Junyan, Ren


    A low power 9 bit 100 MS/s successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC) with custom capacitor array is presented. A brand-new 3-D MOM unit capacitor is used as the basic capacitor cell of this capacitor array. The unit capacitor has a capacitance of 1 fF. Besides, the advanced capacitor array structure and switch mode decrease the power consumption a lot. To verify the effectiveness of this low power design, the 9 bit 100 MS/s SAR ADC is implemented in TSMC IP9M 65 nm LP CMOS technology. The measurement results demonstrate that this design achieves an effective number of bits (ENOB) of 7.4 bit, a signal-to-noise plus distortion ratio (SNDR) of 46.40 dB and a spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) of 62.31 dB at 100 MS/s with 1 MHz input. The SAR ADC core occupies an area of 0.030 mm2 and consumes 0.43 mW under a supply voltage of 1.2 V. The figure of merit (FOM) of the SAR ADC achieves 23.75 fJ/conv. Project supported by the National High-Tech Research and Development Program of China (No. 2013AA014101).

  1. Role of alkali carbonate and salt in topochemical synthesis of K1/2Na1/2NbO3 and NaNbO3 templates

    Lee, Jae-Seok; Jeon, Jae-Ho; Choi, Si-Young


    Since the properties of lead-free piezoelectric materials have thus far failed to meet those of lead-based materials, either chemical doping or morphological texturing should be employed to improve the piezoelectric properties of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. The goal of this study was to synthesize plate-like K1/2Na1/2NbO3 and NaNbO3 particles, which are the most favorable templates for morphological texturing of K1/2Na1/2NbO3 ceramics. To achieve this goal, Bi2.5Na3.5Nb5O18 precursors in a plate-like shape were first synthesized and subsequently converted into K1/2Na1/2NbO3 or NaNbO3 particles that retain the morphology of Bi2.5Na3.5Nb5O18. In this study, we found that sodium or potassium carbonate does not play a major role in converting the Bi2.5Na3.5Nb5O18 precursor to K1/2Na1/2NbO3 or NaNbO3, on the contrary to previous reports; however, the salt contributes to the conversion reaction. All synthesis processes have been performed via a molten salt method, and scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy were used to characterize the synthesized K1/2Na1/2NbO3 or NaNbO3 templates.

  2. Two Zn and Hg bromide salts based on 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium ionic liquid: Ionothermal synthesis, structures and supramolecular organization

    Xiu-Cheng Zhang


    Full Text Available Two Zn(II and Hg(II bromide salts, [EMI]2[ZnBr4] (1 and [EMI][HgBr3] (2, have been synthesized under ionothermal conditions using 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium bromide ([EMI]Br as solvents. 1 consists of tetrahedral anion [ZnBr4]2− and 2 consists of 1D double chain locating in the cavities surrounded by [EMI]+ cations. Both compounds exhibit 3D supramolecular architectures organized by the C-H•••Br hydrogen bondings and alkyl-alkyl interactions.DOI:

  3. A simple one-step synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles via salt-alkali-composited-mediated method and investigation on their comparative photocatalytic activity

    Xiang, Donghu; Zhu, Yabo; He, Zhanjun; Liu, Zhangsheng; Luo, Jin


    Graphical abstract: The TEM image shows that the as-synthesized ZnS particle size was estimated to be about 40 nm and this newly synthesized ZnS nanoparticles can be as a promising photocatalytic degradation material for the organic pollutant removal. Display Omitted Highlights: ► ZnS nanoparticles with cubic phase have been successfully synthesized via salt-alkali-composited-mediated method (SACM) for the first time and this method has not been found so far. ► Its band gap (E g ) is a little bigger than commercial ZnS particle mainly due to quantum size effect. ► The as-synthesized ZnS nanoparticles show much more efficient photocatalytic degradation on methyl orange than commercial ZnS powder. -- Abstract: ZnS nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized via salt-alkali-composited-mediated method (SACM) for the first time, using a mixture of LiNO 3 and LiOH (LiNO 3 /LiOH = 60.7:39.3) as a reaction solvent, sodium sulfide and zinc nitrate as reactants at temperature of 210 °C for 24 h in the absence of organic dispersant or capping agents. X-ray diffraction, environment scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the as-synthesized products were well crystallized and belonged to nano-scale. Their UV–vis absorption spectrum demonstrated a band gap of 3.6406 eV corresponding to the absorption edge of 340 nm. The experimental result of photocatalytic degradation on methyl orange by the nano-ZnS showed much better photocatalysis than that by the commercial ZnS powder under the irradiation of ultraviolet light and visible light, respectively.

  4. New Ru(II)N'NN'-type pincer complexes: synthesis, characterization and the catalytic hydrogenation of CO_2 or bicarbonates to formate salts

    Zengjin Dai; Qi Luo; Hengjiang Cong; Jing Zhang; Tianyou Peng


    [RuCl(L1)(MeCN)_2]Cl (1) and [RuCl(L2)(MeCN)_2]Cl (2) complexes were prepared through the reaction of [RuCl2(p-cymene)]_2 with 2,6-bis(benzimidazole-2-yl)-4-hydroxy-pyridine (L1) or 2,6-bis(benzimidazole- 2-yl) pyridine (L2) in acetonitrile, respectively. The treatment of [Ru(OTf)(L2)(MeCN)_2]OTf (3) with 1 equivalent of PPh_3 in ethanol resulted in the formation of [Ru(L2"-"1)(MeCN)(PPh_3)_2]OTf (4), in which one of the N-H moieties of L2 is deprotonated to give an anionic ligand (L2"-"1). It was found that complex 1 can catalyze the hydrogenation of CO_2 to formate salts, producing sodium formate in 34.0% yield with a turnover number (TON) of 407 under the optimized conditions. Further investigations revealed that complexes 1-4 can efficiently catalyze the hydrogenation of sodium bicarbonate to sodium formate, and the catalytic activity follows the order 4 ≥ 1 ≥ 2 ≅ 3. In particular, sodium formate was obtained in good yield (77%) with a high TON (1530) when complex 4 was used as the catalyst. The present results illustrate a new example of Ru(II) complexes bearing a rigid N'NN' framework for the efficient hydrogenation of CO_2 to formate salts in a homogeneous system. (authors)

  5. Cooking without salt

    ... this page: // Cooking without salt To use the sharing features on ... other dishes to add zest. Try Salt-free Cooking Explore cooking with salt substitutes. Add a splash ...

  6. Physiological responses of salt stress and osmoprotection with ...



    Dec 21, 2011 ... Keywords: Salt stress, bacterial growth, osmoregulation, proline, stress protein synthesis. ... genous origin by regulation of proline metabolism. (Kawahara et al., 1989). .... osmoprotectant effect of proline and corroborate with ...

  7. Role of Acetyl Salicylic Acid in Controlling the DOCA-Salt Induced Hypertension in Rats by Stimulating the Synthesis of r-Cortexin in the Kidney.

    Maji, Uttam Kumar; Jana, Pradipta; Chatterjee, Mitali; Karmakar, Sanmay; Saha, Arup; Ghosh, Tamal Kanti


    Hypertension is a metabolic disease which is caused by vasoconstriction and that results into elevated blood pressure. A chronic hypertensive condition affects and even damages to various systems in the body. Presence of renal cortexin (r-cortexin), an antihypertensive protein, which is released from the kidney cortex controls the blood pressure. The effect of r-cortexin was mediated through nitric oxide (NO), a universal vasodilating agent. In our study, acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin), a well-known activator of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) induced r-cortexin synthesis. The hypertensive rat model was prepared by injecting deoxy corticosterone acetate (DOCA). Synthesis of r-cortexin was measured by the anti-r-cortexin antibody which was raised in adult white Wister albino rat model. NO level was determined by using methemoglobin method and later confirmed by chemiluminescence method. Change in blood pressure was determined indirectly by using NIBP monitoring system. Aspirin increased the r-cortexin expression from 64.36 ± 12.6 nM to 216.7 ± 21.31 nM in DOCA induced hypertensive rats. The mechanism was proved with the findings of increased level of NO from 0.4 to 1.9 µM. The DOCA induced blood pressure was also decreased from 139.39 ± 7.36 mm of Hg to 116.57 ± 6.89 mm of Hg in case of systolic blood pressure and in case of diastolic pressure from 110.41 ± 7 mm of Hg to 86.4 ± 2.76 mm of Hg that are quite approximate. So, from this study it has been found that aspirin induces the r-cortexin synthesis in kidney cortex through the activation of eNOS in DOCA induced hypertensive rats.

  8. Synthesis of New Polyether Ether Ketone Derivatives with Silver Binding Site and Coordination Compounds of Their Monomers with Different Silver Salts

    Jérôme Girard


    Full Text Available Polyether ether ketone (PEEK is a well-known polymer used for implants and devices, especially spinal ones. To overcome the biomaterial related infection risks, 4-4′-difluorobenzophenone, the famous PEEK monomer, was modified in order to introduce binding sites for silver ions, which are well known for their antimicrobial activity. The complexation of these new monomers with different silver salts was studied. Crystal structures of different intermediates were obtained with a linear coordination between two pyridine groups and the silver ions in all cases. The mechanical and thermal properties of different new polymers were characterized. The synthesized PEEKN5 polymers showed similar properties than the PEEK ones whereas the PEEKN7 polymers showed similar thermal properties but the mechanical properties are not as good as the ones of PEEK. To improve these properties, these polymers were complexed with silver nitrate in order to “cross-link” with silver ions. The presence of ionic silver in the polymer was then confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD. Finally, a silver-based antimicrobial compound was successfully coated on the surface of PEEKN5.

  9. Identification of unique interactions between the flexible linker and the RecA-like domains of DEAD-box helicase Mss116

    Zhang, Yuan; Palla, Mirkó; Liao, Jung-Chi; Sun, Andrew


    DEAD-box RNA helicases are ATP-dependent proteins implicated in nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism. The yeast DEAD-box helicase Mss116 is unique in its functions of splicing group I and group II introns and activating mRNA translation, but the structural understanding of why it performs these unique functions remains unclear. Here we used sequence analysis and molecular dynamics simulation to identify residues in the flexible linker specific for yeast Mss116, potentially associated with its unique functions. We first identified residues that are 100% conserved in Mss116 of different species of the Saccharomycetaceae family. The amino acids of these conserved residues were then compared with the amino acids of the corresponding residue positions of other RNA helicases to identify residues that have distinct amino acids from other DEAD-box proteins. Four residues in the flexible linker, i.e. N334, E335, P336 and H339, are conserved and Mss116-specific. Molecular dynamics simulation was conducted for the wild-type Mss116 structure and mutant models to examine mutational effects of the linker on the conformational equilibrium. Relatively short MD simulation runs (within 20 ns) were enough for us to observe mutational effects, suggesting serious structural perturbations by these mutations. The mutation of E335 depletes the interactions between E335 and K95 in domain 1. The interactions between N334/P336 and N496/I497 of domain 2 are also abolished by mutation. Our results suggest that tight interactions between the Mss116-specific flexible linker and the two RecA-like domains may be mechanically required to crimp RNA for the unique RNA processes of yeast Mss116. (paper)

  10. Identification of unique interactions between the flexible linker and the RecA-like domains of DEAD-box helicase Mss116

    Zhang, Yuan; Palla, Mirkó; Sun, Andrew; Liao, Jung-Chi


    DEAD-box RNA helicases are ATP-dependent proteins implicated in nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism. The yeast DEAD-box helicase Mss116 is unique in its functions of splicing group I and group II introns and activating mRNA translation, but the structural understanding of why it performs these unique functions remains unclear. Here we used sequence analysis and molecular dynamics simulation to identify residues in the flexible linker specific for yeast Mss116, potentially associated with its unique functions. We first identified residues that are 100% conserved in Mss116 of different species of the Saccharomycetaceae family. The amino acids of these conserved residues were then compared with the amino acids of the corresponding residue positions of other RNA helicases to identify residues that have distinct amino acids from other DEAD-box proteins. Four residues in the flexible linker, i.e. N334, E335, P336 and H339, are conserved and Mss116-specific. Molecular dynamics simulation was conducted for the wild-type Mss116 structure and mutant models to examine mutational effects of the linker on the conformational equilibrium. Relatively short MD simulation runs (within 20 ns) were enough for us to observe mutational effects, suggesting serious structural perturbations by these mutations. The mutation of E335 depletes the interactions between E335 and K95 in domain 1. The interactions between N334/P336 and N496/I497 of domain 2 are also abolished by mutation. Our results suggest that tight interactions between the Mss116-specific flexible linker and the two RecA-like domains may be mechanically required to crimp RNA for the unique RNA processes of yeast Mss116.

  11. Evaluation of Salt Tolerance (NaCl in Tunisian Chili Pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. on Growth, Mineral Analysis and Solutes Synthesis

    Zhani, Kaouther


    Full Text Available Every year, more and more land becomes non-productive due to salinity which adversely affects the productivity and quality of most crops that is why salinity becomes a concern to be studied more to understand the mechanisms included and select the tolerant genotypes. In this context, this investigation was carried out to study the impact of NaCl on growth, mineral analysis and solutes synthesis in five Tunisian chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. cultivars: Tebourba (Tb, Somaa (Sm, Korba (Kb, Awald Haffouzz (Aw and Souk jedid (Sj. Thus, an experiment took place under greenhouse at Higher Institute of Agronomy, Chott Meriem, Tunisia and stress was induced during two months in water by NaCl (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 g/l. Results showed that increasing salinity stress, for all cultivars, decreases the height and biomass (dry and fresh weight of plant in addition to the relative water content. Also, a decline in K+ and Ca2+ amounts in roots and K+/Na+ ratio was recorded. However, Na+ content in roots and the biosynthesis of soluble sugars and soluble proteins in leaves increased. Awlad Haffouzz and Korba cultivars succefully tolerated highest salinity level by accumulating more K+, Ca2+ in roots and containing the highest concentrations of soluble sugars and soluble protein in their leaves contrary to Souk jedid cultivar, considered as the sensitive cultivar.

  12. Inter-comparison of state-of-the-art MSS and geoid models in the Arctic Ocean

    Skourup, Henriette; Farrell, Sinead; Hendricks, Stefan

    in errors in the estimated freeboard heights, especially in areas with a sparse lead distribution in consolidated ice conditions. Additionally these errors can impact ocean geostrophic current estimates and remaining biases in the models may impact longer-term, multi-sensor oceanographic time-series of sea......State-of-the-art Arctic Ocean mean sea surface (MSS) and geoid models are used to support sea ice freeboard estimation from satellite altimeters, and for oceanographic studies. However, errors in a given model in the high frequency domain, e.g. due to unresolved gravity features, can result...

  13. UCM BH MSS 133: catalogación de los once manuscritos encuadernados en este volumen facticio

    Durán Barceló, Javier


    Full Text Available En 1878 Villa-Amil y Castro publicó el primer catálogo impreso de los manuscritos procedentes del Colegio de San Ildefonso de la Universidad de Alcalá de Henares. Para su trabajo Villa-Amil dependió estrechamente de las catalogaciones efectuadas antes en 1745 y de nuevo en 1800. Recientemente, Paul Oskar Kristeller ha puesto su atención en los manuscritos humanistas de esta colección; la cual es esencial para el estudio del humanismo en la universidad hispana del Renacimiento temprano. Desde este punto de vista se hace necesaria una nueva catalogación de los manuscritos del Colegio de San Ildefonso. Por ejemplo, el volumen facticio MSS 133 contiene once manuscritos de mediados del siglo XV entre los cuales se conserva el único testimonio de una de las obras latinas de Alfonso de Palencia. El objeto de este trabajo es una descripción bibliográfica más detallada de estos once manuscritos encuadernados en UCM BH MSS 133. In 1878 Villa-Amil y Castro published the first printed catalogue of the manuscript collection of the old Colegio de San Ildefonso at the University of Alcalá de Henares. In his work Villa-Amil followed closely the catalogues produced earlier in 1745 and again in 1800. More recently, Paul Oskar Kristeller has focused his interest on the humanistic manuscripts of this collection, as this library becomes essential in the study of humanism in the hispanic universities during the early Renaissance. From this point of view it is necessary a closer examination to the manuscripts belonging to the old Colegio de San Ildefonso. For example, volume MSS 133 contains eleven manuscritpts from the mid 15th century among them a unique testimony of a Latin composition by Alfonso de Palencia. The object of this paper is a more detailed bibliographical description of these eleven manuscripts in UCM BH MSS 133.

  14. Synthesis and Physical and Chemical Properties of Hypergolic Chemicals such as N,N,N-Trimethylhydrazinium and 1-Ethyl-4-Methyl-1,2,4-Triazolium Salts

    Young-Seok Kim


    Full Text Available Hypergolic chemicals N,N,N-trimethylhydrazinium iodide, [TMH]+[I]−, and 1-ethyl-4-methyl-1,2,4-triazolium iodide, [EMT]+[I]− were firstly synthesized by nucleophilic substitution (SN2. The successful synthesis of hypergolic chemicals [TMH]+[I]− and [EMT]+[I]− was confirmed by IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy and, GC-mass spectrometry. Subsequently the hypergolic chemicals [TMH]+[X]− (X = CN−, N3−, NO3−, NO2−, ClO4−, AlCl4− were prepared via an ion exchange reaction from [TMH]+[I]− and [EMT]+[I]−, respectively. After that, a mixture of hypergolic chemicals was prepared by dissolving the synthesized hypergolic chemicals in 2-hydroxyethylhydrazine (HOCH2CH2NHNH2. The physical and chemical properties of the mixture such as decomposition temperature (Td, density (d, viscosity (η, and decomposition energy (ΔHd was then evaluated to determine suitability for use as liquid rocket fuels. The ignition delay (ID time of the mixture of hypergolic chemicals with [TMH]+[N3]− and [TMH]+[CN]− using H2O2 as an oxidizer was determined as 55.6 ms and 97.4 ms; respectively. The ID time of the mixture of hypergolic chemicals with [EMT]+[N3]−; [EMT]+[CN]−; [EMT]+[AlCl4]−; and [EMT]+[I]− using H2O2 as an oxidizer was also determined as 18.0 ms; 32.6 ms; 27.6 ms; and 7.96 ms; respectively. The synthesized mixture of hypergolic chemicals could thus be used as a rocket propellant liquid fuel.

  15. Synthesis of deuterated 1-phenylpropenols

    Denhez, J.P.; Girault, G.; Dizabo, P.


    The synthesis of deuterated 1-phenylpropenols is reported. The methods involve either Grignard reactions or selective reduction of α, β unsaturated ketones. These ketones are obtained by degradation of ammonium salts of the Mannich bases. (author)

  16. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR and Multispectral Scanner (MSS Studies Examine Coastal Environments Influenced by Mining

    W. Charles Kerfoot


    Full Text Available There are numerous examples of past and present mine disposal into freshwater and marine coastal bays and riverine environments. Due to its high spatial resolution and extended water penetration, coastal light detection and ranging (LiDAR, coupled with multispectral scanning (MSS, has great promise for resolving disturbed shoreline features in low turbidity environments. Migrating mine tailings present serious issues for Lake Superior and coastal marine environments. Previous investigations in Lake Superior uncovered a metal-rich “halo” around the Keweenaw Peninsula, related to past copper mining practices. For over a century, waste rock migrating from shoreline tailing piles has moved along extensive stretches of coastline, compromising critical fish breeding grounds, damming stream outlets, transgressing into wetlands and along recreational beaches and suppressing benthic invertebrate communities. In Grand (Big Traverse Bay, Buffalo Reef is an important spawning area for lake trout and whitefish threatened by drifting tailings. The movement of tailings into Buffalo Reef cobble fields may interfere with the hatching of fish eggs and fry survival, either by filling in crevices where eggs are deposited or by toxic effects on eggs, newly hatched larvae or benthic communities. Here, we show that the coastal tailing migration is not “out of sight, out of mind”, but clearly revealed by using a combination of LiDAR and MSS techniques.

  17. Use of topographic and climatological models in a geographical data base to improve Landsat MSS classification for Olympic National Park

    Cibula, William G.; Nyquist, Maurice O.


    An unsupervised computer classification of vegetation/landcover of Olympic National Park and surrounding environs was initially carried out using four bands of Landsat MSS data. The primary objective of the project was to derive a level of landcover classifications useful for park management applications while maintaining an acceptably high level of classification accuracy. Initially, nine generalized vegetation/landcover classes were derived. Overall classification accuracy was 91.7 percent. In an attempt to refine the level of classification, a geographic information system (GIS) approach was employed. Topographic data and watershed boundaries (inferred precipitation/temperature) data were registered with the Landsat MSS data. The resultant boolean operations yielded 21 vegetation/landcover classes while maintaining the same level of classification accuracy. The final classification provided much better identification and location of the major forest types within the park at the same high level of accuracy, and these met the project objective. This classification could now become inputs into a GIS system to help provide answers to park management coupled with other ancillary data programs such as fire management.

  18. Method for the production of uranium chloride salt

    Westphal, Brian R.; Mariani, Robert D.


    A method for the production of UCl.sub.3 salt without the use of hazardous chemicals or multiple apparatuses for synthesis and purification is provided. Uranium metal is combined in a reaction vessel with a metal chloride and a eutectic salt- and heated to a first temperature under vacuum conditions to promote reaction of the uranium metal with the metal chloride for the production of a UCl.sub.3 salt. After the reaction has run substantially to completion, the furnace is heated to a second temperature under vacuum conditions. The second temperature is sufficiently high to selectively vaporize the chloride salts and distill them into a condenser region.

  19. [Historical roles of salt].

    Ritz, E; Ritz, C


    Recently increasing evidence has been provided pointing to a close relation of salt consumption to hypertension as well as to target organ damage. It is interesting to note that the discussion concerning salt is unusually emotional. This may be explained, at least in part, by the fact that since ancient times salt had deep symbolic significance, as exemplified, mostly subconsciously, by many customs and expressions still in current use. In the past salt was essential to preserve food. The past importance of salt as a commodity can well be compared with that of oil today. These and further historical aspects of the role of salt are briefly dealt with in this article.

  20. A preliminary study of the feasibility of detecting the floating macrophytes by means of digital processing of MSS/LANDSAT data

    Valeriano, D. D. (Principal Investigator)


    The feasibility of mapping the floating macrophytes (mostly water hyacinth: (Eichornia crassipes) in the Salto Grande reservoir in Americana, SP, by means of digital processing of MSS/LANDSAT data is described. The area occupied by the macrophytes was extracted by exclusion after the merging of two thematic masks representing the area of vegetation free water surface. One of the masks was obtained from a date when the vegetal cover is insignificant, while the other represents a large infestation episode. The utilization of digital processing of MSS/LANDSAT data techniques for the documentation of macrophytes infestation is feasible only when the phenomenon occurs in large areas.

  1. Sea Salt vs. Table Salt: What's the Difference?

    ... and healthy eating What's the difference between sea salt and table salt? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. The main differences between sea salt and table salt are in their taste, texture ...

  2. Low-salt diet

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  3. Molten salt breeder reactor


    MSBR Study Group formed in October 1974 has studied molten salt breeder reactor and its various aspects. Usage of a molten salt fuel, extremely interesting as reactor chemistry, is a great feature to MSBR; there is no need for separate fuel making, reprocessing, waste storage facilities. The group studied the following, and these results are presented: molten salt technology, molten salt fuel chemistry and reprocessing, reactor characteristics, economy, reactor structural materials, etc. (Mori, K.)

  4. 47 CFR 25.257 - Special requirements for operations in the band 29.1-29.25 GHz between NGSO MSS and LMDS.


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for operations in the band 29.1-29.25 GHz between NGSO MSS and LMDS. 25.257 Section 25.257 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25...

  5. 47 CFR 25.258 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Stations and GSO FSS services in the 29.25-29.5 GHz Bands.


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Stations and GSO FSS services in the 29.25-29.5 GHz Bands. 25.258 Section 25.258 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25...

  6. A 0.7V 7-to-10bit 0-to-2MS/s Flexible SAR ADC for Ultra Low-Power Wireless Sensor Nodes

    Harpe, P.J.A.; Dolmans, G.; Philips, K.J.P.; Groot, de H.W.H.


    This paper presents a flexible SAR ADC in 90nm CMOS for wireless sensor nodes. By supporting resolutions from 7 to 10bit and sample rates from DC to 2MS/s, this design can be used for a variety of applications such as sensor interfacing and receiver frontends. Flexibility is achieved by a

  7. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques. [south carolina

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)


    A literature review on radar and spectral band information was conducted and a NC-130 mission was flown carrying the NS001 scanner system which basically corresponds to the channel configuration of the proposed thematic mapper. Aerial photography and other reference data were obtained for the study site, an area approximately 290 sq miles in north central South Carolina. A cover type map was prepared and methods were devised for reformatting and geometrically correcting MSS CRT data. Arrangements were made to obtain LANDSAT data for dates approximating the NC-130 mission. Because of the waveband employed to obtain SEASAT radar data, it was decided to determine if X-band (2.40 cm to 3.75 cm wavelength) imagery is available.

  8. Design of a 12-bit 80-MS/s CMOS digital-to-analog converter for PLC-VDSL applications

    Ruiz-Amaya, Jesus; Delgado-Restituto, Manuel; Fernandez-Bootello, J. Francisco; de la Rosa, Jose M.


    This paper describes the design of a 12-bit 80MS/s Digital-to-Analog converter implemented in 0.13mm CMOS logic technology. The design has been computer-aided by a developed toolbox for the simulation and verification of Nyquist-Rate Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog converters in MATLAB. The embedded simulator uses SIMULINK C-coded S-functions to model all required subcircuits including their main error mechanisms. This approach allows to drastically speed up the simulation CPU-time and makes the proposed tool an advantageous alternative for fast exploration of requirements and as a design validation tool. The converter is segmented in a unary current-cell matrix for 8 MSB's and a binary-weighted array for 4 LSB's. Current sources of the converter are laid out separately from current-cell switching matrix core block and distribute in double centroid to reduce random errors and transient noise coupling. The linearity errors caused by remaining gradient errors are reduced by a modified Q2 Random-Walk switching sequence. Simulation results show that the Spurious-Free Dynamic-Range is better than 58.5dB up to 80MS/s. The estimated Signal-to-Noise Distortion Ratio yield is 99.7% and it is supposed to be better than 58dB from DC to Nyquist frequency. Multi-Tone Power Ratio is higher 59dB for several DMT test signals. The converter dissipates less than 129mW from a 3.3V supply and occupies less than 1.7mm2 die area. The results have been checked with all process corners from -40° to 85° and power supply from 3V to 3.6V.

  9. Synthesis and investigation of the physicochemical properties of 2-(5-((theophylline-7'-ylmethyl-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthio-acetic acid salts

    A. S. Gotsulya


    Full Text Available Introduction. In last decades considerable interest to the search of biologically active compounds in series of azole derivatives is indicated. This is mainly connected with the successful use of several drugs with heterocyclic system in the structure. Analysis of the pharmacological properties of heterocyclic nitrogen–containing compounds of the known groups let us to suggest, that the triazole substituent is an important pharmacophore fragment, responsible for the availability of diverse physiological activity. In addition, it causes a little toxicity. Considerable attention belongs to synthesis and research of the biological activity of 1,2,4-triazoles derivatives. The great importance also has research of the influence of heterocyclic fragments of different nature in combination in one molecule on the activity of the synthesized compounds. Like different synthons in the structure of 1,2,4-triazoles in various kinds of biological activity of the reaction products with an aim of new and highly efficient low-toxicity compounds reception. The aim of work was to study synthesis and properties of substances among salts of 2-(5-((theophylline-7'-ylmethyle-4-phenyle-4Н-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetate acid. Materials and methods of the research. In the process as a starting material for reception of new series of compounds theophylline has been chosen. It is important to note, that by the diversity and strength of pharmacological effects, which appears, this structure takes its rightful place among heterocyclic compounds. Through the series of the successive stages 4-phenyle-5-(1',3'-dimethylxantine-7'-ylmethyle-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol was obtained from the theophylline. Research of the physico-chemical properties of the received compounds conducted according to methods, described in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. open capillary method, elemental analysis (Elementar Vario L cube (CHNS. 1H NMR spectra of compounds were recorded with a

  10. Synthesis of quarternary ammonium salts with dithiocarbamate ...

    were taken from PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) slants and spore suspension was made by addition of sterili- zed distilled water. The suspension was filtered through three layers of sterilized cheese cloth under aseptic con- ditions in order to remove agar bits and mycelium. Haemocytometer was used to get spore suspension.

  11. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Nico Augustin


    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  12. A history of salt.

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G


    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  13. Worth its salt?

    The idea that all underground salt deposits can serve as storage sites for toxic and nuclear waste does not always hold water—literally. According to Daniel Ronen and Brian Berkowitz of Israel's Weizmann Institute of Science and Yoseph Yechieli of the Geological Survey of Israel, some buried salt layers are in fact highly conductive of liquids, suggesting that wastes buried in their confines could easily leech into groundwater and nearby soil.When drilling three wells into a 10,000-year-old salt layer near the Dead Sea, the researchers found that groundwater had seeped into the layer and had absorbed some of its salt.

