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Sample records for salt pc code

  1. HOTSPOT Health Physics codes for the PC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homann, S.G.

    1994-03-01

    The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculation tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes are a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. HOTSPOT programs are reasonably accurate for a timely initial assessment. More importantly, HOTSPOT codes produce a consistent output for the same input assumptions and minimize the probability of errors associated with reading a graph incorrectly or scaling a universal nomogram during an emergency. The HOTSPOT codes are designed for short-term (less than 24 hours) release durations. Users requiring radiological release consequences for release scenarios over a longer time period, e.g., annual windrose data, are directed to such long-term models as CAPP88-PC (Parks, 1992). Users requiring more sophisticated modeling capabilities, e.g., complex terrain; multi-location real-time wind field data; etc., are directed to such capabilities as the Department of Energy`s ARAC computer codes (Sullivan, 1993). Four general programs -- Plume, Explosion, Fire, and Resuspension -- calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Other programs deal with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. Additional programs estimate the dose commitment from the inhalation of any one of the radionuclides listed in the database of radionuclides; calibrate a radiation survey instrument for ground-survey measurements; and screen plutonium uptake in the lung (see FIDLER Calibration and LUNG Screening sections).

  2. New versions of VENTURE/PC, a multigroup, multidimensional diffusion-depletion code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1990-01-01

    VENTURE/PC is a microcomputer version of the BOLD VENTURE code system developed over a period of years at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It is a very complete and flexible multigroup, multidimensional, diffusion-depletion code system, which was developed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory personal computer (PC) based reactor physics and radiation shielding analysis package. The major characteristics of the code system were reported previously. Since that time, new versions of the code system have been developed. These new versions were designed to speed the convergence process, simplify the input stream, and extend the code to the state-of-the-art 32-bit microcomputers. The 16-bit version of the code is distributed by the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) at ORNL. The code has received widespread usage.

  3. Development of a safety analysis code for molten salt reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Dalin [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 West Road Xian Ning Street, Xi' an 710049 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 West Road Xian Ning Street, Xi' an 710049 (China); Qiu Suizheng, E-mail: szqiu@mail.xjtu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 West Road Xian Ning Street, Xi' an 710049 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 West Road Xian Ning Street, Xi' an 710049 (China); Su Guanghui [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 West Road Xian Ning Street, Xi' an 710049 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 West Road Xian Ning Street, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2009-12-15

    The molten salt reactor (MSR) well suited to fulfill the criteria defined by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is presently revisited all around the world because of different attractive features of current renewed relevance. The MSRs are characterized by using the fluid-fuel, so that their technologies are fundamentally different from those used in the conventional solid-fuel reactors. In this work, in particular, the attention is focused on the safety characteristic analysis of the MSRs, in which a point kinetic model considering the flow effects of the fuel salt is established for the MSRs and calculated by developing a microcomputer code coupling with a simplified heat transfer model in the core. The founded models and developed code are applied to analyze the safety characteristics of the molten salt actinide recycler and transmuter system (MOSART) by simulating three types of basic transient conditions including the unprotected loss of flow, unprotected overcooling accident and unprotected transient overpower. Some reasonable results are obtained for the MOSART, which show that the MOSART conceptual design is an inherently stable reactor design. The present study provides some valuable information for the research and design of the new generation MSRs.

  4. Identification and functional characterization of G6PC2 coding variants influencing glycemic traits define an effector transcript at the G6PC2-ABCB11 locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubha Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome wide association studies (GWAS for fasting glucose (FG and insulin (FI have identified common variant signals which explain 4.8% and 1.2% of trait variance, respectively. It is hypothesized that low-frequency and rare variants could contribute substantially to unexplained genetic variance. To test this, we analyzed exome-array data from up to 33,231 non-diabetic individuals of European ancestry. We found exome-wide significant (P<5×10-7 evidence for two loci not previously highlighted by common variant GWAS: GLP1R (p.Ala316Thr, minor allele frequency (MAF=1.5% influencing FG levels, and URB2 (p.Glu594Val, MAF = 0.1% influencing FI levels. Coding variant associations can highlight potential effector genes at (non-coding GWAS signals. At the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus, we identified multiple coding variants in G6PC2 (p.Val219Leu, p.His177Tyr, and p.Tyr207Ser influencing FG levels, conditionally independent of each other and the non-coding GWAS signal. In vitro assays demonstrate that these associated coding alleles result in reduced protein abundance via proteasomal degradation, establishing G6PC2 as an effector gene at this locus. Reconciliation of single-variant associations and functional effects was only possible when haplotype phase was considered. In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that, paradoxically, glucose-raising alleles at this locus are protective against type 2 diabetes (T2D, the p.Val219Leu G6PC2 variant displayed a modest but directionally consistent association with T2D risk. Coding variant associations for glycemic traits in GWAS signals highlight PCSK1, RREB1, and ZHX3 as likely effector transcripts. These coding variant association signals do not have a major impact on the trait variance explained, but they do provide valuable biological insights.

  5. Identification and Functional Characterization of G6PC2 Coding Variants Influencing Glycemic Traits Define an Effector Transcript at the G6PC2-ABCB11 Locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Anubha; Sim, Xueling; Ng, Hui Jin; Manning, Alisa; Rivas, Manuel A.; Highland, Heather M.; Locke, Adam E.; Grarup, Niels; Im, Hae Kyung; Cingolani, Pablo; Flannick, Jason; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fuchsberger, Christian; Gaulton, Kyle J.; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Rayner, N. William; Robertson, Neil R.; Beer, Nicola L.; Rundle, Jana K.; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Ladenvall, Claes; Blancher, Christine; Buck, David; Buck, Gemma; Burtt, Noël P.; Gabriel, Stacey; Gjesing, Anette P.; Groves, Christopher J.; Hollensted, Mette; Huyghe, Jeroen R.; Jackson, Anne U.; Jun, Goo; Justesen, Johanne Marie; Mangino, Massimo; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Neville, Matt; Onofrio, Robert; Small, Kerrin S.; Stringham, Heather M.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Trakalo, Joseph; Abecasis, Goncalo; Bell, Graeme I.; Blangero, John; Cox, Nancy J.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Hanis, Craig L.; Seielstad, Mark; Wilson, James G.; Christensen, Cramer; Brandslund, Ivan; Rauramaa, Rainer; Surdulescu, Gabriela L.; Doney, Alex S. F.; Lannfelt, Lars; Linneberg, Allan; Isomaa, Bo; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Jørgensen, Torben; Kuusisto, Johanna; Uusitupa, Matti; Salomaa, Veikko; Spector, Timothy D.; Morris, Andrew D.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Collins, Francis S.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Bergman, Richard N.; Ingelsson, Erik; Lind, Lars; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Hansen, Torben; Watanabe, Richard M.; Prokopenko, Inga; Dupuis, Josee; Karpe, Fredrik; Groop, Leif; Laakso, Markku; Pedersen, Oluf; Florez, Jose C.; Morris, Andrew P.; Altshuler, David; Meigs, James B.; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Gloyn, Anna L.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI) have identified common variant signals which explain 4.8% and 1.2% of trait variance, respectively. It is hypothesized that low-frequency and rare variants could contribute substantially to unexplained genetic variance. To test this, we analyzed exome-array data from up to 33,231 non-diabetic individuals of European ancestry. We found exome-wide significant (P<5×10-7) evidence for two loci not previously highlighted by common variant GWAS: GLP1R (p.Ala316Thr, minor allele frequency (MAF)=1.5%) influencing FG levels, and URB2 (p.Glu594Val, MAF = 0.1%) influencing FI levels. Coding variant associations can highlight potential effector genes at (non-coding) GWAS signals. At the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus, we identified multiple coding variants in G6PC2 (p.Val219Leu, p.His177Tyr, and p.Tyr207Ser) influencing FG levels, conditionally independent of each other and the non-coding GWAS signal. In vitro assays demonstrate that these associated coding alleles result in reduced protein abundance via proteasomal degradation, establishing G6PC2 as an effector gene at this locus. Reconciliation of single-variant associations and functional effects was only possible when haplotype phase was considered. In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that, paradoxically, glucose-raising alleles at this locus are protective against type 2 diabetes (T2D), the p.Val219Leu G6PC2 variant displayed a modest but directionally consistent association with T2D risk. Coding variant associations for glycemic traits in GWAS signals highlight PCSK1, RREB1, and ZHX3 as likely effector transcripts. These coding variant association signals do not have a major impact on the trait variance explained, but they do provide valuable biological insights. PMID:25625282

  6. PC based electrolytes with LiDFOB as an alternative salt for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Brandon M.

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been greatly sought after as a source of renewable energy storage. LIBs have a wide range of applications including but not limited portable electronic devices, electric vehicles, and power tools. As a direct result of their commercial viability an insatiable hunger for knowledge, advancement within the field of LIBs has been omnipresent for the last two decades. However, there are set backs evident within the LIB field; most notably the limitations of standard electrolyte formulations and LiPF6 lithium salt. The standard primary carbonate of ethylene carbonate (EC) has a very limited operating range due to its innate physical properties, and the LiPF6 salt is known to readily decompose to form HF which can further degrade LIB longevity. The goal of our research is to explore the use of a new primary salt LiDFOB in conjunction with a propylene carbonate based electrolyte to establish a more flexible electrolyte formulation by constructing coin cells and cycling them under various conditions to give a clear understanding of each formulation inherent performance capabilities. Our studies show that 1.2M LiDFOB in 3:7 PC/EMC + 1.5% VC is capable of performing comparably to the standard 1.2M LiPF6 in 3:7 EC/EMC at 25°C and the PC electrolyte also illustrates performance superior to the standard at 55°C. The degradation of lithium manganese spinel electrodes, including LiNi 0.5Mn1.5O4, is an area of great concern within the field of lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Manganese containing cathode materials frequently have problems associated with Mn dissolution which significantly reduces the cycle life of LIB. Thus the stability of the cathode material is paramount to the performance of Mn spinel cathode materials in LIBs. In an effort to gain a better understanding of the stability of LiNi0.5 Mn1.5O4 in common LiPF6/carbonate electrolytes, samples were stored at elevated temperature in the presence of electrolyte. Then after storage both

  7. Applying Hilbert spatial ordering code to partition massive spatial data in PC cluster system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjie; Hong, Xinlan; Meng, Lingkui; Zhao, Chunyu

    2006-10-01

    In order to handle massive spatial data quickly and efficiently, a superior solution is to store and handle them in parallel spatial database management systems under the environment of PC cluster at present, and thus its spatial partitioning strategy of data needs solving first. Hilbert spatial ordering code based on Hilbert space-filling curve is an excellent linear mapping method, and gets wider and wider applications in processing spatial data. After studying Hilbert curve, this paper proposes a new and efficient algorithm for the generation of Hilbert code, and it has overcome drawbacks of the traditional algorithm. Then Hilbert code is applied to spatial partitioning with the method of cluster analysis, and a concrete method is given, which fully considers characteristics of spatial data, such as the aggregation of spatial data, reduces the time of disks accesses, and achieves better performance by experiments than the compulsory partitioning of ORACLE Spatial based on X coordinate values and (or) Y coordinate values in subsequent parallel processing of spatial data.

  8. Beta.-glucosidase coding sequences and protein from orpinomyces PC-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong; Ximenes, Eduardo A.

    2001-02-06

    Provided is a novel .beta.-glucosidase from Orpinomyces sp. PC2, nucleotide sequences encoding the mature protein and the precursor protein, and methods for recombinant production of this .beta.-glucosidase.

  9. Improvements in the Monte Carlo code for simulating 4πβ(PC)–γ coincidence system measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, M.S., E-mail: msdias@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Takeda, M.N. [Universidade Santo Amaro, UNISA Rua Prof. Enéas da Siqueira Neto 340, 04829-300 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Toledo, F.; Brancaccio, F.; Tongu, M.L.O.; Koskinas, M.F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-01-11

    A Monte Carlo simulation code known as ESQUEMA has been developed by the Nuclear Metrology Laboratory (Laboratório de Metrologia Nuclear—LMN) in the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares—IPEN) to be used as a benchmark for radionuclide standardization. The early version of this code simulated only β−γ and ec−γ emitters with reasonably high electron and X-ray energies. To extend the code to include other radionuclides and enable the code to be applied to software coincidence counting systems, several improvements have been made and are presented in this work. -- Highlights: ► Improvements to the Monte Carlo code ESQUEMA are described. ► The experimental extrapolation curve was compared to Monte Carlo simulation. ► Eu-152 was standardized by 4π(PC)β-γ coincidence system and compared to Monte Carlo simulation. ► 4π proportional counter gamma-ray efficiency was calculated by MCNPX and compared with experiment. ► X-ray and positron decay emitters were included in the simulation.

  10. Development of environmental dose assessment system (EDAS) code of PC version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki, Mitsumasa; Kikuchi, Masamitsu; Kobayashi, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Takenori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-05-01

    A computer code (EDAS) was developed to assess the public dose for the safety assessment to get the license of nuclear reactor operation. This code system is used for the safety analysis of public around the nuclear reactor in normal operation and severe accident. This code was revised and composed for personal computer user according to the Nuclear Safety Guidelines reflected the ICRP1990 recommendation. These guidelines are revised by Nuclear Safety Commission on March, 2001, which are 'Weather analysis guideline for the safety assessment of nuclear power reactor', 'Public dose around the facility assessment guideline corresponding to the objective value for nuclear power light water reactor' and 'Public dose assessment guideline for safety review of nuclear power light water reactor'. This code has been already opened for public user by JAERI, and English version code and user manual are also prepared. This English version code is helpful for international cooperation concerning the nuclear safety assessment with JAERI. (author)

  11. Development of a steady state analysis code for a molten salt reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D.L. [State Key Laboratory of Multi Phase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Department of Nuclear and Thermal Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Qiu, S.Z. [State Key Laboratory of Multi Phase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Department of Nuclear and Thermal Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)], E-mail: szqiu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Su, G.H. [State Key Laboratory of Multi Phase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Department of Nuclear and Thermal Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Liu, C.L. [Department of Nuclear and Thermal Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2009-05-15

    The molten salt reactor (MSR), which is one of the 'Generation IV' concepts, can be used for transmutation, and production of electricity, hydrogen and fissile fuels. In this study, a single-liquid-fueled MSR is designed for conceptual research, in which no solid material is present in the core as moderator, except for the external reflector. The fuel salt flow makes the MSR neutronics different from that of conventional reactors using solid fuels, and couples the flow and heat transfer strongly. Therefore, it is necessary to study the core characteristics with due attention to the coupling among flow, heat transfer and neutronics. The standard turbulent model is adopted to establish the flow and heat transfer model, while the diffusion theory is used for the neutronics model, which consists of two-group neutron diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes, and balance equations for six groups of delayed neutron precursors. These two models which are coupled through the temperature and heat source are coded in a microcomputer program. The distributions of the velocity, temperature, neutron fluxes, and delayed neutron precursors under the rated condition are obtained. In addition, the effects of the inflow temperature, inflow velocity, and the fuel salt residence time out of the core are discussed in detail. The results provide some valuable information for the research and design of the new generation molten salt reactors.

  12. A Nucleus-localized Long Non-Coding RNA Enhances Drought and Salt Stress Tolerance

    KAUST Repository

    Qin, Tao

    2017-09-09

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) affect gene expression through a wide range of mechanisms and are considered as important regulators in many essential biological processes. A large number of lncRNA transcripts have been predicted or identified in plants in recent years. However, the biological functions for most of them are still unknown. In this study, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana lncRNA, Drought induced RNA (DRIR), as a novel positive regulator of plant response to drought and salt stress. DRIR was expressed at a low level under non-stress conditions but can be significantly activated by drought and salt stress as well as by abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. We identified a T-DNA insertion mutant, drirD, which had higher expression of the DRIR gene than the wild type plants. The drirD mutant exhibits increased tolerance to drought and salt stress. Overexpressing DRIR in Arabidopsis also increased tolerance to drought and salt stress of the transgenic plants. The drirD mutant and the overexpressing seedlings are more sensitive to ABA than the wild type in stomata closure and seedling growth. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis demonstrated that the expression of a large number of genes was altered in drirD and the overexpressing plants. These include genes involved in ABA signaling, water transport and other stress-relief processes. Our study reveals a mechanism whereby DRIR regulates plant response to abiotic stress by modulating the expression of a series of genes involved in stress response.

  13. Transient convergence and compaction of crushed salt as incorporated in the computer code EMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijdra, J.J.; Hamilton, L.F.M.; Prij, J.; Slagter, W.

    1995-11-01

    An improved model for description of the transient convergence of cavities in rock salt, together with an improved model for the compaction of crushed salt is introduced. The covergence model is based on solutions of the analytical expressions based on secondary creep for a cylindrical and spherical cavity in rock salt. For the model for compaction of crushed salt the relations based on theoretical micro mechanisms have been fitted to laboratory results. A description is given of how the improved models are incorporated into the program EMOS. (orig.).

  14. Validation of the TRACE code for the system dynamic simulations of the molten salt reactor experiment and the preliminary study on the dual fluid molten salt reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xun

    2016-06-14

    Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), which was confirmed as one of the six Generation IV reactor types by the GIF (Generation IV International Forum in 2008), recently draws a lot of attention all around the world. Due to the application of liquid fuels the MSR can be regarded as the most special one among those six GEN-IV reactor types in a sense. A unique advantage of using liquid nuclear fuel lies in that the core melting accident can be thoroughly eliminated. Besides, a molten salt reactor can have several fuel options, for instance, the fuel can be based on {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th-{sup 233}U, {sup 238}U-{sup 239}Pu cycle or even the spent nuclear fuel (SNF), so the reactor can be operated as a breeder or as an actinides burner both with fast, thermal or epi-thermal neutron spectrum and hence, it has excellent features of the fuel sustainability and for the non-proliferation. Furthermore, the lower operating pressure not only means a lower risk of the explosion as well as the radioactive leakage but also implies that the reactor vessel and its components can be lightweight, thus lowering the cost of equipments. So far there is no commercial MSR being operated. However, the MSR concept and its technical validation dates back to the 1960s to 1970s, when the scientists and engineers from ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) in the United States managed to build and run the world's first civilian molten salt reactor called MSRE (Molten Salt Reactor Experiment). The MSRE was an experimental liquid-fueled reactor with 10 MW thermal output using {sup 4}LiF-BeF{sub 2}-ZrF{sub 4}-UF{sub 4} as the fuel also as the coolant itself. The MSRE is usually taken as a very important reference case for many current researches to validate their codes and simulations. Without exception it works also as a benchmark for this thesis. The current thesis actually consists of two main parts. The first part is about the validation of the current code for the old MSRE concept, while the second

  15. Study on Utilization of Super Grade Plutonium in Molten Salt Reactor FUJI-U3 using CITATION Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, Cici; Waris, Abdul; Pramuditya, Syeilendra; Asril, Pramutadi AM; Novitrian

    2017-07-01

    FUJI-U3 type of Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) has a unique design since it consists of three core regions in order to avoid the replacement of graphite as moderator. MSR uses floride as a nuclear fuel salt with the most popular chemical composition is LiF-BeF2-ThF4-233UF4. ThF4 and 233UF4 are the fertile and fissile materials, respectively. On the other hand, LiF and BeF2 working as both fuel and heat transfer medium. In this study, the super grade plutonium will be utilized as substitution of 233U since plutonium is easier to be obtained compared to 233U as main fuel. Neutronics calculation was performed by using PIJ and CITATION modules of SRAC 2002 code with JENDL 3.2 as nuclear data library.

  16. Integral and Separate Effects Tests for Thermal Hydraulics Code Validation for Liquid-Salt Cooled Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Per

    2012-10-30

    The objective of the 3-year project was to collect integral effects test (IET) data to validate the RELAP5-3D code and other thermal hydraulics codes for use in predicting the transient thermal hydraulics response of liquid salt cooled reactor systems, including integral transient response for forced and natural circulation operation. The reference system for the project is a modular, 900-MWth Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR), a specific type of Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactor (FHR). Two experimental facilities were developed for thermal-hydraulic integral effects tests (IETs) and separate effects tests (SETs). The facilities use simulant fluids for the liquid fluoride salts, with very little distortion to the heat transfer and fluid dynamics behavior. The CIET Test Bay facility was designed, built, and operated. IET data for steady state and transient natural circulation was collected. SET data for convective heat transfer in pebble beds and straight channel geometries was collected. The facility continues to be operational and will be used for future experiments, and for component development. The CIET 2 facility is larger in scope, and its construction and operation has a longer timeline than the duration of this grant. The design for the CIET 2 facility has drawn heavily on the experience and data collected on the CIET Test Bay, and it was completed in parallel with operation of the CIET Test Bay. CIET 2 will demonstrate start-up and shut-down transients and control logic, in addition to LOFC and LOHS transients, and buoyant shut down rod operation during transients. Design of the CIET 2 Facility is complete, and engineering drawings have been submitted to an external vendor for outsourced quality controlled construction. CIET 2 construction and operation continue under another NEUP grant. IET data from both CIET facilities is to be used for validation of system codes used for FHR modeling, such as RELAP5-3D. A set of

  17. PC Pricer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PC Pricer is a tool used to estimate Medicare PPS payments. The final payment may not be precise to how payments are determined in the Medicare claims processing...

  18. AMPS/PC - AUTOMATIC MANUFACTURING PROGRAMMING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    The AMPS/PC system is a simulation tool designed to aid the user in defining the specifications of a manufacturing environment and then automatically writing code for the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. The domain of problems that AMPS/PC can simulate are manufacturing assembly lines with subassembly lines and manufacturing cells. The user defines the problem domain by responding to the questions from the interface program. Based on the responses, the interface program creates an internal problem specification file. This file includes the manufacturing process network flow and the attributes for all stations, cells, and stock points. AMPS then uses the problem specification file as input for the automatic code generator program to produce a simulation program in the target language GPSS. The output of the generator program is the source code of the corresponding GPSS/PC simulation program. The system runs entirely on an IBM PC running PC DOS Version 2.0 or higher and is written in Turbo Pascal Version 4 requiring 640K memory and one 360K disk drive. To execute the GPSS program, the PC must have resident the GPSS/PC System Version 2.0 from Minuteman Software. The AMPS/PC program was developed in 1988.

  19. Biomimicry 1: PC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberland, D C; Gunn, J; Malik, N; Holt, C M

    1998-01-01

    The surface properties of stents can be modified by coating them, for example with a polymer. Phosphorylcoline (PC) is the major component of the outer layer of the cell membrane. The haemo- and biocompatibility of a PC-containing polymer is thus based on biomimicry, and has been confirmed by several experiments showing much reduced thrombogenicity of PC-coated surfaces, and porcine coronary artery implants showing no sign of adverse effect. Clinical experience with the PC-coated BiodivYsio appears favourable. The PC coating can be tailored for take up and controlled elution of various drugs for stent-based local delivery, a property which is being actively explored.

  20. A PC based thin film dosimeter system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Hargittai, P.; Kovacs, A.

    2000-01-01

    A dosimeter system based on the Riso B3 dosimeter film, an office scanner for use with PC and the associated software is presented. The scanned image is analyzed either with standard software (Paint Shop Pro 5 or Excel) functions or with the computer code "Scanalizer" that allows presentation...

  1. The PC graphics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Julio

    2003-01-01

    Part I - Graphics Fundamentals PC GRAPHICS OVERVIEW History and Evolution Short History of PC Video PS/2 Video Systems SuperVGA Graphics Coprocessors and Accelerators Graphics Applications State-of-the-Art in PC Graphics 3D Application Programming Interfaces POLYGONAL MODELING Vector and Raster Data Coordinate Systems Modeling with Polygons IMAGE TRANSFORMATIONS Matrix-based Representations Matrix Arithmetic 3D Transformations PROGRAMMING MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS Numeric Data in Matrix Form Array Processing PROJECTIONS AND RENDERING Perspective The Rendering Pipeline LIGHTING AND SHADING Lightin

  2. Leo II PC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LEO II is a second-generation software system developed for use on the PC, which is designed to convert location references accurately between legal descriptions and...

  3. Effects of Solvent Composition on Liquid Range, Glass Transition, and Conductivity of Electrolytes of a (Li, Cs)PF6 Salt in EC-PC-EMC Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Michael S.; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Xing; Xu, Wu; Xu, Kang

    2017-05-10

    Electrolytes of 1 M LiPF6 (lithium hexafluorophosphate) and 0.05 M CsPF6 (cesium hexafluorophosphate) in EC-PC-EMC (ethylene carbonate-propylene carbonate-ethyl methyl carbonate) solvents of varying solvent compositions were studied for the effects of solvent composition on the lower limit of liquid range, viscosity (as reflected by the glass transition temperature), and electrolytic conductivity. In addition, a ternary phase diagram of EC-PC-EMC was constructed and crystallization temperatures of EC and EMC were calculated to assist the interpretation and understanding of the change of liquid range with solvent composition. A function based on Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation was fitted to the conductivity data in their entirety and plotted as conductivity surfaces in solvent composition space for more direct and clear comparisons and discussions. Changes of viscosity and dielectric constant of the solvents with their composition, in relation to those of the solvent components, were found to be underlying many of the processes studied.

  4. Building the perfect PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This popular Build-It-Yourself (BIY) PC book covers everything you want to know about building your own system: Planning and picking out the right components, step-by-step instructions for assembling your perfect PC, and an insightful discussion of why you'd want to do it in the first place. Most big brand computers from HP, Dell and others use lower-quality components so they can meet their aggressive pricing targets. But component manufacturers also make high-quality parts that you can either purchase directly, or obtain through distributors and resellers. Consumers and corporations

  5. Beware the PC Police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Lynne V.

    1992-01-01

    Decries the prevalence of "racism,""sexual harassment," and "speciesism" labels applied to supposed violators of "political correctness" (PC). When freedom of speech on college campuses is held hostage to political correctness, K-12 education is bound to be affected. This new brand of McCarthyism cheapens…

  6. Synthesis and characterization of NiPcTSTNa(L) thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    acid tetrasodium salt (NiPcTSTNa) and axial diamine li- gands: ethylenediamine (EDA), 1,4-diaminobutane ... General procedure: A solution of the NiPcTSTNa salt. (C32H12N8Na4NiO12S4) in absolute ethanol was .... tion band, there is no conservation of the electronic momen- tum (Cody 1984). This type of transitions is in ...

  7. Characterization of a salt-induced DhAHP, a gene coding for alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, from the extremely halophilic yeast Debaryomyces hansenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ku Maurice SB

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Debaryomyces hansenii is one of the most salt tolerant species of yeast and has become a model organism for the study of tolerance mechanisms against salinity. The goal of this study was to identify key upregulated genes that are involved in its adaptation to high salinity. Results By using forward subtractive hybridization we have cloned and sequenced DhAHP from D. hansenii that is significantly upregulated during salinity stress. DhAHP is orthologous to the alkly hydroperoxide reductase of the peroxiredoxin gene family, which catalyzes the reduction of peroxides at the expense of thiol compounds. The full-lengthed cDNA of DhAHP has 674 bp of nucleotide and contains a 516 bp open reading frame (ORF encoding a deduced protein of 172 amino acid residues (18.3 kDa. D. hansenii Ahp is a cytosolic protein that belongs to the Ahp of the 1-Cys type peroxiredoxins. Phylogentically, the DhAhp and Candida albicans Ahp11 (Swiss-Prot: Q5AF44 share a common ancestry but show divergent evolution. Silence of its expression in D. hansenii by RNAi resulted in decreased tolerance to salt whereas overexpression of DhAHP in D. hansenii and the salt-sensitive yeasts Saccharomyces cereviasiae and Pichia methanolica conferred a higher tolerance with a reduced level of reactive oxygen species. Conclusion In conclusion, for the first time our study has identified alkly hydroperoxide reductase as a key protein involved in the salt tolerance of the extremely halophilic D. hansenii. Apparently, this enzyme plays a multi-functional role in the yeast's adaptation to salinity; it serves as a peroxidase in scavenging reactive oxygen species, as a molecular chaperone in protecting essential proteins from denaturation, and as a redox sensor in regulating H2O2-mediated cell defense signaling.

  8. A PC Controlled Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Looy

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a switched capacitor filter design using the SC22324 1C, which is fitted with an E2PROM. It contains four digitally programmable switched-capacitor filter sections, in order to obtain different responses. The SC22324 also contains the on-chip RAM. We'd like to explain, how could the on-chip RAM controlled via a PC. In this way the chip may be used afterwards with a menu where the user may select the wanted parameters.

  9. Repairing and Upgrading Your PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Repairing and Upgrading Your PC delivers start-to-finish instructions, simple enough for even the most inexperienced PC owner, for troubleshooting, repairing, and upgrading your computer. Written by hardware experts Robert Bruce Thompson and Barbara Fritchman Thompson, this book covers it all: how to troubleshoot a troublesome PC, how to identify which components make sense for an upgrade, and how to tear it all down and put it back together. This book shows how to repair and upgrade all of your PC's essential components.

  10. INNER SALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a...Products that have been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a mesomeric inner salt . (Author)...Novel phosphonium and phosphorane compounds ere prepared by a variety of m hods from triphenylphosphine and methylene bromide. Products that have

  11. 76 FR 1990 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Models PC-6, PC-6-H1, PC-6-H2, PC-6/350, PC-6/350...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... PC- 6 Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM) Chapter 5 limitations which have included the same repetitive... inspections, in the latest revision of the PC-6 AMM, the replacement procedures for the fittings were included... PC- 6 Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM) Chapter 5 limitations which have included the same repetitive...

  12. 75 FR 62005 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Models PC-6, PC-6-H1, PC-6-H2, PC-6/350, PC-6/350...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... PC- 6 Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM) Chapter 5 limitations which have included the same repetitive... inspections, in the latest revision of the PC-6 AMM, the replacement procedures for the fittings were included... PC- 6 Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM) Chapter 5 limitations which have included the same repetitive...

  13. 75 FR 62002 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Models PC-6, PC-6-H1, PC-6-H2, PC-6/350, PC-6/350...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... Maintenance Manual (AMM) of PC-6 B2-H2 and B2-H4 models does not include a Chapter 04 in the Airworthiness Limitations Section (ALS). For PC-6 models other than B2-H2 and B2- H4, no ALS at all is included in the AMM. With the latest Revision 12 of the AMM, a new Chapter 04 has been introduced in the AMM for PC-6 B2-H2...

  14. 76 FR 5467 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Models PC-6, PC-6-H1, PC-6-H2, PC-6/350, PC-6/350...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Maintenance Manual (AMM) of PC-6 B2-H2 and B2-H4 models does not include a Chapter 04 in the Airworthiness Limitations Section (ALS). For PC-6 models other than B2-H2 and B2- H4, no ALS at all is included in the AMM. With the latest Revision 12 of the AMM, a new Chapter 04 has been introduced in the AMM for PC-6 B2-H2...

  15. Pathway Controlled Penetration (PcP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Earl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rougier, Esteban [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zubelewicz, Aleksander [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-29

    The technical approach employs advanced computational simulation tools to demonstrate how current assets can destroy RWK-RFI-12-0001's HDBT, a tunnel complex with two portals built into the base of a granite mountain. The granite over layer is assumed to be 60 meters thick over both portals and 80 meters over the facility's mission space. Key S&T is the completed development of a highly innovative viscoplastic fracture material model, 3D parallel gas-fracture capabilities into FDEM, and a stochastic handling of the material properties. Phase I - Develop and validate code simulation tools: (1) develop, incorporate and validate AZ-Frac material model for granite; and (2) Develop and incorporate gas-driven-fracture modeling into LANL's FDEM MUNROU code; (3) Develop and incorporate stochastic features into FDEM modeling. Phase II - Conduct PcP analysis on above HDBT: (1) Acquire HDBT design data, develop simulation model; and (2) Evaluate and select most promising defeat alternative. Phase III - Deliver code, train Service target analysts, and conduct simulations against real world HDBTs. PcP uses advanced computer simulations to enhance HDBT functional defeat efforts. Newly developed material models that account for fractural energy coupled with the finite discrete element methodology (FDEM) will provide targeting packages that will create penetration avenues for current or future lethality options. This novel computational approach requires full 3D geologic and structure characterization as well as significant high performance computing capabilities. The goal is to distinctively alter the targeting paradigm by leveraging critical DoD assets along with insitu geologic strata. In other words, assets will utilize underground rock structure to their benefit by creating rubbilization zones that will allow pathway controlled penetration.

  16. ICAN - INTEGRATED COMPOSITE ANALYZER (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN) is a computer program designed to carry out a comprehensive linear analysis of multilayered fiber composites. The analysis contains the essential features required to effectively design structural components made from fiber composites. ICAN includes the micromechanical design features of the Intraply Hybrid Composite Design (INHYD) program to predict ply level hygral, thermal, and mechanical properties. The laminate analysis features of the Multilayered Filamentary Composite Analysis (MFCA) program are included to account for interply layer effects. ICAN integrates these and additional features to provide a comprehensive analysis capability for composite structures. Additional features unique to ICAN include the following: 1) ply stress-strain influence coefficients, 2) microstresses and microstrain influence coefficients, 3) concentration factors around a circular hole, 4) calculation of probable delamination locations around a circular hole, 5) Poisson's ratio mismatch details near a straight edge, 6) free-edge stresses, 7) material card input for finite element analysis using NASTRAN (available separately from COSMIC) or MARC, 8) failure loads based on maximum stress criterion, and laminate failure stresses based on first-ply failures and fiber breakage criteria, 9) transverse shear stresses, normal and interlaminar stresses, and 10) durability/fatigue type analyses for thermal as well as mechanical cyclic loads. The code can currently assess degradation due to mechanical and thermal cyclic loads with or without a defect. ICAN includes a dedicated data bank of constituent material properties, and allows the user to build a database of material properties of commonly used fibers and matrices so the user need only specify code names for constituents. Input to ICAN includes constituent material properties (or code names), factors reflecting the fabrication process, and composite geometry. ICAN performs micromechanics

  17. Transfer Of Baffle Data Between Macintosh PC And APART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Timothy D.; Ely, Philip A.

    1989-04-01

    Opto-mechanical systems which are entered into APART for straylight analysis frequently start out as models on a mechanical drafting program such as ANVIL. A translator, described elsewhere, has been coded in FORTRAN which will create the commands for a program one input file in APART based on an existing mechanical model in ANVIL. Having established this link, it is desirable to transfer the resulting opto-mechanical model to a personal computer (PC) for the purpose of report generation. Even more interesting is the ability to modify this model on the PC or to originate a completely new model on the PC for uplink to ANVIL. Using the program CADMOVER, we have effected two way transfers between a VAX computer and an Apple MacIntosh computer. Examples of this activity are provided.

  18. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  19. Analysis list: Pc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pc Adult,Cell line,Embryo + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/targ...et/Pc.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Pc.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp.../kyushu-u/dm3/target/Pc.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Pc.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Pc.Cell_line.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Pc.Embryo.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Adult.gml,http://dbarchive.bioscience

  20. SI PC104 Performance Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montelongo, S

    2005-12-16

    The Spectral Instruments (SI) PC104 systems associated with the SI-1000 CCD camera exhibited intermittent power problems during setup, test and operations which called for further evaluation and testing. The SI PC104 System is the interface between the SI-1000 CCD camera and its associated Diagnostic Controller (DC). As such, the SI PC104 must be a reliable, robust system capable of providing consistent performance in various configurations and operating conditions. This SI PC104 system consists of a stackable set of modules designed to meet the PC104+ Industry Standard. The SI PC104 System consists of a CPU module, SI Camera card, Media converter card, Video card and a I/O module. The root cause of power problems was identified as failing solder joints at the LEMO power connector attached to the SI Camera Card. The recommended solution was to provide power to the PC104 system via a PC104+ power supply module configured into the PC104 stack instead of thru the LEMO power connector. Test plans (2) were developed to test SI PC104 performance and identify any outstanding issues noted during extended operations. Test Plan 1 included performance and image acquisition tests. Test Plan 2 verified performance after implementing recommendations. Test Plan 2 also included verifying integrity of system files and driver installation after bootup. Each test plan was implemented to fully test against each set of problems noted. Test Plan presentations and Test Plan results are attached as appendices. Anticipated test results will show successful operation and reliable performance of the SI PC104 system receiving its power via a PC104 power supply module. A SI PC104 Usage Recommendation Memo will be sent out to the SI PC104 User Community. Recommendation memo(s) are attached as appendices.

  1. Data acquisition techniques using PC

    CERN Document Server

    Austerlitz, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Data Acquisition Techniques Using Personal Computers contains all the information required by a technical professional (engineer, scientist, technician) to implement a PC-based acquisition system. Including both basic tutorial information as well as some advanced topics, this work is suitable as a reference book for engineers or as a supplemental text for engineering students. It gives the reader enough understanding of the topics to implement a data acquisition system based on commercial products. A reader can alternatively learn how to custom build hardware or write his or her own software.

  2. A Solution-Based Temperature Sensor Using the Organic Compound CuTsPc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahino Mah Abdullah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical cell using an organic compound, copper (II phthalocyanine-tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (CuTsPc, has been fabricated and investigated as a solution-based temperature sensor. The capacitance and resistance of the ITO/CuTsPc solution/ITO chemical cell has been characterized as a function of temperature in the temperature range of 25–80 °C. A linear response with minimal hysteresis is observed. The fabricated temperature sensor has shown high consistency and sensitive response towards a specific range of temperature values.

  3. The effect of an adding histidine on biological activity and stability of Pc-pis from Pseudosciaena crocea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yong; Niu, Sufang; Xu, Xin; Wang, Jun; Su, Yongquan; Wu, Yang; Zhong, Shengping

    2013-01-01

    Pc-pis is a novel piscidin-like antimicrobial polypeptide that was identified in Pseudosciaena crocea. Although active against most bacteria tested, Pc-pis was inactive against Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The Pc-pis analogue Pc-pis-His was designed by adding a histidine residue at the carboxyl terminal. Pc-pis-His demonstrated a more broad-spectrum and stronger antimicrobial activity against a representative set of microorganisms and more potent antiparasitic activity against Cryptocaryon irritans trophonts than Pc-pis. The stability assay revealed that Pc-pis-His was active against Staphylococcus aureus not only in acidic (pH 5.5-7.3) and relatively low concentration monovalent cation (0-160 mM NaCl) environments but also in alkaline (pH 7.5-9.5), divalent cation (1.25-160 mM MgCl2 and 1.25-40 mM CaCl2) and high concentration monovalent cation (320-2560 mM NaCl) environments, which indicates that the added histidine residue conferred better salt-, acid- and alkali-tolerance to Pc-pis-His. Pc-pis-His also possessed the desired heat-tolerance, which was reflected by the antimicrobial activity of the peptide after being boiled for 10-60 minutes. Hemolytic activity analysis revealed that Pc-pis-His at concentrations up to 6 µM exhibited no hemolysis against human erythrocytes, with 6 µM being a concentration that is highly active against most of the microorganisms tested, although the hemolytic activity of Pc-pis-His was enhanced compared to Pc-pis. These results provide a unique, reasonable basis for designing novel piscidins with potent, broad-spectrum and stable antimicrobial activity and new insight into the future development of piscidins as potential therapeutic agents against microbial and external protozoan parasite infections.

  4. The effect of an adding histidine on biological activity and stability of Pc-pis from Pseudosciaena crocea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Mao

    Full Text Available Pc-pis is a novel piscidin-like antimicrobial polypeptide that was identified in Pseudosciaena crocea. Although active against most bacteria tested, Pc-pis was inactive against Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The Pc-pis analogue Pc-pis-His was designed by adding a histidine residue at the carboxyl terminal. Pc-pis-His demonstrated a more broad-spectrum and stronger antimicrobial activity against a representative set of microorganisms and more potent antiparasitic activity against Cryptocaryon irritans trophonts than Pc-pis. The stability assay revealed that Pc-pis-His was active against Staphylococcus aureus not only in acidic (pH 5.5-7.3 and relatively low concentration monovalent cation (0-160 mM NaCl environments but also in alkaline (pH 7.5-9.5, divalent cation (1.25-160 mM MgCl2 and 1.25-40 mM CaCl2 and high concentration monovalent cation (320-2560 mM NaCl environments, which indicates that the added histidine residue conferred better salt-, acid- and alkali-tolerance to Pc-pis-His. Pc-pis-His also possessed the desired heat-tolerance, which was reflected by the antimicrobial activity of the peptide after being boiled for 10-60 minutes. Hemolytic activity analysis revealed that Pc-pis-His at concentrations up to 6 µM exhibited no hemolysis against human erythrocytes, with 6 µM being a concentration that is highly active against most of the microorganisms tested, although the hemolytic activity of Pc-pis-His was enhanced compared to Pc-pis. These results provide a unique, reasonable basis for designing novel piscidins with potent, broad-spectrum and stable antimicrobial activity and new insight into the future development of piscidins as potential therapeutic agents against microbial and external protozoan parasite infections.

  5. Cyclone Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Schindelhauer, Christian; Jakoby, Andreas; Köhler, Sven

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Cyclone codes which are rateless erasure resilient codes. They combine Pair codes with Luby Transform (LT) codes by computing a code symbol from a random set of data symbols using bitwise XOR and cyclic shift operations. The number of data symbols is chosen according to the Robust Soliton distribution. XOR and cyclic shift operations establish a unitary commutative ring if data symbols have a length of $p-1$ bits, for some prime number $p$. We consider the graph given by code sym...

  6. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  7. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class......Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class...

  8. code {poems}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishac Bertran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available "Exploring the potential of code to communicate at the level of poetry," the code­ {poems} project solicited submissions from code­writers in response to the notion of a poem, written in a software language which is semantically valid. These selections reveal the inner workings, constitutive elements, and styles of both a particular software and its authors.

