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Sample records for salt iodation methods

  1. PENENTUAN KADAR IODIDA DAN IODAT DALAM GARAM BERIODIUM DENGAN METODE KROMATOGRAFI CAIR KENERJA TINGGI PASANGAN ION [Determination of Iodate and Iodide Content in Iodized Salt By Ion Pair High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisnu Cahyadi1

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Two species of iodine, i.e. iodide and iodate in commercial iodized salt were determined using ion pair HPLC. From 15 samples analysed, the iodide and iodate content ranged from 24,05 ± 2,51 to 70,25 ± 3,78 ppm and from 31,43 ± 8,10 to 87,59 ± 0,44 ppm, respectively. The method used was found satisfactory in terms of precission, accuracy, sensitivity and selectivity, therefore the method seem acceptable for the determination of iodide and iodate content in iodized salt samples.

  2. A Highly Sensitive and Selective Method for the Determination of an Iodate in Table-salt Samples Using Malachite Green-based Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkayan, Mongkol; Limchoowong, Nunticha; Sricharoen, Phitchan; Chanthai, Saksit

    2016-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive malachite green-based spectrophotometric method for the selective trace determination of an iodate has been developed and presented for the first time. The reaction mixture was specifically involved in the liberation of iodine in the presence of an excess of iodide in an acidic condition following an instantaneous reaction between the liberated iodine and malachite green dye. The optimum condition was obtained with a buffer solution pH of 5.2 in the presence of 40 mg L -1 potassium iodide and 1.5 × 10 -5 M malachite green for a 5-min incubation time. The iodate contents in some table-salt samples were in the range of 26 to 45 mg kg -1 , while those of drinking water, tap water, canal water, and seawater samples were not detectable (< 96 ng mL -1 of limits of detection, LOQ) with their satisfied method of recoveries of between 93 and 108%. The results agreed with those obtained using ICP-OES for comparison.

  3. Tanzania national survey on iodine deficiency: impact after twelve years of salt iodation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimboka Sabas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many low-income countries, children are at high risk of iodine deficiency disorders, including brain damage. In the early 1990s, Tanzania, a country that previously suffered from moderate to severe iodine deficiency, adopted universal salt iodation (USI as an intervention strategy, but its impact remained unknown. Methods We report on the first national survey in mainland Tanzania, conducted in 2004 to assess the extent to which iodated salt was used and its apparent impact on the total goitre prevalence (TGP and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC among the schoolchildren after USI was initiated. In 2004, a cross-sectional goitre survey was conducted; covering 140,758 schoolchildren aged 6 - 18 years were graded for goitre according to new WHO goitre classification system. Comparisons were made with district surveys conducted throughout most of the country during the 1980s and 90s. 131,941 salt samples from households were tested for iodine using rapid field test kits. UIC was determined spectrophotometrically using the ammonium persulfate digestion method in 4523 sub-sampled children. Results 83.6% (95% CI: 83.4 - 83.8 of salt samples tested positive for iodine. Whereas the TGP was about 25% on average in the earlier surveys, it was 6.9% (95%CI: 6.8-7.0 in 2004. The TGP for the younger children, 6-9 years old, was 4.2% (95%CI: 4.0-4.4, n = 41,965. In the 27 goitre-endemic districts, TGP decreased from 61% (1980s to 12.3% (2004. The median UIC was 204 (95% CF: 192-215 μg/L. Only 25% of children had UIC Conclusion Our study demonstrates a marked improvement in iodine nutrition in Tanzania, twelve years after the initiation of salt iodation programme. The challenge in sustaining IDD elimination in Tanzania is now two-fold: to better reach the areas with low coverage of iodated salt, and to reduce iodine intake in areas where it is excessive. Particular attention is needed in improving quality control at production level and

  4. A novel method for iodate determination using cadmium sulfide quantum dots as fluorescence probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Chunran; Su Zhonghua; Lin Baogang; Huang Haowen; Zeng Yunlong; Li Shuang; Huang He; Wang Yajing; Li Chunxiang; Shen Guoli; Yu Ruqin

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a novel method for the determination of iodate based on the carboxymethyl cellulose-capped CdS quantum dots (QDs). Factors affecting the iodate detection were investigated, and the optimum conditions were determined. Under the optimum conditions, the relative fluorescence intensity of CdS quantum dots was linearly proportional to IO 3 - over a concentration range from 1.0 x 10 -8 to 1.0 x 10 -5 mol L -1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9987 and a detection limit of 6.0 nmol L -1 . Iodide, being oxidized by bromine to form iodate, was detected indirectly. The method was successfully applied to the determination of iodate and total amount of iodine in table salt samples. The related mechanism was also discussed.

  5. Determination of iodate in iodized salt and water samples by shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kaige; Liang, Lizhen; Huang, Meiying; Hu, Yuling; Li, Gongke

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a simple, rapid, and sensitive method for the determination of iodate in iodized salt and water samples. The method is making use of shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) and is based on the oxidation of hydroxylammonium chloride by iodate to produce nitrite which then is used to diazotize with p-nitroaniline. The resulting diazonium ion is then coupled to N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride to form an azo dye whose concentration is determined by SHINERS. The active substrate used in SHINERS is composed of gold nanoparticles coated with an ultrathin silica shell possessing pinholes on their surface. Various factors that influence the chemical reaction and the intensity of SHINERS were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the Raman intensity is linearly related to the concentration of iodate in the 7.5–130.0 μg L−1 range, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9920. The limit of detection is 2.0 μg L−1, and the relative standard deviation is 7.5 % (for n = 5) at 1,138 cm−1 without additional sample pre-concentration. The method was successfully applied to the determination of iodate in iodized salt and water samples. The accuracy was assessed through recovery tests and independent analysis by a conventional titrimetric method. (author)

  6. A micro-flow-batch analyzer with solenoid micro-pumps for the photometric determination of iodate in table salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marcelo B; Barreto, Inakã S; Andrade, Stéfani Iury E; Almeida, Luciano F; Araújo, Mário C U

    2012-10-15

    In this study, a micro-flow-batch analyzer (μFBA) with solenoid micro-pumps for the photometric determination of iodate in table salt is described. The method is based on the reaction of iodate with iodide to form molecular iodine followed by the reaction with N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD). The analytical signal was measured at 520 nm using a green LED integrated into the μFBA built in the urethane-acrylate resin. The analytical curve for iodate was linear in the range of 0.01-10.0 mg L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.997. The limit of detection and relative standard deviation were estimated at 0.004 mg L(-1) and<1.5% (n=3), respectively. The accuracy was assessed through recovery test (97.6-103.5%) and independent analysis by a conventional titrimetric method. Comparing this technique with the conventional method, no statistically significant differences were observed when applying the paired t-test at a 95% confidence level. The proposed microsystem using solenoid micro-pumps presented satisfactory robustness and high sampling rate (170 h(-1)), with a low reagents consumption and a low cost to build the device. The proposed microsystem is a new alternative for automatic determination of iodate in table salt, comparing satisfactory to the recently flow system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Iodine stability and sensory quality of fermented fish and fish sauce produced with the use of iodated salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthilath, Boualapha; Chavasit, Visith; Chareonkiatkul, Somsri; Judprasong, Kunchit

    2009-06-01

    Universal salt iodization promotes the use of iodated salt for producing industrial food products, although it might affect product quality and iodine stability. To assess iodine loss during fermentation of fermented fish and fish sauces produced by using iodated salt and the effect on product sensory quality. Fermented fish and fish sauces were produced with iodated rock and grain sea salts (approximately 30 ppm iodine). Fermented fish was prepared from freshwater fish mixed with salt and rice bran and fermented for 6 months at room temperature. Fish sauces were prepared by mixing anchovy with salt and fermenting either exposed to sunlight or in the shade for 12 months. Residual iodine was determined with a spectrophotometer at day 0 and months 1, 3, and 6 for fermented fish and day 0 and months 3, 6, and 12 for fish sauces. After fermentation, the products were tested for sensory acceptability by Laotian and Thai panelists (approximately 50 in each panel) after they were cooked and served in the traditional manner. After fermentation, the level of residual iodine was 7.61 ppm (16% loss) infermented fish, 5.57 ppm (55% loss) in fish sauce prepared with exposure to sunlight, and 9.52 ppm (13% loss) in fish sauce prepared in the shade. Sensory qualities of the products that were produced from fortified and unfortified salts as well as dishes prepared from these products were not significantly different (p > 0.05). It is feasible to produce fermented fish and fish sauces with iodated salt and maintain acceptable iodine levels.

  8. CONCENTRATION OF Pu USING AN IODATE PRECIPITATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, B.A.

    1960-02-23

    A method is given for separating plutonium from lanthanum in a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitation process for the recovery of plutonium values from an aqueous solution. The carrier precipitation process includes the steps of forming a lanthanum fluoride precipi- . tate, thereby carrying plutonium out of solution, metathesizing the fluoride precipitate to a hydroxide precipitate, and then dissolving the hydroxide precipitate in nitric acid. In accordance with the invention, the nitric acid solution, which contains plutonium and lanthanum, is made 0.05 to 0.15 molar in potassium iodate. thereby precipitating plutonium as plutonous iodate and the plutonous iodate is separated from the lanthanum- containing supernatant solution.

  9. Molten salt electrorefining method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Shoji, Yuichi; Matsumaru, Ken-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    A molten cadmium phase (lower side) and a molten salt phase (upper side) are filled in an electrolytic bath. A basket incorporating spent nuclear fuels is inserted/disposed in the molten cadmium phase. A rotatable solid cathode is inserted/disposed in the molten salt phase. The spent fuels, for example, natural uranium, incorporated in the basket is dissolved in the molten cadmium phase. In this case, the uranium concentration in the molten salt phase is determined as from 0.5 to 20wt%. Then, electrolysis is conducted while setting a stirring power for stirring at least the molten salt phase of from 2.5 x 10 2 to 1 x 10 4 based on a reynolds number. Crystalline nuclei of uranium are precipitated uniformly on the surface of the solid cathode, and they grow into fine dendrites. With such procedures, since short-circuit between the cathode precipitates and the molten cadmium phase (anode) is scarcely caused, to improve the recovering rate of uranium. (I.N.)

  10. Elaboration and characterization of an iodate-substituted hydroxyapatite cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, A.; Campayo, L.; Laurencin, D.; Grandjean, A.; Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Rossignol, S.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, robust host matrices have been developed to guarantee a durable confinement of some of the most mobile radionuclides. In this work, we describe a novel method for iodine incorporation into an iodate-substituted hydroxyapatite by means of a cementation route. Such a material is obtained from a stoichiometric mixture of tetra-calcium-phosphate (TTCP)/tricalcium-phosphate (αTCP)/sodium iodate with a molar ratio 1/2/0.5. This material corresponds to an iodine incorporation content ∼6.5 wt.%. The evolution of this system during the early age (followed by calorimetric and conductimetric measurements) was compared to the same cementitious system without iodate. Results show that sodium iodate acts as a retarder that can be appropriate to control setting for an industrial application. The delay is due to the precipitation of non-cohesive intermediate phases like calcium iodate that are then totally consumed when the crystallization of hydroxyapatite occurs. At later age, a porous bulk material consisting of traces of TTCP and αTCP particles covered by needles is obtained. The composition of these needles is in agreement with that of the desired iodate-containing apatite. (authors)

  11. Growth and study of some gel grown group II single crystals of iodate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Single crystals of calcium iodate and barium iodate were grown by simple gel technique by single diffusion method. The optimum conditions were established by varying various parameters such as pH of gel solution, gel concentration, gel setting time, concentration of the reactants etc. Crystals having different.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1206 - Calcium iodate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium iodate. 184.1206 Section 184.1206 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1206 Calcium iodate. (a) Calcium iodate [Ca(IO3)2·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7789-80...

  13. Study of iodine-iodate isotopic exchange reaction in neutral aqueous solutions by radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.; Ram, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    The isotopic exchange of iodine atoms in neutral aqueous solutions of iodate ions and iodine (in KI) is found to obey the rate law R = k [IO 3 - ] 0.4 [I 2 ] 1.2 at 175 o C. The addition of neutral ionic salts, e.g. KCl and KNO 3 , in the reaction mixture showed a slight catalytic effect on the exchange rate. Further, the kinetic salt effect indicated the involvement of at least one neutral species on the rate-determining step. The activation energy in neutral aqueous solutions of iodate ions and iodine is found to be 86 ± 3 kJ mol -1 , which decreases in the presence of KCl (79 ± 3 kJ mol -1 and KNO 3 (82 + 3 kJ mol -1 ). The activation parameters, viz. free energy of activation, enthalpy of activation and entropy of activation, were also calculated. Based on these results, an association-dissociation type of reaction mechanism is proposed for this exchange reaction in neutral aqueous medium, similar to that proposed earlier for iodide-iodate isotopic exchange reaction in neutral aqueous solutions, nitrate eutectic melts and iodide-iodate melts. (author)

  14. Polarographic determination of Iodide and Iodate, in Solutions Coming from Aerosols in Fission Products Containment Studies in Nuclear Power Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, M.; Ballesteros, O.; Fernandez, M.; Clavero, M.A.; Gonzalez, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    A polarographic method is described for the iodine species determination, iodide and iodate in water solutions. the iodate can be determined by differential pulse polarography. Calibration curves and the detection and determination limits have been obtained. Iodides is oxidized to iodate with sodium hypochlorite and the excess of oxidizing agent is destroyed with sodium sulphide. The concentration of iodide is calculated as the difference between the concentration of iodate in the sample before and after the oxidation. As an application, species of iodine in samples coming from the experimental plants GIRS (Gaseous Iodine Removal by Sprays) of Nuclear Fission Department of the CIEMAT, dedicated to fission products containment studies in nuclear power station, were determined. (Author) 10 refs

  15. Alternative methods of salt disposal at the seven salt sites for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This study discusses the various alternative salt management techniques for the disposal of excess mined salt at seven potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites: Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Davis and Lavender Canyons, Utah. Because the repository development involves the underground excavation of corridors and waste emplacement rooms, in either bedded or domed salt formations, excess salt will be mined and must be disposed of offsite. The salt disposal alternatives examined for all the sites include commercial use, ocean disposal, deep well injection, landfill disposal, and underground mine disposal. These alternatives (and other site-specific disposal methods) are reviewed, using estimated amounts of excavated, backfilled, and excess salt. Methods of transporting the excess salt are discussed, along with possible impacts of each disposal method and potential regulatory requirements. A preferred method of disposal is recommended for each potentially acceptable repository site. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  16. Different Methods for Conditioning Chloride Salt Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.; Fedeli, C.; Capone, M.; Marzo, G.A.; Mariani, M.; Da Ros, M.; Giacobbo, F.; Macerata, E.; Giola, M.

    2015-01-01

    Three different methods have been used to condition chloride salt wastes coming from pyro-processes. Two of them allow to synthesise sodalite, a naturally occurring mineral containing chlorine: the former, starting from Zeolite 4A, which transforms the zeolite into sodalite; the latter, which starts from kaolinite, giving sodalite as well. In addition, a new matrix, termed SAP (SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 ), has been synthesised. It is able to form different mineral phases which occlude fission metals. The products from the different processes have been fully characterised. In particular the chemical durability of the final waste forms has been determined using the standard product consistency test. According to the results obtained, SAP seems to be a promising matrix for the incorporation of chloride salt wastes from pyro-processes. Financial support from the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Union (projects ACSEPT, contract FP7-CP-2007- 211 267, and SACSESS, Collaborative Project 323282), as well as from Italian Ministry for Economic Development (Accordo di Programma: Piano Annuale di Realizzazione 2008-2009) is gratefully acknowledged. (authors)

  17. Simultaneous determination of iodide and iodate in soil solution samples by HPLC with electrochemical detection and post-column reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Akira; Takaku, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Shun' ichi [Department of Radioecology, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Tsukada, Hirofumi [Department of Radioecology, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Institute of Environmental Radioactivity, Fukushima University, Fukushima 960-1196 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Iodine-129 (half-life 1.6 x 10{sup 7} y) discharged into the atmosphere from nuclear facilities (e.g., a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant) is partly deposited on land and introduced into soil. Stable iodine ({sup 127}I) can be used as a natural analogue to predict the long-term behavior of {sup 129}I in the terrestrial environment. Iodine in soil mainly exists as I{sup -}, IO{sub 3}{sup -}, and organic iodine. Because the mobilities of these species in soil are quite different, iodine speciation in soil solution is a key for predicting the behavior of iodine in soil. We developed a new speciation method suitable for routine analysis of many soil solution samples, and successfully applied the method to real samples. The method involves determining the concentration of total iodine and then separately measuring the I{sup -} and IO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations with an HPLC system. The HPLC system (Nano-space SI-2; Shiseido, Tokyo, Japan) consisted of a UV/Vis spectrometer and an electrochemical (amperometric) detector (50 mV Ag/AgCl). Two reverse-phase columns (2.0 x 50 mm Capcel Pak DD C8 and 2.0 x 250 mm Capcel Pak MGII C18; Shiseido) were serially connected, and a switching valve was set between them. I{sup -} and IO{sub 3}{sup -} in the sample solution were separated from each other in the DD C8 column. IO{sub 3}{sup -} eluted first from the column, while I{sup -} was retained. After IO{sub 3}{sup -} was further separated from other halogen acids with the C18 column, IO{sub 3}{sup -} was reacted with KBr and o-dianisidine in a thermos-reactor (90 deg. C), and absorption at 450 nm was measured with the UV/Vis spectrometer. The concentration of I{sup -} eluted from the first column was determined with the electrochemical detector. To determine the concentration of total iodine in the sample solution, organic iodine was decomposed by UV irradiation (UV digester 705; Metrohm AG, Herisau, Switzerland) for 30 min at 20 deg. C. The iodine in the solution was reduced to I

  18. Determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in waters with a new total organic iodine measurement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tingting; Zhang, Xiangru

    2013-11-01

    The dissolved iodine species that dominate aquatic systems are iodide, iodate and organo-iodine. These species may undergo transformation to one another and thus affect the formation of iodinated disinfection byproducts during disinfection of drinking waters or wastewater effluents. In this study, a fast, sensitive and accurate method for determining these iodine species in waters was developed by derivatizing iodide and iodate to organic iodine and measuring organic iodine with a total organic iodine (TOI) measurement approach. Within this method, organo-iodine was determined directly by TOI measurement; iodide was oxidized by monochloramine to hypoiodous acid and then hypoiodous acid reacted with phenol to form organic iodine, which was determined by TOI measurement; iodate was reduced by ascorbic acid to iodide and then determined as iodide. The quantitation limit of organo-iodine or sum of organo-iodine and iodide or sum of organo-iodine, iodide and iodate was 5 μg/L as I for a 40 mL water sample (or 2.5 μg/L as I for an 80 mL water sample, or 1.25 μg/L as I for a 160 mL water sample). This method was successfully applied to the determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in a variety of water samples, including tap water, seawater, urine and wastewater. The recoveries of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine were 91-109%, 90-108% and 91-108%, respectively. The concentrations and distributions of iodine species in different water samples were obtained and compared. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Analysis Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinsu; Jeong, Yongjin; Lee, Deokjung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Utilizing the uranium-thorium fuel cycle shows considerable potential for the possibility of MSR. The concept of MSBR should be revised because of molten salt reactor's advantage such as outstanding neutron economy, possibility of continuous online reprocessing and refueling, a high level of inherent safety, and economic benefit by keeping off the fuel fabrication process. For the development of MSR research, this paper provides the MSBR single-cell, two-cell and whole core model for computer code input, and several calculation results including depletion calculation of each models. The calculations are carried out by using MCNP6, a Monte Carlo computer code, which has CINDER90 for depletion calculation using ENDF-VII nuclear data. From the calculation results of various reactor design parameters, the temperature coefficients are all negative at the initial state and MTC becomes positive at the equilibrium state. From the results of core rod worth, the graphite control rod alone cannot makes the core subcritical at initial state. But the equilibrium state, the core can be made subcritical state only by graphite control rods. Through the comparison of the results of each models, the two-cell method can represent the MSBR core model more accurately with a little more computational resources than the single-cell method. Many of the thermal spectrum MSR have adopted a multi-region single-fluid strategy.

  20. Method for the production of uranium chloride salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Brian R.; Mariani, Robert D.

    2013-07-02

    A method for the production of UCl.sub.3 salt without the use of hazardous chemicals or multiple apparatuses for synthesis and purification is provided. Uranium metal is combined in a reaction vessel with a metal chloride and a eutectic salt- and heated to a first temperature under vacuum conditions to promote reaction of the uranium metal with the metal chloride for the production of a UCl.sub.3 salt. After the reaction has run substantially to completion, the furnace is heated to a second temperature under vacuum conditions. The second temperature is sufficiently high to selectively vaporize the chloride salts and distill them into a condenser region.

  1. Salts of the iodine oxyacids in the impregnation of adsorbent charcoal for trapping radioactive methyliodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of removing methyliodide 131 gas from the effluent of a reactor, comprises passing the effluent gas through a charcoal sorbent formed by first contacting charcoal with a liquid containing a hypoiodite obtained when an aqueous mixture of a first component comprising a salt of an iodine oxyacid selected from periodate, iodate and hypoiodite and a second component selected from iodine and/or an iodide salt is adjusted to a pH of about 10 by the addition of an inorganic base, and then contacting the resulting impregnated charcoal with a tertiary amine. (author)

  2. Lack of genotoxicity of potassium iodate in the alkaline comet assay and in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test. Comparison to potassium bromate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poul, J M; Huet, S; Godard, T; Sanders, P

    2004-02-01

    Iodine could be added to the diet of human population in the form of iodide or iodate but iodate had not been adequately tested for genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. In the present study, genotoxic effects of potassium iodate were evaluated in vitro using the alkaline comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay on CHO cells and compared to halogenate salt analogues potassium bromate and chlorate and also to their respective reduced forms (potassium iodide, bromide and chloride). The results showed that the comet assay failed to detect the presence of DNA damage after a treatment of cells by potassium iodate for concentrations up to 10 mM. This absence of primary DNA damage was confirmed in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. In the same way, results showed that potassium chlorate as well as potassium iodide, bromide and chloride did not induced DNA damage in the alkaline comet assay for doses up to 10 mM. By contrast, potassium bromate exposure led to an increase in both DNA damage and frequency of micronucleated cells. The repair of bromate-induced DNA damage was incomplete 24 h after the end of treatment. These results seem to indicate that potassium bromate would induce DNA damage by several mechanisms besides oxidative stress.

  3. Distribution of iodate in the south western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raju, G.R.K.; Rajendran, A.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    role in surface waters in the iodine system. A mole ratio of NO :PO :IO was found to be 94:10:1. Depletion of iodate, calculated in 2 ways, showed a linear model with the depletion of other nutrients in surface waters (above oxycline) suggesting a...

  4. Innovative methods to reduce salt water intrusion in harbours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenenboom, J.; Uittenbogaard, R.; Hulsen, L.; van der Kaaij, T.; Kielen, N.

    2017-12-01

    The availability of fresh water in densely populated estuarine environments will in the future more often be threatened due to both human (e.g. channel deepening) and natural (sea-level rise, storm surges, extremely low river discharges) causes. Here, the salt water intrusion into the New Waterway, the main navigation channel of the port of Rotterdam, is used as a case study to elaborate on two innovative ways to mitigate the effects of salt water intrusion. The first method is based on the concept that vertical mixing of a salt wedge reduces its intrusion length. The idea is to equip a vessel with cranes that hold perforated tubes close to the bed alongside the vessel. By connecting compressors to the perforated tubes, a bubble screen with an adjustable vertical location can be created. Since the horizontal location of the bubble screens is not fixed, the vessel can sail in the vicinity of the moving salt wedge therewith increasing the effectiveness of the method. Another advantage of this intervention is that it can be deployed temporarily when the urgency for the prevention of salt water intrusion is high. The second method originates from the Port of Rotterdam Authority and is inspired by a small bypass that is present between two parallel channels (New Waterway and Caland Canal) connecting the North Sea to the Port of Rotterdam. Due to the different hydrodynamic characteristics of the hinterland of both channels, a difference in salinity and water level is present between both ends of the bypass. As a result, a lateral inflow of water into the New Waterway occurs at the same moment that the flood velocities transport saline water landwards. The lateral inflow of water into this channel has no momentum in the landward direction and therefore decreases the landward flow velocity and therewith the salt water intrusion. In addition, the inflow drives a vertical circulation that mixes the water column close to the bypass. Similar to the bubble screens mentioned

  5. Chemical dosimetry using an iodide/iodate aqueous solution: application to the gamma irradiation of blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahn, Ronald O. E-mail: rahnr@ms.soph.uab.edu

    2003-01-01

    A method is presented for measuring and verifying the radiation dose in gamma irradiators used for treating blood prior to transfusion. This method employs the iodide/iodate dosimeter (0.6 M iodide, 0.1 M iodate, and 0.01 borate at pH 9.25) which forms triiodide upon exposure to ionizing radiation; for Cs-137 radiation the G value is 14.1. Samples were placed in a canister and irradiated in a conventional blood bank irradiator containing several Cs-137 sources. The following were exposed: (a) nine 1.5 ml plastic tubes containing dosimetry solution taped inside a 250 ml blood bag, which, in turn, was filled with either water or blood, (b) 50 ml plastic syringes containing varying amounts of dosimetry solution, (c) a whole blood bag containing 250 ml of the dosimetry solution. A water phantom was not used during exposure. The absorbance changes at 352 nm due to triiodide formation were used to determine a dose rate, which was on the order of 10 Gy/min ({+-}5%) for all samples measured. This value is consistent with an average time-decayed dose rate for the irradiation volume as determined from the manufacturers calibration of the unit taking into account the heterogeneous nature of the radiation field inside the irradiator and the absence of a water phantom. Because of its sensitivity, ease of operation, and reproducibility, it is suggested that the iodide/iodate dosimetry system be considered for on-site periodic conformation/verification of the radiation dose as part of a quality assurance requirement for blood irradiators.

  6. Chemical dosimetry using an iodide/iodate aqueous solution: application to the gamma irradiation of blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, Ronald O.

    2003-01-01

    A method is presented for measuring and verifying the radiation dose in gamma irradiators used for treating blood prior to transfusion. This method employs the iodide/iodate dosimeter (0.6 M iodide, 0.1 M iodate, and 0.01 borate at pH 9.25) which forms triiodide upon exposure to ionizing radiation; for Cs-137 radiation the G value is 14.1. Samples were placed in a canister and irradiated in a conventional blood bank irradiator containing several Cs-137 sources. The following were exposed: (a) nine 1.5 ml plastic tubes containing dosimetry solution taped inside a 250 ml blood bag, which, in turn, was filled with either water or blood, (b) 50 ml plastic syringes containing varying amounts of dosimetry solution, (c) a whole blood bag containing 250 ml of the dosimetry solution. A water phantom was not used during exposure. The absorbance changes at 352 nm due to triiodide formation were used to determine a dose rate, which was on the order of 10 Gy/min (±5%) for all samples measured. This value is consistent with an average time-decayed dose rate for the irradiation volume as determined from the manufacturers calibration of the unit taking into account the heterogeneous nature of the radiation field inside the irradiator and the absence of a water phantom. Because of its sensitivity, ease of operation, and reproducibility, it is suggested that the iodide/iodate dosimetry system be considered for on-site periodic conformation/verification of the radiation dose as part of a quality assurance requirement for blood irradiators

  7. Modification of glassy carbon electrode with a polymer/mediator composite and its application for the electrochemical detection of iodate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ta-Jen; Lin, Chia-Yu; Balamurugan, A.; Kung, Chung-Wei; Wang, Jen-Yuan; Hu, Chih-Wei; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Chen, Po-Yen; Vittal, R.; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► FAD and PEDOT are combined to modify the glassy carbon electrode for IO 3 − sensing. ► The doping of FAD into PEDOT matrix can almost be viewed as an irreversible process. ► The optimal cycle number for preparing the GCE/PEDOT/FAD electrode is found to be 9. ► The detection limit of the GCE/PEDOT/FAD electrode for IO 3 − is found to be 0.16 μM. ► The GCE/PEDOT/FAD electrode possesses enough selectivity toward IO 3 − . - Abstract: A modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared by depositing a composite of polymer and mediator on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The mediator, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and the polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were electrochemically deposited as a composite on the GCE by applying cyclic voltammetry (CV). This modified electrode is hereafter designated as GCE/PEDOT/FAD. FAD was found to significantly enhance the growth of PEDOT. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) analysis was performed to study the mass changes in the electrode during the electrodeposition of PEDOT, with and without the addition of FAD. The optimal cycle number for preparing the modified electrode was determined to be 9, and the corresponding surface coverage of FAD (Γ FAD ) was ca. 5.11 × 10 −10 mol cm −2 . The amperometric detection of iodate was performed in a 100 mM buffer solution (pH 1.5). The GCE/PEDOT/FAD showed a sensitivity of 0.78 μA μM −1 cm −2 , a linear range of 4–140 μM, and a limit of detection of 0.16 μM for iodate. The interference effects of 250-fold Na + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Zn 2+ , Fe 2+ , Cl − , NO 3 − , I − , SO 4 2− and SO 3 2− , with reference to the concentration of iodate were negligible. The long-term stability of GCE/PEDOT/FAD was also investigated. The GCE/PEDOT/FAD electrode retained 82% of its initial amperometric response to iodate after 7 days. The GCE/PEDOT/FAD was also applied to determine iodate in a commercial salt.

  8. Thermal annealing and recoil reactions of 128I atoms in thermal neutron activated iodate-nitrate mixed crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.P.; Sharma, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    Recoil reaction of 128 I atoms in neutron irradiated mixed crystals (iodate-nitrate) have been studied by thermal annealing methods. The retention of 128 I (i.e. radioactivity of 128 I retained in the parent chemi cal form) decreases sharply in the beginning and then attains saturation value with the increase in concentration of nitrate. The annealing followed the usual characteristic pattern, viz., a steep rise in retention within the first few minutes and then a saturation value thereafter but these saturation values in case of mixed crystals are lower in comparison to those of pure iodate targets. The process obeys simple first order kinetics and the activation energy obtained are of lower order than those obtained in case of pure targets. The results are discussed in the light of present ideas and the role of nitrate ion and its radiolytic products have also been invoked. (author)

  9. Statistical methods for mechanistic model validation: Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggett, D.L.

    1988-07-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's Salt Repository Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying the emplacement of nuclear waste containers in a salt repository. One objective of the SRP program is to develop an overall waste package component model which adequately describes such phenomena as container corrosion, waste form leaching, spent fuel degradation, etc., which are possible in the salt repository environment. The form of this model will be proposed, based on scientific principles and relevant salt repository conditions with supporting data. The model will be used to predict the future characteristics of the near field environment. This involves several different submodels such as the amount of time it takes a brine solution to contact a canister in the repository, how long it takes a canister to corrode and expose its contents to the brine, the leach rate of the contents of the canister, etc. These submodels are often tested in a laboratory and should be statistically validated (in this context, validate means to demonstrate that the model adequately describes the data) before they can be incorporated into the waste package component model. This report describes statistical methods for validating these models. 13 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  10. Iodine-129 and Iodine-127 speciation in groundwater at the Hanford Site, U.S.: iodate incorporation into calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Saijin; Yeager, Chris; Wellman, Dawn M.; Santschi, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    The Hanford Site, the most contaminated nuclear site in the United States, has large radioactive waste plumes containing high 129I levels. The geochemical transport and fate of radioiodine depends largely on its chemical speciation that is greatly affected by environmental factors. This study reports, for the first time, the speciation of stable and radioactive iodine in the groundwater from the Hanford Site. Iodate was the dominant species and accounts for up to 84%, followed by organo-iodine and minimal levels of iodide. The relatively high pH and oxidizing environment may have prevented iodate reduction. Our results identified that calcite precipitation caused by degassing of CO2 during deep groundwater sampling incorporated between 7 to 40% of dissolved iodine (including 127I and 129I) that was originally in the groundwater, transforming dissolved to particulate iodate during sampling. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying iodine incorporation by calcite, laboratory experiments were carried out to replicate this iodine sequestering processes. Two methods were utilized in this study, 1) addition of sodium carbonate; 2) addition of calcium chloride followed by sodium carbonate where the pH was well controlled at ~8.2, which is close to the average pH of Hanford Site groundwater. It was demonstrated that iodate was the main species incorporated into calcite and this incorporation process could be impeded by elevated pH and decreasing ionic strength in groundwater. This study provides critical information for predicting the long-term fate and transport of 129I at the Hanford Site and reveals a potential means for improved remediation strategies of 129I

  11. Unsupervised detection of salt marsh platforms: a topographic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Guillaume C. H.; Mudd, Simon M.; Clubb, Fiona J.