  14. Molten salt reactors: chemistry


    This work is a critical analysis of the 1000 MW MSBR project. Behavior of rare gases in the primary coolant circuit, their extraction from helium. Coating of graphite by molybdenum, chemistry of protactinium and niobium produced in the molten salt, continuous reprocessing of the fuel salt and use of stainless steel instead of hastelloy are reviewed [fr

  15. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam


    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  16. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.


    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  17. Salt og forbrugervalg

    Mørk, Trine; Grunert, Klaus G

    af saltreducerede fødevarer og deres købsintention af disse. Dette blev undersøgt ved at måle forbrugerens viden om salt, anvendelse af salt, ønske om reduktion af salt og købsintention af saltreducerede fødevarer i en web-baseret undersøgelse. Efter den web-baserede undersøgelse, blev de samme mål...... undersøgt, men i et supermarked, hvor deltagerne blev inddelt i fire grupper for at undersøge effekten af priming og saltmærkning. Desuden blev der foretaget 15 kvalitative interviews, for at studere hvem og hvad der karakteriserer de deltagere i eksperimentet, som enten ender med ingen salt......-reducerede produkter at købe eller som ender med at købe alle de salt-reducerede produkter....

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Protein-Conjugated Silver Nanoparticles/Silver Salt Loaded Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) Film for Prevention of Bacterial Infections and Potential Use in Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    Bakare, Rotimi Ayotunde

    Failure of orthopedic implants due to bacterial infection has been a major concern in bone tissue engineering. To this end, we have formulated a potential orthopedic implant made of naturally occurring biodegradable polymer, i.e. poly (3-hydroxylbutyrate-co-3-hydroxylvalerate) (PHBV), modified with BSA conjugated silver nanoparticles and or silver chloride. Upon release of Ag NPs and or Ag+ in the implant region, can promote aseptic environment by inhibition of bacteria growth and also support/maintain bone cell adhesion, growth, and proliferation. For formulating nanoparticles loaded PHBV scaffold, we exploit specific interaction between bovine serum albumin (BSA) of BSA capped silver nanoparticles and collagen of collagen immobilized PHBV scaffold. Therefore, the first part of this study dealt with synthesis and characterization of collagen immobilized PHBV film for loading of BSA stabilized silver (Ag/BSA) nanoparticles. Two different approaches were used to immobilize collagen on macroporous PHBV film. First approach uses thermal radical copolymerization with 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), while the second approach uses aminolysis to functionalize macroporous PHBV film. Using collagen crosslinker, type I collagen was covalently grafted to formulate collagen immobilized PHEMA-g-PHBV and collagen immobilized NH2-PHBV films, respectively. Spectroscopic (FTIR, XPS), physical (SEM), and thermal (TGA) techniques were used to characterize the functionalized PHBV films. The Ag/BSA nanoparticles were then loaded on collagen immobilized PHBV films and untreated PHBV films. The concentration of nanoparticles loaded on PHBV film was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry and fluorescence spectroscopy. The amount of nanoparticles loaded on collagen immobilized PHBV film was found to be significantly greater than that on untreated PHBV film. The amount of Ag/BSA nanoparticles loaded on collagen immobilized PHBV film was found to depend on the concentration of Ag

  19. Synthesis and properties of bimetallic aluminium alkoxides

    Vyshinskaya, K.I.; Vasil'ev, G.A.; Vishnyakova, T.A.


    A single stage method of aluminium bimetallic alkoxide synthesis, which consists in activated aluminium reaction with metal salts in the relevant alcohols, has been developed. Properties of the compounds prepared are described

  20. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Everyone needs some salt to function. Also known as sodium chloride, salt ...

  1. The use of Landsat-4 MSS digital data in temporal data sets and the evaluation of scene-to-scene registration accuracy

    Anderson, J. E.


    The MSS sensor on Landsat 4 is, in certain performance aspects, diferent from those of Landsats 1 through 3. These differences created some concern in the NASA research community as to whether individual data sets can be registered accurately enough to produce acceptable data sets for multitemporal data analysis. The use of Landsat 4 MSS digital data in temporal data sets is examined and a method is presented for estimating temporal registration accuracy based on the use of an X-Y digitizer and grey tone electrostatic plots. Results indicate that the RMS temporal registration errors are not significantly different from the temporal data sets generated using Landsat 4 and Landsat 2 data (33.35 meters) and the temporal data set constructed from two Landsat 2 data sets (33.61 meters). A derivation of the model used to evaluate the temporal registration is included.

  2. Molecular Engineering of UV/Vis Light-Emitting Diode (LED)-Sensitive Donor-π-Acceptor-Type Sulfonium Salt Photoacid Generators: Design, Synthesis, and Study of Photochemical and Photophysical Properties.

    Wu, Xingyu; Jin, Ming; Xie, Jianchao; Malval, Jean-Pierre; Wan, Decheng


    A series of donor-π-acceptor-type sulfonium salt photoacid generators (PAGs) were designed and synthesized by systematically changing electron-donating groups, π-conjugated systems, electron-withdrawing groups, and the number of branches through molecular engineering. These PAGs can effectively decompose under UV/Vis irradiation from a light-emitting diode (LED) light source because of the matching absorption and emitting spectra of the LEDs. The absorption and acid-generation properties of these sulfonium salts were elucidated by UV/Vis spectroscopy and so forth. Results indicated that the PAG performance benefited from the introduction of strong electron-donating groups, specific π-conjugated structures, certain electron-withdrawing groups, or two-branched structures. Most sulfonium salts showed potential as photoinitiators under irradiation by a wide variety of UV and visible LEDs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Water purification using organic salts

    Currier, Robert P.


    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  4. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Knowlton, D. J.; Dean, M. E.


    Supervised and cluster block training statistics were used to analyze the thematic mapper simulation MSS data (both 1979 and 1980 data sets). Cover information classes identified on SAR imagery include: hardwood, pine, mixed pine hardwood, clearcut, pasture, crops, emergent crops, bare soil, urban, and water. Preliminary analysis of the HH and HV polarized SAR data indicate a high variance associated with each information class except for water and bare soil. The large variance for most spectral classes suggests that while the means might be statistically separable, an overlap may exist between the classes which could introduce a significant classification error. The quantitative values of many cover types are much larger on the HV polarization than on the HH, thereby indicating the relative nature of the digitized data values. The mean values of the spectral classes in the areas with larger look angles are greater than the means of the same cover type in other areas having steeper look angles. Difficulty in accurately overlaying the dual polarization of the SAR data was resolved.

  5. Evaluation of SLAR and simulated thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    Hoffer, R. M.; Dean, M. E.; Knowlton, D. J.; Latty, R. S.


    Kershaw County, South Carolina was selected as the study site for analyzing simulated thematic mapper MSS data and dual-polarized X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The impact of the improved spatial and spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT D thematic mapper data on computer aided analysis for forest cover type mapping was examined as well as the value of synthetic aperture radar data for differentiating forest and other cover types. The utility of pattern recognition techniques for analyzing SAR data was assessed. Topics covered include: (1) collection and of TMS and reference data; (2) reformatting, geometric and radiometric rectification, and spatial resolution degradation of TMS data; (3) development of training statistics and test data sets; (4) evaluation of different numbers and combinations of wavelength bands on classification performance; (5) comparison among three classification algorithms; and (6) the effectiveness of the principal component transformation in data analysis. The collection, digitization, reformatting, and geometric adjustment of SAR data are also discussed. Image interpretation results and classification results are presented.

  6. 12-bit 32 channel 500 MS/s low-latency ADC for particle accelerators real-time control

    Karnitski, Anton; Baranauskas, Dalius; Zelenin, Denis; Baranauskas, Gytis; Zhankevich, Alexander; Gill, Chris


    Particle beam control systems require real-time low latency digital feedback with high linearity and dynamic range. Densely packed electronic systems employ high performance multichannel digitizers causing excessive heat dissipation. Therefore, low power dissipation is another critical requirement for these digitizers. A described 12-bit 500 MS/s ADC employs a sub-ranging architecture based on a merged sample & hold circuit, a residue C-DAC and a shared 6-bit flash core ADC. The core ADC provides a sequential coarse and fine digitization featuring a latency of two clock cycles. The ADC is implemented in a 28 nm CMOS process and consumes 4 mW of power per channel from a 0.9 V supply (interfacing and peripheral circuits are excluded). Reduced power consumption and small on-chip area permits the implementation of 32 ADC channels on a 10.7 mm2 chip. The ADC includes a JESD204B standard compliant output data interface operated at the 7.5 Gbps/ch rate. To minimize the data interface related time latency, a special feature permitting to bypass the JESD204B interface is built in. DoE Phase I Award Number: DE-SC0017213.

  7. Ionomic and metabolic responses to neutral salt or alkaline salt stresses in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings.

    Guo, Rui; Shi, LianXuan; Yan, Changrong; Zhong, Xiuli; Gu, FengXue; Liu, Qi; Xia, Xu; Li, Haoru


    Soil salinity and alkalinity present a serious threat to global agriculture. However, most of the studies have focused on neutral salt stress, and the information on the metabolic responses of plants to alkaline salt stress is limited. This investigation aimed at determining the influence of neutral salt and alkaline salt stresses on the content of metal elements and metabolites in maize plant tissues, by using mixtures of various proportions of NaCl, NaHCO 3 , Na 2 SO 4 , and Na 2 CO 3 . We found that alkaline salt stress suppressed more pronouncedly the photosynthesis and growth of maize plants than salinity stress. Under alkaline salt stress conditions, metal ions formed massive precipitates, which ultimately reduced plant nutrient availability. On the other hand, high neutral salt stress induced metabolic changes in the direction of gluconeogenesis leading to the enhanced formation of sugars as a reaction contributing to the mitigation of osmotic stress. Thus, the active synthesis of sugars in shoots was essential to the development of salt tolerance. However, the alkaline salt stress conditions characterized by elevated pH values suppressed substantially the levels of photosynthesis, N metabolism, glycolysis, and the production of sugars and amino acids. These results indicate the presence of different defensive mechanisms responsible for the plant responses to neutral salt and alkaline salt stresses. In addition, the increased concentration of organic acids and enhanced metabolic energy might be potential major factors that can contribute to the maintenance intracellular ion balance in maize plants and counteract the negative effects of high pH under alkaline salt stress.

  8. Diazonium salt-mediated synthesis of new amino, hydroxy, propargyl, and maleinimido-containing superparamagnetic Fe@C nanoparticles as platforms for linking bio-entities or organocatalytic moieties

    Bunge, Alexander; Magerusan, Lidia; Morjan, Ion; Turcu, Rodica; Borodi, Gheorghe; Liebscher, Jürgen


    New magnetic Fe@C nanoparticles in the size range of about 20-50 nm functionalized with amino, hydroxy, propargyl, or maleinimido groups were synthesized by reaction with aryl diazonium salts. Aryl diazonium salts wherein the functional groups are linked via a sulfonamide moiety turned out to be advantageous over those with direct linkage. The obtained Fe@C nanoparticles represent magnetic nanoplatforms for linking bio-entities and organocatalysts using amide formation, CuAAC, or thiol-ene click chemistry as exemplified by selected examples. The Fe@C nanoparticles obtained exhibit supramolecular behavior with high value of saturation magnetization rendering them attractive for practical applications in biomedicine and organocatalysis.

  9. Mechanistic study on the nuclear modifier gene MSS1 mutation suppressing neomycin sensitivity of the mitochondrial 15S rRNA C1477G mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Zhou, Qiyin; Wang, Wei; He, Xiangyu; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Shen, Yaoyao; Yu, Zhe; Wang, Xuexiang; Qi, Xuchen; Zhang, Xuan; Fan, Mingjie; Dai, Yu; Yang, Shuxu; Yan, Qingfeng


    The phenotypic manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations can be modulated by nuclear genes and environmental factors. However, neither the interaction among these factors nor their underlying mechanisms are well understood. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae mtDNA 15S rRNA C1477G mutation (PR) corresponds to the human 12S rRNA A1555G mutation. Here we report that a nuclear modifier gene mss1 mutation suppresses the neomycin-sensitivity phenotype of a yeast C1477G mutant in fermentable YPD medium. Functional assays show that the mitochondrial function of the yeast C1477G mutant was impaired severely in YPD medium with neomycin. Moreover, the mss1 mutation led to a significant increase in the steady-state level of HAP5 (heme activated protein), which greatly up-regulated the expression of glycolytic transcription factors RAP1, GCR1, and GCR2 and thus stimulated glycolysis. Furthermore, the high expression of the key glycolytic enzyme genes HXK2, PFK1 and PYK1 indicated that enhanced glycolysis not only compensated for the ATP reduction from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in mitochondria, but also ensured the growth of the mss1(PR) mutant in YPD medium with neomycin. This study advances our understanding of the phenotypic manifestation of mtDNA mutations.

  10. Many Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall Protein Encoding Genes Are Coregulated by Mss11, but Cellular Adhesion Phenotypes Appear Only Flo Protein Dependent.

    Bester, Michael C; Jacobson, Dan; Bauer, Florian F


    The outer cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae serves as the interface with the surrounding environment and directly affects cell-cell and cell-surface interactions. Many of these interactions are facilitated by specific adhesins that belong to the Flo protein family. Flo mannoproteins have been implicated in phenotypes such as flocculation, substrate adhesion, biofilm formation, and pseudohyphal growth. Genetic data strongly suggest that individual Flo proteins are responsible for many specific cellular adhesion phenotypes. However, it remains unclear whether such phenotypes are determined solely by the nature of the expressed FLO genes or rather as the result of a combination of FLO gene expression and other cell wall properties and cell wall proteins. Mss11 has been shown to be a central element of FLO1 and FLO11 gene regulation and acts together with the cAMP-PKA-dependent transcription factor Flo8. Here we use genome-wide transcription analysis to identify genes that are directly or indirectly regulated by Mss11. Interestingly, many of these genes encode cell wall mannoproteins, in particular, members of the TIR and DAN families. To examine whether these genes play a role in the adhesion properties associated with Mss11 expression, we assessed deletion mutants of these genes in wild-type and flo11Δ genetic backgrounds. This analysis shows that only FLO genes, in particular FLO1/10/11, appear to significantly impact on such phenotypes. Thus adhesion-related phenotypes are primarily dependent on the balance of FLO gene expression.

  11. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    Callahan, G.D.


    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well

  12. Molten salt reactors

    Bouchter, J.C.; Dufour, P.; Guidez, J.; Simon, N.; Renault, C.


    Molten salt reactors are one of the 6 concepts retained for the 4. generation of nuclear reactors. The principle of this reactor is very innovative: the nuclear fuel is dissolved in the coolant which allows the online reprocessing of the fuel and the online recovery of the fission products. A small prototype: the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE - 8 MWt) was operating a few years in the sixties in the USA. The passage towards a fast reactor by the suppression of the graphite moderator leads to the concept of Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) which is presently studied through different European projects such as MOST, ALISIA and EVOL. Worldwide the main topics of research are: the adequate materials resisting to the high level of corrosiveness of the molten salts, fuel salt reprocessing, the 3-side coupling between neutron transport, thermohydraulics and thermo-chemistry, the management of the changing chemical composition of the salt, the enrichment of lithium with Li 7 in the case of the use of lithium fluoride salt and the use of MSFR using U 233 fuel (thorium cycle). The last part of the article presents a preliminary safety analysis of the MSFR. (A.C.)

  13. Gases in molten salts

    Tomkins, RPT


    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  14. Steam gasification of plant biomass using molten carbonate salts

    Hathaway, Brandon J.; Honda, Masanori; Kittelson, David B.; Davidson, Jane H.


    This paper explores the use of molten alkali-carbonate salts as a reaction and heat transfer medium for steam gasification of plant biomass with the objectives of enhanced heat transfer, faster kinetics, and increased thermal capacitance compared to gasification in an inert gas. The intended application is a solar process in which concentrated solar radiation is the sole source of heat to drive the endothermic production of synthesis gas. The benefits of gasification in a molten ternary blend of lithium, potassium, and sodium carbonate salts is demonstrated for cellulose, switchgrass, a blend of perennial plants, and corn stover through measurements of reaction rate and product composition in an electrically heated reactor. The feedstocks are gasified with steam at 1200 K in argon and in the molten salt. The use of molten salt increases the total useful syngas production by up to 25%, and increases the reactivity index by as much as 490%. Secondary products, in the form of condensable tar, are reduced by 77%. -- Highlights: ► The presence of molten salt increases the rate of gasification by up to 600%. ► Reaction rates across various feedstocks are more uniform with salt present. ► Useful syngas yield is increased by up to 30% when salt is present. ► Secondary production of liquid tars are reduced by 77% when salt is present.

  15. Immobilization of LiCl-Li 2 O pyroprocessing salt wastes in chlorosodalite using glass-bonded hydrothermal and salt-occlusion methods

    Riley, Brian J.; Peterson, Jacob A.; Kroll, Jared O.; Frank, Steven M.


    In this study, salt occlusion and hydrothermal processes were used to make chlorosodalite through reaction with a high-LiCl salt simulating a waste stream following pyrochemical treatment of oxide-based used nuclear fuel. Some products were reacted with glass binders to increase chlorosodalite yield through alkali ion exchange and aide in densification. Hydrothermal processes included reaction of the salt simulant in an acid digestion vessel with either zeolite 4A or sodium aluminate and colloidal silica. Chlorosodalite yields in the crystalline products were nearly complete in the glass-bonded materials at values of 100 mass% for the salt-occlusion method, up to 99.0 mass% for the hydrothermal synthesis with zeolite 4A, and up to 96 mass% for the hydrothermal synthesis with sodium aluminate and colloidal silica. These results show promise for using chemically stable chlorosodalite to immobilize oxide reduction salt wastes.

  16. Immobilization of LiCl-Li2O pyroprocessing salt wastes in chlorosodalite using glass-bonded hydrothermal and salt-occlusion methods

    Riley, Brian J.; Peterson, Jacob A.; Kroll, Jared O.; Frank, Steven M.


    In this study, hydrothermal and salt-occlusion processes were used to make chlorosodalite through reactions with a high-LiCl salt simulating a waste stream generated from pyrochemical treatment of oxide-based used nuclear fuel. Some products were reacted with glass binders to increase chlorosodalite yield through alkali ion exchange and to aid in densification. Hydrothermal processes included reaction of the salt simulant in an autoclave with either zeolite 4A or sodium aluminate and colloidal silica. Chlorosodalite yields in the crystalline products were nearly complete in the glass-bonded materials at values of 100 mass% for the salt-occlusion method, up to 99.0 mass% for the hydrothermal synthesis with zeolite 4A, and up to 96 mass% for the hydrothermal synthesis with sodium aluminate and colloidal silica. These results show promise for using chemically stable chlorosodalite to immobilize oxide reduction salt wastes.

  17. What Are Bath Salts?

    ... bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations (see or ... Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Cite this article APA Style MLA Style ...

  18. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  19. Ageing behaviour of unary hydroxides in trivalent metal salt solutions

    LDH)-like phases on ageing in solutions of Al or Cr salts. This reaction is similar to acid leaching and proceeds by a dissolution–reprecipitation mechanism offering a simple method of LDH synthesis, with implications for the accepted theories of ...

  20. 1,3- and 1,4-Substituted tetrazolium salts

    Voitekhovich, Sergei V; Gaponik, Pavel N; Ivashkevich, Oleg A


    The published data on the synthesis, physicochemical properties, structures and reactions of 1,3-(1,3,5)- and 1,4-(1,4,5)-substituted tetrazolium salts are systematised and generalised. Their applications as starting compounds in the preparative chemistry of heterocyclic derivatives and some other branches of science and technology are reviewed. The bibliography includes 122 references.

  1. Salt-induced root protein profile changes in seedlings of maize inbred lines with differing salt tolerances

    Yujing Cheng


    Full Text Available Salt stress is one of the severest growth limited-factors to agriculture production. To gain in-depth knowledge of salt-stress response mechanisms, the proteomics analysis from two maize (Zea mays L. inbred lines was carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. There were 57 salt-regulated proteins identified, 21 and 36 proteins were differentially regulated in inbred lines 'Nongda 1145' (salt-resistant and 'D340' (salt-sensitive, respectively. The identified proteins were distributed in 11 biological processes and seven molecular functions. Under salt stress, proteins related to antioxidation and lignin synthesis were increased in both inbred lines. The relative abundance of proteins involved in translation initiation, elongation, and protein proteolysis increased in 'Nongda 1145' and decreased in 'D340'. In addition, the abundance of proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, protein refolding, ATP synthase and transcription differed between the two inbred lines. Our results suggest that the enhanced ability of salt-tolerant inbred line 'Nongda 1145' to combat salt stress occurs via regulation of transcription factors promoting increased antioxidation and lignin biosynthesis, enhanced energy production, and acceleration of protein translation and protein proteolysis.

  2. Mass transport in bedded salt and salt interbeds

    Hwang, Y.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.


    Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is nearly dry and probably impermeable. Although experiments and experience at potential salt sites indicate that salt may contain brine, the low porosity, creep, and permeability of salt make it still a good choice for geologic isolation. In this paper we summarize several mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. The mathematical details are given in our technical reports

  3. Molten salt reactor type


    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. Emphasize is put essentially on the fuel salt of the primary circuit inside which fission reactions occur. The reasons why the (LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 -UF 4 ) salt was chosen for the M.S.B.R. concept are examined; the physical, physicochemical and chemical properties of this salt are discussed with its interactions with the structural materials and its evolution in time. An important part of this volume is devoted to the continuous reprocessing of the active salt, the project designers having deemed advisable to take advantage at best from the availability of a continuous purification, in a thermal breeding. The problem of tritium formation and distribution inside the reactor is also envisaged and the fundamentals of the chemistry of the secondary coolant salt are given. The solutions proposed are: the hydrogen scavenging of the primary circuit, a reduction in metal permeability by an oxyde layer deposition on the side in contact with the vapor, and tritium absorption through an isotope exchange with the hydroxifluoroborate [fr

  4. Cooperativity of complex salt bridges

    Gvritishvili, Anzor G.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Makhatadze, George I.


    The energetic contribution of complex salt bridges, in which one charged residue (anchor residue) forms salt bridges with two or more residues simultaneously, has been suggested to have importance for protein stability. Detailed analysis of the net energetics of complex salt bridge formation using double- and triple-mutant cycle analysis revealed conflicting results. In two cases, it was shown that complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, i.e., the net strength of the complex salt bridge...

  5. Diazonium salt-mediated synthesis of new amino, hydroxy, propargyl, and maleinimido-containing superparamagnetic Fe@C nanoparticles as platforms for linking bio-entities or organocatalytic moieties

    Bunge, Alexander; Magerusan, Lidia; Morjan, Ion; Turcu, Rodica; Borodi, Gheorghe; Liebscher, Jürgen


    New magnetic Fe@C nanoparticles in the size range of about 20–50 nm functionalized with amino, hydroxy, propargyl, or maleinimido groups were synthesized by reaction with aryl diazonium salts. Aryl diazonium salts wherein the functional groups are linked via a sulfonamide moiety turned out to be advantageous over those with direct linkage. The obtained Fe@C nanoparticles represent magnetic nanoplatforms for linking bio-entities and organocatalysts using amide formation, CuAAC, or thiol-ene click chemistry as exemplified by selected examples. The Fe@C nanoparticles obtained exhibit supramolecular behavior with high value of saturation magnetization rendering them attractive for practical applications in biomedicine and organocatalysis.

  6. Diazonium salt-mediated synthesis of new amino, hydroxy, propargyl, and maleinimido-containing superparamagnetic Fe@C nanoparticles as platforms for linking bio-entities or organocatalytic moieties

    Bunge, Alexander; Magerusan, Lidia [National Institute of Research and Development for Isotopic and Molecular Technologies (Romania); Morjan, Ion [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics (Romania); Turcu, Rodica; Borodi, Gheorghe; Liebscher, Jürgen, E-mail: [National Institute of Research and Development for Isotopic and Molecular Technologies (Romania)


    New magnetic Fe@C nanoparticles in the size range of about 20–50 nm functionalized with amino, hydroxy, propargyl, or maleinimido groups were synthesized by reaction with aryl diazonium salts. Aryl diazonium salts wherein the functional groups are linked via a sulfonamide moiety turned out to be advantageous over those with direct linkage. The obtained Fe@C nanoparticles represent magnetic nanoplatforms for linking bio-entities and organocatalysts using amide formation, CuAAC, or thiol-ene click chemistry as exemplified by selected examples. The Fe@C nanoparticles obtained exhibit supramolecular behavior with high value of saturation magnetization rendering them attractive for practical applications in biomedicine and organocatalysis.

  7. Synthesis and structural studies of a new class of quaternary ammonium salts, which are derivatives of cage adamanzane type aminal 1,3,6,8-tetraazatricyclo [,8./sup.]undecane (TATU)

    Rivera, A.; Sadat-Bernal, J.; Ríos-Motta, J.; Dušek, Michal; Palatinus, Lukáš


    Roč. 5, č. 55 (2011), 55/1-55/8 ISSN 1752-153X Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0701 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : quaternary ammonium salts * adamanzane * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.281, year: 2011

  8. Functionalized alkoxy arene diazonium salts from paracetamol.

    Schmidt, Bernd; Berger, René; Hölter, Frank


    Arene diazonium tetrafluoroborates can be synthesized from aromatic acetamides via a sequence of deacetylation, diazotation and precipitation, induced by anion exchange. The reaction is conducted as a convenient one-flask transformation with consecutive addition of the appropriate reagents. Exchange of solvents or removal of byproducts prior to isolation of the product is not required. The arene diazonium salts are isolated from the reaction mixture by simple filtration. Two complementary protocols are presented, and the utility of the reaction is exemplified for a synthesis of the diarylheptanoid natural product de-O-methyl centrolobine.

  9. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson


    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  10. Molten salt breeder reactor

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Tsukada, Kineo; Nakahara, Yasuaki; Oomichi, Toshihiko; Oono, Hideo.


    Purpose: To simplify the structure, as well as improve the technical reliability and safety by the elimination of a proton beam entering window. Constitution: The nuclear reactor container main body is made of Hastelloy N and provided at the inner surface with two layers of graphite shields except for openings. An aperture was formed in the upper surface of the container, through which protons accelerated by a linear accelerator are directly entered to the liquid surface of molten salts such as 7LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 , 7LiF-NaF-ThF 4 , 7LiF-Rb-UF 4 , NaF-KF-UF 4 and the like. The heated molten salts are introduced by way of a pipeway into a heat exchanger where the heat is transferred to coolant salts and electric generation is conducted by way of heated steams. (Furukawa, Y.)

  11. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Kostick, Dennis S.


    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  12. Molten salt reactor type


    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. This part 'CIRCUITS' regroups under a condensed form - in French and using international units - the essential information contained in both basic documents of the American project for a molten-salt breeder power plant. This part is only dealing with things relating to the CEA-EDF workshop 'CIRCUITS'. It is not concerned with information on: the reactor and the moderator replacement, the primary and secondary salts, and the fuel salt reprocessing, that are dealt with in parts 'CORE' and 'CHEMISTRY' respectively. The possible evolutions in the data - and solutions - taken by the American designers for their successive projects (1970 to 1972) are shown. The MSBR power plant comprises three successive heat transfer circuits. The primary circuit (Hastelloy N), radioactive and polluted, containing the fuel salt, includes the reactor, pumps and exchangers. The secondary circuit (pipings made of modified Hastelloy N) contaminated in the exchanger, ensures the separation between the fuel and the fluid operating the turbo-alternator. The water-steam circuit feeds the turbine with steam. This steam is produced in the steam generator flowed by the secondary fluid. Some subsidiary circuits (discharge and storage of the primary and secondary salts, ventilation of the primary circuit ...) complete the three principal circuits which are briefly described. All circuits are enclosed inside the controlled-atmosphere building of the nuclear boiler. This building also ensures the biological protection and the mechanical protection against outer aggressions [fr



    A new method for preparing salts of metal cations and organic acids, especially divalent salts of alkaline earth metal ions from group II of the periodic system and carboxylic acids. The method comprising the use of a high temperature (about 90° or more) and, optionally. high pressure, in order...... to obtain a higher yield, purity and faster reaction speed than obtained with known synthesis methods. In particular, the present invention relates to the production of strontium salts of carboxylic acids. Novel strontium salts are also provided by the present method....

  14. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the...

  15. to salt stress



    Feb 14, 2012 ... 3Inner Mongolia Industrial Engineering Research, Center of University for Castor, Tongliao 028042, ... strengthen and improve salt stress tolerance in plants. .... 2 µl cDNA, 1 µl each of 4 µM forward and reverse primer, 0.2 µl.

  16. Molten salt reactor concept

    Sood, D.D.