  9. Channel coding techniques for wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Deergha Rao, K

    2015-01-01

    The book discusses modern channel coding techniques for wireless communications such as turbo codes, low-density parity check (LDPC) codes, space–time (ST) coding, RS (or Reed–Solomon) codes and convolutional codes. Many illustrative examples are included in each chapter for easy understanding of the coding techniques. The text is integrated with MATLAB-based programs to enhance the understanding of the subject’s underlying theories. It includes current topics of increasing importance such as turbo codes, LDPC codes, Luby transform (LT) codes, Raptor codes, and ST coding in detail, in addition to the traditional codes such as cyclic codes, BCH (or Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem) and RS codes and convolutional codes. Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) communications is a multiple antenna technology, which is an effective method for high-speed or high-reliability wireless communications. PC-based MATLAB m-files for the illustrative examples are provided on the book page on Springer.com for free dow...

  10. PC-based tele-audiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Min; Lee, Haet Bit; Park, Cheol Soo; Oh, Seung Ha; Park, Kwang Suk

    2007-10-01

    A personal computer (PC)-based audiometer was developed for interactive remote audiometry. This paper describes a tele-audiometric system and evaluates the performance of the device when compared with conventional face-to-face audiometry. The tele-audiometric system is fully PC-based. A sound card featuring a high-quality digital-to-analog converter is used as a pure-tone generator. The audiometric programs were developed based on Microsoft Windows in order to maximize usability. Audiologists and their subjects can use the tele-audiometry system as one would utilize any PC application. A calibration procedure has been applied for the standardization of sound levels in the remote system. The performance of this system was evaluated by comparing PC-based audiometry with the conventional clinical audiometry system for 37 subjects. Also, performance of the PC-based system was evaluated during use at a remote site. The PC-based audiometry system estimated the audiometric threshold with an error of less than 2.3 dBSPL. Only 10.7% of the results exhibited an error greater than 5 dBSPL during use at a remote site. The PC-based tele-audiomerty showed acceptable results for use at a remote site. This PC-based system can be used effectively and easily in many locations that have Internet access but no local audiologists.

  11. Sharing code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  12. Analog Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CODING, ANALOG SYSTEMS), INFORMATION THEORY, DATA TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS , TRANSMITTER RECEIVERS, WHITE NOISE, PROBABILITY, ERRORS, PROBABILITY DENSITY FUNCTIONS, DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, SET THEORY, COMPUTER PROGRAMS

  13. PC floor systems for microelectronics manufacturing buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kappyo; Lee, Seongsoo; Kwon, Yunhan; Chun, Homin; Cho, Kwangsu; Kim, Sijun

    2010-03-01

    Because a PC(Precast Concrete) system has to follow the transportation rules for transporting PC units and be designed to the specifications of the tools and equipment on site, designing long-span PC systems for microelectronics manufacturing facilities can be troublesome due to complications in transporting, lifting and handling the PC units. To resolve these problems that can occur in long span and heavy weight PC designs, this study proposes two types of long-span PC floor systems that practically use the traditional Gerber beam concept. In the proposed systems, long-span (17.4m) girders or beams are segmented into appropriate lengths using the Gerber system for easy delivery and lifting. Moreover, these systems provide the ability to optimally design massive units by controlling the location of hinge points. On the other hand, because continuous long-span girders or beams are segmented into the Gerber system's hinge points, these systems may generate structural stability problems during construction. Consequently, this study experimentally examines the structural performance of stress transfer mechanism in panel zones and the construction stability of PC units for columns and girders during assembly.

  14. Cadmium hampers salt tolerance of Sesuvium portulacastrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Mariem; Martos, Soledad; Pérez-Martín, Laura; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Gunsé, Benet

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that salinity reduces cadmium toxicity in halophytes. However, the possible interference of Cd with the mechanisms of salt tolerance is poorly explored. The aim of this study was to see whether Cd affects salt tolerance mechanisms in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum. S. portulacastrum plants obtained from cuttings were grown in hydroponics for 3 weeks and then exposed to low (0.09 mM) or moderate (200 mM) NaCl concentrations, alone or in combination with 25 μM CdCl 2 . Microscopy observation revealed two strategies of salt tolerance: euhalophytism and secretion of salt by bladder cells. Cadmium exposure hardly influenced the total leaf Na + concentrations. However, Cd supply delayed the salt-induced upregulation of AHA1 (plasma membrane H + -ATPase 1) and SOS1 (plasma membrane Na + transporter "Salt Overly Sensitive 1"), genes that are essential for salt tolerance. Moreover, Cd induced the activation of BADH, coding for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, indicating enhanced osmotic stress due to Cd. Sodium-green fluorescence in protoplasts from plants grown with low or high NaCl, alone or in combination with Cd, revealed higher Na + concentrations in the cytoplasm of Cd-exposed plants. Taken together the results indicate interference of Cd with salt tolerance mechanisms in S. portulacastrum. This may have consequences for the efficient use of halophytes in phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated saline soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Do the Pc+ pentaquarks have strange siblings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebed, Richard F.

    2015-12-01

    The recent LHCb discovery of states Pc+(4380 ), Pc+(4450 ), believed to be c c ¯u u d pentaquark resonances, begs the question of whether equivalent states with c c ¯→s s ¯ exist, and how they might be produced. The precise analogue to the Pc+ discovery channel Λb→J /ψ K-p , namely, Λc→ϕ π0p , is feasible for this study and indeed is less Cabibbo suppressed, although its limited phase space suggests that evidence of a s s ¯u u d resonance Ps+ would be confined to the kinematic end-point region.

  16. Divergence coding for convolutional codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Zolotarev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we propose a new coding/decoding on the divergence principle. A new divergent multithreshold decoder (MTD for convolutional self-orthogonal codes contains two threshold elements. The second threshold element decodes the code with the code distance one greater than for the first threshold element. Errorcorrecting possibility of the new MTD modification have been higher than traditional MTD. Simulation results show that the performance of the divergent schemes allow to approach area of its effective work to channel capacity approximately on 0,5 dB. Note that we include the enough effective Viterbi decoder instead of the first threshold element, the divergence principle can reach more. Index Terms — error-correcting coding, convolutional code, decoder, multithreshold decoder, Viterbi algorithm.

  17. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...... development, Speaking Code unfolds an argument to undermine the distinctions between criticism and practice, and to emphasize the aesthetic and political aspects of software studies. Not reducible to its functional aspects, program code mirrors the instability inherent in the relationship of speech......; alternatives to mainstream development, from performances of the live-coding scene to the organizational forms of commons-based peer production; the democratic promise of social media and their paradoxical role in suppressing political expression; and the market’s emptying out of possibilities for free...

  18. Management and transmission of DICOM files using PC to PC multicasting methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, I K; Kwon, G B; Choi, W K; Cho, H; Kwak, Y S

    2001-01-01

    The PACS system built and used in hospitals nowadays has quite significant overload on its central server because of both treatment of very large data and full management of medical images. We suggest a distributed communication and management methodology using PC to PC multicasting strategy for efficient management of medical images produced by DICOM modalities. It is absolutely necessary for reducing strict degradation of PACS system due to large size of medical images and its very high transport rates. DICOM PC to PC component is composed a service manager to execute requested queries, a communication manager to take charge of file transmission, and a DICOM manager to manage stored data and system behavior. Each manager itself is a component to search for requested file by interaction or transmit the file to other PCs. Distributed management and transformation of medical information based on PC to PC multicasting methodology will enhance performance of central server and network capacity reducing overload on them.

  19. Coding Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony McCosker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As well as introducing the Coding Labour section, the authors explore the diffusion of code across the material contexts of everyday life, through the objects and tools of mediation, the systems and practices of cultural production and organisational management, and in the material conditions of labour. Taking code beyond computation and software, their specific focus is on the increasingly familiar connections between code and labour with a focus on the codification and modulation of affect through technologies and practices of management within the contemporary work organisation. In the grey literature of spreadsheets, minutes, workload models, email and the like they identify a violence of forms through which workplace affect, in its constant flux of crisis and ‘prodromal’ modes, is regulated and governed.

  20. Coding labour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCosker, Anthony; Milne, Esther

    2014-01-01

    ... software. Code encompasses the laws that regulate human affairs and the operation of capital, behavioural mores and accepted ways of acting, but it also defines the building blocks of life as DNA...

  1. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A

  2. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivit...

  3. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  4. Desain dan Implementasi Sistem Kendali CNC Router Menggunakan PC untuk Flame Cutting Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Permana Saputra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on design of router control systems based on computer numerical control (CNC using personal computer (PC implemented in flame cutting machine (FCM. NC-Code entered into the computer translated to be a command signal sent by the PC to a microcontroller to control the end effector’s movement alongthe X and Y axis simultaneously based on linear and circular interpolations calculation on the PC. This control system is implemented on FCM by connecting the output control of the microcontroller with the driver actuator of the FCM in the form of a DC motor. The obtained result is in the form of a CNC router control system prototype to be implemented in the FCM which is capable to perform linear interpolation and circular interpolation. 

  5. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  6. Found a USB stick? Go and infect your PC!

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Err. Wait. Please no! USB sticks are not innocent little things. They can quickly mutate into malicious nasty beasts! Just in the recent past, at least two physics experiments were suffering as their control and data acquisition PCs, respectively, were infected by USB sticks holding malicious code. A bit longer ago, a series of laptops were infected at a 2008 computing conference as an infected USB stick made its tour around. Bad luck for those who ran a Windows operating system and inserted that stick…   So, you found a USB stick in the cafeteria? Take care. If this were a lollipop, you wouldn’t just pick it up and lick it, would you? So beware of USB sticks whose origin or previous usage you don’t know. They might infect your PC once plugged in. In order to be on the safe side, accept and share only USB sticks whose owner you trust. Run up-to-date anti-virus software on your PC, make sure that its operating system is patched...

  7. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

  8. Peak Pc Prediction in Conjunction Analysis: Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis. Pc Behavior Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, J.J.; Hejduk, M.D.; Stamey, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite conjunction risk typically evaluated through the probability of collision (Pc). Considers both conjunction geometry and uncertainties in both state estimates. Conjunction events initially discovered through Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) screenings, usually seven days before Time of Closest Approach (TCA). However, JSpOC continues to track objects and issue conjunction updates. Changes in state estimate and reduced propagation time cause Pc to change as event develops. These changes a combination of potentially predictable development and unpredictable changes in state estimate covariance. Operationally useful datum: the peak Pc. If it can reasonably be inferred that the peak Pc value has passed, then risk assessment can be conducted against this peak value. If this value is below remediation level, then event intensity can be relaxed. Can the peak Pc location be reasonably predicted?

  9. DVD player for the PC environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Caspar; Bheda, Hemant; Srivinasan, Partha

    1998-10-01

    The DVD read-only disk provides high quality storage of audio visual contents, and is especially suitable for the storage of movie contents. Stand-alone consumer playback devices are already available on the market, and wide-spread use of DVD ROM is expected for the PC market, as PC peripheral. In the PC environment, the majority of MPEG1 based layers, such as Video CD players, are software players. Performance of such players is indistinguishable from hardware-based players. However, DVD player that using software only remains a challenging task. To tackle this problem we will describe a DVD player that is based on a new architecture, that allows high quality playback of DVD material. The architecture allows software only playback, as well as hardware assisted DVD playback, while adding little to the total system cost.

  10. Pleiotropic phenotypes of the salt-tolerant and cytosine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In Catharanthus roseus, three morphological cum salt-tolerant chemically induced mutants of Mendelian inheritance and their wild-type parent cv Nirmal were characterized for overall cytosine methylation at DNA repeats, expression of 119 protein- coding and seven miRNA-coding genes and 50 quantitative traits.

  11. Tablet PC Support of Students' Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Kothaneth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of rapid technology development, it comes as no surprise that technology continues to impact the educational domain, challenging traditional teaching and learning styles. This study focuses on how students with different learning styles use instructional technology, and in particular, the tablet PC, to enhance their learning experience. The VARK model was chosen as our theoretical framework as we analyzed responses of an online survey, both from a quantitative and qualitative standpoint. Results indicate that if used correctly, the tablet PC can be used across different learning styles to enrich the educational experience.

  12. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  13. Fast detection of covert visuospatial attention using hybrid N2pc and SSVEP features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Minpeng; Wang, Yijun; Nakanishi, Masaki; Wang, Yu-Te; Qi, Hongzhi; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Ming, Dong

    2016-12-01

    Objective. Detecting the shift of covert visuospatial attention (CVSA) is vital for gaze-independent brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), which might be the only communication approach for severely disabled patients who cannot move their eyes. Although previous studies had demonstrated that it is feasible to use CVSA-related electroencephalography (EEG) features to control a BCI system, the communication speed remains very low. This study aims to improve the speed and accuracy of CVSA detection by fusing EEG features of N2pc and steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP). Approach. A new paradigm was designed to code the left and right CVSA with the N2pc and SSVEP features, which were then decoded by a classification strategy based on canonical correlation analysis. Eleven subjects were recruited to perform an offline experiment in this study. Temporal waves, amplitudes, and topographies for brain responses related to N2pc and SSVEP were analyzed. The classification accuracy derived from the hybrid EEG features (SSVEP and N2pc) was compared with those using the single EEG features (SSVEP or N2pc). Main results. The N2pc could be significantly enhanced under certain conditions of SSVEP modulations. The hybrid EEG features achieved significantly higher accuracy than the single features. It obtained an average accuracy of 72.9% by using a data length of 400 ms after the attention shift. Moreover, the average accuracy reached ˜80% (peak values above 90%) when using 2 s long data. Significance. The results indicate that the combination of N2pc and SSVEP is effective for fast detection of CVSA. The proposed method could be a promising approach for implementing a gaze-independent BCI.

  14. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Network coding is a technique to increase the amount of information °ow in a network by mak- ing the key observation that information °ow is fundamentally different from commodity °ow. Whereas, under traditional methods of opera- tion of data networks, intermediate nodes are restricted to simply forwarding their incoming.

  15. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates2. Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og forskningskoordinator for forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...

  16. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Network Coding. K V Rashmi Nihar B Shah P Vijay Kumar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 604-621. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0604-0621. Keywords.

  17. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  18. Enhancement of Jahani (Firouzabad salt dome lithological units, using principal components analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshang Pourcaseb

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, principal components analysis was used to investigate lithological characteristics of Jahani salt dome, Firouzabad. The spectral curves of rocks in the study area show that the evaporate rocks have the highest reflectance at specified wavelengths. The highest reflection has been seen in gypsum and white salt, while minimal reflection can be observed in the igneous rocks from the region. The results show that PCs have significantly low information. It is clear that PC1 shows more information in the highest variance while PC2 has less information. Regional geological map and field controls show compatibility between the enhanced zones and outcrops in the field.

  19. X-ray absorption of the effect of plasticizers on ion-pair dissociation in a poly(ethylene oxide)-potassium salt complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.Q.; Lee, H.S.; Hanson, L.K.; McBreen, J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Xu, Z.S.; Skotheim, T.A. (Moltech Corp., Stony Brook, NY (United States)); Okamoto, Y. (Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States)); Lu, F. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States))

    1995-01-01

    Polyethylene oxide (PEO)-salt systems are an important new class of electrolytes that are being considered for use in high specific energy rechargeable lithium batteries. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra, at the potassium K edge, were obtained for a potassium salt in the following systems: (1) a propylene carbonate (PC) solution, (2) a modified carbonate (MC3) solution, and (3) poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-potassium salt complexes with either PC or MC3 as a plasticizer. MC3 is a new plasticizer developed in the authors' laboratory which is similar to PC except that, instead of a methyl group, there are three ethylene oxide units attached to the 4-position. By examining the NEXAFS of various potassium salt reference systems, it was found that the white line splitting in the near-edge region was correlated with ion-pairing. The degree of white line splitting was used to study ion-pair dissociation effects of PC and MC3 qualitatively. When used as a solvent, MC3 has a stronger ion-pair dissociation effect compared to PC. When used as a plasticizer in a PEO-potassium salt complex, the enhancement effect on ion-pair dissociation of MC3 is superior to PC. These results were corroborated by Raman spectroscopy which showed that MC3 has a stronger ion-pair dissociation effect than PC.

  20. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, G.

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh

  1. Accounting, from rock to standards IBM PC

    OpenAIRE

    Hora, Michal

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historical evolution of computing tools from ancient antiquity to the personal computer, the IBM PC standard. It describes the first computing devices, the first mechanical calculating machines to store data. It has also captured the dramatic development of calculating machines in the second half of the twentieth century.

  2. Investigasi Serangan Malware Njrat Pada PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Rizky Septiani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malware merupakan salah satu bentuk dari kejahatan komputer yang terjadi pada sebuah sistem jaringan komputer, malware Njrat termasuk jenis Trojan horse. Trojan adalah salah satu jenis malware yang ikut berkembang di dalamnya, yang memungkinkan attacker masuk ke dalam sistem tanpa diketahui oleh pemilik. Penggunaan trojan saat ini lebih ke arah kejahatan dunia maya (cyber crime, salah satu dari malware yang sangat berbahaya karena besarnya dampak kerugian yang ditimbulkan, mulai dari pencurian data penting sampai mengubah hak akses pada PC korban. Sasaran terbanyak penybaran trojan adalah pengguna sistem operasi windows. Penyebaran trojan ini dilakukan dengan metode social engineering, yaitu teknik yang menggunakan kelemahan manusia, sehingga user tanpa curiga langsung mengeksekusi sebuah program yang tidak dikenal.  Aktivitas malware berkaitan erat dengan  performa PC dan juga aktifitas network pada system computer. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui cara kerja malware Njrat dan melakukan investigasi terhadap performa pada system computer. Metodologi yang digunakan dynamic analysis dengan melakukan analisa malware pada suatu sistem dan melihat aktivitas atau proses yang diaktifkan oleh malware tersebut. Dampak perubahan yang terjadi pada PC Target terlihat pada performa masing-masing PC yang telah disisipkan malware. Kata kunci            Malware, Njrat, System computer

  3. An Automation Interface for Kappa PC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    The reports documents an automation interface for Kappa PC. The automation interface can be used to embed Kappa applications in 32-bit Windowsapplications.The interface includes functions for initialising Kappa, for loading an application, for settingvalues, for getting values, and for stopping...

  4. Brugervejledning til pc-programmet STLRAMME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhelt, M.

    Pc-programmet STLRAMME supplerer SBI-anvisning 187, 'Simple stålrammebygninger. Dimensionering og udførelse'. Programmet kan anvendes til dimensionering af stålrammebygninger med andre mål end dem, der er medtaget i anvisningens tabeller; men det erstatter kun stålramme- og åsetabellerne, ikke an...

  5. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  6. Polar Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    added by the decoder is K/ρ+Td. By the last assumption, Td and Te are both ≤ K/ρ, so the total latency added is between 2K/ρ and 4K /ρ. For example...better resolution near the decision point. Reference [12] showed that in decoding a (1024, 512) polar code, using 6-bit LLRs resulted in per- formance

  7. Convolutional-Code-Specific CRC Code Design

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Chung-Yu; Daneshrad, Babak; Wesel, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic redundancy check (CRC) codes check if a codeword is correctly received. This paper presents an algorithm to design CRC codes that are optimized for the code-specific error behavior of a specified feedforward convolutional code. The algorithm utilizes two distinct approaches to computing undetected error probability of a CRC code used with a specific convolutional code. The first approach enumerates the error patterns of the convolutional code and tests if each of them is detectable. Th...

  8. PC12 differentiation on biopolymer nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, Marco; Bumma, Giorgia; Serresi, Michela; Beltram, Fabio

    2007-12-01

    The study of nervous system regeneration and axonal outgrowth control are relevant in several research areas, like neurophysiology or biomedical engineering. Among the elements that control neuron dynamics, the host substrate topography is a key parameter in determining cell differentiation. We present time-lapse experiments to analyze the differentiation dynamics of PC12 cells on nanopatterned biocompatible substrates. 200 nm depth gratings were fabricated on tissue-culture polystyrene substrates by nanoimprint lithography; different linewidths and pitches were compared down to 500 nm and 1000 nm, respectively. PC12 cells were cultured on these substrates and, following NGF administration to the medium, body morphology, cell movement and neuritogenesis were monitored at different time periods. In addition to demonstrating guided differentiation, our studies show complex time variations in body morphology and axon length, and guided cell movement. We show unstable synaptic connections and cell-body polarization, and the competition between topographical guidance and cell-cell interactions.

  9. PC12 polarity on biopolymer nanogratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchini, M; Ferrari, A; Beltram, F [Scuola Normale Superiore and NEST-CNR-INFM, Pisa (Italy); Scuola Normale Superiore and Italian Institute of Technology, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: m.cecchini@sns.it

    2008-03-15

    Cell differentiation properties are strongly entangled with the morphology and physical properties of the extracellular environment. A complete understanding of this interaction needs artificial scaffolds with controlled nano-/micro-topography. We induced specific topographies by nanoimprint lithography (NIL) on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) dishes substrates and, using light microscopy and high-magnification scanning-electron-microscopy, quantitatively compared the changes in PC12 differentiation phenotype induced by the periodicity of the nanopatterns. This analysis revealed that nanogratings reduce the number of neurites produced by PC12 cells upon treatment with NGF and that neuronal bipolarity correlated with an increased stretching of the cell body and a reduced length of the cell neuronal protrusions.

  10. Pc3 pulsations during variable IMF conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Villante

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Pc3 geomagnetic field fluctuations detected at low latitude (L'Aquila, Italy during the passage of a high velocity solar wind stream, characterized by variable interplanetary magnetic field conditions, are analyzed. Higher frequency resonant fluctuations and lower frequency phenomena are simultaneously observed; the intermittent appearance and the variable frequency of the longer period modes can be well interpreted in terms of the variable IMF elements; moreover their polarization characteristics are consistent with an origin related to external waves propagating in antisunward direction. A comparison with simultaneous observations performed at Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica provides additional evidence for a clear relationship between the IMF and Pc3 pulsations also at very high latitudes.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; solar wind · magnetosphere interactions

  11. Pc3 pulsations during variable IMF conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Villante

    Full Text Available Pc3 geomagnetic field fluctuations detected at low latitude (L'Aquila, Italy during the passage of a high velocity solar wind stream, characterized by variable interplanetary magnetic field conditions, are analyzed. Higher frequency resonant fluctuations and lower frequency phenomena are simultaneously observed; the intermittent appearance and the variable frequency of the longer period modes can be well interpreted in terms of the variable IMF elements; moreover their polarization characteristics are consistent with an origin related to external waves propagating in antisunward direction. A comparison with simultaneous observations performed at Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica provides additional evidence for a clear relationship between the IMF and Pc3 pulsations also at very high latitudes.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; solar wind · magnetosphere interactions

  12. PC Based wireless stepper motor control

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal, Omar; Khan, Shahnawaz; Abideen, Zainul

    2013-01-01

    This project is about making an embedded system in order to control different functionalities of a stepper motor. The main functions of this stepper motor are to control the speed and direction. The whole hardware consists of two parts. One is the transmitter side and the other side is the receiver side. The transmitter side consists of PC, Encoder, a microcontroller and RF (Radio Frequency) transmitter. On the receiver side there is an RF receiver, a decoder, a microcontroller, a motor drive...

  13. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing...

  14. Concatenated codes with convolutional inner codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Thommesen, Christian; Zyablov, Viktor

    1988-01-01

    The minimum distance of concatenated codes with Reed-Solomon outer codes and convolutional inner codes is studied. For suitable combinations of parameters the minimum distance can be lower-bounded by the product of the minimum distances of the inner and outer codes. For a randomized ensemble...... of concatenated codes a lower bound of the Gilbert-Varshamov type is proved...

  15. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A54A-1PC3B [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1A54A-1PC3B 1A54 1PC3 A B --------EASLTGAGATFPAPVYAKWADTYQKET-GNK...Chain> 1PC3 B 1PC3...CA 355 LEU CA 306 GLY CA 308 GLY CA 333 1PC3... B 1PC3B TVDFPAVP...ne> ALA CA 404 ASN CA 326 1PC3

  16. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  17. SALT for Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

  18. 39 CFR 501.16 - PC postage payment methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PC postage payment methodology. 501.16 Section 501.16 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAGE PROGRAMS AUTHORIZATION TO MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.16 PC postage payment methodology. (a) The PC Postage customer is...

  19. Resedimented salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaczka, A.; Kolasa, K. (Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland))

    1988-08-01

    Carparthian foredeep's Wieliczka salt mine, unique gravity deposits were lately distinguished. They are mainly built of salt particles and blocks with a small admixture of fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks, deposited on precipitated salt. The pattern of sediment distribution is similar to a submarine fan. Gravels are dominant in the upper part and sands in lower levels, creating a series of lobes. Coarse-grained deposits are represented by disorganized, self-supported conglomerates passing into matrix-supported ones, locally with gradation, and pebbly sandstones consisting of salt grains and scattered boulder-size clasts. The latter may show in the upper part of a single bed as indistinct cross-bedding and parallel lamination. These sediments are interpreted as debris-flow and high-density turbidity current deposits. Salt sandstones (saltstones) which build a lower part of the fan often show Bouma sequences and are interpreted as turbidity-current deposits. The fan deposits are covered by a thick series of debrites (olistostromes) which consist of clay matrix with salt grains and boulders. The latter as represented by huge (up to 100,000 m{sup 3}) salt blocks, fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks. These salt debrites represent slumps and debris-flow deposits. The material for resedimented deposits was derived from the southern part of the salt basin and from the adjacent, advancing Carpathian orogen. The authors believe the distinct coarsening-upward sequence of the series is the result of progressive intensification of tectonic movements with paroxysm during the sedimentation of salt debrites (about 15 Ma).

  20. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  1. Genetic algorithms with permutation coding for multiple sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Othman, Mohamed Tahar; Abdel-Azim, Gamil

    2013-08-01

    Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is one of the topics of bio informatics that has seriously been researched. It is known as NP-complete problem. It is also considered as one of the most important and daunting tasks in computational biology. Concerning this a wide number of heuristic algorithms have been proposed to find optimal alignment. Among these heuristic algorithms are genetic algorithms (GA). The GA has mainly two major weaknesses: it is time consuming and can cause local minima. One of the significant aspects in the GA process in MSA is to maximize the similarities between sequences by adding and shuffling the gaps of Solution Coding (SC). Several ways for SC have been introduced. One of them is the Permutation Coding (PC). We propose a hybrid algorithm based on genetic algorithms (GAs) with a PC and 2-opt algorithm. The PC helps to code the MSA solution which maximizes the gain of resources, reliability and diversity of GA. The use of the PC opens the area by applying all functions over permutations for MSA. Thus, we suggest an algorithm to calculate the scoring function for multiple alignments based on PC, which is used as fitness function. The time complexity of the GA is reduced by using this algorithm. Our GA is implemented with different selections strategies and different crossovers. The probability of crossover and mutation is set as one strategy. Relevant patents have been probed in the topic.

  2. IBM PC/IX operating system evaluation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation plan for the IBM PC/IX Operating System designed for IBM PC/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, networking, and the suitability of PC/IX as a development environment within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC Research and Development project. In order to compare and evaluate the PC/IX system, comparisons with other available UNIX-based systems are also included.

  3. Synthesis of high-purity phthalocyanines (pc): High intrinsic conductivities in the molecular conductors H[sub 2](pc)I and Ni(pc)I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.A.; Murata, K.; Miller, D.C.; Stanton, J.L.; Broderick, W.E.; Hoffman, B.M.; Ibers, J.A. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States))

    1993-08-04

    The authors show that one can prepare M(pc)I crystals, M = [open quotes]H[sub 2][close quotes] and Ni, with remarkably improved charge-transport properties by carefully avoiding impurities in the preparation of the M(pc) precursors. The purest H[sub 2](pc) (<60 ppm free-radical impurities) was prepared by a melt method in quartz and Teflon vessels while very pure Ni(pc) (170-250 pm) could only be obtained by metalation of the pure H[sub 2](pc). Template syntheses of Ni(pc) result in impure material and are to be discouraged for applications requiring very pure M(pc) materials. H[sub 2](pc)I and Ni(pc)I synthesized from the high-purity precursors remain metallic down to ca. 3 K, a far lower temperature than ever before observed. At this temperature the conductivities exhibit maximum values that are ca. 30-fold greater than at room temperature, not 5-7-fold as seen before, with absolute values of [sigma] [approximately] (1-2) [times] 10[sup 4] [Omega][sup [minus]1] cm[sup [minus]1]. The study of a series of Ni(pc)I compounds prepared from Ni(pc) parent materials exhibiting a range of purity levels further shows a strong correlation between the charge-transport properties and the level of paramagnetic impurities in the macrocycle precursor. However, the maximum conductivity appears to saturate at the lowest impurity concentrations, which suggests that the behavior exhibited by the best materials prepared are representative for the first time of the limiting, intrinsic charge-transport properties of H[sub 2](pc)I and Ni(pc)I. A full structure report for H[sub 2](pc)I-1 is presented also. The structure consists of metal-over-metal stacks of partially oxidized H[sub 2](pc) groups surrounded by linear chains of triiodide anions. H[sub 2](pc)I crystallizes with two formula units in the tetragonal space group D[sub 4h][sup 2]-P4/mcc with a = 13.931 [angstrom], c = 6.411 [angstrom], and V = 1244.2 [angstrom][sup 3] (T = 108 K).

  4. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  5. Installation and implementation of PC COSYMA; PC COSYMAn kaeyttoeoenotto ja soveltaminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy

    1995-12-01

    COSYMA is a probabilistic reactor accident consequence assessment model developed in the 1980`s by the research institutes of the EC countries, primarily by NRPB and KfK. In 1993 a simplified version of the program was released to be implemented on a PC. In the study the PC COSYMA program was applied to calculate as the end points nuclide concentrations, doses received, numbers of health effects, areas affected by countermeasures and other results related to countermeasure strategies. Some results are compared with the results obtained by the ARANO program developed by VTT Energy (Technical Research Centre of Finland) to quarantee proper interpretation of the application. (15 refs.).

  6. PC-based car license plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1992-11-01

    A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

  7. Securing your PC and protecting your privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloman, Barbara F

    2004-10-22

    Working in a networked information environment brings new opportunities for getting and sharing information. Regrettably, these benefits of the Internet are challenged by forces that would interfere to satisfy their own profit or malevolent motives. Your networked computer can be infected by viruses, worms, or Trojan horses or infiltrated by spyware, adware, or pop-ups. Without being aware of the dangers and taking precautionary steps, your PC is susceptible to being compromised and your privacy invaded. This column will highlight some of the dangers and offer basic steps for securing your computer and protecting your privacy.

  8. Evaluation of FPGA to PC feedback loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linczuk, Pawel; Zabolotny, Wojciech M.; Wojenski, Andrzej; Krawczyk, Rafal D.; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Chernyshova, Maryna; Czarski, Tomasz; Gaska, Michal; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, Ewa; Malinowski, Karol

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents the evaluation study of the performance of the data transmission subsystem which can be used in High Energy Physics (HEP) and other High-Performance Computing (HPC) systems. The test environment consisted of Xilinx Artix-7 FPGA and server-grade PC connected via the PCIe 4xGen2 bus. The DMA engine was based on the Xilinx DMA for PCI Express Subsystem1 controlled by the modified Xilinx XDMA kernel driver.2 The research is focused on the influence of the system configuration on achievable throughput and latency of data transfer.

  9. Redefining Projections of Disease and Nonbattle Injury Patient Condition Code Distributions with Casualty Data from Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-30

    Freedom-II PC Code Diagnoses by PC Clusters Male Female Respiratory Cluster 232 Allergic rhinitis all cases 0.27% 0.20% 233 Upper...to PC clusters was derived (see Table 11). For example, individual diagnoses that fell within the ICD-9 category of Infectious Diseases (e.g., food ...5.38% Gastrointestinal Cluster 243 Food poisoning all organisms disabling symptoms 0.25% 0.58% 244 Food poisoning all organisms moderate

  10. Amine salts of nitroazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1993-10-26

    Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

  11. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reports of people becoming psychotic (losing touch with reality) and violent. Although it is rare, there have ... in bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations ( ...

  12. Verification of the CONPAS (CONtainment Performance Analysis System) code package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, See Darl; Ahn, Kwang Il; Song, Yong Man; Choi, Young; Park, Soo Yong; Kim, Dong Ha; Jin, Young Ho

    1997-09-01

    CONPAS is a computer code package to integrate the numerical, graphical, and results-oriented aspects of Level 2 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for nuclear power plants under a PC window environment automatically. For the integrated analysis of Level 2 PSA, the code utilizes four distinct, but closely related modules: (1) ET Editor, (2) Computer, (3) Text Editor, and (4) Mechanistic Code Plotter. Compared with other existing computer codes for Level 2 PSA, and CONPAS code provides several advanced features: computational aspects including systematic uncertainty analysis, importance analysis, sensitivity analysis and data interpretation, reporting aspects including tabling and graphic as well as user-friendly interface. The computational performance of CONPAS has been verified through a Level 2 PSA to a reference plant. The results of the CONPAS code was compared with an existing level 2 PSA code (NUCAP+) and the comparison proves that CONPAS is appropriate for Level 2 PSA. (author). 9 refs., 8 tabs., 14 figs.

  13. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  14. Gelation of barramundi (Lates calcarifer) minced muscle as affected by pressure and thermal treatments at low salt concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Binh Q; Buckow, Roman; Nguyen, Minh H; Furst, John

    2017-08-01

    Barramundi minced muscle with salt 10 g kg-1 and 20 g kg-1 added is gelled by different combinations of pressurisation (300, 400 and 500 MPa at 4 °C for 10 min), cooking (0.1 MPa, 90 °C for 30 min) and setting (0.1 MPa, 50 °C for 2 h) to improve mechanical properties of barramundi gels and reduce salt added to barramundi gels. At the low salt concentration of 10 g kg-1 , pressurisation prior to cooking (P-C) treatment induced barramundi gels with comparable mechanical properties and water-holding capacity to those of conventional heat induced (HI) gels with 20 g kg-1 added salt. At salt concentration of 20 g kg-1 , pressurisation prior to setting (P-S) and P-C gels exhibited higher mechanical properties and water-holding capacity as compared to HI gels. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a smooth and dense microstructure of P-C and P-S gels whereas the microstructure of HI gels is rough and less compact. P-C treatment can reduce salt concentration added to barramundi gels to 10 g kg-1 . P-S and P-C treatment can result in higher mechanical and functional properties of barramundi gels at conventional salt concentration (20 g kg-1 ) as compared to HI gels. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Iodized Salt Use and Salt Iodine Content among Household Salts from Six Districts of Eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, S; Gelal, B; Tamang, M K; Kc, R; Singh, S; Lamsal, M; Baral, N

    2014-01-01

    Universal salt iodization is considered the best strategy for controlling iodine deficiency disorders in Nepal. This study was done to find iodized salt use among Nepalese population and the iodine content of household salts. Six districts (Siraha, Saptari, Jhapa, Udayapur, Ilam and Panchthar) were chosen randomly from 16 districts of eastern Nepal for the study. In each district, three schools (private and government) were chosen randomly for sample collection. A total of 1803 salt samples were collected from schools of those districts. For sample collection a clean air tight plastic pouch was provided to each school child and was asked to bring approximately 15 gm of their kitchen salt. The information about type of salt used; 'two child logo' iodized salt or crystal salt was obtained from each child and salt iodine content was estimated using iodometric titration. At the time of study, 85% (n=1533) of Nepalese households were found to use iodized salt whereas 15% (n=270) used crystal salt. The mean iodine content in iodized and crystal salt was 40.8±12.35 ppm and 18.43±11.49 ppm respectively. There was significant difference between iodized and crystal salts use and salt iodine content of iodized and crystal salt among different districts (p value <0.001 at confidence level of 95%). Of the total samples, only 169 samples (9.4% of samples) have iodine content<15 ppm. Most Nepalese households have access to iodized salt most salt samples have sufficient iodine content.

  16. Not salt taste perception but self-reported salt eating habit predicts actual salt intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a sodium chloride solution. Predicted 24-hr urinary salt excretions using Kawasaki's and Tanaka's equations estimated dietary salt intake. Participants' mean age was 35 yr, and 59.5% were male. Salt sense threshold did not show any relationship with actual salt intake and a salt-eating habit. However, those eating "salty" foods showed higher blood pressure (P for trend=0.048) and higher body mass index (BMI; P for trend=0.043). Moreover, a salty eating habit was a significant predictor for actual salt intake (regression coefficient [β] for Kawasaki's equation 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10-2.69, P=0.048; β for Tanaka's equation 0.66, 95% CI 0.01-1.31, P=0.047). In conclusion, a self-reported salt-eating habit, not salt taste threshold predicts actual salt intake.

  17. Stable lithium electrodeposition in salt-reinforced electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying

    2015-04-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Development of high-energy lithium-based batteries that are safe remains a challenge due to the non-uniform lithium electrodeposition during repeated charge and discharge cycles. We report on the effectiveness of lithium bromide (LiBr) salt additives in a common liquid electrolyte (i.e. propylene carbonate (PC)) on the stability of lithium electrodeposition. From galvanostatic cycling measurements, we find that the presence of LiBr in PC provides more than 20-fold enhancement in cell lifetime over the control LiTFSI/PC electrolyte. Batteries containing 30 mol% LiBr additive in the electrolytes are able to cycle stably for at least 1.8 months with no observations of cell failure. From galvanostatic polarization measurements, an electrolyte containing 30 mol% LiBr shows a maximum improvement in lifetime. The formation of uneven lithium electrodeposits is significantly suppressed by the Br-containing SEI layers, evidenced by impedance spectra, post-mortem SEM and XPS analyses. The study also concludes that good solubility of halogenated salts is not necessary for achieving the observed improvements in cell lifetime.

  18. Stable lithium electrodeposition in salt-reinforced electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Shu, Jonathan; Archer, Lynden A.

    2015-04-01

    Development of high-energy lithium-based batteries that are safe remains a challenge due to the non-uniform lithium electrodeposition during repeated charge and discharge cycles. We report on the effectiveness of lithium bromide (LiBr) salt additives in a common liquid electrolyte (i.e. propylene carbonate (PC)) on the stability of lithium electrodeposition. From galvanostatic cycling measurements, we find that the presence of LiBr in PC provides more than 20-fold enhancement in cell lifetime over the control LiTFSI/PC electrolyte. Batteries containing 30 mol% LiBr additive in the electrolytes are able to cycle stably for at least 1.8 months with no observations of cell failure. From galvanostatic polarization measurements, an electrolyte containing 30 mol% LiBr shows a maximum improvement in lifetime. The formation of uneven lithium electrodeposits is significantly suppressed by the Br-containing SEI layers, evidenced by impedance spectra, post-mortem SEM and XPS analyses. The study also concludes that good solubility of halogenated salts is not necessary for achieving the observed improvements in cell lifetime.

  19. Development of Advanced In core Management Codes for Ulchin Unit 1, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hee; Park, Moon Gyu [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the first case of FRAMATOME`s plants, Ulchin Unit 1 Cycle 8 core was loaded with V5H fuel. Because of the heterogeneity in the axial enrichment of the V5H fuel, FRAMATOME`s 2-D in core management codes, CEDRIC-CARIN-ESTHER, are no longer valid to be used for in core management. In order to analyze Ulchin Unit 1 an 2 cores loaded with V5H fuel exactly, this study substituted them with WH`s In core-3D and Tote code. The previous IN CORE-Tote codes have been utilized on the HP workstation or the IBM mainframe which are not easily accessible by the site engineers and require the complicated manipulation in the computer network system. This study developed the PC-version of IN CORE-3D and Tote codes available in plants, including an interface code linking the data measured by the in core instrument system (RIC-KIT system) to IN CORE code. These codes reduce the time to manage in core and increase the economic benefits. We installed the developed codes in Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 and actually applied them to the core power distribution measurement performed during Cycle 8 power escalation tests. The results satisfied all limits of Technical Specification very well. The major contents of this study can be categorized as follows. 1. Analysis of the in core management codes. (a) Analysis of flux mapping system and measurement reduction algorithm. (b) Analysis of the methodology of in core management codes. 2. Development and verification of PC-version in core management codes. (a) Development of the measured-data processing code (C2I). (b) Development of PC-version IN CORE code. (c) Development of PC-version Tote code (d) Verification of the developed codes. 3. Application to core physics test of Ulchin until cycle 8. (a) Power distribution measurement at 75% and 100%. (author). 14 refs., figs., tabs.

  20. Cellular prion protein (PrPC) in the development of Merlin-deficient tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, L; Ryan, Y; Hilton, D A; Lyons-Rimmer, J; Dave, F; Maze, E A; Adams, C L; Rigby-Jones, R; Ammoun, S; Hanemann, C O

    2017-11-02

    Loss of function mutations in the neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) gene, coding for a tumour suppressor, Merlin, cause multiple tumours of the nervous system such as schwannomas, meningiomas and ependymomas. These tumours may occur sporadically or as part of the hereditary condition neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2). Current treatment is confined to (radio) surgery and no targeted drug therapies exist. NF2 mutations and/or Merlin inactivation are also seen in other cancers including some mesothelioma, breast cancer, colorectal carcinoma, melanoma and glioblastoma. To study the relationship between Merlin deficiency and tumourigenesis, we have developed an in vitro model comprising human primary schwannoma cells, the most common Merlin-deficient tumour and the hallmark for NF2. Using this model, we show increased expression of cellular prion protein (PrPC) in schwannoma cells and tissues. In addition, a strong overexpression of PrPC is observed in human Merlin-deficient mesothelioma cell line TRA and in human Merlin-deficient meningiomas. PrPC contributes to increased proliferation, cell-matrix adhesion and survival in schwannoma cells acting via 37/67 kDa non-integrin laminin receptor (LR/37/67 kDa) and downstream ERK1/2, PI3K/AKT and FAK signalling pathways. PrPC protein is also strongly released from schwannoma cells via exosomes and as a free peptide suggesting that it may act in an autocrine and/or paracrine manner. We suggest that PrPC and its interactor, LR/37/67 kDa, could be potential therapeutic targets for schwannomas and other Merlin-deficient tumours.