    2018-03-01

    Salt marshes filter pollutants, protect coastlines against storm surges, and sequester carbon, yet are under threat from sea level rise and anthropogenic modification. The sustained existence of the salt marsh ecosystem depends on the topographic evolution of marsh platforms. Quantifying marsh platform topography is vital for improving the management of these valuable landscapes. The determination of platform boundaries currently relies on supervised classification methods requiring near-infrared data to detect vegetation, or demands labour-intensive field surveys and digitisation. We propose a novel, unsupervised method to reproducibly isolate salt marsh scarps and platforms from a digital elevation model (DEM), referred to as Topographic Identification of Platforms (TIP). Field observations and numerical models show that salt marshes mature into subhorizontal platforms delineated by subvertical scarps. Based on this premise, we identify scarps as lines of local maxima on a slope raster, then fill landmasses from the scarps upward, thus isolating mature marsh platforms. We test the TIP method using lidar-derived DEMs from six salt marshes in England with varying tidal ranges and geometries, for which topographic platforms were manually isolated from tidal flats. Agreement between manual and unsupervised classification exceeds 94 % for DEM resolutions of 1 m, with all but one site maintaining an accuracy superior to 90 % for resolutions up to 3 m. For resolutions of 1 m, platforms detected with the TIP method are comparable in surface area to digitised platforms and have similar elevation distributions. We also find that our method allows for the accurate detection of local block failures as small as 3 times the DEM resolution. Detailed inspection reveals that although tidal creeks were digitised as part of the marsh platform, unsupervised classification categorises them as part of the tidal flat, causing an increase in false negatives and overall platform

  12. Unsupervised detection of salt marsh platforms: a topographic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. H. Goodwin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Salt marshes filter pollutants, protect coastlines against storm surges, and sequester carbon, yet are under threat from sea level rise and anthropogenic modification. The sustained existence of the salt marsh ecosystem depends on the topographic evolution of marsh platforms. Quantifying marsh platform topography is vital for improving the management of these valuable landscapes. The determination of platform boundaries currently relies on supervised classification methods requiring near-infrared data to detect vegetation, or demands labour-intensive field surveys and digitisation. We propose a novel, unsupervised method to reproducibly isolate salt marsh scarps and platforms from a digital elevation model (DEM, referred to as Topographic Identification of Platforms (TIP. Field observations and numerical models show that salt marshes mature into subhorizontal platforms delineated by subvertical scarps. Based on this premise, we identify scarps as lines of local maxima on a slope raster, then fill landmasses from the scarps upward, thus isolating mature marsh platforms. We test the TIP method using lidar-derived DEMs from six salt marshes in England with varying tidal ranges and geometries, for which topographic platforms were manually isolated from tidal flats. Agreement between manual and unsupervised classification exceeds 94 % for DEM resolutions of 1 m, with all but one site maintaining an accuracy superior to 90 % for resolutions up to 3 m. For resolutions of 1 m, platforms detected with the TIP method are comparable in surface area to digitised platforms and have similar elevation distributions. We also find that our method allows for the accurate detection of local block failures as small as 3 times the DEM resolution. Detailed inspection reveals that although tidal creeks were digitised as part of the marsh platform, unsupervised classification categorises them as part of the tidal flat, causing an increase in false negatives

  13. Determination of Iodate in Food, Environmental, and Biological Samples after Solid-Phase Extraction with Ni-Al-Zr Ternary Layered Double Hydroxide as a Nanosorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Abdolmohammad-Zadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured nickel-aluminum-zirconium ternary layered double hydroxide was successfully applied as a solid-phase extraction sorbent for the separation and pre-concentration of trace levels of iodate in food, environmental and biological samples. An indirect method was used for monitoring of the extracted iodate ions. The method is based on the reaction of the iodate with iodide in acidic solution to produce iodine, which can be spectrophotometrically monitored at 352 nm. The absorbance is directly proportional to the concentration of iodate in the sample. The effect of several parameters such as pH, sample flow rate, amount of nanosorbent, elution conditions, sample volume, and coexisting ions on the recovery was investigated. In the optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detection (3s and enrichment factor were 0.12 μg mL−1 and 20, respectively. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system was linear in the range of 0.2–2.8 μg mL−1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. In order to validate the presented method, a certified reference material, NIST SRM 1549, was also analyzed.

  14. Method for estimating road salt contamination of Norwegian lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitterød, Nils-Otto; Wike Kronvall, Kjersti; Turtumøygaard, Stein; Haaland, Ståle

    2013-04-01

    Consumption of road salt in Norway, used to improve winter road conditions, has been tripled during the last two decades, and there is a need to quantify limits for optimal use of road salt to avoid further environmental harm. The purpose of this study was to implement methodology to estimate chloride concentration in any given water body in Norway. This goal is feasible to achieve if the complexity of solute transport in the landscape is simplified. The idea was to keep computations as simple as possible to be able to increase spatial resolution of input functions. The first simplification we made was to treat all roads exposed to regular salt application as steady state sources of sodium chloride. This is valid if new road salt is applied before previous contamination is removed through precipitation. The main reasons for this assumption are the significant retention capacity of vegetation; organic matter; and soil. The second simplification we made was that the groundwater table is close to the surface. This assumption is valid for major part of Norway, which means that topography is sufficient to delineate catchment area at any location in the landscape. Given these two assumptions, we applied spatial functions of mass load (mass NaCl pr. time unit) and conditional estimates of normal water balance (volume of water pr. time unit) to calculate steady state chloride concentration along the lake perimeter. Spatial resolution of mass load and estimated concentration along the lake perimeter was 25 m x 25 m while water balance had 1 km x 1 km resolution. The method was validated for a limited number of Norwegian lakes and estimation results have been compared to observations. Initial results indicate significant overlap between measurements and estimations, but only for lakes where the road salt is the major contribution for chloride contamination. For lakes in catchments with high subsurface transmissivity, the groundwater table is not necessarily following the

  15. Iodate in inshore and offshore waters of Central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.

    Biological stripping of iodate in the surface waters is noticed in the inshore and offshore waters of Bay of Bengal. A good correlation is observed between iodate and phosphate and nitrate and the molar ratios determined being NO3: PO4: IO3 = 88...

  16. Modeling of electromigration salt removal methods in building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2008-01-01

    for salt attack of various kinds, is one potential method to preserve old building envelopes. By establishing a model for ionic multi-species diffusion, which also accounts for external applied electrical fields, it is proposed that an important complement to the experimental tests and that verification...... with its ionic mobility properties. It is, further, assumed that Gauss’s law can be used to calculate the internal electrical field induced by the diffusion it self. In this manner the external electrical field applied can be modeled, simply, by assigning proper boundary conditions for the equation...

  17. Scrubbing of iodine from gas streams with mercuric nitrate-conversion of mercuric iodate product to barium iodate for fixation in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, G.C.; Moore, J.G.; Morgan, M.T.

    1980-06-01

    A bench-scale model of a mercuric nitrate scrubber for removal of iodine from off-gas streams was constructed and operated in conjunction with a mercuric iodate-to-barium iodate conversion system to determine the feasibility of total recycle of all processing solutions. The two main aspects of the system examined were (1) the extent of contamination of the barium iodate product, and (2) the effect of cross-contamination of various process solutions on the efficiency of the process. The experimental evidence obtained indicates that, with appropriate control, all solutions can be recycled without significant contamination of the product that would be harmful to the host concrete or to the environment. Mercury contamination was found to be less than or equal to 0.5 wt % of the barium iodate product. The most significant effect on system efficiency was determined to be barium hydroxide contamination of the sodium hydroxide solution used to convert mercuric iodate to sodium iodate. A mole ratio of barium hydroxide to sodium hydroxide of about 1:225 caused a decrease in conversion efficiency of about 45%.

  18. Performance assessment plans and methods for the Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    This document presents the preliminary plans and anticipated methods of the Salt Repository Project (SRP) for assessing the postclosure and radiological aspects of preclosure performance of a nuclear waste repository in salt. This plan is intended to be revised on an annual basis. The emphasis in this preliminary effort is on the method of conceptually dividing the system into three subsystems (the very near field, the near field, and the far field) and applying models to analyze the behavior of each subsystem and its individual components. The next revision will contain more detailed plans being developed as part of Site Characterization Plan (SCP) activities. After a brief system description, this plan presents the performance targets which have been established for nuclear waste repositories by regulatory agencies (Chapter 3). The SRP approach to modeling, including sensitivity and uncertainty techniques is then presented (Chapter 4). This is followed by a discussion of scenario analysis (Chapter 5), a presentation of preliminary data needs as anticipated by the SRP (Chapter 6), and a presentation of the SRP approach to postclosure assessment of the very near field, the near field, and the far field (Chapters 7, 8, and 9, respectively). Preclosure radiological assessment is discussed in Chapter 10. Chapter 11 presents the SRP approach to code verification and validation. Finally, the Appendix lists all computer codes anticipated for use in performance assessments. The list of codes will be updated as plans are revised

  19. Removal and distribution of iodate in mangrove environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, E.C; Machado, W; Sanders, L.F; Bellido, L.F; Patchineelam, S.R; Bellido Jr, A.V

    2003-01-01

    Retention experiments were carried out in laboratory in order to investigate the iodate ion removal from tidal water by the underlying creek sediment, as well as, distribution in the mangrove sediment of Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro. Local tidal water spiked with 131 IO 3 was added to several cores containing 6-7 cm of mangrove sediment. A sample solution was taken everyday for 8□9 days and assayed by means of a high purity germanium detector coupled to a multichannel analyser. It was found that, after two days, around 56 % of the radioiodate was taken up by the sediment. At the end of the experiment, the sediment was sectioned in 1-cm layers and also analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The overall results, in seven cores, showed that 89% of initial 131 IO 3 activities were transferred to sediment, whereas 78% of the total activity was within the first cm of the upper layer. It seems from the determination of total organic matter content, that the organic matter present in the Sepetiba's mangrove sediment, have a substantial influence in the iodate removal from the water column (author)

  20. Polarographic determination of Iodide and Iodate, in Solutions Coming from Aerosols in Fission Products Containment Studies in Nuclear Power Stations; Determinacion Polarografica de Especies de Iodo (Ioduro y Iodato) en Soluciones Procedentes de Aerosoles, para Estudios de Contencion de Productos de Fision en Centrales Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, M.; Ballesteros, O.; Fernandez, M.; Clavero, M.; Gonzalez, A. M. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    A polarographic method is described for the iodine species determination, iodide and iodate in water solutions. the iodate can be determined by differential pulse polarography. Calibration curves and the detection and determination limits have been obtained. Iodides is oxidized to iodate with sodium hypochlorite and the excess of oxidizing agent is destroyed with sodium sulphide. The concentration of iodide is calculated as the difference between the concentration of iodate in the sample before and after the oxidation. As an application, species of iodine in samples coming from the experimental plants GIRS (Gaseous Iodine Removal by Sprays) of Nuclear Fission Department of the CIEMAT, dedicated to fission products containment studies in nuclear power station, were determined. (Author) 10 refs.

  1. Modelling iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol: Contributions of inorganic and organic iodine chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pechtl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The speciation of iodine in atmospheric aerosol is currently poorly understood. Models predict negligible iodide concentrations but accumulation of iodate in aerosol, both of which is not confirmed by recent measurements. We present an updated aqueous phase iodine chemistry scheme for use in atmospheric chemistry models and discuss sensitivity studies with the marine boundary layer model MISTRA. These studies show that iodate can be reduced in acidic aerosol by inorganic reactions, i.e., iodate does not necessarily accumulate in particles. Furthermore, the transformation of particulate iodide to volatile iodine species likely has been overestimated in previous model studies due to negligence of collision-induced upper limits for the reaction rates. However, inorganic reaction cycles still do not seem to be sufficient to reproduce the observed range of iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol. Therefore, we also investigate the effects of the recently suggested reaction of HOI with dissolved organic matter to produce iodide. If this reaction is fast enough to compete with the inorganic mechanism, it would not only directly lead to enhanced iodide concentrations but, indirectly via speed-up of the inorganic iodate reduction cycles, also to a decrease in iodate concentrations. Hence, according to our model studies, organic iodine chemistry, combined with inorganic reaction cycles, is able to reproduce observations. The presented chemistry cycles are highly dependent on pH and thus offer an explanation for the large observed variability of the iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol.

  2. HIGH YIELD AND RAPID SYNTHESES METHODS FOR PRODUCING METALLO-ORGANIC SALTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    A new method for preparing salts of metal cations and organic acids, especially divalent salts of alkaline earth metal ions from group II of the periodic system and carboxylic acids. The method comprising the use of a high temperature (about 90° or more) and, optionally. high pressure, in order...... to obtain a higher yield, purity and faster reaction speed than obtained with known synthesis methods. In particular, the present invention relates to the production of strontium salts of carboxylic acids. Novel strontium salts are also provided by the present method....

  3. Hydrological methods preferentially recover cesium from nuclear waste salt cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooke, J.N.; Hamm, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is treating high level radioactive waste in the form of insoluble solids (sludge), crystallized salt (salt cake), and salt solutions. High costs and operational concerns have prompted DOE to look for ways to improve the salt cake treatment process. A numerical model was developed to evaluate the feasibility of pump and treat technology for extracting cesium from salt cake. A modified version of the VAM3DCG code was used to first establish a steady-state flow field, then to simulate 30 days of operation. Simulation results suggest that efficient cesium extraction can be obtained with low displacement volumes. The actual extraction process will probably be less impressive because of nonuniform properties. 2 refs., 2 figs

  4. A review of salt transport in porous media : assessment methods and salt reduction treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawdy - Heritage, A.M.; Heritage, A.; Pel, L.

    2008-01-01

    It is an unpalatable fact that while objects can deteriorate through lack of care and attention, they can also deteriorate as a result of inappropriate and misguided interventions. This is particularly the case with regard to salt-related deterioration problems. A successful treatment outcome using

  5. Synthesis and characterization of polyacrylamide zirconium (IV iodate ion-exchanger: Its application for selective removal of lead (II from wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafisur Rahman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylamide zirconium (IV iodate was synthesized using the sol–gel technique. The synthesis conditions such as reactant concentrations and temperature were changed to optimize the ion exchange properties of the hybrid organic–inorganic ion exchange material. Zirconium oxychloride (0.1 M was added to 0.1 M potassium iodate in the presence of 0.4 M acrylamide and heated at 70 °C for 6 h to yield the polyacrylamide zirconium (IV iodate with maximum capacity. The ion exchange capacity was found to be 3.27 meq/g for Pb(II. The hybrid material has been characterized on the basis of chemical composition FTIR, XRD, TGA-DTA, SEM and EDX studies. Sorption studies showed that the hybrid cation exchanger has a high selectivity to Pb(II in comparison to other metal ions. Its selectivity was evaluated by performing some important binary separations like Hg(II–Pb(II, Cu(II–Pb(II, Ni(II–Pb(II, Fe(III–Pb(II and Cd(II–Pb(II. In addition, the selective separation of Pb(II was also achieved from a synthetic mixture containing a large number of metal ions with a recovery of ∼98.5%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the selective removal of Pb(II from wastewater samples.

  6. A Facile Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Iodate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2006-12-06

    Dec 6, 2006 ... 8 V. Olgasi, P. Hedrich, J. Marta, D.P. Dejan, Glas. Hem. Drus, Beugrad,. 1971, 44, 567–569. 9 Y.M. Temerk, M.E. Ahmed and M.M. Kamal, Fresenius J. Anal Chim.,. 1980, 30, 414–417. 10 A.F. Gutierrez, A.M. Pena and J.A. Murillo, Anal. Lett., 1983, 16,. 759–762. 11 J.H. Mendez, M.A. Alonso, A. Parra, M.J. ...

  7. Nano-scale islands of ruthenium oxide as an electrochemical sensor for iodate and periodate determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatraei, Fatemeh; Zare, Hamid R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a promising electrochemical sensor was fabricated by the electrodeposition of nano-scale islands of ruthenium oxide (ruthenium oxide nanoparticles, RuON) on a glassy carbon electrode (RuON–GCE). Then, the electrocatalytic oxidation of iodate and periodate was investigated on it, using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and amperometry as diagnostic techniques. The charge transfer coefficient, α, and the charge transfer rate constant, k s , for electron transfer between RuON and GCE were calculated as 0.5 ± 0.03 and 9.0 ± 0.7 s −1 respectively. A comparison of the data obtained from the electrocatalytic reduction of iodate and periodate at a bare GCE (BGCE) and RuON–GCE clearly shows that the unique electronic properties of nanoparticles definitely improve the characteristics of iodate and periodate electrocatalytic reduction. The kinetic parameters such as the electron transfer coefficient, α, and the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant, k′, for the reduction of iodate and periodate at RuON–GCE surface were determined using cyclic voltammetry. Amperometry revealed a good linear relationship between the peak current and the concentration of iodate and periodate. The detection limits of 0.9 and 0.2 μM were calculated for iodate and periodate respectively. Highlights: ► Ruthenium oxide nanoparticles, RuON, were used for electrocatalytic reduction iodate and periodate. ► Formal potential, E 0 ′, of the surface redox couple of RuON is pH-dependent. ► The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant values between both analytes and RuON were calculated.

  8. Improvement of seawater salt quality by hydro-extraction and re-crystallization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumada, K.; Dewati, R.; Suprihatin

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia is one of the salt producing countries that use sea water as a source of raw materials, the quality of salt produced is influenced by the quality of sea water. The resulting average salt quality contains 85-90% NaCl. The Indonesian National Standard (SNI) for human salt’s consumption sodium chloride content is 94.7 % (dry base) and for industrial salt 98,5 %. In this study developed the re-crystallization without chemical and hydro-extraction method. The objective of this research to choose the best methods based on efficiency. The results showed that re-crystallization method can produce salt with NaCl content 99,21%, while hydro-extraction method content 99,34 % NaCl. The salt produced through both methods can be used as a consumption and industrial salt, Hydro-extraction method is more efficient than re-crystallization method because re-crystallization method requires heat energy.

  9. Development of a method for controlling salt and sodium use during meal preparation for food services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Barbosa Frantz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study developed a method for controlling the amount of salt and sodium during food preparation, Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation for food services based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points principles. METHODS: The method was conceived and perfected during a study case in a commercial food service located in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data were collected from technical cards, recipes and measurements during food preparation. The preparations were monitored and compared with criteria about the use of salt and sodium found in the literature. Critical control points were identified and corrective measures were proposed. RESULTS: The result was a method consisting of 9 stages: (1 determination of the sodium content in the ingredients; (2 and 3 analysis of menu planning and sodium content; (4 follow-up of food preparation; (5 estimate of the amount of sodium used in the preparations; (6 and 7 selection and following of the preparations with average- and high-sodium content; (8 definition of the critical points and establishment of corrective actions for the use of salt and sodium; and (9 creation of recommendations for the use of salt and sodium. CONCLUSION: The Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation may contribute to global discussions regarding the reduction of salt and sodium intakes and collaborate for the supply of nutritionally and sensorially appropriate meals with respect to salt and sodium content. It may also help to prevent non-communicable chronic diseases.

  10. Investigation of iodine liberation process in redox titration of potassium iodate with sodium thiosulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakai, Toshiaki, E-mail: t-asakai@aist.go.jp [National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 3-9, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563 (Japan); Hioki, Akiharu [National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 3-9, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563 (Japan)

    2011-03-09

    Potassium iodate is often used as a reference material to standardize a sodium thiosulfate solution which is a familiar titrant for redox titrations. In the standardization, iodine (triiodide) liberated by potassium iodate in an acidic potassium iodide solution is titrated with a sodium thiosulfate solution. The iodine liberation process is significantly affected by the amount of acid, that of potassium iodide added, the waiting time for the liberation, and light; therefore, the process plays a key role for the accuracy of the titration results. Constant-voltage biamperometry with a modified dual platinum-chip electrode was utilized to monitor the amount of liberated iodine under several liberation conditions. Coulometric titration was utilized to determine the concentration of a sodium thiosulfate solution on an absolute basis. Potassium iodate was assayed by gravimetric titration with the sodium thiosulfate solution under several iodine liberation conditions. The liberation process was discussed from the changes in the apparent assay of potassium iodate. The information of the appropriate titration procedure obtained in the present study is useful for any analysts utilizing potassium iodate to standardize a thiosulfate solution.

  11. Investigation of iodine liberation process in redox titration of potassium iodate with sodium thiosulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakai, Toshiaki; Hioki, Akiharu

    2011-01-01

    Potassium iodate is often used as a reference material to standardize a sodium thiosulfate solution which is a familiar titrant for redox titrations. In the standardization, iodine (triiodide) liberated by potassium iodate in an acidic potassium iodide solution is titrated with a sodium thiosulfate solution. The iodine liberation process is significantly affected by the amount of acid, that of potassium iodide added, the waiting time for the liberation, and light; therefore, the process plays a key role for the accuracy of the titration results. Constant-voltage biamperometry with a modified dual platinum-chip electrode was utilized to monitor the amount of liberated iodine under several liberation conditions. Coulometric titration was utilized to determine the concentration of a sodium thiosulfate solution on an absolute basis. Potassium iodate was assayed by gravimetric titration with the sodium thiosulfate solution under several iodine liberation conditions. The liberation process was discussed from the changes in the apparent assay of potassium iodate. The information of the appropriate titration procedure obtained in the present study is useful for any analysts utilizing potassium iodate to standardize a thiosulfate solution.

  12. Creep in rock salt with temperature. Testing methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, J.P.; Berest, P.

    1985-01-01

    The growing interest shown in the delayed behaviour of rocks at elevated temperature has led the Solid Mechanics Laboratory to develop specific equipment designed for creep tests. The design and dimensioning of these units offer the possibility of investigating a wide range of materials. The article describes the test facilities used (uni-axial and tri-axial creep units) and presents the experimental results obtained on samples of Bresse salt [fr

  13. Salt intake and the validity of a salt intake assessment system based on a 24-h dietary recall method in pregnant Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Michihiro; Tanno, Yumi; Hosaka, Miki; Metoki, Hirohito; Obara, Taku; Asayama, Kei; Hoshi, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Masakuni; Mano, Nariyasu; Imai, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Information regarding salt intake in pregnant women in Japan is limited. An electronic system for the assessment of salt intake using a 24-h dietary recall method has been developed in Japan. The objectives of the present study were to investigate salt intake in pregnant women and to compare the salt intake estimated by the electronic salt intake assessment system with that measured by 24-h urinary salt excretion (24-hUNaCl). Data were collected on 24-hUNaCl and salt intake estimated by the salt intake assessment system for 35 pregnant Japanese women at approximately 20 weeks of gestation. The adjusted 24-hUNaCl (24-hUNaCl/[the number of urinations during the examination day--the number of missing urine collections] × the number of urinations during the examination day, g/day) was used as a standard. The mean adjusted 24-hUNaCl was 7.7 ± 2.5 g/day, and mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure values were 106.1 ± 8.6/62.8 ± 6.5 mmHg. The adjusted 24-hUNaCl was significantly correlated with the salt intake estimated by the salt intake assessment system (r = 0.47, p = 0.004). Bland-Altman analysis showed no significant mean difference (adjusted 24-hUNaCl--salt intake estimated by the assessment system = -0.36 g/day, p = 0.4) and no significant proportional bias (p = 0.1). These results suggest that pregnant women in Japan restrict their salt intake, at least when they are being examined for salt intake. They also suggest that repeated use of the described system may be useful in estimating salt intake in pregnant women.

  14. Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Tadafumi.

    1994-01-01

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities

  15. Integration of membrane distillation into traditional salt farming method: Process development and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizam, S.; Bilad, M. R.; Putra, Z. A.

    2017-10-01

    Farmers still practice the traditional salt farming in many regions, particularly in Indonesia. This archaic method not only produces low yield and poor salt quality, it is also laborious. Furthermore, the farming locations typically have poor access to fresh water and are far away from electricity grid, which restrict upgrade to a more advanced technology for salt production. This paper proposes a new concept of salt harvesting method that improves the salt yield and at the same time facilitates recovery of fresh water from seawater. The new concept integrates solar powered membrane distillation (MD) and photovoltaic cells to drive the pumping. We performed basic solar still experiments to quantify the heat flux received by a pond. The data were used as insight for designing the proposed concept, particularly on operational strategy and the most effective way to integrate MD. After the conceptual design had been developed, we formulated mass and energy balance to estimate the performance of the proposed concept. Based on our data and design, it is expected that the system would improve the yield and quality of the salt production, maximizing fresh water harvesting, and eventually provides economical gain for salt farmers hence improving their quality of life. The key performance can only be measured via experiment using gain output ratio as performance indicator, which will be done in a future study.

  16. ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSING TO REDUCE SALT IN MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Tunieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world trends in table salt reduction in meat products contemplate the use of different methods for preservation of taste and consistency in finished products as well as shelf life prolongation. There are several approaches to a sodium chloride reduction in meat products. The paper presents a review of the foreign studies that give evidence of the possibility to maintain quality of traditional meat products produced with the reduced salt content. The studies in the field of salty taste perception established that a decrease in a salt crystal size to 20 µm enabled reducing an amount of added table salt due to an increase in the salty taste intensity in food products. Investigation of the compatibility of different taste directions is also interesting as one of the approaches to a sodium chloride reduction in food products. The use of water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w double emulsions allows controlling a release of encapsulated ingredients (salt, which enables enhancement of salty taste. The other alternative method of technological processing of meat raw material for reducing salt in meat products is the use of high pressure processing. This method has several advantages and allows not only an increase in the salty taste intensity, but also formation of a stable emulsion, an increase in water binding capacity of minced meat and extension of shelf-life.

  17. Iodate and nitrate transformation by Agrobacterium/Rhizobium related strain DVZ35 isolated from contaminated Hanford groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brady D; Ellis, Joshua T; Dodwell, Alex; Eisenhauer, Emalee E R; Saunders, Danielle L; Lee, M Hope

    2018-05-15

    Nitrate and radioiodine ( 129 I) contamination is widespread in groundwater underneath the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site. 129 I, a byproduct of nuclear fission, is of concern due to a 15.7 million year half-life, and toxicity. The Hanford 200 West Area contains plumes covering 4.3 km 2 with average 129 I concentrations of 3.5 pCi/L. Iodate accounts for 70.6% of the iodine present and organo-iodine and iodide make up 25.8% and 3.6%, respectively. Nitrate plumes encompassing the 129 I plumes have a surface area of 16 km 2 averaging 130 mg/L. A nitrate and iodate reducing bacterium closely related to Agrobacterium, strain DVZ35, was isolated from sediment incubated in a 129 I plume. Iodate removal efficiency was 36.3% in transition cultures, and 47.8% in anaerobic cultures. Nitrate (10 mM) was also reduced in the microcosm. When nitrate was spiked into the microcosms, iodate removal efficiency was 84.0% and 69.2% in transition and anaerobic cultures, respectively. Iodate reduction was lacking when nitrate was absent from the growth medium. These data indicate there is simultaneous reduction of nitrate and iodate by DVZ35, and iodate is reduced to iodide. Results provide the scientific basis for combined nitrogen and iodine cycling throughout the Hanford Site. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Methods for producing nanoparticles using palladium salt and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu-Wai; Liang, Hongying

    2015-12-01

    The disclosed subject matter is directed to a method for producing nanoparticles, as well as the nanoparticles produced by this method. In one embodiment, the nanoparticles produced by the disclosed method have a high defect density.

  19. Iodide and iodate sodalites for the long-term storage of iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; Babad, H.

    1979-01-01

    There exist several proposals for the storage of 129 I. None of these propose the use of a mineral with demonstrated geologic stability. The work described in this paper has identified the minerals iodide and iodate sodalites [Na 8 (AlSiO 4 ) 6 I 2 /(IO 3 ) 2 ] as good candidates for the long-term storage of 129 I. 4 tables

  20. Immobilization of LiCl-Li 2 O pyroprocessing salt wastes in chlorosodalite using glass-bonded hydrothermal and salt-occlusion methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Peterson, Jacob A.; Kroll, Jared O.; Frank, Steven M.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, salt occlusion and hydrothermal processes were used to make chlorosodalite through reaction with a high-LiCl salt simulating a waste stream following pyrochemical treatment of oxide-based used nuclear fuel. Some products were reacted with glass binders to increase chlorosodalite yield through alkali ion exchange and aide in densification. Hydrothermal processes included reaction of the salt simulant in an acid digestion vessel with either zeolite 4A or sodium aluminate and colloidal silica. Chlorosodalite yields in the crystalline products were nearly complete in the glass-bonded materials at values of 100 mass% for the salt-occlusion method, up to 99.0 mass% for the hydrothermal synthesis with zeolite 4A, and up to 96 mass% for the hydrothermal synthesis with sodium aluminate and colloidal silica. These results show promise for using chemically stable chlorosodalite to immobilize oxide reduction salt wastes.

  1. Immobilization of LiCl-Li2O pyroprocessing salt wastes in chlorosodalite using glass-bonded hydrothermal and salt-occlusion methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Brian J.; Peterson, Jacob A.; Kroll, Jared O.; Frank, Steven M.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, hydrothermal and salt-occlusion processes were used to make chlorosodalite through reactions with a high-LiCl salt simulating a waste stream generated from pyrochemical treatment of oxide-based used nuclear fuel. Some products were reacted with glass binders to increase chlorosodalite yield through alkali ion exchange and to aid in densification. Hydrothermal processes included reaction of the salt simulant in an autoclave with either zeolite 4A or sodium aluminate and colloidal silica. Chlorosodalite yields in the crystalline products were nearly complete in the glass-bonded materials at values of 100 mass% for the salt-occlusion method, up to 99.0 mass% for the hydrothermal synthesis with zeolite 4A, and up to 96 mass% for the hydrothermal synthesis with sodium aluminate and colloidal silica. These results show promise for using chemically stable chlorosodalite to immobilize oxide reduction salt wastes.