    Molten salt reactor is an advanced breeder concept which is suited for the utilization of thorium for nuclear power production. This reactor is based on the use of solutions of uranium or plutonium fluorides in LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 as fuel. Unlike the conventional reactors, no external coolant is used in the reactor core and the fuel salt itself is circulated through heat exchangers to transfer the fission produced heat to a secondary salt (NaF-NaBF 4 ) for steam generation. A part of the fuel stream is continuously processed to isolate 233 Pa, so that it can decay to fissile 233 U without getting converted to 234 Pa, and for the removal of neutron absorbing fission products. This on-line processing scheme makes this reactor concept to achieve a breeding ratio of 1.07 which is the highest for any thermal breeder reactor. Experimental studies at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have established the use of plutonium as fuel for this reactor. This molten salt reactor concept is described and the work conducted at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is summarised. (auth.)

  17. Molten salt electrorefining method

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Shoji, Yuichi; Matsumaru, Ken-ichi.


    A molten cadmium phase (lower side) and a molten salt phase (upper side) are filled in an electrolytic bath. A basket incorporating spent nuclear fuels is inserted/disposed in the molten cadmium phase. A rotatable solid cathode is inserted/disposed in the molten salt phase. The spent fuels, for example, natural uranium, incorporated in the basket is dissolved in the molten cadmium phase. In this case, the uranium concentration in the molten salt phase is determined as from 0.5 to 20wt%. Then, electrolysis is conducted while setting a stirring power for stirring at least the molten salt phase of from 2.5 x 10 2 to 1 x 10 4 based on a reynolds number. Crystalline nuclei of uranium are precipitated uniformly on the surface of the solid cathode, and they grow into fine dendrites. With such procedures, since short-circuit between the cathode precipitates and the molten cadmium phase (anode) is scarcely caused, to improve the recovering rate of uranium. (I.N.)

  18. Borehole closure in salt

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.


    Constitutive law parameters are determined from salt behavior characterization experiments. The results are applied to predict creep (time-dependent) closure of boreholes in salt specimens subjected to various loading configurations. Rheological models (linear and nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic models), empirical models, and physical theory models have been formulated from the results of uniaxial creep tests, strain and stress rate controlled uniaxial tests, constant strain rate triaxial tests, cyclic loading tests, and seismic velocity measurements. Analytical solutions for a thick-walled cylinder subjected to internal and external pressures and for a circular hole in an infinite plate subjected to a biaxial or uniaxial stressfield have been derived from each of the linear viscoelastic models and from one of the empirical laws. The experimental results indicate that the salt samples behave as an elastic-viscoplastic material. The elastic behavior tends to be linear and time-independent. The plastic deformation is time-dependent. The stress increment to strain rate increment ratio gradually decreases as the stress level increases. The transient potential creep law seems to give the simplest satisfactory governing equation describing the viscoplastic behavior of salt during the transient phase. 204 refs., 27 figs., 29 tabs

  19. Salt repository design approach

    Matthews, S.C.


    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure

  20. Learning SaltStack

    Myers, Colton


    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  1. Salt ingestion caves.

    Lundquist Charles A.


    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  2. The 5-Endo-trig Cyclization of D-Glucose Derived γ-Alkenylamines with Mercury (II Salts: Synthesis of 1-Deoxycastanospermine and its 8a-epi-Analogueâ€

    S. Jachak


    Full Text Available The intramolecular aminomercuration of γ-alkenylamines 1a, 1b and 4 was shown to afford the 5-endo-trig cyclized product exclusively in good yield. The utility of pyrrolidine derivatives thus obtained from D-glucose derived γ-alkenylamines 1a and 1b was demonstrated in the synthesis of 1-deoxycastanospermine (3a and 1-deoxy-8a-epi- castanospermine (3b.

  3. Monodisperse and hollow structured Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+} (Ln = Eu, Dy, Er, Tm) nanospheres: A facile synthesis and multicolor-tunable luminescence properties

    Li, Ruiqing; Zi, Wenwen; Li, Linlin; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Junjun [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China); Zou, Lianchun, E-mail: [Teaching Center of Basic Courses, Jilin University, Changchun 130062 (China); Gan, Shucai, E-mail: [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China)


    Highlights: • We reported a simple route to synthesize the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} HNSs. • A possible formation mechanism of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} HNSs was proposed. • The Ln-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} HNSs exhibit characteristic emission with different colors. • White-light-emitting phosphor Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tm{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} was also successfully synthesized. - Abstract: A novel, fast and simple method was developed to synthesize the undoped and lanthanide-doped yttrium oxide hollow nanospheres (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}⋅HNSs) with multicolored downconversion emission under mild conditions by employing poly (acrylic acid sodium salt) microspheres (PAAS MSs) as active templates followed by a subsequent calcination process. The structure, morphology, formation process, and fluorescent properties are well investigated using various techniques. The results show that the samples can be well indexed to the pure cubic phase of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The possible formation mechanism of the PAAS MSs, PAA-Y precursor, and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} HNSs are proposed and discussed in detail. Upon ultraviolet excitation, the obtained Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+} (Ln = Eu, Dy, Er, Tm) HNSs exhibit strong red, yellow–green, blue, yellow emission, respectively. Moreover, a novel single-phased and near-UV-pumped white-light-emitting phosphor Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tm{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} was also successfully fabricated through optimizing the molar ratio among Tm{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} in the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} host. This material may find potential applications in field-emission display devices and white ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs). Furthermore, this synthesis route may be of great significance in the preparation of other hollow spherical materials.

  4. Protonation of inorganic 5-Fluorocytosine salts

    Souza, Matheus S.; da Silva, Cecília C. P.; Almeida, Leonardo R.; Diniz, Luan F.; Andrade, Marcelo B.; Ellena, Javier


    5-Fluorocytosine (5-FC) has been widely used for the treatment of fungal infections and recently was found to exert an extraordinary antineoplastic activity in gene directed prodrug therapy. However, despite of its intense use, 5-FC exhibits tabletability issues due its physical instability in humid environments, leading to transition from the anhydrous to monohydrate phase. By considering that salt formation is an interesting strategy to overcome this problem, in this paper crystal engineering approach was applied to the supramolecular synthesis of new 5-FC salts with sulfuric, hydrobromic and methanesulfonic inorganic acids. A total of four structures were obtained, namely 5-FC sulfate monohydrate (1:1:1), 5-FC hydrogen sulfate (1:1), 5-FC mesylate (1:1) and 5-FC hydrobromide (1:1), the last one being a polymorphic form of a structure already reported in the literature. These novel salts were structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and its supramolecular organization were analyses by Hirshfeld surface analysis. The vibrational behavior was evaluated by Raman spectroscopy and it was found to be consistent with the crystal structures.

  5. A radiation-hard dual-channel 12-bit 40 MS/s ADC prototype for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter readout electronics upgrade at the CERN LHC

    Kuppambatti, J. [Columbia University, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, New York, NY (United States); Ban, J. [Columbia University, Nevis Laboratories, Irvington, NY (United States); Andeen, T., E-mail: [Columbia University, Nevis Laboratories, Irvington, NY (United States); Brown, R.; Carbone, R. [Columbia University, Nevis Laboratories, Irvington, NY (United States); Kinget, P. [Columbia University, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, New York, NY (United States); Brooijmans, G.; Sippach, W. [Columbia University, Nevis Laboratories, Irvington, NY (United States)


    The readout electronics upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters at the CERN Large Hadron Collider requires a radiation-hard ADC. The design of a radiation-hard dual-channel 12-bit 40 MS/s pipeline ADC for this use is presented. The design consists of two pipeline A/D channels each with four Multiplying Digital-to-Analog Converters followed by 8-bit Successive-Approximation-Register analog-to-digital converters. The custom design, fabricated in a commercial 130 nm CMOS process, shows a performance of 67.9 dB SNDR at 10 MHz for a single channel at 40 MS/s, with a latency of 87.5 ns (to first bit read out), while its total power consumption is 50 mW/channel. The chip uses two power supply voltages: 1.2 and 2.5 V. The sensitivity to single event effects during irradiation is measured and determined to meet the system requirements.

  6. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab


    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions......, In this study we compare results of analogue and numerical models of diapirs with two natural salt diapris (Klodawa and Gorleben diapirs) to explain their salt supply and asymmetric evolution. In a NW-SE section, the Gorleben salt diapir possesses an asymmetric external geometry represented by a large...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...

  7. Synthesis of hollandite-type Li yMn 1- xCo xO 2 (x = 0-0.15) by Li + ion-exchange in molten salt and the electrochemical property for rechargeable lithium battery electrodes

    Kumagai, Naoaki; Oshitari, Satoru; Komaba, Shinichi; Kadoma, Yoshihiro

    The Li + ion-exchange reaction of K +-type α-K 0.14MnO 1.93·0.18H 2O and its Co-doped α-K 0.14(Mn 0.85Co 0.15)O 1.96·0.21H 2O with a large (2 × 2) tunnel structure has been investigated in a LiNO 3/LiCl molten salt at 300 °C. The Li + ion-exchanged products were examined by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopic measurements. Almost all the K + ions and the hydrogens of water molecules in the (2 × 2) tunnel of α-MnO 2 and its Co-doped one were exchanged by Li + ions in the molten salt, resulting in Li +-type α-MnO 2 and its Co-doped one containing Li + ions as well as Li 2O (lithium oxide) in the (2 × 2) tunnel with maintaining the original hollandite structure. The electrochemical properties including charge-discharge cycling of the Li + ion-exchanged α-MnO 2 and its Co-doped samples have been investigated as insertion compounds in the search for new cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. The Li + ion-exchanged α-MnO 2 and its Co-doped samples provided higher capacities than the K +-type parent materials on initial discharge and charge-discharge cyclings, probably due to the structural stabilization with the existence of Li 2O in the (2 × 2) tunnels.

  8. Test procedures for salt rock

    Dusseault, M.B.


    Potash mining, salt mining, design of solution caverns in salt rocks, disposal of waste in salt repositories, and the use of granular halite backfill in underground salt rock mines are all mining activities which are practised or contemplated for the near future. Whatever the purpose, the need for high quality design parameters is evident. The authors have been testing salt rocks in the laboratory in a number of configurations for some time. Great care has been given to the quality of sample preparation and test methodology. This paper describes the methods, presents the elements of equipment design, and shows some typical results

  9. Monitoring Environment with GIS for Part of Thiruvallur Town Using Cartosat 1 Stereo, Pan & Resourcesat Liss 4 MSS Merged Data

    Mohamed, G. S.; Venkatchalam, R. V.; Ramamurthhy, M.; Gummidipoondi, R. J.; Ramillah, M.


    of Thiruvallur Municipality Area between North Western Thiruvallur town from the Temple Tank of Sri Veeraragavasamy temple to junction of National Highways connecting Thiruvallur to Tirupathi and Thiruvallur- Poondi- Uthukottai at the West. These data are used to create environment monitoring GIS to understand the use of High resolution Indian satellite data for local urban environmental planning to manage the health and environmental issues. ARC GIS 10 and Lieca photogrammetry software are used with satellite data to create different layer for creating GIS on urban infrastructure like houses, public buildings, roads, municipal surface drainage net work, underground sewerage drainage net work, drinking water pipe lines net work, landfills, solid waste disposal yards, pumping stations, degraded areas, heath services infrastructure, wet lands , low lying areas with bushes, abandoned lakes which are the breeding grounds for mosquito's in rainy season, etc These layers are correlated with the municipal ward map of this segment of the town. The stereo data of Cartosat 1 is useful for mapping the households, roads, agricultural fields, bushy areas, slopes to map the natural drainage of the area and for delineation of micro watersheds. When the layer of municipal ward maps are integrated with the GIS the drainage, drinking water lines, street names and house numbers etc can be added to the attribute data to make this as a complete Environment management GIS. The use of PAN merged data of Cartosat 1 with LISS 4, MSS Resourcesat 1 in natural colour and it's cost effectiveness is studied to explain the usefulness of creation of Environment Health GIS. The non stereo Geo Eye latest data from Google Earth web site or Cartosat 2 can be used for upgrading the land use changes and identify current environmental as on 2011.The study will provide GIS to monitor environmental issues with multi date large scale data for Thiruvallur Town.

  10. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Riggs DM


    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  11. A review on transition-metal mediated synthesis of quinolines

    Rashmi Sharma


    Jun 14, 2018 ... Special Section on Transition Metal Catalyzed Synthesis of Medicinally Relevant Molecules. A review on ...... iron(III) chloride and TEMPO oxoammonium salt as an .... propyl-3-ethylquinoline (209) in presence of platinum.

  12. The material flow of salt

    Kostick, D.S.


    Salt (NaCl) is a universal mineral commodity used by virtually every person in the world. Although a very common mineral today, at one time it was considered as precious as gold in certain cultures. This study traces the material flow of salt from its origin through the postconsumer phase of usage. The final disposition of salt in the estimated 14,000 different uses, grouped into several macrocategories, is traced from the dispersive loss of salt into the environment to the ultimate disposal of salt-base products into the waste stream after consumption. The base year for this study is 1990, in which an estimated 196 million short tons of municipal solid waste was discarded by the US population. Approximately three-fourths of domestic salt consumed is released to the environment and unrecovered while about one-fourth is discharged to landfills and incinerators as products derived from salt. Cumulative historical domestic production, trade, and consumption data have been compiled to illustrate the long-term trends within the US salt industry and the cumulative contribution that highway deicing salt has had on the environment. Salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and to increase the density of the drilling fluid in order to overcome high down-well gas pressures. Whenever drilling activities encounter salt formations, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution and minimize the dissolution within the salt strata. Salt is also used to increase the set rate of concrete in cemented casings. This subsector includes companies engaged in oil, gas, and crude petroleum exploration and in refining and compounding lubricating oil. It includes SIC major groups 13 and 29. 13 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Where Does Road Salt Go - a Static Salt Model

    Yu, C. W.; Liu, F.; Moriarty, V. W.


    Each winter, more than 15 million tons of road salt is applied in the United States for the de-icing purpose. Considerable amount of chloride in road salt flows into streams/drainage systems with the snow melt runoff and spring storms, and eventually goes into ecologically sensitive low-lying areas in the watershed, such as ponds and lakes. In many watersheds in the northern part of US, the chloride level in the water body has increased significantly in the past decades, and continues an upward trend. The environmental and ecological impact of the elevated chloride level can no longer be ignored. However although there are many studies on the biological impact of elevated chloride levels, there are few investigations on how the spatially distributed road salt application affects various parts of the watershed. In this presentation, we propose a static road salt model as a first-order metric to address spacial distribution of salt loading. Derived from the Topological Wetness Index (TWI) in many hydrological models, this static salt model provides a spatial impact as- sessment of road salt applications. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the static model, National Elevation Dataset (NED) of ten-meter resolution of Lake George watershed in New York State is used to generate the TWI, which is used to compute a spatially dis- tributed "salt-loading coefficient" of the whole watershed. Spatially varying salt applica- tion rate is then aggregated, using the salt-loading coefficients as weights, to provide salt loading assessments of streams in the watershed. Time-aggregated data from five CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) sensors in selected streams are used for calibration. The model outputs and the sensor data demonstrate a strong linear correlation, with the R value of 0.97. The investigation shows that the static modeling approach may provide an effective method for the understanding the input and transport of road salt to within watersheds.

  14. Synthesis, crystal structures, and characterization of double complex salts [Au(en)2][Rh(NO2)6]·2H2O and [Au(en)2][Rh(NO2)6

    Plyusnin, Pavel E.; Makotchenko, Evgenia V.; Shubin, Yury V.; Baidina, Iraida A.; Korolkov, Ilya V.; Sheludyakova, Liliya A.; Korenev, Sergey V.


    Double complex salts of rhodium(III) and gold(III) of the composition [Au(en)2][Rh(NO2)6]·2H2O (1) and [Au(en)2][Rh(NO2)6] (2) have been prepared. Crystal structures of the compounds have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compounds have been characterized by PXRD, IR, far-IR, CHN and DTA. The complexes have a layered structures. The presence of water in 1 makes the structure of the hydrated DCS less dense as compared to the anhydrous one. The environment of the cation and the anion in the two structures is the same, oxygen atoms of the nitro groups are involved in hydrogen bonds N-H⋯O, N⋯O distances being approximately the same. The structures of 1 and 2 are notable in having shortened contacts between the gold atoms and the oxygen atoms of the nitro groups of the neighboring complex anions. The thermal behavior of the complexes in a hydrogen atmosphere was investigated. The final product of thermolysis prepared at the temperature 600°C is a two-phase mixture of pure metallic gold and the solid solution Rh0.93Au0.07.

  15. Generic aspects of salt repositories

    Laughon, R.B.


    The history of geological disposal of radioactive wastes in salt is presented from 1957 when a panel of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council recommended burial in bedded salt deposits. Early work began in the Kansas, portion of the Permian Basin where simulated wastes were placed in an abandoned salt mine at Lyons, Kansas, in the late 1960's. This project was terminated when the potential effect of nearby solution mining activities could not be resolved. Evaluation of bedded salts resumed a few years later in the Permian Basin in southeastern New Mexico, and search for suitable sites in the 1970's resulted in the formation of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program in 1976. Evaluation of salt deposits in many regions of the United States has been virtually completed and has shown that deposits having the greatest potential for radioactive waste disposal are those of the largest depositional basins and salt domes of the Gulf Coast region

  16. 47 CFR 25.250 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands.


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands. 25.250 Section 25.250 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25...

  17. Development of High Throughput Salt Separation System with Integrated Liquid Salt Separation - Salt Distillation Assembly

    Kwon, Sangwoon; Park, K. M.; Kim, J. G.; Jeong, J. H.; Lee, S. J.; Park, S. B.; Kim, S. S.


    The capacity of a salt distiller should be sufficiently large to reach the throughput of uranium electro-refining process. In this study, an assembly composing a liquid separation sieve and a distillation crucible was developed for the sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation in the same tower. The feasibility of the sequential salt separation was examined by the rotation test of the sieve-crucible assembly and sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation. The adhered salt in the uranium deposits was removed successfully. The salt content in the deposits was below 0.1 wt% after the sequential operation of the liquid salt separation - salt distillation. From the results of this study, it could be concluded that efficient salt separation can be realized by the sequential operation of liquid salt separation and vacuum distillation in one distillation tower since the operation procedures are simplified and no extra operation of cooling and reheating is necessary.

  18. ERTS data user no. 119: Effective use of ERTS multisensor data in the Great Plains. ERTS-1 MSS imagery: A tool for identifying soil associations

    Myers, V. I. (Principal Investigator); Westin, F. C.


    The author has identified the following significant results. Soil association maps show the spatial relationships of land units developed in unique climatic, geologic, and topographic environments, and having characteristic slopes, soil depths, textures, available water capacities, permeabilities, and the like. ERTS-1 imagery was found to be a useful tool in the identification of soil associations since it provides a synoptic view of an 8 million acre scene, which is large enough so that the effect can be seen on soils of climate, topography, and geology. A regional view also allows soil associations to be observed over most, if not all, of their extent. ERTS-1 MSS imagery also provides four spectral bands taken every 18 days which give data on relief, hydrology, and vegetation, all of which bear on the delineation and interpretation of soil associations. Enlarged prints derived from the individual spectral bands and shown in gray tones were useful for identifying soil associations.

  19. A 10-bit 80-MS/s opamp-sharing pipelined ADC with a switch-embedded dual-input MDAC

    Yin Rui; Zhang Wei; Tang Zhangwen [ASIC and System State Key Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China); Liao Youchun, E-mail: [Ratio Microelectronics Co., Ltd, Shanghai 200433 (China)


    A 10-bit 80-MS/s opamp-sharing pipelined ADC is implemented in a 0.18-{mu}m CMOS. An opamp-sharing MDAC with a switch-embedded dual-input opamp is proposed to eliminate the non-resetting and successive-stage crosstalk problems observed in the conventional opamp-sharing technique. The ADC achieves a peak SNDR of 60.1 dB (ENOB = 9.69 bits) and a peak SFDR of 76 dB, while maintaining more than 9.6 ENOB for the full Nyquist input bandwidth. The core area of the ADC is 1.1 mm{sup 2} and the chip consumes 28 mW with a 1.8 V power supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. A 10 bit 200 MS/s pipeline ADC using loading-balanced architecture in 0.18 μm CMOS

    Wang, Linfeng; Meng, Qiao; Zhi, Hao; Li, Fei


    A new loading-balanced architecture for high speed and low power consumption pipeline analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is presented in this paper. The proposed ADC uses SHA-less, op-amp and capacitor-sharing technique, capacitor-scaling scheme to reduce the die area and power consumption. A new capacitor-sharing scheme was proposed to cancel the extra reset phase of the feedback capacitors. The non-standard inter-stage gain increases the feedback factor of the first stage and makes it equal to the second stage, by which, the load capacitor of op-amp shared by the first and second stages is balanced. As for the fourth stage, the capacitor and op-amp no longer scale down. From the system’s point of view, all load capacitors of the shared OTAs are balanced by employing a loading-balanced architecture. The die area and power consumption are optimized maximally. The ADC is implemented in a 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS technology, and occupies a die area of 1.2 × 1.2 mm{}2. The measurement results show a 55.58 dB signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SNDR) and 62.97 dB spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) with a 25 MHz input operating at a 200 MS/s sampling rate. The proposed ADC consumes 115 mW at 200 MS/s from a 1.8 V supply.

  1. Zechstein salt Denmark. Vol. 1

    Lyngsie Jacobsen, F.; Soenderholm, M.; Springer, N.; Gutzon Larsen, J.; Lagoni, P.; Fabricius, J.


    The Salt Research Project EFP-81 has mainly been aiming upon an elucidation of the stratigraphy of the Danish Zechstein evaporites. Also an attempt to clarify the connection between the fabric and the strength of the strongly deformed domal rock salt is performed. The unravelling of the stratigraphy is carried out by means of renewed interpretations of new and old data from all the wells drilling in the Danish Permian basin in connection with a revaluation of the core descriptions. By means of trace elements analysis it is possible to some extent to distinguish between Zestein 1 and 2 ''grey salt''. A description of the transition zone between Zechstein 1 and 2 is carried out. New methods of fabric analyses are introduced and the strength measurements of the rock salt are treated statistically in connection with new defined rock salt parameters. An investigation of fluid inclusions in halite and quartz crystals from dome salt has resulted in the determination of salinity and chemical composition of the brines present in the salt. Temperatures and corresponding pressures during the evolution of the salt pillow and salt dome have been established. The dehydration conditions of natural carnallite in situ are clarified. (author)

  2. Salt formations offer disposal alternative

    Funderburk, R.


    This paper discusses how three U.S. firms are spending millions to permit and build underground disposal sites in salt formations. These companies claim salt is the ideal geological medium for holding hazardous wastes. Two Texas locations and one in Michigan have been targeted as future sites for hazardous waste disposal. The Michigan site, outside Detroit, is a former salt mine 2,000 feet beneath the Ford Motor Co. (Detroit) assembly works in Dearborn. Both Texas sites are atop salt domes---one east and one west of Houston

  3. The titanium tris-anilide cation [Ti(N[(t)Bu]Ar)3](+) stabilized as its perfluoro-tetra-phenylborate salt: structural characterization and synthesis in connection with redox activity of 4,4'-bipyridine dititanium complexes.

    Spinney, Heather A; Clough, Christopher R; Cummins, Christopher C


    This work explores the reduction of 4,4'-bipyridine using two equivalents of the titanium(iii) complex Ti(N[(t)Bu]Ar)3 resulting in formation of a black, crystalline complex, (4,4'-bipy){Ti(N[(t)Bu]Ar)3}2, for which an X-ray structure determination is reported. The neutral, black, 4,4'-bipyridine-bridged bimetallic was found to be redox active, with mono- and di-anions being accessible electrochemically, and with the mono- and di-cations also being accessible chemically, and isolable, at least when using the weakly coordinating anion [B(C6F5)4](-) as the counter-ion. It proved possible to crystallize the salt [(4,4'-bipy){Ti(N[(t)Bu]Ar)3}2][B(C6F5)4]2 for a single-crystal X-ray structure investigation; in this instance it was revealed that the aromaticity of the 4,4'-bipyridine ligand, that had been disrupted upon reduction, had been regained. A rare cationic d(0) metal tris-amide complex, shown by X-ray crystallography to contain an intriguing pyramidal TiN3 core geometry, namely {Ti(N[(t)Bu]Ar)3}(+), could also be isolated when using [B(C6F5)4] as the essentially non-interacting counter-ion. This highly reactive cation should be considered as a potential intermediate in the plethora of reactions wherein Ti(N[(t)Bu]Ar)3 has been shown to effect the reduction of substrates including halogenated organic molecules, carbonyl compounds, organic nitriles, and metal complexes.

  4. Fused salt electrolysis

    Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.


    Working conditions for zirconium preparation by fused salt electrolysis were studied. For such purpose, a cell was built for operation under argon atmosphere. A graphite crucible served as anode, with steel cathodes. Proper design allowed cathode rechange under the inert atmosphere. Cathodic deposits of zirconium powder occluded salts from the bath. After washing with both water and hydrochloric acid, the metallic powder was consolidated by fusion. Optimum operating conditions were found to arise from an electrolyte of 12% potassium hexafluorzirconate -88% sodium chloride, at 820 deg C and 5 A/cm 2 cathodic current density. Deposits contained 35% of metal and current efficiency reached 66%. The powder contained up to 600 ppm of chlorine and 1.700 ppm of fluorine; after fusion, those amounts decreased to 2 ppm and 3 ppm respectively, with low proportion of metallic impurities. Though oxygen proportion was 4.500 ppm, it should be lowered by improving working conditions, as well as working on an ampler scale. (Author)

  5. Synthesis, characterization, thermal

    Selma Bal


    Full Text Available This work explains the synthesis of a new azo-Schiff base compound, derived from condensation between N-ethylcarbazole-3-carbaldehyde and 1,3-diaminopropane, followed by azo coupling reaction with the diazonium salt of 2-amino-4-methyl phenol. The newly synthesized azo-Schiff base was further reacted with the acetate salts of Copper, Cobalt and Nickel to give three coordination compounds. All synthesized compounds have been characterized through spectral analysis. The coordination compounds have been examined for their thermal and catalytic features. Good and moderate yields were obtained for the oxidation of styrene and cyclohexene. Thermal features of the ligand and its complexes have been explained and the results obtained have supported the proposed structures.

  6. Molten salt fueled reactors with a fast salt draining

    Ventre, Edmond; Blum, J.M.


    This invention relates to a molten salt nuclear reactor which comprises a new arrangement for shutting it down in complete safety. This nuclear reactor has a molten salt primary circuit comprising, in particular, the core of this reactor. It includes a leak tight vessel the capacity of which is appreciably greater than that of the molten salt volume of the circuit and placed so that the level of the molten salt, when all the molten salt of the circuit is contained in this vessel, is less than that of the base of the core. There are facilities for establishing and maintaining an inert gas pressure in the vessel above the molten salt, for releasing the compressed gas and for connecting the vessel to the primary circuit entering this vessel at a lower level than that of the molten salt and enabling molten salt to enter or leave the vessel according to the pressure of the inert gas. The particular advantage of this reactor is that it can be shut down safely since the draining of the primary circuit no longer results from a 'positive action' but from the suppression of an arrangement essential for the operation of the reactor consisting of the build-up of the said inert gas pressure in the said vessel [fr

  7. Experiments in connection with Salt Domes

    Escher, B.G.; Kuenen, Ph.H.