  1. User`s guide and documentation manual for ``PC-Gel`` simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ming-Ming; Gao, Hong W.

    1993-10-01

    PC-GEL is a three-dimensional, three-phase (oil, water, and gas) permeability modification simulator developed by incorporating an in-situ gelation model into a black oil simulator (BOAST) for personal computer application. The features included in the simulator are: transport of each chemical species of the polymer/crosslinker system in porous media, gelation reaction kinetics of the polymer with crosslinking agents, rheology of the polymer and gel, inaccessible pore volume to macromolecules, adsorption of chemical species on rock surfaces, retention of gel on the rock matrix, and permeability reduction caused by the adsorption of polymer and gel. The in-situ gelation model and simulator were validated against data reported in the literature. The simulator PC-GEL is useful for simulating and optimizing any combination of primary production, waterflooding, polymer flooding, and permeability modification treatments. A general background of permeability modification using crosslinked polymer gels is given in Section I and the governing equations, mechanisms, and numerical solutions of PC-GEL are given in Section II. Steps for preparing an input data file with reservoir and gel-chemical transport data, and recurrent data are described in Sections III and IV, respectively. Example data inputs are enclosed after explanations of each input line to help the user prepare data files. Major items of the output files are reviewed in Section V. Finally, three sample problems for running PC-GEL are described in Section VI, and input files and part of the output files of these problems are listed in the appendices. For the user`s reference a copy of the source code of PC-GEL computer program is attached in Appendix A.

  2. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A54A-1PC3A [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1A54A-1PC3A 1A54 1PC3 A A --------EASLTGAGATFPAPVYAKWADTYQKET-GNK...A 378 PHE CA 440 GLN CA 487 PHE CA 535 1PC3... A 1PC3A LYS CA 277 ASN CA 192 1PC3 A 1PC3A LSKQDPEGWGK

  3. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure >15mmHg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% Females, 16% Blacks, BMI 28.5±4.2 Kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mmHg) as compared to high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mmHg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dl, 10.8±7.3 mIU/L and 2.6±1.9) as compared to high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dl, 9.4±5.8 mIU/L and 2.1±1.4) (p salt sensitive (N=193) versus salt resistant (N=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in HOMA on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt resistant subjects (p=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in HOMA after including age, BMI, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. PMID:25185125

  4. Salting-in and salting-out effects of ionic and neutral osmotica on limonene and linalool Henry's law constants and octanol/water partition coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copolovici, Lucian; Niinemets, Ulo

    2007-09-01

    Foliar emission rates of plant-generated volatile monoterpenes depend on monoterpene partitioning between air, aqueous and lipid-phases in the leaves. While Henry's law constants (H pc, equilibrium gas/water partition coefficient) and octanol/water partition coefficients (K OW) for pure water have been previously used to simulate monoterpene emissions from the leaves, aqueous phase in plants is a complex solution of electrolytes and neutral osmotica. We studied the effects of dissociated compounds KCl and glycine and sugars glucose, sorbitol and sucrose with concentrations between 0 and 1M on H pc and K OW values for limonene and linalool. Linalool with ca. 1500-fold lower H(pc) (2.62 Pa m(3)mol(-1) for pure water at 30 degrees C) and ca. 30-fold lower K OW (955 mol mol(-1) for pure water at 25 degrees C) is the more hydrophilic compound of the two monoterpenes. H pc of both monoterpenes increased with increasing concentration of both ionic compounds and sorbitol, but decreased with increasing glucose and sucrose concentrations. The salting-out coefficients for H pc (kH) were ca. an order of magnitude larger for more hydrophilic compound linalool than for more hydrophobic limonene. For linalool, co-solutes modified H pc by 30-50% at the highest concentration (1M) tested. The effect of temperature on the salting-out coefficient of KCl was minor. As with H pc, K OW increased with increasing the concentration of KCl, glycine and sorbitol, and decreased with increasing glucose and sucrose concentrations. For limonene, co-solutes modified K OW by 20-50% at the highest concentration used. For linalool, the corresponding range was 10-35%. Salting-out coefficients for H pc and K OW were correlated, but the lipid-solubility was more strongly affected than aqueous solubility in the case of limonene. Overall, these data demonstrate physiologically important effects of co-solutes on H pc and K OW for hydrophilic monoterpenes and on K OW for hydrophobic monoterpenes that should

  5. BioCode: two biologically compatible Algorithms for embedding data in non-coding and coding regions of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, David; Balado, Félix

    2013-04-09

    In recent times, the application of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has diversified with the emergence of fields such as DNA computing and DNA data embedding. DNA data embedding, also known as DNA watermarking or DNA steganography, aims to develop robust algorithms for encoding non-genetic information in DNA. Inherently DNA is a digital medium whereby the nucleotide bases act as digital symbols, a fact which underpins all bioinformatics techniques, and which also makes trivial information encoding using DNA straightforward. However, the situation is more complex in methods which aim at embedding information in the genomes of living organisms. DNA is susceptible to mutations, which act as a noisy channel from the point of view of information encoded using DNA. This means that the DNA data embedding field is closely related to digital communications. Moreover it is a particularly unique digital communications area, because important biological constraints must be observed by all methods. Many DNA data embedding algorithms have been presented to date, all of which operate in one of two regions: non-coding DNA (ncDNA) or protein-coding DNA (pcDNA). This paper proposes two novel DNA data embedding algorithms jointly called BioCode, which operate in ncDNA and pcDNA, respectively, and which comply fully with stricter biological restrictions. Existing methods comply with some elementary biological constraints, such as preserving protein translation in pcDNA. However there exist further biological restrictions which no DNA data embedding methods to date account for. Observing these constraints is key to increasing the biocompatibility and in turn, the robustness of information encoded in DNA. The algorithms encode information in near optimal ways from a coding point of view, as we demonstrate by means of theoretical and empirical (in silico) analyses. Also, they are shown to encode information in a robust way, such that mutations have isolated effects. Furthermore, the

  6. X-ray absorption studies of the effect of plasticizers on ion-pair dissociation in a poly(ethylene oxide)-potassium salt complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.Q.; Lee, H.S.; McBreen, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Xu, Z.S.; Skotheim, T.A. [Moltech Corp., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Okamoto, Y. [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States); Lu, F. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Polyethylene oxide (PEO)-salt systems are an important new class of electrolytes that are being considered for use in high specific energy rechargeable lithium batteries. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra, at the potassium K-edge, were obtained for the following systems: a potassium salt in (1) a propylene carbonate (PC) solution, (2) a modified carbonate (MC3) solution and (3) in a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-potassium salt complexes having either PC or MC3 as a plasticizer. MC3 is similar to PC except that, instead of a methyl group, there are three ethylene oxide units attached to the 4-position. The degree of white line splitting was used to study ion pair dissociation effects of PC and MC3 qualitatively. When used as a solvent, MC3 has a stronger ion pair dissociation effect compared to PC. When used as a plasticizer in a PEO-potassium salt complex, the enhancement effect an ion pair dissociation of MC3 is superior to PC. This is in good agreement with temperature conductivity study.

  7. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  8. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  9. Pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sravanthi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pachyonychia congenita is a rare type of ectodermal dysplasia further classified into 4 types. Cutaneous manifestations seen in most of the cases of Pachyonychia congenita include palmoplantar keratoderma, follicular hyperkeratosis, wedge shaped nails, oral leukokeratosis and woolly hair. A 25-year-old male presented to us with thickened nails and scanty scalp hair. On examination, we noticed hyperkeratotic plaques over both the soles, palmoplantar hyperhidrosis and yellowish discoloration, wedging with subungual hyperkeratosis of all the nails. Follicular hyperkeratotic papules and steatocystoma multiplex were also observed over the scalp and face. The patient had history of natal teeth and on dental examination, lower central incisors were absent. All cutaneous changes in our case had manifested first in the 2nd decade except for natal teeth. All the above features suggested the diagnosis of pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda, which is an infrequently reported rare variant.

  10. Degenerate nucleophilic substitution in phosphonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Elizabeth V; Nikitin, Kirill; Ortin, Yannick; Gilheany, Declan G

    2014-11-19

    Rates and energy barriers of degenerate halide substitution on tetracoordinate halophosphonium cations have been measured by NMR techniques (VT and EXSY) using a novel experimental design whereby a chiral substituent ((s)Bu) lifts the degeneracy of the resultant salts. Concomitantly, a viable computational approach to the system was developed to gain mechanistic insights into the structure and relative stabilities of the species involved. Both approaches strongly suggest a two-step mechanism of formation of a pentacoordinate dihalophosphorane via backside attack followed by dissociation, resulting in inversion of configuration at phosphorus. The experimentally determined barriers range from salts. Calculations determined that this was due to the easier accessibility in solution of pentacoordinate dichlorophosphoranes when compared to analogous dibromophosphoranes. In line with the proposed associative mechanism, bulky substituents slow the reaction in the order Me < Et < (i)Pr < (t)Bu. Bulky substituents affect the shape of the reaction energy profile so that the pentacoordinate intermediate is destabilized eventually becoming a transition state. The magnitude of the steric effects is comparable to that of the same substituents on substitution at primary alkyl halides, which can be rationalized by the relatively longer P-C bonds. The reaction displays first-order kinetics due to the prevalence of tight- or solvent-separated ion pairs in solution. Three-dimensional reaction potential energy profiles (More O'Ferrall-Jencks plots) indicated a relatively shallow potential well corresponding to the trigonal bipyramid intermediate flanked by two transition states.

  11. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  12. Affine Grassmann codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Beelen, Peter; Ghorpade, Sudhir Ramakant

    2010-01-01

    We consider a new class of linear codes, called affine Grassmann codes. These can be viewed as a variant of generalized Reed-Muller codes and are closely related to Grassmann codes.We determine the length, dimension, and the minimum distance of any affine Grassmann code. Moreover, we show...

  13. LiPF{sub 6}. Synthesis and stability in EC/DMC and PC/DMC mixtures; LiPF{sub 6}. Synthese et stabilite dans les melanges EC/DMC et PC/DMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naejus, R.; Coudert, R.; Lemordant, D. [Laboratoire P.I.M.I.R. EA, Sciences et Techniques, 37 - Tours (France); Willmann, P. [CNES, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1996-12-31

    Lithium hexa-fluoro-phosphate LiPF{sub 6} is recommended for the replacement of the toxic LiAsF{sub 6} and the explosive perchlorates (like LiClO{sub 4}) in rechargeable lithium electrochemical generators. The aim of this work is to develop a new method of synthesis of this salt and to check its stability with respect to carbonated solvents: ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and dimethyl-carbonate (DMC) in already optimized EC/DMC and PC/DMC binary mixtures. Two methods using HPF{sub 6} are proposed: the first one uses the direct neutralization of this commercial acid by LiOH in aqueous, alcoholic or acetonitrile environment, while in the second one LiPF{sub 6} is obtained from pyridinium hexa-fluoro-phosphate synthesized from HPF{sub 6} using a new and simple protocol. (J.S.) 24 refs.

  14. Gas releases from salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  15. Mechanism for salt scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  16. Oxygen sparging of residue salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E.; Griego, W.J.; Owens, S.D.; Thorn, C.W.; Vigil, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    Oxygen sparge is a process for treating salt residues at Los Alamos National Laboratory by sparging oxygen through molten salts. Oxygen reacts with the plutonium trichloride in these salts to form plutonium dioxide. There is further reaction of the plutonium dioxide with plutonium metal and the molten salt to form plutonium oxychloride. Both of the oxide plutonium species are insoluble in the salt and collect atthe bottom of the crucible. This results in a decrease of a factor of 2--3 in the amount of salt that must be treated, and the amount of waste generated by aqueous treatment methods.

  17. Mixing of MnPc electronic states at the MnPc/Au(110) interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiani, Pierluigi; Lisi, Simone; Avvisati, Giulia; Mondelli, Pierluigi; Fatale, Sara; Betti, Maria Grazia

    2017-10-01

    Manganese-phthalocyanines form assembled chains with a variety of ordered super-structures, flat lying along the Au(110) reconstructed channels. The chains first give rise to a ×5 symmetry reconstruction, while further deposition of MnPc leads to a ×7 periodicity at the completion of the first single layer. A net polarization with the formation of an interface dipole is mainly due to the molecular π-states located on the macrocycles pyrrole rings, while the central metal ion induces a reduction in the polarization, whose amount is related to the Mn-Au interaction. The adsorption-induced interface polarization is compared to other 3d-metal phthalocyanines, to unravel the role of the central metal atom configuration in the interaction process of the d-states. The MnPc adsorption on Au(110) induces the re-hybridization of the electronic states localized on the central metal atom, promoting a charge redistribution of the molecular orbitals of the MnPc molecules. The molecule-substrate interaction is controlled by a symmetry-determined mixing between the electronic states, involving also the molecular empty orbitals with d character hybridized with the nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole ring, as deduced by photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy exploiting light polarization. The symmetry-determined mixing between the electronic states of the Mn metal center and of the Au substrate induces a density of states close to the Fermi level for the ×5 phase.

  18. Turbo Codes Extended with Outer BCH Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1996-01-01

    The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is propose...... including an outer BCH code correcting a few bit errors.......The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is proposed...

  19. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both...... the coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  20. Generalized concatenated quantum codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassl, Markus; Shor, Peter; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John; Zeng, Bei

    2009-05-01

    We discuss the concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes. This generalized concatenation method provides a systematical way for constructing good quantum codes, both stabilizer codes and nonadditive codes. Using this method, we construct families of single-error-correcting nonadditive quantum codes, in both binary and nonbinary cases, which not only outperform any stabilizer codes for finite block length but also asymptotically meet the quantum Hamming bound for large block length.

  1. Implementation of a General Finite Element Code on an IBM PC Compatible Microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    l-r,0 ?CC.’j\\ WR1TE(#,’( APA )k’ PRICESSIN:G 9BLCY’ v, BLO-C 1,17 APPENDIX E MEF PROGRAM LISTINGS 4 The orogram listings for MEF are provided belowe...2,-30) (Vi :), ,!=-i, D- 2030 FORMATO )’ fl).iX,7E12.5) 40) CONTINUE C---- READ NODE CARDS 50 READ (MI, 1020) (’AV() 14=!,L16) 164 1020 tX FORM NEQ 00

  2. Price Indexes for PC Database Software and the Value of Code Compatibility

    OpenAIRE

    Harhoff, Dietmar; Moch, Dietmar

    1996-01-01

    Changing product quality poses a challenge for the computation of price indexes, in particular in technologically advanced industries. We assess the differences between traditional and quality-corrected indexes by computing hedonic and matched-model price indexes for personal computer database software. Our database covers the price development in Germany from 1986 to 1994. Quality-adjusted software prices decline by 7.4 percent according to our hedonic index. Surprisingly, a matchedmodel ind...

  3. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized...

  4. TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.2 User's Manual: A Code for the Simulation of System Behavior in Hydrate-Bearing Geologic Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, George J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kowalsky, Michael B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pruess, Karsten [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.2 is a code for the simulation of the behavior of hydratebearing geologic systems, and represents the second update of the code since its first release [Moridis et al., 2008]. By solving the coupled equations of mass and heat balance, TOUGH+HYDRATE can model the non-isothermal gas release, phase behavior and flow of fluids and heat under conditions typical of common natural CH4-hydrate deposits (i.e., in the permafrost and in deep ocean sediments) in complex geological media at any scale (from laboratory to reservoir) at which Darcy’s law is valid. TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.2 includes both an equilibrium and a kinetic model of hydrate formation and dissociation. The model accounts for heat and up to four mass components, i.e., water, CH4, hydrate, and water-soluble inhibitors such as salts or alcohols. These are partitioned among four possible phases (gas phase, liquid phase, ice phase and hydrate phase). Hydrate dissociation or formation, phase changes and the corresponding thermal effects are fully described, as are the effects of inhibitors. The model can describe all possible hydrate dissociation mechanisms, i.e., depressurization, thermal stimulation, salting-out effects and inhibitor-induced effects. TOUGH+HYDRATE is a member of TOUGH+, the successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1991] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase fluid and heat flow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is written in standard FORTRAN 95/2003, and can be run on any computational platform (workstation, PC, Macintosh) for which such compilers are available.

  5. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  6. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  7. Coding for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on exercises help you learn to code like a pro No coding experience is required for Coding For Dummies,your one-stop guide to building a foundation of knowledge inwriting computer code for web, application, and softwaredevelopment. It doesn't matter if you've dabbled in coding or neverwritten a line of code, this book guides you through the basics.Using foundational web development languages like HTML, CSS, andJavaScript, it explains in plain English how coding works and whyit's needed. Online exercises developed by Codecademy, a leading online codetraining site, help hone coding skill

  8. Characteristics of CoPc/CdS hybrid diode device

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ag contact metal deposited on CoPc by e-beam evaporation and glass/ITO/CdS/ CoPc/Ag structures were fabricated. Rectification ratio, ideality factor, barrier height and junction parameters of the devices were determined. It is shown that device has diode characteristics with the ideality factor (n) of 4.8, rectification ratio of ...

  9. The response effect of pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell lines to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxicity of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (o-MWCNTs) are of utmost concern and in most in-vitro studies conducted so far are on dendritic cell (DC) lines with limited data on PC12 cell lines. Objectives: We focused on the effect of o-MWCNTs in PC12 cells in vitro: a common model cell for neurotoxicity.

  10. Transforming PC Power Supplies into Smart Car Battery Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ascariz, J. M.; Boquete-Vazquez, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory project consisting of a PC power supply modification into an intelligent car-battery conditioner with both wireless and wired networking capabilities. Adding a microcontroller to an average PC power supply transforms it into a flexible, intelligent device that can be configured and that is suitable to keep car…

  11. PrPC from stem cells to cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine eMartin-Lannerée

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The cellular prion protein PrPC was initially discovered as the normal counterpart of the pathological scrapie prion protein PrPSc, the main component of the infectious agent of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies. While clues as to the physiological function of this ubiquitous protein were greatly anticipated from the development of knock-out animals, PrP-null mice turned out to be viable and to develop without major phenotypic abnormalities. Notwithstanding, the discovery that hematopoietic stem cells from PrP-null mice have impaired long-term repopulating potential has set the stage for investigating into the role of PrPC in stem cell biology. A wealth of data have now exemplified that PrPC is expressed in distinct types of stem cells and regulates their self-renewal as well as their differentiation potential. A role for PrPC in the fate restriction of embryonic stem cells has further been proposed. Paralleling these observations, an overexpression of PrPC has been documented in various types of tumours. In line with the contribution of PrPC to stemness and to the proliferation of cancer cells, PrPC was recently found to be enriched in subpopulations of tumour-initiating cells. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge of the role played by PrPC in stem cell biology and discuss how the subversion of its function may contribute to cancer progression.

  12. Development Of A Multi-Channel Personal Computer (Pc) Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development Of A Multi-Channel Personal Computer (Pc) Based Data Logger. ... Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... PC (Personal Computer) based instrumentation is getting more attention because of three technological enhancements; increasing reliability of PCs, steadily decreasing cost of hard drive space ...

  13. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... and can be used by individuals to replace salt in their diet. There are no known undesirable effects in healthy ...

  14. Carpinteria Salt Marsh Habitat Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland. We then drew polygons around each habitat...

  15. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  16. Microbial Diversity of Culinary Salts

    OpenAIRE

    Muske, Galen; Baxter, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Extremophiles are exceptional microorganisms that live on this planet in extraordinarily harsh environments. One such extremophiles are Halophiles, salt-loving microorganisms that can survive in extreme salinity levels, and have been found to survive inside salt crystals. We were curious is about the potential diversity of halophiles surviving in salts harvested from around the world. For this experiment various culinary salts were suspended in a 23 % NaCL growth media broth and allowed to gr...

  17. Tetrabutylammonium Salts of Aluminum(III) and Gallium(III) Phthalocyanine Radical Anions Bonded with Fluoren-9-olato(-) Anions and Indium(III) Phthalocyanine Bromide Radical Anions.

    OpenAIRE

    Konarev, Dmitri V; Khasanov, Salavat S; Ishikawa, Manabu; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Otsuka, Akihiro; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Lyubovskaya, Rimma N

    2017-01-01

    Reduction of aluminum(III), gallium(III), and indium(III) phthalocyanine chlorides by sodium fluorenone ketyl in the presence of tetrabutylammonium cations yielded crystalline salts of the type (Bu4 N(+) )2 [M(III) (HFl-O(-) )(Pc(.3-) )](.-) (Br(-) )⋅1.5 C6 H4 Cl2 [M=Al (1), Ga (2); HFl-O(-) =fluoren-9-olato(-) anion; Pc=phthalocyanine] and (Bu4 N(+) ) [In(III) Br(Pc(.3-) )](.-) ⋅0.875 C6 H4 Cl2 ⋅0.125 C6 H14 (3). The salts were found to contain Pc(.3-) radical anions with negatively charged ...

  18. Evaluation of the DRAGON code for VHTR design analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taiwo, T. A.; Kim, T. K.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-01-12

    This letter report summarizes three activities that were undertaken in FY 2005 to gather information on the DRAGON code and to perform limited evaluations of the code performance when used in the analysis of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. These activities include: (1) Use of the code to model the fuel elements of the helium-cooled and liquid-salt-cooled VHTR designs. Results were compared to those from another deterministic lattice code (WIMS8) and a Monte Carlo code (MCNP). (2) The preliminary assessment of the nuclear data library currently used with the code and libraries that have been provided by the IAEA WIMS-D4 Library Update Project (WLUP). (3) DRAGON workshop held to discuss the code capabilities for modeling the VHTR.

  19. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  20. Photovoltaic properties of SnCl{sub 2}Pc films and SnCl{sub 2}Pc/pentacene heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutsyk, P.; Vertsimakha, Ya. [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Prosp. Nauky 46, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Misiewicz, J.; Podhorodecki, A. [Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wyb. S. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2007-01-05

    The optical and photovoltaic properties of dichlorotin phthalocyanine (SnCl{sub 2}Pc) films and SnCl{sub 2}Pc/pentacene (Pn) heterostructures (HS) have been studied. Weak bands at 1.35, 1.52 and 2.05eV have been found in absorption and modulated photoreflectance spectra of SnCl{sub 2}Pc films. These bands can be caused by the formation of charge transfer states. The low concentration of recombination centers of charge carriers has been formed on a free surface of SnCl{sub 2}Pc films. This concentration essentially decreases at air evacuation before vacuum deposition of a Pn layer. Therefore, interface with an insignificant recombination rate of charge carriers is formed for SnCl{sub 2}Pc/Pn HS. (author)

  1. PC-SEAPAK - ANALYSIS OF COASTAL ZONE COLOR SCANNER AND ADVANCED VERY HIGH RESOLUTION RADIOMETER DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    incompatibilities between the MVP-AT image board and ZENITH computers. Also, the MVP-AT image board is not necessarily compatible with 486-based systems; users of 486-based systems should consult with Matrox about compatibility concerns. Other PC-SEAPAK requirements include a Microsoft mouse (serial version), 2Mb RAM, and 100Mb hard disk space. For data ingest and backup, 9-track tape, 8mm tape and optical disks are supported and recommended. PC-SEAPAK has been under development since 1988. Version 4.0 was updated in 1992, and is distributed without source code. It is available only as a set of 36 1.2Mb 5.25 inch IBM MS-DOS format diskettes. PC-SEAPAK is a copyrighted product with all copyright vested in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Phar Lap's DOS_Extender run-time version is integrated into several of the programs; therefore, the PC-SEAPAK programs may not be duplicated. Three of the distribution diskettes contain DOS_Extender files. One of the distribution diskettes contains Media Cybernetics' HALO88 font files, also licensed by NASA for dissemination but not duplication. IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. HALO88 is a registered trademark of Media Cybernetics, but the product was discontinued in 1991.

  2. Locally orderless registration code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  3. Algebraic geometric codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahshahani, M.

    1991-01-01

    The performance characteristics are discussed of certain algebraic geometric codes. Algebraic geometric codes have good minimum distance properties. On many channels they outperform other comparable block codes; therefore, one would expect them eventually to replace some of the block codes used in communications systems. It is suggested that it is unlikely that they will become useful substitutes for the Reed-Solomon codes used by the Deep Space Network in the near future. However, they may be applicable to systems where the signal to noise ratio is sufficiently high so that block codes would be more suitable than convolutional or concatenated codes.

  4. Toxic and transcriptional responses of PC12 cells to soluble tungsten alloy surrogates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Adams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that metals have a role in the etiology of diverse neurological diseases. This study used PC12 cells as an in vitro model to examine the toxicity of tungsten alloys that have important military applications. Initially, the relative concentrations of tungsten (W, nickel (Ni, and cobalt (Co mobilized from pellets of a weapons-grade tungsten alloy incubated in physiologically relevant solutions were determined. Dosing solutions of soluble metal salts that were equivalent in ratio to those mobilized from these alloy pellets were used to treat nerve growth factor (NGF differentiated PC12 cells. Treatments consisted of single (W, Ni or Co, paired (W/Ni, W/Co or Ni/Co or complete (W/Ni/Co metal exposures for 24 h followed by measurement of cytotoxicity, viability, and microarray analysis to examine their impact on survival and viability, global gene expression, and biological processes. Gene expression changed dramatically with addition of NGF. Addition of Ni or Co either singly or in combination further impacted gene expression. An observed additive effect of Ni and Co on gene expression was unaffected by the addition of W. The work showed that tungsten, as found in this tungsten alloy, had minimal relative toxicity as compared to the other alloy components when used either alone or in combination.

  5. Monomial-like codes

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Moro, Edgar; Ozbudak, Ferruh; Szabo, Steve

    2010-01-01

    As a generalization of cyclic codes of length p^s over F_{p^a}, we study n-dimensional cyclic codes of length p^{s_1} X ... X p^{s_n} over F_{p^a} generated by a single "monomial". Namely, we study multi-variable cyclic codes of the form in F_{p^a}[x_1...x_n] / . We call such codes monomial-like codes. We show that these codes arise from the product of certain single variable codes and we determine their minimum Hamming distance. We determine the dual of monomial-like codes yielding a parity check matrix. We also present an alternative way of constructing a parity check matrix using the Hasse derivative. We study the weight hierarchy of certain monomial like codes. We simplify an expression that gives us the weight hierarchy of these codes.

  6. Mixed salt crystallisation fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Helalizadeh, A

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the mechanisms of mixed salt crystallisation fouling on heat transfer surfaces during convective heat transfer and sub-cooled flow boiling conditions. To-date no investigations on the effects of operating parameters on the deposition of mixtures of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate, which are the most common constituents of scales formed on heat transfer surfaces, have been reported. As part of this research project, a substantial number of experiments were performed to determine the mechanisms controlling deposition. Fluid velocity, heat flux, surface and bulk temperatures, concentration of the solution, ionic strength, pressure and heat transfer surface material were varied systematically. After clarification of the effect of these parameters on the deposition process, the results of these experiments were used to develop a mechanistic model for prediction of fouling resistances, caused by crystallisation of mixed salts, under convective heat transfer...

  7. Run-09 pC polarimeter analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, I.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoyan, G.; Bazilevsky, A.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Lee, S.; Li, X.; Makdisi, Y.; Morozov, B.; Nakagawa, I.; Svirida, D.; Zelenski, A.

    2010-08-01

    Analysis of PC polarimeter data at {radical}s = 200 and 500 GeV from Run9 is presented. Final polarization results, fill-by-fill, for blue and yellow beams, as to be used by RHIC experiments (in collisions) are released and collected in http://www4.rcf.bnl.gov/cnipol/pubdocs/Run09Offline/. Global relative systematic uncertainties {delta}P/P (to be considered as correlated from fill to fill) are 4.7% for 100 GeV beams, and 8.3% (12.1%) for blue (yellow) 250 GeV beams. For a product of two beam polarizations P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y} (used in double spin asymmetry measurements) the relative uncertainty {delta}(P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y})/(P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y}) 8.8% for 100 GeV beams and 18.5% for 250 GeV beams. For the average between two beam polarization (P{sub B} + P{sub Y})/2 (used in single spin asymmetry measurements, when data from two polarized beams are combined) the relative uncertainty is 4.4% for 100 GeV beams and 9.2% for 250 GeV beams. Larger uncertainties for 250 GeV beams relate to significant rate related systematic effects experienced in the first part of Run9 (due to thicker targets used and smaller trans. beam size at higher beam energy).

  8. QR Codes 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  9. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  10. Disentangling the near-infrared continuum spectral components of the inner 500 pc of Mrk 573: two-dimensional maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, M. R.; Riffel, R. A.; Riffel, R.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Fischer, T. C.; Schmitt, H. R.; Kraemer, S. B.

    2017-08-01

    We present a near-infrared (near-IR) study of the spectral components of the continuum in the inner 500 × 500 pc2 of the nearby Seyfert galaxy Mrk 573 using adaptive optics near-IR integral field spectroscopy with the instrument near-infrared integral field spectrograph of the Gemini North Telescope at a spatial resolution of ˜50 pc. We performed spectral synthesis using the starlight code and constructed maps for the contributions of different age components of the stellar population: young (age ≤100 Myr), young-intermediate (100 age ≤ 700 Myr), intermediate-old (700 Myr age ≤ 2 Gyr) and old (age > 2 Gyr) to the near-IR K-band continuum, as well as their contribution to the total stellar mass. We found that the old stellar population is dominant within the inner 250 pc, while the intermediate-age components dominate the continuum at larger distances. A young stellar component contributes up to ˜20 per cent within the inner ˜70 pc, while hot dust emission and featureless continuum components are also necessary to fit the nuclear spectrum, contributing up to 20 per cent of the K-band flux there. The radial distribution of the different age components in the inner kiloparsec of Mrk 573 is similar to those obtained by our group for the Seyfert galaxies Mrk 1066, Mrk 1157 and NGC 1068 in previous works using a similar methodology. Young stellar populations (≤100 Myr) are seen in the inner 200-300 pc for all galaxies contributing with ≥20 per cent of the K-band flux, while the near-IR continuum is dominated by the contribution of intermediate-age stars (t = 100 Myr-2 Gyr) at larger distances. Older stellar populations dominate in the inner 250 pc.

  11. Microemulsion of Molten Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    then to an oil-rich, upper phase as salinity increases in a system of brine/octane/ TRS surfactant/tertiary amyl alcohol . Borkovec et al. (1988) have...11 4. Partial Pseudotemary Phase Diagram .................................. 12 5. Micrograph of Molten Salts/SDS/Pentanol/Decane System...negligible interfacial tension between microdomains. Theoretical work in ternary and pseudotemary systems has shown that the middle phase is a

  12. A PC based seismic data transcription system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Sang Yong; Chung, Bu Heung; Jang, Seong Hyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Old seismic data recorded on magnetic tapes is often difficult to read because of the tape sticking problem known as the `sticky syndrome`. It has to be transcribed to other suitable media using dedicated multiple systems during the whole project years. The first system requirement is the capability of reading gapless magnetic tape, which is peculiar to the old seismic data tapes. The second requirement would be the availability of storage devices with compact and huge capacity. The system must be cheap enough compared to the total cost of the data being transcribed. We introduce a PC based seismic data transcribing system. The system is equipped with an tape drive which can handle 800, 1600, 3200, and 6250 BPI densities. Well known storage devices such as 8mm Exabyte, 4mm DDS-2, and the SCSI CD recorder, are selected for the output devices. These output media should provide more durability, compactness, and portability than the original. Linux is chosen for the operating system. Unfortunately, the Linux, like other Unix systems, is subject to the limit in maximum i/o block size. The maximum block size of the SCSI tape driver is fixed to 32 KB, which is far less than the requirements in SEG-A, B, and C seismic tapes. A kernel patch is written to extend such a limit up to 2048 KB. Input and output programs are written to handle the tape data in variable block mode. A unique disk file format is designed to preserve the IBG(inter-block gap) within the disk copy. A utility program is also provided to manipulate the disk copy and to convert to SU(Seismic Unix) compatible SEG-Y file. Of the total two months of the transcription period, we spend most of the time in reading the sticky magnetic tapes. The seismic tapes had to be `baked` to dry out the moisture before reading. It took nine days to burn the all 85 diskettes. Writing two sets of 8mm Exabytes took only one day. It is considered that 8mm Exabyte can be the optimum output media for the main seismic data storage

  13. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...... sediments, the diapir extruded an overhang. Using the asymmetric Klodawa Salt Structure (KSS) in central Poland as a prototype, a series of analogue models were carried out to investigate the evolution history and salt supply driven by asymmetric differential loading. During extension of the model, a daipir...

  14. 2010 ME70 Workshop (PC1003, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The third leg of the 2010 SEAMAP Reeffish Survey, PC 1003, was originally scheduled as an experimental multibeam sonar workshop. However, on July 12, 2010, FSV...

  15. Software Defined Radio Datalink Implementation Using PC-Type Computers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zafeiropoulos, Georgios

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to examine the feasibility of implementation and the performance of a Software Defined Radio datalink, using a common PC type host computer and a high level programming language...

  16. Single-event upset in advanced PowerPC microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irom, F.; Swift, G. M.; Farmanesh, F.; Millward, D. G.

    2002-01-01

    Proton and heavy-ion single-event upset susceptibility has been measured for the MotorolaPowerPC7400. The results show that this advanced device has low upset susceptibility, despite the scaling and design advances.

  17. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception

    OpenAIRE

    Tournier, Carole; Knoop, Janine E.; Kooyman, Gonnie; Smit, Gerrit

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various stimulation conditions involving relative changes in NaCl concentration of 20% and 38%. Changes in salt delivery profile had similar effect on saltiness perception when delivered either by a sipwise m...

  18. Rheology of rock salt for salt tectonics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yuan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical modeling of salt tectonics is a rapidly evolving field; however, the constitutive equations to model long-term rock salt rheology in nature still remain controversial. Firstly, we built a database about the strain rate versus the differential stress through collecting the data from salt creep experiments at a range of temperatures (20–200 °C in laboratories. The aim is to collect data about salt deformation in nature, and the flow properties can be extracted from the data in laboratory experiments. Moreover, as an important preparation for salt tectonics modeling, a numerical model based on creep experiments of rock salt was developed in order to verify the specific model using the Abaqus package. Finally, under the condition of low differential stresses, the deformation mechanism would be extrapolated and discussed according to microstructure research. Since the studies of salt deformation in nature are the reliable extrapolation of laboratory data, we simplified the rock salt rheology to dislocation creep corresponding to power law creep (n = 5 with the appropriate material parameters in the salt tectonic modeling.

  19. Reactive halogen species above salt lakes and salt pans

    OpenAIRE

    Holla, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Salt lakes can be found on all continents and saline soils cover 2.5% of the land surface of the earth (FAO, 2012). This thesis investigates the presence of reactive halogen species (RHS) above salt lakes and saline soils to evaluate their relevance for tropospheric chemistry of the planetary boundary layer. Ground-based MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS measurements were conducted at salt lakes and two other sites with high halogen content. Prior to this work, RHS were found at three salt ...

  20. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

    2012-10-09

    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  1. TIPONLINE Code Table

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coded items are entered in the tiponline data entry program. The codes and their explanations are necessary in order to use the data

  2. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  3. CoPc and CoPcF16 on gold: Site-specific charge-transfer processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Petraki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interface properties of cobalt(II phthalocyanine (CoPc and cobalt(II hexadecafluoro-phthalocyanine (CoPcF16 to gold are investigated by photo-excited electron spectroscopies (X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS and X-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy (XAES. It is shown that a bidirectional charge transfer determines the interface energetics for CoPc and CoPcF16 on Au. Combined XPS and XAES measurements allow for the separation of chemical shifts based on different local charges at the considered atom caused by polarization effects. This facilitates a detailed discussion of energetic shifts of core level spectra. The data allow the discussion of site-specific charge-transfer processes.

  4. Epitaxial growth and electronic properties of well ordered phthalocyanine heterojunctions MnPc/F{sub 16}CoPc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Susi; Mahns, Benjamin; Treske, Uwe; Knupfer, Martin [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Vilkov, Oleg [Center for Physical Methods of Surface Investigation, St. Petersburg State University, Ulyanovskaya Str. 1, St. Petersburg 198504, Russia and Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Technology Dresden, Zellescher Weg 16, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Haidu, Francisc; Fronk, Michael; Zahn, Dietrich R. T. [Physics Department/Semiconductor Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, Reichenhainer Str. 70, D-09126 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2014-09-07

    We have prepared phthalocyanine heterojunctions out of MnPc and F{sub 16}CoPc, which were studied by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. This heterojunction is characterized by a charge transfer at the interface, resulting in charged MnPc{sup δ} {sup +} and F{sub 16}CoPc{sup δ} {sup −} species. Our data reveal that the molecules are well ordered and oriented parallel to the substrate surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate the filling of the Co 3d{sub z{sup 2}} orbital due to the charge transfer, which supports the explanation of the density functional theory, that the charge transfer is local and affects the metal centers only.

  5. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Conclusions. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%. In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67% and Switzerland (85%. In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method.

  6. Guest Foreword by Lord Phillips KG PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Phillips

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rt Hon The Lord Phillips of Worth Matravers KG PC, President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Ambition and excellence. Those two words epitomize Qatar. Under the leadership of his Highness the Emir, this small State has set out to make an impact on the world that belies its size. Ambitious was the plan to have an international broadcasting station. Ambitious was the plan to build from scratch a Museum of Islamic Art. Ambitious was the bid – the successful bid to host the World Cup in 2022. Ambitious is the bid to stage the Olympic Games in 2020. Qatar not merely has ambitions, it realizes its ambitions. And when it does so it is not enough to say that the result is ‘world class’, for Qatar sets out to be a world leader in whatever it puts its hand to. Excellence is the norm. Al Jazeera has established itself as the broadcasting station of choice for many throughout the world. The Doha Museum of Islamic Art is recognized as being second to none. In addition, the scale and standard of development in Doha itself is setting new standards of excellence in the fields of architecture and civil engineering. Thus when Qatar focuses its energies on education and the law, high achievements are expected. I shall have the honour of helping to achieve those expectations when I succeed Lord Woolf as President of Qatar’s new and impressive Civil and Commercial Court. The College of Law at Qatar University is already achieving excellence in the field of legal education. So, naturally, all expect great things of this new International Review of Law and I am delighted to have been invited to welcome it by this foreword. The range of the first edition is both international and topical. Those countries that have experienced the turbulence of the Arab Spring are settling new constitutions, and other countries are bent on constitutional reform designed to avoid such turbulence. So an erudite article on

  7. ARC Code TI: ROC Curve Code Augmentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve Code Augmentation was written by Rodney Martin and John Stutz at NASA Ames Research Center and is a modification of ROC...

  8. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  9. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...

  10. Refactoring test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon); A. van den Bergh; G. Kok

    2001-01-01

    textabstractTwo key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from

  11. The Procions` code; Le code Procions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deck, D.; Samba, G.

    1994-12-19

    This paper presents a new code to simulate plasmas generated by inertial confinement. This multi-kinds kinetic code is done with no angular approximation concerning ions and will work in plan and spherical geometry. First, the physical model is presented, using Fokker-Plank. Then, the numerical model is introduced in order to solve the Fokker-Plank operator under the Rosenbluth form. At the end, several numerical tests are proposed. (TEC). 17 refs., 27 figs.

  12. TOUGH+Hydrate v1.0 User's Manual: A Code for the Simulation of System Behavior in Hydrate-Bearing Geologic Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, George; Moridis, George J.; Kowalsky, Michael B.; Pruess, Karsten

    2008-03-01

    TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.0 is a new code for the simulation of the behavior of hydrate-bearing geologic systems. By solving the coupled equations of mass and heat balance, TOUGH+HYDRATE can model the non-isothermal gas release, phase behavior and flow of fluids and heat under conditions typical of common natural CH{sub 4}-hydrate deposits (i.e., in the permafrost and in deep ocean sediments) in complex geological media at any scale (from laboratory to reservoir) at which Darcy's law is valid. TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.0 includes both an equilibrium and a kinetic model of hydrate formation and dissociation. The model accounts for heat and up to four mass components, i.e., water, CH{sub 4}, hydrate, and water-soluble inhibitors such as salts or alcohols. These are partitioned among four possible phases (gas phase, liquid phase, ice phase and hydrate phase). Hydrate dissociation or formation, phase changes and the corresponding thermal effects are fully described, as are the effects of inhibitors. The model can describe all possible hydrate dissociation mechanisms, i.e., depressurization, thermal stimulation, salting-out effects and inhibitor-induced effects. TOUGH+HYDRATE is the first member of TOUGH+, the successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1991] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase fluid and heat flow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is written in standard FORTRAN 95, and can be run on any computational platform (workstation, PC, Macintosh) for which such compilers are available.

  13. Salinomycin Exerts Anticancer Effects on PC-3 Cells and PC-3-Derived Cancer Stem Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinomycin is an antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces albus that selectively kills cancer stem cells (CSCs. However, the antitumor mechanism of salinomycin is unclear. This study investigated the chemotherapeutic efficacy of salinomycin in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. We found that cytotoxicity of salinomycin to PC-3 cells was stronger than to nonmalignant prostate cell RWPE-1, and exposure to salinomycin induced G2/M phage arrest and apoptosis of PC-3 cells. A mechanistic study found salinomycin suppressed Wnt/β-catenin pathway to induce apoptosis of PC-3 cells. An in vivo experiment confirmed that salinomycin suppressed tumorigenesis in a NOD/SCID mice xenograft model generated from implanted PC-3 cells by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, since the total β-catenin protein level was reduced and the downstream target c-Myc level was significantly downregulated. We also showed that salinomycin, but not paclitaxel, triggered more apoptosis in aldehyde dehydrogenase- (ALDH- positive PC-3 cells, which were considered as the prostate cancer stem cells, suggesting that salinomycin may be a promising chemotherapeutic to target CSCs. In conclusion, this study suggests that salinomycin reduces resistance and relapse of prostate tumor by killing cancer cells as well as CSCs.