  2. Iodate and iodo-trihalomethane formation during chlorination of iodide-containing waters: role of bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criquet, Justine; Allard, Sebastien; Salhi, Elisabeth; Joll, Cynthia A; Heitz, Anna; von Gunten, Urs

    2012-07-03

    The kinetics of iodate formation is a critical factor in mitigation of the formation of potentially toxic and off flavor causing iodoorganic compounds during chlorination. This study demonstrates that the formation of bromine through the oxidation of bromide by chlorine significantly enhances the oxidation of iodide to iodate in a bromide-catalyzed process. The pH-dependent kinetics revealed species specific rate constants of k(HOBr + IO(-)) = 1.9 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1), k(BrO(-) + IO(-)) = 1.8 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1), and k(HOBr + HOI) < 1 M(-1) s(-1). The kinetics and the yield of iodate formation in natural waters depend mainly on the naturally occurring bromide and the type and concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM). The process of free chlorine exposure followed by ammonia addition revealed that the formation of iodo-trihalomethanes (I-THMs), especially iodoform, was greatly reduced by an increase of free chlorine exposure and an increase of the Br(-)/I(-) ratio. In water from the Great Southern River (with a bromide concentration of 200 μg/L), the relative I-incorporation in I-THMs decreased from 18 to 2% when the free chlorine contact time was increased from 2 to 20 min (chlorine dose of 1 mg Cl(2)/L). This observation is inversely correlated with the conversion of iodide to iodate, which increased from 10 to nearly 90%. Increasing bromide concentration also increased the conversion of iodide to iodate: from 45 to nearly 90% with a bromide concentration of 40 and 200 μg/L, respectively, and a prechlorination time of 20 min, while the I-incorporation in I-THMs decreased from 10 to 2%.

  3. Landslides Monitoring on Salt Deposits Using Geophysical Methods, Case study - Slanic Prahova, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovidiu, Avram; Rusu, Emil; Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Ulmeanu, Antonio; Scutelnicu, Ioan; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2017-12-01

    Electrometry is most frequently applied geophysical method to examine dynamical phenomena related to the massive salt presence due to resistivity contrasts between salt, salt breccia and geological covering formations. On the vertical resistivity sections obtained with VES devices these three compartments are clearly differentiates by high resistivity for the massive salt, very low for salt breccia and variable for geological covering formations. When the land surface is inclined, shallow formations are moving gravitationally on the salt back, producing a landslide. Landslide monitoring involves repeated periodically measurements of geoelectrical profiles into a grid covering the slippery surface, in the same conditions (climate, electrodes position, instrument and measurement parameters). The purpose of monitoring landslides in Slanic Prahova area, was to detect the changes in resistivity distribution profiles to superior part of subsoil measured in 2014 and 2015. Measurement grid include several representative cross sections in susceptibility to landslides point of view. The results are graphically represented by changing the distribution of topography and resistivity differences between the two sets of geophysical measurements.

  4. Innovative method and apparatus for the deep cleaning of soluble salts from mortars and lithic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggero, Laura; Ferretti, Maurizio; Torrielli, Giulia; Caratto, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    Porous materials (e.g. plasters, mortars, concrete, and the like) used in the building industry or in artworks fail to develop, after their genesis, salts such as nitrates, carbonates (e.g. potassium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, calcium carbonate), chlorides (e.g. sodium chloride) and/or others, which are a concurrent cause of material deterioration phenomena. In the case of ancient or cultural heritage buildings, severe damage to structures and works of art, such as fresco paintings are possible. In general, in situ alteration pattern in mortars and frescoes by crystallization of soluble salts from solutions is caused by capillar rise or circulation in damp walls. Older buildings can be more subject to capillary rise of ion-rich waters, which, as water evaporates, create salt crystals inside the walls. If this pattern reveals overwhelming upon other environmental decay factors, the extraction of salts is the first restoration to recover the artpiece after the preliminary assessment and mitigation of the causes of soaking. A new method and apparatus, patented by University of Genoa [1] improves the quality and durability of decontamination by soluble salts, compared with conventional application of sepiolite or cellulose wraps. The conventional application of cellulose or sepiolite requires casting a more or less thick layer of wrap on the mortar, soaking with distilled water, and waiting until dry. The soluble salts result trapped within the wrap. A set of artificial samples reproducing the stratigraphy of frescoes was contaminated with saline solution of known concentration. The higher quality of the extraction was demonstrated by trapping the salts within layers of Japanese paper juxtaposed to the mortar; the extraction with the dedicated apparatus was operated in a significantly shorter time than with wraps (some hours vs. several days). Two cycles of about 15 minutes are effective in the deep cleaning from contaminant salts. The decontamination was

  5. Salt-stone Oxidation Study: Leaching Method - 13092

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.; Stefanko, D.B.; Burns, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    form, i.e., Cr +6 was detected in the top 15 to 20 mm of the sample spiked with 1000 mg/kg Cr. Below about 20 mm, the Cr concentrations in leachates were below the detection limit (< 0.010 mg/L) which indicates that the oxidation as the result of exposure to air was limited to the top 20 mm of the sample after exposure for 129 days and that the bulk of the waste form was not affected, i.e., the Cr was stabilized and insoluble. For samples cured in the laboratory, leachable Cr was detected in the top 8 mm of the Cr 1000 sample cured in the laboratory for 37 days. Between 8 and 14 mm, the concentration Cr in the leachate dropped by a factor of about 20 to just above the detection limit. These depth of penetration results indicate that the rate of advancement of the oxidation front for samples spiked with 1000 mg/kg Cr cured under 'field conditions' for 129 days is less than that for the sample cured in the laboratory for 37 days, i.e., 0.156 and 0.216 mm/day, respectively. Additional data are presented for samples spiked with 500 and 20 mg/kg Cr. In summary, cementitious waste forms are porous solids with a network of interconnected pores ranging in diameter from 10 E-10 m to greater than a few mm. The oxidation process is assumed to occur as the result of oxygen transport through the interconnected porosity which may be filled with air, aqueous salt solution, or both. Upon oxidation, the Cr becomes soluble and can be transported in solution through aqueous pore fluid or leachate. (authors)

  6. Salt-stone Oxidation Study: Leaching Method - 13092

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.A.; Stefanko, D.B.; Burns, H.H. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Remediation, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    under field conditions, leachable Cr (assumed to be the oxidized form, i.e., Cr{sup +6} was detected in the top 15 to 20 mm of the sample spiked with 1000 mg/kg Cr. Below about 20 mm, the Cr concentrations in leachates were below the detection limit (< 0.010 mg/L) which indicates that the oxidation as the result of exposure to air was limited to the top 20 mm of the sample after exposure for 129 days and that the bulk of the waste form was not affected, i.e., the Cr was stabilized and insoluble. For samples cured in the laboratory, leachable Cr was detected in the top 8 mm of the Cr 1000 sample cured in the laboratory for 37 days. Between 8 and 14 mm, the concentration Cr in the leachate dropped by a factor of about 20 to just above the detection limit. These depth of penetration results indicate that the rate of advancement of the oxidation front for samples spiked with 1000 mg/kg Cr cured under 'field conditions' for 129 days is less than that for the sample cured in the laboratory for 37 days, i.e., 0.156 and 0.216 mm/day, respectively. Additional data are presented for samples spiked with 500 and 20 mg/kg Cr. In summary, cementitious waste forms are porous solids with a network of interconnected pores ranging in diameter from 10 E-10 m to greater than a few mm. The oxidation process is assumed to occur as the result of oxygen transport through the interconnected porosity which may be filled with air, aqueous salt solution, or both. Upon oxidation, the Cr becomes soluble and can be transported in solution through aqueous pore fluid or leachate. (authors)

  7. A Simple Halide-to-Anion Exchange Method for Heteroaromatic Salts and Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Mesquida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A broad and simple method permitted halide ions in quaternary heteroaromatic and ammonium salts to be exchanged for a variety of anions using an anion exchange resin (A− form in non-aqueous media. The anion loading of the AER (OH− form was examined using two different anion sources, acids or ammonium salts, and changing the polarity of the solvents. The AER (A− form method in organic solvents was then applied to several quaternary heteroaromatic salts and ILs, and the anion exchange proceeded in excellent to quantitative yields, concomitantly removing halide impurities. Relying on the hydrophobicity of the targeted ion pair for the counteranion swap, organic solvents with variable polarity were used, such as CH3OH, CH3CN and the dipolar nonhydroxylic solvent mixture CH3CN:CH2Cl2 (3:7 and the anion exchange was equally successful with both lipophilic cations and anions.

  8. Engineering Evaluation of Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlberg, Jon A.; Roberts, Kenneth T.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Little, Leslie E.; Brady, Sherman D.

    2009-01-01

    This evaluation was performed by Pro2Serve in accordance with the Technical Specification for an Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (BJC 2009b). The evaluators reviewed the Engineering Evaluation Work Plan for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Residual Salt Removal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2008). The Work Plan (DOE 2008) involves installing a salt transfer probe and new drain line into the Fuel Drain Tanks and Fuel Flush Tank and connecting them to the new salt transfer line at the drain tank cell shield. The probe is to be inserted through the tank ball valve and the molten salt to the bottom of the tank. The tank would then be pressurized through the Reactive Gas Removal System to force the salt into the salt canisters. The Evaluation Team reviewed the work plan, interviewed site personnel, reviewed numerous documents on the Molten Salt Reactor (Sects. 7 and 8), and inspected the probes planned to be used for the transfer. Based on several concerns identified during this review, the team recommends not proceeding with the salt transfer via the proposed alternate salt transfer method. The major concerns identified during this evaluation are: (1) Structural integrity of the tanks - The main concern is with the corrosion that occurred during the fluorination phase of the uranium removal process. This may also apply to the salt transfer line for the Fuel Flush Tank. Corrosion Associated with Fluorination in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fluoride Volatility Process (Litman 1961) shows that this problem is significant. (2) Continued generation of Fluorine - Although the generation of Fluorine will be at a lower rate than experienced before the uranium removal, it will continue to be generated. This needs to be taken into consideration regardless of what actions are taken with the salt. (3) More than one phase of material

  9. Cloud-point measurement for (sulphate salts + polyethylene glycol 15000 + water) systems by the particle counting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imani, A.; Modarress, H.; Eliassi, A.; Abdous, M.

    2009-01-01

    The phase separation of (water + salt + polyethylene glycol 15000) systems was studied by cloud-point measurements using the particle counting method. The effect of three kinds of sulphate salt (Na 2 SO 4 , K 2 SO 4 , (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ) concentration, polyethylene glycol 15000 concentration, mass ratio of polymer to salt on the cloud-point temperature of these systems have been investigated. The results obtained indicate that the cloud-point temperatures decrease linearly with increase in polyethylene glycol concentrations for different salts. Also, the cloud points decrease with an increase in mass ratio of salt to polymer.

  10. Determination of Iodates using Silver Solid Amalgam Electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Josypčuk, Bohdan; Novotný, Ladislav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 14, 15/16 (2002), s. 1138-1142 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV204/97/K084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : silver solid amalgam electrodes * voltammetry * table salt Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.783, year: 2002

  11. Salt Iodation for Human Consumption in Processing Plants of Zulia State, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Egar; García, Arelis; de Vale, María; Medina, Alberto; Contreras, Mary; Marín, Drucila; Vale, Oswaldo

    2010-01-01

    Con el objetivo de estudiar la concentración de yodo en la sal para consumo humano, se seleccionaron muestras de 70 empaques en cada una de tres plantas. Cuatro tiempos de almacenamiento, to=0 momento en que se seleccionó la muestra, t1= 2 meses, t2 = 4 meses y t3 = 6 meses, y dos temperaturas: ambiente (promedio de 32,7°C) y controlada (promedio de 38,5°C) fueron consideradas. A cada caso, 10 empaques de sal fueron asignados aleatoriamente realizando en cada empaque cinco...

  12. Investigating salt frost scaling by using statistical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2010-01-01

    A large data set comprising data for 118 concrete mixes on mix design, air void structure, and the outcome of freeze/thaw testing according to SS 13 72 44 has been analysed by use of statistical methods. The results show that with regard to mix composition, the most important parameter...

  13. Automated Detection of Salt Marsh Platforms : a Topographic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, G.; Mudd, S. M.; Clubb, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring the topographic evolution of coastal marshes is a crucial step toward improving the management of these valuable landscapes under the pressure of relative sea level rise and anthropogenic modification. However, determining their geometrically complex boundaries currently relies on spectral vegetation detection methods or requires labour-intensive field surveys and digitisation.We propose a novel method to reproducibly isolate saltmarsh scarps and platforms from a DEM. Field observations and numerical models show that saltmarshes mature into sub-horizontal platforms delineated by sub-vertical scarps: based on this premise, we identify scarps as lines of local maxima on a slope*relief raster, then fill landmasses from the scarps upward, thus isolating mature marsh platforms. Non-dimensional search parameters allow batch-processing of data without recalibration. We test our method using lidar-derived DEMs of six saltmarshes in England with varying tidal ranges and geometries, for which topographic platforms were manually isolated from tidal flats. Agreement between manual and automatic segregation exceeds 90% for resolutions of 1m, with all but one sites maintaining this performance for resolutions up to 3.5m. For resolutions of 1m, automatically detected platforms are comparable in surface area and elevation distribution to digitised platforms. We also find that our method allows the accurate detection of local bloc failures 3 times larger than the DEM resolution.Detailed inspection reveals that although tidal creeks were digitised as part of the marsh platform, automatic detection classifies them as part of the tidal flat, causing an increase in false negatives and overall platform perimeter. This suggests our method would benefit from a combination with existing creek detection algorithms. Fallen blocs and pioneer zones are inconsistently identified, particularly in macro-tidal marshes, leading to differences between digitisation and the automated method

  14. FUSED SALT METHOD FOR COATING URANIUM WITH A METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubank, L.D.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for coating uranium with a less active metal such as Cr, Ni, or Cu comprising immersing the U in a substantially anhydrous molten solution of a halide of these less active metals in a ternary chloride composition which consists of selected percentages of KCl, NaCl and another chloride such as LiCl or CaCl/sub 2/.

  15. ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSING TO REDUCE SALT IN MEAT PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    E. K. Tunieva; N. A. Gorbunova

    2017-01-01

    The world trends in table salt reduction in meat products contemplate the use of different methods for preservation of taste and consistency in finished products as well as shelf life prolongation. There are several approaches to a sodium chloride reduction in meat products. The paper presents a review of the foreign studies that give evidence of the possibility to maintain quality of traditional meat products produced with the reduced salt content. The studies in the field of salty taste percep...

  16. [Comparison of dietary survey, frequency and 24 hour urinary Na methods in evaluation of salt intake in the population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhong; Lu, Zilong; Yan, Liuxia; Zhang, Jiyu; Tang, Junli; Cai, Xiaoning; Guo, Xiaolei; Ma, Jixiang; Xu, Aiqiang

    2014-12-01

    To compare the difference and correlation between dietary salt intakes assessed by 24 hours urinary Na method, food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire method. All 2 184 subjects aged 18 to 69 were selected by multi stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Shandong province in June to September, 2011. Dietary salt intakes were measured by 24 hours urinary Na method, food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire method. The information on gender, age, dining locations and labour intensity of members dining at home for 3 days were recorded. And the dietary habits were surveyed by questionnaire. Salt intakes were 14.0, 12.0 and 10.5 g/d assessed by 24 hours urinary Na method, food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire, respectively. Comparing with 24 hours urinary Na method, salt intakes assessed by food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire method were 2.0 g (14.3% undervalued) and 3.4 g (24.3% undervalued) less, respectively. Comparing with 24 hours urinary Na method, the proportion of individuals with salt intake over-reported and under-reported were 42.4% (856/2 020) and 55.3% (1 117/2 020) by food weighted record method, and were 20.7% (418/2 020) and 16.3% (329/2 020) by food frequency questionnaire method, respectively; the proportion of individuals with salt intakes within ± 25% of 24 hours urinary Na method were 36.9% (745/2 020) and 28.4% (574/2 020), respectively. Salt intakes assessed by 24 hours urinary method correlated significantly with both salt intakes assessed by food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire method; the correlation coefficients were 0.13 and 0.07, respectively. With the increasing of salt intakes by subjects' self-judgment, salt intakes were all rising significantly using three survey methods. Salt intakes of three group population of light, moderate and partial taste salty were 13.6, 13.6 and 14.7 g/d by 24 hours urinary Na method (F

  17. The effects of pre-salting methods on salt and water distribution of heavily salted cod, as analyzed by 1H and 23Na MRI, 23Na NMR, low-field NMR and physicochemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðjónsdóttir, María; Traoré, Amidou; Jónsson, Ásbjörn

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different pre-salting methods (brine injection with salt with/without polyphosphates, brining and pickling) on the water and salt distribution in dry salted Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fillets was studied with proton and sodium NMR and MRI methods, supported by physicochemical analy...

  18. Radiochemical study of the sorption of iodate ions on iron(III) hydroxide precipitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Sipalo-Zuljevic, J.; Wolf, R.H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The sorption of iodate ions on iron(III) hydroxide in dependence on the pH, the aging time of the precipitate and the duration of the contact between the sorbate and the sorbent have been studied. Na 131 IO 3 was used as a radioactive indicator. The sorption mechanism has been discussed in terms of electrostatic and ion-exchange processes at the solid/liquid interface. (author)

  19. Surface functionalization of cyclic olefin copolymer with aryldiazonium salts: A covalent grafting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisset, Florian; Vieillard, Julien; Berton, Benjamin; Morin-Grognet, Sandrine; Duclairoir-Poc, Cécile; Le Derf, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An effective method to modify cyclic olefin copolymer surface. • The surface of COC was modified by covalent grafting of aryl diazonium salts. • The wettability of COC surface was modulated by diazonium salts. • Photoinitiation and chemical reduction have to be combined to graft diazonium salt on COC surface. - Abstract: Covalent immobilization of biomolecules on the surface of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is still a tough challenge. We developed a robust method for COC surface grafting through reaction with aryldiazonium. Chemical diazonium reduction generated an aryl radical and the formation of a grafted film layer on the organic surface. We also demonstrated that the chemical reduction of diazonium salt was not sufficient to form a film on the COC surface. UV illumination had to be combined with chemical reduction to graft an aryl layer onto the COC surface. We optimized organic film deposition by using different chemical reducers, different reaction times and reagent proportions. We characterized surface modifications by fluorescence microscopy and contact angle measurements, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, and assessed the topography of the aryl film by atomic force microscopy. This original strategy allowed us to evidence various organic functions to graft biomolecules onto COC surfaces with a fast and efficient technique

  20. Surface functionalization of cyclic olefin copolymer with aryldiazonium salts: A covalent grafting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisset, Florian, E-mail: florian.brisset@etu.univ-rouen.fr [UMR CNRS 6014 COBRA, FR 3038, Université de Rouen, 55 rue Saint Germain, 27000 Evreux (France); Vieillard, Julien, E-mail: julien.vieillard@univ-rouen.fr [UMR CNRS 6014 COBRA, FR 3038, Université de Rouen, 55 rue Saint Germain, 27000 Evreux (France); Berton, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.berton@univ-rouen.fr [EA 3233 SMS, Université de Rouen, 1 rue du 7ème Chasseurs, BP281, 27002 Evreux Cedex (France); Morin-Grognet, Sandrine, E-mail: sandrine.morin@univ-rouen.fr [EA 3829 MERCI, Université de Rouen, 1 rue du 7ème Chasseurs, BP281, 27002 Evreux Cedex (France); Duclairoir-Poc, Cécile, E-mail: cecile.duclairoir@univ-rouen.fr [EA 4312 LMSM, Université de Rouen, 55 rue Saint Germain, 27000 Evreux (France); Le Derf, Franck, E-mail: franck.lederf@univ-rouen.fr [UMR CNRS 6014 COBRA, FR 3038, Université de Rouen, 55 rue Saint Germain, 27000 Evreux (France)

    2015-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An effective method to modify cyclic olefin copolymer surface. • The surface of COC was modified by covalent grafting of aryl diazonium salts. • The wettability of COC surface was modulated by diazonium salts. • Photoinitiation and chemical reduction have to be combined to graft diazonium salt on COC surface. - Abstract: Covalent immobilization of biomolecules on the surface of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is still a tough challenge. We developed a robust method for COC surface grafting through reaction with aryldiazonium. Chemical diazonium reduction generated an aryl radical and the formation of a grafted film layer on the organic surface. We also demonstrated that the chemical reduction of diazonium salt was not sufficient to form a film on the COC surface. UV illumination had to be combined with chemical reduction to graft an aryl layer onto the COC surface. We optimized organic film deposition by using different chemical reducers, different reaction times and reagent proportions. We characterized surface modifications by fluorescence microscopy and contact angle measurements, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, and assessed the topography of the aryl film by atomic force microscopy. This original strategy allowed us to evidence various organic functions to graft biomolecules onto COC surfaces with a fast and efficient technique.

  1. Accuracy analysis of the thermal diffusivity measurement of molten salts by stepwise heating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yoshio; Furukawa, Kazuo

    1976-11-01

    The stepwise heating method for measuring thermal diffusivity of molten salts is based on the electrical heating of a thin metal plate as a plane heat source in the molten salt. In this method, the following estimations on error are of importance: (1) thickness effect of the metal plate, (2) effective length between the plate and a temperature measuring point and (3) effect of the noise on the temperature rise signal. In this report, a measuring apparatus is proposed and measuring conditions are suggested on the basis of error estimations. The measurements for distilled water and glycerine were made first to test the performance; the results agreed well with standard values. The thermal diffusivities of molten NaNO 3 at 320-380 0 C and of molten Li 2 BeF 4 at 470-700 0 C were measured. (auth.)

  2. Investigation of Climate Change Impact on Salt Lake by Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Orhan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to investigate climate change impact that have been occurred on Salt Lake located in the central Anatolia is one of the area that has been faced to extinction. In order to monitor current status of the Salt Lake, Landsat satellite images has been obtained between the year of 2000 and 2014 (for the months of February, May, August and November. Satellite images has been processed by using ArcGIS and ERDAS softwares and the water surface area has been determined. The time series of water surface areas has been analyzed with auto-correlation method and repeated pattern has been detected. The seasonal part of the time series which period is 1 year and causes about 400 km² fluctuations has been removed with Moving Average filter, successfully. As a result of filtration process, non-seasonal time series of water surface area of Salt Lake were obtained. It is understood from the non-seasonal time series that the water surface area showed variability between 2000 and 2010 and after 2010 it is stable until 2014. In order to explain the variability, meteorological data (precipitation and temperature of the surrounding area has been acquired from the related service. The cross-correlation analyses has been performed with the movement of the water surface area and meteorological time series. As a result of analysis, the relationship between water surface changes in Salt Lake and meteorological data have correlated up to 80%. Consequently, several conclusion have been detected that the topography of the region play a direct role of the correlation coefficients and the water surface changes are effected from the environmental events that is occurred in the south of Salt Lake sub-Basin.

  3. Case studies of sealing methods and materials used in the salt and potash mining industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyermann, T.J.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Hansen, F.D.

    1995-11-01

    Sealing methods and materials currently used in salt and potash industries were surveyed to determine if systems analogous to the shaft seal design proposed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) exist. Emphasis was first given to concrete and then expanded to include other materials. Representative case studies could provide useful design, construction, and performance information for development of the WIPP shaft seal system design. This report contains a summary of engineering and construction details of various sealing methods used by mining industries for bulkheads and shaft liners. Industrial experience, as determined from site visits and literature reviews, provides few examples of bulkheads built in salt and potash mines for control of water. Sealing experiences representing site-specific conditions often have little engineering design to back up the methods employed and even less quantitative evaluation of seal performance. Cases examined include successes and failures, and both contribute to a database of experiences. Mass salt-saturated concrete placement under ground was accomplished under several varied conditions. Information derived from this database has been used to assess the performance of concrete as a seal material. Concrete appears to be a robust material with successes in several case studies. 42 refs

  4. Case studies of sealing methods and materials used in the salt and potash mining industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyermann, T.J.; Sambeek, L.L. Van [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

    1995-11-01

    Sealing methods and materials currently used in salt and potash industries were surveyed to determine if systems analogous to the shaft seal design proposed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) exist. Emphasis was first given to concrete and then expanded to include other materials. Representative case studies could provide useful design, construction, and performance information for development of the WIPP shaft seal system design. This report contains a summary of engineering and construction details of various sealing methods used by mining industries for bulkheads and shaft liners. Industrial experience, as determined from site visits and literature reviews, provides few examples of bulkheads built in salt and potash mines for control of water. Sealing experiences representing site-specific conditions often have little engineering design to back up the methods employed and even less quantitative evaluation of seal performance. Cases examined include successes and failures, and both contribute to a database of experiences. Mass salt-saturated concrete placement under ground was accomplished under several varied conditions. Information derived from this database has been used to assess the performance of concrete as a seal material. Concrete appears to be a robust material with successes in several case studies. 42 refs.

  5. Low temperature synthesis & characterization of lead-free BCZT ceramics using molten salt method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jai Shree, K.; Chandrakala, E.; Das, Dibakar

    2018-04-01

    Piezoelectric properties are greatly influenced by the synthesis route, microstructure, stoichiometry of the chemical composition, purity of the starting materials. In this study, molten salt method was used to prepare lead-free BCZT ceramics. Molten salt method is one of the simplestmethods to prepare chemically-purified, single phase powders in high yield often at lower temperatures and shorten reaction time. Calcination of the molten salt synthesized powders resulted in asingle-phase perovskite structure at 1000 °C which is ˜ 350 °C less than the conventional solid-sate reaction method. With increasing calcination temperature the average template size was increased (˜ 0.5-2 µm). Formation of well dispersive templates improves the sinterability at lower temperatures. Lead-free BCZT ceramics sintered at 1500 °C for 2 h resulted in homogenous and highly dense microstructure with ˜92% of the theoretical density and a grain size of ˜ 35 µm. This highly dense microstructure could enhance the piezoelectric properties of the system.

  6. Importance of Microbial Activity On Groundwater Iodate and Organo-Iodine Speciation and Mobility At Two DOE Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santschi, Peter H. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Xu, Chen [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Schwehr, Kathleen A. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Kaplan, Daniel I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Yeager, Chris M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    Iodine (I) occurs in multiple oxidation states in aquatic systems in the form of organic and inorganic species (iodide and iodate). This fact leads to complex biogeochemical cycling of Iodine and its long-lived isotope, 129I, a major by-product of nuclear fission. Results from our newly developed, sensitive and rapid method for speciated isotopic ratios (129I/127I) via GC-MS, which compare favorably with Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy, demonstrate that the mobility of 129I species greatly depends on the type of I species and its concentration, pH, and sediment redox state. At ambient concentrations (~107 M), I- and IO-3 are significantly retarded by sorption to mineral surfaces and covalent binding to aromatic moieties in natural organic matter (NOM), even when NOM is present at low concentrations such as occur at Hanford. At concentrations traditionally examined in sorption studies (≥ 10-4 M), I- travels along with the water. Iodate removal can also occur through incorporation into CaCO3 crystal lattice, e.g., at the Hanford Site. Removal of iodine from the groundwater through interaction with NOM is complicated by the release of mobile organo-I species, as was observed at SRS and Hanford. A small fraction of NOM that is bound to iodine can behave as a mobile organo-I source, a process that we were able to numerically simulate. Field and laboratory studies evaluating the cause for steady increases in 129I concentrations (up to 1000 pCi L-1) emanating from radiological basins at SRS indicate that an increase of 0.7 pH units in groundwater over 17 years can account for the observed increased groundwater 129I concentrations. Bacteria from a 129I-contaminated aerobic aquifer at the F-area of SRS can accumulate I- at environmentally relevant concentrations (10-7 M), and enzymatically oxidize I-, which together with microbially produced Mn

  7. A method for polymerizing insaturated monomers through irradiation in the presence of a salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phalangas, C.J.; Restaino, A.J.; Yun, Hanbo.

    1975-01-01

    The method consists in irradiating an aqueous solution with a pH between about 2 and 12, comprising from 10 to 40% about an ethylene-insaturated monomer or of mixtures thereof with vinyl-sulfonic acid, an alkaline metal salt of said acid or acrylamide diacetone and at least 3% of a potassium, sodium, lithium, ammonium or aluminium salt, by means of highly powerful radiations, e.g. gamma rays, the radiation intensity being between 1000 and 200000 rads per hour and the overall radiation dose being in the 1000-30000 rads. The obtained product is a polymer aqueous solution either in the liquid state or in the form of a gel [fr

  8. A simple, rapid method to isolate salt glands for three-dimensional visualization, fluorescence imaging and cytological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Tit-Meng

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some plants inhabiting saline environment remove salts via the salt glands embedded in the epidermal tissues. Cytological studies of salt glands will provide valuable information to our understanding of the secretory process. Previous studies on salt gland histology relied mainly on two-dimensional microscopic observations of microtome sections. Optical sectioning properties of confocal laser scanning microscope offer alternative approach for obtaining three-dimensional structural information of salt glands. Difficulty in light penetration through intact leaves and interference from neighbouring leaf cells, however, impede the acquiring of good optical salt gland sections and limit its applications in salt gland imaging. Freeing the glands from adjacent leaf tissues will allow better manipulations for three-dimensional imaging through confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results Here, we present a simple and fast method for the isolation of individual salt glands released from the interference of neighbouring cells. About 100-200 salt glands could be isolated from just one cm2 of Avicennia officinalis leaf within hours and microscopic visualization of isolated salt glands was made possible within a day. Using these isolated glands, confocal laser scanning microscopic techniques could be applied and better resolution salt gland images could be achieved. By making use of their intrinsic fluorescent properties, optical sections of the gland cells could be acquired without the use of fluorescent probes and the corresponding three-dimensional images constructed. Useful cytological information of the salt gland cells could also be obtained through the applications of fluorescent dyes (e.g., LysoTracker® Red, FM®4-64, Texas Red®. Conclusions The study of salt glands directly at the glandular level are made possible with the successful isolation of these specialized structures. Preparation of materials for subsequent microscopic

  9. saltPAD: A New Analytical Tool for Monitoring Salt Iodization in Low Resource Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M. Myers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We created a paper test card that measures a common iodizing agent, iodate, in salt. To test the analytical metrics, usability, and robustness of the paper test card when it is used in low resource settings, the South African Medical Research Council and GroundWork performed independ‐ ent validation studies of the device. The accuracy and precision metrics from both studies were comparable. In the SAMRC study, more than 90% of the test results (n=1704 were correctly classified as corresponding to adequately or inadequately iodized salt. The cards are suitable for market and household surveys to determine whether salt is adequately iodized. Further development of the cards will improve their utility for monitoring salt iodization during production.