    The different theories concerning the origin of Salt Domes in Roumania, Germany, Texas, Louisiana, Colorado and Utah are discussed. In Roumania the salt occurs in cores of “Diapir” anticlines. The existance of hills of salt indicates, that the salt is still pushing upwards. In Germany the salt

  8. Salt disposal: Paradox Basin, Utah


    This report presents the findings of a study conducted for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. Permanent disposal options are examined for salt resulting from the excavation of a waste repository in the bedded salt deposits of the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah. The study is based on a repository salt backfill compaction of 60% of the original density which leaves a total of 8 million tons of 95% pure salt to be disposed of over a 30-year period. The feasibility, impacts, and mitigation methods are examined for five options: commercial disposal, permanent onsite surface disposal, permanent offsite disposal, deepwell injection, and ocean and Great Salt Lake disposal. The study concludes the following: Commercial marketing of all repository salt would require a subsidy for transportation to major salt markets. Permanent onsite surface storage is both economically and technically feasible. Permanent offsite disposal is technically feasible but would incur additional transportation costs. Selection of an offsite location would provide a means of mitigating impacts associated with surface storage at the repository site. Deepwell injection is an attractive disposal method; however, the large water requirement, high cost of development, and poor performance of similar operating brine disposal wells eliminates this option from consideration as the primary means of disposal for the Paradox Basin. Ocean disposal is expensive because of high transportation cost. Also, regulatory approval is unlikely. Ocean disposal should be eliminated from further consideration in the Paradox Basin. Great Salt Lake disposal appears to be technically feasible. Great Salt Lake disposal would require state approval and would incur substantial costs for salt transportation. Permanent onsite disposal is the least expensive method for disposal of all repository salt

  9. 硫代氨基咪唑啉盐缓蚀剂的合成及性能研究%Research on the synthesis and performances of thiocarbamates imidazoline salts corrosion inhibitor

    杨根全; 李志元


    To solve the problem of comparatively poor compatibility of cationic imidazoline corrosion inhibitor and anionic scale inhibitor appeared in the gas-oil field,imidazoline has been synthesized,by using organic acid and triethylenetetramine as reaction raw materials.The water soluble anionic corrosion inhibitor can be obtained under the following conditions:n (imidazoline) ∶ n (CS2) ∶ n (NaOH) =1 ∶ 1 ∶ 1,ethanol as solvent,temperature 60 ℃,and reaction time 2 hours.The corrosion capacity of the corrosion inhibitor and its compatibility with scale inhibitor are investigated.The research results show that when the mass concentration of the dosed corrosion inhibitor is 50 mg/L,salt content 25%,pressure 0.5 MPa in corrosion media,and within 24 hours,the corrosion inhibiting rate of A3 carbon steel is higher than 92%.It has good compatibility with the anionic scale inhibitor.%针对油气田阳离子型咪唑啉类缓蚀剂与阴离子型阻垢剂配伍性较差的问题,以有机酸和三乙烯四胺为反应原料合成了咪唑啉,在n(咪唑啉)∶n(CS2)∶n(NaOH)为1∶1∶1、乙醇为溶剂、温度为60℃条件下反应2h,得到水溶性的阴离子缓蚀剂,并考察了该缓蚀剂的缓蚀性能及其与阻垢剂的配伍性.研究结果表明,在含盐25%、温度60℃、压力为0.5 MPa的腐蚀介质中,该缓蚀剂加药质量浓度为50 mg/L时,24 h内对A3碳钢的缓蚀率>92%,与阴离子阻垢剂的配伍性良好.

  10. Improvement to molten salt reactors

    Bienvenu, Claude.


    The invention proposes a molten salt nuclear reactor whose core includes a mass of at least one fissile element salt to which can be added other salts to lower the melting temperature of the mass. This mass also contains a substance with a low neutron capture section that does not give rise to a chemical reaction or to an azeotropic mixture with these salts and having an atmospheric boiling point under that of the mass in operation. Means are provided for collecting this substance in the vapour state and returning it as a liquid to the mass. The kind of substance chosen will depend on that of the molten salts (fissile element salts and, where required, salts to lower the melting temperature). In actual practice, the substance chosen will have an atmospheric pressure boiling point of between 600 and 1300 0 C and a melting point sufficiently below 600 0 C to prevent solidification and clogging in the return line of the substance from the exchanger. Among the materials which can be considered for use, mention is made of magnesium, rubidium, cesium and potassium but metal cesium is not employed in the case of many fissile salts, such as fluorides, which it would reduced to the planned working temperatures [fr

  11. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)


    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  12. Molten salt reactor type


    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. This part describes the MSBR core (data presented are from ORNL 4541). The principal characteristics of the core are presented in tables together with plane and elevation drawings, stress being put upon the reflector, and loading and unloading. Neutronic, and thermal and hydraulic characteristics (core and reflectors) are more detailed. The reasons why a graphite with a tight graphite layer has been chosen are briefly exposed. The physical properties of the standard graphite (irradiation behavior) have been determined for an isotropic graphite with fine granulometry; its dimensional variations largely ressemble that of Gilsonite. The mechanical stresses computed (Wigner effect) do not implicate in any way the graphite stack [fr

  13. The Salt II Treaty

    Caldwell, D.


    The first strategic arms limitation talks resulted in two agreements: the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and the Interim Agreement to Limit Strategic Offensive Arms. Senator Henry M. (Scoop) Jackson (D-Wa.) was concerned about the numerical advantage granted to the USSR by the Latter agreement and proposed an amendment that would prohibit future negotiators from granting the Soviet Union similar terms. This paper discusses the second round of SALT negotiations which opened in November 1972 and continued under presidents Richard M. Nixon, Gerald Ford, and Jimmy Carter. As the negotiators met, U.S. and Soviet scientists and engineers continued their work to develop new nuclear weapons and launchers. Particularly problematic were modern, large ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and the Soviet Backfire bomber

  14. Salt resistant crop plants

    Roy, Stuart J.


    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  15. Sustainable Synthesis of Organics and Nanomaterials Using Microwave Irradiation

    MW-assisted synthesis of heterocyclic compounds and nanomaterials under benign conditions is summarized. Shape-controlled aqueous synthesis of noble nanostructures via MW spontaneous reduction of metal salts using -D-glucose, sucrose, and maltose will be presented. A general met...

  16. Silicon-mediated changes in polyamines participate in silicon-induced salt tolerance in Sorghum bicolor L.

    Yin, Lina; Wang, Shiwen; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Fujihara, Shinsuke; Itai, Akihiro; Den, Xiping; Zhang, Suiqi


    Silicon (Si) is generally considered a beneficial element for the growth of higher plants, especially under stress conditions, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Si improves salt tolerance through mediating important metabolism processes rather than acting as a mere mechanical barrier. Seedlings of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) growing in hydroponic culture were treated with NaCl (100 mm) combined with or without Si (0.83 mm). The result showed that supplemental Si enhanced sorghum salt tolerance by decreasing Na(+) accumulation. Simultaneously, polyamine (PA) levels were increased and ethylene precursor (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid: ACC) concentrations were decreased. Several key PA synthesis genes were up-regulated by Si under salt stress. To further confirm the role of PA in Si-mediated salt tolerance, seedlings were exposed to spermidine (Spd) or a PA synthesis inhibitor (dicyclohexylammonium sulphate, DCHA) combined with salt and Si. Exogenous Spd showed similar effects as Si under salt stress whereas exogenous DCHA eliminated Si-enhanced salt tolerance and the beneficial effect of Si in decreasing Na(+) accumulation. These results indicate that PAs and ACC are involved in Si-induced salt tolerance in sorghum and provide evidence that Si plays an active role in mediating salt tolerance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Salt brickwork as long-term sealing in salt formations

    Walter, F.; Yaramanci, U.


    Radioactive wastes can be disposed of in deep salt formations. Rock salt is a suitable geologic medium because of its unique characteristics. Open boreholes, shafts and drifts are created to provide physical access to the repository. Long-term seals must be emplaced in these potential pathways to prevent radioactive release into the biosphere. The sealing materials must be mechanically and, most important, geochemically stable within the host rock. Salt bricks made from compressed salt-powder are understood to be the first choice long-term sealing material. Seals built of salt bricks will be ductile. Large sealing systems are built by combining the individual bricks with mortar. Raw materials for mortar are fine-grained halite powder and ground saliferous clay. This provides for the good adhesive strength of the mortar to the bricks and the high shear-strength of the mortar itself. To test the interaction of rock salt with an emplaced long-term seal, experiments will be carried out in situ, in the Asse salt mine in Germany. Simple borehole sealing experiments will be performed in horizontal holes and a complicated drift sealing experiment is planned, to demonstrate the technology of sealing a standard size drift or shaft inside a disturbed rock mass. Especially, the mechanical stability of the sealing system has to be demonstrated

  18. Moltex Energy's stable salt reactors

    O'Sullivan, R.; Laurie, J.


    A stable salt reactor is a molten salt reactor in which the molten fuel salt is contained in fuel rods. This concept was invented in 1951 and re-discovered and improved recently by Moltex Energy Company. The main advantage of using molten salt fuel is that the 2 problematic fission products cesium and iodine do not exist in gaseous form but rather in a form of a salt that present no danger in case of accident. Another advantage is the strongly negative temperature coefficient for reactivity which means the reactor self-regulates. The feasibility studies have been performed on a molten salt fuel composed of sodium chloride and plutonium/uranium/lanthanide/actinide trichloride. The coolant fluid is a mix of sodium and zirconium fluoride salts that will need low flow rates. The addition of 1 mol% of metal zirconium to the coolant fluid reduces the risk of corrosion with standard steels and the addition of 2% of hafnium reduces the neutron dose. The temperature of the coolant is expected to reach 650 Celsius degrees at the exit of the core. This reactor is designed to be modular and it will be able to burn actinides. (A.C.)

  19. In Situ Production of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles in a Binary Molten Salt for Concentrated Solar Power Plant Applications.

    Lasfargues, Mathieu; Stead, Graham; Amjad, Muhammad; Ding, Yulong; Wen, Dongsheng


    Seeding nanoparticles in molten salts has been shown recently as a promising way to improve their thermo-physical properties. The prospect of such technology is of interest to both academic and industrial sectors in order to enhance the specific heat capacity of molten salt. The latter is used in concentrated solar power plants as both heat transfer fluid and sensible storage. This work explores the feasibility of producing and dispersing nanoparticles with a novel one pot synthesis method. Using such a method, CuO nanoparticles were produced in situ via the decomposition of copper sulphate pentahydrate in a KNO₃-NaNO₃ binary salt. Analyses of the results suggested preferential disposition of atoms around produced nanoparticles in the molten salt. Thermal characterization of the produced nano-salt suspension indicated the dependence of the specific heat enhancement on particle morphology and distribution within the salts.

  20. In Situ Production of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles in a Binary Molten Salt for Concentrated Solar Power Plant Applications

    Mathieu Lasfargues


    Full Text Available Seeding nanoparticles in molten salts has been shown recently as a promising way to improve their thermo-physical properties. The prospect of such technology is of interest to both academic and industrial sectors in order to enhance the specific heat capacity of molten salt. The latter is used in concentrated solar power plants as both heat transfer fluid and sensible storage. This work explores the feasibility of producing and dispersing nanoparticles with a novel one pot synthesis method. Using such a method, CuO nanoparticles were produced in situ via the decomposition of copper sulphate pentahydrate in a KNO3-NaNO3 binary salt. Analyses of the results suggested preferential disposition of atoms around produced nanoparticles in the molten salt. Thermal characterization of the produced nano-salt suspension indicated the dependence of the specific heat enhancement on particle morphology and distribution within the salts.

  1. Impacts of using salt and salt brine for roadway deicing.


    Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) uses a variety of methods to help ensure safe travel on the state highway system : following winter storm events. These methods include plowing, use of sand to improve traction, and use of salt and chemical : com...

  2. Molten salts in nuclear reactors

    Dirian, J.; Saint-James


    Collection of references dealing with the physicochemical studies of fused salts, in particular the alkali and alkali earth halides. Numerous binary, ternary and quaternary systems of these halides with those of uranium and thorium are examined, and the physical properties, density, viscosity, vapour pressure etc... going from the halides to the mixtures are also considered. References relating to the corrosion of materials by these salts are included and the treatment of the salts with a view to recuperation after irradiation in a nuclear reactor is discussed. (author) [fr

  3. Preparation of a Highly Fluorophilic Phosphonium Salt and its Use in a Fluorous Anion-Exchanger Membrane with High Selectivity for Perfluorinated Acids

    Boswell, Paul G.; Anfang, Alyce C.; Bühlmann, Philippe


    Fluorous solvents are the most nonpolar, nonpolarizable phases known, whereas ions are inherently polar. This makes it difficult to create salts that are soluble in a fluorous solvent. Here we present the synthesis and characterization of a new fluorophilic phosphonium salt, tris{3,5-bis[(perfluorooctyl)propyl]phenyl}methylphosphonium methyl sulfate. The salt has a solubility of at least 14 mM in perfluoro(perhydrophenanthrene), perfluoro(methylcyclohexane), and perfluorohexanes. It also show...

  4. Proteins induced by salt stress in tomato germinating seeds

    Torres-Shumann, S.; Godoy, J.A.; del Pozo, O.; Pintor-Toro, J.A.


    Salt effects on protein synthesis in tomato germinating seeds were investigated by two-dimensional polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled in vivo with ( 35 S)-Methionine. Seeds germinating in NaCl were analyzed at three germination stages (4mm long radicals, 15mm long radicles and expanding cotyledons) and compared to those germinating in water. At the first germination stage several basic proteins of M.W. 13Kd, 16Kd, 17Kd and 18Kd were detected in only salt germinating seeds. Other basic proteins of M.W. 12Kd, 50Kd and 54Kd were salt-induced at the second and third stage of germination. One 14Kd acid protein is observed in every assayed stage and shows several phosphorylated forms. The levels of expression of these proteins are directly correlated to assayed NaCl concentrations. All of these proteins, except 17Kd, are also induced by abscisic acid (ABA) in the same germination stages. A cooperative effect on the synthesis of these proteins is observed when both ABA and NaCl are present

  5. Evaluación de un programa de maestría en Educación a través de la MSS

    José Roberto Ramos Mendoza


    Full Text Available La evaluación de los programas de posgrado es una necesidad para su adecuación a las demandas sociales y laborales. El objetivo fue evaluar el Programa de Maestría en Administración en Gestión y Desarrollo de la Educación de la Escasto-IPN, a través de la metodología de los sistemas suaves (MSS, que facilitó un pensamiento integral de los actores intervinientes en el problema, haciendo análisis particular mediante la nemotecnia Catwoe, con un resultado integral conforme los criterios PNPC-CONACyT. Se aplicaron tres cuestionarios validados. Un resultado destacado es la necesidad de formación de cuadros directivos en ámbitos como inteligencia emocional, normatividad, ética y transparencia. En conclusión, el posgrado adquiere un nuevo compromiso: dejar de lado la mercantilización de la educación y convertirse en generador de personas críticas, analíticas y sobre todo propositivas que a su vez sean generadoras de innovaciones en pro de la calidad educativa. AbstractThe assessment of graduate programs is a necessity for adaptation to social and labor demands. The objective was to evaluate the MBA program in Management and Development of Education of the ESCASTO-IPN, through the Soft Systems Methodology (MSS, it provided a comprehensive thinking of the actors involved in the issue, doing CATWOE particular analysis by mnemonic, achieving a comprehensive income based on the PNPC criteria - CONACyT. Three questionnaires were applied validated. A prominent result is the need for training of cadres in areas such as: emotional intelligence, regulation, ethics and transparency. In conclusion, the graduate acquires a new commitment, neglecting the commodification of education and become generator critics, analytical and proactive especially in turn are generating innovations in favor of quality education.

  6. Rock salt constitutive modeling

    Nickell, R.E.


    The Serata model is the best operational model available today because it incorporates: (1) a yield function to demarcate between viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of rock salt; (2) a pressure and temperature dependence for yield stresses; and (3) a standard linear solid, which can be readily extended into the non-linear regime, to represent creep behavior. Its only deficiencies appear to be the lack of secondary creep behavior (a free dashpot) and some unsettling arbitrariness about the Poisson's ratio (ν → 0.5) argument for viscoplasticity. The Sandia/WIPP model will have good primary and secondary creep capability, but lacks the viscoplastic behavior. In some cases, estimated inelastic strains may be underpredicted. If a creep acceleration mechanism associated with brine inclusions is observed, this model may require extensive revision. Most of the other models available (SAI, RE-SPEC, etc.) are only useful for short-term calculations, because they employ temporal power law (t/sup n/) primary creep representations. These models are unsatisfactory because they cannot represent dual mechanisms with differing characteristic times. An approach based upon combined creep and plasticity is recommended in order to remove the remaining deficiency in the Serata model. DOE/Sandia/WIPP should be encouraged to move aggressively in this regard

  7. Comparison of a rational vs. high throughput approach for rapid salt screening and selection.

    Collman, Benjamin M; Miller, Jonathan M; Seadeek, Christopher; Stambek, Julie A; Blackburn, Anthony C


    In recent years, high throughput (HT) screening has become the most widely used approach for early phase salt screening and selection in a drug discovery/development setting. The purpose of this study was to compare a rational approach for salt screening and selection to those results previously generated using a HT approach. The rational approach involved a much smaller number of initial trials (one salt synthesis attempt per counterion) that were selected based on a few strategic solubility determinations of the free form combined with a theoretical analysis of the ideal solvent solubility conditions for salt formation. Salt screening results for sertraline, tamoxifen, and trazodone using the rational approach were compared to those previously generated by HT screening. The rational approach produced similar results to HT screening, including identification of the commercially chosen salt forms, but with a fraction of the crystallization attempts. Moreover, the rational approach provided enough solid from the very initial crystallization of a salt for more thorough and reliable solid-state characterization and thus rapid decision-making. The crystallization techniques used in the rational approach mimic larger-scale process crystallization, allowing smoother technical transfer of the selected salt to the process chemist.

  8. Nitroketene dithioacetal chemistry: Synthesis of coumarins ...

    Nitroketene dithioacetals 2, prepared from carbon disul- fide, nitromethane and alkylating agents in a two-step process, are extremely useful two carbon synthons for the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds incorporating diverse functional groups.1 We have been investigat- ing on the alkylation of dipotassium salt of ...

  9. Synthesis of tritium-labeled fosfomycin

    Mertel, H.E.; Meriwether, H.T.


    Tritium gas was used as a labeling agent for the preparation of [1,2- 3 H]fosfomycin. Introduction of tritium into a precursor, the synthesis including resolution of the intermediate racemic 1,2-epoxypropylphosphonic acid, and preparation of both amine and calcium salts of the labeled antibiotic are described. (author)

  10. Intra- and inter-population polymorphism in Coletinia maggii (Grassi, 1887) (Zygentoma: Nicoletiidae), an inhabitant of soil, mesovoid shallow substratum (MSS) and caves--A challenge for the strict classification of subterranean fauna?

    Gilgado, José D; Ortuño, Vicente M


    New locations of Coletinia maggii (Grassi, 1887) have been discovered in the center of the Iberian Peninsula in different types of subterranean environments, such as a stony layer in the subsoil of an alluvial plain, an alluvial Mesovoid Shallow Substratum or Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (MSS) and a gypsum cave. This is the first record of both an alluvial MSS in the center of the Iberian Peninsula and of a subterranean species living in it. The high number of specimens captured allowed the first detailed study of the morphological intra- and inter-population variations of this species. The implications of its presence in these different environments, its wide distribution area across Europe, and the relevance of the morphological variation in the characters for the taxonomy of this species are discussed. Based on the results, Coletinia hernandoi Molero, Bach & Gaju, 2013 is proposed as a new synonym of C. maggii.


    The nitrosonium NO ion absorbs in the infrared between 1/2400 and 1/ 2150 cm. Salts of complex fluoro-acids absorb at higher frequencies than salts...halide adducts generally contain nitrosonium ions . Hexaphenylditin does not undergo marked heterolytic dissociation in nitromethane solution...influencing the covalent-ionic equilibrium are discussed. Infrared spectrum nitrosonium ion ; ionic character in lattice and position nitrosonium ion absorption

  12. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Javor, B.


    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  13. Molten-salt converter reactors

    Perry, A.M.


    Molten-salt reactors appear to have substantial promise as advanced converters. Conversion ratios of 0.85 to 0.9 should be attainable with favourable fuel cycle costs, with 235 U valued at $12/g. An increase in 235 U value by a factor of two or three ($10 to $30/lb. U 3 O 8 , $75/SWU) would be expected to increase the optimum conversion ratio, but this has not been analyzed in detail. The processing necessary to recover uranium from the fuel salt has been partially demonstrated in the MSRE. The equipment for doing this would be located at the reactor, and there would be no reliance on an established recycle industry. Processing costs are expected to be quite low, and fuel cycle optimization depends primarily on inventory and burnup or replacement costs for the fuel and for the carrier salt. Significant development problems remain to be resolved for molten-salt reactors, notably the control of tritium and the elimination of intergranular cracking of Hastelloy-N in contact with tellurium. However, these problems appear to be amenable to solution. It is appropriate to consider separating the development schedule for molten-salt reactors from that for the processing technology required for breeding. The Molten-Salt Converter Reactor should be a useful reactor in its own right and would be an advance towards the achievement of true breeding in thermal reactors. (author)

  14. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E


    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bismuth( Ⅲ ) Salts: Green Catalysts for Organic Transformations

    C. Le Roux


    @@ 1Introduction Bismuth, the heaviest stable element in the periodic table, stands out from other heavy elements (such as mercury, thallium and lead) due to its relatively non-toxic character which confers on bismuth the enviable status of being an eco-friendly element. Therefore, bismuth and its compounds hold considerable promise as useful catalysts for green chemistry. The research presented in this communication is devoted to the applications of bismuth( Ⅲ ) salts as catalysts for organic transformations.After some general comments about bismuth and a short presentation of the various applications of bismuth( Ⅲ ) salts in organic synthesis, this communication will focus on the works done in our research group during the last several years which deals mainly with electrophilic substitutions. When appropriate, some mechanistic details will be given.

  16. Boron accumulation by Lemna minor L. under salt stress.

    Liu, Chunguang; Gu, Wancong; Dai, Zheng; Li, Jia; Jiang, Hongru; Zhang, Qian


    Excess boron (B) is toxic to aquatic organisms and humans. Boron is often present in water with high salinity. To evaluate the potential of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) for removing B from water under salt stress, we cultured duckweed in water with 2 mg/L of B and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 mM for 4 days. The results show that with increasing salinity, the capacity of L. minor to accumulate B initially decreased and then increased. L. minor used different mechanisms to accumulate boron at lower and higher levels of salt stress. The growth and chlorophyll synthesis of L. minor were significantly inhibited when the concentration of NaCl reached 100 mM. Our results suggest that L. minor is suitable for the accumulation of B when NaCl salinity is below 100 mM.

  17. Structure and thermodynamics of molten salts

    Papatheodorou, G.N.


    This chapter investigates single-component molten salts and multicomponent salt mixtures. Molten salts provide an important testing ground for theories of liquids, solutions, and plasmas. Topics considered include molten salts as liquids (the pair potential, the radial distribution function, methods of characterization), single salts (structure, thermodynamic correlations), and salt mixtures (the thermodynamics of mixing; spectroscopy and structure). Neutron and X-ray scattering techniques are used to determine the structure of molten metal halide salts. The corresponding-states theory is used to obtain thermodynamic correlations on single salts. Structural information on salt mixtures is obtained by using vibrational (Raman) and electronic absorption spectroscopy. Charge-symmetrical systems and charge-unsymmetrical systems are used to examine the thermodynamics of salt mixtures

  18. Global analysis of gene expression profiles in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) seedlings exposed to salt stress.

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Chao; Wu, Pingzhi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Guojiang


    Salt stress interferes with plant growth and production. Plants have evolved a series of molecular and morphological adaptations to cope with this abiotic stress, and overexpression of salt response genes reportedly enhances the productivity of various crops. However, little is known about the salt responsive genes in the energy plant physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.). Thus, excavate salt responsive genes in this plant are informative in uncovering the molecular mechanisms for the salt response in physic nut. We applied next-generation Illumina sequencing technology to analyze global gene expression profiles of physic nut plants (roots and leaves) 2 hours, 2 days and 7 days after the onset of salt stress. A total of 1,504 and 1,115 genes were significantly up and down-regulated in roots and leaves, respectively, under salt stress condition. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of physiological process revealed that, in the physic nut, many "biological processes" were affected by salt stress, particular those categories belong to "metabolic process", such as "primary metabolism process", "cellular metabolism process" and "macromolecule metabolism process". The gene expression profiles indicated that the associated genes were responsible for ABA and ethylene signaling, osmotic regulation, the reactive oxygen species scavenging system and the cell structure in physic nut. The major regulated genes detected in this transcriptomic data were related to trehalose synthesis and cell wall structure modification in roots, while related to raffinose synthesis and reactive oxygen scavenger in leaves. The current study shows a comprehensive gene expression profile of physic nut under salt stress. The differential expression genes detected in this study allows the underling the salt responsive mechanism in physic nut with the aim of improving its salt resistance in the future.

  19. Proceedings of the workshop on molten salts technology and computer simulation

    Hayashi, Hirokazu; Minato, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    Applications of molten salts technology to separation and synthesis of materials have been studied eagerly, which would develop new fields of materials science. Research Group for Actinides Science, Department of Materials Science, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), together with Reprocessing and Recycle Technology Division, Atomic Energy Society of Japan, organized the Workshop on Molten Salts Technology and Computer Simulation at Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI on July 18, 2001. In the workshop eleven lectures were made and lively discussions were there on the fundamentals and applications of the molten salts technology that covered the structure and basic properties of molten salts, the pyrochemical reprocessing technology and the relevant computer simulation. The 10 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  20. Prebiotic RNA Synthesis by Montmorillonite Catalysis

    Sohan Jheeta


    Full Text Available This review summarizes our recent findings on the role of mineral salts in prebiotic RNA synthesis, which is catalyzed by montmorillonite clay minerals. The clay minerals not only catalyze the synthesis of RNA but also facilitate homochiral selection. Preliminary data of these findings have been presented at the “Horizontal Gene Transfer and the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA” conference at the Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, 5–6 September 2013. The objective of this meeting was to recognize the significance of RNA in LUCA. We believe that the prebiotic RNA synthesis from its monomers must have been a simple process. As a first step, it may have required activation of the 5'-end of the mononucleotide with a leaving group, e.g., imidazole in our model reaction (Figure 1. Wide ranges of activating groups are produced from HCN under plausible prebiotic Earth conditions. The final step is clay mineral catalysis in the presence of mineral salts to facilitate selective production of functional RNA. Both the clay minerals and mineral salts would have been abundant on early Earth. We have demonstrated that while montmorillonite (pH 7 produced only dimers from its monomers in water, addition of sodium chloride (1 M enhanced the chain length multifold, as detected by HPLC. The effect of monovalent cations on RNA synthesis was of the following order: Li+ > Na+ > K+. A similar effect was observed with the anions, enhancing catalysis in the following order: Cl− > Br− > I−. The montmorillonite-catalyzed RNA synthesis was not affected by hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions. We thus show that prebiotic synthesis of RNA from its monomers was a simple process requiring only clay minerals and a small amount of salt.

  1. Condensed heterocycles with a thiazole ring. 13. Azinothiazoloquinoxalinium salts

    Nesterenko, Yu.A.; Romanov, N.N.


    The condensation of 2,3-dichloroquinoxaline with 2-mercaptopyridines and 2-mercaptoquinolines gave the corresponding derivatives of new heterocyclic systems, viz., azino[1',2':3,2]thaizolo[4,5-b]quinoxalinium salts, which can be used for the synthesis of cyanine dyes. The electronic spectra of solutions of the compounds were obtained with an SF-8 spectrophotometer. The PMR spectra of solutions of CF 3 COOD were recorded with a BS-467 spectrometer (60 MHz) with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS) as the external standard

  2. Thermal conductivity of crushed salt

    Kuehn, K.

    Heat transfer through an annular space filled with crushed salt depends primarily on the thermal conductivity, lambda, of the material. This report gives a formula with which lambda can be computed. The formula includes two quantities that can be influenced through screening of the salt smalls: the porosity, psi, and the fraction, alpha, of the more highly resistive heat-flow paths. The report computes and presents graphically the thermal conductivities for various values of psi and alpha. Heat-transfer properties are computed and compared for an annular space filled with crushed salt and for an air gap. The comparison shows that the properties of the annular space are larger only up to a certain temperature, because the properties of the air gap increase exponentially while those f the annular space increase only in an approximately linear way. Experimental results from Project Salt Vault in the U.S. are in good agreement with the calculations performed. Trials in Temperature Experimental Field 2 at the Asse II salt mine will provide an additional check on the calculations. 3 figures, 3 tables

  3. Comparison of Salt Tolerance in Soja Based on Metabolomics of Seedling Roots

    Mingxia Li


    Full Text Available Soybean is an important economic crop that is continually threatened by abiotic stresses, especially salt stress. Wild soybean is an important germplasm resource for the breeding of cultivated soybean. The root system plays a very important role in plant salt tolerance. To explore the salt tolerance-related mechanisms among Soja, we have demonstrated the seedling roots' growth and metabolomics in wild soybean, semi-wild soybean, and cultivated soybean under two types of salt stress by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We characterized 47 kinds of differential metabolites under neutral salt stress, and isoleucine, serine, l-allothreonine, glutamic acid, phenylalanine, asparagines, aspartic acid, pentadecanoic acid, lignoceric acid, oleic acid, galactose, tagatose, d-arabitol, dihydroxyacetone, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and glucuronic acid increased significantly in the roots of wild soybean seedlings. However, these metabolites were suppressed in semi-wild and cultivated soybeans. Amino acid, fatty acid, sugars, and organic acid synthesis and the secondary metabolism of antioxidants increased significantly in the roots of wild soybean seedling. Under alkaline salt stress, wild soybean contained significantly higher amounts of proline, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, l-allothreonine, isoleucine, serine, alanine, arachidic acid, oleic acid, cis-gondoic acid, fumaric acid, l-malic acid, citric acid, malonic acid, gluconic acid, 5-methoxytryptamine, salicylic acid, and fluorene than semi-wild and cultivated soybeans. Our study demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and receiver operating characteristics (especially the metabolism of phenolic substances of the seedling roots were important to resisting salt stress and showed a regular decreasing trend from wild soybean to cultivated soybean. The metabolomics's changes were critical factors in the evolution of salt tolerance among Soja. This study

  4. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.