  14. PC Tutor. Bericht uber ein PC-gestutzes Tutorensystem = PC Tutor. Report on a Tutoring System with Personal Computer. ZIFF Papiere 75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Helmut

    A project was conducted to increase as well as to professionalize communication between tutors and learners in a West German university's distance education program by the use of personal computers. Two tutors worked on the systematic development of a PC-based correcting system. The goal, apart from developing general language skills in English,…

  15. On the Delay Characteristics for Point-to-Point links using Random Linear Network Coding with On-the-fly Coding Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tömösközi, Máté; Fitzek, Frank; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    . This metric captures the elapsed time between (network) encoding RTP packets and completely decoding the packets in-order on the receiver side. Our solutions are implemented and evaluated on a point-to-point link between a Raspberry Pi device and a network (de)coding enabled software running on a regular PC...

  16. Relationship Between Salt Intake, Salt-Taste Threshold and Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many studies have found an association between sodium intake and blood pressure. Salt taste threshold is thought to be another marker of sodium intake. Objective: This study sought to assess two markers of sodium intake, 24-hour-urinary sodium and salt-taste threshold. We also determined the relationship ...

  17. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, J.L.H.C.; Tournier, C.; Knoop, J.E.; Kooyman, G.; Smit, G.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various

  18. Liquid Salt Heat Exchanger Technology for VHTR Based Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark; Sridhara, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Peterson, Per

    2012-10-11

    The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of liquid salt fluids for use as a heat carrier for transferring high-temperature process heat from the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to chemical process plants. Currently, helium is being considered as the heat transfer fluid; however, the tube size requirements and the power associated with pumping helium may not be economical. Recent work on liquid salts has shown tremendous potential to transport high-temperature heat efficiently at low pressures over long distances. This project has two broad objectives: To investigate the compatibility of Incoloy 617 and coated and uncoated SiC ceramic composite with MgCl2-KCl molten salt to determine component lifetimes and aid in the design of heat exchangers and piping; and, To conduct the necessary research on the development of metallic and ceramic heat exchangers, which are needed for both the helium-to-salt side and salt-to-process side, with the goal of making these heat exchangers technologically viable. The research will consist of three separate tasks. The first task deals with material compatibility issues with liquid salt and the development of techniques for on-line measurement of corrosion products, which can be used to measure material loss in heat exchangers. Researchers will examine static corrosion of candidate materials in specific high-temperature heat transfer salt systems and develop an in situ electrochemical probe to measure metallic species concentrations dissolved in the liquid salt. The second task deals with the design of both the intermediate and process side heat exchanger systems. Researchers will optimize heat exchanger design and study issues related to corrosion, fabrication, and thermal stresses using commercial and in-house codes. The third task focuses integral testing of flowing liquid salts in a heat transfer/materials loop to determine potential issues of using the salts and to capture realistic behavior of the salts in a

  19. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    , Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important...... to understand the socio-technical side of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I would like to explore the materiality of code that goes beyond technical...

  20. Autophagy Regulates Colistin-Induced Apoptosis in PC-12 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Zhao, Yonghao; Ding, Wenjian; Jiang, Guozheng; Lu, Ziyin; Li, Li; Wang, Jinli

    2015-01-01

    Colistin is a cyclic cationic polypeptide antibiotic with activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Our recent study demonstrated that colistin induces apoptosis in primary chick cortex neurons and PC-12 cells. Although apoptosis and autophagy have different impacts on cell fate, there is a complex interaction between them. Autophagy plays an important role as a homeostasis regulator by removing excessive or unnecessary proteins and damaged organelles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulation of autophagy and apoptosis regulation in PC-12 cells in response to colistin treatment. PC-12 cells were exposed to colistin (125 to 250 μg/ml), and autophagy was detected by visualization of monodansylcadaverine (MDC)-labeled vacuoles, LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3) immunofluorescence microscopic examination, and Western blotting. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry, Hoechst 33258 staining, and Western blotting. Autophagosomes were observed after treatment with colistin for 12 h, and the levels of LC3-II gene expression were determined; observation and protein levels both indicated that colistin induced a high level of autophagy. Colistin treatment also led to apoptosis in PC-12 cells, and the level of caspase-3 expression increased over the 24-h period. Pretreatment of cells with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) increased colistin toxicity in PC-12 cells remarkably. However, rapamycin treatment significantly increased the expression levels of LC3-II and beclin 1 and decreased the rate of apoptosis of PC-12 cells. Our results demonstrate that colistin induced autophagy and apoptosis in PC-12 cells and that the latter was affected by the regulation of autophagy. It is very likely that autophagy plays a protective role in the reduction of colistin-induced cytotoxicity in neurons. PMID:25645826

  1. Experiments in connection with Salt Domes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.G.; Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1928-01-01

    The different theories concerning the origin of Salt Domes in Roumania, Germany, Texas, Louisiana, Colorado and Utah are discussed. In Roumania the salt occurs in cores of “Diapir” anticlines. The existance of hills of salt indicates, that the salt is still pushing upwards. In Germany the salt

  2. Sodium: How to Tame Your Salt Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same amount of sodium as table salt. Use salt substitutes wisely. Some salt substitutes or light salts contain a mixture of table ... substitute — and get too much sodium. Also, many salt substitutes contain potassium chloride. Although potassium can lessen some ...

  3. NASA Lewis Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Ye; Tower, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed the LERCHP code. The PC-based LERCHP code can be used to predict the steady-state performance of heat pipes, including the determination of operating temperature and operating limits which might be encountered under specified conditions. The code contains a vapor flow algorithm which incorporates vapor compressibility and axially varying heat input. For the liquid flow in the wick, Darcy s formula is employed. Thermal boundary conditions and geometric structures can be defined through an interactive input interface. A variety of fluid and material options as well as user defined options can be chosen for the working fluid, wick, and pipe materials. This report documents the current effort at GRC to update the LERCHP code for operating in a Microsoft Windows (Microsoft Corporation) environment. A detailed analysis of the model is presented. The programming architecture for the numerical calculations is explained and flowcharts of the key subroutines are given

  4. DLLExternalCode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read from files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.

  5. Noisy Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Sung Hoon; Gamal, Abbas El; Chung, Sae-Young

    2010-01-01

    A noisy network coding scheme for sending multiple sources over a general noisy network is presented. For multi-source multicast networks, the scheme naturally extends both network coding over noiseless networks by Ahlswede, Cai, Li, and Yeung, and compress-forward coding for the relay channel by Cover and El Gamal to general discrete memoryless and Gaussian networks. The scheme also recovers as special cases the results on coding for wireless relay networks and deterministic networks by Avestimehr, Diggavi, and Tse, and coding for wireless erasure networks by Dana, Gowaikar, Palanki, Hassibi, and Effros. The scheme involves message repetition coding, relay signal compression, and simultaneous decoding. Unlike previous compress--forward schemes, where independent messages are sent over multiple blocks, the same message is sent multiple times using independent codebooks as in the network coding scheme for cyclic networks. Furthermore, the relays do not use Wyner--Ziv binning as in previous compress-forward sch...

  6. COMPARISON OF GEO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WHITE ROCK SALT AND PINK ROCK SALT IN KŁODAWA SALT DIAPIR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malwina Kolano; Danuta Flisiak

    2013-01-01

    .... The present article introduces strength-strain properties of white rock salt, building the nucleus of northeastern edge anticline, and pink rock salt that belongs to the series of youngest rock salt...

  7. Empirically modelled Pc3 activity based on solar wind parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Heilig

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available It is known that under certain solar wind (SW/interplanetary magnetic field (IMF conditions (e.g. high SW speed, low cone angle the occurrence of ground-level Pc3–4 pulsations is more likely. In this paper we demonstrate that in the event of anomalously low SW particle density, Pc3 activity is extremely low regardless of otherwise favourable SW speed and cone angle. We re-investigate the SW control of Pc3 pulsation activity through a statistical analysis and two empirical models with emphasis on the influence of SW density on Pc3 activity. We utilise SW and IMF measurements from the OMNI project and ground-based magnetometer measurements from the MM100 array to relate SW and IMF measurements to the occurrence of Pc3 activity. Multiple linear regression and artificial neural network models are used in iterative processes in order to identify sets of SW-based input parameters, which optimally reproduce a set of Pc3 activity data. The inclusion of SW density in the parameter set significantly improves the models. Not only the density itself, but other density related parameters, such as the dynamic pressure of the SW, or the standoff distance of the magnetopause work equally well in the model. The disappearance of Pc3s during low-density events can have at least four reasons according to the existing upstream wave theory: 1. Pausing the ion-cyclotron resonance that generates the upstream ultra low frequency waves in the absence of protons, 2. Weakening of the bow shock that implies less efficient reflection, 3. The SW becomes sub-Alfvénic and hence it is not able to sweep back the waves propagating upstream with the Alfvén-speed, and 4. The increase of the standoff distance of the magnetopause (and of the bow shock. Although the models cannot account for the lack of Pc3s during intervals when the SW density is extremely low, the resulting sets of optimal model inputs support the generation of mid latitude Pc3 activity predominantly through

  8. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  9. Bile salts secretion in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, J P; Areias, E; Meneses, L; Tiago, E

    1977-02-01

    The bile salts secretion was studied in ten normal subjects and sixteen patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, in a basal period and during 60 minutes after Secretin injection. Total bile salts were measured by a modification of the enzymatic method of Iwata and Yamasaki and the individual bile salts were separated by silica gel thin-layer chromatography. During the 60 minutes after Secretin the mean concentration was 2.88 +/- 2.58 muM/ml in normals and 1.96 +/- 1.25 muM/ml in cirrhotics. The difference is not significant. During the first 20 minutes however the concentration was higher than 3 muM/ml in 8 out of 10 normals and lower than 2 muM/ml in 10 out 16 cirrhotics. The ratios of tri-to dihydroxy bile salts was similar in both groups. The ratios between bile salts conjugated with glycine and with taurine was higher in normals, and the ratio between free to conjugated bile salts was higher in cirrhotics. The lower concentration of total bile salts immediatly after Secretin, the higher proportion of taurin conjugates and of free bile salts could be important factors in the difficulties of fact digestion and absorption frequently found in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.

  10. Compressibility of granulated rock salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinebaugh, R.E.

    1979-08-01

    Crushed rock salt will be used extensively at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as a material for backfilling underground openings. This document addresses one of the characteristics of crushed salt which must be known to assess the consequences of its usage, namely, compressibility.

  11. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  12. History Leaves Salts Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    These plots, or spectra, show that a rock dubbed 'McKittrick' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site at Meridiani Planum, Mars, has higher concentrations of sulfur and bromine than a nearby patch of soil nicknamed 'Tarmac.' These data were taken by Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, which uses curium-244 to assess the elemental composition of rocks and soil. Only portions of the targets' full spectra are shown to highlight the significant differences in elemental concentrations between 'McKittrick' and 'Tarmac.' Intensities are plotted on a logarithmic scale.A nearby rock named Guadalupe similarly has extremely high concentrations of sulfur, but very little bromine. This 'element fractionation' typically occurs when a watery brine slowly evaporates and various salt compounds are precipitated in sequence.

  13. Salt resistant crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Stuart J; Negrão, Sónia; Tester, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker-assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. MRPP: multiregion processing plant code. [MSBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kee, C. W.; McNeese, L. E.

    1976-09-01

    The report describes the machine solution of a large number (approximately 52,000) of simultaneous linear algebraic equations in which the unknowns are the concentrations of nuclides in the fuel salt of a fluid-fueled reactor (MSBR) having a continuous fuel processing plant. Most of the equations define concentrations at various points in the processing plant. The code allows as input a generalized description of a processing plant flowsheet; it also performs the iterative adjustment of flowsheet parameters for determination of concentrations throughout the flowsheet, and the associated effect of the specified processing mode on the overall reactor operation.

  15. A novel real-time control system for plasma cutting robot with xPC target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Soylak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a novel inexpensive controller system for plasma cutting robots built based on MATLAB xPC is presented. The plasma cutting robot model with 5 degrees of freedom is constructed in the MATLAB/Simulink of the host machine, where the code is generated by real-time workshop and downloaded on the target machine. Two different types of proportional–integral–derivative controllers are applied on the experimental robot manipulator for the real-time plasma cutting process’s trajectory control using this hardware system. First, the performance of a standard proportional–integral–derivative controller is evaluated on this manipulator. Then, a novel proportional–integral–derivative controller structure is used to control the system, and it is compared with a standard proportional–integral–derivative controller. This study shows that the control system for a plasma cutting robot can be established inexpensively, and MATLAB xPC and different controllers can be applied on this system. Moreover, the study concludes that the novel proportional–integral–derivative controller used in this study gives better results for plasma cutting robots than the standard proportional–integral–derivative controller.

  16. Genesis of Tuzla salt basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušić, Amir; Baraković, Amir; Komatina, Snezana

    2017-04-01

    Salt is condition for the survival of the human race, and holds a special place in the exploitation of mineral resources. It is the only mineral raw material used in direct feeding, and therefore has its own specialty. Salt is a crystalline mineral that is found in seawater, as well as in underground areas where it is formed by deposition of salt sediments. Occurrences of salt water near Tuzla and Gornja Tuzla have been known since the time of the Romans as "ad salinas". The name itself connects Bosnia with its richness in salt, because the word barefoot, which is preserved in a north-Albanian dialect, means a place where boiling salted water are obtained. At the time of the Bosnian kings, these regions are named Soli, which is in connection with occurences of saline sources. Geological studies of rock salt in the area of Tuzla basin are practically began after the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in the period from 1878 to 1918. Geological field work was conducted K. Paul, H. Hefer, E. Tietze and F. Katzer. Monomineral deposit of rock salt Tetima is made of halite and anhydrite mixed with marl belt, while the bay of salt in Tuzla is polymineral and contains a considerable amount of thenardite (Na2SO4) and rare minerals: nortupit, nahkolit, bradleit, probertit, glauberite and others. Both salt deposits were created as a product of chemical sedimentation in the lower Miocene Badenian sediments. The main objective of this paper is to show the genesis of the deposits and the spatial and genetic connection. In addition, genesis of geological research in the areas of Tuzla basin will be presented.

  17. A Pilot Study to Validate a Standardized One-Week Salt Estimation Method Evaluating Salt Intake and Its Sources for Family Members in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a new method named the “one-week salt estimation method” that could estimate an individual’s salt intake and the sources of salt in the diet, and to evaluate this new method with a 24-h urine collection. The new method estimates salt intake from: (1 household cooking by weighing the family salt container and other high-salt condiments or sauces at the beginning and end of a week; (2 processed food according to established China food composition figures; and (3 cafeteria or restaurant meals using the results of previous studies. Consumption of salt additives and major salt contained foods and salt intake related eating habits were collected using a structured simple seven-day questionnaire. In order to validate the method, we studied 37 individuals from 11 families using the new method and 26 of these participants collected seven concurrent 24-h urine samples. The average salt intake for the 26 participants was 15.6 ± 5.5 g/person/day (mean ± standard deviation by the 24-h urine collection and 13.7 ± 6.5 g/person/day by the new method. The difference was 1.8 ± 4.2 g/day/person (p = 0.037. The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.762 (p < 0.001 and the partial correlation coefficient was 0.771 (p < 0.001 when adjusted for family code. Bland-Altman Plot showed the average of the difference between the two methods was −1.83, with 95% limits of −10.1 to 6.5 g/person/day. The new method showed that 43.7% of salt intake came from household cooking (33.5% from cooking salt, 10.2% from other condiments and sauces, 12.9% from processed food, and 43.4% from eating out. In conclusion, despite its limitations of underestimating salt intake, the “one-week salt estimation method” is easier for people to implement and is likely to provide useful information that highlights the excessively high intake of salt and its sources, and in turn is helpful in guiding dietary salt reduction.

  18. Benchmark Simulation of Natural Circulation Cooling System with Salt Working Fluid Using SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, K. K.; Scarlat, R. O.; Hu, R.

    2017-09-03

    Liquid salt-cooled reactors, such as the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR), offer passive decay heat removal through natural circulation using Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) loops. The behavior of such systems should be well-understood through performance analysis. The advanced system thermal-hydraulics tool System Analysis Module (SAM) from Argonne National Laboratory has been selected for this purpose. The work presented here is part of a larger study in which SAM modeling capabilities are being enhanced for the system analyses of FHR or Molten Salt Reactors (MSR). Liquid salt thermophysical properties have been implemented in SAM, as well as properties of Dowtherm A, which is used as a simulant fluid for scaled experiments, for future code validation studies. Additional physics modules to represent phenomena specific to salt-cooled reactors, such as freezing of coolant, are being implemented in SAM. This study presents a useful first benchmark for the applicability of SAM to liquid salt-cooled reactors: it provides steady-state and transient comparisons for a salt reactor system. A RELAP5-3D model of the Mark-1 Pebble-Bed FHR (Mk1 PB-FHR), and in particular its DRACS loop for emergency heat removal, provides steady state and transient results for flow rates and temperatures in the system that are used here for code-to-code comparison with SAM. The transient studied is a loss of forced circulation with SCRAM event. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first application of SAM to FHR or any other molten salt reactors. While building these models in SAM, any gaps in the code’s capability to simulate such systems are identified and addressed immediately, or listed as future improvements to the code.

  19. Molten Salt Promoting Effect in Double Salt CO2 Absorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong S.; Chen, Haobo; Singh, Prabhakar; King, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of molten salts as catalysts for CO2 absorption by MgO, and extend these observations to the MgO-containing double salt oxides. We will show that the phenomena involved with CO2 absorption by MgO and MgO-based double salts are similar and general, but with some important differences. This paper focuses on the following key concepts: i) identification of conditions that favor or disfavor participation of isolated MgO during double salt absorption, and investigation of methods to increase the absorption capacity of double salt systems by including MgO participation; ii) examination of the relationship between CO2 uptake and melting point of the promoter salt, leading to the recognition of the role of pre-melting (surface melting) in these systems; and iii) extension of the reaction pathway model developed for the MgO-NaNO3 system to the double salt systems. This information advances our understanding of MgO-based CO2 absorption systems for application with pre-combustion gas streams.

  20. Towards one PC for systems with different security levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidermacher, David N.; Zimmer, Joerg

    Companies and organisations caring about the protection of critical data or critical systems have long struggled with the burden of maintaining separate computers. Commercial grade operating systems and virtualization solutions such as Windows, Linux, and VMware are unsuitable for security assurance to the high levels required for this kind of application sharing on a single PC platform. Custom solutions have failed to gain acceptance as cost containment pressures favour commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS) platforms. In addition, common PC hardware has had serious security limitations that prevent even a high assurance software solution from achieving the required domain separation. The hope for a truly high assurance, multi-level secure PC is coming closer to reality by virtue of recent innovations, both in software and hardware.

  1. Wind tunnel test on PC cable-stayed bridge; PC shachokyo no taifu seino shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Y. [Kyushu Inst. of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-30

    This paper describes the wind tunnel test on a PC cable-stayed bridge. The aerodynamic force that acts on a building is represented by the drag that works in the wind direction, the lift that works perpendicularly to the wind direction, and the aerodynamic moment that causes rotation. In the measurement of wind load, a girder is partially extracted in the wind tunnel and set in a three-component balance, and the drag, lift, and aerodynamic moment are measured using a strain meter while blowing the wind. In a wind tunnel experiment, the similarity on Reynolds number, field number, rigidity, hydraulic force, structural attenuation, and reduced wind velocity is required. However, the wind velocity in the actual bridge uses the same air as that in an experiment. The similarity rule on the Reynolds is not thus satisfied. It is necessary to cause no self-excited vibration (galloping and flutter) as wind-resistant performance and suppress the eddy excitation to less than the allowable amplitude. Moreover, the three-dimensional experiment using an elastic model is conducted in addition to the two-dimensional experiment using a rigid model. In the three-dimensional experiment, various vibration modes that occur in the actual bridge appear. 12 refs., 15 figs.

  2. Bedded-salt repository analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiffre, M.S.; Kaplan, M.F.; Ensminger, D.A.; Oston, S.G.; Nalbandian, J.Y.

    1980-03-31

    This report contains a description of an analysis of generic nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. This analysis was performed by TASC for inclusion in a major Lawrence Livermore Laboratory report to NRC; this report therefore should be viewed as providing more complete and detailed information about this analysis than was possible to include in the LLL report. The analysis is performed with the NUTRAN computer codes which are described in the report. The model to be analyzed is defined, and the results of a series of possible waste migration scenarios are presented. Several of these scenarios are used as the basis for a sensitivity analysis, and an uncertainty analysis utilizing Monte Carlo techniques is also performed. A new method for defining the consequences to users of a well drilled near the repository is also described, and results are presented based on two of the waste migration scenarios.

  3. The Aesthetics of Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Computer art is often associated with computer-generated expressions (digitally manipulated audio/images in music, video, stage design, media facades, etc.). In recent computer art, however, the code-text itself – not the generated output – has become the artwork (Perl Poetry, ASCII Art, obfuscated...... code, etc.). The presentation relates this artistic fascination of code to a media critique expressed by Florian Cramer, claiming that the graphical interface represents a media separation (of text/code and image) causing alienation to the computer’s materiality. Cramer is thus the voice of a new ‘code...... avant-garde’. In line with Cramer, the artists Alex McLean and Adrian Ward (aka Slub) declare: “art-oriented programming needs to acknowledge the conditions of its own making – its poesis.” By analysing the Live Coding performances of Slub (where they program computer music live), the presentation...

  4. Opening up codings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensig, Jakob; Heinemann, Trine

    2015-01-01

    doing formal coding and when doing more “traditional” conversation analysis research based on collections. We are more wary, however, of the implication that coding-based research is the end result of a process that starts with qualitative investigations and ends with categories that can be coded......We welcome Tanya Stivers’s discussion (Stivers, 2015/this issue) of coding social interaction and find that her descriptions of the processes of coding open up important avenues for discussion, among other things of the precise ad hoc considerations that researchers need to bear in mind, both when....... Instead we propose that the promise of coding-based research lies in its ability to open up new qualitative questions....

  5. Overview of Code Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The verified code for the SIFT Executive is not the code that executes on the SIFT system as delivered. The running versions of the SIFT Executive contain optimizations and special code relating to the messy interface to the hardware broadcast interface and to packing of data to conserve space in the store of the BDX930 processors. The running code was in fact developed prior to and without consideration of any mechanical verification. This was regarded as necessary experimentation with the SIFT hardware and special purpose Pascal compiler. The Pascal code sections cover: the selection of a schedule from the global executive broadcast, scheduling, dispatching, three way voting, and error reporting actions of the SIFT Executive. Not included in these sections of Pascal code are: the global executive, five way voting, clock synchronization, interactive consistency, low level broadcasting, and program loading, initialization, and schedule construction.

  6. Feature of extradosed PC bridge and its design; Daihenshin keburu PC kyo no tokucho to sono sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiya, M. [Japan Bridge and Structure Institute Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-31

    A PC bridge with the eccentricity of the external cable increased by protruding the deviated member to the outside of the beam for more effective use of the external cable is called a `PC bridge with tendons of large eccentricity.` The extradosed bridge of main beam/cable joint type is a PC bridge with the external cable arranged via a tower-shaped eccentric member provided at the intermediate support, and resembles morphologically a cable stayed bridge having a very low tower. There are two types of extradosed bridges, i.e. a type with concrete coated external cable (cable stayed slab bridge) and the other with non-coated external cable (external cable stayed bridge). Features, structural planning and designing of the general external cable stayed bridge are shown. The features are the possession of intermediate characteristics of those of the PC beam bridge and the PC cable stayed bridge from the viewpoints of structural property, workability, economic efficiency, and scenic property. Outline of the plan, selection of structural data, design of the external cable, and structural characteristics in the ultimate state are discussed. 19 refs., 18 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Realizing broad-bandwidth visible wavelength photodiode based on solution-processed ZnPc/PC71BM dyad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Qayyum; Fatima, Noshin; Karimov, Khasan S.; Ahmed, Muhammad M.; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2017-02-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a solution-processed visible wavelength organic photodiode (OPD) using donor/acceptor dyad of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric-acid methyl ester (PC71BM), respectively. The synergic absorption profiles of both ZnPc and PC71BM moieties have been exploited to realize broader (350 and 800 nm) and consistent absorption spectrum of the photoactive film. The optimum loading ratio (by volume) of D/A dyad has been estimated to be 1:0.8, via quenching phenomenon in ZnPc photoluminescence spectrum. The performance of the OPD has been evaluated by detecting the photocurrent density with respect to varied illumination levels (0-150 mW/cm2) of impinging light at different reverse bias conditions. Under identical reverse bias mode, the photocurrent density has shown significant upsurge as the incident intensity of light is increased; ultimately leading to the significantly higher responsivity (162.4 μA/W) of the fabricated diode. The light to dark current density ratio (Jph/Jd) of the device at 3 V reverse bias has been calculated to be ∼20.12. The transient photocurrent density response of the fabricated OPD has also been characterized at -4 V operational bias under switch ON/OFF illumination. The measured response and recovery time for the fabricated OPD are ∼200 and 300 ms, respectively.

  8. Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of Kevlar Fiber-Reinforced PC/ABS Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Kuljira Sujirote; Parkpoom Lorjai; Sarawut Rimdusit; Sunan Tiptipakorn

    2012-01-01

    In this research, the composites between polycarbonate (PC) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) alloy and Kevlar fiber were prepared. The flexural and tensile properties of PC/ABS alloy and its composites were determined using a universal testing machine. The synergistic behavior of flexural modulus was observed for all regions of PC contents, while the synergism of flexural strength and tensile strength were found in some PC contents. It was found that the optimum weight ratio of PC:AB...

  9. Phonological coding during reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  10. The aeroelastic code FLEXLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, B. [Stork Product Eng., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    To support the discussion on aeroelastic codes, a description of the code FLEXLAST was given and experiences within benchmarks and measurement programmes were summarized. The code FLEXLAST has been developed since 1982 at Stork Product Engineering (SPE). Since 1992 FLEXLAST has been used by Dutch industries for wind turbine and rotor design. Based on the comparison with measurements, it can be concluded that the main shortcomings of wind turbine modelling lie in the field of aerodynamics, wind field and wake modelling. (au)

  11. Engineered Option Treatment of Remediated Nitrate Salts: Surrogate Batch-Blending Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    This report provides results from batch-blending test work for remediated nitrate salt (RNS) treatment. Batch blending was identified as a preferred option for blending RNS and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) material with zeolite to effectively safe the salt/Swheat material identified as ignitable (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency code D001). Blending with zeolite was the preferred remediation option identified in the Options Assessment Report and was originally proposed as the best option for remediation by Clark and Funk in their report, Chemical Reactivity and Recommended Remediation Strategy for Los Alamos Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) Wastes, and also found to be a preferred option in the Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing. This test work evaluated equipment and recipe alternatives to achieve effective blending of surrogate waste with zeolite.

  12. Comparison of bile salt/phosphatidylcholine mixed micelles in solubilization to sterols and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin; Cai, Jie; Li, Pengyu; Xu, Dongling; Ni, Xiaomin; Wen, Hui; Liu, Dan; Lin, Suizhen; Hu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Androst-3β,5α,6β-triol (Triol) is a promising neuroprotective agent, but its poor solubility restricts its development into parenteral preparations. In this study, Triol is significantly solubilized by bile salt/phosphatidylcholine mixed micelles (BS/PC-MM). All BS/PC-MM systems are tested to remarkably improve the drug solubility with various stabilities after drug loading. Among them, the sodium glycocholate (SGC)/egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) system with 2:1 ratio in weight and the total concentration of SGC and EPC of 100 mg/mL is proved to produce stable mixed micelles with high drug loading. It is found that the stability of drug-loaded mixed micelles is quite different, which might be related to the change in critical micelle concentration (CMC) after incorporating drugs. SGC/EPC and SGC/soya phosphatidylcholine (SPC) remain transparent under accelerated conditions and manifest a decreased CMC (dropping from 0.105 to 0.056 mg/mL and from 0.067 to 0.024 mg/mL, respectively). In contrast, swine bile acid-sodium salt (SBA-Na)/PC and sodium deoxycholate (SDC)/PC are accompanied by drug precipitation and reached the maximum CMC on the first and the third days, respectively. Interestingly, the variation of CMC under accelerated testing conditions highly matches the drug-precipitating event in the primary stability experiment. In brief, the bile salt/phosphatidylcholine system exists as a potential strategy of improving sterol drug solubility. CMC variation under accelerated testing conditions might be a simple and easy method to predict the stability of drug-loaded mixed micelles.

  13. Identification and Functional Characterization of G6PC2 Coding Variants Influencing Glycemic Traits Define an Effector Transcript at the G6PC2-ABCB11 Locus

    OpenAIRE

    Anubha Mahajan; Xueling Sim; Hui Jin Ng; Alisa Manning; Rivas, Manuel A.; Highland, Heather M; Locke, Adam E.; Niels Grarup; Hae Kyung Im; Pablo Cingolani; Jason Flannick; Pierre Fontanillas; Christian Fuchsberger; Gaulton, Kyle J; Teslovich, Tanya M.

    2017-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI) have identified common variant signals which explain 4.8% and 1.2% of trait variance, respectively. It is hypothesized that low-frequency and rare variants could contribute substantially to unexplained genetic variance. To test this, we analyzed exome-array data from up to 33,231 non-diabetic individuals of European ancestry. We found exome-wide significant (P<5×10-7) evidence for two loci not previously highl...

  14. Iodized Salt Sales in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Maalouf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iodized salt has been an important source of dietary iodine, a trace element important for regulating human growth, development, and metabolic functions. This analysis identified iodized table salt sales as a percentage of retail salt sales using Nielsen ScanTrack. We identified 1117 salt products, including 701 salt blends and 416 other salt products, 57 of which were iodized. When weighted by sales volume in ounces or per item, 53% contained iodized salt. These findings may provide a baseline for future monitoring of sales of iodized salt.

  15. The Local White Dwarf Population: The 25 pc Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holberg, Jay B.; Sion, E. M.; Oswalt, T. D.

    2011-01-01

    Currently the most complete sample of white dwarf stars comes from the local white dwarf population within 20 pc, which is believed to be 80 percent complete. This sample contains some 132 degenerate stars. We hope to effectively double the number of known local white dwarfs by extending the sample boundary to 25 pc, while still maintaining a high level of completeness. We discuss plans for extending the local sample and some of the studies that will be possible with this enlarged population. This work was funded in part by NSF Grant AST-1008845.

  16. PC Based Linear Variable Differential Displacement Measurement Uses Optical Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar MAITI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available PC based linear variable differential displacement (LVDD measurement with optical approach has been presented. The technique is a good blending of both hardware and software and is basically an alternative method of linear variable differential transformer (LVDT. A visual basic (VB programming is used for this PC based measurement. Here the voltage output and the displacement of the reflector can be studied and stored continuously. Theoretical predictions are supported by experimental results. This technique can be used for the measurement of some non-electrical parameters e.g. force, torque and liquid level etc.

  17. Data Communication PC/NaI-borehole probe (Hardware & Software)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch

    Development of new hard- & software to a NaI borehole probe on a PC. Save data from the probe each 10'th sec, handle the data from the probe and make calculations every 10'th sec and show the results on the monitor.......Development of new hard- & software to a NaI borehole probe on a PC. Save data from the probe each 10'th sec, handle the data from the probe and make calculations every 10'th sec and show the results on the monitor....

  18. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  19. Decoding of Cyclic Codes,

    Science.gov (United States)

    INFORMATION THEORY, *DECODING), (* DATA TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS , DECODING), STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, STOCHASTIC PROCESSES, CODING, WHITE NOISE, NUMBER THEORY, CORRECTIONS, BINARY ARITHMETIC, SHIFT REGISTERS, CONTROL SYSTEMS, USSR

  20. ARC Code TI: ACCEPT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACCEPT consists of an overall software infrastructure framework and two main software components. The software infrastructure framework consists of code written to...

  1. Diameter Perfect Lee Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Horak, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Lee codes have been intensively studied for more than 40 years. Interest in these codes has been triggered by the Golomb-Welch conjecture on the existence of perfect error-correcting Lee codes. In this paper we deal with the existence and enumeration of diameter perfect Lee codes. As main results we determine all q for which there exists a linear diameter-4 perfect Lee code of word length n over Z_{q}, and prove that for each n\\geq3 there are unaccountably many diameter-4 perfect Lee codes of word length n over Z. This is in a strict contrast with perfect error-correcting Lee codes of word length n over Z as there is a unique such code for n=3, and its is conjectured that this is always the case when 2n+1 is a prime. Diameter perfect Lee codes will be constructed by an algebraic construction that is based on a group homomorphism. This will allow us to design an efficient algorithm for their decoding.

  2. Expander chunked codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Yang, Shenghao; Ye, Baoliu; Yin, Yitong; Lu, Sanglu

    2015-12-01

    Chunked codes are efficient random linear network coding (RLNC) schemes with low computational cost, where the input packets are encoded into small chunks (i.e., subsets of the coded packets). During the network transmission, RLNC is performed within each chunk. In this paper, we first introduce a simple transfer matrix model to characterize the transmission of chunks and derive some basic properties of the model to facilitate the performance analysis. We then focus on the design of overlapped chunked codes, a class of chunked codes whose chunks are non-disjoint subsets of input packets, which are of special interest since they can be encoded with negligible computational cost and in a causal fashion. We propose expander chunked (EC) codes, the first class of overlapped chunked codes that have an analyzable performance, where the construction of the chunks makes use of regular graphs. Numerical and simulation results show that in some practical settings, EC codes can achieve rates within 91 to 97 % of the optimum and outperform the state-of-the-art overlapped chunked codes significantly.

  3. QR codes for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Waters, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Find out how to effectively create, use, and track QR codes QR (Quick Response) codes are popping up everywhere, and businesses are reaping the rewards. Get in on the action with the no-nonsense advice in this streamlined, portable guide. You'll find out how to get started, plan your strategy, and actually create the codes. Then you'll learn to link codes to mobile-friendly content, track your results, and develop ways to give your customers value that will keep them coming back. It's all presented in the straightforward style you've come to know and love, with a dash of humor thrown

  4. Does stress induce salt intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Susan J; Turner, Anne I; Nowson, Caryl A

    2010-06-01

    Psychological stress is a common feature of modern day societies, and contributes to the global burden of disease. It was proposed by Henry over 20 years ago that the salt intake of a society reflects the level of stress, and that stress, through its effect on increasing salt intake, is an important factor in the development of hypertension. This review evaluates the evidence from animal and human studies to determine if stress does induce a salt appetite and increase salt consumption in human subjects. Findings from animal studies suggest that stress may drive salt intake, with evidence for a potential mechanism via the sympatho-adrenal medullary system and/or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. In contrast, in the few laboratory studies conducted in human subjects, none has found that acute stress affects salt intake. However, one study demonstrated that life stress (chronic stress) was associated with increased consumption of snack foods, which included, but not specifically, highly salty snacks. Studies investigating the influence of chronic stress on eating behaviours are required, including consumption of salty foods. From the available evidence, we can conclude that in free-living, Na-replete individuals, consuming Na in excess of physiological requirements, stress is unlikely to be a major contributor to salt intake.

  5. Dietary Salt Exacerbates Experimental Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Alan L; Liu, Bo; Rogers, Troy D; Sartor, R Balfour; Miao, Edward A

    2017-08-01

    The Western diet is characterized by high protein, sugar, fat, and low fiber intake, and is widely believed to contribute to the incidence and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, high sodium chloride salt content, a defining feature of processed foods, has not been considered as a possible environmental factor that might drive IBD. We set out to bridge this gap. We examined murine models of colitis on either a high salt diet (HSD) or a low salt diet. We demonstrate that an HSD exacerbates inflammatory pathology in the IL-10-deficient murine model of colitis relative to mice fed a low salt diet. This was correlated with enhanced expression of numerous proinflammatory cytokines. Surprisingly, sodium accumulated in the colons of mice on an HSD, suggesting a direct effect of salt within the colon. Similar to the IL-10-deficient model, an HSD also enhanced cytokine expression during infection by Salmonella typhimurium This occurred in the first 3 d of infection, suggesting that an HSD potentiates an innate immune response. Indeed, in cultured dendritic cells we found that high salt media potentiates cytokine expression downstream of TLR4 activation via p38 MAPK and SGK1. A third common colitis model, administration of dextran sodium sulfate, was hopelessly confounded by the high sodium content of the dextran sodium sulfate. Our results raise the possibility that high dietary salt is an environmental factor that drives increased inflammation in IBD. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Quality assessment of platelet concentrates prepared by platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC and apheresis-PC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ravindra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC, and apheresis-PC were prepared and their quality parameters were assessed. Study Design: In this study, the following platelet products were prepared: from random donor platelets (i platelet rich plasma - platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, and (ii buffy coat poor- platelet concentrate (BC-PC and (iii single donor platelets (apheresis-PC by different methods. Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: swirling, volume of the platelet concentrate, platelet count, WBC count and pH. Results: A total of 146 platelet concentrates (64 of PRP-PC, 62 of BC-PC and 20 of apheresis-PC were enrolled in this study. The mean volume of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 62.30±22.68 ml, 68.81±22.95 ml and 214.05±9.91 ml and ranged from 22-135 ml, 32-133 ml and 200-251 ml respectively. The mean platelet count of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 7.6±2.97 x 1010/unit, 7.3±2.98 x 1010/unit and 4.13±1.32 x 1011/unit and ranged from 3.2-16.2 x 1010/unit, 0.6-16.4 x 1010/unit and 1.22-8.9 x 1011/unit respectively. The mean WBC count in PRP-PC (n = 10, BC-PC (n = 10 and apheresis-PC (n = 6 units was 4.05±0.48 x 107/unit, 2.08±0.39 x 107/unit and 4.8±0.8 x 106/unit and ranged from 3.4 -4.77 x 107/unit, 1.6-2.7 x 107/unit and 3.2 - 5.2 x 106/unit respectively. A total of 26 units were analyzed for pH changes. Out of these units, 10 each were PRP-PC and BC-PC and 6 units were apheresis-PC. Their mean pH was 6.7±0.26 (mean±SD and ranged from 6.5 - 7.0 and no difference was observed among all three types of platelet concentrate. Conclusion: PRP-PC and BC-PC units were comparable in terms of swirling, platelet count per unit and pH. As expected, we found WBC contamination to be less in BC-PC than PRP-PC units. Variation in volume was more in BC-PC than PRP-PC units and this suggests that further standardization is required for preparation of BC-PC

  7. On {\\sigma}-LCD codes

    OpenAIRE

    Carlet, Claude; Mesnager, Sihem; Tang, Chunming; Qi, Yanfeng

    2017-01-01

    Linear complementary pairs (LCP) of codes play an important role in armoring implementations against side-channel attacks and fault injection attacks. One of the most common ways to construct LCP of codes is to use Euclidean linear complementary dual (LCD) codes. In this paper, we first introduce the concept of linear codes with $\\sigma$ complementary dual ($\\sigma$-LCD), which includes known Euclidean LCD codes, Hermitian LCD codes, and Galois LCD codes. As Euclidean LCD codes, $\\sigma$-LCD ...

  8. New developments in the Saphire computer codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, K.D.; Wood, S.T.; Kvarfordt, K.J. [Idaho Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) refers to a suite of computer programs that were developed to create and analyze a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a nuclear power plant. Many recent enhancements to this suite of codes have been made. This presentation will provide an overview of these features and capabilities. The presentation will include a discussion of the new GEM module. This module greatly reduces and simplifies the work necessary to use the SAPHIRE code in event assessment applications. An overview of the features provided in the new Windows version will also be provided. This version is a full Windows 32-bit implementation and offers many new and exciting features. [A separate computer demonstration was held to allow interested participants to get a preview of these features.] The new capabilities that have been added since version 5.0 will be covered. Some of these major new features include the ability to store an unlimited number of basic events, gates, systems, sequences, etc.; the addition of improved reporting capabilities to allow the user to generate and {open_quotes}scroll{close_quotes} through custom reports; the addition of multi-variable importance measures; and the simplification of the user interface. Although originally designed as a PRA Level 1 suite of codes, capabilities have recently been added to SAPHIRE to allow the user to apply the code in Level 2 analyses. These features will be discussed in detail during the presentation. The modifications and capabilities added to this version of SAPHIRE significantly extend the code in many important areas. Together, these extensions represent a major step forward in PC-based risk analysis tools. This presentation provides a current up-to-date status of these important PRA analysis tools.

  9. Orpinomyces cellulase celf protein and coding sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Liang; Chen, Huizhong; Ljungdahl, Lars G.

    2000-09-05

    A cDNA (1,520 bp), designated celF, consisting of an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide (CelF) of 432 amino acids was isolated from a cDNA library of the anaerobic rumen fungus Orpinomyces PC-2 constructed in Escherichia coli. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed that starting from the N-terminus, CelF consists of a signal peptide, a cellulose binding domain (CBD) followed by an extremely Asn-rich linker region which separate the CBD and the catalytic domains. The latter is located at the C-terminus. The catalytic domain of CelF is highly homologous to CelA and CelC of Orpinomyces PC-2, to CelA of Neocallimastix patriciarum and also to cellobiohydrolase IIs (CBHIIs) from aerobic fungi. However, Like CelA of Neocallimastix patriciarum, CelF does not have the noncatalytic repeated peptide domain (NCRPD) found in CelA and CelC from the same organism. The recombinant protein CelF hydrolyzes cellooligosaccharides in the pattern of CBHII, yielding only cellobiose as product with cellotetraose as the substrate. The genomic celF is interrupted by a 111 bp intron, located within the region coding for the CBD. The intron of the celF has features in common with genes from aerobic filamentous fungi.