  10. A new method to evaluate the sealing reliability of the flanged connections for Molten Salt Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qiming, E-mail: liqiming@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Tian, Jian; Zhou, Chong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wang, Naxiu, E-mail: wangnaxiu@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We novelly valuate the sealing reliability of the flanged connections for MSRs. • We focus on the passive decrease of the leak impetus in flanged connections. • The modified flanged connections are acquired a sealing ability of self-adjustment. • Effects of redesigned flange configurations on molten salt leakage are discussed. - Abstract: The Thorium based Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) project is a future Generation IV nuclear reactor system proposed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences with the strategic goal of meeting the growing energy needs in the Chinese economic development and social progress. It is based on liquid salts served as both fuel and primary coolant and consequently great challenges are brought into the sealing of the flanged connections. In this study, an improved prototype flange assembly is performed on the strength of the Freeze-Flange initially developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The calculation results of the finite element model established to analyze the temperature profile of the Freeze-Flange agree well with the experimental data, which indicates that the numerical simulation method is credible. For further consideration, the ideal-gas thermodynamic model, together with the mathematical approximation, is novelly borrowed to theoretically evaluate the sealing performance of the modified Freeze-Flange and the traditional double gaskets bolted flange joint. This study focuses on the passive decrease of the leak driving force due to multiple gaskets introduced in flanged connections for MSR. The effects of the redesigned flange configuration on molten salt leakage resistance are discussed in detail.

  11. Methods of characterization of salt formations in view of spent fuel final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconu, Daniela; Balan, Valeriu; Mirion, Ilie

    2002-01-01

    Deep disposal in geological formations of salt, granite and clay seems to be at present the most proper and commonly adopted solution for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuel. Disposing such wastes represents the top-priority issue of the European research community in the field of nuclear power. Although seemingly premature for Romanian power system, the interest for final disposal of spent fuel is justified by the long duration implied by the studies targeting this objective. At the same time these studies represent the Romanian nuclear research contribution in the frame of the efforts of integration within the European research field. Although Romania has not made so far a decision favoring a given geological formation for the final disposal of spent fuel resulting from Cernavoda NPP, the most generally taken into consideration appears the salt formation. The final decision will be made following the evaluation of its performances to spent fuel disposal based on the values of the specific parameters of the geological formation. In order to supply the data required as input parameters in the codes of evaluation of the geological formation performances, the INR Pitesti initiated a package of modern and complex methodologies for such determinations. The studies developed so far followed up the special phenomenon of salt convergence, a phenomenon characteristic for only this kind of rock, as well as the radionuclide migration. These studies allow a better understanding of these processes of upmost importance for disposal's safety. The methods and the experimental installation designed and realized at INR Pitesti aimed at determination of thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, specific heat, which are all parameters of high specific interest for high level radioactive waste or spent fuel disposal. The paper presents the results of these studies as well as the methodologies, the experimental installations and the findings

  12. A new method to evaluate the sealing reliability of the flanged connections for Molten Salt Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qiming; Tian, Jian; Zhou, Chong; Wang, Naxiu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We novelly valuate the sealing reliability of the flanged connections for MSRs. • We focus on the passive decrease of the leak impetus in flanged connections. • The modified flanged connections are acquired a sealing ability of self-adjustment. • Effects of redesigned flange configurations on molten salt leakage are discussed. - Abstract: The Thorium based Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) project is a future Generation IV nuclear reactor system proposed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences with the strategic goal of meeting the growing energy needs in the Chinese economic development and social progress. It is based on liquid salts served as both fuel and primary coolant and consequently great challenges are brought into the sealing of the flanged connections. In this study, an improved prototype flange assembly is performed on the strength of the Freeze-Flange initially developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The calculation results of the finite element model established to analyze the temperature profile of the Freeze-Flange agree well with the experimental data, which indicates that the numerical simulation method is credible. For further consideration, the ideal-gas thermodynamic model, together with the mathematical approximation, is novelly borrowed to theoretically evaluate the sealing performance of the modified Freeze-Flange and the traditional double gaskets bolted flange joint. This study focuses on the passive decrease of the leak driving force due to multiple gaskets introduced in flanged connections for MSR. The effects of the redesigned flange configuration on molten salt leakage resistance are discussed in detail

  13. Intermittent Chaos in the Bray-Liebhafsky Oscillator. Dependence of Dynamic States on the Iodate Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubanja, I. N.; Ivanović-Šašić, A.; Čupić, Ž.; Anić, S.; Kolar-Anić, Lj.

    2017-12-01

    Chaotic dynamic states with intermittent oscillations were generated in a Bray-Liebhafsky (BL) oscillatory reaction in an isothermal open reactor i.e., in the continuously-fed well-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) when the inflow concentration of potassium iodate was the control parameter. They are found between periodic oscillations obtained when [KIO3]0 4.10 × 10-2 M. It was shown that the most chaotic states obtained experimentally somewhere in the middle of this region are in high correlation with results obtained by means of largest Lyapunov exponents and phenomenological analysis based on the quantitative characteristics of intermittent oscillations.

  14. Barium titanate coated with magnesium titanate via fused salt method and its dielectric property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Renzheng; Cui Aili; Wang Xiaohui; Li Longtu

    2003-01-01

    Barium titanate fine particles were coated homogeneously with magnesium titanate via the fused salt method. The thickness of the magnesium titanate film is 20 nm, as verified by TEM and XRD. The mechanism of the coating is that: when magnesium chloride is liquated in 800 deg. C, magnesium will replace barium in barium titanate, and form magnesium titanate film on the surface of barium titanate particles. Ceramics sintered from the coated particles show improved high frequency ability. The dielectric constant is about 130 at the frequency from 1 to 800 MHz

  15. Method for excluding salt and other soluble materials from produced water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Tommy J [Knoxville, TN; Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge, TN; Palumbo, Anthony V [Oak Ridge, TN; Riestenberg, David E [Knoxville, TN; McCallum, Scott D [Knoxville, TN

    2009-08-04

    A method for reducing the salinity, as well as the hydrocarbon concentration of produced water to levels sufficient to meet surface water discharge standards. Pressure vessel and coflow injection technology developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is used to mix produced water and a gas hydrate forming fluid to form a solid or semi-solid gas hydrate mixture. Salts and solids are excluded from the water that becomes a part of the hydrate cage. A three-step process of dissociation of the hydrate results in purified water suitable for irrigation.

  16. A new method of application of hydrated salts on textiles to achieve thermoregulating properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazemi, Zeinab; Mortazavi, Sayed Majid

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • No need to microencapsulate the salt. • New method Glauber's salt dehydration. • Supercooling decreased, heat storage increased. - Abstract: Recently there has been a lot of attention to fibers and fabrics with thermoregulatory effects. We can acquire this quality using Phase Change Materials (PCM). In this investigation a simple method was used to keep Na 2 SO 4 ·10H 2 O as an inorganic PCM on textile structure. By this method it is not necessary for PCMs to be microencapsulated. Thermophysical properties and thermal stability effects of treated fabric was checked out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analysis were used to study the chemical structure of the fabric with PCMs. The air transfer, water permeability, and some physical properties of treated fabric were also investigated. The results showed that, silicone rubber polymer could be applied on textile structure to hold PCM without microencapsulating, and treated textile can be served as an appropriate smart thermal insulator

  17. A new method of application of hydrated salts on textiles to achieve thermoregulating properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazemi, Zeinab; Mortazavi, Sayed Majid, E-mail: mortaza@cc.iut.ac.ir

    2014-08-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • No need to microencapsulate the salt. • New method Glauber's salt dehydration. • Supercooling decreased, heat storage increased. - Abstract: Recently there has been a lot of attention to fibers and fabrics with thermoregulatory effects. We can acquire this quality using Phase Change Materials (PCM). In this investigation a simple method was used to keep Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}·10H{sub 2}O as an inorganic PCM on textile structure. By this method it is not necessary for PCMs to be microencapsulated. Thermophysical properties and thermal stability effects of treated fabric was checked out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analysis were used to study the chemical structure of the fabric with PCMs. The air transfer, water permeability, and some physical properties of treated fabric were also investigated. The results showed that, silicone rubber polymer could be applied on textile structure to hold PCM without microencapsulating, and treated textile can be served as an appropriate smart thermal insulator.

  18. A radioactive tracer dilution method to determine the mass of molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Cao; Jarrell, Josh; Hardtmayer, D.E.; White, Susan; Herminghuysen, Kevin; Kauffman, Andrew; Sanders, Jeff; Li, Shelly

    2017-01-01

    A new technique for molten salt mass determination, termed radioactive tracer dilution, that uses 22 Na as a tracer was validated at bench scale. It has been a challenging problem to determine the mass of molten salt in irregularly shaped containers, where a highly radioactive, high-temperature molten salt was used to process nuclear spent/used fuel during electrochemical recycling (pyro-processing) or for coolant/fuel salt from molten salt reactors. A radioactive source with known activity is dissolved into the salt. After a complete mixture, a small amount of the salt is sampled and measured in terms of its mass and radioactivity. By finding the ratio of the mass to radioactivity, the unknown salt mass in the original container can be precisely determined. (author)

  19. Comparison of salt solution and air drying methods for moisture fixation in highly porous building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonov, Yovko Ivanov; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Møldrup, Per

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, research has identified some bio-based, porous building materials as good or excellent regulators of moisture in buildings. The ability of a material to absorb, release and store moisture is described by vapour sorption isotherms. It is necessary input to simulations of indoor...... building materials by a standardized testing method, using saturated salt solutions. Furthermore, results from the standard method are compared to values of moisture content for the same materials, obtained by air-drying at different relative humidity. This is done with the aim to compare the findings from...... the two methods with respect to time and repeatability of the results. Derived isotherms are further used as direct input in the building simulation software BSim, which is capable of predicting indoor environment parameters by solving coupled, transient heat and moisture transport equations using finite...

  20. Morphology-controlled synthesis of CdWO4 nanorods and nanoparticles via a molten salt method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yonggang; Ma Junfeng; Tao Jiantao; Zhu Xiaoyi; Zhou Jun; Zhao Zhongqiang; Xie Lijin; Tian Hua

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium tungstate (CdWO 4 ) nanoparticles and nanorods have been successfully synthesized by a molten salt method at 270 deg. C, and the morphology of the nanocrystals can be controlled by adjusting such reaction conditions as the calcined time and the weight ratio of the salt to the CdWO 4 precursor. The resultant sample is a pure phase of CdWO 4 without any other impurities

  1. Adsorption of iodide and iodate on colloidal silver surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aiping; Tie Xiaoyun; Zhang Jinzhi; An Yanwei; Li Lingjie

    2008-01-01

    'Chemically pure' silver colloids were prepared by laser ablated method to investigate their adsorption-induced spectral and morphologic changes, using UV-visible absorption, Raman and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, when nucleophilic different anions (IO 3 - and I - ) were added into sols. It reveals that the adsorption of nucleophiles on silver surfaces leads to an excess negative charge in the metal interior and modifies both surface charge density and the Fermi levels of metal, which is responsible for the colloidal aggregation, reconstruction and appearance of new resonance absorption bands or with wavelength shift. In addition, two models regarding different adsorption effects of these two anions on silver surfaces were proposed to explain their variant spectral and TEM phenomena.

  2. Cathodic processes in high-temperature molten salts for the development of new materials processing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwandt, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Molten salts play an important role in the processing of a range of commodity materials. This includes the large-scale production of iron, aluminium, magnesium and alkali metals as well as the refining of nuclear fuel materials. This presentation focuses on two more recent concepts in which the cathodic reactions in molten salt electrolytic cells are used to prepare high-value-added materials. Both were developed and advanced at the Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy at the University of Cambridge and are still actively being pursued. One concept is now generally known as the FFC-Cambridge process. The presentation will highlight the optimisation of the process towards high selectivities for tubes or particles depict a modification of the method to synthesize tin-filled carbon nanomaterial, and illustrate the implementation of a novel type of process control to enable the preparation of gramme quantities of material within a few hours with simple laboratory equipment. Also discussed will be the testing of these materials in lithium ion batteries

  3. Saturated salt solution method: a useful cadaver embalming for surgical skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shogo; Homma, Hiroshi; Naito, Munekazu; Oda, Jun; Nishiyama, Takahisa; Kawamoto, Atsuo; Kawata, Shinichi; Sato, Norio; Fukuhara, Tomomi; Taguchi, Hirokazu; Mashiko, Kazuki; Azuhata, Takeo; Ito, Masayuki; Kawai, Kentaro; Suzuki, Tomoya; Nishizawa, Yuji; Araki, Jun; Matsuno, Naoto; Shirai, Takayuki; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Fukui, Hidekimi; Ohseto, Kiyoshige; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Itoh, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    This article evaluates the suitability of cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution (SSS) method for surgical skills training (SST). SST courses using cadavers have been performed to advance a surgeon's techniques without any risk to patients. One important factor for improving SST is the suitability of specimens, which depends on the embalming method. In addition, the infectious risk and cost involved in using cadavers are problems that need to be solved. Six cadavers were embalmed by 3 methods: formalin solution, Thiel solution (TS), and SSS methods. Bacterial and fungal culture tests and measurement of ranges of motion were conducted for each cadaver. Fourteen surgeons evaluated the 3 embalming methods and 9 SST instructors (7 trauma surgeons and 2 orthopedists) operated the cadavers by 21 procedures. In addition, ultrasonography, central venous catheterization, and incision with cauterization followed by autosuture stapling were performed in some cadavers. The SSS method had a sufficient antibiotic effect and produced cadavers with flexible joints and a high tissue quality suitable for SST. The surgeons evaluated the cadavers embalmed by the SSS method to be highly equal to those embalmed by the TS method. Ultrasound images were clear in the cadavers embalmed by both the methods. Central venous catheterization could be performed in a cadaver embalmed by the SSS method and then be affirmed by x-ray. Lungs and intestines could be incised with cauterization and autosuture stapling in the cadavers embalmed by TS and SSS methods. Cadavers embalmed by the SSS method are sufficiently useful for SST. This method is simple, carries a low infectious risk, and is relatively of low cost, enabling a wider use of cadavers for SST.

  4. A comparison of hydroponic and soil-based screening methods to identify salt tolerance in the field in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Fatehi, Foad; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K.

    2012-01-01

    Success in breeding crops for yield and other quantitative traits depends on the use of methods to evaluate genotypes accurately under field conditions. Although many screening criteria have been suggested to distinguish between genotypes for their salt tolerance under controlled environmental conditions, there is a need to test these criteria in the field. In this study, the salt tolerance, ion concentrations, and accumulation of compatible solutes of genotypes of barley with a range of putative salt tolerance were investigated using three growing conditions (hydroponics, soil in pots, and natural saline field). Initially, 60 genotypes of barley were screened for their salt tolerance and uptake of Na+, Cl–, and K+ at 150 mM NaCl and, based on this, a subset of 15 genotypes was selected for testing in pots and in the field. Expression of salt tolerance in saline solution culture was not a reliable indicator of the differences in salt tolerance between barley plants that were evident in saline soil-based comparisons. Significant correlations were observed in the rankings of genotypes on the basis of their grain yield production at a moderately saline field site and their relative shoot growth in pots at ECe 7.2 [Spearman’s rank correlation (rs)=0.79] and ECe 15.3 (rs=0.82) and the crucial parameter of leaf Na+ (rs=0.72) and Cl– (rs=0.82) concentrations at ECe 7.2 dS m−1. This work has established screening procedures that correlated well with grain yield at sites with moderate levels of soil salinity. This study also showed that both salt exclusion and osmotic tolerance are involved in salt tolerance and that the relative importance of these traits may differ with the severity of the salt stress. In soil, ion exclusion tended to be more important at low to moderate levels of stress but osmotic stress became more important at higher stress levels. Salt exclusion coupled with a synthesis of organic solutes were shown to be important components of salt

  5. Laser Flash Photolysis and Pulse Radiolysis of Iodate and Periodate in Aqueous Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kläning, U K; Sehested, Knud; Wolff, Thomas

    1981-01-01

    photolysis study of IeVI and I0VI suggests that the predominant IeVI and I0VI species formed are IO42– and IO3 at 3 12. Redox reactions of the iodine(VI) species are fast compared with interconversion among the various iodine(VI) species......Species containing iodine in oxidation state six are formed by photolysis and radiolysis of aqueous iodate and periodate solutions in the following reactions: IO3–+ O–→ IO42–; IO3–+ OH → IO3; IVII+ eaq–→ IeVI and IVII [graphic omitted] I0VI+ O–(or OH). The present pulse radiolysis and laser flash...

  6. Sub-stoichiometric isotope dilution analysis method for the determination of iodine in common salts using iodine-131 tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vivek; Garg, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    A sub-stoichiometric isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) method was developed for the determination of iodine in different brands of common salts. An aqueous salt solution containing 131 I tracer and NaI as carrier is oxidized by tartaric acid and KIO 3 and the liberated iodine is extracted with CCl 4 . To the extract an aqueous solution of AgNO 3 is added in substoichiometric amount to obtain a colloidal solution of AgI. On adding sodium thiosulfate solution, the NaI so formed passes into aqueous solution, which is then counted. Several different brands of salt were analysed. The method is especially suitable for the determination of microgram amounts of iodide in the presence of excess of chloride. (Author)

  7. Application of the collapsing method to acoustic emissions in a rock salt sample during a triaxial compression experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manthei, G.; Eisenblaetter, J.; Moriya, H.; Niitsuma, H.; Jones, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Collapsing is a relatively new method. It is used for detecting patterns and structures in blurred and cloudy pictures of multiple soundings. In the case described here, the measurements were made in a very small region with a length of only a few decimeters. The events were registered during a triaxial compression experiment on a compact block of rock salt. The collapsing method showed a cellular structure of the salt block across the whole length of the test piece. The cells had a length of several cm, enclosing several grains of salt with an average grain size of less than one cm. In view of the fact that not all cell walls corresponded to acoustic emission events, it was assumed that only those grain boundaries are activated that are oriented at a favourable angle to the field of tension of the test piece [de

  8. Method for calculating the steady-state distribution of tritium in a molten-salt breeder reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, R.B.; Nestor, C.W.

    1975-04-01

    Tritium is produced in molten salt reactors primarily by fissioning of uranium and absorption of neutrons by the constituents of the fuel carrier salt. At the operating temperature of a large power reactor, tritium is expected to diffuse from the primary system through pipe and vessel walls to the surroundings and through heat exchanger tubes into the secondary system which contains a coolant salt. Some tritium will pass from the secondary system into the steam power system. This report describes a method for calculating the steady state distribution of tritium in a molten salt reactor plant and a computer program for making the calculations. The method takes into account the effects of various processes for removing tritium, the addition of hydrogen or hydrogenous compounds to the primary and secondary systems, and the chemistry of uranium in the fuel salt. Sample calculations indicate that 30 percent or more of the tritium might reach the steam system in a large power reactor unless special measures are taken to confine the tritium. (U.S.)

  9. Method for making a Pellet-type LiCl-KCl-UCl{sub 3} SALT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, M. S.; JIN, H. J.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    A pyrometallurgical partitioning technology to recover uranium from a uranium-TRU mixture which is the product material of electroreduction system is being developed at KAERI since 1997. In the process, the reactor of an electrorefiner consists of the electrodes and the molten chloride salt which is LiCl-KCl-UCl{sub 3}. The role of uranium chloride salt (UCl{sub 3}) is to stabilize the initial cell voltage between electrodes in the electrorefining reactor. The process to produce a uranium chloride salt includes two steps: a reaction process of gaseous chlorine with liquid cadmium to form CdCl{sub 2} occurring in a Cd layer, followed by a process to produce UCl{sub 3} by the reaction of U in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and CdCl{sub 2} The apparatus for producing UCl{sub 3} consists of a chlorine gas generator, a uranium chlorinator, a Cd distiller, the pelletizer, and a off-gas and a dry scrubber. The temperature of the reactants is maintained at about 600 .deg. C. After the reaction is completed in the uranium chlorinator, The salt products is transferred to the Cd distiller to decrease residual Cd concentration in the salts, and then salt is transferred to the mould of a pelletizer by a transfer system to make a pellet type salt

  10. Method for making a Pellet-type LiCl-KCl-UCl3 SALT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, M. S.; JIN, H. J.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    A pyrometallurgical partitioning technology to recover uranium from a uranium-TRU mixture which is the product material of electroreduction system is being developed at KAERI since 1997. In the process, the reactor of an electrorefiner consists of the electrodes and the molten chloride salt which is LiCl-KCl-UCl 3 . The role of uranium chloride salt (UCl 3 ) is to stabilize the initial cell voltage between electrodes in the electrorefining reactor. The process to produce a uranium chloride salt includes two steps: a reaction process of gaseous chlorine with liquid cadmium to form CdCl 2 occurring in a Cd layer, followed by a process to produce UCl 3 by the reaction of U in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and CdCl 2 The apparatus for producing UCl 3 consists of a chlorine gas generator, a uranium chlorinator, a Cd distiller, the pelletizer, and a off-gas and a dry scrubber. The temperature of the reactants is maintained at about 600 .deg. C. After the reaction is completed in the uranium chlorinator, The salt products is transferred to the Cd distiller to decrease residual Cd concentration in the salts, and then salt is transferred to the mould of a pelletizer by a transfer system to make a pellet type salt

  11. Method for converting UF5 to UF4 in a molten fluoride salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.R.; Bamberge, C.E.; Kelmers, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    The subject relates to fuel preparation for molten salt breeder reactors, and more particularly to the reconstitution of spent molten fuel salt after fission product removal. During the course of reactor operation, fission products including rare earths and bred-in protactinium build up in the fuel salt and adversely affect the nuclear properties of the fuel. In order to more efficiently operate the reactor, the level of neutron poison fission products must be kept at a minimum. This is accomplished by continuously removing spent fuel from the primary circuit, processing it to remove fission products, and returning the reprocessed molten salt to the primary circuit. It is desirable for safety and economy that the fuel processing plant be a component of the reactor itself and that the salt be kept in the molten state throughout the processing system. (auth)

  12. A new shape design method of salt cavern used as underground gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tongtao; Yan, Xiangzhen; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Xiujuan; Jiang, Tingting; Zhao, Shuai

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Safety factor contours of four salt cavern gas storages after running 10 years. Highlights: ► We propose a new model to design the shape of salt cavern gas storage. ► The concepts of slope instability and pressure arch are introduced into the shape design. ► The max. gas pressure determines the shapes and dimensions of cavern lower structure. ► The min. gas pressure decides the shapes and dimensions of cavern upper structure. - Abstract: A new model used to design the shape and dimension of salt cavern gas storage is proposed in the paper. In the new model, the cavern is divided into two parts, namely the lower and upper structures, to design. The concepts of slope instability and pressure arch are introduced into the shape design of the lower and upper structures respectively. Calculating models are established according to the concepts. Field salt cavern gas storage in China is simulated as examples, and its shape and dimension are proposed. The effects of gas pressure, friction angle and cohesion of rock salt on the cavern stability are discussed. Moreover, the volume convergence, displacement, plastic volume rate, safety factor, and effective strain are compared with that of three other existing shapes salt caverns to validate the performance of newly proposed cavern. The results show that the max. gas pressure determines the shape and dimension of cavern lower structure, while the min. gas pressure decides that of cavern upper structure. With the increase of friction angle and cohesion of rock salt, the stability of salt cavern is increased. The newly proposed salt cavern gas storage has more notable advantages than the existing shapes of salt cavern in volume convergence, displacement, plastic volume rate, safety factor, and effective strain under the same conditions

  13. Electrochemical performance of BaSnO3 anode material for lithium-ion battery prepared by molten salt method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nithyadharseni, P

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite-like structure BaSnO(sub3) ceramic oxide has been prepared by low temperature molten salt method using KOH as a flux and Ba(OH)(sub2) and BaCl(sub2) as precursors. The as-prepared compounds were characterized by various techniques...

  14. Ultrafine Iridium Oxide Nanorods Synthesized by Molten Salt Method toward Electrocatalytic Oxygen and Hydrogen Evolution Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Jahangeer; Mao, Yuanbing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrafine iridium oxide nanorods were synthesized by a molten salt method at 650 °C. • They show enhanced electrocatalytic activity to oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions. • These results are comparable with, and in most cases, higher than reported data in the literature. • This study reports a novel synthetic process for IrO_2 but also a high efficient IrO_2 nanostructure. • These IrO_2 NRs are expected to serve as a benchmark to develop active electrocatalysts. - Abstract: Ultrafine iridium oxide nanorods (IrO_2 NRs) were successfully synthesized using a molten salt method at 650 °C. The structural and morphological characterizations of these IrO_2 NRs were carried out by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopic techniques. Compared to commercial IrO_2 nanoparticles (IrO_2 NPs) and previous reports, these IrO_2 NRs show enhanced electrocatalytic activity to oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions by passing either N_2 or O_2 gas in a 0.5 M KOH electrolyte before electrochemical measurements, including cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Specifically, the current densities from the as-synthesized IrO_2 NRs and commercial IrO_2 NPs were measured in 0.5 M KOH electrolyte to be 70 and 58 (OER, deaerated, at 0.6 V versus Ag/AgCl), 71 and 61 (OER, O_2, from −0.10 to 1.0 V versus Ag/AgCl at 50 mV/s), and 25 and 14 (HER, deaerated, at −1.4 V versus Ag/AgCl) mA/cm"2, respectively. These results are comparable with, and in most cases, higher than reported data in the literature. Therefore, the current study reports not only a novel synthetic process for IrO_2 but also a high efficient IrO_2 nanostructure, and it is expected that these IrO_2 NRs can serve as a benchmark in the development of active OER and HER (photo)electrocatalysts for various applications.

  15. A new form of MgTa2O6 obtained by the molten salt method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Using molten salt route (with NaCl/KCl as the salt) we have been able to synthesize a new form of magnesium tantalate at 850°C. Powder X-ray diffraction data could be indexed on an orthorhombic unit cell with lattice parameters, 'a' = 15⋅36(1) Å, 'b' = 13⋅38(1) Å and 'c' = 12⋅10(1) Å. High resolution.

  16. An Appraisal of Methods Recently Recommended for Testing Salt Sensitivity of Blood Pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurtz, T. W.; DiCarlo, S. E.; Pravenec, Michal; Morris Jr., R. C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2017), č. článku e005653. ISSN 2047-9980 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1502 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : hypertension * salt intake * salt sensitivity hypertension * sodium Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery OBOR OECD: Cardiac and Cardiovascular systems Impact factor: 4.863, year: 2016

  17. Development of a method to determine the total C-14 content in saturated salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucks, C.; Prautsch, C.

    2016-01-01

    This two-step method described here for the determination of the total carbon-14 content in saturated salt solutions is divided in the analysis of the carbon-14 in the evaporable and the non-evaporable fraction. After driving off the inorganic carbon by acidification, the volatile carbon compounds and volatile decomposition products follow with rising temperature inside the sample vessel in a mild stream of oxygen to a tube furnace equipped with CuO catalyst for oxidizing the carbon compounds to CO 2 at a temperature of 800 C. Water is condensed out with an intensive condenser and the released CO 2 is absorbed in a wash bottle filled with sodium hydroxide. Similarly, an aliquot of the evaporation residue is put in the first zone of the tube furnace during the second step of the analysis. After heating the catalyst in the second zone of the furnace to 800 C the residue is heated stepwise to 800 C. By proceeding in this way, the non-volatile compounds are decomposed or oxidised in the oxygen stream and finally completely oxidized by the aid of the catalyst. The released CO 2 is again absorbed in another wash bottle. The carbonate of each fraction is then precipitated as BaCO 3 separately. Finally, the precipitate is washed, dried, finely grounded and covered with toluene scintillation cocktail for measurement in a LSC. The detection limit is about 0,2 Bq/l for a sample volume of 250 ml.

  18. Romanian experience with rock salt characterisation methods and the implications for disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconu, Daniela; Balan, Valeriu; Mirion, Ilie

    2001-01-01

    The disposal in deep geological formations as rock salt, granite or clay seems to be now the most appropriate solution for final storage of the spent fuel. At this moment, rock salt is one of the Romanian options for spent fuel disposal, but the final decision will be made only after a performance assessment of this geological formation, having as input data the specific characteristics of the salt rock. In order to provide the data requested by the safety assessment programs, the Institute for Nuclear Research - Pitesti developed complex and modern methodologies for thermodynamic parameter determination as well as studies on salt convergence and radionuclide migration. The methodologies pursued to determine those thermal properties specific for spent fuel disposal as dilatation coefficient, heat conductivity and specific heat. The convergence and migration studies pursued a better understanding of these processes, very important in the disposal safety. The paper is a review of those studies and presents the methodologies and the main results obtained on salt samples from Slanic Prahova Salt Mine. (authors)

  19. Iodate oxidation of N-Acetyl L-Cysteine: Application in drug determination and characterization of its oxidation and degradation product by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Masom Raza; Wabaiduri, Saikh Mohammas; Alothman, Zied A; Rahman, Habibur; Alam, Sarfarah; Ali, Sajid

    2014-01-01

    A kinetic spectrophotometric method based on the initial rate measurement has been developed for the determination of N-acetyl L-cysteine. The developed method is based on the oxidation of N-acetyl L-cysteine with iodate. The reaction product was studied and characterized using the mass spectrometry and the structure of the product was proposed. From the mass spectrometric studies it was concluded that the oxidation of the drug resulted in the formation of a disulfide. The developed method was validated as per the guidelines of international conference on harmonization. The developed initial rate method was found to be linear in the concentration range of 1.25 - 30μg ml-1. The detection and quantitation limits were found to be 0.018 and 0.056 μG ml -1 . In the current study, the degradation product of N-acetyl L cysteine was also prepared and identified using mass spectrometry. Keywords: N- acetyl cysteine, Initial rate method, Spectrophotometry, mass spectrometry

  20. A summary of methods for approximating salt creep and disposal room closure in numerical models of multiphase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, G.A.; Larson, K.W. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Davies, P.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Eight alternative methods for approximating salt creep and disposal room closure in a multiphase flow model of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were implemented and evaluated: Three fixed-room geometries three porosity functions and two fluid-phase-salt methods. The pressure-time-porosity line interpolation method is the method used in current WIPP Performance Assessment calculations. The room closure approximation methods were calibrated against a series of room closure simulations performed using a creep closure code, SANCHO. The fixed-room geometries did not incorporate a direct coupling between room void volume and room pressure. The two porosity function methods that utilized moles of gas as an independent parameter for closure coupling. The capillary backstress method was unable to accurately simulate conditions of re-closure of the room. Two methods were found to be accurate enough to approximate the effects of room closure; the boundary backstress method and pressure-time-porosity line interpolation. The boundary backstress method is a more reliable indicator of system behavior due to a theoretical basis for modeling salt deformation as a viscous process. It is a complex method and a detailed calibration process is required. The pressure lines method is thought to be less reliable because the results were skewed towards SANCHO results in simulations where the sequence of gas generation was significantly different from the SANCHO gas-generation rate histories used for closure calibration. This limitation in the pressure lines method is most pronounced at higher gas-generation rates and is relatively insignificant at lower gas-generation rates. Due to its relative simplicity, the pressure lines method is easier to implement in multiphase flow codes and simulations have a shorter execution time.

  1. A summary of methods for approximating salt creep and disposal room closure in numerical models of multiphase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeze, G.A.; Larson, K.W.; Davies, P.B.