    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  5. Iodine-Mediated Intramolecular Dehydrogenative Coupling: Synthesis of N-Alkylindolo[3,2-c]- and -[2,3-c]quinoline Iodides.

    Volvoikar, Prajesh S; Tilve, Santosh G


    An I2/TBHP-mediated intramolecular dehydrogenative coupling reaction is developed for the synthesis of a library of medicinally important 5,11-dialkylindolo[3,2-c]quinoline salts and 5,7-dimethylindolo[2,3-c]quinoline salts. The annulation reaction is followed by aromatization to yield tetracycles in good yield. This protocol is also demonstrated for the synthesis of the naturally occurring isocryptolepine in salt form.

  6. Molecular and physiological responses of sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) to pgpr and sa under salt stress

    Naz, R.


    This paper presents the efficacy of PGPR (Azospirillum and Pseudomonas) and its modulation by salicylic acid. Two hybrids of sunflower (Hysun and Parsun) were inoculated with Azospirillum spp. and Pseudomonas spp. prior to sowing. Salt stress (20 dSm-1) was applied 28 d after sowing followed by foliar spray of salicylic acid (100 micro M) after 4 h of salt treatment. Azospirillum and Pseudomonas inoculation alone and in combination with salicylic acid alleviated the effects of salt stress on both the sunflower hybrids. The salt tolerance in these treatments was mediated by an increase in relative water content, carotenoids, proline, ABA, induction of new polypeptide bands and yield of sunflower hybrids. In response to salt stress four new polypeptide bands were synthesized in both Hysun, whereas, a group of six polypeptide bands were observed in Parsun. Application of salicylic acid alone and in combination with Azospirillum found to induce four new polypeptide bands in Hysun and Parsun. It is inferred that synthesis of new proteins in response to the combined application of salicylic acid and Azospirillum under salt stress, may play an important role as stress proteins in tolerance of sunflower hybrids to salt stress. (author)

  7. Salt site performance assessment activities

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.


    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  8. Field experiments in salt formations

    Kuehn, K.


    Field experiments in salt formations started as early as 1965 with Project Salt Vault in the Lyons Mine, Kansas, U.S.A., and with the purchase of the Asse salt mine by the German Federal Government. Underground tests concentrated on the heat dissipation around buried high-level radioactive wastes and the geomechanical consequences of their disposal. Near-field investigations cover the properties of water and gas release, radiolysis and corrosion. Further objectives of field experiments are the development and underground testing of a handling system for high-level wastes. The performance of an underground test disposal for such wastes is not only considered to be necessary for technical and scientific reasons but also for improving public acceptance of the concept of radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  9. The molten salt reactor adventure

    MacPherson, H.G.


    A personal history of the development of molten salt reactors in the United States is presented. The initial goal was an aircraft propulsion reactor, and a molten fluoride-fueled Aircraft Reactor Experiment was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1954. In 1956, the objective shifted to civilian nuclear power, and reactor concepts were developed using a circulating UF 4 -ThF 4 fuel, graphite moderator, and Hastelloy N pressure boundary. The program culminated in the successful operation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment in 1965 to 1969. By then the Atomic Energy Commission's goals had shifted to breeder development; the molten salt program supported on-site reprocessing development and study of various reactor arrangements that had potential to breed. Some commercial and foreign interest contributed to the program which, however, was terminated by the government in 1976. The current status of the technology and prospects for revived interest are summarized

  10. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    Kurath, D.


    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures

  11. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth


    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...... to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME...

  12. Enantioselective synthesis of α-oxy amides via Umpolung amide synthesis.

    Leighty, Matthew W; Shen, Bo; Johnston, Jeffrey N


    α-Oxy amides are prepared through enantioselective synthesis using a sequence beginning with a Henry addition of bromonitromethane to aldehydes and finishing with Umpolung Amide Synthesis (UmAS). Key to high enantioselection is the finding that ortho-iodo benzoic acid salts of the chiral copper(II) bis(oxazoline) catalyst deliver both diastereomers of the Henry adduct with high enantiomeric excess, homochiral at the oxygen-bearing carbon. Overall, this approach to α-oxy amides provides an innovative complement to alternatives that focus almost entirely on the enantioselective synthesis of α-oxy carboxylic acids.

  13. Design and characterization of a 12-bit 10MS/s 10mW pipelined SAR ADC for CZT-based hard X-ray imager

    Xue, F.; Gao, W.; Duan, Y.; Zheng, R.; Hu, Y.


    This paper presents a 12-bit pipelined successive approximation register (SAR) ADC for CZT-based hard X-ray Imager. The proposed ADC is comprised of a first-stage 6-bit SAR-based Multiplying Digital Analog Converter (MDAC) and a second-stage 8-bit SAR ADC. A novel MDAC architecture using Vcm-based Switching method is employed to maximize the energy efficiency and improve the linearity of the ADC. Moreover, the unit-capacitor array instead of the binary-weighted capacitor array is adopted to improve the conversion speed and linearity of the ADC in the first-stage MDAC. In addition, a new layout design method for the binary-weighted capacitor array is proposed to reduce the capacitor mismatches and make the routing become easier and less-time-consuming. Finally, several radiation-hardened-by-design technologies are adopted in the layout design against space radiation effects. The prototype chip was fabricated in 0.18 μm mixed-signal 1.8V/3.3V process and operated at 1.8 V supply. The chip occupies a core area of only 0.58 mm2. The proposed pipelined SAR ADC achieves a peak signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SNDR) of 66.7 dB and a peak spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) of 78.6 dB at 10 MS/s sampling rate and consumes 10 mW. The figure of merit (FOM) of the proposed ADC is 0.56 pJ/conversion-step.

  14. Electrolytic synthesis of ammonia in molten salts under atmospheric pressure.

    Murakami, Tsuyoshi; Nishikiori, Tokujiro; Nohira, Toshiyuki; Ito, Yasuhiko


    Ammonia was successfully synthesized by using a new electrochemical reaction with high current efficiency at atmospheric pressure and at lower temperatures than the Haber-Bosch process. In this method, nitride ion (N3-), which is produced by the reduction from nitrogen gas at the cathode, is anodically oxidized and reacts with hydrogen to produce ammonia at the anode.

  15. Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Triangulenium Salts

    Shi, Dong

    in influencing the assembling process and morphology of the assembled nanostructures. Tailoring the ATOTA+ system with alkyl chains of different length showed large effect on the final morphology of assembled supramolecular structures. The first two chapters give a brief introduction to molecular self....... Addition of soft counter ion into the nanosheets solution could induce gluing of the nanosheets. The solid thin film formed from the formed nanosheets after water evaporation showed crystalline patterning order as revealed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Chpater 5 reports the counter ion effect...

  16. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.


    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior which can be used effectively to reduce the amount of development required for future systems, some significant molten salt chemical questions must still be addressed. copyright American Institute of Physics 1995

  17. Salted, dried and smoked fish

    Lamprecht, E.; Riley, F.R.; Vermaak, K.; Venn, C.


    Heat resistance tests were carried out using a heat resistant strain of red halophiles isolated from a commercial salt and comparing this with three known species, i.e. Halobacterium halobium, H. salinarum and H. antirubrum. These four halophic strains were used to prepare artificially infected salts which were then subjected to three different forms of heat treatment: heat-treatment in oil bath, microwave heating and gamma radiation. The conclusion was made that gamma radiation appears to be less effective than microwave heating at the levels tested

  18. Simulation of salt production process

    Muraveva, E. A.


    In this paper an approach to the use of simulation software iThink to simulate the salt production system has been proposed. The dynamic processes of the original system are substituted by processes simulated in the abstract model, but in compliance with the basic rules of the original system, which allows one to accelerate and reduce the cost of the research. As a result, a stable workable simulation model was obtained that can display the rate of the salt exhaustion and many other parameters which are important for business planning.

  19. Relationship Between Salt Intake, Salt-Taste Threshold and Blood ...

    Conclusion: Sodium intake measured as 24-hour urinary sodium is increased in subjects with hypertension attesting to sodium intake as a risk factor for the development of high blood pressure. Subjects with high salt taste threshold also have increased urinary sodium excretion which may predispose them to deveploment ...

  20. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    Capelli, E.


    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a

  1. Salt tectonics in Santos Basin, Brazil

    Quirk, David G.; Nielsen, Malene; Raven, Madeleine [Maersk Oil and Gas, Copenhagen (Denmark); Menezes, Paulo [Maersk Oil and Gas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    From Albian to end Cretaceous times, the inboard part of the Santos Basin in Brazil was affected by extension as salt flowed basinwards under the effect of gravity. Salt rollers, flip-flop salt diapirs and the famous Albian Gap were all formed by this process. Outboard of these extensional structures, contraction was taken up in a wide zone of thickened salt where salt collected. The overburden was carried on top of the salt as it flowed down-dip, with up to 40 km of translation recorded in Albian strata. (author)

  2. Molten salt thermal energy storage systems: salt selection

    Maru, H.C.; Dullea, J.F.; Huang, V.S.


    A research program aimed at the development of a molten salt thermal energy storage system commenced in June 1976. This topical report describes Work performed under Task I: Salt Selection is described. A total of 31 inorganic salts and salt mixtures, including 9 alkali and alkaline earth carbonate mixtures, were evaluated for their suitability as heat-of-fusion thermal energy storage materials at temperatures of 850 to 1000/sup 0/F. Thermophysical properties, safety hazards, corrosion, and cost of these salts were compared on a common basis. We concluded that because alkali carbonate mixtures show high thermal conductivity, low volumetric expansion on melting, low corrosivity and good stability, they are attractive as heat-of-fusion storage materials in this temperature range. A 35 wt percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-65 wt percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (50 mole percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-50 mole percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) mixture was selected as a model system for further experimental work. This is a eutectoid mixture having a heat of fusion of 148 Btu/lb (82 cal/g) that forms an equimolar compound, LiKCO/sub 3/. The Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ mixture is intended to serve as a model system to define heat transfer characteristics, potential problems, and to provide ''first-cut'' engineering data required for the prototype system. The cost of a thermal energy storage system containing this mixture cannot be predicted until system characteristics are better defined. However, our comparison of different salts indicated that alkali and alkaline earth chlorides may be more attractive from a salt cost point of view. The long-term corrosion characteristics and the effects of volume change on melting for the chlorides should be investigated to determine their overall suitability as a heat-of-fusion storage medium.

  3. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Jooste, Pieter L


    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  4. New quaternary ammonium salts based decontaminants

    Diana M. Popescu


    Full Text Available Decontamination after terrorist attacks or industrial accidents with biological and/or chemical agents („bio-chem“ must be fast and efficient, in order to reduce the number of victims and to eliminate the consequent damages. The decontamination of living biological agents (bacteria, viruses or nonliving ones (toxins, regulators and toxic chemicals could be accomplished by reactions of hydrolysis in various experimental conditions, in particular in alkaline medium, reactions with amines or ammonia, alcohols, phenols etc. and by their transformation into less toxic degradation products. “Bio-chem” intentional or unintentional contamination is a real risk, towards which an effective management must be available to prevent and control it. Decontamination is an essential measure to protect the personnel and the environment. Synthesis and testing of new „bio-chem“ decontaminants, based on quaternary ammonium salts, complete the arsenal of protection against chemical and biological agents. The most effective selected substances could be produced and used for decontamination in accordance with legal procedures

  5. Association constants of telluronium salts

    Kovach, N.A.; Rivkin, B.B.; Sadekov, T.D.; Shvajka, O.P.


    Association constants in acetonitrile of triphenyl telluronium salts, which are dilute electrolytes, are determined through the conductometry method. Satisfactory correlation dependence of constants of interion association and threshold molar electroconductivity on the Litvinenko-Popov constants for depositing groups is identified. 6 refs

  6. Properties of organic salt superconductors

    Whangbo, M.H.; Jung, D.; Evain, M.; Williams, J.M.; Beno, M.A.; Schultz, A.J.


    Structural and electronic properties of the β- and κ-phase superconducting salts of organic donor molecules are compared. Importance of donor... donor and donor...anion interactions involving the C-H bonds in setting the lattice softness, the electron-phonon coupling constant, and the superconducting transitions temperature are discussed

  7. Salt decontamination demonstration test results

    Snell, E.B.; Heng, C.J.


    The Salt Decontamination Demonstration confirmed that the precipitation process could be used for large-scale decontamination of radioactive waste sale solution. Although a number of refinements are necessary to safely process the long-term requirement of 5 million gallons of waste salt solution per year, there were no observations to suggest that any fundamentals of the process require re-evaluation. Major accomplishments were: (1) 518,000 gallons of decontaminated filtrate were produced from 427,000 gallons of waste salt solution from tank 24H. The demonstration goal was to produce a minimum of 200,000 gallons of decontaminated salt solution; (2) cesium activity in the filtrate was reduced by a factor of 43,000 below the cesium activity in the tank 24 solution. This decontamination factor (DF) exceeded the demonstration goal of a DF greater than 10,000; (3) average strontium-90 activity in the filtrate was reduced by a factor of 26 to less than 10 3 d/m/ml versus a goal of less than 10 4 d/m/ml; and (4) the concentrated precipitate was washed to a final sodium ion concentration of 0.15 M, well below the 0.225 M upper limit for DWPF feed. These accomplishments were achieved on schedule and without incident. Total radiation exposure to personnel was less than 350 mrem and resulted primarily from sampling precipitate slurry inside tank 48. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  8. thermic oil and molten salt

    Boukelia T.E, Mecibah M.S and Laouafi A

    1 mai 2016 ... [27] Zavoico, AB. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document. Tech. rep, Sandia National. Laboratories, SAND2001-2100, 2001. How to cite this article: Boukelia T.E, Mecibah M.S and Laouafi A. Performance simulation of parabolic trough solar collector using two fluids (thermic oil and molten salt).

  9. Dietary salt reduction for control of hypertension

    Richard Tjan


    Full Text Available In developed as well as developing countries, the four main factors affecting blood pressure are high salt intake, low potassium intake, overweight, and low physical activity level. This is also true for the increase in blood pressure with advancing age, occurring in all societies. It is now accepted that excess dietary salt raises blood pressure levels, whereas dietary salt reduction reduces blood pressure and prevents vascular complications.(1 The effect of salt on blood pressure is presumably due to the inability of the kidneys to excrete large amounts of salt, as humans are evolutionary adapted to ingest and excrete less than 1 gram of salt per day.(2 In this connection it should be noted that the more important element in common salt (sodium chloride is the sodium ion, and any restrictions applying to common salt also apply to all food items that contain sodium ions, such as sodium glutamate and baking soda.

  10. Microemulsion Synthesis of Nanoparticles

    Gotić, M.


    Full Text Available Nanoparticles and nanomaterials have wide applications in electronics, physics, material design, being also utilized as sensors, catalysts, and more and more in biomedicine. Microemulsions are an exceptionally suitable medium for the synthesis of nanoparticles due to their thermodynamical stability, great solubility of both polar and nonpolar components, as well as their ability to control the size, dispersity and shape of the particles. This review presents microemulsion techniques for the synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles. It takes place in water-in-oil microemulsions by mixing one microemulsion with a cationic precursor, and the other with a precipitating or reducing agent, or by direct addition of reducing agents or gas (O2, NH3 ili CO2 into microemul sion (Fig. 1. Metal nanoparticles are used as catalysts, sensors, ferrofluids etc. They are produced by reducing the metal cation with a suitable reducing agent. In a similar way, one can prepare nanoparticles of alloys from the metal salts, provided that the metals are mutually soluble. The microemulsion technique is also suitable for depositing nanoparticles onto various surfaces. Highly active catalysts made from nanoparticles of Pt, Pd, Rh and other noble metals may be obtained in this way. Metal oxides and hydroxides may be prepared by hydrolysis or precipitation in the water core of microemulsion. Precipitation can be initiated by adding the base or precipitating agent into the microemulsion with water solution of metal ions. Similarly, nanoparticles may be prepared of sulphides, halogenides, cyanides, carbonates, sulphates and other insoluble metal salts. To prevent oxidation of nanoparticles, especially Fe, the particles are coated with inert metals, oxides, various polymers etc. Coating may provide additional functionality; e.g. coating with gold allows subsequent functionalization with organic compounds containing sulphur, due to the strong Au–S bond. Polymer coatings decrease

  11. Organic synthesis

    Thomas, S.E.


    This paper reports on reactions of organoboranes. Organoboron routes to unsaturated hydrocarbons. Boronic ester homologation. Properties of organosilicon compounds. Alkene synthesis (Peterson olefination). Allylsilanes and acylsilanes.

  12. Removal of amino groups from anilines through diazonium salt-based reactions.

    He, Linman; Qiu, Guanyinsheng; Gao, Yueqiu; Wu, Jie


    This minireview describes the applications of in situ generated diazonium salts from anilines in organic synthesis. In situ generation of diazonium salts from anilines represents an efficient and practical pathway, leading to a series of useful structures. In these transformations, the amino group of aniline formally acts as a leaving group. Two distinctive kinds of mechanisms, including transition metal (especially palladium)-catalyzed oxidative addition-reductive elimination and a radical process, are involved in the removal of amino groups from anilines, and both catalytic processes are described in this minireview.

  13. High temperature salting of fish mince

    Talabi, S.O.; Sorinmade, S.O.; Nwanekezie, R.U.; Aliu, A.


    Freshly caught miscellaneous fish were transported to the laboratory, gutted and washed before mechanical separation into bone and mince. Seven batches of the mince were then treated with seven different concentrations (Wt/Wt) of sodium chloride before cooking. The cooked mince was divided into two groups, pressed and unpressed. Percentage residual salt of the salted cooked mince, cooked water and salted pressed mince was determined. Also, the moisture content of the salted cooked mince and s...

  14. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gadbury, Casey [USDOE Carlsbad Field Office, NM (United States)


    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  15. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    Hansen, Francis D.; Gadbury, Casey


    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  16. Distribution and metabolism of quaternary amines in salt marshes

    King, Gary M.


    Quaternary amines such as glycine betaine (GBT) are common osmotically active solutes in much of the marine biota. GBT is accumulated by various bacteria, algae, higher plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates in response to salinity or water stresses; in some species, GBT occurs at tens to hundreds of millimolar concentrations and can account for a significant fraction of total nitrogen. Initial studies suggest that GBT is readily converted to two potential methane precursors, trimethylamine (TMA) and acetate, in anoxic sediments. TMA is apparently the most important methane precursor in surface sediments containing sulfate reducing bacteria. In salt marshes, the bulk of the methane formed may be due to the metabolism of TMA rather than other substrates. Current research is focussed on testing this hypothesis and on determining the role of quaternary amino osmoregulatory solutes in methane fluxes from marine environments. Preliminary studies have dealt with several problems: (1) determination of GBT concentrations in the dominant flora and fauna of salt marshes; (2) synthesis of radiolabelled GBT for metabolic studies; and (3) determination of fates of BGT in marine sediments using radiotracers. Both GC and HPLC techniques have been used to assay GBT concentrations in plant and animal tissues. S. alterniflora is probably the only significant source of GBT (and indirectly of methane) since the biomass and distribution of most other species is limited. Current estimates suggest that S. alterniflora GBT could account for most of the methane efflux from salt marshes.

  17. Magnesium and iron nanoparticles production using microorganisms and various salts

    Kaul, R. K.; Kumar, P.; Burman, U.; Joshi, P.; Agrawal, A.; Raliya, R.; Tarafdar, J. C.


    Response of five fungi and two bacteria to different salts of magnesium and iron for production of nanoparticles was studied. Pochonia chlamydosporium, and Aspergillus fumigatus were exposed to three salts of magnesium while Curvularia lunata, Chaetomium globosum, A. fumigatus, A. wentii and the bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis and Bacillus coagulans were exposed to two salts of iron for nanoparticle production. The results revealed that P. chlamydosporium induces development of extracellular nanoparticles in MgCl2 solution while A. fumigatus produces also intracellular nanoparticles when exposed to MgSO4 solution. C. globosum was found as the most effective in producing nanoparticles when exposed to Fe2O3 solution. The FTIR analysis of the nanoparticles obtained from Fe2O3 solution showed the peaks similar to iron (Fe). In general, the species of the tested microbes were selective to different chemicals in their response for synthesis of nanoparticles. Further studies on their characterization and improving the efficiency of promising species of fungi need to be undertaken before tapping their potential as nanonutrients for plants.

  18. Salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions of methylcellulose in water.

    Xu, Y; Wang, C; Tam, K C; Li, L


    The effects of various salts on the sol-gel transition of aqueous methylcellulose (MC) solutions have been studied systematically by means of a micro differential scanning calorimeter. It was found that the heating process was endothermic while the cooling process was exothermic for both MC solutions with and without salts. The addition of salts did not change the patterns of gelation and degelation of MC. However, the salts could shift the sol-gel transition and the gel-sol transition to lower or higher temperatures from a pure MC solution, depending on the salt type. These opposite effects were termed the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions. Either the salt-assisted transition or the salt-suppressed sol-gel transition was a function of salt concentration. In addition, each salt was found to have its own concentration limit for producing a stable aqueous solution of MC at a given concentration of MC, which was related to the anionic charge density of the salt. Cations were proved to have weaker effects than anions. The "salt-out strength", defined as the salt effect per mole of anion, was obtained for each anion studied. The thermodynamic mechanisms involved in the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions are discussed.

  19. Multi-sensory Sculpting (MSS)

    von Wallpach, Sylvia; Kreuzer, Maria


    -conscious and modality-specific level and use multi-sensory metaphors to express embodied knowledge. Retrieving embodied brand knowledge requires methods that (a) stimulate various senses that have been involved in brand knowledge formation and (b) give consumers the opportunity to express themselves metaphorically...

  20. Salt marsh persistence is threatened by predicted sea-level rise

    Crosby, Sarah C.; Sax, Dov F.; Palmer, Megan E.; Booth, Harriet S.; Deegan, Linda A.; Bertness, Mark D.; Leslie, Heather M.


    Salt marshes buffer coastlines and provide critical ecosystem services from storm protection to food provision. Worldwide, these ecosystems are in danger of disappearing if they cannot increase elevation at rates that match sea-level rise. However, the magnitude of loss to be expected is not known. A synthesis of existing records of salt marsh elevation change was conducted in order to consider the likelihood of their future persistence. This analysis indicates that many salt marshes did not keep pace with sea-level rise in the past century and kept pace even less well over the past two decades. Salt marshes experiencing higher local sea-level rise rates were less likely to be keeping pace. These results suggest that sea-level rise will overwhelm most salt marshes' capacity to maintain elevation. Under the most optimistic IPCC emissions pathway, 60% of the salt marshes studied will be gaining elevation at a rate insufficient to keep pace with sea-level rise by 2100. Without mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions this potential loss could exceed 90%, which will have substantial ecological, economic, and human health consequences.

  1. Proteome dynamics and physiological responses to short-term salt stress in Leymus chinensis leaves.

    Jikai Li

    Full Text Available Salt stress is becoming an increasing threat to global agriculture. In this study, physiological and proteomics analysis were performed using a salt-tolerant grass species, Leymus chinensis (L. chinensis. The aim of this study is to understand the potential mechanism of salt tolerance in L. chinensis that used for crop molecular breeding. A series of short-term (<48 h NaCl treatments (0 ~ 700 mM were conducted. Physiological data indicated that the root and leaves growth were inhibited, chlorophyll contents decreased, while hydraulic conductivity, proline, sugar and sucrose were accumulated under salt stress. For proteomic analysis, we obtained 274 differentially expressed proteins in response to NaCl treatments. GO analysis revealed that 44 out of 274 proteins are involved in the biosynthesis of amino acids and carbon metabolism. Our findings suggested that L. chinensis copes with salt stress by stimulating the activities of POD, SOD and CAT enzymes, speeding up the reactions of later steps of citrate cycle, and synthesis of proline and sugar. In agreement with our physiological data, proteomic analysis also showed that salt stress depress the expression of photosystem relevant proteins, Calvin cycle, and chloroplast biosynthesis.

  2. Community solar salt production in Goa, India.

    Mani, Kabilan; Salgaonkar, Bhakti B; Das, Deepthi; Bragança, Judith M


    Traditional salt farming in Goa, India has been practised for the past 1,500 years by a few communities. Goa's riverine estuaries, easy access to sea water and favourable climatic conditions makes salt production attractive during summer. Salt produced through this natural evaporation process also played an important role in the economy of Goa even during the Portuguese rule as salt was the chief export commodity. In the past there were 36 villages involved in salt production, which is now reduced to 9. Low income, lack of skilled labour, competition from industrially produced salt, losses incurred on the yearly damage of embankments are the major reasons responsible for the reduction in the number of salt pans.Salt pans (Mithagar or Mithache agor) form a part of the reclaimed waterlogged khazan lands, which are also utilised for aquaculture, pisciculture and agriculture. Salt pans in Goa experience three phases namely, the ceased phase during monsoon period of June to October, preparatory phase from December to January, and salt harvesting phase, from February to June. After the monsoons, the salt pans are prepared manually for salt production. During high tide, an influx of sea water occurs, which enters the reservoir pans through sluice gates. The sea water after 1-2 days on attaining a salinity of approximately 5ºBé, is released into the evaporator pans and kept till it attains a salinity of 23 - 25ºBé. The brine is then released to crystallizer pans, where the salt crystallises out 25 - 27ºBé and is then harvested.Salt pans form a unique ecosystem where succession of different organisms with varying environmental conditions occurs. Organisms ranging from bacteria, archaea to fungi, algae, etc., are known to colonise salt pans and may influence the quality of salt produced.The aim of this review is to describe salt farming in Goa's history, importance of salt production as a community activity, traditional method of salt production and the biota

  3. Salt Stress in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: An integratedgenomics approach

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; He, Zhili; Alm, Eric J.; Arkin, Adam P.; Baidoo, Edward E.; Borglin, Sharon C.; Chen, Wenqiong; Hazen, Terry C.; He, Qiang; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Huang, Katherine; Huang, Rick; Hoyner,Dominique C.; Katz, Natalie; Keller, Martin; Oeller, Paul; Redding,Alyssa; Sun, Jun; Wall, Judy; Wei, Jing; Yang, Zamin; Yen, Huei-Che; Zhou, Jizhong; Keasling Jay D.


    The ability of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to reduce, and therefore contain, toxic and radioactive metal waste has made all factors that affect the physiology of this organism of great interest. Increased salinity is an important and frequent fluctuation faced by D. vulgaris in its natural habitat. In liquid culture, exposure to excess salt resulted in striking elongation of D. vulgaris cells. Using data from transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolite assays, phospholipid fatty acid profiling, and electron microscopy, we used a systems approach to explore the effects of excess NaCl on D. vulgaris. In this study we demonstrated that import of osmoprotectants, such as glycine betaine and ectoine, is the primary mechanism used by D. vulgaris to counter hyperionic stress. Several efflux systems were also highly up-regulated, as was the ATP synthesis pathway. Increases in the levels of both RNA and DNA helicases suggested that salt stress affected the stability of nucleic acid base pairing. An overall increase in the level of branched fatty acids indicated that there were changes in cell wall fluidity. The immediate response to salt stress included up-regulation of chemotaxis genes, although flagellar biosynthesis was down-regulated. Other down-regulated systems included lactate uptake permeases and ABC transport systems. The results of an extensive NaCl stress analysis were compared with microarray data from a KCl stress analysis, and unlike many other bacteria, D. vulgaris responded similarly to the two stresses. Integration of data from multiple methods allowed us to develop a conceptual model for the salt stress response in D. vulgaris that can be compared to those in other microorganisms.

  4. Accelerator molten-salt breeder reactor

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Kuroi, Hideo; Kato, Yoshio; Oomichi, Toshihiko.


    Purpose: To obtain fission products and to transmute transuranium elements and other radioactive wastes by the use of Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor. Constitution: Beams from an accelerator pipe at one end of a target vessel is injected through a window into target molten salts filled inside of the target vessel. The target molten salts are subjected to pump recycling or spontaneous convection while forcively cooled by blanket molten salts in an outer vessel. Then, energy is recovered from the blanket molten salts or the target molten salts at high temperatures through electric power generation or the like. Those salts containing such as thorium 232 and uranium 238 are used as the blanket molten salts so that fission products may be produced by neutrons generated in the target molten salts. PbCl 2 -PbF 2 and LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 can be used as the target molten salts and as the blanket molten salts respectively. (Seki, T.)

  5. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urquhart, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300°C, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  6. Molten salt reactors: reactor cores


    In this critical analysis of the MSBR I project are examined the problems concerning the reactor core. Advantages of breeding depend essentially upon solutions to technological problems like continuous reprocessing or graphite behavior under neutron irradiation. Graphite deformation, moderator unloading, control rods and core instrumentation require more studies. Neutronics of the core, influence of core geometry and salt composition, fuel evolution, and thermohydraulics are reviewed [fr

  7. Mixing of zeolite powders and molten salt

    Pereira, C.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.