  10. Molecular cloning and expression of prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 in the pituitary gland of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tomura, Hideaki; Kikuyama, Sakae; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2003-09-01

    We cloned cDNAs encoding PC1 and PC2 from a cDNA library constructed for the anterior pituitary gland of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) and sequenced them. The bullfrog PC1 cDNA consisted of 2972 base pairs (bp) with an open reading frame of 2208 bp and encoded a protein of 736 amino acids, including a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acids. The protein showed a high homology to R. ridibunda PC1 (95.1%) and mammalian PC1 (72.6%). The bullfrog PC2 cDNA consisted of 2242 bp with an open reading frame of 1914 bp and encoded a protein of 638 amino acids, including a putative signal peptide of 23 amino acids. This protein showed a high homology to R. ridibunda PC2 (95.5%) and mammalian PC2 (84.8%). The catalytic triad of serine proteinases of the subtilisin family was found at Asp-168, His-209, and Ser-383 in the PC1 protein and at Asp-167, His-208, and Ser-384 in the PC2 protein. In situ hybridization staining revealed that PC2 mRNA was detected in corticotrope cells of the tadpoles, but not in those of the adults. In the adult, only PC1 mRNA was detected in the pars distalis but both PC1 and PC2 mRNAs were detected in the pars intermedia. The data also showed that PC1 mRNA was expressed in gonadotrope cells.

  11. Charge transfer at F{sub 16}CoPc and CoPc interfaces to Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Susi; Treske, Uwe; Grobosch, Mandy; Knupfer, Martin [IFW Dresden (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    We analyze the electronic properties of the interfaces between cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc), as well as fluorinated cobalt phthalocyanine (F{sub 16}CoPc), and an Au(100) single-crystal using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and valence band ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. Our data demonstrate that for the monolayers of both materials a charge transfer occurs from the substrate to the center of the organic molecules resulting in a central Co(I) ion. This leads to the conclusion that this effect essentially is fluorination- and ligand-independent. (orig.)

  12. Application of sPC-SAFT and group contribution sPC-SAFT to polymer systems-Capabilities and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tihic, Amra; von Solms, Nicolas; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2009-01-01

    PC-SAFT model, with and without GC. The reported results contribute to a better understanding of the applicability of the sPC-SAFT model to binary polymer mixtures, and identify both models as good predictive tools for several industrial applications. Limitations are also identified and discussed....... predictive capability of the model demonstrates satisfactory description of the fluid behaviour of several polymer systems, including both vapour-liquid equilibria and liquid-liquid equilibria. This work continues the systematic study on phase behaviour of polymer systems with the two versions of the s...

  13. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Johanneke L H C; Tournier, Carole; Knoop, Janine E; Kooyman, Gonnie; Smit, Gerrit

    2009-05-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various stimulation conditions involving relative changes in NaCl concentration of 20% and 38%. Changes in salt delivery profile had similar effect on saltiness perception when delivered either by a sipwise method or by a gustometer. The impact of concentration variations and frequency of concentration changes was further investigated with the gustometer method. Five second boosts and 2 s pulses were delivered during 3 sequential 10-s intervals, whereas the delivered total salt content was the same for all conditions. Two second pulses were found to increase saltiness perception, but only when the pulses were delivered during the first seconds of stimulation. Results suggest that the frequency, timing, and concentration differences of salt stimuli can affect saltiness. Specifically, a short and intense stimulus can increase salt perception, possibly through a reduction of adaptation.

  14. Salt intake, plasma sodium, and worldwide salt reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; Macgregor, Graham A

    2012-06-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that a reduction in salt intake from the current level of approximately 9-12 g/d in most countries of the world to the recommended level of 5-6 g/d lowers blood pressure (BP) in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals. A further reduction to 3-4 g/d has a greater effect. Prospective studies and outcome trials have demonstrated that a lower salt intake is related to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Cost-effectiveness analyses have documented that salt reduction is more or at the very least just as cost-effective as tobacco control in reducing cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The mechanisms whereby salt raises blood pressure and increases cardiovascular risk are not fully understood. The existing concepts focus on the tendency for an increase in extracellular fluid volume. Increasing evidence suggests that small increases in plasma sodium may have a direct effect on BP and the cardiovascular system, independent of extracellular volume. All countries should adopt a coherent and workable strategy to reduce salt intake in the whole population. Even a modest reduction in population salt intake will have major beneficial effects on health, along with major cost savings.

  15. Scrum Code Camps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene; Dahlgaard, Bente

    2013-01-01

    is required. In this paper we present the design of such a new approach, the Scrum Code Camp, which can be used to assess agile team capability in a transparent and consistent way. A design science research approach is used to analyze properties of two instances of the Scrum Code Camp where seven agile teams...

  16. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    be fixed to define codes over such domains). New decoding schemes that take advantage of such connections can be devised. These may soon show up in a technique called code division multiple access (CDMA) which is proposed as a basis for digital cellular communication. CDMA provides a facility for many users to ...

  17. Codes of Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    Most schools have a code of conduct, pledge, or behavioral standards, set by the district or school board with the school community. In this article, the author features some schools that created a new vision of instilling code of conducts to students based on work quality, respect, safety and courtesy. She suggests that communicating the code…

  18. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March 1997 pp 33-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/03/0033-0047 ...

  19. Code Generation = A* + BURS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nymeyer, Albert; Katoen, Joost P.; Westra, Ymte; Alblas, H.; Gyimóthy, Tibor

    1996-01-01

    A system called BURS that is based on term rewrite systems and a search algorithm A* are combined to produce a code generator that generates optimal code. The theory underlying BURS is re-developed, formalised and explained in this work. The search algorithm uses a cost heuristic that is derived

  20. Dress Codes for Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses an e-mail survey of principals from across the country regarding whether or not their school had a formal staff dress code. The results indicate that most did not have a formal dress code, but agreed that professional dress for teachers was not only necessary, but showed respect for the school and had a…

  1. Informal control code logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    General definitions as well as rules of reasoning regarding control code production, distribution, deployment, and usage are described. The role of testing, trust, confidence and risk analysis is considered. A rationale for control code testing is sought and found for the case of safety critical

  2. Interleaved Product LDPC Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Marco; Cancellieri, Giovanni; Chiaraluce, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Product LDPC codes take advantage of LDPC decoding algorithms and the high minimum distance of product codes. We propose to add suitable interleavers to improve the waterfall performance of LDPC decoding. Interleaving also reduces the number of low weight codewords, that gives a further advantage in the error floor region.

  3. Nuremberg code turns 60

    OpenAIRE

    Thieren, Michel; Mauron, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This month marks sixty years since the Nuremberg code – the basic text of modern medical ethics – was issued. The principles in this code were articulated in the context of the Nuremberg trials in 1947. We would like to use this anniversary to examine its ability to address the ethical challenges of our time.

  4. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 1. Error Correcting Codes The Hamming Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 1 January ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  5. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION WITH CLIPSITS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, , .

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh

  6. PC Based Display for Sonar Applications: A Design Experience

    OpenAIRE

    G. Miny; Anney Morris; M.A. Jayendran; A. Unnikrishnan

    1994-01-01

    An attempt was made to standardise the hardware and the software used for the sonar display systems. The idea of standardise hardware suggested itself in using an IBM-compatible PC AT which configures with an Intel 80386 CPU and a standard VGA display adapter card. The software consists of Intel assembly procedures embedded in a PASCAL (turbo 4.0) environment.

  7. Porphyrin-phthalocyanine nanorods (P-PcNR) formed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tetra {2,(3)-(2-mercaptopyridine) phthalocyaninato}(MTSPyPc). The transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of the colloid suspension of the aggregate confirmed formation of nanorods while their electron spectra showed that the molecules formed J-aggregation. Keywords: Porphyrin, Phthalocyanine, Nanorods, ...

  8. Level of personal computer (PC) tablet penetration among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to find out level of Personal Computer (PC) tablet penetration among undergraduate students of university of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. Random sampling technique was adopted to select 200 students from selected Faculties in University of Ilorin. The questionnaire were administered, collected and ...

  9. Comparison between a newly developed PC-based Doppler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To determine the accuracy of the resistance index (RI) of flow velocity waveforms of the umbilical artery measured using a newly developed PC-based continuous wave Doppler device (Umbiflow) with regard to systematic and random variations when compared with a commercial standard (Vasoflow). Design.

  10. Privacy Impact Assessment for the PC Label System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PC Label System collects contact information for individuals with an interest in EPA's Region 1. Learn how this data will be collected in the system, how it will be used, access to the data, the purpose of data collection, and record retention policies

  11. Mathematics Programming on the Apple II and IBM PC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Roy E.; Schneider, David I.

    1987-01-01

    Details the features of BASIC used in mathematics programming and provides the information needed to translate between the Apple II and IBM PC computers. Discusses inputing a user-defined function, setting scroll windows, displaying subscripts and exponents, variable names, mathematical characters and special symbols. (TW)

  12. A PC-based Workstation for Robotic Discectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadei, C.; Fiorini, P.; Martelli, S.; Montanari, M.; Morri, A.

    1998-01-01

    Ths paper describes a PC-based controller for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. The development is motivated by the need of reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to X-rays during surgical procedures such as percutanrous discectomy.

  13. Photodynamic inactivation of Candida albicans by BAM-SiPc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Cheung-Wai; Tsang, Paul W K; Lo, Pui-Chi; Seneviratne, C J; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Fong, Wing-Ping

    2010-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a treatment that combines the use of three non-toxic components, viz. photosensitiser, light and oxygen to cause localised oxidative photodamage. In the present study, the antifungal effect of the photosensitiser, BAM-SiPc, an unsymmetrical bisamino phthalocyanine, was investigated. BAM-SiPc was effective in photo-inactivating Candida albicans in a dose-dependent manner. The cell viability as determined by the clonogenic assay was reduced to c. 10% at 0.02 micromol l(-1) BAM-SiPc with a total fluence of 12 J cm(-2) at a cell density of 10(7) cells ml(-1). A short incubation time of 5-15 min was sufficient to allow the photosensitiser to exert its optimal antifungal activity. Microscopical analysis showed that BAM-SiPc was effectively internalised by the fungal cells. Photodynamic treatment led to an increase in the intracellular reactive oxygen species level and disturbed the membrane integrity of the fungal cells.

  14. Salting-in and salting-out of water-soluble polymers in aqueous salt solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Jahani, Farahnaz

    2012-05-03

    To obtain further experimental evidence for the mechanisms of the salting effect produced by the addition of salting-out or sating-in inducing electrolytes to aqueous solutions of water-soluble polymers, systematic studies on the vapor-liquid equilibria and liquid-liquid equilibria of aqueous solutions of several polymers are performed in the presence of a large series of electrolytes. Polymers are polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 250 (PEGDME250), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 2000 (PEGDME2000), and polypropylene glycol 400 (PPG400), and the investigated electrolytes are KCl, NH(4)Cl, MgCl(2), (CH(3))(4)NCl, NaCl, NaNO(3), Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit (tri-sodium citrate). Aqueous solutions of PPG400 form aqueous two-phase systems with all the investigated salts; however, other investigated polymers form aqueous two-phase systems only with Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit. A relation was found between the salting-out or sating-in effects of electrolyte on the polymer aqueous solutions and the slopes of the constant water activity lines of ternary polymer-salt aqueous solutions, so that, in the case of the salting-out effect, the constant water activity lines had a concave slope, but in the case of the salting-in effects, the constant water activity lines had a convex slope. The effect of temperature, anion of electrolyte, cation of electrolyte, and type and molar mass of polymers were studied and the results interpreted in terms of the solute-water and solute-solute interactions. The salting-out effect results from the formation of ion (specially anion)-water hydration complexes, which, in turn, decreases hydration, and hence, the solubility of the polymer and the salting-in effect results from a direct binding of the cations to the ether oxygens of the polymers.

  15. Evaluation Codes from an Affine Veriety Code Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation codes (also called order domain codes) are traditionally introduced as generalized one-point geometric Goppa codes. In the present paper we will give a new point of view on evaluation codes by introducing them instead as particular nice examples of affine variety codes. Our study...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 4.9 Codes form order domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 4.10 One-point geometric Goppa codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 4.11 Bibliographical Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 References...

  16. Quantum Synchronizable Codes From Quadratic Residue Codes and Their Supercodes

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yixuan; Yuan, Jinhong; Fujiwara, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    Quantum synchronizable codes are quantum error-correcting codes designed to correct the effects of both quantum noise and block synchronization errors. While it is known that quantum synchronizable codes can be constructed from cyclic codes that satisfy special properties, only a few classes of cyclic codes have been proved to give promising quantum synchronizable codes. In this paper, using quadratic residue codes and their supercodes, we give a simple construction for quantum synchronizable...

  17. Improved classical and quantum random access codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liabøtrø, O.

    2017-05-01

    A (quantum) random access code ((Q)RAC) is a scheme that encodes n bits into m (qu)bits such that any of the n bits can be recovered with a worst case probability p >1/2 . We generalize (Q)RACs to a scheme encoding n d -levels into m (quantum) d -levels such that any d -level can be recovered with the probability for every wrong outcome value being less than 1/d . We construct explicit solutions for all n ≤d/2m-1 d -1 . For d =2 , the constructions coincide with those previously known. We show that the (Q)RACs are d -parity oblivious, generalizing ordinary parity obliviousness. We further investigate optimization of the success probabilities. For d =2 , we use the measure operators of the previously best-known solutions, but improve the encoding states to give a higher success probability. We conjecture that for maximal (n =4m-1 ,m ,p ) QRACs, p =1/2 {1 +[(√{3}+1)m-1 ] -1} is possible, and show that it is an upper bound for the measure operators that we use. We then compare (n ,m ,pq) QRACs with classical (n ,2 m ,pc) RACs. We can always find pq≥pc , but the classical code gives information about every input bit simultaneously, while the QRAC only gives information about a subset. For several different (n ,2 ,p ) QRACs, we see the same trade-off, as the best p values are obtained when the number of bits that can be obtained simultaneously is as small as possible. The trade-off is connected to parity obliviousness, since high certainty information about several bits can be used to calculate probabilities for parities of subsets.

  18. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  19. Recycling of aluminum salt cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Karvelas, D.E.

    1991-12-01

    The secondary aluminum industry generates more than 110 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of salt-cake waste every year. This waste stream contains about 3--5% aluminum, 15--30% aluminum oxide, 30--40% sodium chloride, and 20--30% potassium chloride. As much as 50% of the content of this waste is combined salt (sodium and potassium chlorides). Salt-cake waste is currently disposed of in conventional landfills. In addition, over 50 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of black dross that is not economical to reprocess a rotary furnace for aluminum recovery ends up in landfills. The composition of the dross is similar to that of salt cake, except that it contains higher concentrations of aluminum (up to 20%) and correspondingly lower amounts of salts. Because of the high solubility of the salts in water, these residues, when put in landfills, represent a potential source of pollution to surface-water and groundwater supplies. The increasing number of environmental regulations on the generation and disposal of industrial wastes are likely to restrict the disposal of these salt-containing wastes in conventional landfills. Processes exist that employ the dissolution and recovery of the salts from the waste stream. These wet-processing methods are economical only when the aluminum concentration in that waste exceeds about 10%. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a study in which existing technologies were reviewed and new concepts that are potentially more cost-effective than existing processes were developed and evaluated. These include freeze crystallization, solvent/antisolvent extraction, common-ion effect, high-pressure/high-temperature process, and capillary-effect systems. This paper presents some of the technical and economic results of the aforementioned ANL study.

  20. Homolytic reduction of onium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensterbank, Louis; Goddard, Jean-Philippe; Malacria, Max; Ollivier, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    Onium salts have proved to be efficient sources of carbon-centered radicals. They can undergo homolytic reduction by single electron transfer (SET) and participate in subsequent synthetic transformations. This review aims to provide an overview on the behavior of onium salts including diazonium, sulfonium, selenonium, telluronium, phosphonium and iodonium cations toward various reductive methods such as radiolysis, electrolysis, photolysis or the use of SET reagents. Mechanistic and synthetic aspects are presented. Applications in polymers and materials science are not covered.

  1. Microplastics in Spanish Table Salt

    OpenAIRE

    I?iguez, Maria E.; Conesa, Juan A.; Fullana, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Marine debris is widely recognized as a global environmental problem. One of its main components, microplastics, has been found in several sea salt samples from different countries, indicating that sea products are irremediably contaminated by microplastics. Previous studies show very confusing results, reporting amounts of microparticles (MPs) in salt ranging from zero to 680 MPs/kg, with no mention of the possible causes of such differences. Several errors in the experimental procedures use...

  2. Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Analysis Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinsu; Jeong, Yongjin; Lee, Deokjung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Utilizing the uranium-thorium fuel cycle shows considerable potential for the possibility of MSR. The concept of MSBR should be revised because of molten salt reactor's advantage such as outstanding neutron economy, possibility of continuous online reprocessing and refueling, a high level of inherent safety, and economic benefit by keeping off the fuel fabrication process. For the development of MSR research, this paper provides the MSBR single-cell, two-cell and whole core model for computer code input, and several calculation results including depletion calculation of each models. The calculations are carried out by using MCNP6, a Monte Carlo computer code, which has CINDER90 for depletion calculation using ENDF-VII nuclear data. From the calculation results of various reactor design parameters, the temperature coefficients are all negative at the initial state and MTC becomes positive at the equilibrium state. From the results of core rod worth, the graphite control rod alone cannot makes the core subcritical at initial state. But the equilibrium state, the core can be made subcritical state only by graphite control rods. Through the comparison of the results of each models, the two-cell method can represent the MSBR core model more accurately with a little more computational resources than the single-cell method. Many of the thermal spectrum MSR have adopted a multi-region single-fluid strategy.

  3. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Redox-Active Chromium Phthalocyanine System: Isolation of Five Oxidation States from Pc(4-) Cr(I) to Pc(2-) Cr(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Thompson, John R; Leznoff, Clifford C; Leznoff, Daniel B

    2017-02-16

    The preparation and structural characterization of a series of chromium phthalocyanine complexes with multiple metal and ring oxidation states were achieved using PcCr(II) (1) (Pc=phthalocyanine) or PcCr(II) (THF)2 (1⋅THF2 ) as starting materials. The reaction of soluble 1⋅THF2 with Br2 or I2 gave the PcCr(III) halide complexes PcCrX(THF) (X=I/I3 , Br; 3, 4, respectively). Treatment of 1 with 0.5 equivalent of PhIO or air generated the dinuclear [PcCr(THF)]2 (μ-O) (5), whereas the addition of one equivalent of AgSbF6 to 1 resulted in oxidation to THF-solvated octahedral [PcCr(III) (THF)2 ]SbF6 (6). The reduction of 1 with three sequential equivalents of KEt3 BH resulted in the isolation of [K(DME)4 ][Pc(3-) Cr(II) ] (7), [K(DME)4 ]2 [Pc(4-) Cr(II) ] (8) and [K6 (DME)4 ][Pc(4-) Cr(I) ]2 (9), respectively. The reduced products are deep purple in colour, with visible absorption maxima between 500-580 nm. The ring-reduced complexes 7 and 8 are monomeric, whereas 9 is a 1D chain of dinuclear [PcCr]2 units with intercalated K(+) cations and supported by Cr-Cr interactions of 2.988(2) Å. Addition of four equivalents of KC8 resulted in the demetallated product PcK2 (DME)4 (10), which has a 1D chain structure. The isolation and structural characterization of new PcCr complexes spanning five oxidation states, including rare examples of crystalline reduced Pc-ring species emphasizes the broad redox activity and stability of phthalocyanine-based complexes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A closer look at salt loaded microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, M.R. de

    2006-01-01

    Many walls of ancient buildings are covered with plaster layers. Amongst the most recurrent causes of damage of plasters and substrates are moisture and salt decay processes. To combat these salt problems, special salt resistant plasters have been developed for application on salt loaded substrates.

  6. Pyramid image codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    All vision systems, both human and machine, transform the spatial image into a coded representation. Particular codes may be optimized for efficiency or to extract useful image features. Researchers explored image codes based on primary visual cortex in man and other primates. Understanding these codes will advance the art in image coding, autonomous vision, and computational human factors. In cortex, imagery is coded by features that vary in size, orientation, and position. Researchers have devised a mathematical model of this transformation, called the Hexagonal oriented Orthogonal quadrature Pyramid (HOP). In a pyramid code, features are segregated by size into layers, with fewer features in the layers devoted to large features. Pyramid schemes provide scale invariance, and are useful for coarse-to-fine searching and for progressive transmission of images. The HOP Pyramid is novel in three respects: (1) it uses a hexagonal pixel lattice, (2) it uses oriented features, and (3) it accurately models most of the prominent aspects of primary visual cortex. The transform uses seven basic features (kernels), which may be regarded as three oriented edges, three oriented bars, and one non-oriented blob. Application of these kernels to non-overlapping seven-pixel neighborhoods yields six oriented, high-pass pyramid layers, and one low-pass (blob) layer.

  7. Report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  8. CLIPS 6.0 - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM, VERSION 6.0 (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, B.

    1994-01-01

    COOL (that is, a rule can pattern match on objects created using COOL). CLIPS 6.0 provides the capability to define functions, overloaded functions, and global variables interactively. In addition, CLIPS can be embedded within procedural code, called as a subroutine, and integrated with languages such as C, FORTRAN and Ada. CLIPS can be easily extended by a user through the use of several well-defined protocols. CLIPS provides several delivery options for programs including the ability to generate stand alone executables or to load programs from text or binary files. CLIPS 6.0 provides support for the modular development and execution of knowledge bases with the defmodule construct. CLIPS modules allow a set of constructs to be grouped together such that explicit control can be maintained over restricting the access of the constructs by other modules. This type of control is similar to global and local scoping used in languages such as C or Ada. By restricting access to deftemplate and defclass constructs, modules can function as blackboards, permitting only certain facts and instances to be seen by other modules. Modules are also used by rules to provide execution control. The CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) utility included with previous version of CLIPS is no longer supported. The capabilities provided by this tool are now available directly within CLIPS 6.0 to aid in the development, debugging, and verification of large rule bases. COSMIC offers four distribution versions of CLIPS 6.0: UNIX (MSC-22433), VMS (MSC-22434), MACINTOSH (MSC-22429), and IBM PC (MSC-22430). Executable files, source code, utilities, documentation, and examples are included on the program media. All distribution versions include identical source code for the command line version of CLIPS 6.0. This source code should compile on any platform with an ANSI C compiler. Each distribution version of CLIPS 6.0, except that for the Macintosh platform, includes an executable for the

  9. Cryptography cracking codes

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    While cracking a code might seem like something few of us would encounter in our daily lives, it is actually far more prevalent than we may realize. Anyone who has had personal information taken because of a hacked email account can understand the need for cryptography and the importance of encryption-essentially the need to code information to keep it safe. This detailed volume examines the logic and science behind various ciphers, their real world uses, how codes can be broken, and the use of technology in this oft-overlooked field.

  10. Quantum coding theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.

    1998-12-01

    ContentsI. IntroductionII. General considerations § 1. Quantum communication channel § 2. Entropy bound and channel capacity § 3. Formulation of the quantum coding theorem. Weak conversionIII. Proof of the direct statement of the coding theorem § 1. Channels with pure signal states § 2. Reliability function § 3. Quantum binary channel § 4. Case of arbitrary states with bounded entropyIV. c-q channels with input constraints § 1. Coding theorem § 2. Gauss channel with one degree of freedom § 3. Classical signal on quantum background noise Bibliography

  11. Summary of product characteristics (SmPC)--study on utilization of information presented in SmPC by different groups of physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzioba, Łukasz; Stańczak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional survey study was done, investigating whether information included in SmPC (changing often due to safety reasons) is actually used, properly used or not used at all by cardiologists, GP's (general practitioners), internists and internal diseases physicians. Conducting readability test of Patient Information Leaflet, required by European Commission improved utilization of medical information included in it by European patients. Since there was no such requirement on Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC), we examined utilization of information presented in Summary of Product Characteristics by physicians. Investigated were six drugs used in antiplatelet therapies, ATC (Anatomical, Therapeutic Chemical classification system) code B01AC. A random sample of 800 physicians took part in the study. They were physicians (300 cardiologists and 300 GP's) chosen from The Polish Chamber of Physicians and Dentists (PCPD) database interviewed using regular mail and 200 physicians interrogated during the XV International Congress of Polish Cardiac Society.Physicians. They were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of 20 questions (13 concerning active substances, 6 general questions and one open question "Indicate the best way of receiving safety information"). Questions were constructed on the basis on new safety information included in actualized SmPC after submission of Periodic Safety Update Reports (PSURs) for medicinal products concerned. The overall response rate was 16.5% (132 filled in of 800 questionnaires). Of the respondents there were 65 and 67 from group I (cardiologists) and group II (GP's, internists and internal diseases), respectively. Eligible questionnaires (85) were obtained during the Congress (64.4%). Only 47 were received via regular mail (35.6%). Most correct answers were noted for clopidogrel and ASA (acetylsalicylic acid). 72.98% and 72.73%, respectively. The less known substance appeared eptifibatide, only 34.47% of answers

  12. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable

  13. CARES/PC - CERAMICS ANALYSIS AND RELIABILITY EVALUATION OF STRUCTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmary, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    The beneficial properties of structural ceramics include their high-temperature strength, light weight, hardness, and corrosion and oxidation resistance. For advanced heat engines, ceramics have demonstrated functional abilities at temperatures well beyond the operational limits of metals. This is offset by the fact that ceramic materials tend to be brittle. When a load is applied, their lack of significant plastic deformation causes the material to crack at microscopic flaws, destroying the component. CARES/PC performs statistical analysis of data obtained from the fracture of simple, uniaxial tensile or flexural specimens and estimates the Weibull and Batdorf material parameters from this data. CARES/PC is a subset of the program CARES (COSMIC program number LEW-15168) which calculates the fast-fracture reliability or failure probability of ceramic components utilizing the Batdorf and Weibull models to describe the effects of multi-axial stress states on material strength. CARES additionally requires that the ceramic structure be modeled by a finite element program such as MSC/NASTRAN or ANSYS. The more limited CARES/PC does not perform fast-fracture reliability estimation of components. CARES/PC estimates ceramic material properties from uniaxial tensile or from three- and four-point bend bar data. In general, the parameters are obtained from the fracture stresses of many specimens (30 or more are recommended) whose geometry and loading configurations are held constant. Parameter estimation can be performed for single or multiple failure modes by using the least-squares analysis or the maximum likelihood method. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit tests measure the accuracy of the hypothesis that the fracture data comes from a population with a distribution specified by the estimated Weibull parameters. Ninety-percent confidence intervals on the Weibull parameters and the unbiased value of the shape parameter for complete samples are provided

  14. Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity...... in the network; and (iii) to deliver an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a high field size network coding system for high-end receivers while simultaneously catering to low-end ones that can only decode in a lower field size. Sources may encode using a high field size expansion to increase...... the number of dimensions seen by the network using a linear mapping. Receivers can tradeoff computational effort with network delay, decoding in the high field size, the low field size, or a combination thereof....

  15. VT ZIP Code Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) A ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) is a statistical geographic entity that approximates the delivery area for a U.S. Postal Service five-digit...

  16. Bandwidth efficient coding

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, John B

    2017-01-01

    Bandwidth Efficient Coding addresses the major challenge in communication engineering today: how to communicate more bits of information in the same radio spectrum. Energy and bandwidth are needed to transmit bits, and bandwidth affects capacity the most. Methods have been developed that are ten times as energy efficient at a given bandwidth consumption as simple methods. These employ signals with very complex patterns and are called "coding" solutions. The book begins with classical theory before introducing new techniques that combine older methods of error correction coding and radio transmission in order to create narrowband methods that are as efficient in both spectrum and energy as nature allows. Other topics covered include modulation techniques such as CPM, coded QAM and pulse design.

  17. OCA Code Enforcement

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Office of the County Attorney (OCA) processes Code Violation Citations issued by County agencies. The citations can be viewed by issued department, issued date...

  18. Coded Random Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paolini, Enrico; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Liva, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    , in which the structure of the access protocol can be mapped to a structure of an erasure-correcting code defined on graph. This opens the possibility to use coding theory and tools for designing efficient random access protocols, offering markedly better performance than ALOHA. Several instances of coded......The rise of machine-to-machine communications has rekindled the interest in random access protocols as a support for a massive number of uncoordinatedly transmitting devices. The legacy ALOHA approach is developed under a collision model, where slots containing collided packets are considered...... as waste. However, if the common receiver (e.g., base station) is capable to store the collision slots and use them in a transmission recovery process based on successive interference cancellation, the design space for access protocols is radically expanded. We present the paradigm of coded random access...

  19. Code Disentanglement: Initial Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlbier, John Greaton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockefeller, Gabriel M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Calef, Matthew Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-27

    The first step to making more ambitious changes in the EAP code base is to disentangle the code into a set of independent, levelized packages. We define a package as a collection of code, most often across a set of files, that provides a defined set of functionality; a package a) can be built and tested as an entity and b) fits within an overall levelization design. Each package contributes one or more libraries, or an application that uses the other libraries. A package set is levelized if the relationships between packages form a directed, acyclic graph and each package uses only packages at lower levels of the diagram (in Fortran this relationship is often describable by the use relationship between modules). Independent packages permit independent- and therefore parallel|development. The packages form separable units for the purposes of development and testing. This is a proven path for enabling finer-grained changes to a complex code.

  20. The fast code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, L.N.; Wilson, R.E. [Oregon State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The FAST Code which is capable of determining structural loads on a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data are given at two wind speeds for the ESI-80. The FAST Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade bending, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffnesses, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms, and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST Code and test results is good. (au)

  1. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  2. Code de conduite

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    irocca

    son point de vue, dans un esprit d'accueil et de respect. NOTRE CODE DE CONDUITE. Le CRDI s'engage à adopter un comportement conforme aux normes d'éthique les plus strictes dans toutes ses activités. Le Code de conduite reflète notre mission, notre philosophie en matière d'emploi et les résultats des discussions ...

  3. Open Coding Descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Open coding is a big source of descriptions that must be managed and controlled when doing GT research. The goal of generating a GT is to generate an emergent set of concepts and their properties that fit and work with relevancy to be integrated into a theory. To achieve this goal, the researcher begins his research with open coding, that is coding all his data in every possible way. The consequence of this open coding is a multitude of descriptions for possible concepts that often do not fit in the emerging theory. Thus in this case the researcher ends up with many irrelevant descriptions for concepts that do not apply. To dwell on descriptions for inapplicable concepts ruins the GT theory as it starts. It is hard to stop. Confusion easily sets in. Switching the study to a QDA is a simple rescue. Rigorous focusing on emerging concepts is vital before being lost in open coding descriptions. It is important, no matter how interesting the description may become. Once a core is possible, selective coding can start which will help control against being lost in multiple descriptions.

  4. Tablet PC Enabled Body Sensor System for Rural Telehealth Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitha V. Panicker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Telehealth systems benefit from the rapid growth of mobile communication technology for measuring physiological signals. Development and validation of a tablet PC enabled noninvasive body sensor system for rural telehealth application are discussed in this paper. This system includes real time continuous collection of physiological parameters (blood pressure, pulse rate, and temperature and fall detection of a patient with the help of a body sensor unit and wireless transmission of the acquired information to a tablet PC handled by the medical staff in a Primary Health Center (PHC. Abnormal conditions are automatically identified and alert messages are given to the medical officer in real time. Clinical validation is performed in a real environment and found to be successful. Bland-Altman analysis is carried out to validate the wrist blood pressure sensor used. The system works well for all measurements.

  5. Performance Evaluation of a Multipurpose Bare PC Gateway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsetse, Anthony; Appiah-Kubi, Patrick; Loukili, Alae

    2015-01-01

    . Different solutions (6to4 tunneling, IVI translation, NAT64, DNS64 etc.), have being proposed but these are all standalone systems. In this paper we discuss the design,implementation and performance evaluation of a multipurpose Bare PC Gateway which incorporates Network Address translation (NAT), 6to4...... tunneling and IVI translation in a single “box” using Bare Machine Computing Paradigm. Experimental testing of the designed system shows our single point integrated system performs well using various measurement metrics as throughput, response time, connection time, jitter etc. in a LAN environment. Our...... results indicate a relatively better performance (18%-45%) of the Bare PC gateway compared to a Linux gateway (running the functionalities as standalone systems). We believe the proposed solution could easily scale to wide area networks and also provide a cost efficient solution...

  6. Flexible missile autopilot design studies with PC-MATLAB/386

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a responsive, high-bandwidth missile autopilot for airframes which have structural modes of unusually low frequency presents a challenging design task. Such systems are viable candidates for modern, state-space control design methods. The PC-MATLAB interactive software package provides an environment well-suited to the development of candidate linear control laws for flexible missile autopilots. The strengths of MATLAB include: (1) exceptionally high speed (MATLAB's version for 80386-based PC's offers benchmarks approaching minicomputer and mainframe performance); (2) ability to handle large design models of several hundred degrees of freedom, if necessary; and (3) broad extensibility through user-defined functions. To characterize MATLAB capabilities, a simplified design example is presented. This involves interactive definition of an observer-based state-space compensator for a flexible missile autopilot design task. MATLAB capabilities and limitations, in the context of this design task, are then summarized.

  7. PC analysis of stochastic differential equations driven by Wiener noise

    KAUST Repository

    Le Maitre, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    A polynomial chaos (PC) analysis with stochastic expansion coefficients is proposed for stochastic differential equations driven by additive or multiplicative Wiener noise. It is shown that for this setting, a Galerkin formalism naturally leads to the definition of a hierarchy of stochastic differential equations governing the evolution of the PC modes. Under the mild assumption that the Wiener and uncertain parameters can be treated as independent random variables, it is also shown that the Galerkin formalism naturally separates parametric uncertainty and stochastic forcing dependences. This enables us to perform an orthogonal decomposition of the process variance, and consequently identify contributions arising from the uncertainty in parameters, the stochastic forcing, and a coupled term. Insight gained from this decomposition is illustrated in light of implementation to simplified linear and non-linear problems; the case of a stochastic bifurcation is also considered.

  8. Metal Detector By Using PIC Microcontroller Interfacing With PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Min Theint

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This system proposes metal detector by using PIC microcontroller interfacing with PC. The system uses PIC microcontroller as the main controller whether the detected metal is ferrous metal or non-ferrous metal. Among various types of metal sensors and various types of metal detecting technologies concentric type induction coil sensor and VLF very low frequency metal detecting technology are used in this system. This system consists of two configurations Hardware configuration and Software configuration. The hardware components include induction coil sensors which senses the frequency changes of metal a PIC microcontroller personal computer PC buzzer light emitting diode LED and webcam. The software configuration includes a program controller interface. PIC MikroCprogramming language is used to implement the control system. This control system is based on the PIC 16F887 microcontroller.This system is mainly used in mining and high security places such as airport plaza shopping mall and governmental buildings.

  9. Pocket PC-based portable gamma-ray spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamontip Ploykrachang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A portable gamma-ray spectrometer based on a Pocket PC has been developed. A 12-bit pipeline analog-to-digitalconverter (ADC associated with an implemented pulse height histogram function on field programmable gate array (FPGAoperating at 15 MHz is employed for pulse height analysis from built-in pulse amplifier. The system, which interfaces withthe Pocket PC via an enhanced RS-232 serial port under the microcontroller facilitation, is utilized for spectrum acquisition,display and analysis. The pulse height analysis capability of the system was tested and it was found that the ADC integralnonlinearity of ±0.45% was obtained with the throughput rate at 160 kcps. The overall system performance was tested usinga PIN photodiode-CsI(Tl crystal coupled scintillation detector and gamma standard radioactive sources of Cs-137 andCo-60. Low cost and the compact system size as a result of the implemented logical function are also discussed.

  10. DIFFERENTIAL MODULATION OF CATECHOLAMINES BY CHLOROTRIAZINE HERBICIDES IN PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA (PC12) CELLS IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differential modulation of catecholamines by chlorotriazine herbicides in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells in vitro.Das PC, McElroy WK, Cooper RL.Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599, USA.Epidemiological, wildlife, and lab...

  11. Efficient Techniques for Formal Verification of PowerPC 750 Executables Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will develop an efficient tool for formal verification of PowerPC 750 executables. The PowerPC 750 architecture is used in the radiation-hardened RAD750...

  12. Development of educational PC software for visually impaired children

    OpenAIRE

    Holá, Klára

    2010-01-01

    The diploma work is focused on development of educational PC software dedicated to visually impaired children. It is intended for junior school-aged children with visual abilities in category of middle and high level of low vision and also for children with disorders of binocular vision. The intention of this sotware is education of visually impaired children especially in domain of knowledge about the world of animals. It also helps children to reeducate their vision abilities.

  13. MicroPCPC: A comprehensive resource for predicting and comparing plant microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichadakul Duangdao

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant microRNA (miRNA has an important role in controlling gene regulation in various biological processes such as cell development, signal transduction, and environmental responses. While information on plant miRNAs and their targets is widely available, accessible online plant miRNA resources are limited; most of them are intended for economically important crops or plant model organisms. With abundant sequence data of numerous plants in public databases such as NCBI and PlantGDB, the identification of their miRNAs and targets would benefit researchers as a central resource for the comparative studies of plant miRNAs. Results MicroPCPC is an online plant miRNA resource resulted from large-scale Expressed Sequence Tag (EST analysis. It consists of 4,006 potential miRNA candidates in 128 families of 125 plant species and 2,995 proteins (4,953 EST sequences potentially targeted by 78 families of miRNA candidates. In addition, it is incorporated with 1,727 previously reported plant mature miRNA sequences from miRBase. The μPC enables users to compare stored mature or precursor miRNAs and user-supplied sequences among plant species. The search utility allows users to investigate the predicted miRNAs and miRNA targets in detail via various search options such as miRNA family and plant species. To enhance the database usage, the prediction utility provides interactive steps for determining a miRNA or miRNA targets from an input nucleotide sequence and links the prediction results to their homologs in the μPC. Conclusion The μPC constitutes the first online resource that enables users to comprehensively compare and predict plant miRNAs and their targets. It imparts a basis for further research on revealing miRNA conservation, function, and evolution across plant species and classification. The μPC is available at http://www.biotec.or.th/isl/micropc.

  14. HUDU: The Hanford Unified Dose Utility computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherpelz, R.I.

    1991-02-01

    The Hanford Unified Dose Utility (HUDU) computer program was developed to provide rapid initial assessment of radiological emergency situations. The HUDU code uses a straight-line Gaussian atmospheric dispersion model to estimate the transport of radionuclides released from an accident site. For dose points on the plume centerline, it calculates internal doses due to inhalation and external doses due to exposure to the plume. The program incorporates a number of features unique to the Hanford Site (operated by the US Department of Energy), including a library of source terms derived from various facilities' safety analysis reports. The HUDU code was designed to run on an IBM-PC or compatible personal computer. The user interface was designed for fast and easy operation with minimal user training. The theoretical basis and mathematical models used in the HUDU computer code are described, as are the computer code itself and the data libraries used. Detailed instructions for operating the code are also included. Appendices to the report contain descriptions of the program modules, listings of HUDU's data library, and descriptions of the verification tests that were run as part of the code development. 14 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Virtual reality exposure therapy: 150-degree screen to desktop PC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichon, Jennifer; Banks, Jasmine

    2006-08-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) developed using immersive or semi-immersive virtual environments present a usability problem for practitioners. To meet practitioner requirements for lower cost and portability VRET programs must often be ported onto desktop environments such as the personal computer (PC). However, success of VRET has been shown to be linked to presence, and the environment's ability to evoke the same reactions and emotions as a real experience. It is generally accepted that high-end virtual environments (VEs) are more immersive than desktop PCs, but level of immersion does not always predict level of presence. This paper reports on the impact on presence of porting a therapeutic VR application for schizophrenia from the initial research environment of a semi-immersive curved screen to PC. Presence in these two environments is measured both introspectively and across a number of causal factors thought to underlie the experience of presence. Results show that the VR exposure program successfully made users feel they were "present" in both platforms. While the desktop PC achieved higher scores on presence across causal factors participants reported they felt more present in the curved screen environment. While comparison of the two groups was statistically significant for the PQ but not for the IPQ, subjective reports of experiences in the environments should be considered in future research as the success of VRET relies heavily on the emotional response of patients to the therapeutic program.

  16. The 200-pc molecular cylinder in the Galactic Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofue, Yoshiaki

    2017-09-01

    Analysing the 3D structure of the molecular gas distribution in the central 200-pc region of the Galaxy, we show that the expanding molecular ring (EMR, also known as the parallelogram) and the central molecular zone (CMZ) exhibit quite different distributions and kinematics. The EMR composes a bipolar vertical cylinder with the total length as long as ˜170 pc and shows large non-circular velocities. On the contrary, the CMZ is distributed in a nearly rigid-body rotating ring and arms tightly concentrated near the galactic plane with full thickness less than ˜30 pc. Furthermore, the mass and density ratios of the EMR to CMZ are as small as ˜0.13 and 0.04, respectively. We discuss the origins of the EMR and CMZ based on the bar and explosion models. We suggest that the EMR's large vertical extent can be explained by a cylindrical shock wave model driven by an explosive activity in the Galactic Centre.

  17. Salt Water Intrusion in a Three-dimensional Groundwater System in The Netherlands: a Numerical Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2001-01-01

    Salt water intrusion is investigated in a coastal groundwater system in the northern part of the province Noord-Holland, The Netherlands. Density dependent groundwater flow is modeled in three-dimensions withMOCDENS3D. This computer code is a version of MOC3D (Konikow et al., 1996) that has been

  18. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  19. Some new ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].