    1995-10-01

    Eight alternative methods for approximating salt creep and disposal room closure in a multiphase flow model of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were implemented and evaluated: Three fixed-room geometries three porosity functions and two fluid-phase-salt methods. The pressure-time-porosity line interpolation method is the method used in current WIPP Performance Assessment calculations. The room closure approximation methods were calibrated against a series of room closure simulations performed using a creep closure code, SANCHO. The fixed-room geometries did not incorporate a direct coupling between room void volume and room pressure. The two porosity function methods that utilized moles of gas as an independent parameter for closure coupling. The capillary backstress method was unable to accurately simulate conditions of re-closure of the room. Two methods were found to be accurate enough to approximate the effects of room closure; the boundary backstress method and pressure-time-porosity line interpolation. The boundary backstress method is a more reliable indicator of system behavior due to a theoretical basis for modeling salt deformation as a viscous process. It is a complex method and a detailed calibration process is required. The pressure lines method is thought to be less reliable because the results were skewed towards SANCHO results in simulations where the sequence of gas generation was significantly different from the SANCHO gas-generation rate histories used for closure calibration. This limitation in the pressure lines method is most pronounced at higher gas-generation rates and is relatively insignificant at lower gas-generation rates. Due to its relative simplicity, the pressure lines method is easier to implement in multiphase flow codes and simulations have a shorter execution time

  2. The method of determination of micro quantities of labelled iodide in Na125 I carrier free solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholbaev, A.Kh.; Shilin, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    The analytical method was elaborated with the purpose to increase detection limit and radiation safety of labelled iodide determination. The method includes oxidation of iodide by iodate in diluted sulphur acid solution with molar concentration 0,03-0,04/moles/litre at molar ratio of iodide to iodate I - :IO - 3 1:12,5. The extraction of I 2 produced is done by toluene. (author)

  3. Impact of potassium bromate and potassium iodate in a pound cake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilderjans, Edith; Lagrain, Bert; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2010-05-26

    This study investigates the impact of the oxidants potassium bromate and potassium iodate (8, 16, 32, 64, and 128 micromol/g dry matter of egg white protein) on pound cake making. The impact of the oxidants on egg white characteristics was studied in a model system. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the oxidants caused egg white to denature later. During heating in a rapid visco analyzer, the oxidants caused the free sulfhydryl (SH) group levels to decrease more intensively and over a smaller temperature range. The oxidants made the proteins more resistant to decreases in protein extractability in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing buffer during cake recipe mixing and less resistant to such decreases during cake baking. We assume that, during baking, the degree to which SH/disulfide exchange and SH oxidation can occur depends on the properties of the protein at the onset of the process. In our view, the prevention of extractability loss during mixing increased the availability of SH groups and caused more such loss during baking. During cooling, all cakes baked with added oxidants showed less collapse. On the basis of the presented data, we put forward that only those protein reactions that occur during baking contribute to the formation of a network that supports final cake structure and prevents collapse.

  4. Chemical effects of (n,2n) reactions on iodate and periodates systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, J.M.A. de.

    1975-12-01

    The chemical consequences of (n,2n) reactions on cristalline sodium iodate and periodates were investigated measuring the initial yield and the post irradiation thermal annealing yields (90 0 C) of the separated fractions I - , IO 3 - and IO 4 - . NaIO 3 , NaIO 3 .H 2 O and NaIO 4 , Na 4 H 2 IO 6 , Na 4 I 2 O 9 .3H 2 O containing 127 I and 129 I, or both, were irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons. Results obtained show different effects for each system and that 126 I and 128 I isotopes keep the same behaviour in the irradiated compounds containing only α 127 I or 129 I and in compounds having both 127 I and 129 I. Neither isotope effect nor qualitative differences on thermal annealing at 90 0 C were observed. The annealed fractions in the three studied periodates were IO - 3 and IO - 4 . These results differ from the ones reported previously for (n,γ) reactions on the same compounds [pt

  5. Abiotic reaction of iodate with sphagnum peat and other natural organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, S.M.; Kimble, G.; Schmett, G.T.; Emerson, D.W.; Turner, M.F.; Rudin, M.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that iodine (including 129 I) can be strongly retained in organic-rich surface soils and sediment and that a large fraction of soluble iodine may be associated with dissolved humic material. Iodate (IO 3 - ) reacts with natural organic matter (NOM) producing either hypoiodous acid (HIO) or I 2 as an intermediate. This intermediate is subsequently incorporated into the organic matter. Based on reactions of model compounds, we infer that iodine reacts with peat by aromatic substitution of hydrogen on phenolic constituents of the peat. Alternatively, the intermediate, HIO or I 2 , may be reduced to iodide (I - ). The pH (and temperature) dependence of the IO 3 - reaction (reduction) has been explored with sphagnum peat, alkali lignin, and several model compounds. The incorporation of iodine into NOM has been verified by pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Model compound studies indicate that reduction of IO 3 - to HIO may result from reaction with hydroquinone (or semiquinone) moieties of the peat. (author)

  6. Energy Dissipation-Based Method for Fatigue Life Prediction of Rock Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingming; Huang, Bingqian; Zhu, Caihui; Chen, Yunsheng; Li, Ning

    2018-05-01

    The fatigue test for rock salt is conducted under different stress amplitudes, loading frequencies, confining pressures and loading rates, from which the evaluation rule of the dissipated energy is revealed and analysed. The evolution of energy dissipation under fatigue loading is divided into three stages: the initial stage, the second stage and the acceleration stage. In the second stage, the energy dissipation per cycle remains stable and shows an exponential relation with the stress amplitude; the failure dissipated energy only depends on the mechanical behaviour of the rock salt and confining pressure, but it is immune to the loading conditions. The energy dissipation of fatigued rock salt is discussed, and a novel model for fatigue life prediction is proposed on the basis of energy dissipation. A simple model for evolution of the accumulative dissipated energy is established. Its prediction results are compared with the test results, and the proposed model is validated.

  7. Determination of the calcium salt content on the trunk skeleton and on the peripheral bone applying the Compton backscattering method and the ashing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, K.W.

    1974-01-01

    The Compton backscattering method is applied to determine the bone decalcification. Post mortal excised calcanei and vertebral bodies of 50 people are taken as investigation objects which are examined for their calcium salt content and are then ashed for control measurement. The results show that the method would be better suited to early diagnosis of calcipenic osteopathy than the densitometric method used today on extremity bones. (ORU/LH) [de

  8. Dynamic flow method to study the CO2 loading capacity of amino acid salt solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    Due to a number of advantages amino acid salt solutions have emerged as alternatives to the alkanolamine solvents for the chemical absorption of CO2 from flue gas. The use of amino acids in CO2 capture is a bio-mimetic process, as it is similar to CO2 binding by proteins in the blood......, such as hemoglobin. Amino acid salt solutions have the same amine functionality as alkanolamines, and are thus expected to behave similar towards CO2 in flue gas. Despite rising interest, few studies have been performed so far on amino acids as CO2 absorbents....

  9. Self-monitoring of urinary salt excretion as a method of salt-reduction education: a parallel, randomized trial involving two groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, Kenichiro; Miyoshi, Emiko; Misumi, Yukiko; Kajiyama, Tomomi; Fukuda, Tamami; Ishii, Taeko; Moriguchi, Ririko; Murata, Yusuke; Ohe, Kenji; Enjoji, Munechika; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2018-02-20

    The present study aimed to evaluate salt-reduction education using a self-monitoring urinary salt-excretion device. Parallel, randomized trial involving two groups. The following parameters were checked at baseline and endline of the intervention: salt check sheet, eating behaviour questionnaire, 24 h home urine collection, blood pressure before and after urine collection. The intervention group self-monitored urine salt excretion using a self-measuring device for 4 weeks. In the control group, urine salt excretion was measured, but the individuals were not informed of the result. Seventy-eight individuals (control group, n 36; intervention group, n 42) collected two 24 h urine samples from a target population of 123 local resident volunteers. The samples were then analysed. There were no differences in clinical background or related parameters between the two groups. The 24 h urinary Na:K ratio showed a significant decrease in the intervention group (-1·1) compared with the control group (-0·0; P=0·033). Blood pressure did not change in either group. The results of the salt check sheet did not change in the control group but were significantly lower in the intervention group. The score of the eating behaviour questionnaire did not change in the control group, but the intervention group showed a significant increase in eating behaviour stage. Self-monitoring of urinary salt excretion helps to improve 24 h urinary Na:K, salt check sheet scores and stage of eating behaviour. Thus, usage of self-monitoring tools has an educational potential in salt intake reduction.

  10. History and future of human cadaver preservation for surgical training: from formalin to saturated salt solution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shogo; Naito, Munekazu; Kawata, Shinichi; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Itoh, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, surgical training meant on-the-job training with live patients in an operating room. However, due to advancing surgical techniques, such as minimally invasive surgery, and increasing safety demands during procedures, human cadavers have been used for surgical training. When considering the use of human cadavers for surgical training, one of the most important factors is their preservation. In this review, we summarize four preservation methods: fresh-frozen cadaver, formalin, Thiel's, and saturated salt solution methods. Fresh-frozen cadaver is currently the model that is closest to reality, but it also presents myriad problems, including the requirement of freezers for storage, limited work time because of rapid putrefaction, and risk of infection. Formalin is still used ubiquitously due to its low cost and wide availability, but it is not ideal because formaldehyde has an adverse health effect and formalin-embalmed cadavers do not exhibit many of the qualities of living organs. Thiel's method results in soft and flexible cadavers with almost natural colors, and Thiel-embalmed cadavers have been appraised widely in various medical disciplines. However, Thiel's method is relatively expensive and technically complicated. In addition, Thiel-embalmed cadavers have a limited dissection time. The saturated salt solution method is simple, carries a low risk of infection, and is relatively low cost. Although more research is needed, this method seems to be sufficiently useful for surgical training and has noteworthy features that expand the capability of clinical training. The saturated salt solution method will contribute to a wider use of cadavers for surgical training.

  11. Determination of the point-of-zero, charge of manganese oxides with different methods including an improved salt titration method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, W.F.; Lu, S.J.; Liu, F.; Feng, X.H.; He, J.Z.; Koopal, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are important components in soils and sediments. Points-of-zero charge (PZC) of three synthetic Mn oxides (birnessite, cryptomelane, and todorokite) were determined by using three classical techniques (potentiometric titration or PT, rapid PT or R-PT, and salt titration or ST)

  12. Durability testing of an iodate-substituted hydroxyapatite designed for the conditioning of {sup 129}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulon, Antoine [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, Laboratoire d' étude et de Développement de Matrices de Conditionnement, Marcoule, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Grandjean, Agnes [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SPDE, Laboratoire des Procédés Supercritiques et de Décontamination, Marcoule, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Laurencin, Danielle [Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier ICGM, UMR 5253 CNRS-UM-ENSCM, Université de Montpellier, Place E. Bataillon, CC1701, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Jollivet, Patrick [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, Laboratoire d' étude du Comportement à Long Terme, Centre de Marcoule, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Rossignol, Sylvie [Groupe d' Etude des Matériaux Hétérogènes, CEC-GEMH-ENSCI, 12 rue de l' Atlantis, F-87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Campayo, Lionel, E-mail: lionel.campayo@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, Laboratoire d' étude et de Développement de Matrices de Conditionnement, Marcoule, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France)

    2017-02-15

    The safe management of iodine coming from spent nuclear fuels by storage in deep geological repositories requires durable materials. For this purpose, we have recently developed an iodate-substituted hydroxyapatite (HA-CaI). In the present article, the chemical durability of this material is assessed as a function of leaching media and apatite stoichiometry. First, the maximum rate for iodine release was determined in unsaturated conditions leading to a congruent dissolution of HA-CaI. In these conditions, the forward rate was equal to 2 × 10{sup −2} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1} at 50 °C independently of apatite stoichiometry. During this regime, dissolution was controlled by surface reaction and diffusion phenomena. When concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions in solution increased, the system became saturated towards non-substituted hydroxyapatite Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} and the rate of iodine release consecutively decreased. Consequently, tests were carried out to determine the behaviour of HA-CaI in such experimental conditions (saturated conditions), which were thought to be time-prevalent given the half-life of {sup 129}I (15.7 million years). During this regime, also called residual regime, iodine was released in the solution at a constant rate without being trapped in a secondary phase. The residual rate at 50 °C on the basis of iodine release was of 10{sup −4} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1} in an initially deionized water, and it fell by one order of magnitude (r = 10{sup −5} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1}) in a clay-equilibrated groundwater (hereafter called Callovo-oxfordian (COx) groundwater). This singular behaviour was ascribed to the presence of calcium in COx water. These preliminary results on the chemical durability of HA-CaI suggest that this material is a viable candidate as repository iodine waste form. - Highlights: • A two-step mechanism can account for the resistance to leaching in pure water of iodate

  13. Course of Sodium Iodate-Induced Retinal Degeneration in Albino and Pigmented Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowers, Guy; Cohen, Matan; Marks-Ohana, Devora; Stika, Shelly; Eijzenberg, Ayala; Banin, Eyal; Obolensky, Alexey

    2017-04-01

    To characterize the course of sodium iodate (SI)-induced retinal degeneration in young adult albino and pigmented mice. Single intraperitoneal (IP) injections of SI (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) were performed in 7- to 8-week-old BALB/c and C57Bl/6J mice. Retinal function and structure was assessed at baseline, 24 hours, 3 days, 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks postinjection by optokinetic tracking response, ERG, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and histologic and immunohistochemical techniques. The 50 mg/kg SI dosage was selected after dose ranging due to consistent retinal effects and lack of systemic toxicity. Time-dependent deterioration in retinal function and morphology was consistently observed between 1 and 4 weeks in all measured parameters. These include reduction of ERG responses, thinning of retinal layers as observed by OCT and histology, and loss of RPE nuclei. Immunohistochemistry revealed rapid RPE disorganization with loss of tight junctions and markedly reduced expression of RPE65 and rod opsin, accompanied by mislocalization of cone opsins. Earlier time points displayed variable results, including partial recovery of visual acuity at 1 week and supranormal ERG cone responses at 24 hours, suggesting possible limitations of early intervention and assessment in the SI model. A single IP injection of 50 mg/kg SI leads to severe RPE injury followed by vision impairment, dysfunction, and loss of photoreceptors in both BALB/c and C57Bl/6J mice. This easily induced and reproducible noninherited model may serve as a useful tool for seeking and evaluating novel therapeutic modalities for the treatment of retinal degenerations caused by primary failure of the RPE.

  14. Physical properties of iodate solutions and the deliquescence of crystalline I2O5 and HIO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Murray

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Secondary aerosol produced from marine biogenic sources in algal-rich coastal locations will initially be composed of iodine oxide species, most likely I2O5, or its hydrated form HIO3, formed as a result of iodine gas-phase chemistry. At present, there is no quantitative hygroscopic data for these compounds and very little data available for iodate solutions (HIO3 and I2O5 share a common aqueous phase. With increased interest in the role of such aerosol in the marine atmosphere, we have conducted studies of (i the deliquescence behaviour of crystalline HIO3 and I2O5 at 273–303 K, (ii the efflorescence behaviour of aqueous iodate solution droplets, and (iii properties (water activity, density, and viscosity of subsaturated and saturated iodate solutions. The deliquescence of I2O5 crystals at 293 K was observed to occur at a relative humidity (DRH of 80.8±1.0%, whereas for HIO3, a DRH of 85.0±1.0% was measured. These values are consistent with measured water activity values for saturated I2O5 and HIO3 solutions at 293 K of 0.80±0.01 and 0.84±0.01 respectively. At all temperatures, DRH values for HIO3 crystals were observed to be higher than for those of I2O5. The temperature-dependent DRH data, along with solubility and water activity data were used to evaluate the enthalpy of solution (ΔHsol for HIO3 and I2O5. A ΔHsol value of 8.3±0.7 kJ mol−1 was determined for HIO3 which is consistent with a literature value of 8.8 kJ mol−1. For I2O5, we report for the first time its solubility at various temperatures and ΔHsol = 12.4±0.6 kJ mol−1. The measured water activity values confirm that aqueous iodate solutions are strongly non-ideal, consistent with previous reports of complex ion formation and molecular aggregation.

  15. Structural analysis of salt cavities formed by solution mining: I. Method of analysis and preliminary results for spherical cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossum, A.F.

    1976-01-01

    The primary objective of this effort is an analysis of the structural stability of cavities formed by solution mining in salt domes. In particular, the effects of depth (i.e. initial state of in situ stress), shape, volume (i.e. physical dimensions of the cavity), and sequence of salt excavation/fluid evacuation on the timewise structural stability of a cavity are of interest. It is anticipated that an assessment can be made of the interrelation between depth, cavern size, and cavern shape or of the practical limits therewith. In general, the cavity shape is assumed to be axisymmetric and the salt is assumed to exhibit nonlinear creep behavior. The primary emphasis is placed on the methodology of the finite element analysis, and the results of preliminary calculations for a spherically shaped cavity. It is common practice for engineers to apply elasticity theory to the behavior of rock in order to obtain near field stresses and displacements around an underground excavation in an effort to assess structural stability. Rock masses, particularly at depth, may be subjected to a rather complex state of initial stress, and may be nonhomogeneous and anisotropic. If one also includes complex geometrical excavation shape, the use of analytical techniques as an analysis tool is practically impossible. Thus, it is almost a necessity that approximate solution techniques be employed. In this regard, the finite element method is ideal as it can handle complex geometries and nonlinear material behavior with relative ease. An unusual feature of the present study is the incorporation into the finite element code of a procedure for handling the gradual creation or excavation of an underground cavity. During the excavation sequence, the salt is permitted to exhibit nonlinear stress-strain-time dependence. The bulk of this report will be devoted to a description of the analysis procedures, together with a preliminary calculation for a spherically shaped cavity

  16. Continuous Preparation of 1:1 Haloperidol-Maleic Acid Salt by a Novel Solvent-Free Method Using a Twin Screw Melt Extruder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hung Lin; Vasoya, Jaydip M; Cirqueira, Marilia de Lima; Yeh, Kuan Lin; Lee, Tu; Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2017-04-03

    Salts are generally prepared by acid-base reaction in relatively large volumes of organic solvents, followed by crystallization. In this study, the potential for preparing a pharmaceutical salt between haloperidol and maleic acid by a novel solvent-free method using a twin-screw melt extruder was investigated. The pH-solubility relationship between haloperidol and maleic acid in aqueous medium was first determined, which demonstrated that 1:1 salt formation between them was feasible (pH max 4.8; salt solubility 4.7 mg/mL). Extrusion of a 1:1 mixture of haloperidol and maleic acid at the extruder barrel temperature of 60 °C resulted in the formation of a highly crystalline salt. The effects of operating temperature and screw configuration on salt formation were also investigated, and those two were identified as key processing parameters. Salts were also prepared by solution crystallization from ethyl acetate, liquid-assisted grinding, and heat-assisted grinding and compared with those obtained by melt extrusion by using DSC, PXRD, TGA, and optical microscopy. While similar salts were obtained by all methods, both melt extrusion and solution crystallization yielded highly crystalline materials with identical enthalpies of melting. During the pH-solubility study, a salt hydrate form was also identified, which, upon heating, converted to anhydrate similar to that obtained by other methods. There were previous reports of the formation of cocrystals, but not salts, by melt extrusion. 1 H NMR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction confirmed that a salt was indeed formed in the present study. The haloperidol-maleic acid salt obtained was nonhygroscopic in the moisture sorption study and converted to the hydrate form only upon mixing with water. Thus, we are reporting for the first time a relatively simple and solvent-free twin-screw melt extrusion method for the preparation of a pharmaceutical salt that provides material comparable to that obtained by solution

  17. New method for recognition of sterol signalling molecules: Methinium salts as receptors for sulphated steroids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kejík, Z.; Bříza, T.; Králová, Jarmila; Mikula, I.; Poučková, P.; Martásek, P.; Král, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 94, February 2015 (2015), s. 15-20 ISSN 1878-5867 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/1291; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14008; GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.300/30.0060; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Polymethinium salts * Sulphated sterols * Molecular recognition * Synthetic receptors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  18. Determination of the diffusion coefficient of salts in non-Newtonian liquids by the Taylor dispersion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mey, Paula; Varges, Priscilla R.; Mendes, Paulo R. de Souza [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Pontificia Universidade Catolica do RJ (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: prvarges@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br

    2010-07-01

    This research looked for a method to determine the binary diffusion coefficient D of salts in liquids (especially in drilling fluids) not only accurately, but in a reasonable time. We chose to use the Taylor Dispersion Method. This technique has been used for measuring binary diffusion coefficients in gaseous, liquid and supercritical fluids, due to its simplicity and accuracy. In the method, the diffusion coefficient is determined by the analysis of the dispersion of a pulse of soluble material in a solvent flowing laminarly through a tube. This work describes the theoretical basis and the experimental requirements for the application of the Taylor Dispersion Method, emphasizing the description of our experiment. A mathematical formulation for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids is presented. The relevant sources of errors are discussed. The experimental procedure and associated analysis are validated by applying the method in well known systems, such as NaCl in water.D of salts in liquids (especially in drilling fluids) not only accurately, but in a reasonable time. We chose to use the Taylor Dispersion Method. This technique has been used for measuring binary diffusion coefficients in gaseous, liquid and supercritical fluids, due to its simplicity and accuracy. In the method, the diffusion coefficient is determined by the analysis of the dispersion of a pulse of soluble material in a solvent flowing laminarly through a tube. This work describes the theoretical basis and the experimental requirements for the application of the Taylor Dispersion Method, emphasizing the description of our experiment. A mathematical formulation for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids is presented. The relevant sources of errors are discussed. The experimental procedure and associated analysis are validated by applying the method in well known systems, such as NaCl in water. (author)

  19. Saturated salt method determination of hysteresis of Pinus sylvestris L. wood for 35 ºC isotherms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Esteban, L.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The saturated salts method was used in this study to quantify hysteresis in Pinus sylvestris L. wood, in an exercise that involved plotting the 35 ºC desorption and sorption isotherms. Nine salts were used, all of which establish stable and known relative humidity values when saturated in water The wood was kept at the relative humidity generated by each of these salts until the equilibrium moisture content (EMC was reached, both in the water loss or desorption, and the water uptake or sorption processes. The Guggenheim method was used to fit the values obtained to the respective curves. Hysteresis was evaluated in terms of the hysteresis coefficient, for which a mean value of 0.87 was found.

    Con este trabajo se ha cuantificado la histéresis de la madera de Pinus sylvestris L. Para ello, se han construido las isotermas de 35 ºC de adsorción y sorción, mediante el método de las sales saturadas. Se han utilizado nueve sales que cuando se saturan en agua dan lugar a unas humedades relativas estables y conocidas. La madera fue colocada bajo las distintas humedades relativas que confieren cada una de las sales hasta que alcanzaron las distintas humedades de equilibrio higroscópico, tanto en el proceso de pérdida de agua o desorción, como en el de adquisición de agua o de sorción. Los valores obtenidos fueron ajustados a las respectivas sigmoides, haciendo uso del método de Guggenheim. La valoración de la histéresis se determinó mediante el coeficiente de histéresis, obteniendo un valor medio de 0,87.

  20. Studies on surface structures and etch patterns on habit faces of gel-grown crystals of iodates of barium, strontium, and calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.S.; Trivedi, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    Microtopographical studies on habit faces of gel grown crystals (of different habits) of iodates of Ba, Sr, and Ca are illustrated and described. Etch patterns on these faces are illustrated and correlated to the observed growth patterns on the respective faces. Growth mechanism of the crystals is explained in light of the observed surface structures and etch pits suitably produced. (author)

  1. Synthesis and characterization of f-element iodate architectures with variable dimensionality, alpha- and beta-Am(IO3)3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runde, Wolfgang; Bean, Amanda C; Brodnax, Lia F; Scott, Brian L

    2006-03-20

    Two americium(III) iodates, beta-Am(IO3)3 (I) and alpha-Am(IO3)3 (II), have been prepared from the aqueous reactions of Am(III) with KIO(4) at 180 degrees C and have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance, and Raman spectroscopy. The alpha-form is consistent with the known structure type I of anhydrous lanthanide iodates. It consists of a three-dimensional network of pyramidal iodate groups bridging [AmO8] polyhedra where each of the americium ions are coordinated to eight iodate ligands. The beta-form reveals a novel architecture that is unknown within the f-element iodate series. beta-Am(IO3)3 exhibits a two-dimensional layered structure with nine-coordinate Am(III) atoms. Three crystallographically unique pyramidal iodate anions link the Am atoms into corrugated sheets that interact with one another through intermolecular IO3-...IO3- interactions forming dimeric I2O10 units. One of these anions utilizes all three O atoms to simultaneously bridge three Am atoms. The other two iodate ligands bridge only two Am atoms and have one terminal O atom. In contrast to alpha-Am(IO3)3, where the [IO3] ligands are solely corner-sharing with [AmO8] polyhedra, a complex arrangement of corner- and edge-sharing mu2- and mu3-[IO3] pyramids can be found in beta-Am(IO3)3. Crystallographic data: I, monoclinic, space group P2(1)/n, a = 8.871(3) A, b = 5.933(2) A, c = 15.315(4) A, beta = 96.948(4) degrees , V = 800.1(4) A(3), Z = 4; II, monoclinic, space group P2(1)/c, a = 7.243(2) A, b = 8.538(3) A, c = 13.513(5) A, beta = 100.123(6) degrees , V = 822.7(5) A(3), Z = 4.

  2. Probabilistic methods as a tool aiding dimensioning drift and shaft seals for a repository in rock salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen; Plischke, Elmar; Li, Xiaoshuo [TU Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. of Disposal Research (IELF)

    2015-07-01

    For repositories in rock salt, demonstrating the integrity of drift and shaft seals is an indispensable part of the long-term safety case. In this study, probabilistic methods are applied to assess the fictitious abutment length for a shaft seal and the effective permeability of a drift seal (dam), i.e. the integral entity for the whole structure including contact zone and damaged salt zone. For the seal permeability, the question arises how to derive it based on permeability measurements with a limited number of samples due to cost restrictions. Furthermore, it is of interest which conclusions can be derived regarding the minimum length of drift seals if the failure probability should be smaller than e.g. 10{sup -4}. Based on numerical experiments it was demonstrated that small-scale measurements can be upscale using known averaging methods. This suggests that dimensioning can be carried out based on cautions average estimates and the required reliability statement (e.g. about a failure probability smaller than e.g. 10{sup -4}) can be derived for realistic dam lengths. However, due to the limited amount of data available there are remaining uncertainties concerning the underlying model assumptions.

  3. Probabilistic methods as a tool aiding dimensioning drift and shaft seals for a repository in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen; Plischke, Elmar; Li, Xiaoshuo

    2015-01-01

    For repositories in rock salt, demonstrating the integrity of drift and shaft seals is an indispensable part of the long-term safety case. In this study, probabilistic methods are applied to assess the fictitious abutment length for a shaft seal and the effective permeability of a drift seal (dam), i.e. the integral entity for the whole structure including contact zone and damaged salt zone. For the seal permeability, the question arises how to derive it based on permeability measurements with a limited number of samples due to cost restrictions. Furthermore, it is of interest which conclusions can be derived regarding the minimum length of drift seals if the failure probability should be smaller than e.g. 10 -4 . Based on numerical experiments it was demonstrated that small-scale measurements can be upscale using known averaging methods. This suggests that dimensioning can be carried out based on cautions average estimates and the required reliability statement (e.g. about a failure probability smaller than e.g. 10 -4 ) can be derived for realistic dam lengths. However, due to the limited amount of data available there are remaining uncertainties concerning the underlying model assumptions.

  4. Evaluation of iodate toxicity (KIO3 on growth, morpho-physiological characteristics and mineral nutrients concentrations of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Agria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezatollah Esfandiari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study was aimed to assess the effects of different iodate concentrations on morpho-physiological characteristics of potato. In this regard, a pot experiment was carried out during the spring and summer 2013. Five concentrations of KIO3 including control beside 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/Kgsoil were applied through irrigation system. The results showed that all selected agronomical and morphological characteristics of potato except dry weight of stem (SDW and root (RDW were negatively affected by high iodate concentrations. The results showed that applying 80 mg KIO3/Kgsoil compared to control resulted in around 15, 86, 84, 41, 16, 25, 20, and 87% reductions in harvest index (HI, leaf dry weight (LDW, tuber dry weight (TDW, plant dry weight (PDW, stem length (SL, root length (RL, plant height (PH, and number of tuber per plant (NT, respectively. Iodate application (80 mg KIO3/Kgsoil vs. control also affected potato’s physiological characteristics including chlorophyll content (SPAD, relative water content (RWC, water use efficiency (WUE, evapo-transpiration efficiency (ETE, cell membrane stability index (CMSI and tolerance index (TI showing around 27, 12, 87, 39, 40, and 77% reductions for each one, respectively. Increasing iodate concentrations, although, showed no effect of Zn concentration of root and Fe and Mn concentrations of leaf, gradually decreased Zn concentration of leaf and increased Fe and Mn concentrations of root and Cu concentrations of root and leaf. Plants also showed several visible symptoms including stunting, chlorosis, browning of leaf tip and reduction in growth due to iodate toxicity.

  5. Deactivation of nuclear explosions cavities in the salt domes by freezing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyashov, D.N.; Mokhov, V.A.; Murzadilov, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    I. There is a lot of negative consequences of underground nuclear explosions, conducted for creating some cavities of the gas condensate saving at the Azgir site and Karachaganak deposit. Some of them are radioactivity escape, ground pollution, underground water pollution, as result of depressurization and irrigation of cavities. Besides that there are dissolution of infected salt, displacement of brine from the cavities. Existing prolonged exchanges of rock-salt, brines and water can be accompanied by accumulation and throw outing of free chlorine and hydrogen with hydrochloric acid formation, ('white fog' of Azgir site). These questions demand supplementary researches. 2. It is known that more dangerous fission fragments are 9 0S r and 1 31C s, with half life periods equaled 27.7 and 30.3. Duration of their existence determines a period of an object danger. Radionuclide migration come with rock dispersion or with their concentration on the different physical, chemical, including sorptive, barriers on the way of radioactive water displacement. 3. The task of prevention of negative consequences is to save the forms and sizes of cavities, to immobilize the radioactive fluid's in the cavities and closed zone for the half-life time of the main nuclide mass. 4. Solving the task by laying of empty space with hard materials (concrete, rock) demand of big expenses because of cavities size, occurrence depth (850-900 m), high value of materials, their processing and transportation. The problem to render harmless and to utilize of displacing radioactive brines is not solved yet. 5, Freezing of flooding cavities appears to be an alternative, which allows to fill the space by hard ice and to less the moving of radioactive brines into the rocks around the cavities, and, what is more important, along the bore-holes above the cavities, blocking the radionuclides moving into the fractured rocks. This process divides onto 2 stages: (1) freezing with organizing of intensive heat

  6. A Quantitative Analytical Method to Test for Salt Effects on Giant Unilamellar Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadorn, Maik; Bönzli, Eva; Eggenberger Hotz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    preparation method with automatic haemocytometry. We found that this new quantitative screening method is highly reliable and consistent with previously reported results. Thus, this method may provide a significant methodological advance in analysis of effects on free-standing model membranes....