    Transuranics and fission products in a molten salt can be incorporated into zeolite A by an ion exchange process and by a batch mixing or blending process. The zeolite is then mixed with glass and consolidated into a monolithic waste form for geologic disposal. Both processes require mixing of zeolite powders with molten salt at elevated temperatures (>700 K). Complete occlusion of salt and a uniform distribution of chloride and fission products are desired for incorporation of the powders into the final waste form. The relative effectiveness of the blending process was studied over a series of temperature, time, and composition profiles. The major criteria for determining the effectiveness of the mixing operations were the level and uniformity of residual free salt in the mixtures. High operating temperatures (>775 K) improved salt occlusion. Reducing the chloride levels in the mixture to below 80% of the full salt capacity of the zeolite significantly reduced the free salt level in the final product

  8. Bile salts as semiochemicals in fish

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.


    Bile salts are potent olfactory stimuli in fishes; however the biological functions driving such sensitivity remain poorly understood. We provide an integrative review of bile salts as semiochemicals in fish. First, we present characteristics of bile salt structure, metabolism, and function that are particularly relevant to chemical communication. Bile salts display a systematic pattern of structural variation across taxa, are efficiently synthesized, and are stable in the environment. Bile salts are released into the water via the intestine, urinary tract, or gills, and are highly water soluble. Second, we consider the potential role of bile salts as semiochemicals in the contexts of detecting nearby fish, foraging, assessing risk, migrating, and spawning. Lastly, we suggest future studies on bile salts as semiochemicals further characterize release into the environment, behavioral responses by receivers, and directly test the biological contexts underlying olfactory sensitivity.

  9. Mechanochemical synthesis of organic compounds and composites with their participation

    Lyakhov, Nikolai Z; Grigorieva, Tatiana F; Barinova, Antonina P; Vorsina, I A [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    The results of experimental studies in the mechanochemical synthesis of organic compounds and composites with their participation published over the last 15 years are described systematically. The key reactions of organic compounds are considered: synthesis of the salts of organic acids, acylation, substitution, dehalogenation, esterification, hydrometallation and other reactions. Primary attention is devoted to systems and compounds that cannot be obtained by traditional chemistry methods.

  10. Yttria hydroxy-salt binders

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.


    Binder phase (primarily chloride or nitrate) formation was examined in YX 3 --NaOH--H 2 O, Y 2 O 3 --acid--H 2 O, and Y 2 O 3 --salt--H 2 O systems. The cementitious phase consisted mostly of plate- (or needle-) shaped hydroxy salts of the general formula Y 2 (OH)/sub 6-m/X/sub m/ nH 2 O, where m and n normally equal one. These binders were examined by x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques. Nitrate binders decompose to Y 2 O 3 by 600 0 C, whereas chloride binders form oxychlorides that sublime or convert to Y 2 O 3 after oxygen replacement of chlorine (in air) at > 1000 0 C. Although nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions form porous ( 2 O 3 powder, salt solutions (i.e., NH 4 NO 3 , Mg(NO 3 ) 2 , NH 4 Cl, and YCl 3 approx. = 6H 2 O) slow the reaction considerably (48 h to 4 weeks), allowing 70- to 80%-dense cements to form. The effects of formation conditions on physical properties of binders were studied. Examination of scandium and lanthanide oxides showed that several behave in the same way as yttria

  11. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    García-Pérez, J V; De Prados, M; Pérez-Muelas, N; Cárcel, J A; Benedito, J


    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p 2 = 0.975) and moisture (R 2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of new ionic liquids

    Oliveira, L.M.C. de; Mattedi, S.; Boaventura, J.S.; Iglesias, M.; Universidad de Santiago de Compostela


    In recent years, ionic liquids have been highlighted for its potential in various industrial applications. Among them, the salts of Broensted has a promising profile for the low toxicity, low cost and simple synthesis. This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of new salts of Bronsted with branched (lactate) or large chain anions (oleate) for future use as additives promoters of proton conductivity in fuel cells of ethanol. Experimental data were measured for density, sound velocity and conductivity of pure ionic liquids and mixtures. The density decreases linearly with increasing temperature, and sound velocity shows a similar trend, but not linear. The conductivity increases according to the Arrhenius model with activation energy less than 10 J/mol. Tests NMR, FTIR and TGA confirm ionic structure and thermal stability up to 165 deg C. (author)

  13. Overaccumulation of glycine betaine makes the function of the thylakoid membrane better in wheat under salt stress

    Fengxia Tian


    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. lines T1, T4, and T6 were genetically modified to increase glycine betaine (GB synthesis by introduction of the BADH (betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, BADH gene from mountain spinach (Atriplex hortensis L.. These transgenic lines and WT of wheat (T. aestivum L. were used to study the effect of increased GB synthesis on wheat tolerance to salt stress. Salt stress due to 200 mmol L−1 NaCl impaired the photosynthesis of the four wheat lines, as indicated by declines in net photosynthetic rate (Pn, stomatal conductance (Gs, maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm, and actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (ФPSII and an increase in intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci. In comparison with WT, the effect of salinity on the three transgenic lines was mild. Salt stress caused disadvantageous changes in lipids and their fatty acid compositions in the thylakoid membrane of the transgenic lines and WT. Under salt stress, the three transgenic lines showed slightly higher chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and higher Hill reaction activities and Ca2+-ATPase activity than WT. All the results suggest that overaccumulation of GB resulting from introduction of the BADH gene can enhance the salt tolerance of transgenic plants, especially in the protection of the components and function of thylakoid membranes, thereby making photosynthesis better. Changes in lipids and fatty acid compositions in the thylakoid membrane may be involved in the increased salt stress tolerance of the transgenic lines.

  14. Rapid Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Fusarium oxysporum by Optimizing Physicocultural Conditions

    Sonal S. Birla


    Full Text Available Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs by fungi is emerging as an important branch of nanotechnology due to its ecofriendly, safe, and cost-effective nature. In order to increase the yield of biosynthesized SNPs of desired shape and size, it is necessary to control the cultural and physical parameters during the synthesis. We report optimum synthesis of SNPs on malt extract glucose yeast extract peptone (MGYP medium at pH 9–11, 40–60°C, and 190.7 Lux and in sun light. The salt concentrations, volume of filtrate and biomass quantity were found to be directly proportional to the yield. The optimized conditions for the stable and rapid synthesis will help in large scale synthesis of monodispersed SNPs. The main aim of the present study was to optimize different media, temperature, pH, light intensity, salt concentration, volume of filtrate, and biomass quantity for the synthesis of SNPs by Fusarium oxysporum.

  15. Salt and genotype impact on plant physiology and root proteome variations in tomato.

    Manaa, Arafet; Ben Ahmed, Hela; Valot, Benoît; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Aschi-Smiti, Samira; Causse, Mathilde; Faurobert, Mireille


    To evaluate the genotypic variation of salt stress response in tomato, physiological analyses and a proteomic approach have been conducted in parallel on four contrasting tomato genotypes. After a 14 d period of salt stress in hydroponic conditions, the genotypes exhibited different responses in terms of plant growth, particularly root growth, foliar accumulation of Na(+), and foliar K/Na ratio. As a whole, Levovil appeared to be the most tolerant genotype while Cervil was the most sensitive one. Roma and Supermarmande exhibited intermediary behaviours. Among the 1300 protein spots reproducibly detected by two-dimensional electrophoresis, 90 exhibited significant abundance variations between samples and were submitted to mass spectrometry for identification. A common set of proteins (nine spots), up- or down-regulated by salt-stress whatever the genotype, was detected. But the impact of the tomato genotype on the proteome variations was much higher than the salt effect: 33 spots that were not variable with salt stress varied with the genotype. The remaining number of variable spots (48) exhibited combined effects of the genotype and the salt factors, putatively linked to the degrees of genotype tolerance. The carbon metabolism and energy-related proteins were mainly up-regulated by salt stress and exhibited most-tolerant versus most-sensitive abundance variations. Unexpectedly, some antioxidant and defence proteins were also down-regulated, while some proteins putatively involved in osmoprotectant synthesis and cell wall reinforcement were up-regulated by salt stress mainly in tolerant genotypes. The results showed the effect of 14 d stress on the tomato root proteome and underlined significant genotype differences, suggesting the importance of making use of genetic variability.

  16. Direct electrochemical synthesis of metal alcoholates

    Shrejder, V.A.; Turevskaya, E.P.; Kozlova, N.I.; Turova, N.Ya.


    Conditions of electrochemical synthesis of Ga, Sc, Y, Ge, Ti, Zr, Nb and Ta alcoholates during anodic metal dissolution in absolute alcohols in the presence of background electrolyte are studied. R 4 NBr and R 4 NBF 4 salts are optimum background electrolytes. Application limits of this synthetical method using different metals as anode are determined. It is supposed that alkoxyhalogenides the nature of which determines further direction of electrode process, are the primary products of anodic oxidation of metals [ru

  17. Effect of indomethacin and salt depletion on renal proton MR imaging

    Heyman, S.N.; Mammen, M.


    Blockade of the synthesis of vasodilating prostaglandins with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) renders the renal medulla susceptible to hypoxic injury with reduced renal function, especially in clinical conditions characterized by volume depletion. Alterations in renal hemodynamics and urine production may effect renal MR imaging under these circumstances. We injected salt-depleted and control rats undergoing proton MR imaging with indomethacin 10 mg/kg. Indomethacin abolished the cortico-medullary T2-gradient and markedly diminished the overall renal signal in salt-depleted rats only. These changes, which progressed over a period of 40 min after indomethacin was injected, probably result from renal oligemia and decreased urine production, with an associated decrease in T2-values. We suggest that a history of consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be obtained and taken into account in the evaluation of renal proton MR imaging, especially in the presence of salt and volume depletion. (orig.)

  18. Catalytic activity of supported silver and potassium salts of tungstophosphoric acid in dehydration of ethanol

    Haber, J.; Matachowski, L.; Pamin, K.; Napruszewska, B.


    Potassium and silver salts of tungstophosphoric acid (HPW) have been supported on silica. Two series of potassium and silver salts of tungstophosphoric acid K x H 3-x PW 12 O 40 and Ag x H 3-x PW 12 O 40 where x = 1;2;3 supported on silica were prepared using incipient wetness method. In a typical synthesis, the heteropolyacid which after deposition on silica was washed with water to remove the part of heteropolyacid not bound to the support was reacted with silver or potassium salt. The vapor-phase dehydration of ethanol was employed as a test reaction. All the catalytic tests were carried out in a conventional flow type reactor, under atmospheric pressure, in the temperature range 125-500 o C. The results of these studies were used to explain the differences between the catalytic activities of heteropolysalts of potassium and silver supported on silica. (author)

  19. Salt iodization in Denmark and individual changes in thyroid size, thyroid nodularity and serum thyroglobulin

    Krejbjerg, Anne

    Iodine is an essential mineral for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Low iodine intake levels are associated with goitre and other iodine deficiency-related disorders that have affected billions of people worldwide. Until recently the iodine intake of many European populations was below...... the recommended level and iodine fortification programs are internationally recommended to ensure sufficient iodine intake. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences and a mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt for commercial production of bread was introduced...... in the year 2000. A monitoring program entitled the Danish Investigation on Iodine Intake and Thyroid Diseases (DanThyr) was initiated before any iodization of salt had begun to improve knowledge on how to evaluate iodine status in a population and to study the effects of an increase in iodine intake. The aim...

  20. Organic synthesis

    Lallemand, J.Y.; Fetizon, M.


    The 1988 progress report of the Organic Synthesis Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The laboratory activities are centered on the chemistry of natural products, which have a biological activity and on the development of new reactions, useful in the organic synthesis. The research works involve the following domains: the natural products chemistry which are applied in pharmacology, the plants and insects chemistry, the organic synthesis, the radical chemistry new reactions and the bio-organic physicochemistry. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr

  1. Salt bridges: geometrically specific, designable interactions.

    Donald, Jason E; Kulp, Daniel W; DeGrado, William F


    Salt bridges occur frequently in proteins, providing conformational specificity and contributing to molecular recognition and catalysis. We present a comprehensive analysis of these interactions in protein structures by surveying a large database of protein structures. Salt bridges between Asp or Glu and His, Arg, or Lys display extremely well-defined geometric preferences. Several previously observed preferences are confirmed, and others that were previously unrecognized are discovered. Salt bridges are explored for their preferences for different separations in sequence and in space, geometric preferences within proteins and at protein-protein interfaces, co-operativity in networked salt bridges, inclusion within metal-binding sites, preference for acidic electrons, apparent conformational side chain entropy reduction on formation, and degree of burial. Salt bridges occur far more frequently between residues at close than distant sequence separations, but, at close distances, there remain strong preferences for salt bridges at specific separations. Specific types of complex salt bridges, involving three or more members, are also discovered. As we observe a strong relationship between the propensity to form a salt bridge and the placement of salt-bridging residues in protein sequences, we discuss the role that salt bridges might play in kinetically influencing protein folding and thermodynamically stabilizing the native conformation. We also develop a quantitative method to select appropriate crystal structure resolution and B-factor cutoffs. Detailed knowledge of these geometric and sequence dependences should aid de novo design and prediction algorithms. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Compatibility of molten salt and structural materials

    Kawakami, Masahiro


    As the important factors for considering the compatibility of fuel salt and coolant salt with structural materials in molten salt reactors, there are the moisture remaining in molten salt and the fluorine potential in molten salt. In this study, as for the metals which are the main components of corrosion resistant alloys, the corrosion by the moisture remaining in molten salt and the dependence of the corrosion on fluorine potential were examined. As the molten salts, an eutectic molten salt LiF-BeF 2 was mainly used, and LiF-KF was used in combination. As the metallic materials, Cr, Ni and Cu which are the main components of corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloys, Hastelloy and Monel, were used. In the experiment, the metal pieces were immersed in the molten salt, and by sampling the molten salt, the change with time lapse of the concentration of the dissolved metals was examined. Besides, the electrochemical measurement was carried out for Cr, of which the corrosion was remarkable, and the change with time lapse of the dissolved ions was examined. The experimental setup, the experimental method, and the results of the immersion test and the electrochemical test are reported. The experiment on the corrosion of metals depending on fluorine potential is also reported. (K.I.)

  3. Discretionary salt use in airline meal service.

    Wallace, S; Wellman, N S; Dierkes, K E; Johnson, P M


    Salt use in airline meal service was studied through observation of returned meal trays of 932 passengers. Observation and weighing of salt packets on returned trays revealed that 64% of passengers did not salt their airline dinner, while 6% used the entire salt packet, 0.92 gm NaCl (362 mg Na). Average discretionary salt use among the 234 passengers (25%) who added salt was 0.57 gm NaCl (232 mg Na). Estimates of total sodium in the four airline dinners averaged 2.0 gm NaCl (786 mg Na). Laboratory assays of menu items produced by the airline foodservice differed 3% to 19% from estimated values. Sodium content of the four airline dinner menus was similar and did not affect salt use. Discretionary salt use was related to the total amount of entrée consumed but was not affected by the amount of salad consumed. It is postulated that salt use in the "captive" airline situation is predicated on consistent, habitual practices. Lowering sodium consumption in this setting may require alteration in both food preparation methods and quantity of salt presented in the packets.

  4. Compatibility of molten salt and structural materials

    Kawakami, Masahiro [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology, Aichi (Japan)


    As the important factors for considering the compatibility of fuel salt and coolant salt with structural materials in molten salt reactors, there are the moisture remaining in molten salt and the fluorine potential in molten salt. In this study, as for the metals which are the main components of corrosion resistant alloys, the corrosion by the moisture remaining in molten salt and the dependence of the corrosion on fluorine potential were examined. As the molten salts, an eutectic molten salt LiF-BeF{sub 2} was mainly used, and LiF-KF was used in combination. As the metallic materials, Cr, Ni and Cu which are the main components of corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloys, Hastelloy and Monel, were used. In the experiment, the metal pieces were immersed in the molten salt, and by sampling the molten salt, the change with time lapse of the concentration of the dissolved metals was examined. Besides, the electrochemical measurement was carried out for Cr, of which the corrosion was remarkable, and the change with time lapse of the dissolved ions was examined. The experimental setup, the experimental method, and the results of the immersion test and the electrochemical test are reported. The experiment on the corrosion of metals depending on fluorine potential is also reported. (K.I.).

  5. Thermal performances of molten salt steam generator

    Yuan, Yibo; He, Canming; Lu, Jianfeng; Ding, Jing


    Highlights: • Thermal performances of molten salt steam generator were experimentally studied. • Overall heat transfer coefficient reached maximum with optimal molten salt flow rate. • Energy efficiency first rose and then decreased with salt flow rate and temperature. • Optimal molten salt flow rate and temperature existed for good thermal performance. • High inlet water temperature benefited steam generating rate and energy efficiency. - Abstract: Molten salt steam generator is the key technology for thermal energy conversion from high temperature molten salt to steam, and it is used in solar thermal power station and molten salt reactor. A shell and tube type molten salt steam generator was set up, and its thermal performance and heat transfer mechanism were studied. As a coupling heat transfer process, molten salt steam generation is mainly affected by molten salt convective heat transfer and boiling heat transfer, while its energy efficiency is also affected by the heat loss. As molten salt temperature increased, the energy efficiency first rose with the increase of heat flow absorbed by water/steam, and then slightly decreased for large heat loss as the absorbed heat flow still rising. At very high molten salt temperature, the absorbed heat flow decreased as boiling heat transfer coefficient dropping, and then the energy efficiency quickly dropped. As the inlet water temperature increased, the boiling region in the steam generator remarkably expanded, and then the steam generation rate and energy efficiency both rose with the overall heat transfer coefficient increasing. As the molten salt flow rate increased, the wall temperature rose and the boiling heat transfer coefficient first increased and then decreased according to the boiling curve, so the overall heat transfer coefficient first increased and then decreased, and then the steam generation rate and energy efficiency of steam generator both had maxima.

  6. Solventless synthesis of ruthenium nanoparticles

    García-Peña, Nidia G. [Departmento de Tecnociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cd. Universitaria A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510 Coyoacán, México D.F. (Mexico); Redón, Rocío, E-mail: [Departmento de Tecnociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cd. Universitaria A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510 Coyoacán, México D.F. (Mexico); Herrera-Gomez, Alberto [Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Campus Juriquilla, Querétaro (Mexico); Fernández-Osorio, Ana Leticia [FES-Cuautitlán, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Bravo-Sanchez, Mariela; Gomez-Sosa, Gustavo [Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Campus Juriquilla, Querétaro (Mexico)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Successful synthesis of Ru nanoparticles by a cheap, fast and solventless approach was achieved. • The zero-valent state as well as the by-product/impurity free of the mechanochemical obtained Ru nanoparticles was proven by XPS, TEM and XRD. • Compared to two other synthesis strategies, the above-mentioned synthesis was more suitable to obtain smaller particles with fewer impurities in shorter time. - Abstract: This paper presents a novel solventless method for the synthesis of zero-valent ruthenium nanoparticles Ru(0). The proposed method, although not entirely new in the nanomaterials world, was used for the first time to synthesize zero-valent ruthenium nanoparticles. This new approach has proved to be an environmentally friendly, clean, cheap, fast, and reproducible technique which employs low amounts of solvent. It was optimized through varying amounts of reducing salt on a determined quantity of precursor and measuring the effect of this variation on the average particle size obtained. The resulting products were fully characterized by powder XRD, TEM, HR-TEM, and XPS studies, all of which corroborated the purity of the nanoparticles achieved. In order to verify the advantages of our method over other techniques, we compared our nanoparticles with two common colloidal-synthesized ruthenium nanoparticles.

  7. Synthesis of electrophilic 11C-synthons: 11C-cyanogen bromide and some 11C-cyano reagents

    Westerberg, G.; Malmborg, P.; Langstroem, B.


    A fast, simple, and reliable method has been developed for the synthesis of carbon-11 labelled cyanogen bromide and several of its stabilized amine salts or cyanates. Preparation of cyanogen bromide is by bromination (bromine gas) of carbon-11 labelled hydrocyanic acid, followed by reaction with a tertiary amine or a phenol to yield the ammonium salts or cyanates

  8. Mapeamento da antiga cobertura vegetal de várzea do Baixo Amazonas a partir de imagens históricas (1975-1981 do Sensor MSS-Landsat Mapping ancient vegetation cover of the Amazon floodplain using historical MSS/Landsat images (1975-1981

    Vivian Fróes Renó


    Full Text Available Este estudo apresenta um mapa da cobertura vegetal da planície de inundação do Rio Amazonas entre as cidades de Parintins (AM e Almeirim (PA, com base em imagens Landsat-MSS adquiridas entre 1975 e 1981. O processamento digital dessas imagens envolveu a transformação para imagens-fração de vegetação, solo e água escura (sombra, seguido da aplicação de técnicas de segmentação e classificação por região. O mapa resultante da classificação foi organizado em quatro classes de cobertura do solo: floresta de várzea, vegetação não-florestal de várzea, solo exposto e água aberta. A precisão do mapa foi estimada a partir de dois tipos de informações coletadas em campo: 1 pontos de descrição: para validação das classes de cobertura não sujeitas a grandes alterações, como é o caso dos corpos d'água permanentes, e identificação de indicadores dos tipos de cobertura original presentes na paisagem na ocasião da obtenção das imagens (72 pontos; 2 entrevistas com moradores antigos para a recuperação da memória sobre a cobertura vegetal existente há 30 anos (44 questionários. Ao todo foram coletadas informações em 116 pontos distribuídos ao longo da área de estudo. Esses pontos foram utilizados para calcular o Índice Kappa de concordância entre os dados de campo e o mapa resultante da classificação automática, cujo valor (0,78 indica a boa qualidade do mapa de cobertura vegetal da várzea. Os resultados mostram que a região possuía uma cobertura florestal de várzea de aproximadamente 8.650 km2 no período de aquisição das imagens.This study presents a vegetation map of the Amazon River floodplain between the towns of Parintins (AM and Almeirim (PA, based on Landsat-MSS scenes from 1975 to 1981. Digital processing involved the transformation of multispectral images into fraction-images of vegetation, soil and dark water (shadow, followed by the application of segmentation and region

  9. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  10. Synthesis of [35]Adamanzane, 1,5,9,13-Tetraazabicyclo [7.7.3]nonadecane, by Oxidative C-N Cleavage of [36]Adamanzane, 1,5,9,13-Tetraazatricyclo[,13]docosane and Crystal Structure of the Tetraprotonated Bromide Salt of [35]Adamanzane

    Springborg, Johan; Pretzmann, Ulla; Nielsen, Bente


    Reaction of the cage amine [36]adamanzane, 1,5,9,13-tetraazatricyclo-[,13]docosane, with sodium iodide in 93% sulfuric acid affords the bicyclictetraamine [35]adamanzane, 1,5,9,13-tetraazabicyclo[7.7.3]nonadecane which was isolated as its tetraprotonated bromide salt, [H4[35]adz]Br4 (yield...

  11. 168 Hours Salt Fog Test

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Muhamad Daud; Siti Radiah Mohd Kamarudin


    This report explained the test conducted in salt fog chamber to evaluate the effectiveness of mild steel, coated with rust converter, for 168 hours in artificial seawater exposure. The samples were compared with mild steel coated with commercial primer. The tests were conducted followed ASTM B117. Individual pictures were taken of each sample before the tests began, at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 hours to see the progression of the corrosion. Results showed that the samples coated with rust converter provide a good significant protection against corrosion phenomenon than the samples coated with commercial primer that available in the market. (author)

  12. Seismic anisotropy in deforming salt bodies

    Prasse, P.; Wookey, J. M.; Kendall, J. M.; Dutko, M.


    Salt is often involved in forming hydrocarbon traps. Studying salt dynamics and the deformation processes is important for the exploration industry. We have performed numerical texture simulations of single halite crystals deformed by simple shear and axial extension using the visco-plastic self consistent approach (VPSC). A methodology from subduction studies to estimate strain in a geodynamic simulation is applied to a complex high-resolution salt diapir model. The salt diapir deformation is modelled with the ELFEN software by our industrial partner Rockfield, which is based on a finite-element code. High strain areas at the bottom of the head-like strctures of the salt diapir show high amount of seismic anisotropy due to LPO development of halite crystals. The results demonstrate that a significant degree of seismic anisotropy can be generated, validating the view that this should be accounted for in the treatment of seismic data in, for example, salt diapir settings.

  13. High throughput salt separation from uranium deposits

    Kwon, S.W.; Park, K.M.; Kim, J.G.; Kim, I.T.; Park, S.B., E-mail: [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (Korea, Republic of)


    It is very important to increase the throughput of the salt separation system owing to the high uranium content of spent nuclear fuel and high salt fraction of uranium dendrites in pyroprocessing. Multilayer porous crucible system was proposed to increase a throughput of the salt distiller in this study. An integrated sieve-crucible assembly was also investigated for the practical use of the porous crucible system. The salt evaporation behaviors were compared between the conventional nonporous crucible and the porous crucible. Two step weight reductions took place in the porous crucible, whereas the salt weight reduced only at high temperature by distillation in a nonporous crucible. The first weight reduction in the porous crucible was caused by the liquid salt penetrated out through the perforated crucible during the temperature elevation until the distillation temperature. Multilayer porous crucibles have a benefit to expand the evaporation surface area. (author)

  14. Waste treatment using molten salt oxidation

    Navratil, J.D.; Stewart, A.E.


    MSO technology can be characterized as a submerged oxidation process; the basic concept is to introduce air and wastes into a bed of molten salt, oxidize the organic wastes in the molten salt, use the heat of oxidation to keep the salt molten and remove the salt for disposal or processing and recycling. The molten salt (usually sodium carbonate at 900-1000 C) provides four waste management functions: providing a heat transfer medium, catalyzing the oxidation reaction, preventing the formation of acid gases by forming stable salts, and efficiently capturing ash particles and radioactive materials by the combined effects of wetting, encapsulation and dissolution. The MSO process requires no wet scrubbing system for off-gas treatment. The process has been developed through bench-scale and pilot-scale testing, with successful destruction demonstration of a wide variety of hazardous and mixed (radioactive and hazardous wastes). (author). 24 refs, 2 tabs, 2 figs

  15. Direct and Versatile Synthesis of Red-Shifted Azobenzenes

    Hansen, Mickel J.; Lerch, Michael M.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Feringa, Ben L.


    A straightforward synthesis of azobenzenes with bathochromically-shifted absorption bands is presented. It employs an ortho-lithiation of aromatic substrates, followed by a coupling reaction with aryldiazonium salts. The products are obtained with good to excellent yields after simple purification.

  16. Salt Block II: description and results

    Hohlfelder, J.J.


    A description of and results from the Salt Block II experiment, which involved the heating of and measurement of water transport within a large sample of rock salt, are presented. These results include the measurement of water released into a heated borehole in the sample as well as measured temperatures within the salt. Measured temperatures are compared with the results of a mathematical model of the experiment

  17. Dissolution of the Mors salt dome

    Lindstroem Jensen, K.E.


    Regardless of the interpretation of the measured salinity profiles above the Mors salt dome, they can at most be the result of dissolution rates of about 0.004 mm per year. This means that it would take more than 2.5 mill. years to dissolve 10 m of salt. Variations in groun water velocity and cap rock porosity will not significantly change this condition. The stability of the Mors salt dome is therefore not affected by dissolution of the dome. (EG)

  18. Coastal salt-marshes in Albania



    The salt marshes of Albania comprise a narrow belt along the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. They have been the subject of a range of human activities causing habitat loss. Enclosure for agricultural use, ports and other infrastructure has reduced many salt marshes to a narrow fringe along estuary shores. Salt marshes are important for a range of interests. In particular they support a range of specialist plant communities and associated animals (especially breeding and wintering birds) and often h...

  19. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12. Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05 and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05. The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  20. Abscisic Acid as a Dominant Signal in Tomato During Salt Stress Predisposition to Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot

    Matthew F. Pye


    Full Text Available Salt stress predisposes plants to Phytophthora root and crown rot in an abscisic acid (ABA-dependent manner. We used the tomato–Phytophthora capsici interaction to examine zoospore chemoattraction and assessed expression of pathogenesis-related (PR genes regulated by salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA following a salt-stress episode. Although salt treatment enhances chemoattraction of tomato roots to zoospores, exudates from salt-stressed roots of ABA-deficient mutants, which do not display the predisposition phenotype, have a similar chemoattraction as exudates from salt-stressed, wild-type roots. This suggests that ABA action during predisposing stress enhances disease through effects on plant responses occurring after initial contact and during ingress by the pathogen. The expression of NCED1 (ABA synthesis and TAS14 (ABA response in roots generally corresponded to previously reported changes in root ABA levels during salt stress onset and recovery in a pattern that was not altered by infection by P. capsici. The PR genes, P4 and PI-2, hallmarks in tomato for SA and JA action, respectively, were induced in non-stressed roots during infection and strongly suppressed in infected roots exposed to salt-stress prior to inoculation. However, there was a similar proportional increase in pathogen colonization observed in salt-stressed plants relative to non-stressed plants in both wild-type and a SA-deficient nahG line. Unlike the other tomato cultivars used in this study that showed a strong predisposition phenotype, the processing tomato cv. ‘Castlemart’ and its JA mutants were not predisposed by salt. Salt stress predisposition to crown and root rot caused by P. capsici appears to be strongly conditioned by ABA-driven mechanisms in tomato, with the stress compromising SA-and JA-mediated defense-related gene expression during P. capsici infection.