  20. File list: His.Lng.20.AllAg.PC-9 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.20.AllAg.PC-9 hg19 Histone Lung PC-9 SRX815736,SRX815737,SRX815738,SRX12936...76,SRX815739,SRX1293674,SRX1293677,SRX1293675 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Lng.20.AllAg.PC-9.bed ...

  1. File list: ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.PC-9 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.PC-9 hg19 All antigens Lung PC-9 SRX1293676,SRX815738,SRX815739,SR...X815737,SRX815736,SRX1293674,SRX1293677,SRX1293675 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.PC-9.bed ...

  2. Multi-satellite study of the excitation of Pc3 and Pc4-5 ULF waves and their penetration across the plasmapause during the 2003 Halloween superstorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balasis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We use multi-satellite and ground-based magnetic data to investigate the concurrent characteristics of Pc3 (22–100 mHz and Pc4-5 (1–22 mHz ultra-low-frequency (ULF waves on the 31 October 2003 during the Halloween magnetic superstorm. ULF waves are seen in the Earth's magnetosphere, topside ionosphere, and Earth's surface, enabling an examination of their propagation characteristics. We employ a time–frequency analysis technique and examine data from when the Cluster and CHAMP spacecraft were in good local time (LT conjunction near the dayside noon–midnight meridian. We find clear evidence of the excitation of both Pc3 and Pc4-5 waves, but more significantly we find a clear separation in the L shell of occurrence of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 waves in the equatorial inner magnetosphere, separated by the density gradients at the plasmapause boundary layer. A key finding of the wavelet spectral analysis of data collected from the Geotail, Cluster, and CHAMP spacecraft and the CARISMA and GIMA magnetometer networks was a remarkably clear transition of the waves' frequency into dominance in a higher-frequency regime within the Pc3 range. Analysis of the local field line resonance frequency suggests that the separation of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 emissions across the plasmapause is consistent with the structure of the inhomogeneous field line resonance Alfvén continuum. The Pc4-5 waves are consistent with direct excitation by the solar wind in the plasma trough, as well as Pc3 wave absorption in the plasmasphere following excitation by upstream waves originating at the bow shock in the local noon sector. However, despite good solar wind coverage, our study was not able to unambiguously identify a clear explanation for the sharp universal time (UT onset of the discrete frequency and large-amplitude Pc3 wave power.

  3. Multi-satellite study of the excitation of Pc3 and Pc4-5 ULF waves and their penetration across the plasmapause during the 2003 Halloween superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasis, G.; Daglis, I. A.; Mann, I. R.; Papadimitriou, C.; Zesta, E.; Georgiou, M.; Haagmans, R.; Tsinganos, K.

    2015-10-01

    We use multi-satellite and ground-based magnetic data to investigate the concurrent characteristics of Pc3 (22-100 mHz) and Pc4-5 (1-22 mHz) ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves on the 31 October 2003 during the Halloween magnetic superstorm. ULF waves are seen in the Earth's magnetosphere, topside ionosphere, and Earth's surface, enabling an examination of their propagation characteristics. We employ a time-frequency analysis technique and examine data from when the Cluster and CHAMP spacecraft were in good local time (LT) conjunction near the dayside noon-midnight meridian. We find clear evidence of the excitation of both Pc3 and Pc4-5 waves, but more significantly we find a clear separation in the L shell of occurrence of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 waves in the equatorial inner magnetosphere, separated by the density gradients at the plasmapause boundary layer. A key finding of the wavelet spectral analysis of data collected from the Geotail, Cluster, and CHAMP spacecraft and the CARISMA and GIMA magnetometer networks was a remarkably clear transition of the waves' frequency into dominance in a higher-frequency regime within the Pc3 range. Analysis of the local field line resonance frequency suggests that the separation of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 emissions across the plasmapause is consistent with the structure of the inhomogeneous field line resonance Alfvén continuum. The Pc4-5 waves are consistent with direct excitation by the solar wind in the plasma trough, as well as Pc3 wave absorption in the plasmasphere following excitation by upstream waves originating at the bow shock in the local noon sector. However, despite good solar wind coverage, our study was not able to unambiguously identify a clear explanation for the sharp universal time (UT) onset of the discrete frequency and large-amplitude Pc3 wave power.

  4. Ellipsometric study of the optical transitions of PC{sub 60}BM and PC{sub 70}BM thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencheikh Aboura, Fatima, E-mail: fatima.bencheikh-aboura@im2np.fr; Duché, D.; Simon, J.J.; Escoubas, L.

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • We determine the optical properties of two fullerene derivatives using ellipsometry. • Multisample analysis is applied to verify the uniqueness of the model. • The energy position of the oscillators used are compared with ones present in the parent molecules. - Abstract: Spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to determine the optical properties and to extract electronic transitions of PC{sub 60}BM and PC{sub 70}BM thin films in the UV–Visible range. By means of a sum of Gaussian oscillators, the imaginary parts of dielectric functions of both materials are modeled. The physical meaning of each model is checked by comparing the energy position of the oscillators with known optical transitions of the C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} molecules as revealed in literature by others techniques. It is shown that spectroscopic ellipsometry is a powerful technique to investigate the electronic structure of pi-conjugated molecules.

  5. Static and Dynamic Energetic Disorders in the C 60 , PC 61 BM, C 70 , and PC 71 BM Fullerenes

    KAUST Repository

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh

    2015-09-17

    We use a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations to investigate the energetic disorder in fullerene systems. We show that the energetic disorder evaluated from an ensemble average contains contributions of both static origin (time-independent, due to loose packing) and dynamic origin (time-dependent, due to electron-vibration interactions). In order to differentiate between these two contributions, we compare the results obtained from an ensemble average approach with those derived from a time average approach. It is found that in both amorphous C60 and C70 bulk systems, the degrees of static and dynamic disorder are comparable, while in the amorphous PC61BM and PC71BM systems, static disorder is about twice as large as dynamic disorder. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  6. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...... improves the theoretical understanding of the extraction process, and can contribute to the future development and optimization of the technique....

  7. Code blue: seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerth, Matthew T; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Noe, Katherine H; Sirven, Joseph I

    2011-06-01

    Eyewitnesses frequently perceive seizures as life threatening. If an event occurs on the hospital premises, a "code blue" can be called which consumes considerable resources. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and characteristics of code blue calls for seizures and seizure mimickers. A retrospective review of a code blue log from 2001 through 2008 identified 50 seizure-like events, representing 5.3% of all codes. Twenty-eight (54%) occurred in inpatients; the other 22 (44%) events involved visitors or employees on the hospital premises. Eighty-six percent of the events were epileptic seizures. Seizure mimickers, particularly psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, were more common in the nonhospitalized group. Only five (17.9%) inpatients had a known diagnosis of epilepsy, compared with 17 (77.3%) of the nonhospitalized patients. This retrospective survey provides insights into how code blues are called on hospitalized versus nonhospitalized patients for seizure-like events. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Error coding simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1993-11-01

    There are various elements such as radio frequency interference (RFI) which may induce errors in data being transmitted via a satellite communication link. When a transmission is affected by interference or other error-causing elements, the transmitted data becomes indecipherable. It becomes necessary to implement techniques to recover from these disturbances. The objective of this research is to develop software which simulates error control circuits and evaluate the performance of these modules in various bit error rate environments. The results of the evaluation provide the engineer with information which helps determine the optimal error control scheme. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommends the use of Reed-Solomon (RS) and convolutional encoders and Viterbi and RS decoders for error correction. The use of forward error correction techniques greatly reduces the received signal to noise needed for a certain desired bit error rate. The use of concatenated coding, e.g. inner convolutional code and outer RS code, provides even greater coding gain. The 16-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code is recommended by CCSDS for error detection.

  9. Twisted Reed-Solomon Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Peter; Puchinger, Sven; Rosenkilde ne Nielsen, Johan

    2017-01-01

    We present a new general construction of MDS codes over a finite field Fq. We describe two explicit subclasses which contain new MDS codes of length at least q/2 for all values of q ≥ 11. Moreover, we show that most of the new codes are not equivalent to a Reed-Solomon code.......We present a new general construction of MDS codes over a finite field Fq. We describe two explicit subclasses which contain new MDS codes of length at least q/2 for all values of q ≥ 11. Moreover, we show that most of the new codes are not equivalent to a Reed-Solomon code....

  10. Optical coding theory with Prime

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Wing C

    2013-01-01

    Although several books cover the coding theory of wireless communications and the hardware technologies and coding techniques of optical CDMA, no book has been specifically dedicated to optical coding theory-until now. Written by renowned authorities in the field, Optical Coding Theory with Prime gathers together in one volume the fundamentals and developments of optical coding theory, with a focus on families of prime codes, supplemented with several families of non-prime codes. The book also explores potential applications to coding-based optical systems and networks. Learn How to Construct

  11. Manufacturer Identification Code (MID) - ACE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The ACE Manufacturer Identification Code (MID) application is used to track and control identifications codes for manufacturers. A manufacturer is identified on an...

  12. Algebraic and stochastic coding theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kythe, Dave K

    2012-01-01

    Using a simple yet rigorous approach, Algebraic and Stochastic Coding Theory makes the subject of coding theory easy to understand for readers with a thorough knowledge of digital arithmetic, Boolean and modern algebra, and probability theory. It explains the underlying principles of coding theory and offers a clear, detailed description of each code. More advanced readers will appreciate its coverage of recent developments in coding theory and stochastic processes. After a brief review of coding history and Boolean algebra, the book introduces linear codes, including Hamming and Golay codes.

  13. Speech coding code- excited linear prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Bäckström, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This book provides scientific understanding of the most central techniques used in speech coding both for advanced students as well as professionals with a background in speech audio and or digital signal processing. It provides a clear connection between the whys hows and whats thus enabling a clear view of the necessity purpose and solutions provided by various tools as well as their strengths and weaknesses in each respect Equivalently this book sheds light on the following perspectives for each technology presented Objective What do we want to achieve and especially why is this goal important Resource Information What information is available and how can it be useful and Resource Platform What kind of platforms are we working with and what are their capabilities restrictions This includes computational memory and acoustic properties and the transmission capacity of devices used. The book goes on to address Solutions Which solutions have been proposed and how can they be used to reach the stated goals and ...

  14. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a

  15. Salt tectonics in Santos Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, David G.; Nielsen, Malene; Raven, Madeleine [Maersk Oil and Gas, Copenhagen (Denmark); Menezes, Paulo [Maersk Oil and Gas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    From Albian to end Cretaceous times, the inboard part of the Santos Basin in Brazil was affected by extension as salt flowed basinwards under the effect of gravity. Salt rollers, flip-flop salt diapirs and the famous Albian Gap were all formed by this process. Outboard of these extensional structures, contraction was taken up in a wide zone of thickened salt where salt collected. The overburden was carried on top of the salt as it flowed down-dip, with up to 40 km of translation recorded in Albian strata. (author)

  16. Activated T cells exhibit increased uptake of silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 and increased susceptibility to Pc 4-photodynamic therapy-mediated cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, David C.; Ohtola, Jennifer; Sugiyama, Hideaki; Rodriguez, Myriam E.; Han, Ling; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Lam, Minh; Baron, Elma D.; Cooper, Kevin D.; McCormick, Thomas S.

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging treatment for malignant and inflammatory dermal disorders. Photoirradiation of the silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 photosensitizer with red light generates singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species to induce cell death. We previously reported that Pc 4-PDT elicited cell death in lymphoid-derived (Jurkat) and epithelial-derived (A431) cell lines in vitro, and furthermore that Jurkat cells were more sensitive than A431 cells to treatment. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of Pc 4-PDT on primary human CD3+ T cells in vitro. Fluorometric analyses of lysed T cells confirmed the dose-dependent uptake of Pc 4 in non-stimulated and stimulated T cells. Flow cytometric analyses measuring annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) demonstrated a dose-dependent increase of T cell apoptosis (6.6–59.9%) at Pc 4 doses ranging from 0–300 nM. Following T cell stimulation through the T cell receptor using a combination of anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies, activated T cells exhibited increased susceptibility to Pc 4-PDT-induced apoptosis (10.6–81.2%) as determined by Pc 4 fluorescence in each cell, in both non-stimulated and stimulated T cells, Pc 4 uptake increased with Pc 4 dose up to 300 nM as assessed by flow cytometry. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of Pc 4 uptake measured in stimulated T cells was significantly increased over the uptake of resting T cells at each dose of Pc 4 tested (50, 100, 150 and 300nM, p<0.001 between 50 and 150nM, n=8). Treg uptake was diminished relative to other T cells. Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) T cells appeared to take up somewhat more Pc 4 than normal resting T cells at 100 and 150nm Pc 4. Confocal imaging revealed that Pc 4 localized in cytoplasmic organelles, with approximately half of the Pc 4 co-localized with mitochondria in T cells. Thus, Pc 4-PDT exerts an enhanced apoptotic effect on activated CD3+ T cells that may be exploited in targeting T cell-mediated skin diseases

  17. Molten Salt Heat Transport Loop: Materials Corrosion and Heat Transfer Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Kumar Sridharan; Dr. Mark Anderson; Dr. Michael Corradini; Dr. Todd Allen; Luke Olson; James Ambrosek; Daniel Ludwig

    2008-07-09

    An experimental system for corrosion testing of candidate materials in molten FLiNaK salt at 850 degree C has been designed and constructed. While molten FLiNaK salt was the focus of this study, the system can be utilized for evaluation of materials in other molten salts that may be of interest in the future. Using this system, the corrosion performance of a number of code-certified alloys of interest to NGNP as well as the efficacy of Ni-electroplating have been investigated. The mechanisums underlying corrosion processes have been elucidated using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the materials after the corrosion tests, as well as by the post-corrosion analysis of the salts using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques.

  18. Acceptability of Salt Fluoridation in a Rural Latino Community in the United States: An Ethnographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Judith C; Guerra, Claudia; Gonzalez-Vargas, M Judy; Hoeft, Kristin S

    2016-01-01

    Compared to other population groups in the United States, caries (tooth decay) is a disproportionately prevalent disease among Latino populations, especially among low-income and rural sub-groups and children under five years of age. Fluoride is a primary preventive for caries. While water fluoridation is a major and effective public health means for delivering fluoride on a mass scale, it does not reach many rural areas or population groups such as Latinos who eschew drinking water from municipal sources. This study examines the acceptability to such groups of salt fluoridation, an alternate means of delivering fluoride long used on a global scale. An ethnographic study in California's rural Central Valley was performed. Thirty individual interviews and 5 focus groups (N = 61) were conducted in Spanish to investigate low-income Latino migrant caregivers' experiences, views and understandings of domestic salt, oral health, caries prevention and fluoride. Audio data were transcribed, translated, coded and thematically analyzed. Table salt was readily available and frequently consumed. Both adult and child daily sodium consumption was high. Despite a general feeling that it was good, and present in dentifrices or dietary supplements, most participants had little knowledge about fluoride. Concerns were raised about cardio-vascular and other possibly deleterious effects if an increase in salt consumption occurred because fluoridated salt was viewed as having 'extra' benefits. Once informed about fluoride's safety and role in caries prevention, most participants expressed willingness to use fluoridated salt, especially if it benefitted children. Reassurance about its safety and benefits, and demonstration of its taste, were important aspects of acceptance. Taste was paramount. Participants would not consume more fluoridated salt than their current salt as that would result in unpleasant changes in food flavor and taste. While salt fluoridation is acceptable, the

  19. Acceptability of Salt Fluoridation in a Rural Latino Community in the United States: An Ethnographic Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith C Barker

    Full Text Available Compared to other population groups in the United States, caries (tooth decay is a disproportionately prevalent disease among Latino populations, especially among low-income and rural sub-groups and children under five years of age. Fluoride is a primary preventive for caries. While water fluoridation is a major and effective public health means for delivering fluoride on a mass scale, it does not reach many rural areas or population groups such as Latinos who eschew drinking water from municipal sources. This study examines the acceptability to such groups of salt fluoridation, an alternate means of delivering fluoride long used on a global scale. An ethnographic study in California's rural Central Valley was performed. Thirty individual interviews and 5 focus groups (N = 61 were conducted in Spanish to investigate low-income Latino migrant caregivers' experiences, views and understandings of domestic salt, oral health, caries prevention and fluoride. Audio data were transcribed, translated, coded and thematically analyzed. Table salt was readily available and frequently consumed. Both adult and child daily sodium consumption was high. Despite a general feeling that it was good, and present in dentifrices or dietary supplements, most participants had little knowledge about fluoride. Concerns were raised about cardio-vascular and other possibly deleterious effects if an increase in salt consumption occurred because fluoridated salt was viewed as having 'extra' benefits. Once informed about fluoride's safety and role in caries prevention, most participants expressed willingness to use fluoridated salt, especially if it benefitted children. Reassurance about its safety and benefits, and demonstration of its taste, were important aspects of acceptance. Taste was paramount. Participants would not consume more fluoridated salt than their current salt as that would result in unpleasant changes in food flavor and taste. While salt fluoridation is

  20. Code query by example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  1. The Lewis acidity of fluorophosphonium salts: access to mixed valent phosphorus(III)/(V) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounjet, Lindsay J; Caputo, Christopher B; Stephan, Douglas W

    2013-02-21

    Oxidative fluorination of the electron-deficient phosphine Ph(2)P(C(6)F(5)) using XeF(2), followed by fluoride ion abstraction from the resulting difluorophosphorane Ph(2)P(F)(2)(C(6)F(5)), produces electrophilic fluorophosphonium salts [Ph(2)P(F)(C(6)F(5))][X] (X = FB(C(6)F(5))(3) or O(3)SCF(3)). Variable temperature NMR spectroscopic analysis of [Ph(2)P(F)(C(6)F(5))][FB(C(6)F(5))(3)] demonstrates a fluxional process attributed to fluoride ion exchange between B(C(6)F(5))(3) and [Ph(2)P(F)(C(6)F(5))](+), suggesting that these species have comparable Lewis acidities. This exchange can also be illustrated by adding phosphine Ph(3)P to [Ph(2)P(F)(C(6)F(5))][FB(C(6)F(5))(3)] at ambient temperature to produce Ph(2)P(F)(2)(C(6)F(5)) and Ph(3)P-B(C(6)F(5))(3), while heating this mixture results in thermally induced para-substitution of Ph(3)P at the C(6)F(5) group of the phosphonium ion to generate [Ph(3)P(C(6)F(4))P(F)(2)Ph(2)][FB(C(6)F(5))(3)]. Such frustrated Lewis pair reactivity also can be exploited by reacting [Ph(2)P(F)(C(6)F(5))][O(3)SCF(3)] with silylphosphine Ph(2)PSiMe(3) to afford the unique mixed-valent salt [Ph(2)P(C(6)F(4))P(F)Ph(2)][O(3)SCF(3)], which upon the addition of fluoride is converted to Ph(2)P(C(6)F(4))P(F)(2)Ph(2). XeF(2) reacts with [Ph(2)P(C(6)F(4))P(F)Ph(2)][O(3)SCF(3)] at ambient temperature, producing equal proportions of the dicationic salt [Ph(2)P(F)(C(6)F(4))P(F)Ph(2)][O(3)SCF(3)](2) and the bis(difluorophosphorane) Ph(2)P(F)(2)(C(6)F(4))P(F)(2)Ph(2), the latter of which can then be quantitatively converted to the former by adding one equiv of Me(3)SiO(3)SCF(3).

  2. Graph Codes with Reed-Solomon Component Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    We treat a specific case of codes based on bipartite expander graphs coming from finite geometries. The code symbols are associated with the branches and the symbols connected to a given node are restricted to be codewords in a Reed-Solomon code. We give results on the parameters of the codes...

  3. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  4. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, J. V.; De Prados, M.; Pérez-Muelas, N.; Cárcel, J. A.; Benedito, J.

    2012-12-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (pmeat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  5. Code of Medical Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . SZD-SZZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Te Code was approved on December 12, 1992, at the 3rd regular meeting of the General Assembly of the Medical Chamber of Slovenia and revised on April 24, 1997, at the 27th regular meeting of the General Assembly of the Medical Chamber of Slovenia. The Code was updated and harmonized with the Medical Association of Slovenia and approved on October 6, 2016, at the regular meeting of the General Assembly of the Medical Chamber of Slovenia.

  6. Physical Layer Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Yomo, Hironori; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has the potential to improve throughput of multi-hop networks. However, most of the works are focused on the simple, three-node model with two-way relaying, not taking into account the fact that there can be other neighboring nodes that can cause/receive inter......Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has the potential to improve throughput of multi-hop networks. However, most of the works are focused on the simple, three-node model with two-way relaying, not taking into account the fact that there can be other neighboring nodes that can cause...

  7. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  8. Securing mobile code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

    2004-10-01

    If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called &apos

  9. Comparison of bile salt/phosphatidylcholine mixed micelles in solubilization to sterols and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Q

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Qin Guo,1,* Jie Cai,1,2,* Pengyu Li,1 Dongling Xu,1 Xiaomin Ni,1 Hui Wen,3 Dan Liu,3 Suizhen Lin,3 Haiyan Hu1 1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, 2Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, 3Guangzhou Cellprotek Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Science Park, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Androst-3β,5α,6β-triol (Triol is a promising neuroprotective agent, but its poor solubility restricts its development into parenteral preparations. In this study, Triol is significantly solubilized by bile salt/phosphatidylcholine mixed micelles (BS/PC-MM. All BS/PC-MM systems are tested to remarkably improve the drug solubility with various stabilities after drug loading. Among them, the sodium glycocholate (SGC/egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC system with 2:1 ratio in weight and the total concentration of SGC and EPC of 100 mg/mL is proved to produce stable mixed micelles with high drug loading. It is found that the stability of drug-loaded mixed micelles is quite different, which might be related to the change in critical micelle concentration (CMC after incorporating drugs. SGC/EPC and SGC/soya phosphatidylcholine (SPC remain transparent under accelerated conditions and manifest a decreased CMC (dropping from 0.105 to 0.056 mg/mL and from 0.067 to 0.024 mg/mL, respectively. In contrast, swine bile acid-sodium salt (SBA-Na/PC and sodium deoxycholate (SDC/PC are accompanied by drug precipitation and reached the maximum CMC on the first and the third days, respectively. Interestingly, the variation of CMC under accelerated testing conditions highly matches the drug-precipitating event in the primary stability experiment. In brief, the bile salt/phosphatidylcholine system exists as a potential strategy of improving sterol drug solubility. CMC variation under accelerated testing conditions might be a simple and easy method to predict the stability of

  10. On-line reprocessing of a molten salt reactor: a simulation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Nicole; Gastaldi, Olivier; Penit, Thomas; Cohin, Olivier; Campion, Pierre-Yves [DEN/CADDTN/STPA/LPC-CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2008-07-01

    The molten salt reactor (MSR) is one of the concepts studied in the frame of GEN IV road-map. Due to the specific features of its liquid fuel, the reprocessing unit may be directly connected to the reactor. A modelling of this unit is presented. The final objective is to create a flexible computer reprocessing code which can use data from neutron calculations and can be coupled to a neutron code. Such a code allows the description of the whole behaviour of MSR, including, in a coupled manner, both the design of the core and the optimised reprocessing scheme effects. (authors)

  11. Tetrabutylammonium Salts of Aluminum(III) and Gallium(III) Phthalocyanine Radical Anions Bonded with Fluoren-9-olato-Anions and Indium(III) Phthalocyanine Bromide Radical Anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konarev, Dmitri V; Khasanov, Salavat S; Ishikawa, Manabu; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Otsuka, Akihiro; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Lyubovskaya, Rimma N

    2017-04-18

    Reduction of aluminum(III), gallium(III), and indium(III) phthalocyanine chlorides by sodium fluorenone ketyl in the presence of tetrabutylammonium cations yielded crystalline salts of the type (Bu 4 N + ) 2 [M III (HFl-O - )(Pc .3- )] .- (Br - )⋅1.5 C 6 H 4 Cl 2 [M=Al (1), Ga (2); HFl-O - =fluoren-9-olato - anion; Pc=phthalocyanine] and (Bu 4 N + ) [In III Br(Pc .3- )] .- ⋅0.875 C 6 H 4 Cl 2 ⋅0.125 C 6 H 14 (3). The salts were found to contain Pc .3- radical anions with negatively charged phthalocyanine macrocycles, as evidenced by the presence of intense bands of Pc .3- in the near-IR region and a noticeable blueshift in both the Q and Soret bands of phthalocyanine. The metal(III) atoms coordinate HFl-O - anions in 1 and 2 with short Al-O and Ga-O bond lengths of 1.749(2) and 1.836(6) Å, respectively. The C-O bonds [1.402(3) and 1.391(11) Å in 1 and 2, respectively] in the HFl-O - anions are longer than the same bond in the fluorenone ketyl (1.27-1.31 Å). Salts 1-3 show effective magnetic moments of 1.72, 1.66, and 1.79 μ B at 300 K, respectively, owing to the presence of unpaired S=1/2 spins on Pc .3- . These spins are coupled antiferromagnetically with Weiss temperatures of -22, -14, and -30 K for 1-3, respectively. Coupling can occur in the corrugated two-dimensional phthalocyanine layers of 1 and 2 with an exchange interaction of J/k B =-0.9 and -1.1 K, respectively, and in the π-stacking {[In III Br(Pc .3- )] .- } 2 dimers of 3 with an exchange interaction of J/k B =-10.8 K. The salts show intense electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals attributed to Pc .3- . It was found that increasing the size of the central metal atom strongly broadened these EPR signals. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Troubleshooting and Maintaining Your PC All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining a PC is important, and troubleshooting a PC can be a challenge. Dan Gookin is great at explaining how to handle common PC problems, and he's provided a complete, plain-English manual in Troubleshooting & Maintaining Your PC All-in-One For Dummies. Liberally laced with Dan's famous humor and clear instructions, Troubleshooting & Maintaining Your PC All-in-One For Dummies is divided into six minibooks covering hardware, software, laptops, Internet, networking, and maintenance. Each one gives you some background on what causes common problems, to help you understand what's wrong as we

  13. Salt decay of Morley limestone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Van Hees, R.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Salt weathering is one of the main causes of decay of natural stone, and by consequence a major problem to the conservation of cultural heritage. In the present case, the performance of Morley limestone from the Département Meuse, France, as a replacement stone under saltloaded conditions is

  14. Remaining porosity and permeability of compacted crushed rock salt backfill in a HLW repository. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobmann, M.; Mueller, C.; Schirmer, S.

    2015-11-15

    filling of the pore spaces with solution. In this context, the porosity range of < 3% has special significance. The relevant processes influencing the hydraulic parameters of the crushed salt backfill are still not described in sufficient detail. For the compaction of dry crushed salt, various theoretical constitutive approaches have been developed (Spiers et al., 1989, Hein, 1991, Zhang et al., 1993, Heemann, 2004) and verified within the scope of the BAMBUS project (Bechthold, 2004) where the porosity range 10%<φ<35% has been calibrated. The contribution of DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH to the project consisted mainly of microstructural investigations and by applying discrete element computer codes to evaluate their applicability to simulate compaction processes. This work is described in this report.

  15. Genes and Salt Tolerance: Bringing Them Together

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rana Munns

    2005-01-01

    Salinity tolerance comes from genes that limit the rate of salt uptake from the soil and the transport of salt throughout the plant, adjust the ionic and osmotic balance of cells in roots and shoots...

  16. Plant salt tolerance: adaptations in halophytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flowers, Timothy J; Colmer, Timothy D

    2015-01-01

    ..., and to develop salt-tolerant crops. In this Preface to a Special Issue on halophytes and saline adaptations, the evolution of salt tolerance in halophytes, their life-history traits and progress in understanding...

  17. Dietary salt reduction for control of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In developed as well as developing countries, the four main factors affecting blood pressure are high salt intake, low potassium intake, overweight, and low physical activity level. This is also true for the increase in blood pressure with advancing age, occurring in all societies. It is now accepted that excess dietary salt raises blood pressure levels, whereas dietary salt reduction reduces blood pressure and prevents vascular complications.(1 The effect of salt on blood pressure is presumably due to the inability of the kidneys to excrete large amounts of salt, as humans are evolutionary adapted to ingest and excrete less than 1 gram of salt per day.(2 In this connection it should be noted that the more important element in common salt (sodium chloride is the sodium ion, and any restrictions applying to common salt also apply to all food items that contain sodium ions, such as sodium glutamate and baking soda.

  18. Initial growth mode, nanostructure, and molecular stacking of a ZnPc:C60 bulk heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Ji Whan; Kim, Jang-Joo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and OLED Center, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Hwi [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byeongdu [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2012-10-23

    The initial growth modes of ZnPc films is examined, revealing the previously undescribed nanoscale crystal structure evolution and the nanograins of the ZnPc:C60 mixed layers in the thin films. Initially, the ZnPc molecules are stacked in the preferred {gamma}(200) configuration, similar to the structures of CuPc. The ZnPc thin film growth display 2D planar to 3D island growth after the initial compressive strain had relaxed in films 7-8 MLs thick. 3D island formation decreases the prevalence of the preferred ordering in the {gamma}(200) crystals. The ZnPc films consist of randomly distributed ellipsoid nanograins during the initial growth stages. The ellipsoid nanograins transition to an ordered state later in the growth process. Insertion of C60 changes the preferred molecular stacking of ZnPc, and {beta}(100) forms in the ZnPc:C60 layers fabricated at room temperature, which is usually observed at high annealing temperatures (200 C) in a single ZnPc film. The ellipsoid ZnPc nanograins also retain their shapes in the ZnPc:C60 mixed layers. The formation of {beta}(100) and the presence of ellipsoid nanograins in the mixed layer are related to improvements relative to planar devices in the organic photovoltaic device performance. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue of the Syrian golden hamster expresses high levels of PrPC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa D Clouse

    Full Text Available The key event in the pathogenesis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies is a template-dependent misfolding event where an infectious isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc comes into contact with native prion protein (PrPC and changes its conformation to PrPSc. In many extraneurally inoculated models of prion disease this PrPC misfolding event occurs in lymphoid tissues prior to neuroinvasion. The primary objective of this study was to compare levels of total PrPC in hamster lymphoid tissues involved in the early pathogenesis of prion disease. Lymphoid tissues were collected from golden Syrian hamsters and Western blot analysis was performed to quantify PrPC levels. PrPC immunohistochemistry (IHC of paraffin embedded tissue sections was performed to identify PrPC distribution in tissues of the lymphoreticular system. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue contained the highest amount of total PrPC followed by Peyer's patches, mesenteric and submandibular lymph nodes, and spleen. The relative levels of PrPC expression in IHC processed tissue correlated strongly with the Western blot data, with high levels of PrPC corresponding with a higher percentage of PrPC positive B cell follicles. High levels of PrPC in lymphoid tissues closely associated with the nasal cavity could contribute to the relative increased efficiency of the nasal route of entry of prions, compared to other routes of infection.

  20. Ptolemy Coding Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-05

    because this would combine Ptolemy II with the GPL’d code and thus encumber Ptolemy II with the GPL. Another GNU license is the GNU Library General...permission on the source.eecs.berkeley.edu repositories, then use your local repository. bash-3.2$ svn co svn+ ssh ://source.eecs.berkeley.edu/chess

  1. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The images, which came from Oailleo's flyby of the moon on June 26-27. 1996 are reported to be 20 times better than those obtained from the Voyager. Priti Shankar .... a systematic way. Thus was born a brand new field,which has since been ..... mathematically oriented, compact book on coding, containing a few topics not ...

  2. Ready, steady… Code!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    This summer, CERN took part in the Google Summer of Code programme for the third year in succession. Open to students from all over the world, this programme leads to very successful collaborations for open source software projects.   Image: GSoC 2013. Google Summer of Code (GSoC) is a global programme that offers student developers grants to write code for open-source software projects. Since its creation in 2005, the programme has brought together some 6,000 students from over 100 countries worldwide. The students selected by Google are paired with a mentor from one of the participating projects, which can be led by institutes, organisations, companies, etc. This year, CERN PH Department’s SFT (Software Development for Experiments) Group took part in the GSoC programme for the third time, submitting 15 open-source projects. “Once published on the Google Summer for Code website (in April), the projects are open to applications,” says Jakob Blomer, one of the o...

  3. (Almost) practical tree codes

    KAUST Repository

    Khina, Anatoly

    2016-08-15

    We consider the problem of stabilizing an unstable plant driven by bounded noise over a digital noisy communication link, a scenario at the heart of networked control. To stabilize such a plant, one needs real-time encoding and decoding with an error probability profile that decays exponentially with the decoding delay. The works of Schulman and Sahai over the past two decades have developed the notions of tree codes and anytime capacity, and provided the theoretical framework for studying such problems. Nonetheless, there has been little practical progress in this area due to the absence of explicit constructions of tree codes with efficient encoding and decoding algorithms. Recently, linear time-invariant tree codes were proposed to achieve the desired result under maximum-likelihood decoding. In this work, we take one more step towards practicality, by showing that these codes can be efficiently decoded using sequential decoding algorithms, up to some loss in performance (and with some practical complexity caveats). We supplement our theoretical results with numerical simulations that demonstrate the effectiveness of the decoder in a control system setting.

  4. New code of conduct

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    During his talk to the staff at the beginning of the year, the Director-General mentioned that a new code of conduct was being drawn up. What exactly is it and what is its purpose? Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources (HR) Department, talked to us about the whys and wherefores of the project.   Drawing by Georges Boixader from the cartoon strip “The World of Particles” by Brian Southworth. A code of conduct is a general framework laying down the behaviour expected of all members of an organisation's personnel. “CERN is one of the very few international organisations that don’t yet have one", explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin. “We have been thinking about introducing a code of conduct for a long time but lacked the necessary resources until now”. The call for a code of conduct has come from different sources within the Laboratory. “The Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel (read also the "Equal opportuni...

  5. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 10. Error Correcting Codes How Numbers Protect Themselves. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 1 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  6. Video Coding for ESL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    Coding tasks, a valuable technique for teaching English as a Second Language, are presented that enable students to look at patterns and structures of marital communication as well as objectively evaluate the degree of happiness or distress in the marriage. (seven references) (JL)

  7. Physical layer network coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Popovski, Petar; Yomo, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has been proposed to improve throughput of the two-way relay channel, where two nodes communicate with each other, being assisted by a relay node. Most of the works related to PLNC are focused on a simple three-node model and they do not take into account...

  8. Decoding Codes on Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Computer Science and. Automation, liSe. Their research addresses various aspects of algebraic and combinatorial coding theory. 1 low Density Parity Check ..... lustrating how the variable Xd is decoded. As mentioned earlier, this algorithm runs iteratively. To start with, in the first iteration, only bits in the first level of the ...

  9. Broadcast Coded Slotted ALOHA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanov, Mikhail; Brännström, Frederik; Graell i Amat, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We propose an uncoordinated medium access control (MAC) protocol, called all-to-all broadcast coded slotted ALOHA (B-CSA) for reliable all-to-all broadcast with strict latency constraints. In B-CSA, each user acts as both transmitter and receiver in a half-duplex mode. The half-duplex mode gives...

  10. Student Dress Codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uerling, Donald F.

    School officials see a need for regulations that prohibit disruptive and inappropriate forms of expression and attire; students see these regulations as unwanted restrictions on their freedom. This paper reviews court litigation involving constitutional limitations on school authority, dress and hair codes, state law constraints, and school…

  11. Dress Codes and Uniforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Linda; Miller, Gabriel

    2002-01-01

    Students do not always make choices that adults agree with in their choice of school dress. Dress-code issues are explored in this Research Roundup, and guidance is offered to principals seeking to maintain a positive school climate. In "Do School Uniforms Fit?" Kerry White discusses arguments for and against school uniforms and summarizes the…

  12. Dress Codes. Legal Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2000-01-01

    As illustrated by two recent decisions, the courts in the past decade have demarcated wide boundaries for school officials considering dress codes, whether in the form of selective prohibitions or required uniforms. Administrators must warn the community, provide legitimate justification and reasonable clarity, and comply with state law. (MLH)

  13. Decoding Codes on Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    titled 'A Mathematical Theory of Communication' in the Bell Systems Technical Journal in 1948. The paper set up a ... 'existential' result but nota 'constructive' one. The construction of such a code evolved from the work ... several papers on hyperbolic geometry. He shifted to the Department of Pure Mathematics at Calcutta.

  14. Cracking the Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, Dorothy

    1978-01-01

    Prescribes an attitude that teachers can take to help students "crack the code" of a dramatic work, combining a flexible teaching strategy, the suspension of beliefs or preconceived notions about the work, focusing on the drams's text, and choosing a reading strategy appropriate to the dramatic work. (RL)

  15. Corporate governance through codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhi, I.; Aguilera, R.V.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The UK's 1992 Cadbury Report defines corporate governance (CG) as the system by which businesses are directed and controlled. CG codes are a set of best practices designed to address deficiencies in the formal contracts and institutions by suggesting prescriptions on the preferred role and

  16. Coded SQUID arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podt, M.; Weenink, J.; Weenink, J.; Flokstra, Jakob; Rogalla, Horst

    2001-01-01

    We report on a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) system to read out large arrays of cryogenic detectors. In order to reduce the number of SQUIDs required for an array of these detectors, we used code-division multiplexing. This simplifies the electronics because of a significantly

  17. Reed-Solomon convolutional codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gluesing-Luerssen, H; Schmale, W

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we will introduce a specific class of cyclic convolutional codes. The construction is based on Reed-Solomon block codes. The algebraic parameters as well as the distance of these codes are determined. This shows that some of these codes are optimal or near optimal.

  18. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gadbury, Casey [USDOE Carlsbad Field Office, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  19. A closer look at salt loaded microstructures

    OpenAIRE

    Rooij, M.R. de

    2006-01-01

    Many walls of ancient buildings are covered with plaster layers. Amongst the most recurrent causes of damage of plasters and substrates are moisture and salt decay processes. To combat these salt problems, special salt resistant plasters have been developed for application on salt loaded substrates. However, experience in the field has shown that failures regularly occur on these special mortars, making the situation little transparent for end-users. A European project called COMPASS has addr...

  20. Causation, constructors and codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, Jan-Hendrik S

    2017-09-13

    Relational biology relies heavily on the enriched understanding of causal entailment that Robert Rosen's formalisation of Aristotle's four causes has made possible, although to date efficient causes and the rehabilitation of final cause have been its main focus. Formal cause has been paid rather scant attention, but, as this paper demonstrates, is crucial to our understanding of many types of processes, not necessarily biological. The graph-theoretic relational diagram of a mapping has played a key role in relational biology, and the first part of the paper is devoted to developing an explicit representation of formal cause in the diagram and how it acts in combination with efficient cause to form a mapping. I then use these representations to show how Von Neumann's universal constructor can be cast into a relational diagram in a way that avoids the logical paradox that Rosen detected in his own representation of the constructor in terms of sets and mappings. One aspect that was absent from both Von Neumann's and Rosen's treatments was the necessity of a code to translate the description (the formal cause) of the automaton to be constructed into the construction process itself. A formal definition of codes in general, and organic codes in particular, allows the relational diagram to be extended so as to capture this translation of formal cause into process. The extended relational diagram is used to exemplify causal entailment in a diverse range of processes, such as enzyme action, construction of automata, communication through the Morse code, and ribosomal polypeptide synthesis through the genetic code. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Precipitation of sparingly soluble salts in packed sandbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakou, Efstathia I.; Sygouni, Varvara; Paraskeva, Christakis A.

    2015-04-01

    One of the main problems encountered by the oil extraction industry, is the reduction of the local permeability of the rock formation near the extraction wells because of salt deposition in the pores of the rocks during the injection of brine water to displace the trapped oil ganglia within the oil formations. This phenomenon makes the oil recovery less efficient and under extreme cases the well is abandoned with a large amount of oil entrapped. Several detailed studies have been conducted in the past concerning sand bed consolidation using sparingly soluble salts for varying conditions (e.g. temperature, grain size, sand type, salt concentrations etc) and various salts [1]. Nevertheless, salt precipitation in the rock formation pores under the presence of other miscible or immiscible substances with water has not been investigated in details yet. In the present study, salt (CaCO3) precipitation experiments were performed in small beds packed with sea sand mixed with a low amount of CaCO3 seed grains. The experiments were performed using pure solutions (NaHCO3, CaCl2.2H2O) and solutions mixed with Ethylene Glycol in sand beds. Additionally, precipitation experiments were performed using pure solutions in sand beds saturated with oil phase (n-dodecane) for a wide range of solution supersaturation. During the experiments the ionic strength was kept constant. pH and concentration values of calcium ion of the effluent were measured and the precipitated salt crystals were identified using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) method. At the end of each experiment Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was conducted using a sample of the precipitated sand to identify the morphology of the precipitated crystals and their cohesion with sand grains. Acknowledgments This research was partially funded by the European Union (European Social Fund-ESF) and Greek National Funds through the Operational program "Education and Lifelong Learning" under the action Aristeia II (Code No 4420). References

  2. PC interfacing using Centronics, RS232 and game ports

    CERN Document Server

    An, Pei

    1998-01-01

    The main links with your PC and the outside world are the centronic port, used for connecting the printer, the RS232 port, used for the mouse, and the games port for a joystick. This book explores how these input/output (I/O) ports can be put to use through a range of other interfacing applications. This is especially useful for laptop and palmtop PCs which cannot be fitted with internal I/O cards. A novel approach is taken by this book, combining the hardware through which the ports can be explored, and the software programming needed to carry out a range of experiments.Circuits are p

  3. Functional Analysis of Mouse G6pc1 Mutations Using a Novel In Situ Assay for Glucose-6-Phosphatase Activity and the Effect of Mutations in Conserved Human G6PC1/G6PC2 Amino Acids on G6PC2 Protein Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla A Boortz

    Full Text Available Elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG has been associated with increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in G6PC2 are the most important common determinants of variations in FBG in humans. Studies using G6pc2 knockout mice suggest that G6pc2 regulates the glucose sensitivity of insulin secretion. G6PC2 and the related G6PC1 and G6PC3 genes encode glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunits. This study describes a functional analysis of 22 non-synonymous G6PC2 SNPs, that alter amino acids that are conserved in human G6PC1, mouse G6pc1 and mouse G6pc2, with the goal of identifying variants that potentially affect G6PC2 activity/expression. Published data suggest strong conservation of catalytically important amino acids between all four proteins and the related G6PC3 isoform. Because human G6PC2 has very low glucose-6-phosphatase activity we used an indirect approach, examining the effect of these SNPs on mouse G6pc1 activity. Using a novel in situ functional assay for glucose-6-phosphatase activity we demonstrate that the amino acid changes associated with the human G6PC2 rs144254880 (Arg79Gln, rs149663725 (Gly114Arg and rs2232326 (Ser324Pro SNPs reduce mouse G6pc1 enzyme activity without affecting protein expression. The Arg79Gln variant alters an amino acid mutation of which, in G6PC1, has previously been shown to cause glycogen storage disease type 1a. We also demonstrate that the rs368382511 (Gly8Glu, rs138726309 (His177Tyr, rs2232323 (Tyr207Ser rs374055555 (Arg293Trp, rs2232326 (Ser324Pro, rs137857125 (Pro313Leu and rs2232327 (Pro340Leu SNPs confer decreased G6PC2 protein expression. In summary, these studies identify multiple G6PC2 variants that have the potential to be associated with altered FBG in humans.