  7. A novel method to rapidly distinguish the geographical origin of traditional fermented-salted vegetables by mass fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, So-Ra; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lee, Hae-Won; Ha, Ji-Hyoung

    2017-01-01

    The geographical origin of kimchi is of interest to consumers and producers because the prices of commercial kimchi products can vary significantly according to the geographical origin. Hence, social issues related to the geographical origin of kimchi in Korea have emerged as a major problem. In this study, the geographical origin of kimchi was determined by comparing the mass fingerprints obtained for Korean and Chinese kimchi samples by MALDI-TOF MS with multivariate analysis. The results obtained herein provide an accurate, powerful tool to clearly discriminate kimchi samples based on their geographical origin within a short time and to ensure food authenticity, which is of significance in the kimchi industry. Furthermore, our MALDI-TOF MS method could be applied to determining the geographical origin of other fermented-salted vegetables at a reduced cost in shorter times.

  8. Limitations of amorphous content quantification by isothermal calorimetry using saturated salt solutions to control relative humidity: alternative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalef, Nawel; Pinal, Rodolfo; Bakri, Aziz

    2010-04-01

    Despite the high sensitivity of isothermal calorimetry (IC), reported measurements of amorphous content by this technique show significant variability even for the same compound. An investigation into the reasons behind such variability is presented using amorphous lactose and salbutamol sulfate as model compounds. An analysis was carried out on the heat evolved as a result of the exchange of water vapor between the solid sample during crystallization and the saline solution reservoir. The use of saturated salt solutions as means of control of the vapor pressure of water within sealed ampoules bears inherent limitations that lead in turn to the variability associated with the IC technique. We present an alternative IC method, based on an open cell configuration that effectively addresses the limitations encountered with the sealed ampoule system. The proposed approach yields an integral whose value is proportional to the amorphous content in the sample, thus enabling reliable and consistent quantifications. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  9. Optimization of two methods based on ultrasound energy as alternative to European standards for soluble salts extraction from building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Taboada, N; Gómez-Laserna, O; Martinez-Arkarazo, I; Olazabal, M A; Madariaga, J M

    2012-11-01

    The Italian recommendation NORMAL 13/83, later replaced by the UNI 11087/2003 norm, were used as standard for soluble salts extraction from construction materials. These standards are based on long-time stirring (72 and 2h, respectively) of the sample in deionized water. In this work two ultrasound based methods were optimized in order to reduce the extraction time while efficiency is improved. The instrumental variables involved in the extraction assisted by ultrasound bath and focused ultrasounds were optimized by experimental design. As long as it was possible, the same non-instrumental parameters values as those of standard methods were used in order to compare the results obtained on a mortar sample showing a black crust by the standards and the optimized methods. The optimal extraction time for the ultrasounds bath was found to be of two hours. Although the extraction time was equal to the standard UNI 11087/2003, the obtained extraction recovery was improved up to 119%. The focused ultrasound system achieved also better recoveries (up to 106%) depending on the analyte in 1h treatment time. The repeatabilities of the proposed ultrasound based methods were comparables to those of the standards. Therefore, the selection of one or the other of the ultrasound based methods will depend on topics such as laboratory facilities or number of samples, and not in aspects related with their quality parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An efficient way to prepare silver nanorods in high concentration by polyol method without adding other metal or salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yong; Guan Jianguo; Xie Hongquan

    2012-01-01

    Using ethylene glycol as solvent and reductant, polyvinyl pyrrolidone(PVP) as capping agent under the action of appropriately preformed silver crystal seeds and controlled addition rates of silver nitrate and PVP solution, silver nanorods with length of 2–15 μm and diameter of 200–880 nm can be obtained in high concentration of AgNO 3 as 0.50 M. In the absence of the preformed seeds, nanorods cannot be obtained as the main product, if the AgNO 3 concentration is over 0.10 M. It is necessary to use the appropriately preformed silver crystal seeds for the high concentration preparation of silver nanorods. Transmission Electron Microscopy images showed that Ag seeds preformed at appropriate silver nitrate concentrations exhibited the multiply twinned particles of decahedral shape(MTPs), which formed Ag nanorods in the presence of PVP. Through study of the effects of various factors on the nanostructure of silver, the favorable conditions are: appropriately preformed seeds concentration at 6.54–9.81 mM, addition rate of AgNO 3 solution at 0.30–0.43 mL min −1 and molar ratio of PVP/AgNO 3 at 1.1–1.4, in order to control the crystal growth rate of silver matching the reduction rate of AgNO 3 by ethylene glycol. The nanorods obtained were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, EDX, XRD, Raman spectrometry, Infrared Spectrophotometry and Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry. On the base of the above results, the mechanism of rates matching for obtaining silver nanorods was briefly discussed. This method is a simple, facile and economical method using high concentration with high yield without using other metal or salt to massively synthesize silver nanorods through adding preformed silver seeds to control the reduction rate of silver nitrate and the crystal growth rate of silver nanorods. As compared to the conventional polyol method using lower silver nitrate concentration, this method can save ethylene glycol used and time of operation and the as

  11. Catalyst of a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on a non-metallic porous support and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Peden, Charles H. F. [West Richland, WA; Choi, Saemin [Richland, WA

    2002-10-29

    The present invention includes a catalyst having (a) a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores; (b) a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on the non-metallic support; wherein at least a portion of the metal heteropoly acid salt is dispersed within said plurality of pores. The present invention also includes a method of depositing a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent onto a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores. The method has the steps of: (a) obtaining a first solution containing a first precursor of a metal salt cation; (b) obtaining a second solution containing a second precursor of a heteropoly acid anion in a solvent having a limited dissolution potential for said first precursor; (c) impregnating the non-metallic support with the first precursor forming a first precursor deposit within the plurality of pores, forming a first precursor impregnated support; (d) heating said first precursor impregnated support forming a bonded first precursor impregnated support; (e) impregnating the second precursor that reacts with the precursor deposit and forms the metal heteropoly acid salt.

  12. Synthesis, crystal structure and optical properties of two new layered cadmium iodates: Cd(IO3)X (X=Cl, OH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Bing-Ping; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2014-01-01

    Systematic explorations of new compounds in the cadmium iodate system by hydrothermal reactions led to two layered iodates, namely, Cd(IO 3 )X (X=Cl, OH). Cd(IO 3 )Cl crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Cmca (No. 64) whereas Cd(IO 3 )(OH) crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pnma (No. 62). Cd(IO 3 )Cl displays a unique double layered structure composed of 1 ∞ [Cd−O 3 Cl] n chains. Cadmium octahedrons form a 1D chain along the a-axis through edge sharing, and such chains are further interconnected via IO 3 groups to form a special double layer on (020) plane. Cd(IO 3 )(OH) also exhibits a layered structure that is composed of cadmium cations, IO 3 groups and hydroxyl ions. Within a layer, chains of CdO 6 edge-shared octahedra are observed along the b-axis. And these chains are connected by IO 3 groups into a layer parallel to the bc plane. Spectroscopic characterizations, elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis for the reported two compounds are also presented. - Graphical abstract: Two new layered cadmium iodates Cd(IO 3 )X (X=Cl, OH) are reported. Cd(IO 3 )Cl features a unique double layered structure whereas Cd(IO 3 )(OH) displays an ordinary layered structure. - Highlights: • Two new layered cadmium iodates Cd(IO 3 )X (X=Cl, OH) are reported. • Cd(IO 3 )Cl features a unique double layered structure. • Cd(IO 3 )(OH) displays an ordinary layered structure. • The spectroscopic and thermal properties have been studied in detail

  13. Salt Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  14. Sea salt

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  15. New visible and selective DNA staining method in gels with tetrazolium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Aaron J; Naranjo-Palma, Tatiana; Alfaro-Valdés, Hilda M; Barriga, Andrés; Babul, Jorge; Wilson, Christian A M

    2017-01-15

    DNA staining in gels has historically been carried out using silver staining and fluorescent dyes like ethidium bromide and SYBR Green I (SGI). Using fluorescent dyes allows recovery of the analyte, but requires instruments such as a transilluminator or fluorimeter to visualize the DNA. Here we described a new and simple method that allows DNA visualization to the naked eye by generating a colored precipitate. It works by soaking the acrylamide or agarose DNA gel in SGI and nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) solution that, when exposed to sunlight, produces a purple insoluble formazan precipitate that remains in the gel after exposure to light. A calibration curve made with a DNA standard established a detection limit of approximately 180 pg/band at 500 bp. Selectivity of this assay was determined using different biomolecules, demonstrating a high selectivity for DNA. Integrity and functionality of the DNA recovered from gels was determined by enzymatic cutting with a restriction enzyme and by transforming competent cells after the different staining methods, respectively. Our method showed the best performance among the dyes employed. Based on its specificity, low cost and its adequacy for field work, this new methodology has enormous potential benefits to research and industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Study on concrete cask for practical use. Development of evaluation method of salt-induced deterioration of reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Takuro; Shirai, Koji; Saegusa, Toshiari

    2005-01-01

    We studied an evaluation method of salt-induced deterioration of reinforced concrete structures under high temperatures. For this purpose, we conducted chloride ion diffusion tests of concrete specimens, corrosion tests of reinforced concrete specimens and combined tests of carbonation and chloride ion penetration of concrete specimens under high temperatures. We discussed the effects of temperature on chloride ion diffusion coefficient in concrete, temperature on chloride ion concentration for initiation of reinforcing steel corrosion and carbonation on chloride ion diffusion coefficient at high temperatures. The findings obtained through this study can be summarized as follows: (a) The value of diffusion coefficient of chloride ion in concrete became larger with the increase of temperature. A roughly linear relationship between logarithm of the diffusion coefficient and reciprocal of absolute temperature was confirmed. (b) Threshold chloride ion concentration for initiation of steel corrosion stays almost unchanged even in high temperatures. (c) The value of diffusion coefficient of chloride ion is presumably larger in carbonated concrete. (d) A method to evaluate chloride effect on reinforced concrete structures was developed by incorporating the above test results into current design practice under normal temperatures. (author)

  17. Reprocessing method of ceramic nuclear fuels in low-melting nitrate molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, G.; Caporali, G.; Zambianchi, M.

    1976-01-01

    Ceramic nuclear fuel is reprocessed through a method wherein the fuel is dispersed in a molten eutectic mixture of at least two alkali metal nitrates and heated to a temperature in the range between 200 and 300 0 C. That heated mixture is then subjected to the action of a gaseous stream containing nitric acid vapors, preferably in the presence of a catalyst such as sodium fluoride. Dissolved fuel can then be precipitated out of solution in crystalline form by cooling the solution to a temperature only slightly above the melting point of the bath

  18. Effect of salt stress and seed priming methods on emergence and seedling characteristics of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Salehi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available ]Introduction The main limiting factor for food security in Iran and world is water qualitative and quantitative. Agriculture sector is the main consumer of water and more vulnerable section from water crisis. In order to improve food security calorie requirement of growing population should be provided from nonsaline water resources. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa is diploeid, allotetraploied, C3 and facultative halophyte from Amaranthace family and categorized in pseudo cereal group. This plant has cultivated 5000 years in Ands, and the highest cultivated area is in Bolivia near salt flats. This plant can grow successfully in different countries such as, Europe countries, USA, Canada, Africa, Morocco, Pakistan and India. Protein content is between 13.81-21.9% and flour is gluten free and provides all essential amino acid of human. Because of high potential of quinoa for providing human calories and high salt and drought tolerance it could be considered for saline and marginal area. Quinoa was selected for cultivation with saline water because of salt tolerance and economic production with saline water which are not use for conventional crop. The main problem of quinoa is emergence and stand establishment with saline water. The aim of this study is evaluation of salinity stress on plant emergence and priming effect of emergence improvement under saline condition. Materials and methods In order to evaluate salinity stress on emergence and establishment of quinoa an experiment was conducted based on CRD design with 5 levels of salinity (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 dS/m with four replication in soil and cocopit. Emergence recorded daily and finally plant height and dry weight was measured. Two piece and modified discount function model was fitted to emergence percent. In order to improve emergence under saline condition an experiment was conducted with three treatments (Gibberlic acid (10 ppm, H2O and Ascorbic acid (3 ppm and four levels of salinity (0, 4 and

  19. Salt drying: a low-cost, simple and efficient method for storing plants in the field and preserving biological repositories for DNA diversity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrió, Elena; Rosselló, Josep A

    2014-03-01

    Although a variety of methods have been optimized for the collection and storage of plant specimens, most of these are not suited for field expeditions for a variety of logistic reasons. Drying specimens with silica gel in polyethylene bags is currently the standard for field-sampling methods that are suitable for subsequent DNA extraction. However, silica-gel repositories are not readily available in remote areas, and its use is not very cost-effective for the long-term storage of collections or in developing countries with limited research budgets. Salting is an ancient and traditional drying process that preserves food samples by dehydrating tissues and inhibiting water-dependent cellular metabolism. We compared salt and silica-gel drying methods with respect to dehydration rates overtime, DNA quality and polymerase chain reaction(PCR) success to assess whether dry salting can be used as an effective plant preservation method for DNA analysis. Specimens from eleven plant species covering a variety of leaf structures, leaf thicknesses and water contents were analysed. Experimental work indicated that (i) levels of dehydration in sodium chloride were usually comparable to those obtained when silica gel was used, (ii) no spoilage, fungal or bacterial growth was observed for any of the species with all drying treatments and (iii) good yields of quality genomic DNA suitable for PCR applications were obtained in the salt-drying treatments. The preservation of plant tissues in commercial table salt appears to be a satisfactory, and versatile method that may be suitable in remote areas where cryogenic resources and silica repositories are not available. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Methods and results of the investigation of the thermomechanical behaviour of rock salt with regard to the final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, K.; Klarr, K.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the knowledge about thermal and mechanical behaviour of rock salt that has been accumulated by various R and D institutions in Germany from laboratory and in situ investigations. An important objective is to give a comprehensive overview of the investigation methods and instruments available and to discuss these methods and instruments with regard to their applicability and reliability for the investigation of the thermomechanical effects of high level radioactive waste emplacement in rock salt formations. The report is focused on the activities of the GSF-Institut fur Tieflagerung in the Asse mine regarding the disposal of high and intermediate level radioactive waste during the last decades. The design and the results of the most important in situ experiments are presented and discussed in detail. The results are compared to model calculations in order to evaluate the reliability of both the measurements and the calculation results. The relevance of the results for the situation in Spain is discussed in a separate chapter. As the investigations in Germany have been performed in domal salt, while the Spanish concept is based on waste disposal in bedded salt, significant differences in the thermomechanical behaviour cannot be excluded. The investigation methods, however, will be applicable. (Author)

  1. A novel inverse numerical modeling method for the estimation of water and salt mass transfer coefficients during ultrasonic assisted-osmotic dehydration of cucumber cubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Hosein; Karimi, Farzaneh; Labbafi, Mohsen; Fathi, Morteza

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this paper was to study the moisture and salt diffusivity during ultrasonic assisted-osmotic dehydration of cucumbers. Experimental measurements of moisture and salt concentration versus time were carried out and an inverse numerical method was performed by coupling a CFD package (OpenFOAM) with a parameter estimation software (DAKOTA) to determine mass transfer coefficients. A good agreement between experimental and numerical results was observed. Mass transfer coefficients were from 3.5 × 10 -9 to 7 × 10 -9  m/s for water and from 4.8 × 10 -9  m/s to 7.4 × 10 -9  m/s for salt at different conditions (diffusion coefficients of around 3.5 × 10 -12 -11.5 × 10 -12  m 2 /s for water and 5 × 10 -12  m/s-12 × 10 -12  m 2 /s for salt). Ultrasound irradiation could increase the mass transfer coefficient. The values obtained by this method were closer to the actual data. The inverse simulation method can be an accurate technique to study the mass transfer phenomena during food processing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  3. Actinide-Lanthanide separation by an electrolytic method in molten salt media: feasibility assessment of a renewed liquid cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguet, A.

    2009-12-01

    This study is part of a research program concerning the assessment of pyrochemical methods for the nuclear waste processing. The An-Ln partitioning could be achieved by an electrolytic selective extraction in molten salt media. It has been decided to focus on liquid reactive cathode which better suits to a group actinides co-recycling. The aim of the study is to propose, define and initiate the development of an electrolytic pyro-process dedicated to the quantitative and selective recovery of the actinides. Quantitativeness is related to technology, whereas selectivity is governed by chemistry. The first step consisted in selecting the adequate operating conditions, which enables a sufficient An-Ln separation. The first step consisted, by means of thermodynamic calculi and electrochemical investigations, in selecting a promising combination between molten electrolyte and cathodic material, regarding the process constraints. To improve the recovery yield, it is necessary to develop a disruptive technology: here comes the concept of a dynamic electrodeposition carried out onto liquid metallic drops. The next step consisted in designing and manufacturing a lab-scale device which enables dropping flow studies. Since interfacial phenomena are of primary meaning in such a concept, it has been decided to focus on high temperature liquid-liquid interfacial measurements. (author)

  4. Quantitative mineral salt evaluation in the calcaneous bone using computed tomography, 125I-photon absorption and chemical analysis to compare the value of the individual methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitzler, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    It was the aim of the study described here to verify the accuracy of two different methods for the quantitative evaluation of mineral salts, which were the 125I-photon absorption technique on the one hand and wholebody CT on the other hand. For this purpose, post-mortem examinations of 31 calcaneous bones were carried out to evaluate their individual mineral salt contents in vitro using either of the above-mentioned methods. The results obtained were subsequently contrasted with calcium concentrations determined by chemical analysis. A comparison of the individual mineral salt evaluations with the results from calcium analyses pointed to a highly significant correlation (p=0.001) for both methods under investigation. The same held for the correlation of findings from CT and the 125I-hydroxylapatite technique, where the level of significance was also p=0.001. The above statements must, however, be modified in as much as the mineral salt values measured by CT were consistently lower than those obtained on the basis of 125I-photon absorption. These deviations are chiefly attributable to the fact that the values provided by CT are more susceptible to influences from the fat contained in the bones. In 125I-photon absorption a special formula may be derived to allow for the bias occurring here, provided that the composition of the bone is known. To summarise, the relative advantages and drawbacks of CT and 125I-photon absorption are carefully balanced. Mineral salt evaluations by CT permit incipient losses to be ascertained even in the trunk. The 125I-photon absorption technique would appear to be the obvious method for any kind of follow-up examination in the peripheral skeleton, as it is easily reproducible and radiation exposure can be kept to minimum. (TRV) [de

  5. Test procedures for salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Potash mining, salt mining, design of solution caverns in salt rocks, disposal of waste in salt repositories, and the use of granular halite backfill in underground salt rock mines are all mining activities which are practised or contemplated for the near future. Whatever the purpose, the need for high quality design parameters is evident. The authors have been testing salt rocks in the laboratory in a number of configurations for some time. Great care has been given to the quality of sample preparation and test methodology. This paper describes the methods, presents the elements of equipment design, and shows some typical results

  6. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  7. Iodine speciation in coastal and inland bathing waters and seaweeds extracts using a sequential injection standard addition flow-batch method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes the development of a sequential injection standard addition method for iodine speciation in bathing waters and seaweeds extracts without prior sample treatment. Iodine speciation was obtained by assessing the iodide and iodate content, the two inorganic forms of iodine in waters. For the determination of iodide, an iodide ion selective electrode (ISE) was used. The indirect determination of iodate was based on the spectrophotometric determination of nitrite (Griess reaction). For the iodate measurement, a mixing chamber was employed (flow batch approach) to explore the inherent efficient mixing, essential for the indirect determination of iodate. The application of the standard addition method enabled detection limits of 0.14 µM for iodide and 0.02 µM for iodate, together with the direct introduction of the target water samples, coastal and inland bathing waters. The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by ICP-MS and a colorimetric reference procedure. Recovery tests also confirmed the accuracy of the developed method which was effectively applied to bathing waters and seaweed extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Management strategies to utilize salt affected soils. Isotopic and conventional research methods. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This document summarizes the results of a co-ordinated research programme on ``The Use of Nuclear Techniques for Improvement of Crop Production in Salt-affected Soils``. It aims at providing scientists experimental evidence of demonstrating technical feasibility of biological amelioration of salt affected soils as an alternative option of using expensive chemical amendments in soil reclamation complementing engineering structures of farm drainage systems or option of leaving the saline areas as barren lands in spite of the fact that arable agricultural lands have exhausted. 68 refs, 26 figs, 32 tabs.

  9. Management strategies to utilize salt affected soils. Isotopic and conventional research methods. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This document summarizes the results of a co-ordinated research programme on ''The Use of Nuclear Techniques for Improvement of Crop Production in Salt-affected Soils''. It aims at providing scientists experimental evidence of demonstrating technical feasibility of biological amelioration of salt affected soils as an alternative option of using expensive chemical amendments in soil reclamation complementing engineering structures of farm drainage systems or option of leaving the saline areas as barren lands in spite of the fact that arable agricultural lands have exhausted. 68 refs, 26 figs, 32 tabs

  10. Research on electrochemical methods for concentration measurement of dissolved ion in molten salt to apply to electrolytic process control. Innovative research adopted in 2002 fiscal year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Takayuki

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to establish the online (in-situ) technique for concentration measuring of dissolved ion in the molten salt, and this technique is due to the electrochemical method for the concentration measuring of dissolved ion in solutions like the polarization curve measurement. This research executed the following four items. 1) Examination of possibility for concentration measuring of dissolved ion in molten salt by cyclic voltammetry. 2) Examination of possibility for concentration measuring of dissolved ion in molten salt by various electrochemical methods. 3) Examination of suitable electrochemical method for concentration measuring of dissolved ion. 4) Confirmation of selected electrochemical method for concentration measuring of dissolved ion. It has been understood that the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) is a promising electrochemical technique for the concentration measuring of dissolved ion in the molten salt as a result of this research. An appropriate measurement condition is as follows, the potential sweep rate is -0.1 V/s, the pulse cycle is 0.1 s, the pulse width is 10 ms, and the pulse voltage is 50 mV. As for the electrodes, the platinum working electrode, the glassy carbon counter electrode, and silver/silver chloride reference electrode are suitable. Moreover, the molar absorptivities of U 3+ , U 4+ , UO 2 + , UO 2 2+ , and the standard redox potentials of couples of U 4+ /U 3+ and UO 2 2+ /UO 2 + were acquired as a basic data of the uranium and the uranyl ion in molten NaCl-2CsCl. (author)

  11. Synthesis and piezoelectric properties of KxNa1-xNbO3 ceramic by molten salt method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yueming; Wang Jinsong; Liao Runhua; Huang Dan; Jiang Xiangping

    2010-01-01

    K x Na 1-x NbO 3 ceramic powder with perovskite structure was synthesized in molten salt with a Na 2 CO 3 /K 2 CO 3 molar ratio of 1:1, under different salt-to-oxide weight ratios of 1:10, 1:5, 1:3, 1:2.5 and 1:2 in the temperatures range of 650-900 o C. It is found that the synthesizing temperature and salt-to-oxide ratios had significant effects on the morphology of K x Na 1-x NbO 3 powder. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that a pure perovskite structure of K x Na 1-x NbO 3 powder could be synthesized at 650 o C. The microstructure observation revealed that the crystal morphology of K x Na 1-x NbO 3 powder changed from spheroid to cube, and then became irregular after further increasing temperature. The grain size of the synthesized powder increased by an increment of the molten salt content. The K x Na 1-x NbO 3 ceramics were prepared at x = 0.345 by adding 1.0 mol% ZnO as sintering aid, and the optimized dielectric and piezoelectric properties are obtained as following: d 33 = 120 pC/N, T c = 406 o C, Q m = 126 and k p = 0.302.

  12. Study of water nature in some crystallohydrates of pentasubstituted alkali metal salts of borotungstic acid using thermochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmodem'yanskaya, G.V.; Sadykova, M.M.; Spitsyn, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    Kinetics of the dehydration process has been studied and heat of dehydration has been determined for salts 2.5Li 2 O x 0.5B 2 O 3 x 12.0WO 3 x 28.5H 2 O; 2.5Na 2 Ox0.5B 2 O 3 x 12.0WO 3 x 17.5H 2 O; 2.5K 2 O x 0.5B 2 O 3 x12.0WO 3 x 16.5H 2 O; 2.5Cs 2 O x 0.5B 2 O 3 x 12.0WO 3 x6.7H 2 O. Dehydration has been conducted in vacuum at 25-50 deg C. The study of the dehydration process has been performed thermochemically in a differential calorimeter. It has been shown that heat of dehydration depends on the nature of the cation. Lithium salt with a cation of a small radius has the highest heat of dehydration (6.4+-0.2 kcal/mol H 2 O). Cesium salt is dehydrated almost completely. A considerable part of water in crystallohydrates has a salting character. Kinetics of the dehydration process is described by the equation of the monomolecular reaction

  13. Effect of preparation temperature and cycling voltage range on molten salt method prepared SnO2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reddy, MV

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We prepared nano-sized tin (IV) oxide (SnO(sub2)) via molten-salt technique: heating a mixture of tin tetrachloride, lithium nitrate and lithium chloride at 280 °C in air. The powders are characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission scanning...

  14. Retinal Cell Death Caused by Sodium Iodate Involves Multiple Caspase-Dependent and Caspase-Independent Cell-Death Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Balmer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we have investigated retinal cell-death pathways in response to the retina toxin sodium iodate (NaIO3 both in vivo and in vitro. C57/BL6 mice were treated with a single intravenous injection of NaIO3 (35 mg/kg. Morphological changes in the retina post NaIO3 injection in comparison to untreated controls were assessed using electron microscopy. Cell death was determined by TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL staining. The activation of caspases and calpain was measured using immunohistochemistry. Additionally, cytotoxicity and apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells, primary retinal cells, and the cone photoreceptor (PRC cell line 661W were assessed in vitro after NaIO3 treatment using the ApoToxGlo™ assay. The 7-AAD/Annexin-V staining was performed and necrostatin (Nec-1 was administered to the NaIO3-treated cells to confirm the results. In vivo, degenerating RPE cells displayed a rounded shape and retracted microvilli, whereas PRCs featured apoptotic nuclei. Caspase and calpain activity was significantly upregulated in retinal sections and protein samples from NaIO3-treated animals. In vitro, NaIO3 induced necrosis in RPE cells and apoptosis in PRCs. Furthermore, Nec-1 significantly decreased NaIO3-induced RPE cell death, but had no rescue effect on treated PRCs. In summary, several different cell-death pathways are activated in retinal cells as a result of NaIO3.

  15. Structure and thermodynamics of molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papatheodorou, G.N.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter investigates single-component molten salts and multicomponent salt mixtures. Molten salts provide an important testing ground for theories of liquids, solutions, and plasmas. Topics considered include molten salts as liquids (the pair potential, the radial distribution function, methods of characterization), single salts (structure, thermodynamic correlations), and salt mixtures (the thermodynamics of mixing; spectroscopy and structure). Neutron and X-ray scattering techniques are used to determine the structure of molten metal halide salts. The corresponding-states theory is used to obtain thermodynamic correlations on single salts. Structural information on salt mixtures is obtained by using vibrational (Raman) and electronic absorption spectroscopy. Charge-symmetrical systems and charge-unsymmetrical systems are used to examine the thermodynamics of salt mixtures

  16. Modification of glassy carbon electrode with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and iron(III)-porphyrin film: Application to chlorate, bromate and iodate detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimi, Abdollah; MamKhezri, Hussein; Hallaj, Rahman; Zandi, Shiva

    2007-01-01

    In this study, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCTs) is evaluated as a transducer, stabilizer and immobilization matrix for the construction of amperometric sensor based on iron-porphyrin. 5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine iron(III) chloride (Fe(III)P) adsorbed on MWCNTs immobilized on the surface of glassy carbon electrode. Cyclic voltammograms of the Fe(III)P-incorporated-MWCNTs indicate a pair of well-defined and nearly reversible redox couple with surface confined characteristics at wide pH range (2-12). The surface coverage (Γ) and charge transfer rate constant (k s ) of Fe(III)P immobilized on MWCNTs were 7.68 x 10 -9 mol cm -2 and 1.8 s -1 , respectively, indicating high loading ability of MWCNTs for Fe(III)P and great facilitation of the electron transfer between Fe(III)P and carbon nanotubes immobilized on the electrode surface. Modified electrodes exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity toward reduction of ClO 3 - , IO 3 - and BrO 3 - in acidic solutions. The catalytic rate constants for catalytic reduction of bromate, chlorate and iodate were 6.8 x 10 3 , 7.4 x 10 3 and 4.8 x 10 2 M -1 s -1 , respectively. The hydrodynamic amperometry of rotating-modified electrode at constant potential versus reference electrode was used for detection of bromate, chlorate and iodate. The detection limit, linear calibration range and sensitivity for chlorate, bromate and iodate detections were 0.5 μM, 2 μM to 1 mM, 8.4 nA/μM, 0.6 μM, 2 μM to 0.15 mM, 11 nA/μM, and 2.5 μM, 10 μM to 4 mM and 1.5 nA/μM, respectively. Excellent electrochemical reversibility of the redox couple, good reproducibility, high stability, low detection limit, long life time, fast amperometric response time, wide linear concentration range, technical simplicity and possibility of rapid preparation are great advantages of this sensor. The obtained results show promising practical application of the Fe(III)P-MWCNTs-modified electrode as an amperometric sensor for chlorate, iodate and

  17. Modification of glassy carbon electrode with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and iron(III)-porphyrin film: Application to chlorate, bromate and iodate detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salimi, Abdollah [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology Research Center of University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); E-mail: absalimi@uok.ac.ir; MamKhezri, Hussein [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hallaj, Rahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zandi, Shiva [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Kurdistan Medical University, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-06-10

    In this study, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCTs) is evaluated as a transducer, stabilizer and immobilization matrix for the construction of amperometric sensor based on iron-porphyrin. 5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine iron(III) chloride (Fe(III)P) adsorbed on MWCNTs immobilized on the surface of glassy carbon electrode. Cyclic voltammograms of the Fe(III)P-incorporated-MWCNTs indicate a pair of well-defined and nearly reversible redox couple with surface confined characteristics at wide pH range (2-12). The surface coverage ({gamma}) and charge transfer rate constant (k {sub s}) of Fe(III)P immobilized on MWCNTs were 7.68 x 10{sup -9} mol cm{sup -2} and 1.8 s{sup -1}, respectively, indicating high loading ability of MWCNTs for Fe(III)P and great facilitation of the electron transfer between Fe(III)P and carbon nanotubes immobilized on the electrode surface. Modified electrodes exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity toward reduction of ClO{sub 3} {sup -}, IO{sub 3} {sup -} and BrO{sub 3} {sup -} in acidic solutions. The catalytic rate constants for catalytic reduction of bromate, chlorate and iodate were 6.8 x 10{sup 3}, 7.4 x 10{sup 3} and 4.8 x 10{sup 2} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. The hydrodynamic amperometry of rotating-modified electrode at constant potential versus reference electrode was used for detection of bromate, chlorate and iodate. The detection limit, linear calibration range and sensitivity for chlorate, bromate and iodate detections were 0.5 {mu}M, 2 {mu}M to 1 mM, 8.4 nA/{mu}M, 0.6 {mu}M, 2 {mu}M to 0.15 mM, 11 nA/{mu}M, and 2.5 {mu}M, 10 {mu}M to 4 mM and 1.5 nA/{mu}M, respectively. Excellent electrochemical reversibility of the redox couple, good reproducibility, high stability, low detection limit, long life time, fast amperometric response time, wide linear concentration range, technical simplicity and possibility of rapid preparation are great advantages of this sensor. The obtained results show promising practical

  18. Simple simultaneous determination of soluble and insoluble trace metal components in sea salts by a combined coprecipitation/X-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsuki, Masaaki; Ali, Muhammad; Kyotani, Tomohiro; Fukasawa, Tsutomu

    1996-01-01

    An X-ray fluorescence method using the coprecipitation-preconcentration technique has been developed for simple determination of both acid-soluble and insoluble trace metal components, such as manganese, iron, nickel, copper and zinc in sea salts. A salt sample is dissolved in a nitric acid solution, and the residue is filtered off onto a membrane filter. After the pH is adjusted to 7-8, the filtrate is boiled, followed by addition of aluminum carrier, oxine and thionalide solutions. The solution is re-adjusted to pH 9, and kept at 80-85degC for 60 min. The precipitates are filtered off onto another membrane filter. X-Ray fluorescence intensities from two filters loaded with the residue and precipitates are measured and the concentrations of the elements are determined simultaneously using the calibration curves. Detection limits were 0.01 μg g -1 for manganese and copper, 0.04 μg g -1 for nickel and zinc, and 0.05 μg g -1 for iron, regardless of the soluble and the insoluble components. The present method was successfully applied to the analysis of sea salt samples. (author)

  19. Study in rabbits of portal circulation by a radioisotopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliska, C.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a precocius - and noninvasive method for the detection of portal circulation alterations by means of time interval measurements between the rectal administration of radiotracers and their detection in liver and head is aimed at. The pertecnetate ( 99 sup(m)Tc)- and iodate ( 131 I) absorption by the terminal large intestine was tested in 22 rabbits. The time iinterval between rectal administration of the radiotracer and its appearance in liver and head was determined in 12 rabbits, by external detection with a scintillation camera. The same parameters were studied in 9 animals submitted to the ligature of the portal vein. Iodate and pertecnetate are absorbed by the terminal large intestine, the pertecnetate absorption being significantly smaller than that of iodate. The pertecnetate distribution volume is smaller than that of iodate; the rectum - liver - and rectum - head time intervals is increased in animals with the ligature of portal vein. Application of the method to larger animals will permit the necessary improvements for its utilization as a precocius - noninvasive - and inocuous test in the evaluation of alteration of the human portal circulation. (Author) [pt

  20. Development and Optimization of Voltammetric Methods for Real Time Analysis of Electrorefiner Salt with High Concentrations of Actinides and Fission Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Michael F.; Phongikaroon, Supathorn; Zhang, Jinsuo

    2018-03-30

    This project addresses the problem of achieving accurate material control and accountability (MC&A) around pyroprocessing electrorefiner systems. Spent nuclear fuel pyroprocessing poses a unique challenge with respect to reprocessing technology in that the fuel is never fully dissolved in the process fluid. In this case, the process fluid is molten, anhydrous LiCl-KCl salt. Therefore, there is no traditional input accountability tank. However, electrorefiners (ER) accumulate very large quantities of fissile nuclear material (including plutonium) and should be well safeguarded in a commercial facility. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) currently operates a pyroprocessing facility for treatment of spent fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II with two such ER systems. INL implements MC&A via a mass tracking model in combination with periodic sampling of the salt and other materials followed by destructive analysis. This approach is projected to be insufficient to meet international safeguards timeliness requirements. A real time or near real time monitoring method is, thus, direly needed to support commercialization of pyroprocessing. A variety of approaches to achieving real time monitoring for ER salt have been proposed and studied to date—including a potentiometric actinide sensor for concentration measurements, a double bubbler for salt depth and density measurements, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for concentration measurements. While each of these methods shows some promise, each also involves substantial technical complexity that may ultimately limit their implementation. Yet another alternative is voltammetry—a very simple method in theory that has previously been tested for this application to a limited extent. The equipment for a voltammetry system consists of off-the-shelf components (three electrodes and a potentiostat), which results in substantial benefits relative to cost and robustness. Based on prior knowledge of electrochemical

  1. Impacts of using salt and salt brine for roadway deicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) uses a variety of methods to help ensure safe travel on the state highway system : following winter storm events. These methods include plowing, use of sand to improve traction, and use of salt and chemical : com...