  1. Applications of molten salts in plutonium processing

    Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.


    Plutonium is efficiently recovered from scrap at Los Alamos by a series of chemical reactions and separations conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 to 900 0 C. These processes usually employ a molten salt or salt eutectic as a heat sink and/or reaction medium. Salts for these operations were selected early in the development cycle. The selection criteria are being reevaluated. In this article we describe the processes now in use at Los Alamos and our studies of alternate salts and eutectics

  2. Fuel processing for molten-salt reactors

    Hightower, J.R. Jr.


    Research devoted to development of processes for the isolation of protactinium and for the removal of fission products from molten-salt breeder reactors is reported. During this report period, engineering development progressed on continuous fluorinators for uranium removal, the metal transfer process for rare-earth removal, the fuel reconstitution step, and molten salt--bismuth contactors to be used in reductive extraction processes. The metal transfer experiment MTE-3B was started. In this experiment all parts of the metal transfer process for rare-earth removal are demonstrated using salt flow rates which are about 1 percent of those required to process the fuel salt in a 1000-MW(e) MSBR. During this report period the salt and bismuth phases were transferred to the experimental vessels, and two runs with agitator speeds of 5 rps were made to measure the rate of transfer of neodymium from the fluoride salt to the Bi--Li stripper solution. The uranium removed from the fuel salt by fluorination must be returned to the processed salt in the fuel reconstitution step before the fuel salt is returned to the reactor. An engineering experiment to demonstrate the fuel reconstitution step is being installed. In this experiment gold-lined equipment will be used to avoid introducing products of corrosion by UF 6 and UF 5 . Alternative methods for providing the gold lining include electroplating and mechanical fabrication

  3. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  4. Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications

    Hansen, Frank; Popp, Till; Wieczorek, Klaus; Stuehrenberg, Dieter


    The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

  5. Vacuum distillation of plutonium pyrochemical salts

    Bourges, Gilles; Faure, S.; Fiers, B.; Saintignon, S.; Lemoine, O.; Cardona-Barrau, D.; Devillard, D.


    A pyrochemical process is developed to upgrade the safety of plutonium spent salts interim storage. The feed material, consisting of alkali or alkali-earth chlorides containing various Pu and Am species, is first oxidized to convert the actinides into oxides. Then the chlorides are removed by vacuum distillation which requires temperature from 750 degrees C to 1100 degrees C. After a comprehensive R and D program, full-scale equipment was built to test the distillation of active salts. Tests with NaCl/KCl oxidized spent salt give decontamination factor of chlorides higher than 20000. The distilled salt meets the radiologic requirements to be discarded as low level waste. (authors)

  6. Anaglyph, Salt Lake City, Utah


    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This anaglyph image provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed

  7. ERG review of salt constitutive law, salt stress determinations, and salt corrosion and modeling studies

    Balon, J.E.


    The Engineering Review Group (ERG) was established by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to help evaluate engineering-related issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The August 1983 meeting of the ERG reviewed a RE/SPEC technical report containing a review of eight constitutive laws that have been proposed to model the creep of salt over the ranges of stress and temperature anticipated in a nuclear repository. This report documents the ERG's comments and recommendations on this subject and the ONWI responses to the specific points raised by the ERG

  8. Optimization of Fluorescent Silicon Nano material Production Using Peroxide/ Acid/ Salt Technique

    Abuhassan, L.H.


    Silicon nano material was prepared using the peroxide/ acid/ salt technique in which an aqueous silicon-based salt solution was added to H 2 O 2 / HF etchants. In order to optimize the experimental conditions for silicon nano material production, the amount of nano material produced was studied as a function of the volume of the silicon salt solution used in the synthesis. A set of samples was prepared using: 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 ml of an aqueous 1 mg/ L metasilicate solution. The area under the corresponding peaks in the infrared (ir) absorption spectra was used as a qualitative indicator to the amount of the nano material present. The results indicated that using 10 ml of the metasilicate solution produced the highest amount of nano material. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the peroxide/ acid/ salt technique results in the enhancement of the production yield of silicon nano material at a reduced power demand and with a higher material to void ratio. A model in which the silicon salt forms a secondary source of silicon nano material is proposed. The auxiliary nano material is deposited into the porous network causing an increase in the amount of nano material produced and a reduction in the voids present. Thus a reduction in the resistance of the porous layer, and consequently reduction in the power required, are expected. (author)

  9. A root specific induction of carotenoid biosynthesis contributes to ABA production upon salt stress in arabidopsis.

    M Águila Ruiz-Sola

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA is a hormone that plays a vital role in mediating abiotic stress responses in plants. Salt exposure induces the synthesis of ABA through the cleavage of carotenoid precursors (xanthophylls, which are found at very low levels in roots. Here we show that de novo ABA biosynthesis in salt-treated Arabidopsis thaliana roots involves an organ-specific induction of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Upregulation of the genes encoding phytoene synthase (PSY and other enzymes of the pathway producing ABA precursors was observed in roots but not in shoots after salt exposure. A pharmacological block of the carotenoid pathway substantially reduced ABA levels in stressed roots, confirming that an increase in carotenoid accumulation contributes to fuel hormone production after salt exposure. Treatment with exogenous ABA was also found to upregulate PSY expression only in roots, suggesting an organ-specific feedback regulation of the carotenoid pathway by ABA. Taken together, our results show that the presence of high concentrations of salt in the growth medium rapidly triggers a root-specific activation of the carotenoid pathway, probably to ensure a proper supply of ABA precursors required for a sustained production of the hormone.

  10. Oral iron therapy in human subjects, comparative absorption between ferrous salts and iron polymaltose

    Jacobs, P.; Johnson, G.; Wood, L.


    Iron absorption was directly compared between equivalent doses of ferrous salts and a polymaltose complex using a twin-isotope technique in which each individual acts as his own control. In the first study, bioavailability of iron from ferrous sulfate and the complex was defined at physiologic doses of 5 mg (Group 1: n = 14) and therapeutic doses of 50 mg (Group 2: n = 13). In Group 1, mean absorption from salt was 47.77% (SD 14.58%) and from polymaltose, 46.56% SD 17.07%). In Group 2, mean absorption from salt was 32.92% (SD 13.42%) and from polymaltose, 27.07% (SD 6.50%). In a second study, 100 mg of iron in a chewable formulation was used to compare absorption between equal doses of ferrous fumarate and the polymaltose complex. Mean absorption from salt was 10.25% (SD 6.89%) and from polymaltose 10.68% (SD 4.68%). At all three dosage levels, iron is equally available from salt or polymaltose for hemoglobin synthesis (p greater than 0.20), and absorption negatively correlated with plasma ferritin (p less than 0.01). These two materials may be used interchangeably in the treatment of patients with absolute iron deficiency

  11. In vitro selection of induced mutants to salt-tolerance: Inducible gene regulation for salt tolerance

    Winicov, I [Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry, Univ. of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States)


    A selection protocol to obtain salt tolerant calli, followed by regeneration and progeny-test of the regenerated plants for salt tolerance in rice was investigated. Callus cultures were initiated from salt-sensitive US elite rice lines and cv. `Pokkali`. Salt-tolerant cell lines were selected from these by a single step selection procedure. The selected salt-tolerant lines grew well on medium with {+-} 0.5% or 1% NaCl, while the parent lines occasionally survived, but did not grow at these salt concentrations. Plants were regenerated from these cell lines through different passages on medium containing salt. Seed was collected from the regenerated plants and salt tolerance of R2 seedlings was compared with those regenerated without salt selection. Salt-tolerance was measured by survival and productive growth of newly germinated seedlings in Hoagland solution with 0.3% and 0.5% NaCl for 4 weeks. Heritable improvement in salt tolerance was obtained in R2 seedlings from one plant regenerated after 5 months selection. Survival and growth of these seedlings was equivalent to that from `Pokkali` seedlings. These results show that cellular tolerance can provide salt-tolerance in rice plants. (author). 6 refs, 2 tabs.

  12. Balancing sub- and supra-salt strain in salt-influenced rifts: Implications for extension estimates

    Coleman, Alexander J.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Duffy, Oliver B.


    The structural style of salt-influenced rifts may differ from those formed in predominantly brittle crust. Salt can decouple sub- and supra-salt strain, causing sub-salt faults to be geometrically decoupled from, but kinematically coupled to and responsible for, supra-salt forced folding. Salt-influenced rifts thus contain more folds than their brittle counterparts, an observation often ignored in extension estimates. Fundamental to determining whether sub- and supra-salt structures are kinematically coherent, and the relative contributions of thin- (i.e. gravity-driven) and thick-skinned (i.e. whole-plate stretching) deformation to accommodating rift-related strain, is our ability to measure extension at both structural levels. We here use published physical models of salt-influenced extension to show that line-length estimates yield more accurate values of sub- and supra-salt extension compared to fault-heave, before applying these methods to seismic data from the Halten Terrace, offshore Norway. We show that, given the abundance of ductile deformation in salt-influenced rifts, significant amounts of extension may be ignored, leading to the erroneous interpretations of thin-skinned, gravity-gliding. If a system is kinematically coherent, supra-salt structures can help predict the occurrence and kinematics of sub-salt faults that may be poorly imaged and otherwise poorly constrained.

  13. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake.

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Hendriksen, Marieke A H; Milder, Ivon E J; Toxopeus, Ido B; Westenbrink, Susanne; Brants, Henny A M; van der A, Daphne L


    High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement) may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011-2016) and

  14. In vitro selection of induced mutants to salt-tolerance: Inducible gene regulation for salt tolerance

    Winicov, I.


    A selection protocol to obtain salt tolerant calli, followed by regeneration and progeny-test of the regenerated plants for salt tolerance in rice was investigated. Callus cultures were initiated from salt-sensitive US elite rice lines and cv. 'Pokkali'. Salt-tolerant cell lines were selected from these by a single step selection procedure. The selected salt-tolerant lines grew well on medium with ± 0.5% or 1% NaCl, while the parent lines occasionally survived, but did not grow at these salt concentrations. Plants were regenerated from these cell lines through different passages on medium containing salt. Seed was collected from the regenerated plants and salt tolerance of R2 seedlings was compared with those regenerated without salt selection. Salt-tolerance was measured by survival and productive growth of newly germinated seedlings in Hoagland solution with 0.3% and 0.5% NaCl for 4 weeks. Heritable improvement in salt tolerance was obtained in R2 seedlings from one plant regenerated after 5 months selection. Survival and growth of these seedlings was equivalent to that from 'Pokkali' seedlings. These results show that cellular tolerance can provide salt-tolerance in rice plants. (author). 6 refs, 2 tabs

  15. Alleviation of salt-induced oxidative damage by 5-aminolevulinic acid in wheat seedlings

    Genişel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan


    The aim of this study was to elucidate how 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), the precursor of chlorophyll compounds, affects the defence mechanisms of wheat seedlings induced by salt stress. To determine the possible stimulative effects of ALA against salinity, 11-day old wheat seedlings were sprayed with ALA at two different concentrations (10 and 20 mg.l-1) and then stressed by exposure to salt (150 mM NaCl). The salt stress led to significant changes in the antioxidant activity. While guaiacol peroxidase activity decreased, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase markedly increased under salt stress. Compared to the salt stress alone, the application of ALA beforehand further increased the activity of these enzymes. This study is the first time the effects of ALA have been monitored with regard to protein content and the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes. Although the salt stress reduced both the soluble protein content and protein band intensities, pre-treating with ALA significantly mitigated these stress-induced reductions. The data for the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes paralleled that of the ALA-induced increases in antioxidant activity. As a consequence of the high antioxidant activity in the seedlings pre-treated with ALA, the stress-induced elevations in the reactive oxygen species, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide contents and lipid peroxidation levels were markedly diminished. Taken together, this data demonstrated that pre-treating with ALA confers resistance to salt stress by modulating the protein synthesis and antioxidant activity in wheat seedlings.

  16. Comparative metabolic responses and adaptive strategies of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to salt and alkali stress.

    Guo, Rui; Yang, Zongze; Li, Feng; Yan, Changrong; Zhong, Xiuli; Liu, Qi; Xia, Xu; Li, Haoru; Zhao, Long


    It is well known that salinization (high-pH) has been considered as a major environmental threat to agricultural systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between salt stress and alkali stress in metabolic profiles and nutrient accumulation of wheat; these parameters were also evaluated to determine the physiological adaptive mechanisms by which wheat tolerates alkali stress. The harmful effect of alkali stress on the growth and photosynthesis of wheat were stronger than those of salt stress. High-pH of alkali stress induced the most of phosphate and metal ions to precipitate; as a result, the availability of nutrients significantly declined. Under alkali stress, Ca sharply increased in roots, however, it decreased under salt stress. In addition, we detected the 75 metabolites that were different among the treatments according to GC-MS analysis, including organic acids, amino acids, sugars/polyols and others. The metabolic data showed salt stress and alkali stress caused different metabolic shifts; alkali stress has a stronger injurious effect on the distribution and accumulation of metabolites than salt stress. These outcomes correspond to specific detrimental effects of a highly pH environment. Ca had a significant positive correlation with alkali tolerates, and increasing Ca concentration can immediately trigger SOS Na exclusion system and reduce the Na injury. Salt stress caused metabolic shifts toward gluconeogenesis with increased sugars to avoid osmotic stress; energy in roots and active synthesis in leaves were needed by wheat to develop salt tolerance. Alkali stress (at high pH) significantly inhibited photosynthetic rate; thus, sugar production was reduced, N metabolism was limited, amino acid production was reduced, and glycolysis was inhibited.

  17. Skin-associated lymphoid tissues (SALT): origins and functions

    Streilein, J.W.


    The skin has an unusual set of immunologic requirements. It is confronted by a specialized set of pathogenic organisms and environmental chemicals that represent a distinctive spectrum of antigenic specificities. Skin is subjected to physicochemical stresses such as irradiation with ultraviolet light that alter dramatically its immunologic properties. It is proposed that nature has provided skin with a unique collection of lymphoid cells, reticular cells, and organized lymphoid organs to deal with these special demands. Evidence in favor of the existence of skin-associated lymphoid tissues (SALT) includes (1) the cutaneous microenvironment is capable on its own of accepting, processing, and presenting nominal antigen; (2) strategically located peripheral lymph nodes are able to accept immunogenic signals derived from skin; (3) subsets of T lymphocytes display differential affinity for skin and its associated peripheral nodes; and (4) acquisition of this affinity by T cells is determined at least in part by differentiation signals received in situ from resident cutaneous cells. Responsibility for the establishment and integration of SALT rests with keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, and immunocompetent lymphocytes, each of which contributes uniquely to the synthesis. Together they provide skin with immune surveillance that effectively prejudices against the development of cutaneous neoplasms and persistent infection with intracellular pathogens. In patients who have been under long-term immunosuppressive therapy, the large majority of nonlymphoid malignancies arise within the skin, rather than other types of tissues. These data suggest that immune surveillance, once thought to be an immune defense operative in all somatic tissues, is a specialized immune function dedicated to the skin and mediated by SALT

  18. Salt and cocrystals of sildenafil with dicarboxylic acids: solubility and pharmacokinetic advantage of the glutarate salt.

    Sanphui, Palash; Tothadi, Srinu; Ganguly, Somnath; Desiraju, Gautam R


    Sildenafil is a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the drug, the citrate salt, with improved solubility and pharmacokinetics, has been marketed. However, the citrate salt requires an hour to reach its peak plasma concentration. Thus, to improve solubility and bioavailability characteristics, cocrystals and salts of the drug have been prepared by treating aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with sildenafil; the N-methylated piperazine of the drug molecule interacts with the carboxyl group of the acid to form a heterosynthon. Salts are formed with oxalic and fumaric acid; salt monoanions are formed with succinic and glutaric acid. Sildenafil forms cocrystals with longer chain dicarboxylic acids such as adipic, pimelic, suberic, and sebacic acids. Auxiliary stabilization via C-H···O interactions is also present in these cocrystals and salts. Solubility experiments of sildenafil cocrystal/salts were carried out in 0.1N HCl aqueous medium and compared with the solubility of the citrate salt. The glutarate salt and pimelic acid cocrystal dissolve faster than the citrate salt in a two hour dissolution experiment. The glutarate salt exhibits improved solubility (3.2-fold) compared to the citrate salt in water. Solubilities of the binary salts follow an inverse correlation with their melting points, while the solubilities of the cocrystals follow solubilities of the coformer. Pharmacokinetic studies on rats showed that the glutarate salt exhibits doubled plasma AUC values in a single dose within an hour compared to the citrate salt. The high solubility of glutaric acid, in part originating from the strained conformation of the molecule and its high permeability, may be the reason for higher plasma levels of the drug.

  19. Mined salt storage feasibility: Engineering study report


    This study addresses a method of eliminating the surface storage of mined salt at the Deaf Smith repository site. It provides rough estimates of the logistics and costs of transporting 3.7 million tons of salt from the repository to the salt disposal site near Carlsbad, New Mexico and returning it to the repository for decommissioning backfill. The study assumes that a railcar/truck system will be installed and that the excavated salt will be transported from the repository to an existing potash mine located near Carlsbad, New Mexico approximately 300 miles from the repository. The 3.7 million tons of salt required for repository decommissioning backfill can be stored in the potash mines along with the excess salt, with no additional capital costs required for either a railcar or a truck transportation system. The capital cost for facilities to reclaim the 3.7 million tons of salt from the potash mine is estimated to be $4,400,000 with either a rail or truck transportation system. Segregating the 3.7 million tons of backfill salt in a surface storage area at the potash mine requires a capital cost of $13,900,000 with a rail system or $11,400,000 with a truck system. Transportation costs are estimated at $0.08/ton-mile for rail and $0.13/ton-mile for truck. 2 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Specific investigations related to salt rock behaviour

    Vons, L.H.


    In this paper results are given of work in various countries in rather unrelated areas of research. Nevertheless, since the studies have been undertaken to better understand salt behaviour, both from mechanical and chemical points of view, some connection between the studies can be found. In the French contribution the geological conditions have been investigated that might promote or prevent the formation of salt domes from layers in view of possible use of the latter type of formation. This was done theoretically by the finite element method, and a start was made with centrifuge tests. The density of a number of samples from salt and overburden from the Bresse basin was measured and it was shown that a favourable condition exists in this region for waste disposal. In the German contribution various subjects are touched upon, one being the effect of water on the mobility in the early stages of salt dome formation. Evidence was found for an anisotropy in salt. One Dutch contribution describes results of studies on the effect of small amounts of water on the rheology of salt. The results imply that flow laws obtained for salt at rapid strain rates and/or low confining pressure cannot be reliably extrapolated to predict the long term behaviour of wet or even very dry material under natural conditions. Preliminary results on the effect of water upon ion-mobility indicate a certain pseudo-absorptive capacity of salt e.g. for Sr

  1. Fundamentals of molten-salt thermal technology


    This book has been published by the Society of Molten-Salt Thermal Technology to publish a part of the achievement of its members. This book is composed of seven chapters. The chapter 1 is Introduction. The chapter 2 explains the physical properties of molten salts, such as thermal behavior, surface tension, viscosity, electrical conductivity and others. The chapter 3 presents the compatibility with construction materials. Corrosion in molten salts, the electrochemical behavior of fluoride ions on carbon electrodes in fluoride melts, the behaviors of hastelloy N and metals in melts are items of this chapter. The equipments and instruments for molten salts are described in chapter 4. The heat transfer in molten salts is discussed in chapter 5. The chapter 6 explains the application of molten salt technology. The molten salt technology can be applied not only to thermal engineering and energy engineering but also to chemical and nuclear engineerings, and the technical fundamentals, current development status, technical problems and the perspective for the future are outlined. The chapter 7 is the summary of this book. The commercialization of molten salt power reactors is discussed at the end of this book. (Kato, T.)

  2. Salt extraction by poulticing : an NMR study

    Voronina, V.


    The crystallization of salts is widely recognized as one of the most significant causes of damage to many cultural objects consisting of porous materials, such as monuments, sculptures, historic buildings, wall paintings, etc. A common response to salt damage problems are treatments aimed at

  3. Metal Production by Molten Salt Electrolysis

    Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.; Qingfeng, Li

    Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed.......Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed....

  4. Electrokinetic removal of salt from brick masonry

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge


    A method to effectively remove salts from masonry is lacking. The present study aims at determining the removal efficiency of salts from bricks in an applied low current electric DC field. At first an investigation on removal of NaCl and Na(NO3)2 from spiked bricks in laboratory scale was conducted...

  5. Disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salts from the Molten Salt Reactor experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Peretz, F.J.


    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) is an 8 MW reactor that was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1965 through 1969. The reactor used a unique liquid salt fuel, composed of a mixture of LIF, BeF 2 , ZrF 4 , and UF 4 , and operated at temperatures above 600 degrees C. The primary fuel salt circulation system consisted of the reactor vessel, a single fuel salt pump, and a single primary heat exchanger. Heat was transferred from the fuel salt to a coolant salt circuit in the primary heat exchanger. The coolant salt was similar to the fuel salt, except that it contains only LiF (66%) and BeF, (34%). The coolant salt passed from the primary heat exchanger to an air-cooled radiator and a coolant salt pump, and then returned to the primary heat exchanger. Each of the salt loops was provided with drain tanks, located such that the salt could be drained out of either circuit by gravity. A single drain tank was provided for the non-radioactive coolant salt. Two drain tanks were provided for the fuel salt. Since the fuel salt contained radioactive fuel, fission products, and activation products, and since the reactor was designed such that the fuel salt could be drained immediately into the drain tanks in the event of a problem in the fuel salt loop, the fuel salt drain tanks were provided with a system to remove the heat generated by radioactive decay. A third drain tank connected to the fuel salt loop was provided for a batch of flush salt. This batch of salt, similar in composition to the coolant salt, was used to condition the fuel salt loop after it had been exposed to air and to flush the fuel salt loop of residual fuel salt prior to accessing the reactor circuit for maintenance or experimental activities. This report discusses the disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salt

  6. Actinide removal from molten salts by chemical oxidation and salt distillation

    McNeese, J.A.; Garcia, E.; Dole, V.R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others


    Actinide removal from molten salts can be accomplished by a two step process where the actinide is first oxidized to the oxide using a chemical oxidant such as calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate. After the actinide is precipitated as an oxide the molten salt is distilled away from the actinide oxides leaving a oxide powder heel and an actinide free distilled salt that can be recycled back into the processing stream. This paper discusses the chemistry of the oxidation process and the physical conditions required to accomplish a salt distillation. Possible application of an analogous process sequence for a proposed accelerator driven transmutation molten salt process is also discussed.

  7. Actinide removal from molten salts by chemical oxidation and salt distillation

    McNeese, James A.; Garcia, Eduardo; Dole, Vonda R.; Griego, Walter J.


    Actinide removal from molten salts can be accomplished by a two step process where the actinide is first oxidized to the oxide using a chemical oxidant such as calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate. After the actinide is precipitated as an oxide the molten salt is distilled away from the actinide oxides leaving a oxide powder heel and an actinide free distilled salt that can be recycled back into the processing stream. This paper discusses the chemistry of the oxidation process and the physical conditions required to accomplish a salt distillation. Possible application of an analogous process sequence for a proposed accelerator driven transmutation molten salt process is also discussed

  8. Dam construction in salt rock

    Stockmann, N.; Beinlich, A.; Flach, D.; Jockwer, N.; Klarr, K.; Krogmann, P.; Miehe, R.; Schmidt, M.W.; Schwaegermann, H.F.; Walter, F.; Yaramanci, U.


    Barriers are a major component of the satefy concept for the Gorleben repository. The construction and performance of dams are currently tested within the framework of a project carried out in the Asse salt mine. A measuring programme has been established to give evidence of the sealing capacities of a barrier consisting of an abatement, long-term sealing material, and a hydraulic sealing system. Tests are to be made to verify the barrier's performance for shorter of long time periods (up to about 500 years). The tests are assisted by computed models established for the project. The long-term safety aspects to be studied include such conditions as permeability changes due to mechanical impacts, circulation conditions at the roadside, and the serviceable life and efficiency of the sealing components. (DG) [de

  9. Titanium for salt water service

    Gadiyar, H.S.; Shibad, P.R.


    Titanium has potential as major material of construction in desalination plants, in condensers and heat exchangers, in view of its excellent corrosion resistance to salt water upto at least 120deg C. The advantages of titanium in such applications are brought out. The various specific problems such as pitting, crevice and galvanic corrosion and the preventive methods, for adopting titanium have been discussed. The hydriding problem can be overcome by suitably controlling the operating parameters such as temperature and surface preparation. A case has been made to prove the economic viability of titanium in comparison to Al-brass and Cu-Ni alloy. The future of titanium seems to be very promising in view of the negligible tube failures and outages. (auth.)

  10. Fluid migration studies in salt

    Shefelbine, H.C.; Raines, G.E.


    This discussion will be limited to the migration of water trapped in the rock salt under the influence of the heat field produced by nuclear waste. This is of concern because hypotheticl scenarios have been advanced in which this fluid movement allows radionuclides to escape to the biosphere. While portions of these scenarios are supported by observation, none of the complete scenarios has been demonstrated. The objectives of the present fluid migration studies are two-fold: 1. determine the character of the trapped fluid in terms of quantity, habitat and chemical constituents; and 2. define the mechanisms that cause the fluid to migrate toward heat sources. Based on the observations to date, fluid migration will not have a major impact on repository integrity. However, the above objectives will be pursued until the impacts, if any, can be quantified

  11. Hopper Growth of Salt Crystals.

    Desarnaud, Julie; Derluyn, Hannelore; Carmeliet, Jan; Bonn, Daniel; Shahidzadeh, Noushine


    The growth of hopper crystals is observed for many substances, but the mechanism of their formation remains ill understood. Here we investigate their growth by performing evaporation experiments on small volumes of salt solutions. We show that sodium chloride crystals that grow very fast from a highly supersaturated solution form a peculiar form of hopper crystal consisting of a series of connected miniature versions of the original cubic crystal. The transition between cubic and such hopper growth happens at a well-defined supersaturation where the growth rate of the cubic crystal reaches a maximum (∼6.5 ± 1.8 μm/s). Above this threshold, the growth rate varies as the third power of supersaturation, showing that a new mechanism, controlled by the maximum speed of surface integration of new molecules, induces the hopper growth of cubic crystals in cascade.

  12. Chemical characterisation of himalayan rock salt

    Hassan, A.U.; Din, M.U.


    Present study involves the chemical evaluation of rock salt samples collected from the plugging sites of Himalayan salt (Khewra salt mines and Kalabagh salt mines) for their moisture content, water insoluble matter, calcium, magnesium, sulphate content and trace minerals such as Fe,Cu,Cd,Pb,As,Ag and Zn determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Moisture content of Khewra and Kalabagh salt samples ranged from 0.03 wt. % to 0.09 wt. % and 0.06 % to 0.08 %, respectively. Water insoluble matter ranged from 0.08 wt. % to 1.4 wt. % and 1.5 wt. % to 2.8wt. % for Khewra and Kalabagh salt samples, respectively. Sulphate content for Khewra salt sample was from 0.39 % to 0.91 % and for Kalabagh salt mines from 0.75 wt. % to 0.95 wt. %. For Khewra salt mines calcium ranged 0.15 wt. % to 0.32 wt. % and for Kalabagh salt samples from 0.1 wt. % to 0.27 wt. %. Magnesium ranged from 0.11 wt. % to 0.35 wt. % for Khewra salt mines, while for Kalabagh salt samples its range was 0.18 wt. % to 0.89 wt. %. Trace metals had the concentration ranges between 0.2 to 1.85 mg/kg for copper; between 0.21 to 0.42 mg/kg for manganese; between 0.04 to 0.06 mg/kg for zinc; between 0.12 to 0.18 mg/kg for arsenic and between 0.03 and 0.05 mg/kg for lead while cadmium content was either below the method's detection limits or in very trace amounts. The results show that the concentrations of all the parameters studied are below the limits set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Therefore, it can be concluded from the paper that the Himalayan salt from the plugging sites of Khewra and Kalabagh salt mines are safe to use. (author)

  13. Vitrification in the presence of salts

    Marra, J.C.; Andrews, M.K.; Schumacher, R.F.


    Glass is an advantageous material for the immobilization of nuclear wastes because of the simplicity of processing and its unique ability to accept a wide variety of waste elements into its network structure. Unfortunately, some anionic species which are present in the nuclear waste streams have only limited solubility in oxide glasses. This can result in either vitrification concerns or it can affect the integrity, of the final vitrified waste form. The presence of immiscible salts can also corrode metals and refractories in the vitrification unit as well as degrade components in the off-gas system. The presence of a molten salt layer on the melt may alter the batch melting rate and increase operational safety concerns. These safety concerns relate to the interaction of the molten salt and the melter cooling fluids. Some preliminary data from ongoing experimental efforts examining the solubility of molten salts in glasses and the interaction of salts with melter component materials is included

  14. Molten salt processes in special materials preparation

    Krishnamurthy, N.; Suri, A.K.