  4. Can COSMOTherm Predict a Salting in Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivola, Martta; Prisle, Nønne L; Elm, Jonas; Waxman, Eleanor M; Volkamer, Rainer; Kurtén, Theo

    2017-08-24

    We have used COSMO-RS, a method combining quantum chemistry with statistical thermodynamics, to compute Setschenow constants (K S ) for a large array of organic solutes and salts. These comprise both atmospherically relevant solute-salt combinations, as well as systems for which experimental data are available. In agreement with previous studies on single salts, the Setschenow constants predicted by COSMO-RS (as implemented in the COSMOTherm program) are generally too large compared to experiments. COSMOTherm overpredicts salting out (positive K S ), and/or underpredicts salting in (negative K S ). For ammonium and sodium salts, K S values are larger for oxalates and sulfates, and smaller for chlorides and bromides. For chloride and bromide salts, K S values usually increase with decreasing size of the cation, along the series Pr 4 N + salting in is predicted only for oxalic acid in sodium and ammonium oxalate, and sodium sulfate, solutions. COSMOTherm was thus unable to replicate the experimentally observed salting in of glyoxal in sulfate solutions, likely due to the overestimation of salting out effects. By contrast, COSMOTherm does qualitatively predict the experimentally observed salting in of multiple organic solutes in solutions of alkylaminium salts.

  5. Salt loading affects cortisol metabolism in normotensive subjects : Relationships with salt sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, MN; van der Kleij, FGH; Boonstra, AH; Sluiter, WJ; Koerts, J; Navis, G; Dullaart, RPF

    We studied cortisol metabolism together with insulin sensitivity [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)] and renal hemodynamics in 19 salt-resistant (sr) and nine salt-sensitive ( ss) normotensive subjects after a low-and high-salt diet. Results are described as high- vs. low-salt diet. Sum of urinary

  6. The FORTRAN NALAP code adapted to a microcomputer compiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Paulo David de Castro; Borges, Eduardo Madeira; Braz Filho, Francisco Antonio; Guimaraes, Lamartine Nogueira Frutuoso, E-mail: plobo.a@uol.com.b, E-mail: eduardo@ieav.cta.b, E-mail: fbraz@ieav.cta.b, E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.b [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Nuclear Energy Division of the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv) is conducting the TERRA project (TEcnologia de Reatores Rapidos Avancados), Technology for Advanced Fast Reactors project, aimed at a space reactor application. In this work, to attend the TERRA project, the NALAP code adapted to a microcomputer compiler called Compaq Visual Fortran (Version 6.6) is presented. This code, adapted from the light water reactor transient code RELAP 3B, simulates thermal-hydraulic responses for sodium cooled fast reactors. The strategy to run the code in a PC was divided in some steps mainly to remove unnecessary routines, to eliminate old statements, to introduce new ones and also to include extension precision mode. The source program was able to solve three sample cases under conditions of protected transients suggested in literature: the normal reactor shutdown, with a delay of 200 ms to start the control rod movement and a delay of 500 ms to stop the pumps; reactor scram after transient of loss of flow; and transients protected from overpower. Comparisons were made with results from the time when the NALAP code was acquired by the IEAv, back in the 80's. All the responses for these three simulations reproduced the calculations performed with the CDC compiler in 1985. Further modifications will include the usage of gas as coolant for the nuclear reactor to allow a Closed Brayton Cycle Loop - CBCL - to be used as a heat/electric converter. (author)

  7. Development of a subchannel analysis code MATRA (Ver. {alpha})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y. J.; Hwang, D. H

    1998-04-01

    A subchannel analysis code MATRA-{alpha}, an interim version of MATRA, has been developed to be run on an IBM PC or HP WS based on the existing CDC CYBER mainframe version of COBRA-IV-I. This MATRA code is a thermal-hydraulic analysis code based on the subchannel approach for calculating the enthalpy and flow distribution in fuel assemblies and reactor cores for both steady-state and transient conditions. MATRA-{alpha} has been provided with an improved structure, various functions, and models to give the more convenient user environment and to increase the code accuracy, various functions, and models to give the more convenient user environment and to increase the code accuracy. Among them, the pressure drop model has been improved to be applied to non-square-lattice rod arrays, and the lateral transport models between adjacent subchannels have been improved to increase the accuracy in predicting two-phase flow phenomena. Also included in this report are the detailed instructions for input data preparation and for auxiliary pre-processors to serve as a guide to those who want to use MATRA-{alpha}. In addition, we compared the predictions of MATRA-{alpha} with the experimental data on the flow and enthalpy distribution in three sample rod-bundle cases to evaluate the performance of MATRA-{alpha}. All the results revealed that the prediction of MATRA-{alpha} were better than those of COBRA-IV-I. (author). 16 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs.

  8. On the Packet Delay Characteristics for Serially-Connected Links using Random Linear Network Coding with and without Recoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tömösközi, Máté; Fitzek, Frank; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    decoding of the packets on the receiver side while playing out the video recording contained in the payload. Our solutions are implemented and evaluated on serially connected Raspberry Pi devices and a network (de)coding enabled software running on a regular PC. We find that the recoding relays work...

  9. Inhibition of various steps in the replication cycle of vesicular stomatitis virus contributes to its photoinactivation by AlPcS4 or Pc4 and red light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, ACE; Wagenaars-van Gompel, AE; Hermanns, RCA; van der Meulen, J; Smit, J; Wilschut, J; Brand, A; Dubbelman, TMAR; VanSteveninck, J

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) was used as a model virus to study the processes involved in photoinactivation by aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AIPcS(4),) or silicon phthalocyanine HOSiPcOSi(CH3)(2)(CH2)(3)N(CH3)(2) (Pc4) and red light. Previously a very rapid decrease in the

  10. Evaluation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment drain tanks for reuse in salt disposal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This report was prepared to identify the source documentation used to evaluate the drain tanks in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The evaluation considered the original quality of the tanks, their service history, and their intended use during the removal of fluoride salts. It also includes recommendations for a quality verification plan. The estimates of corrosion damage to the salt containing system at the MSRE are low enough to lend optimism that the system will be fit for its intended use, which is disposal of the salt by transferring it to transport containers. The expected corrosion to date is estimated between 10 and 50 mil, or 2 to 10% of the shell wall. The expected corrosion rate when the tanks are used to remove the salt at 110 F is estimated to be .025 to 0.1 mil per hour of exposure to HF and molten salt. To provide additional assurance that the estimates of corrosion damage are accurate, cost effective nondestructive examination (NDE) has been recommended. The NDE procedures are compared with industry standards and give a perspective for the extent of additional measures taken in the recommendation. A methodology for establishing the remaining life has been recommended, and work is progressing towards providing an engineering evaluation based upon thickness and design conditions for the future use of the tanks. These extra measures and the code based analysis will serve to define the risk of salt or radioactive gases leaking during processing and transfer of the salt as acceptable.

  11. Effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt-sensitive versus salt-resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt-sensitive versus salt-resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after 1 week of high salt (200 mmol per day sodium) and 1 week of low salt (10 mmol per day sodium) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure>15 mm Hg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% women; 16% blacks; body mass index, 28.5±4.2 kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mm Hg) as compared with high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mm Hg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dL; 10.8±7.3 mIU/L; 2.6±1.9) as compared with high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dL; 9.4±5.8 mIU/L; 2.1±1.4; Psalt-sensitive (n=193) versus salt-resistant (n=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in homeostasis model assessment on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt-sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt-resistant subjects (P=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in homeostasis model assessment after including age, body mass index, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone, and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Essential idempotents and simplex codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Chalom

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We define essential idempotents in group algebras and use them to prove that every mininmal abelian non-cyclic code is a repetition code. Also we use them to prove that every minimal abelian code is equivalent to a minimal cyclic code of the same length. Finally, we show that a binary cyclic code is simplex if and only if is of length of the form $n=2^k-1$ and is generated by an essential idempotent.

  13. Coding Theory and Projective Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Natalia

    2008-05-01

    The projective space of order n over a finite field F_q is a set of all subspaces of the vector space F_q^{n}. In this work, we consider error-correcting codes in the projective space, focusing mainly on constant dimension codes. We start with the different representations of subspaces in the projective space. These representations involve matrices in reduced row echelon form, associated binary vectors, and Ferrers diagrams. Based on these representations, we provide a new formula for the computation of the distance between any two subspaces in the projective space. We examine lifted maximum rank distance (MRD) codes, which are nearly optimal constant dimension codes. We prove that a lifted MRD code can be represented in such a way that it forms a block design known as a transversal design. The incidence matrix of the transversal design derived from a lifted MRD code can be viewed as a parity-check matrix of a linear code in the Hamming space. We find the properties of these codes which can be viewed also as LDPC codes. We present new bounds and constructions for constant dimension codes. First, we present a multilevel construction for constant dimension codes, which can be viewed as a generalization of a lifted MRD codes construction. This construction is based on a new type of rank-metric codes, called Ferrers diagram rank-metric codes. Then we derive upper bounds on the size of constant dimension codes which contain the lifted MRD code, and provide a construction for two families of codes, that attain these upper bounds. We generalize the well-known concept of a punctured code for a code in the projective space to obtain large codes which are not constant dimension. We present efficient enumerative encoding and decoding techniques for the Grassmannian. Finally we describe a search method for constant dimension lexicodes.

  14. A Hierarchical Predictive Coding Model of Object Recognition in Natural Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratling, M W

    2017-01-01

    Predictive coding has been proposed as a model of the hierarchical perceptual inference process performed in the cortex. However, results demonstrating that predictive coding is capable of performing the complex inference required to recognise objects in natural images have not previously been presented. This article proposes a hierarchical neural network based on predictive coding for performing visual object recognition. This network is applied to the tasks of categorising hand-written digits, identifying faces, and locating cars in images of street scenes. It is shown that image recognition can be performed with tolerance to position, illumination, size, partial occlusion, and within-category variation. The current results, therefore, provide the first practical demonstration that predictive coding (at least the particular implementation of predictive coding used here; the PC/BC-DIM algorithm) is capable of performing accurate visual object recognition.

  15. Rate-adaptive BCH codes for distributed source coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Larsen, Knud J.; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes for distributed source coding. A feedback channel is employed to adapt the rate of the code during the decoding process. The focus is on codes with short block lengths for independently coding a binary source X and decoding it given its...... correlated side information Y. The proposed codes have been analyzed in a high-correlation scenario, where the marginal probability of each symbol, Xi in X, given Y is highly skewed (unbalanced). Rate-adaptive BCH codes are presented and applied to distributed source coding. Adaptive and fixed checking...... strategies for improving the reliability of the decoded result are analyzed, and methods for estimating the performance are proposed. In the analysis, noiseless feedback and noiseless communication are assumed. Simulation results show that rate-adaptive BCH codes achieve better performance than low...

  16. Entanglement-assisted quantum MDS codes constructed from negacyclic codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhang; Huang, Yuanyuan; Feng, Chunhui; Chen, Riqing

    2017-12-01

    Recently, entanglement-assisted quantum codes have been constructed from cyclic codes by some scholars. However, how to determine the number of shared pairs required to construct entanglement-assisted quantum codes is not an easy work. In this paper, we propose a decomposition of the defining set of negacyclic codes. Based on this method, four families of entanglement-assisted quantum codes constructed in this paper satisfy the entanglement-assisted quantum Singleton bound, where the minimum distance satisfies q+1 ≤ d≤ n+2/2. Furthermore, we construct two families of entanglement-assisted quantum codes with maximal entanglement.

  17. Coding vs non-coding: Translatability of short ORFs found in putative non-coding transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Yuji; Kondo, Takefumi; Hashimoto, Yoshiko

    2011-11-01

    Genome analysis has identified a number of putative non-protein-coding transcripts that do not contain ORFs longer than 100 codons. Although evidence strongly suggests that non-coding RNAs are important in a variety of biological phenomena, the discovery of small peptide-coding mRNAs confirms that some transcripts that have been assumed to be non-coding actually have coding potential. Their abundance and importance in biological phenomena makes the sorting of non-coding RNAs from small peptide-coding mRNAs a key issue in functional genomics. However, validating the coding potential of small peptide-coding RNAs is complicated, because their ORF sequences are usually too short for computational analysis. In this review, we discuss computational and experimental methods for validating the translatability of these non-coding RNAs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Rural Latino caregivers' beliefs and behaviors around their children's salt consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, Kristin S; Guerra, Claudia; Gonzalez-Vargas, M Judy; Barker, Judith C

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of high blood pressure has been increasing in U.S. children, with implications for long term health consequences. Sodium consumption, a modifiable risk factor for high blood pressure, is above recommended limits and increasing. Very little is known about Latino caregiver beliefs and behaviors around their children's salt consumption. In California's Central Valley, qualitative interviews in Spanish investigated low-income caregivers' views and understandings of their children's dietary salt consumption. Thirty individual interviews and 5 focus groups were conducted (N=61). Interview transcripts were translated and transcribed, coded and thematically analyzed. Seven primary topic areas around children's salt intake and its impact on health were identified: children's favorite foods, children's dietary salt sources, superiority of home-cooked foods, salty and sweet foods, managing salt for health, developing children's tastes, and adding salt added at the table. Parents recognize common sources of sodium such as "junk food" and processed food and made efforts to limit their children's consumption of these foods, but may overlook other significant sodium sources, particularly bread, cheese, prepared soups and sports drinks. Caregivers recognize excess salt as unhealthy for children, but don't believe health problems (like high blood pressure) can occur in young children. Nevertheless, they made efforts to limit how much salt their children consumed through a variety of strategies; school meals were a source of high sodium that they felt were outside of their control. Latino caregivers are concerned about their children's salt intake and attempt to limit consumption, but some common sources of sodium are under-recognized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of RNA interference in rat PC12 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thonberg, Håkan; Schéele, Camilla C; Dahlgren, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA can initiate post transcriptional gene silencing in mammalian cell cultures via a mechanism known as RNA interference (RNAi). The sequence-specific degradation of homologous mRNA is triggered by 21-nucleotide RNA-duplexes termed short interfering RNA (siRNA). The homologous...... strand of the siRNA guides a multi-protein complex, RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), to cleave target mRNA. Although the exact function and composition of RISC is still unclear, it has been shown to include several proteins of the Argonaute protein family. Here we report of a robust system...... to achieve RNAi in a cultured rat neuronal cell line, PC12. Targeting of neuropeptide Y mRNA by synthetic siRNA results in knock down of the mRNA levels with an IC50 of approximately 0.1 nM. The mRNA knockdown lasts for at least 96 h and is not dependent on protein synthesis. Further, PC12 cells were ablated...

  20. From a UNIX to a PC Based SCADA System

    CERN Document Server

    Momal, F

    1999-01-01

    In order to facilitate the development of supervisory applications involved in slow process control (such as cryogenic control), the LHC/IAS Group (Equipment Controls Group) opted, a few years ago, for an industrial SCADA package which runs on UNIXÒ platforms. However, to reduce costs and following market trends, it has been decided to move over to a PC-based package. Several processes relating to the testing of the prototypes of the LHC magnets are already controlled in this way. However, it was still necessary to provide all the services previously available to the users, for example, data archiving in central databases, real-time access through the Web, automatic GSM calls, etc. This paper presents the advantages and drawbacks of a PC-based package versus a Unix-based system. It also lists the criteria used in the market survey to arrive at the final selection, as well as, the overall architecture, highlighting the developments needed to integrate the package into the global computing environment.

  1. Commodity clusters: Performance comparison between PC`s and workstations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.; Laroco, J.; Armstrong, R.

    1996-03-01

    Workstation clusters were originally developed as a way to leverage the better cost basis of UNIX workstations to perform computations previously handled only by relatively more expensive supercomputers. Commodity workstation clusters take this evolutionary process one step further by replacing equivalent proprietary workstation functionality with less expensive PC technology. As PC technology encroaches on proprietary UNIX workstation vendor markets, these vendors will see a declining share of the overall market. As technology advances continue, the ability to upgrade a workstations performance plays a large role in cost analysis. For example, a major upgrade to a typical UNIX workstation means replacing the whole machine. As major revisions to the UNIX vendor`s product line come out, brand new systems are introduced. IBM compatibles, however, are modular by design, and nothing need to be replaced except the components that are truly improved. The DAISy cluster, for example, is about to undergo a major upgrade from 90MHz Pentiums to 200MHz Pentium Pros. All of the memory -- the system`s largest expense -- and disks, power supply, etc., can be reused. As a result, commodity workstation clusters ought to gain an increasingly large share of the distributed computing market.

  2. Codes of Good Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene

    2013-01-01

    Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely......, however, that national views of good governance reflect different political cultures and institutional heritages. Fourteen national codes of conduct are analyzed. The findings suggest that public values converge and that they match model codes from the United Nations and the European Council as well...... as conceptions of good governance from other international organizations. While values converge, they are balanced and communicated differently, and seem to some extent to be translated into the national cultures. The set of global public values derived from this analysis include public interest, regime dignity...

  3. Synthetic histone code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischle, Wolfgang; Mootz, Henning D; Schwarzer, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    Chromatin is the universal template of genetic information in all eukaryotic cells. This complex of DNA and histone proteins not only packages and organizes genomes but also regulates gene expression. A multitude of posttranslational histone modifications and their combinations are thought to constitute a code for directing distinct structural and functional states of chromatin. Methods of protein chemistry, including protein semisynthesis, amber suppression technology, and cysteine bioconjugation, have enabled the generation of so-called designer chromatin containing histones in defined and homogeneous modification states. Several of these approaches have matured from proof-of-concept studies into efficient tools and technologies for studying the biochemistry of chromatin regulation and for interrogating the histone code. We summarize pioneering experiments and recent developments in this exciting field of chemical biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficient convolutional sparse coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlberg, Brendt

    2017-06-20

    Computationally efficient algorithms may be applied for fast dictionary learning solving the convolutional sparse coding problem in the Fourier domain. More specifically, efficient convolutional sparse coding may be derived within an alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) framework that utilizes fast Fourier transforms (FFT) to solve the main linear system in the frequency domain. Such algorithms may enable a significant reduction in computational cost over conventional approaches by implementing a linear solver for the most critical and computationally expensive component of the conventional iterative algorithm. The theoretical computational cost of the algorithm may be reduced from O(M.sup.3N) to O(MN log N), where N is the dimensionality of the data and M is the number of elements in the dictionary. This significant improvement in efficiency may greatly increase the range of problems that can practically be addressed via convolutional sparse representations.

  5. Status of MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.V. Mokhov

    2003-04-09

    Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

  6. Hydra Code Release

    OpenAIRE

    Couchman, H. M. P.; Pearce, F. R.; Thomas, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    Comment: A new version of the AP3M-SPH code, Hydra, is now available as a tar file from the following sites; http://coho.astro.uwo.ca/pub/hydra/hydra.html , http://star-www.maps.susx.ac.uk/~pat/hydra/hydra.html . The release now also contains a cosmological initial conditions generator, documentation, an installation guide and installation tests. A LaTex version of the documentation is included here

  7. Adaptive Hybrid Picture Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-05

    process, namely displacement or motion detection and estimation. DWSPLACEENT AD MOTION Simply stated, motion is defined to be a time series of spatial...regressive model in that the prediction is made with respect to a time series . That is future values of a time series are to be predicted on...B8 - 90. Robbins, John D., and Netravali, Arun N., "Interframe Telivision Coding Using Movement Compensation," Internation Conference on

  8. MELCOR computer code manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  9. Code Modernization of VPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Robert; Nystrom, David; Albright, Brian

    2017-10-01

    The ability of scientific simulations to effectively deliver performant computation is increasingly being challenged by successive generations of high-performance computing architectures. Code development to support efficient computation on these modern architectures is both expensive, and highly complex; if it is approached without due care, it may also not be directly transferable between subsequent hardware generations. Previous works have discussed techniques to support the process of adapting a legacy code for modern hardware generations, but despite the breakthroughs in the areas of mini-app development, portable-performance, and cache oblivious algorithms the problem still remains largely unsolved. In this work we demonstrate how a focus on platform agnostic modern code-development can be applied to Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations to facilitate effective scientific delivery. This work builds directly on our previous work optimizing VPIC, in which we replaced intrinsic based vectorisation with compile generated auto-vectorization to improve the performance and portability of VPIC. In this work we present the use of a specialized SIMD queue for processing some particle operations, and also preview a GPU capable OpenMP variant of VPIC. Finally we include a lessons learnt. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396 and supported by the LANL LDRD program.

  10. Suppression of PC-1/ENPP-1 expression improves insulin sensitivity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Heather H; Chin, Chen-Ni; Wu, Margaret; Ni, Weihua; Quan, Shuo; Liu, Franklin; Dallas-Yang, Qing; Ellsworth, Kenneth; Ho, Thu; Zhang, Aiwu; Natasha, Tajneen; Li, Jing; Chapman, Kevin; Strohl, William; Li, Cai; Wang, I-Ming; Berger, Joel; An, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Bei B; Jiang, Guoqiang

    2009-08-15

    Plasma cell membrane glycoprotein-1, or ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodieterase (PC-1/ENPP1) has been shown to inhibit insulin signaling in cultured cells in vitro and in transgenic mice in vivo when overexpressed. Furthermore, both genetic polymorphism and increased expression of PC-1 have been reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes in humans. Thus it was proposed that PC-1 inhibition represents a potential strategy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, it has not been proven that suppression of PC-1 expression or inhibition of its function will actually improve insulin sensitivity. We show in the current study that transient overexpression of PC-1 inhibits insulin-stimulated insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in HEK293 cells, while knockdown of PC-1 with siRNA significantly increases insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in HuH7 human hepatoma cells. Adenoviral vector expressing a short hairpin RNA against mouse PC-1 (PC-1shRNA) was utilized to efficiently knockdown PC-1 expression in the livers of db/db mice. In comparison with db/db mice treated with a control virus, db/db mice treated with the PC-1shRNA adenovirus had approximately 80% lower hepatic PC-1 mRNA levels, approximately 30% lower ambient fed plasma glucose, approximately 25% lower fasting plasma glucose, and significantly improved oral glucose tolerance. Taken together, these results demonstrate that suppression of PC-1 expression improves insulin sensitivity in vitro and in an animal model of diabetes, supporting the proposition that PC-1 inhibition is a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Cell surface display of cold-active esterase EstPc with the use of a new autotransporter from Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovskaya, L E; Novototskaya-Vlasova, K A; Kryukova, E A; Rivkina, E M; Dolgikh, D A; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2015-01-01

    We have cloned the gene coding for AT877-a new predicted member of the autotransporter protein family with an esterase passenger domain from permafrost bacterium Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5(T). Expression of AT877 gene in Escherichia coli resulted in accumulation of the recombinant autotransporter in the outer membrane fraction and at the surface of the induced cells. AT877 displayed maximum hydrolytic activity toward medium-chain p-nitrophenyl esters (C8-C10) at 50 °C and was resistant to the presence of several metal ions, organic solvents and detergents. Previously, we have described a cold-active esterase EstPc from the same bacterium which possesses high activity at low temperatures and relatively high thermal stability. To construct a cell surface display system for EstPc, the hybrid autotransporter gene coding for EstPc with the α-helical linker and the translocator domain from AT877 was constructed and expressed in E. coli. According to the results of the cell fractionation studies and esterase activity measurements, the EstPc passenger was successfully displayed at the surface of the induced cells. It demonstrated a temperature optimum at 15-25 °C and a substrate preference toward p-nitrophenyl butyrate (C4). Obtained results provide a new example of the biotechnologically relevant enzyme from the permafrost microbial community with potential applications for the conversion of short- and medium-chain ester substrates and a basis for the construction of a new cell surface display platform.

  12. WINDOW 4. 0: Program description. A PC program for analyzing the thermal performance of fenestration products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    WINDOW 4.0 is a publicly available IBM PC compatible computer program developed by the Windows and Daylighting Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for calculating total window thermal performance indices (e.g. U-values, solar heat gain coefficients, shading coefficients, and visible transmittances). WINDOW 4.0 provides a versatile heat transfer analysis method consistent with the rating procedure developed by the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC). The program can be used to design and develop new products, to rate and compare performance characteristics of all types of window products, to assist educators in teaching heat transfer through windows, and to help public officials in developing building energy codes. WINDOW 4.0 is a major revision to WINDOW 3.1 and we strongly urge all users to read this manual before using the program. Users who need professional assistance with the WINDOW 4.0 program or other window performance simulation issues are encouraged to contact one or more of the NFRC-accredited Simulation Laboratories. A list of these accredited simulation professionals is available from the NFRC.

  13. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urquhart, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300°C, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  14. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia

    2012-05-01

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700 C

  15. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia; Piyush Sabharwall

    2012-09-01

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 °C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700

  16. Early Holocene Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Miller, David; Thompson, Robert S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Shorelines and surficial deposits (including buried forest-floor mats and organic-rich wetland sediments) show that Great Salt Lake did not rise higher than modern lake levels during the earliest Holocene (11.5–10.2 cal ka BP; 10–9 14C ka BP). During that period, finely laminated, organic-rich muds (sapropel) containing brine-shrimp cysts and pellets and interbedded sodium-sulfate salts were deposited on the lake floor. Sapropel deposition was probably caused by stratification of the water column — a freshwater cap possibly was formed by groundwater, which had been stored in upland aquifers during the immediately preceding late-Pleistocene deep-lake cycle (Lake Bonneville), and was actively discharging on the basin floor. A climate characterized by low precipitation and runoff, combined with local areas of groundwater discharge in piedmont settings, could explain the apparent conflict between evidence for a shallow lake (a dry climate) and previously published interpretations for a moist climate in the Great Salt Lake basin of the eastern Great Basin.

  17. On Some Ternary LCD Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Darkunde, Nitin S.; Patil, Arunkumar R.

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to study $LCD$ codes. Linear code with complementary dual($LCD$) are those codes which have their intersection with their dual code as $\\{0\\}$. In this paper we will give rather alternative proof of Massey's theorem\\cite{8}, which is one of the most important characterization of $LCD$ codes. Let $LCD[n,k]_3$ denote the maximum of possible values of $d$ among $[n,k,d]$ ternary $LCD$ codes. In \\cite{4}, authors have given upper bound on $LCD[n,k]_2$ and extended th...

  18. Design of convolutional tornado code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Yang, Yao; Gao, Hongmin; Tan, Lu

    2017-09-01

    As a linear block code, the traditional tornado (tTN) code is inefficient in burst-erasure environment and its multi-level structure may lead to high encoding/decoding complexity. This paper presents a convolutional tornado (cTN) code which is able to improve the burst-erasure protection capability by applying the convolution property to the tTN code, and reduce computational complexity by abrogating the multi-level structure. The simulation results show that cTN code can provide a better packet loss protection performance with lower computation complexity than tTN code.

  19. Allele coding in genomic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standen, Ismo; Christensen, Ole Fredslund

    2011-01-01

    this centered allele coding. This study considered effects of different allele coding methods on inference. Both marker-based and equivalent models were considered, and restricted maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were used in inference. \\paragraph*{Results:} Theoretical derivations showed that parameter...... coding methods imply different models. Finally, allele coding affects the mixing of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, with the centered coding being the best. \\paragraph*{Conclusions:} Different allele coding methods lead to the same inference in the marker-based and equivalent models when a fixed...

  20. Polynomial weights and code constructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, J. L.; Costello, D. J., Jr.; Justesen, J.

    1973-01-01

    Study of certain polynomials with the 'weight-retaining' property that any linear combination of these polynomials with coefficients in a general finite field has Hamming weight at least as great as that of the minimum-degree polynomial included. This fundamental property is used in applications to Reed-Muller codes, a new class of 'repeated-root' binary cyclic codes, two new classes of binary convolutional codes derived from binary cyclic codes, and two new classes of binary convolutional codes derived from Reed-Solomon codes.

  1. Construction of new quantum MDS codes derived from constacyclic codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Divya; Gupta, Manish; Narula, Rajesh; Bhullar, Jaskaran

    Obtaining quantum maximum distance separable (MDS) codes from dual containing classical constacyclic codes using Hermitian construction have paved a path to undertake the challenges related to such constructions. Using the same technique, some new parameters of quantum MDS codes have been constructed here. One set of parameters obtained in this paper has achieved much larger distance than work done earlier. The remaining constructed parameters of quantum MDS codes have large minimum distance and were not explored yet.

  2. Decoding of concatenated codes with interleaved outer codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom; Thommesen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved (N, K) Reed-Solomon codes, which allows close to N-K errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes.......Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved (N, K) Reed-Solomon codes, which allows close to N-K errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes....

  3. Decoding of concatenated codes with interleaved outer codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Thommesen, Christian; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved Reed/Solomon codes, which allows close to errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes. (NK) N-K......Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved Reed/Solomon codes, which allows close to errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes. (NK) N-K...

  4. New Code Matched Interleaver for Turbo Codes with Short Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAZAR, G. A.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Turbo codes are a parallel concatenation of two or more convolutional codes, separated by interleavers, therefore their performance is not influenced just by the constituent encoders, but also by the interleaver. For short frame turbo codes, the selection of a proper interleaver becomes critical. This paper presents a new algorithm of obtaining a code matched interleaver leading to a very high minimum distance and improved performance.

  5. iSS-PC: Identifying Splicing Sites via Physical-Chemical Properties Using Deep Sparse Auto-Encoder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhao-Chun; Wang, Peng; Qiu, Wang-Ren; Xiao, Xuan

    2017-08-15

    Gene splicing is one of the most significant biological processes in eukaryotic gene expression, such as RNA splicing, which can cause a pre-mRNA to produce one or more mature messenger RNAs containing the coded information with multiple biological functions. Thus, identifying splicing sites in DNA/RNA sequences is significant for both the bio-medical research and the discovery of new drugs. However, it is expensive and time consuming based only on experimental technique, so new computational methods are needed. To identify the splice donor sites and splice acceptor sites accurately and quickly, a deep sparse auto-encoder model with two hidden layers, called iSS-PC, was constructed based on minimum error law, in which we incorporated twelve physical-chemical properties of the dinucleotides within DNA into PseDNC to formulate given sequence samples via a battery of cross-covariance and auto-covariance transformations. In this paper, five-fold cross-validation test results based on the same benchmark data-sets indicated that the new predictor remarkably outperformed the existing prediction methods in this field. Furthermore, it is expected that many other related problems can be also studied by this approach. To implement classification accurately and quickly, an easy-to-use web-server for identifying slicing sites has been established for free access at: http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iSS-PC.

  6. Code Flows : Visualizing Structural Evolution of Source Code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Auber, David

    2008-01-01

    Understanding detailed changes done to source code is of great importance in software maintenance. We present Code Flows, a method to visualize the evolution of source code geared to the understanding of fine and mid-level scale changes across several file versions. We enhance an existing visual

  7. Turbo-Gallager Codes: The Emergence of an Intelligent Coding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P. C. Catherine. K. M. S Soyjaudah. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering ... in the 1960's, Gallager in his PhD thesis worked on low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes (Gallager 1963). ..... In any case however, it is hoped that the ideas behind TG codes will help in the development of future intelligent coding ...

  8. Code flows : Visualizing structural evolution of source code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Auber, David

    Understanding detailed changes done to source code is of great importance in software maintenance. We present Code Flows, a method to visualize the evolution of source code geared to the understanding of fine and mid-level scale changes across several file versions. We enhance an existing visual

  9. Turbo-Gallager Codes: The Emergence of an Intelligent Coding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work proposes a blend of the two technologies, yielding a code that we nicknamed Turbo-Gallager or TG Code. The code has additional “intelligence” compared to its parents. It detects and corrects the so-called “undetected errors” and recovers from individual decoder failure by making use of a network of decoders.

  10. Platycodin D induced apoptosis and autophagy in PC-12 cells through mitochondrial dysfunction pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chuan-Chuan; Zhang, Cheng; Yao, Jun-Hua; Lai, Shang-Hai; Han, Bing-Jie; Li, Wei; Tang, Bing; Wan, Dan; Liu, Yun-Jun

    2016-11-01

    In this article, the in vitro cytotoxicity of platycodin D was evaluated in human PC-12, SGC-7901, BEL-7402, HeLa and A549 cancer cell lines. PC-12 cells were sensitive to platycodin D treatment, with an IC50 value of 13.5 ± 1.2 μM. Morphological and comet assays showed that platycodin D effectively induced apoptosis in PC-12 cells. Platycodin D increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Platycodin D induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in the PC-12 cell line. Platycodin D can induce autophagy. In addition, platycodin D can down-regulate the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x, and up-regulate the levels of Bid protein in the PC-12 cells. The results demonstrated that platycodin D induced PC-12 cell apoptosis through a ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway.

  11. Is there a link between proprotein convertase PC7 activity and human lipid homeostasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Guillemot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A genome-wide association study suggested that a R504H mutation in the proprotein convertase PC7 is associated with increased circulating levels of HDL and reduced triglycerides in black Africans. Our present results show that PC7 and PC7-R504H exhibit similar processing of transferrin receptor-1, proSortilin, and apolipoprotein-F. Plasma analyses revealed no change in the lipid profiles, insulin or glucose of wild type and PC7 KO mice. Thus, the R504H mutation does not modify the proteolytic activity of PC7. The mechanisms behind the implication of PC7 in the regulation of human HDL, triglycerides and in modifying the levels of atherogenic small dense LDL remain to be elucidated.

  12. Functional analysis of PCSK2 coding variants: A founder effect in the Old Order Amish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Alexandra; Ramos-Molina, Bruno; Jarvela, Timothy S; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Pollin, Toni I; Lindberg, Iris

    2017-09-01

    In humans, noncoding variants of PCSK2, the gene encoding prohormone convertase 2 (PC2), have been previously associated with risk for and age of onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aims of this study were to identify coding variants in PCSK2; to determine their possible association with glucose handling; and to determine functional outcomes for coding variants in biochemical studies. Exome-wide genotyping was performed on 1725 Old Order Amish (OOA) subjects. PCSK2 coding variants were tested for association with diabetes-related phenotypes. In vitro analyses using transfected human PC2-encoding constructs were performed to determine the impact of each mutation on PC2 activity. We identified 10 rare missense coding variants in PCSK2 in various genomic databases. R430W (rs200711626) is greatly enriched in the OOA population (MAF 4.3%). This variant is almost twice as common (MAF 7.4%) in OOA individuals with T2D as in OOA individuals with normal or with normal/impaired glucose tolerance (MAF 3.9% and 2.9%, respectively; p=0.25 and p=0.10). In vitro experiments revealed a broadening of the pH optimum for the R430W variant, which may result in increased activity against PCSK2 substrates. Although the association of the R430W variation with T2D in the OOA population did not reach significance, based upon the broadened pH profile of R430W PC2, we speculate that the presence of this substitution may result in altered processing of PCSK2 substrates, ultimately leading to increased conversion to diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. ParallelPC: an R package for efficient constraint based causal exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Thuc Duy; Hoang, Tao; Li, Jiuyong; Liu, Lin; Hu, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Discovering causal relationships from data is the ultimate goal of many research areas. Constraint based causal exploration algorithms, such as PC, FCI, RFCI, PC-simple, IDA and Joint-IDA have achieved significant progress and have many applications. A common problem with these methods is the high computational complexity, which hinders their applications in real world high dimensional datasets, e.g gene expression datasets. In this paper, we present an R package, ParallelPC, that includes th...

  14. Live-cell monochromatic dual-label sub-diffraction microscopy by mt-pcSOFI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duwé, S; Vandenberg, W; Dedecker, P

    2017-06-29

    We expand photochromic super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (pcSOFI) to monochromatic dual-channel sub-diffraction microscopy. Multi-tau (mt-)pcSOFI unmixes spectrally identical reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins (RSFPs) based on their blinking kinetics. We show that mt-pcSOFI can be used to simultaneously image two structures in living cells with existing RSFPs and the newly developed ffDronpa-F.

  15. State of the art of parallel scientific visualization applications on PC clusters; Etat de l'art des applications de visualisation scientifique paralleles sur grappes de PC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juliachs, M

    2004-07-01

    In this state of the art on parallel scientific visualization applications on PC clusters, we deal with both surface and volume rendering approaches. We first analyze available PC cluster configurations and existing parallel rendering software components for parallel graphics rendering. CEA/DIF has been studying cluster visualization since 2001. This report is part of a study to set up a new visualization research platform. This platform consisting of an eight-node PC cluster under Linux and a tiled display was installed in collaboration with Versailles-Saint-Quentin University in August 2003. (author)

  16. Why not make a PC cluster of your own? 2.State of the Art of PC Cluster and Basic Knowledge of Its Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeno, Ryutaro; Shigetani, Takayuki; Kurokawa, Motoyoshi

    A PC cluster is no longer for enthusiasts but has become a cost effective computing platform ready to use. The largest problem for users is to modify their existing serial programs to parallel programs using the MPI. This modification is rather easy when the PC cluster is small, and the performance of the program shows high. This report describe basic knowledge and cost of introducing the PC cluster. We measured its performance by a Poisson benchmark test with several variations and report the results, too. We also mention the bottle neck of the performance and its solution.

  17. Comparative physiology of salt and water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, R.

    2002-02-01

    Plant responses to salt and water stress have much in common. Salinity reduces the ability of plants to take up water, and this quickly causes reductions in growth rate, along with a suite of metabolic changes identical to those caused by water stress. The initial reduction in shoot growth is probably due to hormonal signals generated by the roots. There may be salt-specific effects that later have an impact on growth; if excessive amounts of salt enter the plant, salt will eventually rise to toxic levels in the older transpiring leaves, causing premature senescence, and reduce the photosynthetic leaf area of the plant to a level that cannot sustain growth. These effects take time to develop. Salt-tolerant plants differ from salt-sensitive ones in having a low rate of Na+ and Cl-- transport to leaves, and the ability to compartmentalize these ions in vacuoles to prevent their build-up in cytoplasm or cell walls and thus avoid salt toxicity. In order to understand the processes that give rise to tolerance of salt, as distinct from tolerance of osmotic stress, and to identify genes that control the transport of salt across membranes, it is important to avoid treatments that induce cell plasmolysis, and to design experiments that distinguish between tolerance of salt and tolerance of water stress.

  18. Personal Computer (PC) based image processing applied to fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y.-C.; Mclachlan, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    A PC based image processing system was employed to determine the instantaneous velocity field of a two-dimensional unsteady flow. The flow was visualized using a suspension of seeding particles in water, and a laser sheet for illumination. With a finite time exposure, the particle motion was captured on a photograph as a pattern of streaks. The streak pattern was digitized and processed using various imaging operations, including contrast manipulation, noise cleaning, filtering, statistical differencing, and thresholding. Information concerning the velocity was extracted from the enhanced image by measuring the length and orientation of the individual streaks. The fluid velocities deduced from the randomly distributed particle streaks were interpolated to obtain velocities at uniform grid points. For the interpolation a simple convolution technique with an adaptive Gaussian window was used. The results are compared with a numerical prediction by a Navier-Stokes computation.

  19. Pc5 waves generated by substorm injection: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Zolotukhina

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the spectral-polarized characteristics of Pc5 ULF waves observed on 17 September 2000 after the 03:20:25 UT substorm onset with the satellites GOES 8 and 10 located east and west of the onset location. In the course of the event, the wave polarization changed from mixed (between toroidal and poloidal to poloidal, and then to mixed again. The hodogram of magnetic field oscillations rotated counterclockwise at GOES 8, and clockwise at GOES 10. It is suggested that the satellites detected the waves generated by the substorm injected clouds of the charged particles drifting in the magnetosphere in the opposite azimuthal directions: GOES 8 (located east of the substorm onset detected the wave generated by an electron cloud, and GOES 10 (west of the onset detected the wave generated by a positive ion cloud. This interpretation is confirmed by the energetic particles data recorded by LANL satellites.

  20. Realizace miniaturních PC monitorů

    OpenAIRE

    Nečesaný, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Úlohou Diplomovej práce bolo navrhnúť dve riešenia miniatúrneho PC monitoru. Jeden monitor využíva ako zdroj vstupných dát signál VGA, druhý je pripojený pomocou USB. K praktickej realizácií bol vybraný USB monitor. Zariadenie obsahuje okrem zobrazovacej jednotky LCD čítačku SD kariet a audio prevodník s reproduktorom. Programové vybavenie umožňuje sledovanie obsahu pracovnej plochy osobného počítača v nastaviteľnej polohe a veľkosti. Monitor je možné obsluhovať pomocou touchscreen. Súčasťou ...