  2. Bath Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths and been blamed for a handful of suicides and murders. Two of the chemicals in bath salts (mephedrone and MDPV) are Schedule I class drugs. That means they have a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use . People who are ...

  3. Large-scale synthesis of Pb1-xLa xTiO3 ceramic powders by molten salt method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Zongying; Xing Xianran; Yu Ranbo; Liu Guirong; Xing Qifeng

    2006-01-01

    The ferroelectric perovskite type lanthanum doped lead titanate (PLT) ceramic powders were synthesized in one step with the starting materials of PbC 2 O 4 , La 2 O 3 and TiO 2 in NaCl-KCl molten salts in the temperature range of 700-950 deg. C. It was found that molten salt method was a large scale and easy preparation way to produce PLT powders with high dispersity. Tetragonal phase Pb 1-x La x TiO 3 ceramic powders were identified by XRD in the composition range 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3 and mono-dispersed particles with spheric shape and less than 100 nm size were observed by SEM. The grain sizes of Pb 1-x La x TiO 3 ceramic powders increased with the increase of La content and decreased with calcination temperature. The grain growth progress and the possible reaction mechanism in molten salts and its influencing factors were discussed in this work. The grain growth process was the main influencing factor of the grain size, which depended on the solubility in the flux

  4. Characterization and electrochemical properties of high tap-density LiFePO4/C cathode materials by a combination of carbothermal reduction and molten salt methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fey, George Ting-Kuo; Lin, Yi-Chuan; Kao, Hsien-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Olivine-structured LiFePO 4 cathode materials were prepared via a combination of carbothermal reduction (CR) and molten salt (MS) methods. To enhance the powder's tap density, the LiFePO 4 /C composite was pressed into pellets and then sintered for at least 1 h at 1028 K in the reaction environment of KCl molten salts. The use of molten salt can effectively influence unit cell volume, morphology and tap density of particles, and consequently change the electrochemical performance of LiFePO 4 /C. The composites were characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Raman spectroscopy and tap density testing. The final product with high tap density of 1.50 g cm −3 contains 4.58 wt% carbon and exhibits good discharge capacity of 141 mAh g −1 at a 0.2 C-rate in the potential range of 2.8–4.0 V.

  5. Evaluation of the effect of salts on chemical, structural, textural, sensory and heating properties of cheese: Contribution of conventional methods and spectral ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudiyi, M; Aït-Kaddour, A

    2018-03-21

    Chemical composition, sensory characteristics, textural and functional properties are among the most important characteristics, which directly relates to the global quality of cheese and to consumer acceptability. A number of factors including milk composition, processing conditions and salt content, influences these properties. The past decades many investigations were performed on the possibilities to reduce salt content of cheese due to its adverse health effects, the current lifestyle and the awareness of the consumers for nutrition quality products. Due to the multiple potential effects of reducing NaCl (simple reduction or substitution) on cheese attributes, it is of utmost importance to identify and understand those effects in order to control the global quality and safety of the final product. In the present review a collection of the different results and conclusions drawn after studying the effect of salts by conventional (e.g. wet chemistry) and instrumental (e.g. spectral) methods on chemical, structural, textural, sensory and heating properties of cheese are presented.

  6. Summary Report of Laboratory Testing to Establish the Effectiveness of Proposed Treatment Methods for Unremediated and Remediated Nitrate Salt Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-12

    The inadvertent creation of transuranic waste carrying hazardous waste codes D001 and D002 requires the treatment of the material to eliminate the hazardous characteristics and allow its eventual shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report documents the effectiveness of two treatment methods proposed to stabilize both the unremediated and remediated nitrate salt waste streams (UNS and RNS, respectively). The two technologies include the addition of zeolite (with and without the addition of water as a processing aid) and cementation. Surrogates were developed to evaluate both the solid and liquid fractions expected from parent waste containers, and both the solid and liquid fractions were tested. Both technologies are shown to be effective at eliminating the characteristic of ignitability (D001), and the addition of zeolite was determined to be effective at eliminating corrosivity (D002), with the preferred option1 of zeolite addition currently planned for implementation at the Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility. During the course of this work, we established the need to evaluate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed remedy for debris material, if required. The evaluation determined that Wypalls absorbed with saturated nitrate salt solutions exhibit the ignitability characteristic (all other expected debris is not classified as ignitable). Follow-on studies will be developed to demonstrate the effectiveness of stabilization for ignitable Wypall debris. Finally, liquid surrogates containing saturated nitrate salts did not exhibit the characteristic of ignitability in their pure form (those neutralized with Kolorsafe and mixed with sWheat did exhibit D001). As a result, additional nitrate salt solutions (those exhibiting the oxidizer characteristic) will be tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of the remedy.

  7. A novel VIGS method by agroinoculation of cotton seeds and application for elucidating functions of GhBI-1 in salt-stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxia; Wang, Furong; Zhang, Chuanyun; Zhang, Junhao; Chen, Yu; Liu, Guodong; Zhao, Yanxiu; Hao, Fushun; Zhang, Jun

    2018-06-04

    A VIGS method by agroinoculation of cotton seeds was developed for gene silencing in young seedlings and roots, and applied in functional analysis of GhBI-1 in response to salt stress. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has been widely used to investigate the functions of genes expressed in mature leaves, but not yet in young seedlings or roots of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Here, we developed a simple and effective VIGS method for silencing genes in young cotton seedlings and roots by soaking naked seeds in Agrobacterium cultures carrying tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-VIGS vectors. When the naked seeds were soaked in Agrobacterium cultures with an OD600 of 1.5 for 90 min, it was optimal for silencing genes effectively in young seedlings as clear photo-bleaching phenotype in the newly emerging leaves of pTRV:GhCLA1 seedlings were observed at 12-14 days post inoculation. Silencing of GhPGF (cotton pigment gland formation) by this method resulted in a 90% decrease in transcript abundances of the gene in roots at the early development stage. We further used the tool to investigate function of GhBI-1 (cotton Bax inhibitor-1) gene in response to salt stress and demonstrated that GhBI-1 might play a protective role under salt stress by suppressing stress-induced cell death in cotton. Our results showed that the newly established VIGS method is a powerful tool for elucidating functions of genes in cotton, especially the genes expressed in young seedlings and roots.

  8. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  9. Where Does Road Salt Go - a Static Salt Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C. W.; Liu, F.; Moriarty, V. W.

    2017-12-01

    Each winter, more than 15 million tons of road salt is applied in the United States for the de-icing purpose. Considerable amount of chloride in road salt flows into streams/drainage systems with the snow melt runoff and spring storms, and eventually goes into ecologically sensitive low-lying areas in the watershed, such as ponds and lakes. In many watersheds in the northern part of US, the chloride level in the water body has increased significantly in the past decades, and continues an upward trend. The environmental and ecological impact of the elevated chloride level can no longer be ignored. However although there are many studies on the biological impact of elevated chloride levels, there are few investigations on how the spatially distributed road salt application affects various parts of the watershed. In this presentation, we propose a static road salt model as a first-order metric to address spacial distribution of salt loading. Derived from the Topological Wetness Index (TWI) in many hydrological models, this static salt model provides a spatial impact as- sessment of road salt applications. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the static model, National Elevation Dataset (NED) of ten-meter resolution of Lake George watershed in New York State is used to generate the TWI, which is used to compute a spatially dis- tributed "salt-loading coefficient" of the whole watershed. Spatially varying salt applica- tion rate is then aggregated, using the salt-loading coefficients as weights, to provide salt loading assessments of streams in the watershed. Time-aggregated data from five CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) sensors in selected streams are used for calibration. The model outputs and the sensor data demonstrate a strong linear correlation, with the R value of 0.97. The investigation shows that the static modeling approach may provide an effective method for the understanding the input and transport of road salt to within watersheds.

  10. A novel method of non-violent dissolution of sodium metal in a concentrated aqueous solution of Epsom salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmanan, A.R.; Prasad, M.V.R.; Ponraju, D.; Krishnan, H.

    2004-01-01

    A new technique of non-violent and fast dissolution of sodium metal in a concentrated aqueous solution of Epsom salt (MgSO 4 .7H 2 O) at room temperature (RT) has been developed. The dissolution process is mildly exothermic but could be carried out even in a glass beaker in air under swift stirring condition. The reaction products consist of mixed salts of MgSO 4 and Na 2 SO 4 as well as Mg(OH) 2 which are only mildly alkaline and hence are non-corrosive and non-hazardous unlike NaOH. A 50 mL solution having Epsom salt concentration of 2 M was found to give the optimal composition for disposal of 1 g of sodium. Supersaturated (>2.7 M), as well as dilute (<1.1 M) solutions, however, cause violent reactions and hence should be avoided. Repeated sodium dissolution in Epsom solution produced a solid waste of 4.7 g per g of sodium dissolved which is comparable with the waste (4 g) produced in 8 M NaOH solution. A 1.4 M Epsom solution sprayed with a high-pressure jet cleaner at RT in air easily removed the sodium blocked inside a metal pipe made of mild steel. The above jet also dissolved peacefully residual sodium collected on the metal tray after a sodium fire experiment. No sodium fire or explosion was observed during this campaign. The Epsom solution spray effectively neutralized the minor quantity of sodium aerosol produced during this campaign. This novel technique would hence be quite useful for draining sodium from fast breeder reactor components and bulk processing of sodium as well as for sodium fire fighting

  11. Study of Hot Salt Stress Corrosion Crack Initiation of Alloy IMI 834 by using DC Potential Drop Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustode, Mangesh D. [Bharat Forge Ltd., Pune (India); Dewangan, Bhupendra [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India); Raja, V. S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India); Paulose, Neeta; Babu, Narendra [Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE), Bangalore (India)

    2016-10-15

    DC potential drop technique was employed during the slow strain rate tests to study the hot salt stress corrosion crack (HSSCC) initiation at 300 and 400 ℃. Threshold stresses for HSSCC initiation were found to about 88 % of the yield strength at both temperatures, but the time from crack initiation to final failure (Δtscc) decreased significantly with temperature, which reflects larger tendency for brittle fracture and secondary cracking. The brittle fracture features consisted of transgranular cracking through the primary α grain and discontinuous faceted cracking through the transformed β grains.

  12. Method to remove methyl iodide131 gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitz, V.R.; Blachly, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    A two-stage impregnation process for charcoal is presented which is to be used for radioactive iodine or methyl iodide removal from the waste gas of a nuclear reactor. In the first stage, the coal is treated at pH 10 with an aqueous mixture of a salt of iodic acid (hypoiodite, iodate, or periodate) with iodine or iodide. In the second stage, impregnation with a tertiary amine occurs. The concentrations are chosen so that the charcoal will take up between 0.5 and 4% by weight of iodine. (UWI) [de

  13. The effects of dietary calcium iodate on productive performance, egg quality and iodine accumulation in eggs of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshalinejad, R; Hassanabadi, A; Nassiri-Moghaddam, H; Zarghi, H

    2018-01-25

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of various levels of supplemental calcium iodate (CI) on productive performance, egg quality, blood indices and iodine (I) accumulation in the eggs in commercial laying hens. A total of 240 White Leghorn layers (Hy-line W36) were divided through a completely randomized design into six treatments with five replicates and eight hens per each at 32 weeks of age. This experiment lasted for 12 weeks. Concentrations of I in the mash diets were 0.74, 3.13, 5.57, 8.11, 10.65 and 12.94 mg I/kg of feed in treatments 1-6 respectively. The added doses of CI were included 0.0 (control), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 mg/kg of diet for treatments 1-6 respectively. There were no significant differences in productive performance among the treatments. The highest eggshell strength was observed in group fed diet containing 3.13 mg I/kg (p = .014). The highest percentage of calcium and lowest percentage of phosphorus in eggshell were observed in group fed diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg (p = .0001). Feeding hens with diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg increased serum triiodothyronine-to-thyroxine ratio (p = .0001). Serum alanine aminotransferase activity in hens fed diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg was significantly more than control (p = .041). Blood Serum triglycerides in hens fed diet containing 8.11 mg I/kg were significantly higher than control (p = .0001). Edible fraction of the eggs of birds fed diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg was enriched by I almost 3 times more than those fed diet containing 0.74 mg I/kg. The results suggested that egg production, egg mass, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not significantly affected by dietary I levels. Iodine accumulation in the eggs were increased by increasing dietary I levels and the level of 10 mg/kg CI could supply I enrichment of the eggs. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Salt disposal: Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report presents the findings of a study conducted for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. Permanent disposal options are examined for salt resulting from the excavation of a waste repository in the bedded salt deposits of the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah. The study is based on a repository salt backfill compaction of 60% of the original density which leaves a total of 8 million tons of 95% pure salt to be disposed of over a 30-year period. The feasibility, impacts, and mitigation methods are examined for five options: commercial disposal, permanent onsite surface disposal, permanent offsite disposal, deepwell injection, and ocean and Great Salt Lake disposal. The study concludes the following: Commercial marketing of all repository salt would require a subsidy for transportation to major salt markets. Permanent onsite surface storage is both economically and technically feasible. Permanent offsite disposal is technically feasible but would incur additional transportation costs. Selection of an offsite location would provide a means of mitigating impacts associated with surface storage at the repository site. Deepwell injection is an attractive disposal method; however, the large water requirement, high cost of development, and poor performance of similar operating brine disposal wells eliminates this option from consideration as the primary means of disposal for the Paradox Basin. Ocean disposal is expensive because of high transportation cost. Also, regulatory approval is unlikely. Ocean disposal should be eliminated from further consideration in the Paradox Basin. Great Salt Lake disposal appears to be technically feasible. Great Salt Lake disposal would require state approval and would incur substantial costs for salt transportation. Permanent onsite disposal is the least expensive method for disposal of all repository salt

  15. Zechstein salt Denmark. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyngsie Jacobsen, F.; Soenderholm, M.; Springer, N.; Gutzon Larsen, J.; Lagoni, P.; Fabricius, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Salt Research Project EFP-81 has mainly been aiming upon an elucidation of the stratigraphy of the Danish Zechstein evaporites. Also an attempt to clarify the connection between the fabric and the strength of the strongly deformed domal rock salt is performed. The unravelling of the stratigraphy is carried out by means of renewed interpretations of new and old data from all the wells drilling in the Danish Permian basin in connection with a revaluation of the core descriptions. By means of trace elements analysis it is possible to some extent to distinguish between Zestein 1 and 2 ''grey salt''. A description of the transition zone between Zechstein 1 and 2 is carried out. New methods of fabric analyses are introduced and the strength measurements of the rock salt are treated statistically in connection with new defined rock salt parameters. An investigation of fluid inclusions in halite and quartz crystals from dome salt has resulted in the determination of salinity and chemical composition of the brines present in the salt. Temperatures and corresponding pressures during the evolution of the salt pillow and salt dome have been established. The dehydration conditions of natural carnallite in situ are clarified. (author)

  16. A novel and efficient method for the immobilization of thermolysin using sodium chloride salting-in and consecutive microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feifei; Zhang, Fangkai; Du, Fangchuan; Wang, Anming; Gao, Weifang; Wang, Qiuyan; Yin, Xiaopu; Xie, Tian

    2012-07-01

    Sodium chloride salting-in and microwave irradiation were combined to drive thermolysin molecules into mesoporous support to obtain efficiently immobilized enzyme. When the concentration of sodium chloride was 3 M and microwave power was 40 W, 93.2% of the enzyme was coupled to the support by 3 min, and the maximum specific activity of the immobilized enzyme was 17,925.1 U mg(-1). This was a 4.5-fold increase in activity versus enzyme immobilized using conventional techniques, and a 1.6-fold increase versus free enzyme. Additionally, the thermal stability of the immobilized thermolysin was significantly improved. When incubated at 70°C, there was no reduction in activity by 3.5h, whereas free thermolysin lost most of its activity by 3h. Immobilization also protected the thermolysin against organic solvent denaturation. The microwave-assisted immobilization technique, combined with sodium chloride salting-in, could be applied to other sparsely soluble enzymes immobilization because of its simplicity and high efficiency. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A New, Eco-Friendly Method for Iodination of Activated Arenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sathiyapriya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective, eco-friendly method for iodination of arenes is presented. The reaction of activated aromatics with a mixture of sodium iodate and sodium sulphite in the presence of hydrochloric acid gives mono iodoarenes in high yields.

  18. Optimizing a Test Method to Evaluate Resistance of Pervious Concrete to Cycles of Freezing and Thawing in the Presence of Different Deicing Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Chehong; Shehata, Medhat H; Lotfy, Abdurrahmaan

    2016-10-28

    The lack of a standard test method for evaluating the resistance of pervious concrete to cycles of freezing and thawing in the presence of deicing salts is the motive behind this study. Different sample size and geometry, cycle duration, and level of submersion in brine solutions were investigated to achieve an optimized test method. The optimized test method was able to produce different levels of damage when different types of deicing salts were used. The optimized duration of one cycle was found to be 24 h with twelve hours of freezing at -18 °C and twelve hours of thawing at +21 °C, with the bottom 10 mm of the sample submerged in the brine solution. Cylinder samples with a diameter of 100 mm and height of 150 mm were used and found to produce similar results to 150 mm-cubes. Based on the obtained results a mass loss of 3%-5% is proposed as a failure criterion of cylindrical samples. For the materials and within the cycles of freezing/thawing investigated here, the deicers that caused the most damage were NaCl, CaCl 2 and urea, followed by MgCl 2 , potassium acetate, sodium acetate and calcium-magnesium acetate. More testing is needed to validate the effects of different deicers under long term exposures and different temperature ranges.

  19. Optimizing a Test Method to Evaluate Resistance of Pervious Concrete to Cycles of Freezing and Thawing in the Presence of Different Deicing Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chehong Tsang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a standard test method for evaluating the resistance of pervious concrete to cycles of freezing and thawing in the presence of deicing salts is the motive behind this study. Different sample size and geometry, cycle duration, and level of submersion in brine solutions were investigated to achieve an optimized test method. The optimized test method was able to produce different levels of damage when different types of deicing salts were used. The optimized duration of one cycle was found to be 24 h with twelve hours of freezing at −18 °C and twelve hours of thawing at +21 °C, with the bottom 10 mm of the sample submerged in the brine solution. Cylinder samples with a diameter of 100 mm and height of 150 mm were used and found to produce similar results to 150 mm-cubes. Based on the obtained results a mass loss of 3%–5% is proposed as a failure criterion of cylindrical samples. For the materials and within the cycles of freezing/thawing investigated here, the deicers that caused the most damage were NaCl, CaCl 2 and urea, followed by MgCl 2 , potassium acetate, sodium acetate and calcium-magnesium acetate. More testing is needed to validate the effects of different deicers under long term exposures and different temperature ranges.

  20. Optimizing a Test Method to Evaluate Resistance of Pervious Concrete to Cycles of Freezing and Thawing in the Presence of Different Deicing Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Chehong; Shehata, Medhat H.; Lotfy, Abdurrahmaan

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a standard test method for evaluating the resistance of pervious concrete to cycles of freezing and thawing in the presence of deicing salts is the motive behind this study. Different sample size and geometry, cycle duration, and level of submersion in brine solutions were investigated to achieve an optimized test method. The optimized test method was able to produce different levels of damage when different types of deicing salts were used. The optimized duration of one cycle was found to be 24 h with twelve hours of freezing at −18 °C and twelve hours of thawing at +21 °C, with the bottom 10 mm of the sample submerged in the brine solution. Cylinder samples with a diameter of 100 mm and height of 150 mm were used and found to produce similar results to 150 mm-cubes. Based on the obtained results a mass loss of 3%–5% is proposed as a failure criterion of cylindrical samples. For the materials and within the cycles of freezing/thawing investigated here, the deicers that caused the most damage were NaCl, CaCl2 and urea, followed by MgCl2, potassium acetate, sodium acetate and calcium-magnesium acetate. More testing is needed to validate the effects of different deicers under long term exposures and different temperature ranges. PMID:28773998

  1. A highly selective method for the synthesis of symmetrical trisubstituted pyridines using transition and non-transition metal salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebuov, F.A.; Dzhemilev, U.M.; Ruttan, O.G.

    1986-01-01

    A study was carried out on the reaction of C 2 -C 6 aliphatic acid chlorides with t-BuOH, isobutylene and NH 3 by the action of transition and non-transition metal salts (A1C1 3 , ZnC1 2 , InC1 3 , TiC1 4 , TiC1 3 , WC1 6 , FeC1 3 , CoC1 2 , NiC1 2 and PdC1 2 ) and bimetallic systems A1C1 3 -NiC1 2 and A1C1 3 -PdC1 2 in a search for new catalysts for this reaction which provide for the formation of 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine (I), which has practical importance, and to determine the possibility of using other acid chlorides and isobutylene in this reaction

  2. Methods for estimating the enthalpy of formation of inorganic compounds; thermochemical and crystallographic investigations of uranyl salts of group VI elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenburg, N.P.

    1978-01-01

    The first part of this thesis is concerned with parameter methods for estimating the standard enthalpy of formation, ΔH 0 sub(f), of inorganic compounds. In this type of method the estimate is a function of parameters, assigned to cation and anion, respectively. The usefulness of a new estimation method is illustrated in the case of uranyl sulphide. In the second part of this thesis crystallographic and thermochemical properties of uranyl salts of group VI elements are described. Crystal structures are given for β-UO 2 SO 4 , UO 2 SeO 3 , and α-UO 2 SeO 4 . Thermochemical measurements have been restricted to the determination of ΔH 0 sub(f)(UO 2 SO 3 ) and ΔH 0 sub(f)(UO 2 TeO 3 ) by means of isoperibol solution calorimetry. (Auth.)

  3. Summary Report of Comprehensive Laboratory Testing to Establish the Effectiveness of Proposed Treatment Methods for Unremediated and Remediated Nitrate Salt Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hargis, Kenneth Marshall [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-04

    The inadvertent creation of transuranic waste carrying hazardous waste codes D001 and D002 requires the treatment of the material to eliminate the hazardous characteristics and allow its eventual shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report documents the effectiveness of two treatment methods proposed to stabilize both the unremediated and remediated nitrate salt waste streams (UNS and RNS, respectively) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The two technologies include the addition of zeolite (with and without the addition of water as a processing aid) and cementation. Surrogates were developed to evaluate both the solid and liquid fractions expected from parent waste containers, and both the solid and liquid fractions were tested. Both technologies are shown to be effective at eliminating the characteristic of ignitability (D001), and the addition of zeolite was determined to be effective at eliminating corrosivity (D002), with the preferred option1 of adding zeolite currently planned for implementation at LANL’s Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF). The course of this work verified the need to evaluate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed remedy for debris material, if required. The evaluation determined that WypAlls, cheesecloth, and Celotex absorbed with saturated nitrate salt solutions exhibit the ignitability characteristic (all other expected debris is not classified as ignitable). Finally, liquid surrogates containing saturated nitrate salts did not exhibit the characteristic of ignitability in their pure form (those neutralized with Kolorsafe and mixed with sWheat did exhibit D001). Sensitivity testing and an analysis were conducted to evaluate the waste form for reactivity. Tests included subjecting surrogate material to mechanical impact, friction, electrostatic discharge and thermal insults. The testing confirmed that the waste does not exhibit the characteristic of

  4. New Method for Super Hydrophobic Treatment of Gas Diffusion Layers for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Using Electrochemical Reduction of Diazonium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yohann R J; Benayad, Anass; Schroder, Maxime; Morin, Arnaud; Pauchet, Joël

    2015-07-15

    The purpose of this article is to report a new method for the surface functionalization of commercially available gas diffusion layers (GDLs) by the electrochemical reduction of diazonium salt containing hydrophobic functional groups. The method results in superhydrophobic GDLs, over a large area, without pore blocking. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study based on core level spectra and chemical mapping has demonstrated the successful grafting route, resulting in a homogeneous distribution of the covalently bonded hydrophobic molecules on the surface of the GDL fibers. The result was corroborated by contact angle measurement, showing similar hydrophobicity between the grafted and PTFE-modified GDLs. The electrochemically modified GDLs were tested in proton exchange membrane fuel cells under automotive, wet, and dry conditions and demonstrated improved performance over traditional GDLs.

  5. A simple one-step synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles via salt-alkali-composited-mediated method and investigation on their comparative photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Donghu; Zhu, Yabo; He, Zhanjun; Liu, Zhangsheng; Luo, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The TEM image shows that the as-synthesized ZnS particle size was estimated to be about 40 nm and this newly synthesized ZnS nanoparticles can be as a promising photocatalytic degradation material for the organic pollutant removal. Display Omitted Highlights: ► ZnS nanoparticles with cubic phase have been successfully synthesized via salt-alkali-composited-mediated method (SACM) for the first time and this method has not been found so far. ► Its band gap (E g ) is a little bigger than commercial ZnS particle mainly due to quantum size effect. ► The as-synthesized ZnS nanoparticles show much more efficient photocatalytic degradation on methyl orange than commercial ZnS powder. -- Abstract: ZnS nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized via salt-alkali-composited-mediated method (SACM) for the first time, using a mixture of LiNO 3 and LiOH (LiNO 3 /LiOH = 60.7:39.3) as a reaction solvent, sodium sulfide and zinc nitrate as reactants at temperature of 210 °C for 24 h in the absence of organic dispersant or capping agents. X-ray diffraction, environment scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the as-synthesized products were well crystallized and belonged to nano-scale. Their UV–vis absorption spectrum demonstrated a band gap of 3.6406 eV corresponding to the absorption edge of 340 nm. The experimental result of photocatalytic degradation on methyl orange by the nano-ZnS showed much better photocatalysis than that by the commercial ZnS powder under the irradiation of ultraviolet light and visible light, respectively.

  6. A novel screening method based on menadione mediated rapid reduction of tetrazolium salt for testing of anti-mycobacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upasana; Akhtar, Shamim; Mishra, Abhishek; Sarkar, Dhiman

    2011-02-01

    A microplate-based rapid, inexpensive and robust technique is developed by using tetrazolium salt 2,3-bis[2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) and menadione to determine the viability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis bacilli in microplate format. In general, XTT reduction is an extremely slow process which takes almost 24 h to produce a detectable signal. Menadione could drastically induce this reduction to an almost equal extent within a few minutes in a dose dependent manner. The reduction of XTT is directly proportional to the cell concentration in the presence of menadione. The standardized protocol used 200 μM of XTT and 60 μM of menadione in 250 μl of cell suspension grown either in aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The cell suspension of M. bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis were incubated for 40 min before reading the optical density at 470 nm whereas M. smegmatis was incubated for 20 min. Calculated Signal/Noise (S/N) ratios obtained by applying this protocol were 5.4, 6.4 and 9.4 using M. bovis BCG, M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis respectively. The calculated Z' factors were >0.8 for all mycobacterium bacilli indicating the robustness of the XTT Reduction Menadione Assay (XRMA) for rapid screening of inhibitors. The assay protocol was validated by applying 10 standard anti-tubercular agents on M. tuberculosis, M. bovis BCG and M. smegmatis. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values were found to be similar to reported values from Colony Forming Unit (CFU) and REMA (resazurin microplate assay) assays. Altogether, XRMA is providing a novel anti-tubercular screening protocol which could be useful in high throughput screening programs against different physiological stages of the bacilli. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cooking without salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000760.htm Cooking without salt To use the sharing features on ... other dishes to add zest. Try Salt-free Cooking Explore cooking with salt substitutes. Add a splash ...