    As a class, molten salts are the largest collection of non aqueous inorganic solvents. On account of their stability at high temperature and compatibility to a number of process requirements, molten salts are considered indispensable to realize many of the numerous benefits of high temperature technology. They play a crucial role and form the basis for numerous elegant processes for the preparation of metals and materials. Molten salt are considered versatile heat transfer media and have led to the evolution of many interesting reactor concepts in fission and possibly in fusion. They also have been the basis of thinking for few novel processes for power generation. While focusing principally on the actual utilization of molten salts for a variety of materials preparation efforts in BARC, this lecture also covers a few of the other areas of technological applications together with the scientific basis for considering the molten salts in such situations. (author)


    Gruen, D.M.


    It has been found that certain metal salts, particularly the halides of iron, cobalt, nickel, and the actinide metals, arc readily absorbed on aluminum oxide, while certain other salts, particularly rare earth metal halides, are not so absorbed. Use is made of this discovery to separate uranium from the rare earths. The metal salts are first dissolved in a molten mixture of alkali metal nitrates, e.g., the eutectic mixture of lithium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and then the molten salt solution is contacted with alumina, either by slurrying or by passing the salt solution through an absorption tower. The process is particularly valuable for the separation of actinides from lanthanum-group rare earths.

  16. Comparative studies of bile salts. A new type of bile salt from Arapaima gigas (Cuvier) (family Osteoglossidae).

    Haslewood, G A; Tökés, L


    1. Arapaima gigas bile salts were hydrolysed by alkali or cleaved with dioxan-trichloroacetic acid to give cholic acid, arapaimic acid, arapaimol-A and arapaimol-B. 2. I.r., n.m.r. and mass spectroscopy and [alpha](D) measurements indicated that arapaimic acid and arapaimol-A and -B are respectively 2alpha,3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-tetrahydroxy-5beta,25in-cholestan-26-oic acid, 5beta,25R-cholestane-2beta,3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,26-pentol and 5beta-cholestane-2beta,3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,26,27-hexol. 3. Partial synthesis of 2beta,3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-tetrahydroxy-5alpha- and -5beta-cholan-24-oic acid and their spectral examination fully confirmed these conclusions. 4. A. gigas bile salts show primitive features in that they comprise alcohol sulphates and a C(27) acid; they are also specialized in showing 2beta-hydroxylation.

  17. Alternative methods of salt disposal at the seven salt sites for a nuclear waste repository


    This study discusses the various alternative salt management techniques for the disposal of excess mined salt at seven potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites: Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Davis and Lavender Canyons, Utah. Because the repository development involves the underground excavation of corridors and waste emplacement rooms, in either bedded or domed salt formations, excess salt will be mined and must be disposed of offsite. The salt disposal alternatives examined for all the sites include commercial use, ocean disposal, deep well injection, landfill disposal, and underground mine disposal. These alternatives (and other site-specific disposal methods) are reviewed, using estimated amounts of excavated, backfilled, and excess salt. Methods of transporting the excess salt are discussed, along with possible impacts of each disposal method and potential regulatory requirements. A preferred method of disposal is recommended for each potentially acceptable repository site. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  18. Systematic Evaluation of Salt Cavern Well Integrity

    Roberts, B. L.; Lord, D. L.; Lord, A. S.; Bettin, G.; Sobolik, S. R.; Park, B. Y.


    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) holds a reserve of crude oil ( 700 million barrels) to help ease any interruptions in oil import to the United States. The oil is stored in a set of 63 underground caverns distributed across four sites along the U.S. Gulf Coast. The caverns were solution mined into salt domes at each of the four sites. The plastic nature of the salt is beneficial for the storage of crude oil as it heals any fractures that may occur in the salt. The SPR is responsible for operating and maintaining the nearly 120 wells used to access the storage caverns over operational lifetimes spanning decades. Salt creep can induce deformation of the well casing which must be remediated to insure cavern and well integrity. This is particularly true at the interface between the plastic salt and the rigid caprock. The Department of Energy, the SPR Management and Operations contractor, and Sandia National Laboratories has developed a multidimensional well-grading system for the salt cavern access wells. This system is designed to assign numeric grades to each well indicating its risk of losing integrity and remediation priority. The system consists of several main components which themselves may consist of sub-components. The main components consider such things as salt cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations modeling salt deformation, and measurements of well casing deformation due to salt creep. In addition, the geology of the salt domes and their overlying caprock is also included in the grading. These multiple factors are combined into summary values giving the monitoring and remediation priority for each well. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  19. Augmenting the salt tolerance in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) through ...

    Augmenting the salt tolerance in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) through exogenously applied silicon. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... physiology and biochemistry of wheat genotypes (salt sensitive; Auqab-2000 and salt tolerant; SARC-5) ...

  20. Molten salt oxidation of organic hazardous waste with high salt content.

    Lin, Chengqian; Chi, Yong; Jin, Yuqi; Jiang, Xuguang; Buekens, Alfons; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Jian


    Organic hazardous waste often contains some salt, owing to the widespread use of alkali salts during industrial manufacturing processes. These salts cause complications during the treatment of this type of waste. Molten salt oxidation is a flameless, robust thermal process, with inherent capability of destroying the organic constituents of wastes, while retaining the inorganic ingredients in the molten salt. In the present study, molten salt oxidation is employed for treating a typical organic hazardous waste with a high content of alkali salts. The hazardous waste derives from the production of thiotriazinone. Molten salt oxidation experiments have been conducted using a lab-scale molten salt oxidation reactor, and the emissions of CO, NO, SO 2 , HCl and dioxins are studied. Impacts are investigated from the composition of the molten salts, the types of feeding tube, the temperature of molten carbonates and the air factor. Results show that the waste can be oxidised effectively in a molten salt bath. Temperature of molten carbonates plays the most important role. With the temperature rising from 600 °C to 750 °C, the oxidation efficiency increases from 91.1% to 98.3%. Compared with the temperature, air factor has but a minor effect, as well as the composition of the molten salts and the type of feeding tube. The molten carbonates retain chlorine with an efficiency higher than 99.9% and the emissions of dioxins are below 8 pg TEQ g -1 sample. The present study shows that molten salt oxidation is a promising alternative for the disposal of organic hazardous wastes containing a high salt content.

  1. Evaluation of dried salted pork ham and neck quality

    Simona Kunová


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork ham and neck. Dry-cured meat is a traditional dry-cured product obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled environmental conditions.  Ham and neck was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1 week. Salted meat products were dried at 4 °C and relative humidity 85% 1 week after salting. The quality of dry-cured meat is influenced by the processing technology, for example length of drying and ripening period. The average moisture of dried salted pork ham was 63.77% and dried salted pork neck was 59.26%. The protein content was 24.87% in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower (20.51% in dried salted pork neck. The value of intramuscular fat in dried salted pork ham was 4.97% and 14.40% in dried salted pork neck. The salt content was 5.39% in dried salted pork ham and 4.83% in dried salted pork neck. The cholesterol content was 1.36 in dried salted pork ham and significant lower in dried salted pork neck (0.60 The value of lightness was 44.36 CIE L* in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower in dried salted pork neck (40.74 CIE L*. The pH value was 5.84 in dried salted pork ham and 5.80 in dried salted pork neck. The shear work was 9.99 kg.s-1 in dried salted pork ham and 6.34 in dried salted pork neck. The value of water activity (aw was 0.929 in dried salted pork ham and similar 0.921 in dried salted pork neck. 

  2. Correlation of Creep Behavior of Domal Salts

    Munson, D.E.


    The experimentally determined creep responses of a number of domal salts have been reported in, the literature. Some of these creep results were obtained using standard (conventional) creep tests. However, more typically, the creep data have come from multistage creep tests, where the number of specimens available for testing was small. An incremental test uses abrupt changes in stress and temperature to produce several time increments (stages) of different creep conditions. Clearly, the ability to analyze these limited data and to correlate them with each other could be of considerable potential value in establishing the mechanical characteristics of salt domes, both generally and specifically. In any analysis, it is necessary to have a framework of rules to provide consistency. The basis for the framework is the Multimechanism-Deformation (M-D) constitutive model. This model utilizes considerable general knowledge of material creep deformation to supplement specific knowledge of the material response of salt. Because the creep of salt is controlled by just a few micromechanical mechanisms, regardless of the origin of the salt, certain of the material parameters are values that can be considered universal to salt. Actual data analysis utilizes the methodology developed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program, and the response of a bedded pure WIPP salt as the baseline for comparison of the domal salts. Creep data from Weeks Island, Bryan Mound, West Hackberry, Bayou Choctaw, and Big Hill salt domes, which are all sites of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage caverns, were analyzed, as were data from the Avery Island, Moss Bluff, and Jennings salt domes. The analysis permits the parameter value sets for the domal salts to be determined in terms of the M-D model with various degrees of completeness. In turn this permits detailed numerical calculations simulating cavern response. Where the set is incomplete because of the sparse database, reasonable

  3. Context-driven Salt Seeking Test (Rats)

    Chang, Stephen E.; Smith, Kyle S.


    Changes in reward seeking behavior often occur through incremental learning based on the difference between what is expected and what actually happens. Behavioral flexibility of this sort requires experience with rewards as better or worse than expected. However, there are some instances in which behavior can change through non-incremental learning, which requires no further experience with an outcome. Such an example of non-incremental learning is the salt appetite phenomenon. In this case, animals such as rats will immediately seek out a highly-concentrated salt solution that was previously undesired when they are put in a novel state of sodium deprivation. Importantly, this adaptive salt-seeking behavior occurs despite the fact that the rats never tasted salt in the depleted state, and therefore never tasted it as a highly desirable reward. The following protocol is a method to investigate the neural circuitry mediating adaptive salt seeking using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. The procedure is designed to provide an opportunity to discover possible dissociations between the neural circuitry mediating salt seeking and salt consumption to replenish the bodily deficit after sodium depletion. Additionally, this procedure is amenable to incorporating a number of neurobiological techniques for studying the brain basis of this behavior.

  4. Permanent Disposal of Nuclear Waste in Salt

    Hansen, F. D.


    Salt formations hold promise for eternal removal of nuclear waste from our biosphere. Germany and the United States have ample salt formations for this purpose, ranging from flat-bedded formations to geologically mature dome structures. Both nations are revisiting nuclear waste disposal options, accompanied by extensive collaboration on applied salt repository research, design, and operation. Salt formations provide isolation while geotechnical barriers reestablish impermeability after waste is placed in the geology. Between excavation and closure, physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, and hydrological processes ensue. Salt response over a range of stress and temperature has been characterized for decades. Research practices employ refined test techniques and controls, which improve parameter assessment for features of the constitutive models. Extraordinary computational capabilities require exacting understanding of laboratory measurements and objective interpretation of modeling results. A repository for heat-generative nuclear waste provides an engineering challenge beyond common experience. Long-term evolution of the underground setting is precluded from direct observation or measurement. Therefore, analogues and modeling predictions are necessary to establish enduring safety functions. A strong case for granular salt reconsolidation and a focused research agenda support salt repository concepts that include safety-by-design. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Author: F. D. Hansen, Sandia National Laboratories

  5. Sequestration of CO2 in salt caverns

    Dusseault, M.B.; Rothenburg, L.; Bachu, S.


    The greenhouse effect is thought to be greatly affected by anthropogenic and naturally generated gases, such as carbon dioxide. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere could be effected through the permanent storage of carbon dioxide in dissolved salt caverns. A large number of suitable salt deposits are located in Alberta, especially the Lotsberg Salt of east-central Alberta. A major advantage of this deposit is its proximity to present and future point sources of carbon dioxide associated with fossil fuel development projects. Using the perspective of the long term fate of the stored carbon dioxide, the authors presented the characteristics of the Lotsberg Salt and the overlying strata. A high level of security against leakage and migration of the gas back to the biosphere is ensured by several features discussed in the paper. The authors propose a procedure that would be applicable for the creation, testing, and filling of a salt cavern. Achieving a long term prediction of the behavior of the cavern during slow closure, coupled to the pressure and volume behavior of the gas within the cavern represents the critical factor. The authors came up with an acceptable prediction by using a semi-analytical model. The use of salt caverns for the permanent sequestration of carbon dioxide has not yet faced technical obstacles that would prevent it. The authors argue that sequestration of carbon dioxide in salt caverns represents an environmentally acceptable option in Alberta. 11 refs., 3 figs

  6. Site characterization plan: Gulf Coast salt domes


    The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for developing technology and providing facilities for safe, environmentally acceptable, permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation has been intensively investigating Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin salt domes and bedded salt in Texas and Utah since 1978. In the Gulf Coast, the application of screening criteria in the region phase led to selection of eight domes for further study in the location phase. Further screening in the area phase identified four domes for more intensive study in the location phase: Oakwood Dome, Texas; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome, Mississippi. For each dome, this Site Characterization Plan identifies specific hydrologic, geologic, tectonic, geochemical, and environmental key issues that are related to the DOE/NWTS screening criteria or affect the feasibility of constructing an exploratory shaft. The Site Characterization Plan outlines studies need to: (1) resolve issues sufficiently to allow one or more salt domes to be selected and compared to bedded salt sites in order to determine a prime salt site for an exploratory shaft; (2) conduct issue-related studies to provide a higher level of confidence that the preferred salt dome site is viable for construction of an exploratory shaft; and (3) provide a vehicle for state input to issues. Extensive references, 7 figures, 20 tables

  7. Sampling device for radioactive molten salt

    Shindo, Masato


    The present invention provides a device for accurately sampling molten salts to which various kinds of metals in a molten salt storage tank are mixed for analyzing them during a spent fuel dry type reprocessing. Namely, the device comprises a sampling tube having an opened lower end to be inserted into the radioactive molten salts stored in a tank and keeps reduced pressure from the upper end, and a pressure reducing pipeline having one end connected to the sampling tube and other end connected to an evacuating pump. In this device, the top end of the sampling tube is inserted to a position for sampling the radioactive molten salts (molten salts). The pressure inside the evacuating pipeline connected to the upper portion of the sampling tube is reduced for a while. In this case, the inside of the pressure reducing pipeline is previously evacuated by the evacuating pump so as to keep a predetermined pressure. Since the pressure in the sampling tube is lowered, molten salts are inserted into the sampling tube, the sampling tube is withdrawn, and the molten salts flown in the sampling tube are analyzed. (I.S.)

  8. Spectroscopic Characterization of Omeprazole and Its Salts

    Tomislav Vrbanec


    Full Text Available During drug development, it is important to have a suitable crystalline form of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API. Mostly, the basic options originate in the form of free base, acid, or salt. Substances that are stable only within a certain pH range are a challenge for the formulation. For the prazoles, which are known to be sensitive to degradation in an acid environment, the formulation is stabilized with alkaline additives or with the application of API formulated as basic salts. Therefore, preparation and characterization of basic salts are needed to monitor any possible salinization of free molecules. We synthesized salts of omeprazole from the group of alkali metals (Li, Na, and K and alkaline earth metals (Mg, Ca. The purpose of the presented work is to demonstrate the applicability of vibrational spectroscopy to discriminate between the OMP and OMP-salt molecules. For this reason, the physicochemical properties of 5 salts were probed using infrared and Raman spectroscopy, NMR, TG, DSC, and theoretical calculation of vibrational frequencies. We found out that vibrational spectroscopy serves as an applicable spectroscopic tool which enables an accurate, quick, and nondestructive way to determine the characteristic of OMP and its salts.

  9. Pluronic®-bile salt mixed micelles.

    Patel, Vijay; Ray, Debes; Bahadur, Anita; Ma, Junhe; Aswal, V K; Bahadur, Pratap


    The present study was aimed to examine the interaction of two bile salts viz. sodium cholate (NaC) and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) with three ethylene polyoxide-polypropylene polyoxide (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymers with similar PPO but varying PEO micelles with a focus on the effect of pH on mixed micelles. Mixed micelles of moderately hydrophobic Pluronic ® P123 were examined in the presence of two bile salts and compared with those from very hydrophobic L121 and very hydrophilic F127. Both the bile salts increase the cloud point (CP) of copolymer solution and decreased apparent micelle hydrodynamic diameter (D h ). SANS study revealed that P123 forms small spherical micelles showing a decrease in size on progressive addition of bile salts. The negatively charged mixed micelles contained fewer P123 molecules but progressively rich in bile salt. NaDC being more hydrophobic displays more pronounced effect than NaC. Interestingly, NaC shows micellar growth in acidic media which has been attributed to the formation of bile acids by protonation of carboxylate ion and subsequent solubilization. In contrast, NaDC showed phase separation at higher concentration. Nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments provided information on interaction and location of bile salts in micelles. Results are discussed in terms of hydrophobicity of bile salts and Pluronics ® and the site of bile salt in polymer micelles. Proposed molecular interactions are useful to understand more about bile salts which play important role in physiological processes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The variability of reported salt levels in fast foods across six countries: opportunities for salt reduction.

    Dunford, Elizabeth; Webster, Jacqueline; Woodward, Mark; Czernichow, Sebastien; Yuan, Wen Lun; Jenner, Katharine; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jacobson, Michael; Campbell, Norm; Neal, Bruce


    Several fast food companies have made commitments to reduce the levels of salt in the foods they serve, but technical issues are often cited as a barrier to achieving substantial reductions. Our objective was to examine the reported salt levels for products offered by leading multinational fast food chains. Data on salt content for products served by six fast food chains operating in Australia, Canada, France, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States were collected by survey in April 2010. Mean salt contents (and their ranges) were calculated and compared within and between countries and companies. We saw substantial variation in the mean salt content for different categories of products. For example, the salads we included in our survey contained 0.5 g of salt per 100 g, whereas the chicken products we included contained 1.6 g. We also saw variability between countries: chicken products from the UK contained 1.1 g of salt per 100 g, whereas chicken products from the US contained 1.8 g. Furthermore, the mean salt content of food categories varied between companies and between the same products in different countries (e.g., McDonald's Chicken McNuggets contain 0.6 g of salt per 100 g in the UK, but 1.6 g of salt per 100 g in the US). The salt content of fast foods varies substantially, not only by type of food, but by company and country in which the food is produced. Although the reasons for this variation are not clear, the marked differences in salt content of very similar products suggest that technical reasons are not a primary explanation. In the right regulatory environment, it is likely that fast food companies could substantially reduce the salt in their products, translating to large gains for population health.

  11. Salt-bridge energetics in halophilic proteins.

    Nayek, Arnab; Sen Gupta, Parth Sarthi; Banerjee, Shyamashree; Mondal, Buddhadev; Bandyopadhyay, Amal K


    Halophilic proteins have greater abundance of acidic over basic and very low bulky hydrophobic residues. Classical electrostatic stabilization was suggested as the key determinant for halophilic adaptation of protein. However, contribution of specific electrostatic interactions (i.e. salt-bridges) to overall stability of halophilic proteins is yet to be understood. To understand this, we use Adaptive-Poison-Boltzmann-Solver Methods along with our home-built automation to workout net as well as associated component energy terms such as desolvation energy, bridge energy and background energy for 275 salt-bridges from 20 extremely halophilic proteins. We then perform extensive statistical analysis on general and energetic attributes on these salt-bridges. On average, 8 salt-bridges per 150 residues protein were observed which is almost twice than earlier report. Overall contributions of salt-bridges are -3.0 kcal mol-1. Majority (78%) of salt-bridges in our dataset are stable and conserved in nature. Although, average contributions of component energy terms are equal, their individual details vary greatly from one another indicating their sensitivity to local micro-environment. Notably, 35% of salt-bridges in our database are buried and stable. Greater desolvation penalty of these buried salt-bridges are counteracted by stable network salt-bridges apart from favorable equal contributions of bridge and background terms. Recruitment of extensive network salt-bridges (46%) with a net contribution of -5.0 kcal mol-1 per salt-bridge, seems to be a halophilic design wherein favorable average contribution of background term (-10 kcal mol-1) exceeds than that of bridge term (-7 kcal mol-1). Interiors of proteins from halophiles are seen to possess relatively higher abundance of charge and polar side chains than that of mesophiles which seems to be satisfied by cooperative network salt-bridges. Overall, our theoretical analyses provide insight into halophilic signature in its

  12. Modeling of Salt Solubilities in Mixed Solvents

    Chiavone-Filho, O.; Rasmussen, Peter


    A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Huckel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Huckel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric...... constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubility product. It is shown that the proposed procedure can describe with good accuracy a series of salt...

  13. Inertia-confining thermonuclear molten salt reactors

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Yamanaka, Chiyoe; Nakai, Sadao; Imon, Shunji; Nakajima, Hidenori; Nakamura, Norio; Kato, Yoshio.


    Purpose: To increase the heat generating efficiency while improving the reactor safety and thereby maintaining the energy balance throughout the reactor. Constitution: In an inertia-confining type D-T thermonuclear reactor, the blanket is made of lithium-containing fluoride molten salts (LiF.BeF 2 , LiF.NaF.KF, LiF.KF, etc) which are cascaded downwardly in a large thickness (50 - 100 cm) along the inner wall of the thermonuclear reaction vessel, and neutrons generated by explosive compression are absorbed to lithium in the molten salts to produce tritium, Heat transportation is carried out by the molten salts. (Ikeda, J.)

  14. Evaluation of constitutive models for crushed salt

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Hurtado, L.D.; Hansen, F.D.


    Three constitutive models are recommended as candidates for describing the deformation of crushed salt. These models are generalized to three-dimensional states of stress to include the effects of mean and deviatoric stress and modified to include effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt is used to determine material parameters for the models. To evaluate the capability of the models, parameter values obtained from fitting the complete database are used to predict the individual tests. Finite element calculations of a WIPP shaft with emplaced crushed salt demonstrate the model predictions

  15. "Tepid" Geysers above salt caverns

    Bérest, Pierre; Brouard, Benoît; Zakharov, Vassily


    The formation of a brine geyser erupting from the wellhead of a large underground salt cavern is described. In most cases, the brine outflow from an opened cavern is slow; it results from the cavern creep closure and the thermal expansion of the cavern brine. These two processes are smooth; however, the brine outflow often is bumpy, as it is modulated by atmospheric pressure variations that generate an elastic increase (or decrease) of both cavern and brine volumes. In addition, when the flow is fast enough, the brine thermodynamic behavior in the wellbore is adiabatic. The cold brine expelled from the cavern wellhead is substituted with warm brine entering the borehole bottom, resulting in a lighter brine column. The brine outflow increases. In some cases, the flow becomes so fast that inertia terms must be taken into account. A geyser forms, coming to an end when the pressure in the cavern has dropped sufficiently. A better picture is obtained when head losses are considered. A closed-form solution can be reached. This proves that two cases must be distinguished, depending on whether the cold brine initially contained in the wellbore is expelled fully or not. It can also be shown that geyser formation is a rare event, as it requires both that the wellbore be narrow and that the cavern be very compressible. This study stemmed from an actual example in which a geyser was observed. However, scarce information is available, making any definite interpretation difficult. xml:lang="fr"

  16. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake.

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Hendriksen, Marieke A H; Milder, Ivon E J; Toxopeus, Ido B; Westenbrink, Susanne; Brants, Henny A M; van der A, Daphne L


    High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement) may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011-2016) and differences in estimated salt intake over a 10-year period (2006-2015). To assess the salt contents of foods; we obtained recent data from chemical analyses and from food labels. Salt content of these foods in 2016 was compared to salt contents in the 2011 version Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO, version 2011), and statistically tested with General Linear Models. To estimate the daily dietary salt intake in 2006, 2010, and 2015, men and women aged 19 to 70 years were recruited through random population sampling in Doetinchem, a small town located in a rural area in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The characteristics of the study population were in 2006: n = 317, mean age 49 years, 43% men, in 2010: n = 342, mean age 46 years, 45% men, and in 2015: n = 289, mean age 46 years, 47% men. Sodium and potassium excretion was measured in a single 24-h urine sample. All estimates were converted to a common metric: salt intake in grams per day by multiplication of sodium with a factor of 2.54. In 2016 compared to 2011, the salt content in certain types of bread was on average 19 percent lower and certain types of sauce, soup, canned vegetables and legumes, and crisps had a 12 to 26 percent lower salt content. Salt content in other types of foods had not changed significantly. Between 2006, 2010 and 2015 the estimated salt intake among adults in Doetinchem remained unchanged. In 2015, the median estimated salt intake was 9.7 g per day for men and 7.4 g per day for women. As in 2006 and 2010, the estimated salt intake in 2015 exceeded the recommended maximum intake of 6 g per day set by the Dutch Health Council. In the Netherlands, the salt content of bread, certain sauces, soups

  17. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake

    Elisabeth H. M. Temme


    Full Text Available Background and objectives. High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011–2016 and differences in estimated salt intake over a 10-year period (2006–2015. Methods. To assess the salt contents of foods; we obtained recent data from chemical analyses and from food labels. Salt content of these foods in 2016 was compared to salt contents in the 2011 version Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO, version 2011, and statistically tested with General Linear Models. To estimate the daily dietary salt intake in 2006, 2010, and 2015, men and women aged 19 to 70 years were recruited through random population sampling in Doetinchem, a small town located in a rural area in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The characteristics of the study population were in 2006: n = 317, mean age 49 years, 43% men, in 2010: n = 342, mean age 46 years, 45% men, and in 2015: n = 289, mean age 46 years, 47% men. Sodium and potassium excretion was measured in a single 24-h urine sample. All estimates were converted to a common metric: salt intake in grams per day by multiplication of sodium with a factor of 2.54. Results. In 2016 compared to 2011, the salt content in certain types of bread was on average 19 percent lower and certain types of sauce, soup, canned vegetables and legumes, and crisps had a 12 to 26 percent lower salt content. Salt content in other types of foods had not changed significantly. Between 2006, 2010 and 2015 the estimated salt intake among adults in Doetinchem remained unchanged. In 2015, the median estimated salt intake was 9.7 g per day for men and 7.4 g per day for women. As in 2006 and 2010, the estimated salt intake in 2015 exceeded the recommended maximum intake of 6 g per day set by the Dutch Health Council

  18. Synthesis of Ca(PF$_6$)$_2$, formed $\\textit{via}$ nitrosonium oxidation of calcium

    Keyzer, Evan; Matthews, PD; Liu, Zigeng; Bond, Andrew David; Grey, Clare Philomena; Wright, Dominic Simon


    The development of rechargeable Ca-ion batteries as an alternative to Li systems has been limited by the availability of suitable electrolyte salts. We present the synthesis of complexes of Ca(PF$_6$)$_2$ (a key potential Ca battery electrolyte salt) $\\textit{via}$ the treatment of Ca metal with NOPF$_6$, and explore their conversion to species containing PO$_2$F$_2$$^{-}$ under the reaction conditions. NSERC of Canada PGSD; Gonville and Caius College; Cambridge Commonwealth, European, and...

  19. Synthesis of Ca(PF6)2, formed via nitrosonium oxidation of calcium.

    Keyzer, Evan N; Matthews, Peter D; Liu, Zigeng; Bond, Andrew D; Grey, Clare P; Wright, Dominic S


    The development of rechargeable Ca-ion batteries as an alternative to Li systems has been limited by the availability of suitable electrolyte salts. We present the synthesis of complexes of Ca(PF 6 ) 2 (a key potential Ca battery electrolyte salt) via the treatment of Ca metal with NOPF 6 , and explore their conversion to species containing PO 2 F 2 - under the reaction conditions.

  20. Protic Salt Polymer Membranes: High-Temperature Water-Free Proton-Conducting Membranes

    Gervasio, Dominic Francis [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)


    ambient pressures. Synthesis and processing of these protic salts into proton-conducting membrane is far from optimized. This protic salt approach has great promise for more improvements in proton conducting membranes for making practical compact, lightweight and inexpensive fuel cells with uses ranging from small electronics (Power = 1 to 100 Watts) to transportation (kiloWatts) to stationary applications (>100 kiloWatts). This work clearly showed that proton can be conducted without water using protoic ionic liquids which are Bronsted salts which contain a proton and whose acid and base moieties have pK separated by more than 4 units and less than 14. A key finding is that the base used should be significantly different than the basicity of water or else water displaces the base and an ordinary acid membrane is left behind. This is the case where the acid moiety is sulfonic acid found on perfluorinated polymeric membranes. This PI suggests that a fruitful route for attaining highly proton-conductive stable protic salt membranes is to use the STABLE poly-phosphazene (-P=N-) polymer backbone with electrochemically STABLE pendant acid or base units on the phosphorous of poly-phosphazene and with suitable pK so the base is NOT the same pK as water. From this work this should give stable water-free proton conductors which should allow for stable fuel cells with Pt catalysts and possible with non-platinum catalyst for the hydrogen anode and oxygen cathode.