  1. METHANE de-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2000-07-05

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to make this technology ready for full-scale commercial deployment by 2002-2003 in order to meet an anticipated market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies resulting from the EPA's NO{sub x} SIP call.

  2. Personal Computer-less (PC-less) Microcontroller Training Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somantri, Y.; Wahyudin, D.; Fushilat, I.

    2018-02-01

    The need of microcontroller training kit is necessary for practical work of students of electrical engineering education. However, to use available training kit not only costly but also does not meet the need of laboratory requirements. An affordable and portable microcontroller kit could answer such problem. This paper explains the design and development of Personal Computer Less (PC-Less) Microcontroller Training Kit. It was developed based on Lattepanda processor and Arduino microcontroller as target. The training kit equipped with advanced input-output interfaces that adopted the concept of low cost and low power system. The preliminary usability testing proved this device can be used as a tool for microcontroller programming and industrial automation training. By adopting the concept of portability, the device could be operated in the rural area which electricity and computer infrastructure are limited. Furthermore, the training kit is suitable for student of electrical engineering student from university and vocational high school.

  3. Code Generation with Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Arnoldus, Jeroen; Serebrenik, A

    2012-01-01

    Templates are used to generate all kinds of text, including computer code. The last decade, the use of templates gained a lot of popularity due to the increase of dynamic web applications. Templates are a tool for programmers, and implementations of template engines are most times based on practical experience rather than based on a theoretical background. This book reveals the mathematical background of templates and shows interesting findings for improving the practical use of templates. First, a framework to determine the necessary computational power for the template metalanguage is presen

  4. Cinder begin creative coding

    CERN Document Server

    Rijnieks, Krisjanis

    2013-01-01

    Presented in an easy to follow, tutorial-style format, this book will lead you step-by-step through the multi-faceted uses of Cinder.""Cinder: Begin Creative Coding"" is for people who already have experience in programming. It can serve as a transition from a previous background in Processing, Java in general, JavaScript, openFrameworks, C++ in general or ActionScript to the framework covered in this book, namely Cinder. If you like quick and easy to follow tutorials that will let yousee progress in less than an hour - this book is for you. If you are searching for a book that will explain al

  5. The path of code linting

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Join the path of code linting and discover how it can help you reach higher levels of programming enlightenment. Today we will cover how to embrace code linters to offload cognitive strain on preserving style standards in your code base as well as avoiding error-prone constructs. Additionally, I will show you the journey ahead for integrating several code linters in the programming tools your already use with very little effort.

  6. Multiple LDPC decoding for distributed source coding and video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Luong, Huynh Van; Huang, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Distributed source coding (DSC) is a coding paradigm for systems which fully or partly exploit the source statistics at the decoder to reduce the computational burden at the encoder. Distributed video coding (DVC) is one example. This paper considers the use of Low Density Parity Check Accumulate...... (LDPCA) codes in a DSC scheme with feed-back. To improve the LDPC coding performance in the context of DSC and DVC, while retaining short encoder blocks, this paper proposes multiple parallel LDPC decoding. The proposed scheme passes soft information between decoders to enhance performance. Experimental...

  7. [Grape seed extract induces morphological changes of prostate cancer PC-3 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xue-Jun; Yin, Hong-Lin; Ge, Jing-Ping; Sun, Yi; Teng, Wen-Hui; Huang, Yu-Feng

    2008-12-01

    To observe the morphological changes of prostate cancer PC-3 cells induced by grape seed extract (GSE). PC-3 cells were incubated with different concentrations of GSE (100, 200 and 300 microg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 hours, and then observed for morphological changes by invert microscopy, HE staining and transmission electron microscopy. The incubated PC-3 cells appeared round, small, wrinkled and broken under the invert microscope and exhibited the classical morphological characteristics of cell death under the electron microscope, including cell atrophy, increased vacuoles, crumpled nuclear membrane, and chromosome aggregation. GSE can cause morphological changes and induce necrosis and apoptosis of PC-3 cells.

  8. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  9. Coded nanoscale self-assembly

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the number of starting particles. Figure 6. Coded self-assembly results in specific shapes. When the con- stituent particles are coded to only combine in a certain defined rules, it al- ways manages to generate the same shape. The simplest case of linear coding with multiseed option is presented here. in place the resultant ...

  10. Strongly-MDS convolutional codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gluesing-Luerssen, H; Rosenthal, J; Smarandache, R

    Maximum-distance separable (MDS) convolutional codes have the property that their free distance is maximal among all codes of the same rate and the same degree. In this paper, a class of MDS convolutional codes is introduced whose column distances reach the generalized Singleton bound at the

  11. Order functions and evaluation codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pellikaan, Ruud; van Lint, Jack

    1997-01-01

    Based on the notion of an order function we construct and determine the parameters of a class of error-correcting evaluation codes. This class includes the one-point algebraic geometry codes as wella s the generalized Reed-Muller codes and the parameters are detremined without using the heavy...

  12. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  13. Product Codes for Optical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    2002-01-01

    Many optical communicaton systems might benefit from forward-error-correction. We present a hard-decision decoding algorithm for the "Block Turbo Codes", suitable for optical communication, which makes this coding-scheme an alternative to Reed-Solomon codes....

  14. An improved version of the MICROX-2 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, D. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    The MICROX-2 code prepares broad group neutron cross sections for use in diffusion- and/or transport-theory codes from an input library of fine group and pointwise cross sections. The neutron weighting spectrum is obtained by solving the B{sub 1} neutron balance equations at about 10000 energies in a one-dimensional (planar, spherical or cylindrical), two-region unit cell. The regions are coupled by collision probabilities based upon spatially flat neutron emission. Energy dependent Dancoff factors and bucklings correct the one-dimensional calculations for multi-dimensional lattice effects. A critical buckling search option is also included. The inner region may include two different types of fuel particles (grains). This report describes the present PSI FORTRAN 90 version of the MICROX-2 code which operates on CRAY computers and IBM PC`s. The equations which are solved in the various energy ranges are given along with descriptions of various changes that have been made in the present PSI version of the code. A completely re-written description of the user input is also included. (author) 7 figs., 4 tabs., 59 refs.

  15. Overview of codes and tools for nuclear engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, D.; Pryakhin, A.; Medvedeva, L.

    2017-01-01

    The recent world trends in nuclear education have been developed in the direction of social education, networking, virtual tools and codes. MEPhI as a global leader on the world education market implements new advanced technologies for the distance and online learning and for student research work. MEPhI produced special codes, tools and web resources based on the internet platform to support education in the field of nuclear technology. At the same time, MEPhI actively uses codes and tools from the third parties. Several types of the tools are considered: calculation codes, nuclear data visualization tools, virtual labs, PC-based educational simulators for nuclear power plants (NPP), CLP4NET, education web-platforms, distance courses (MOOCs and controlled and managed content systems). The university pays special attention to integrated products such as CLP4NET, which is not a learning course, but serves to automate the process of learning through distance technologies. CLP4NET organizes all tools in the same information space. Up to now, MEPhI has achieved significant results in the field of distance education and online system implementation.

  16. Time-Varying Space-Only Codes for Coded MIMO

    CERN Document Server

    Duyck, Dieter; Takawira, Fambirai; Boutros, Joseph J; Moeneclaey, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Multiple antenna (MIMO) devices are widely used to increase reliability and information bit rate. Optimal error rate performance (full diversity and large coding gain), for unknown channel state information at the transmitter and for maximal rate, can be achieved by approximately universal space-time codes, but comes at a price of large detection complexity, infeasible for most practical systems. We propose a new coded modulation paradigm: error-correction outer code with space-only but time-varying precoder (as inner code). We refer to the latter as Ergodic Mutual Information (EMI) code. The EMI code achieves the maximal multiplexing gain and full diversity is proved in terms of the outage probability. Contrary to most of the literature, our work is not based on the elegant but difficult classical algebraic MIMO theory. Instead, the relation between MIMO and parallel channels is exploited. The theoretical proof of full diversity is corroborated by means of numerical simulations for many MIMO scenarios, in te...

  17. The FOCON96 1.0 computer code; Le logiciel FOCON96 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merle-Szeremeta, A.; Thomassin, A. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN), 92 (France)

    1999-07-01

    The Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.P.S.N.) has developed a computer code, FOCON96 1.0 to calculate the dosimetric consequences of atmospheric radioactive releases from nuclear installations after several years of usual operation. This communication describes the principal characteristics of FOCON96 1.0 and its functionalities. The principal elements of a comparison between FOCON96 1.0 and PC-CREAM ( European computer code developed by the N.R.P.B. and answering the same criteria) are given here. (N.C.)

  18. The AQUAREJ2.3 computer code; Le logiciel AQUAREJ 2.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin, A. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN), 92 (France)

    1999-07-01

    The Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.P.S.N.) in the frame of dosimetric impact estimation of releases from nuclear facilities in usual operation, evaluates the contamination transfer by the continental aquatic medium, then by the food chain up to man. To do it, I.P.S.N. has the AQUAREJ 2.3 computer code for the evaluation of dosimetric consequences of liquid radioactive effluents releases in the rivers. A comparison is made with the PC-CREAM computer code. (N.C.)

  19. Genetic code for sine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Alyasa Gan; Wah, Yap Bee

    2015-02-01

    The computation of the approximate values of the trigonometric sines was discovered by Bhaskara I (c. 600-c.680), a seventh century Indian mathematician and is known as the Bjaskara's I's sine approximation formula. The formula is given in his treatise titled Mahabhaskariya. In the 14th century, Madhava of Sangamagrama, a Kerala mathematician astronomer constructed the table of trigonometric sines of various angles. Madhava's table gives the measure of angles in arcminutes, arcseconds and sixtieths of an arcsecond. The search for more accurate formulas led to the discovery of the power series expansion by Madhava of Sangamagrama (c.1350-c. 1425), the founder of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. In 1715, the Taylor series was introduced by Brook Taylor an English mathematician. If the Taylor series is centered at zero, it is called a Maclaurin series, named after the Scottish mathematician Colin Maclaurin. Some of the important Maclaurin series expansions include trigonometric functions. This paper introduces the genetic code of the sine of an angle without using power series expansion. The genetic code using square root approach reveals the pattern in the signs (plus, minus) and sequence of numbers in the sine of an angle. The square root approach complements the Pythagoras method, provides a better understanding of calculating an angle and will be useful for teaching the concepts of angles in trigonometry.

  20. Supervised Transfer Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2014-07-27

    A combination of the sparse coding and transfer learn- ing techniques was shown to be accurate and robust in classification tasks where training and testing objects have a shared feature space but are sampled from differ- ent underlying distributions, i.e., belong to different do- mains. The key assumption in such case is that in spite of the domain disparity, samples from different domains share some common hidden factors. Previous methods often assumed that all the objects in the target domain are unlabeled, and thus the training set solely comprised objects from the source domain. However, in real world applications, the target domain often has some labeled objects, or one can always manually label a small num- ber of them. In this paper, we explore such possibil- ity and show how a small number of labeled data in the target domain can significantly leverage classifica- tion accuracy of the state-of-the-art transfer sparse cod- ing methods. We further propose a unified framework named supervised transfer sparse coding (STSC) which simultaneously optimizes sparse representation, domain transfer and classification. Experimental results on three applications demonstrate that a little manual labeling and then learning the model in a supervised fashion can significantly improve classification accuracy.

  1. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  2. Carpinteria salt marsh habitat polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dunham, Eleca J.; Mancini, Frank T.; Stewart, Tara E.; Hechinger, Ryan F.

    2017-01-01

    We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland.  We then drew polygons around each habitat type identified from a registered and orthorectified aerial photograph and created a GIS shapefile. Polygons were ground-truthed in the field. From these habitat polygons, one can use GIS applications to estimate the area of each habitat type in this estuary. These data support the following publications: Kuris, Armand M., et al. "Ecosystem energetic implications of parasite and free-living biomass in three estuaries." Nature 454.7203 (2008): 515-518.Hechinger, Ryan F., Kevin D. Lafferty, Andy P. Dobson, James H. Brown, and Armand M. Kuris. "A common scaling rule for abundance, energetics, and production of parasitic and free-living species." Science 333, no. 6041 (2011): 445-448.Hechinger, Ryan F., Kevin D. Lafferty, John P. McLaughlin, Brian L. Fredensborg, Todd C. Huspeni, Julio Lorda, Parwant K. Sandhu et al. "Food webs including parasites, biomass, body sizes, and life stages for three California/Baja California estuaries." Ecology 92, no. 3 (2011): 791-791.Buck, J.C., Hechinger, R.F., Wood, A.C., Stewart, T.E., Kuris, A.M., and Lafferty, K.D., "Host density increases parasite recruitment but decreases host risk in a snail-trematode system." Manuscript submitted for publication. Lafferty, K.D., Stewart, T.E., and Hechinger, R.F. (in press). Bird distribution surveys at Carpinteria Salt Marsh, California USA, January 2012 to March 2013: U.S. Geological Survey data release, http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7F47M95. 

  3. Two-terminal video coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Stanković, Vladimir; Xiong, Zixiang; Zhao, Wei

    2009-03-01

    Following recent works on the rate region of the quadratic Gaussian two-terminal source coding problem and limit-approaching code designs, this paper examines multiterminal source coding of two correlated, i.e., stereo, video sequences to save the sum rate over independent coding of both sequences. Two multiterminal video coding schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, the left sequence of the stereo pair is coded by H.264/AVC and used at the joint decoder to facilitate Wyner-Ziv coding of the right video sequence. The first I-frame of the right sequence is successively coded by H.264/AVC Intracoding and Wyner-Ziv coding. An efficient stereo matching algorithm based on loopy belief propagation is then adopted at the decoder to produce pixel-level disparity maps between the corresponding frames of the two decoded video sequences on the fly. Based on the disparity maps, side information for both motion vectors and motion-compensated residual frames of the right sequence are generated at the decoder before Wyner-Ziv encoding. In the second scheme, source splitting is employed on top of classic and Wyner-Ziv coding for compression of both I-frames to allow flexible rate allocation between the two sequences. Experiments with both schemes on stereo video sequences using H.264/AVC, LDPC codes for Slepian-Wolf coding of the motion vectors, and scalar quantization in conjunction with LDPC codes for Wyner-Ziv coding of the residual coefficients give a slightly lower sum rate than separate H.264/AVC coding of both sequences at the same video quality.

  4. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10-Fermented Soymilk on Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt-Induced Hypertension and Associated Dementia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Hua Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress resulting from excessive production of reactive oxygen species is the major mediator of neuronal cell degeneration observed in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD. Additionally, hypertension has been shown to be a positive risk factor for VaD. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum strain TWK10 (TWK10-fermented soymilk on the protection of PC-12 cells in H2O2-, oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD- and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt-induced rat models of VaD. Notably, the viabilities of H2O2-treated PC-12 cells and OGD model were significantly increased by treatment with TWK10-fermented soymilk ethanol extract (p < 0.05. In addition, oral administration of TWK10-fermented soymilk extract in DOCA-salt hypertension-induced VaD rats resulted in a significant decrease in blood pressure (p < 0.05, which was regulated by inhibiting ACE activity and promoting NO production, in addition to decreased escape latency and increased target crossing (p < 0.05. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that TWK10-fermented soymilk extract could improve learning and memory in DOCA-salt hypertension-induced VaD rats by acting as a blood pressure-lowering and neuroprotective agent.

  5. Makgadikgadi Salt Pan, Botswana, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Makgadikgadi Salt Pan of Botswana, an ancient lake bed, (19.0S, 26.0E) is one of the largest features in Botswana visible from orbit. Any water that spills out of the Okavango Swamplands flows into the Makagadikgadi where it evaporates. An ancient beach line can be seen as a smooth line around the west side of the pan and to the south, the Orapa diamond mine is seen as a small rectangle. Far to the east, can be seen the Great Dike of Zimbabwe.

  6. The Art of Readable Code

    CERN Document Server

    Boswell, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    As programmers, we've all seen source code that's so ugly and buggy it makes our brain ache. Over the past five years, authors Dustin Boswell and Trevor Foucher have analyzed hundreds of examples of "bad code" (much of it their own) to determine why they're bad and how they could be improved. Their conclusion? You need to write code that minimizes the time it would take someone else to understand it-even if that someone else is you. This book focuses on basic principles and practical techniques you can apply every time you write code. Using easy-to-digest code examples from different languag

  7. Sub-Transport Layer Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Krigslund, Jeppe; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    Packet losses in wireless networks dramatically curbs the performance of TCP. This paper introduces a simple coding shim that aids IP-layer traffic in lossy environments while being transparent to transport layer protocols. The proposed coding approach enables erasure correction while being...... oblivious to the congestion control algorithms of the utilised transport layer protocol. Although our coding shim is indifferent towards the transport layer protocol, we focus on the performance of TCP when ran on top of our proposed coding mechanism due to its widespread use. The coding shim provides gains...

  8. Furin and proprotein convertase 7 (PC7)/lymphoma PC endogenously expressed in rat liver can be resolved into distinct post-Golgi compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, S; Leruth, M; Decroly, E; Vandenbranden, M; Creemers, J W; van de Loo, J W; Ruysschaert, J M; Courtoy, P J

    1998-01-01

    The intracellular compartmentalization in rat liver of the membrane-associated convertases furin and proprotein convertase 7 (PC7)/lymphoma PC (LPC) was investigated by analytical subcellular fractionation. In control animals, both enzymes were found to localize in fractions depleted of endoplasmic reticulum, cis-Golgi and lysosomal markers, but to co-distribute with the Golgi marker galactosyltransferase and the trans-Golgi network (TGN) marker TGN38. After overloading Golgi-derived vesicles with very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) by feeding rats with ethanol, the distribution of PC7/LPC was shifted markedly towards lower densities, in contrast with those of furin and the TGN marker. This provides support for the TGN localization of endogenously expressed furin and indicates that, at steady state, a considerable proportion of PC7/LPC may be associated with vesicles derived from the TGN. PMID:9820806

  9. Creating Security System Models Using SNAP-PC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    pointeruss N I Do you wish to define branches? NOIA I Enter SAVE to save current values, QUIT to exit without saving:’ :. f iTo Choi ce -Help Figure...Brigade Department of the Army ATTN: AEUSA-Z (1) SURETY (1) APO New York 09189 Commander David Taylor Naval Ship R&D Center ATTN: CODE 1203 Bethesda, MD

  10. Impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachshon, Uri

    2017-04-01

    Field measurements indicated on high variability in salt accumulation along natural and cultivated slopes, even for relatively homogeneous soil conditions. It was hypothesised that slope inclination has an impact on the location of salt accumulation along the slope. A set of laboratory experiments and numerical models were used to explore the impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation. It was shown, experimentally, that for conditions of saline water source at the lower boundary of the slope - salt accumulates in low concentrations and homogeneously along the entire slope, for moderate slopes. However, as inclination increases high salt concentrations were observed at the upper parts of the slope, leaving the lower parts of the slope relatively free of salt. The traditional flow and transport models did not predict the experimental observations as they indicated also for the moderate slopes on salt accumulation in the elevated parts of the slope, away of the saline water source. Consequently - a conceptual model was raised to explain the laboratory observations. It was suggested that the interactions between slope angle, evaporation rates, hydraulic conductivity of the medium and distribution of wetness along the slope affect the saline water flow path through the medium. This lead to preferential flow path close to the soil-atmosphere interface for the steep slopes, which leads to constant wash of the salts from the evaporation front upward towards the slope upper parts, whereas for the moderate slopes, flow path is below the soil-atmosphere interface, therefore salt that accumulates at the evaporation front is not being transported upward. Understanding of salt dynamics along slopes is important for agricultural and natural environments, as well as for civil engineering purposes. Better understanding of the salt transport processes along slopes will improve our ability to minimize and to cope with soil salinization processes. The laboratory experiments and

  11. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  12. Macroevolutionary patterns of salt tolerance in angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromham, Lindell

    2015-01-01

    Background Halophytes are rare, with only 0·25 % of angiosperm species able to complete their life cycle in saline conditions. This could be interpreted as evidence that salt tolerance is difficult to evolve. However, consideration of the phylogenetic distribution of halophytes paints a different picture: salt tolerance has evolved independently in many different lineages, and halophytes are widely distributed across angiosperm families. In this Viewpoint, I will consider what phylogenetic analysis of halophytes can tell us about the macroevolution of salt tolerance. Hypothesis Phylogenetic analyses of salt tolerance have shown contrasting patterns in different families. In some families, such as chenopods, salt tolerance evolved early in the lineage and has been retained in many lineages. But in other families, including grasses, there have been a surprisingly large number of independent origins of salt tolerance, most of which are relatively recent and result in only one or a few salt-tolerant species. This pattern of many recent origins implies either a high transition rate (salt tolerance is gained and lost often) or a high extinction rate (salt-tolerant lineages do not tend to persist over macroevolutionary timescales). While salt tolerance can evolve in a wide range of genetic backgrounds, some lineages are more likely to produce halophytes than others. This may be due to enabling traits that act as stepping stones to developing salt tolerance. The ability to tolerate environmental salt may increase tolerance of other stresses or vice versa. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses suggest that enabling traits and cross-tolerances may make some lineages more likely to adapt to increasing salinization, a finding that may prove useful in assessing the probable impact of rapid environmental change on vegetation communities, and in selecting taxa to develop for use in landscape rehabilitation and agriculture. PMID:25452251

  13. Elements of algebraic coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso da Rocha, Jr, Valdemar

    2014-01-01

    Elements of Algebraic Coding Systems is an introductory text to algebraic coding theory. In the first chapter, you'll gain inside knowledge of coding fundamentals, which is essential for a deeper understanding of state-of-the-art coding systems. This book is a quick reference for those who are unfamiliar with this topic, as well as for use with specific applications such as cryptography and communication. Linear error-correcting block codes through elementary principles span eleven chapters of the text. Cyclic codes, some finite field algebra, Goppa codes, algebraic decoding algorithms, and applications in public-key cryptography and secret-key cryptography are discussed, including problems and solutions at the end of each chapter. Three appendices cover the Gilbert bound and some related derivations, a derivation of the Mac- Williams' identities based on the probability of undetected error, and two important tools for algebraic decoding-namely, the finite field Fourier transform and the Euclidean algorithm f...

  14. Revised Distances, Kinematics, and Classifications of the Nearest Stellar Groups within 100 pc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamajek, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent interest in assigning membership of low-mass or substellar field objects to clusters of "known" age, a modern analysis of the distances, kinematics, memberships, and physicality of purported nearby young stellar groups is needed. Van Leeuwen (2007) recently published a new astrometric analysis of data from the Hipparcos mission. Here I use the revised Hipparcos astrometry to estimate updated distances and parameters for the young stellar groups with obvious nuclei previously reported to lie within 100 pc of the Sun (except for the Hyades and Coma Ber, which were reported by van Leeuwen). Among the highlights of the results reported are: (1) the revised mean distances to the nuclei of the following groups: AB Dor (20.1+-1.5 pc), Ursa Major (25.2+-0.3 pc), Carina-Near (32.7+-1.2 pc), Tucana (43.0+-1.0 pc), TW Hya (52.7+-3.0 pc), 32 Ori (92.9+-2.4 pc), and eta Cha (94.3+-1.2 pc), (2) the 5-Myr-old epsilon Cha group appears to be the nearest known group associated with molecular gas (117+-4 pc), (3) the 8 Myr-old eta Cha cluster is the densest cluster within 100 pc ( 36 Msun/pc3), (4) the convergent point for the AB Dor group nucleus appears to be near its geometric center, a phenomena unique among nearby kinematic groups, and (5) the intrinsic 1D velocity dispersions of the nuclei are all remarkably similar (all 1 km/s), and are larger than that predicted assuming the nuclei are virialized (typically Polaris are probably unphysical. With refined kinematic parameters for the nearby stellar groups, one can now conduct a more refined membership analysis for others stars purported to be distant ``members'' of these groups.

  15. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  16. Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Frank; Popp, Till; Wieczorek, Klaus; Stuehrenberg, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

  17. Strategies for salt reduction in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toldrá, Fidel; Barat, José M

    2012-04-01

    The amounts of sodium chloride in the formulation of a variety of foods like bakery, meats and dairy foods, ready meals, sauces and snacks, are relatively large and thus, have a strong contribution on the salt dietary intake. There is a clear demand by the consumers and medical associations to reduce the salt content in foods. Different strategies have been proposed and most of them consist of the replacement of sodium chloride by other salts and the addition of other substances for an acceptable sensory quality. The recent patents for salt reduction and their applications in foods are reviewed in this manuscript.

  18. Salt reduction initiatives around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqueline L; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Hawkes, Corinna; Neal, Bruce C

    2011-06-01

    To provide an overview of national salt reduction initiatives around the world, describe core characteristics and develop a framework for future strategy development. National strategies were identified from existing reviews and from searches of the literature and relevant websites. Standardized information was extracted about governance and strategy development, baseline assessments and monitoring and implementation. Thirty-two country salt reduction initiatives were identified. The majority of activity was in Europe (19 countries). Most countries (27) had maximum population salt intake targets, ranging from 5 to 8 g/person per day. Twenty-six of the 32 strategies were led by government, five by nongovernment organizations and one by industry. Twenty-eight countries had some baseline data on salt consumption and 18 had data on sodium levels in foods. Twenty-eight countries were working with the food industry to reduce salt in foods, 10 had front-of-pack labelling schemes and 28 had consumer awareness or behaviour change programs. Five countries had demonstrated an impact, either on population salt consumption, salt levels in foods or consumer awareness. These strategies were led by government and were multifaceted including food reformulation, consumer awareness initiatives and labelling actions. This is the first review to concisely summarize the most important elements of the many existing salt reduction programmes and highlight the characteristics most likely to be important to programme efficacy. For most countries, implementing a national salt reduction programme is likely to be one of simplest and most cost-effective ways of improving public health.

  19. Uninephrectomy in young age or chronic salt loading causes salt-sensitive hypertension in adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlström, Mattias; Sällström, Johan; Skøtt, Ole

    2007-01-01

    The importance of nephron endowment and salt intake for the development of hypertension is under debate. The present study was designed to investigate whether reduced nephron number, after completion of nephrogenesis, or chronic salt loading causes renal injury and salt-sensitive hypertension...... in adulthood. Rats were operated at 3 weeks of age (after completed nephrogenesis) and then subjected to either normal or high-salt diets for 6 to 8 weeks. Four different experimental groups were used: sham-operated animals raised with normal-salt diet (controls) or high-salt diet (HS) and uninephrectomized...... animals raised with normal-salt diet (UNX) or high-salt diet (UNX+HS). In the adult animals, renal and cardiovascular functions were evaluated and blood pressure recorded telemetrically under different sodium conditions (normal, high, and low). Hypertension was present in UNX+HS (122+/-9 mm Hg), UNX (101...

  20. Peripheral coding of taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liman, Emily R.; Zhang, Yali V.; Montell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Five canonical tastes, bitter, sweet, umami (amino acid), salty and sour (acid) are detected by animals as diverse as fruit flies and humans, consistent with a near universal drive to consume fundamental nutrients and to avoid toxins or other harmful compounds. Surprisingly, despite this strong conservation of basic taste qualities between vertebrates and invertebrates, the receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate taste in each are highly divergent. The identification over the last two decades of receptors and other molecules that mediate taste has led to stunning advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of transduction and coding of information by the gustatory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this review, we discuss recent advances in taste research, mainly from the fly and mammalian systems, and we highlight principles that are common across species, despite stark differences in receptor types. PMID:24607224

  1. Code des baux 2018

    CERN Document Server

    Vial-Pedroletti, Béatrice; Kendérian, Fabien; Chavance, Emmanuelle; Coutan-Lapalus, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    Le code des baux 2018 vous offre un contenu extrêmement pratique, fiable et à jour au 1er août 2017. Cette 16e édition intègre notamment : le décret du 27 juillet 2017 relatif à l’évolution de certains loyers dans le cadre d’une nouvelle location ou d’un renouvellement de bail, pris en application de l’article 18 de la loi n° 89-462 du 6 juillet 1989 ; la loi du 27 janvier 2017 relative à l’égalité et à la citoyenneté ; la loi du 9 décembre 2016 relative à la transparence, à la lutte contre la corruption et à la modernisation de la vie économique ; la loi du 18 novembre 2016 de modernisation de la justice du xxie siècle

  2. [Neural codes for perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, R; Salinas, E; Hernández, A; Zainos, A; Lemus, L; de Lafuente, V; Luna, R

    This article describes experiments designed to show the neural codes associated with the perception and processing of tactile information. The results of these experiments have shown the neural activity correlated with tactile perception. The neurones of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) represent the physical attributes of tactile perception. We found that these representations correlated with tactile perception. By means of intracortical microstimulation we demonstrated the causal relationship between S1 activity and tactile perception. In the motor areas of the frontal lobe is to be found the connection between sensorial and motor representation whilst decisions are being taken. S1 generates neural representations of the somatosensory stimuli which seen to be sufficient for tactile perception. These neural representations are subsequently processed by central areas to S1 and seem useful in perception, memory and decision making.

  3. Code-labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangsberg, Thomas Hvid; Brynskov, Martin

    in programming education collected in an Action Research cycle. The results support the use of a structural approach to teaching programming to this target audience; particularly, the translation-grammar method seems to integrate well with programming education. The paper also explores the potential underlying......The code-labelling exercise is an attempt to apply natural language education techniques for solving the challenge of teaching introductory programming to non-STEM novices in higher education. This paper presents findings from a study exploring the use of natural language teaching techniques...... reasons. It seems the exercise invokes an assimilation of student's existing cognitive schemata and supports a deep-learning experience. The exercise is an invitation to other teachers to create further iterations to improve their own teaching. It also seeks to enrich the portfolio of teaching activities...

  4. Transionospheric Propagation Code (TIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel-Dupre, Robert; Kelley, Thomas A.

    1990-10-01

    The Transionospheric Propagation Code is a computer program developed at Los Alamos National Lab to perform certain tasks related to the detection of VHF signals following propagation through the ionosphere. The code is written in FORTRAN 77, runs interactively and was designed to be as machine independent as possible. A menu format in which the user is prompted to supply appropriate parameters for a given task has been adopted for the input while the output is primarily in the form of graphics. The user has the option of selecting from five basic tasks, namely transionospheric propagation, signal filtering, signal processing, delta times of arrival (DTOA) study, and DTOA uncertainty study. For the first task a specified signal is convolved against the impulse response function of the ionosphere to obtain the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of four analytic forms for the input pulse or of supplying a tabular form. The option of adding Gaussian-distributed white noise of spectral noise to the input signal is also provided. The deterministic ionosphere is characterized to first order in terms of a total electron content (TEC) along the propagation path. In addition, a scattering model parameterized in terms of a frequency coherence bandwidth is also available. In the second task, detection is simulated by convolving a given filter response against the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of a wideband filter or a narrowband Gaussian filter. It is also possible to input a filter response. The third task provides for quadrature detection, envelope detection, and three different techniques for time-tagging the arrival of the transionospheric signal at specified receivers. The latter algorithms can be used to determine a TEC and thus take out the effects of the ionosphere to first order. Task four allows the user to construct a table of DTOAs vs TECs for a specified pair of receivers.

  5. Galois LCD Codes over Finite Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiusheng; Fan, Yun; Liu, Hualu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the complementary dual codes in more general setting (which are called Galois LCD codes) by a uniform method. A necessary and sufficient condition for linear codes to be Galois LCD codes is determined, and constacyclic codes to be Galois LCD codes are characterized. Some illustrative examples which constacyclic codes are Galois LCD MDS codes are provided as well. In particular, we study Hermitian LCD constacyclic codes. Finally, we present a construction of a class of ...

  6. Quantum Quasi-Cyclic LDPC Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Hagiwara, Manabu; Imai, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a construction of a pair of "regular" quasi-cyclic LDPC codes as ingredient codes for a quantum error-correcting code is proposed. That is, we find quantum regular LDPC codes with various weight distributions. Furthermore our proposed codes have lots of variations for length, code rate. These codes are obtained by a descrete mathematical characterization for model matrices of quasi-cyclic LDPC codes. Our proposed codes achieve a bounded distance decoding (BDD) bound, or known a...

  7. Effects of salting-in interactions on macromolecule diffusiophoresis and salt osmotic diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Michele S; Annunziata, Onofrio

    2015-02-03

    Macromolecule diffusiophoresis (i.e., macromolecule migration induced by a salt concentration gradient) in water and salt osmotic diffusion (i.e., salt migration induced by a macromolecule concentration gradient) are two cross-diffusion mechanisms caused by macromolecule-salt interactions. We investigated the effect of salting-in interactions on the behavior of these two cross-diffusion mechanisms. Our results are distinct from those previously obtained in the case of salting-out interactions. Cross-diffusion was experimentally characterized by Rayleigh interferometry at 25 °C. Specifically, multicomponent diffusion coefficients were measured for a neutral polymer, polyethylene glycol (molar mass, 20 kg/mol), in aqueous solutions of three thiocyanate salts (NaSCN, KSCN, and NH₄SCN) as a function of salt concentration at low polymer concentration (0.5% w/w). Our results on salt osmotic diffusion, which were qualitatively different from those previously obtained for salting-out salts, were used to quantitatively characterize the strength of salting-in interactions. The behavior of polymer diffusiophoresis as a function of salt concentration and cation type reveals that polymer chains have an extrinsic negative charge, consistent with anion binding being the cause of salting-in interactions. To quantitatively examine the effect of anion binding on salt osmotic diffusion and polymer diffusiophoresis, we developed a theoretical model based on the linear laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics for diffusion, the Scatchard binding model, and particle electrophoresis. This work contributes to the understanding of the multifaceted effects of molecular interactions on cross-diffusion mechanisms, salting-in interactions, and the Hofmeister series.

  8. Anaglyph, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This anaglyph image provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed

  9. Expression and localization of prohormone convertase PC1 in the calcitonin-producing cells of the bullfrog ultimobranchial gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tomura, Hideaki; Kurabuchi, Shingo; Sasayama, Yuichi; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2003-11-01

    We examined the expression and localization of the prohormone convertases, PC1 and PC2, in the ultimobranchial gland of the adult bullfrog using immunohistochemical (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) techniques. In the ultimobranchial gland, PC1-immunoreactive cells were columnar, and were present in the follicular epithelium. When serial sections were immunostained with anti-calcitonin, anti-CGRP, anti-PC1, and anti-PC2 sera, PC1 was found only in the calcitonin/CGRP-producing cells. No PC2-immunopositive cells were detected. In the ISH, PC1 mRNA-positive cells were detected in the follicle cells in the ultimobranchial gland. No PC2 mRNA-positive cells were detected. RT-PCR revealed expression of the mRNAs of PC1 and the PC2 in the ultimobranchial gland. However, very little of the PC2 mRNA is probably translated because no PC2 protein was detected either by IHC staining or by Western blotting analysis. We conclude that the main prohormone convertase that is involved in the proteolytic cleavage of procalcitonin in the bullfrog is PC1.

  10. Characterization of Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene homoeologs in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, P J; Turner, T B; Coleman, C E; Elzinga, D B; Jellen, E N; Morales, J A; Udall, J A; Fairbanks, D J; Bonifacio, A

    2009-07-01

    Salt tolerance is an agronomically important trait that affects plant species around the globe. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that plays an important role in germination and growth of plants in saline environments. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a halophytic, allotetraploid grain crop of the family Amaranthaceae with impressive nutritional content and an increasing worldwide market. Many quinoa varieties have considerable salt tolerance, and research suggests quinoa may utilize novel mechanisms to confer salt tolerance. Here we report the cloning and characterization of two homoeologous SOS1 loci (cqSOS1A and cqSOS1B) from C. quinoa, including full-length cDNA sequences, genomic sequences, relative expression levels, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, and a phylogenetic analysis of SOS1 genes from 13 plant taxa. The cqSOS1A and cqSOS1B genes each span 23 exons spread over 3477 bp and 3486 bp of coding sequence, respectively. These sequences share a high level of similarity with SOS1 homologs of other species and contain two conserved domains, a Nhap cation-antiporter domain and a cyclic-nucleotide binding domain. Genomic sequence analysis of two BAC clones (98 357 bp and 132 770 bp) containing the homoeologous SOS1 genes suggests possible conservation of synteny across the C. quinoa sub-genomes. This report represents the first molecular characterization of salt-tolerance genes in a halophytic species in the Amaranthaceae as well as the first comparative analysis of coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the two homoeologous genomes of C. quinoa.

  11. LDGM Codes for Channel Coding and Joint Source-Channel Coding of Correlated Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Garcia-Frias

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a coding scheme based on the use of systematic linear codes with low-density generator matrix (LDGM codes for channel coding and joint source-channel coding of multiterminal correlated binary sources. In both cases, the structures of the LDGM encoder and decoder are shown, and a concatenated scheme aimed at reducing the error floor is proposed. Several decoding possibilities are investigated, compared, and evaluated. For different types of noisy channels and correlation models, the resulting performance is very close to the theoretical limits.

  12. Effect of salting and drying conditions on quality of salted Dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regression analysis of the data yielded models with high coefficients of determination (³ 0.90) for the prediction of the moisture and salt content of solar and open sun-dried salted fish. The solar dried salted fish generally attained lower moisture levels than the open sun-dried samples. Analysis of sensory scores indicated ...

  13. Reengineering a PC-based System into the Mobile Device Product Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Jarzabek, Stanislaw; Loughran, Neil

    2003-01-01

    devices must also perform well using less memory than PC-based systems. Mobile devices themselves are different from each other in many ways, too. We describe how we made an existing PC-based City Guide System available on a wide range of mobile devices, in a cost-effective way. We applied "reengineering...

  14. Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of Kevlar Fiber-Reinforced PC/ABS Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljira Sujirote

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the composites between polycarbonate (PC and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS alloy and Kevlar fiber were prepared. The flexural and tensile properties of PC/ABS alloy and its composites were determined using a universal testing machine. The synergistic behavior of flexural modulus was observed for all regions of PC contents, while the synergism of flexural strength and tensile strength were found in some PC contents. It was found that the optimum weight ratio of PC:ABS was 60:40. In the Kevlar Fiber-reinforced PC/ABS composite system at PC:ABS of 60:40, both flexural modulus and strength were increased with matrix contents. Additionally, the flexural strength drastically increased with the matrix content and then reached the maximum value of 167 MPa at the matrix content of 33.4 wt%. The results from peel test, water contact measurement, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM reveal that the interfacial adhesion between the Kevlar fiber and the polymer matrix could be improved by increasing the PC content in the matrix.

  15. Novel Mutations in the PC Gene in Patients with Type B Pyruvate Carboxylase Deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Elsebet; Duno, Morten; Møller, Lisbeth Birk

    2013-01-01

    mutations with the severe type B deficiency, clinically indistinguishable from other patients with type B form of PC deficiency.The mutations found here are novel; it is noteworthy that four Turkish patients did not have any mutations in common, despite the rarity of PC deficiency. There is thus no evidence...

  16. Multipoint Observations of Low Latitude ULF Pc3 Waves in South ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The solar wind provides the energy for the earth's magne- tospheric processes. Pc3-5 geomagnetic pulsations can be generated either externally or internally with respect to the magnetosphere. The Pc3 studies undertaken in the past have been confined to middle and high latitudes. The spatial and temporal variations ...

  17. Functional roles of PC-PLC and Cdc20 in the cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Yu, Yongfeng; Fu, Da; Li, Ziming; Niu, Xiaoming; Liao, Meilin; Lu, Shun

    2010-06-01

    Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is the major enzyme in the Phosphatidylcholine (PC) cycle and is involved in many long-term cellular responses such as activation, proliferation, and differentiation events. Cell division cycle 20 homolog (Cdc20) is an essential cell-cycle regulator required for the completion of mitosis. Our previous studies identified the interaction between PC-PLC and Cdc20. Through the interaction, Cdc20 could mediate the degradation of PC-PLC by Cdc20-mediated ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP). In this study, we found that PC-PLC might not be involved in cancer metastasis. Inhibition of PC-PLC by D609 could cause cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis inhibition in CBRH-7919 cells. Inhibition of PC-PLC could also influence the cell cycle by arresting the cells in G1 phase, and Cdc20 might be involved in these processes. Taken together, in this report, we provided new evidence for the functional roles of PC-PLC and Cdc20 in the cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis in CBRH-7919 cells. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Effective polar cap area and multi-station basis for Polar Cap (PC) indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) indices are useful indices for Space Weather forecasts and analyses. The PC indices have been used to monitor the interplanetary geoeffective electric field and solar wind pressure pulses, to analyze cross polar cap voltages, polar cap diameter, and general polar cap dynamics. Furthermore, the PC indices have been used to monitor auroral electrojet intensities, ionospheric Joule heating, and global auroral power, and to predict ring current intensities. For specific Space Weather warning forecasts the PC indices can be used to predict substorm development and the associated risk of power line disturbances in the subauroral regions. The PC indices, PCN (North) and PCS (South), are derived from geomagnetic observations at Thule in Greenland and Vostok in Antarctica, respectively. In order to provide reliable forecast services based on PC indices, it would be advantageous to have available back-up suppliers of index values. The presentation provides an analysis of the effective area for useful PC index derivation and suggests observatories that could provide back-up data for PC index calculations should the primary sources fail due to instrument or communication problems.

  19. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. 868.2500 Section...) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g., a Clark-type polargraphic electrode) placed on the patient's skin that is intended to monitor relative...

  20. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. 868.2480...CO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor is a noninvasive heated sensor and a pH-sensitive glass electrode placed on a patient's skin, which is intended to monitor...