  8. Material equations for rock salt under mechanical and thermal load including treatment of boundary value problems by the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olschewski, J.; Stein, E.; Wagner, W.; Wetjen, D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a first step in the development of thermodynamically consistent material equations for inelastic materials, such as polycrystalline rock salt. In this context it is of particular importance to reduce the number and the structure of the internal variables, in order to allow for a fit with available experimental data. As an example this is demonstrated in detail in the case of the so-called dislocation model. As physical non-linearities and in addition also geometrical non-linearities lead to an inhomogeneous deformation - and stress state even in the case of simple samples, boundary value problems have to be studied, in order to test the material equations. For this purpose the finite element method has been used. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Low Thermal Conductivity of RE-Doped SrO(SrTiO3)1 Ruddlesden Popper Phase Bulk Materials Prepared by Molten Salt Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Yulia Eka; Said, Suhana Mohd; Refinel, Refinel; Ohtaki, Michitaka; Syukri, Syukri

    2018-04-01

    The SrO(SrTiO3)1 (Sr2TiO4) Ruddlesden Popper (RP) phase is a natural superlattice comprising of alternately stacking perovskite-type SrTiO3 layers and rock salt SrO layers along the crystallographic c direction. This paper discusses the properties of the Sr2TiO4 and (La, Sm)-doped Sr2TiO4 RP phase synthesized via molten salt method, within the context of thermoelectric applications. A good thermoelectric material requires high electrical conductivity, high Seebeck coefficient and low thermal conductivity. All three conditions have the potential to be fulfilled by the Sr2TiO4 RP phase, in particular, the superlattice structure allows a higher degree of phonon scattering hence resulting in lowered thermal conductivity. In this work, the Sr2TiO4 RP phase is doped with Sm and La respectively, which allows injection of charge carriers, modification of its electronic structure for improvement of the Seebeck coefficient, and most significantly, reduction of thermal conductivity. The particles with submicron size allows excessive phonon scattering along the boundaries, thus reduces the thermal conductivity by fourfold. In particular, the Sm-doped sample exhibited even lower lattice thermal conductivity, which is believed to be due to the mismatch in the ionic radius of Sr and Sm. This finding is useful as a strategy to reduce thermal conductivity of Sr2TiO4 RP phase materials as thermoelectric candidates, by employing dopants of differing ionic radius.

  10. Molten salt-directed synthesis method for LiMn2O4 nanorods as a cathode material for a lithium-ion battery with superior cyclability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, Mesfin A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A molten salt synthesis technique has been used to prepare nanorods of Mn2O3 and single-crystal LiMn2O4 nanorods cathode material with superior capacity retention. The molten salt-directed synthesis involved the use of NaCl as the eutectic melt...

  11. Formation of a robust and stable film comprising ionic liquid and polyoxometalate on glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes: Toward sensitive and fast detection of hydrogen peroxide and iodate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi, Behzad, E-mail: haghighi@iasbs.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195 - 1159, Gava Zang, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamidi, Hassan [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195 - 1159, Gava Zang, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gorton, Lo [Institute of Chemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-06-30

    A robust and stable film comprising n-octylpyridinum hexafluorophosphate ([C{sub 8}Py][PF{sub 6}]) and 1:12 phosphomolybdic acid (PMo{sub 12}) was prepared on glassy carbon electrodes modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes (GCE/MWCNTs) by dip-coating. The cyclic voltammograms of the GCE/MWCNTs/[C{sub 8}Py][PF{sub 6}]-PMo{sub 12} showed three well-defined pairs of redox peaks due to the PMo{sub 12} system. The surface coverage for the immobilized PMo{sub 12} and the average values of the electron transfer rate constant for three pairs of redox peaks were evaluated. The GCE/MWCNTs/[C{sub 8}Py][PF{sub 6}]-PMo{sub 12} showed great electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and iodate. The kinetic parameters of the catalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide and iodate at the electrode surface and analytical features of the sensor for amperometric determination of hydrogen peroxide and iodate were evaluated.

  12. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urquhart, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300°C, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  13. Anticipating hidden text salting in emails (extended abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    Lioma, Christina; Moens, Marie-Francine; Gomez, Juan Carlos; De Beer, Jan; Bergholz, Andre; Paass, Gerhard; Horkan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Salting is the intentional addition or distortion of content, aimed to evade automatic filtering. Salting is usually found in spam emails. Salting can also be hidden in phishing emails, which aim to steal personal information from users. We present a novel method that detects hidden salting tricks as visual anomalies in text. We solely use these salting tricks to successfully classify emails as phishing (F-measure >90%).

  14. Community solar salt production in Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Kabilan; Salgaonkar, Bhakti B; Das, Deepthi; Bragança, Judith M

    2012-12-01

    Traditional salt farming in Goa, India has been practised for the past 1,500 years by a few communities. Goa's riverine estuaries, easy access to sea water and favourable climatic conditions makes salt production attractive during summer. Salt produced through this natural evaporation process also played an important role in the economy of Goa even during the Portuguese rule as salt was the chief export commodity. In the past there were 36 villages involved in salt production, which is now reduced to 9. Low income, lack of skilled labour, competition from industrially produced salt, losses incurred on the yearly damage of embankments are the major reasons responsible for the reduction in the number of salt pans.Salt pans (Mithagar or Mithache agor) form a part of the reclaimed waterlogged khazan lands, which are also utilised for aquaculture, pisciculture and agriculture. Salt pans in Goa experience three phases namely, the ceased phase during monsoon period of June to October, preparatory phase from December to January, and salt harvesting phase, from February to June. After the monsoons, the salt pans are prepared manually for salt production. During high tide, an influx of sea water occurs, which enters the reservoir pans through sluice gates. The sea water after 1-2 days on attaining a salinity of approximately 5ºBé, is released into the evaporator pans and kept till it attains a salinity of 23 - 25ºBé. The brine is then released to crystallizer pans, where the salt crystallises out 25 - 27ºBé and is then harvested.Salt pans form a unique ecosystem where succession of different organisms with varying environmental conditions occurs. Organisms ranging from bacteria, archaea to fungi, algae, etc., are known to colonise salt pans and may influence the quality of salt produced.The aim of this review is to describe salt farming in Goa's history, importance of salt production as a community activity, traditional method of salt production and the biota

  15. Synthesis of tungsten oxide (W{sub 18}O{sub 49}) nanosheets utilizing EDTA salt by microwave irradiation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hariharan, V.; Parthibavarman, M. [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Sekar, C., E-mail: Sekar2025@gmail.com [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Department of Bioelectronics and Biosensors, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamilnadu (India)

    2011-04-07

    Research highlights: > We have synthesized tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3-{delta}}) nanoparticles by microwave irradiation method for the first time using EDTA as surface modulator. The variation in stoichiometric oxygen content of the annealed samples clearly indicates the role of EDTA in reaction medium. The variation in oxygen content also modified the transparency of the end product confirming the change in optical conductivity. - Abstract: We report the synthesis of crystalline W{sub 18}O{sub 49} with nanosheet like morphology by low cost microwave irradiation method without employing hydrothermal process for the first time. Initially, WO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O was synthesized using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as surface modulator. The product was annealed at 600 {sup o}C for 6 h in ambient atmosphere in order to obtain anhydrous tungsten oxide W{sub 18}O{sub 49}. Powder X-ray diffraction results confirmed the as prepared WO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O to be orthorhombic and W{sub 18}O{sub 49} to be monoclinic phase, respectively. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) revealed that the W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanosheets have the average dimensions of the order of 250 nm in length and around 150 nm in width. UV-visible diffusion reflectance spectroscopic (DRS) studies revealed the band gap energies to be 3.28 and 3.47 eV for WO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O and W{sub 18}O{sub 49} samples, respectively. The growth mechanism of two dimensional W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanosheets is discussed.

  16. Balancing sub- and supra-salt strain in salt-influenced rifts: Implications for extension estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Alexander J.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Duffy, Oliver B.

    2017-09-01

    The structural style of salt-influenced rifts may differ from those formed in predominantly brittle crust. Salt can decouple sub- and supra-salt strain, causing sub-salt faults to be geometrically decoupled from, but kinematically coupled to and responsible for, supra-salt forced folding. Salt-influenced rifts thus contain more folds than their brittle counterparts, an observation often ignored in extension estimates. Fundamental to determining whether sub- and supra-salt structures are kinematically coherent, and the relative contributions of thin- (i.e. gravity-driven) and thick-skinned (i.e. whole-plate stretching) deformation to accommodating rift-related strain, is our ability to measure extension at both structural levels. We here use published physical models of salt-influenced extension to show that line-length estimates yield more accurate values of sub- and supra-salt extension compared to fault-heave, before applying these methods to seismic data from the Halten Terrace, offshore Norway. We show that, given the abundance of ductile deformation in salt-influenced rifts, significant amounts of extension may be ignored, leading to the erroneous interpretations of thin-skinned, gravity-gliding. If a system is kinematically coherent, supra-salt structures can help predict the occurrence and kinematics of sub-salt faults that may be poorly imaged and otherwise poorly constrained.

  17. Thermal diffusivity measurements of molten salts using a three-layered cell by the laser flash method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Hiromichi; Ogura, Gaku; Waseda, Yoshio; Suzuki, Mustumi

    1990-10-01

    A simple cell and easy data processing are described for measuring the thermal diffusivity of a liquid sample at high temperatures using the laser flash method. A cell consists of a liquid sample sandwiched by two metallic plates. The front surface of one metallic plate is exposed to a single pulse of beam laser and the resulting temperature rise of the back surface of the other metallic plate is measured. The logarithmic analysis proposed by James using the initial time region of the temperature response curve of a two layered cell system has been extended to apply to the present three layered cell system in order to estimate the thermal diffusivity value of a liquid sample. Measurements of distilled water and methanol were made first and the results were found to be in good agreement with the reference data. Then, the thermal diffusivities of molten NaNO3 at 593-660 K and of molten KNO3 at 621-694 K were determined and the results also appear to agree reasonably well with those reported in the literature.

  18. [Historical roles of salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, E; Ritz, C

    2004-12-17

    Recently increasing evidence has been provided pointing to a close relation of salt consumption to hypertension as well as to target organ damage. It is interesting to note that the discussion concerning salt is unusually emotional. This may be explained, at least in part, by the fact that since ancient times salt had deep symbolic significance, as exemplified, mostly subconsciously, by many customs and expressions still in current use. In the past salt was essential to preserve food. The past importance of salt as a commodity can well be compared with that of oil today. These and further historical aspects of the role of salt are briefly dealt with in this article.

  19. Salt bridges: geometrically specific, designable interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Jason E; Kulp, Daniel W; DeGrado, William F

    2011-03-01

    Salt bridges occur frequently in proteins, providing conformational specificity and contributing to molecular recognition and catalysis. We present a comprehensive analysis of these interactions in protein structures by surveying a large database of protein structures. Salt bridges between Asp or Glu and His, Arg, or Lys display extremely well-defined geometric preferences. Several previously observed preferences are confirmed, and others that were previously unrecognized are discovered. Salt bridges are explored for their preferences for different separations in sequence and in space, geometric preferences within proteins and at protein-protein interfaces, co-operativity in networked salt bridges, inclusion within metal-binding sites, preference for acidic electrons, apparent conformational side chain entropy reduction on formation, and degree of burial. Salt bridges occur far more frequently between residues at close than distant sequence separations, but, at close distances, there remain strong preferences for salt bridges at specific separations. Specific types of complex salt bridges, involving three or more members, are also discovered. As we observe a strong relationship between the propensity to form a salt bridge and the placement of salt-bridging residues in protein sequences, we discuss the role that salt bridges might play in kinetically influencing protein folding and thermodynamically stabilizing the native conformation. We also develop a quantitative method to select appropriate crystal structure resolution and B-factor cutoffs. Detailed knowledge of these geometric and sequence dependences should aid de novo design and prediction algorithms. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Compatibility of molten salt and structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Masahiro

    1994-01-01

    As the important factors for considering the compatibility of fuel salt and coolant salt with structural materials in molten salt reactors, there are the moisture remaining in molten salt and the fluorine potential in molten salt. In this study, as for the metals which are the main components of corrosion resistant alloys, the corrosion by the moisture remaining in molten salt and the dependence of the corrosion on fluorine potential were examined. As the molten salts, an eutectic molten salt LiF-BeF 2 was mainly used, and LiF-KF was used in combination. As the metallic materials, Cr, Ni and Cu which are the main components of corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloys, Hastelloy and Monel, were used. In the experiment, the metal pieces were immersed in the molten salt, and by sampling the molten salt, the change with time lapse of the concentration of the dissolved metals was examined. Besides, the electrochemical measurement was carried out for Cr, of which the corrosion was remarkable, and the change with time lapse of the dissolved ions was examined. The experimental setup, the experimental method, and the results of the immersion test and the electrochemical test are reported. The experiment on the corrosion of metals depending on fluorine potential is also reported. (K.I.)

  1. Discretionary salt use in airline meal service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, S; Wellman, N S; Dierkes, K E; Johnson, P M

    1987-02-01

    Salt use in airline meal service was studied through observation of returned meal trays of 932 passengers. Observation and weighing of salt packets on returned trays revealed that 64% of passengers did not salt their airline dinner, while 6% used the entire salt packet, 0.92 gm NaCl (362 mg Na). Average discretionary salt use among the 234 passengers (25%) who added salt was 0.57 gm NaCl (232 mg Na). Estimates of total sodium in the four airline dinners averaged 2.0 gm NaCl (786 mg Na). Laboratory assays of menu items produced by the airline foodservice differed 3% to 19% from estimated values. Sodium content of the four airline dinner menus was similar and did not affect salt use. Discretionary salt use was related to the total amount of entrée consumed but was not affected by the amount of salad consumed. It is postulated that salt use in the "captive" airline situation is predicated on consistent, habitual practices. Lowering sodium consumption in this setting may require alteration in both food preparation methods and quantity of salt presented in the packets.

  2. Compatibility of molten salt and structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Masahiro [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    As the important factors for considering the compatibility of fuel salt and coolant salt with structural materials in molten salt reactors, there are the moisture remaining in molten salt and the fluorine potential in molten salt. In this study, as for the metals which are the main components of corrosion resistant alloys, the corrosion by the moisture remaining in molten salt and the dependence of the corrosion on fluorine potential were examined. As the molten salts, an eutectic molten salt LiF-BeF{sub 2} was mainly used, and LiF-KF was used in combination. As the metallic materials, Cr, Ni and Cu which are the main components of corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloys, Hastelloy and Monel, were used. In the experiment, the metal pieces were immersed in the molten salt, and by sampling the molten salt, the change with time lapse of the concentration of the dissolved metals was examined. Besides, the electrochemical measurement was carried out for Cr, of which the corrosion was remarkable, and the change with time lapse of the dissolved ions was examined. The experimental setup, the experimental method, and the results of the immersion test and the electrochemical test are reported. The experiment on the corrosion of metals depending on fluorine potential is also reported. (K.I.).

  3. Strong magnetoelectric coupling in CoFe2O4-BaTiO3 composites prepared by molten-salt synthesis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Junwu; Xu Guoyue; Yang Ying; Cheng Chuanwei

    2009-01-01

    Magnetoelectric nano-composites (1 - x)CoFe 2 O 4 + (x)BaTiO 3 with x varies as 0, 0.5, 0.65 and 1.0 in molar ratio were prepared by molten-salt synthesis method. The structural analysis carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique has confirmed that both phases are present in all the nano-composites powders and ceramic composites. The TEM images show that the nano-particle crystallite size is about 50-80 nm, which is consistent to the result calculated by XRD. The dielectric constant was studied as a function of frequency for ceramic composites sintered by using those nano-composite powders. The saturation magnetization (Ms) and remnant polarization (Pr) were calculated from the magnetic hysteresis loop and electric hysteresis loop, respectively. And a large ME coefficient of about 17.04 mV cm -1 Oe -1 was observed for 0.5CoFe 2 O 4 + 0.5BaTiO 3 ME composite under the ac superimposed magnetic signal with 20 kHz frequency by using the lock-in technique

  4. New composites graphite/salt for high temperature thermal energy storage: From elaboration to development of thermal characterization methods for orthotropic conductive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acem, Zoubir

    2007-01-01

    This PhD is carried out within the framework of DISTOR (European) and HTPSTOCK (French) projects, which have for objective to conceive and study new graphite/salt composites dedicated to high temperature energy storage (>200 deg. C). She is split into two distinct part. The first one focused mainly on works linked with elaboration and thermal characterisation of these new composites. The different composites ways of elaboration (Dispersion, uniaxial compression, isostatic) associated to the different kind of graphite (Natural expanded graphite (ENG), synthetic graphite) investigated during the PhD are presented. The results of the thermal characterization campaign of these composites are also presented and permit to highlight the impact of graphite in the thermal behaviour of studied materials. Based on these results, modelling studies of the evolution of the thermal conductivity have been undertaken to deepen the understanding of the effect of graphite (quantity, size of particles) on the effective conductivity composites. The second one describes the thermal characterization devices and associated thermo-kinetics models which had to be developed and adapted to the specificities of newly developed materials. This concerns mainly the materials prepared by compression, which present orthotropic properties and are difficult to reproduce. So, the characterization of this kind of material is very difficult and tedious. That is why we are committed to develop and adapt existing methods of characterization to allow the complete thermal characterisation of an orthotropic conductive material from a single experimentation on a single sample. (author) [fr

  5. Fluid temperature at the corneal endothelium during phacoemulsification: comparison of an ophthalmic viscosurgical device and balanced salt solution using the finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reepolmaha, Somporn; Limtrakarn, Wiroj; Uthaisang-Tanechpongtamb, Wanlaya; Dechaumphai, Pramote

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate and compare the temperatures of two different anterior chamber solutions at the corneal endothelial level during phacoemulsification. An ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD) and balanced salt solution (BSS) were compared using the finite element method (FEM). The thermal properties of an OVD (IAL-F) and BSS were studied in an experimental setting. A computer-aided design model of ocular anatomy was created in two dimensions. The phaco needle was considered to be the only source of heat generation. Then, the FEM was used to demonstrate the transient temperature distribution in the two ocular models at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 s. In these models, the anterior chamber was filled with IAL-F (IAL-F model) or BSS (BSS model). The heat generation rate of the phaco needle was 0.0004 cal/s/mm(2). The maximum corneal endothelial temperatures for the two models at 60 s were 52.67 and 41.57 degrees C, respectively. The experimental IAL-F model showed fewer changes in temperature for any given time and location. At larger distances from the heat source, less temperature variation was detected. Phacoemulsification is a potential heat-generating procedure performed between the delicate anterior chamber structures. During this procedure, IAL-F protects the endothelium against heat better than BSS. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Synthesis of Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 39} by molten salts method and its Mössbauer spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Morales, Shirley Saraí; León Flores, Jesús A.; Pérez Mazariego, José Luis, E-mail: mazariego@ciencias.unam.mx; Marquina Fábrega, Vivianne; Gómez González, Raúl W.

    2017-01-01

    A sample of Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 39} was synthesized by the molten salts method in 2 h at 750 °C with KCl-KBr as reaction media. The sample was characterized with X-ray powder diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction confirms that a sillenite type structure with a cell parameter a=10.190(4) Å was achieved, with only small traces of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In order to get a Mössbauer spectrum with a good signal to noise ratio, the synthesis was made using 95% enriched α–{sup 57}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a Mössbauer spectrum for the Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 39} has been recorded. The nonappearance of a magnetic sextet confirms its paramagnetic behavior. The measured Mössbauer parameters (IS=0.20±0.004 mm/s and QS=0.2±0.07 mm/s) correspond to Fe{sup +3} in very symmetric surroundings, and rule out some interpretations given to the doublet observed in some Mössbauer spectra of BiFeO{sub 3}.

  7. Thermal Analysis of Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in a Generic Bedded Salt repository using the Semi-Analytical Method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matteo, Edward N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    An example case is presented for testing analytical thermal models. The example case represents thermal analysis of a generic repository in bedded salt at 500 m depth. The analysis is part of the study reported in Matteo et al. (2016). Ambient average ground surface temperature of 15°C, and a natural geothermal gradient of 25°C/km, were assumed to calculate temperature at the near field. For generic salt repository concept crushed salt backfill is assumed. For the semi-analytical analysis crushed salt thermal conductivity of 0.57 W/m-K was used. With time the crushed salt is expected to consolidate into intact salt. In this study a backfill thermal conductivity of 3.2 W/m-K (same as intact) is used for sensitivity analysis. Decay heat data for SRS glass is given in Table 1. The rest of the parameter values are shown below. Results of peak temperatures at the waste package surface are given in Table 2.

  8. Corrosion characterization of in-situ titanium diboride (TiB2) reinforced aluminium-copper (Al-Cu) alloy by two methods: Salts spray fog and linear polarization resistance (LPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmamuhamadani, R.; Talari, M. K.; Yahaya, Sabrina M.; Sulaiman, S.; Ismail, M. I. S.; Hanim, M. A. Azmah

    2018-05-01

    Aluminium-copper (Al-Cu) alloys is the one of most Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) have important high-strength Al alloys. The aluminium (Al) casting alloys, based on the Al-Cu system are widely used in light-weight constructions and transport applications requiring a combination of high strength and ductility. In this research, Al-Cu master alloy was reinforced with 3 and 6wt.% titanium diboride (TiB2) that obtained from salts route reactions. The salts used were were potassium hexafluorotitanate (K2TiF6) and potassium tetrafluoroborate (KBF4). The salts route reaction process were done at 800 °C. The Al-Cu alloy then has characterized on the mechanical properties and microstructure characterization. Salts spray fog test and Gamry-electrode potentiometer instruments were used to determine the corrosion rate of this alloys. From results obtained, the increasement of 3wt.%TiB2 contents will decrease the value of the corrosion rate. In corrosion test that conducted both of salt spray fog and Gamry-electrode potentiometer, the addition of 3wt.%TiB2 gave the good properties in corrosion characterization compare to Al-Cu-6wt.%TiB2 and Al-Cu cast alloy itself. As a comparison, Al-Cu with 3wt.%TiB2 gave the lowest value of corrosion rate, which means alloy has good properties in corrosion characterization. The results obtained show that in-situ Al-Cu alloy composites containing the different weight of TiB2 phase were synthesized successfully by the salt-metal reaction method.

  9. Sea Salt vs. Table Salt: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and healthy eating What's the difference between sea salt and table salt? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. The main differences between sea salt and table salt are in their taste, texture ...

  10. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  11. Molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    MSBR Study Group formed in October 1974 has studied molten salt breeder reactor and its various aspects. Usage of a molten salt fuel, extremely interesting as reactor chemistry, is a great feature to MSBR; there is no need for separate fuel making, reprocessing, waste storage facilities. The group studied the following, and these results are presented: molten salt technology, molten salt fuel chemistry and reprocessing, reactor characteristics, economy, reactor structural materials, etc. (Mori, K.)

  12. Electrokinetic removal of salt from brick masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2006-01-01

    A method to effectively remove salts from masonry is lacking. The present study aims at determining the removal efficiency of salts from bricks in an applied low current electric DC field. At first an investigation on removal of NaCl and Na(NO3)2 from spiked bricks in laboratory scale was conducted...

  13. Association constants of telluronium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, N.A.; Rivkin, B.B.; Sadekov, T.D.; Shvajka, O.P.

    1996-01-01

    Association constants in acetonitrile of triphenyl telluronium salts, which are dilute electrolytes, are determined through the conductometry method. Satisfactory correlation dependence of constants of interion association and threshold molar electroconductivity on the Litvinenko-Popov constants for depositing groups is identified. 6 refs

  14. Salt site performance assessment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  15. Development of a method to determine the total C-14 content in saturated salt solutions; Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Bestimmung von C-14{sub gesamt} in gesaettigten Salzloesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucks, C.; Prautsch, C. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    This two-step method described here for the determination of the total carbon-14 content in saturated salt solutions is divided in the analysis of the carbon-14 in the evaporable and the non-evaporable fraction. After driving off the inorganic carbon by acidification, the volatile carbon compounds and volatile decomposition products follow with rising temperature inside the sample vessel in a mild stream of oxygen to a tube furnace equipped with CuO catalyst for oxidizing the carbon compounds to CO{sub 2} at a temperature of 800 C. Water is condensed out with an intensive condenser and the released CO{sub 2} is absorbed in a wash bottle filled with sodium hydroxide. Similarly, an aliquot of the evaporation residue is put in the first zone of the tube furnace during the second step of the analysis. After heating the catalyst in the second zone of the furnace to 800 C the residue is heated stepwise to 800 C. By proceeding in this way, the non-volatile compounds are decomposed or oxidised in the oxygen stream and finally completely oxidized by the aid of the catalyst. The released CO{sub 2} is again absorbed in another wash bottle. The carbonate of each fraction is then precipitated as BaCO{sub 3} separately. Finally, the precipitate is washed, dried, finely grounded and covered with toluene scintillation cocktail for measurement in a LSC. The detection limit is about 0,2 Bq/l for a sample volume of 250 ml.

  16. Luminescence properties of NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} phosphors prepared by molten salt method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ting; Meng, Qingyu, E-mail: qingyumeng163@163.com; Sun, Wenjun

    2016-02-15

    Sm{sup 3+} singly doped NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} and Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} co-doped NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} phosphors have been synthesized by molten salt method. The crystal structure and morphology were characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). In Sm{sup 3+} singly doped NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} phosphors, the suitable doping concentration was proved. In Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} co-doped NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} phosphors, the energy transfer from Sm{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} is confirmed by the luminescent spectra. A strong absorption line at 405 nm can be generated from {sup 6}H{sub 5/2}-{sup 4}K{sub 11/2} ({sup 4}F{sub 7/2}) transition of Sm{sup 3+} in Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} co-doped NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} phosphors, which is suitable for the emission of the near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes. The energy transfer efficiency, energy transfer rate and average distance between Sm{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} in the NaY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} phosphors have been calculated based on the fluorescent dynamic analysis. Finally, the energy transfer mechanism between Sm{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} is confirmed, the energy transfer occurs between {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} state of Sm{sup 3+} ions and {sup 5}D{sub 0} state rather than {sup 5}D{sub 1} state of Eu{sup 3+} ions.

  17. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12. Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05 and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05. The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  18. Fuel processing for molten-salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hightower, J.R. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Research devoted to development of processes for the isolation of protactinium and for the removal of fission products from molten-salt breeder reactors is reported. During this report period, engineering development progressed on continuous fluorinators for uranium removal, the metal transfer process for rare-earth removal, the fuel reconstitution step, and molten salt--bismuth contactors to be used in reductive extraction processes. The metal transfer experiment MTE-3B was started. In this experiment all parts of the metal transfer process for rare-earth removal are demonstrated using salt flow rates which are about 1 percent of those required to process the fuel salt in a 1000-MW(e) MSBR. During this report period the salt and bismuth phases were transferred to the experimental vessels, and two runs with agitator speeds of 5 rps were made to measure the rate of transfer of neodymium from the fluoride salt to the Bi--Li stripper solution. The uranium removed from the fuel salt by fluorination must be returned to the processed salt in the fuel reconstitution step before the fuel salt is returned to the reactor. An engineering experiment to demonstrate the fuel reconstitution step is being installed. In this experiment gold-lined equipment will be used to avoid introducing products of corrosion by UF 6 and UF 5 . Alternative methods for providing the gold lining include electroplating and mechanical fabrication

  19. Fundamental study on the salt distillation from the mixtures of rare earth precipitates and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H. C.; Eun, H. C.; Cho, Y. Z.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, I. T.

    2008-01-01

    An electrorefining process of spent nuclear fuel generates waste salt containing some radioactive metal chlorides. The most effective method to reduce salt waste volume is to separate radioactive metals from non-radioactive salts. A promising approach is to change radioactive metal chlorides into salt-insoluble oxides by an oxygen sparging. Following this, salt distillation process is available to effectively separate the precipitated particulate metal oxides from salt. This study investigated the distillation rates of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt under different vacuums at elevated temperatures. The first part study investigated distillation rates of eutectic salt under different vacuums at high temperatures by using thermo-gravimetric furnace system. In the second part, we tested the removal of eutectic salt from the RE precipitates by using the laboratory vacuum distillation furnace system. Investigated variables were the temperature of mixture, the degree of vacuum and the time

  20. Electrochemical ion separation in molten salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerke, Erik David; Ihlefeld, Jon; Waldrip, Karen; Wheeler, Jill S.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Small, Leo J.; Wheeler, David R.

    2017-12-19

    A purification method that uses ion-selective ceramics to electrochemically filter waste products from a molten salt. The electrochemical method uses ion-conducting ceramics that are selective for the molten salt cations desired in the final purified melt, and selective against any contaminant ions. The method can be integrated into a slightly modified version of the electrochemical framework currently used in pyroprocessing of nuclear wastes.

  1. Table Salt from Seawater (Solar Evaporation). What We Take from Our Environment. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Science Education Center.

    This module discusses methods of obtaining table salt from seawater. Topic areas considered include: (1) obtaining salt by solar evaporation of seawater in holes; (2) obtaining salt by boiling seawater in pots; (3) how table salt is obtained from seawater in the Philippines; and (4) methods of making salt by solar evaporation of seawater in the…

  2. ADR salt pill design and crystal growth process for hydrated magnetic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor); DiPirro, Michael J. (Inventor); Canavan, Edgar R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process is provided for producing a salt pill for use in very low temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs). The method can include providing a thermal bus in a housing. The thermal bus can include an array of thermally conductive metal conductors. A hydrated salt can be grown on the array of thermally conductive metal conductors. Thermal conductance can be provided to the hydrated salt.

  3. A comparison of a new centrifuge sugar flotation technique with the agar method for the extraction of immature Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) life stages from salt marsh soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sampling techniques, agar extraction (AE) and centrifuge sugar flotation extraction (CSFE) were compared to determine their relative efficacy to recover immature stages of Culicoides spp from salt marsh substrates. Three types of samples (seeded with known numbers of larvae, homogenized field s...

  4. Integrated method of thermosensitive triblock copolymer-salt aqueous two phase extraction and dialysis membrane separation for purification of lycium barbarum polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Hu, Xiaowei; Han, Juan; Ni, Liang; Tang, Xu; Hu, Yutao; Chen, Tong

    2016-03-01

    A polymer-salt aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consisting of thermosensitive copolymer ethylene-oxide-b-propylene-oxide-b-ethylene-oxide (EOPOEO) and NaH2PO4 was employed in deproteinization for lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP). The effects of salt type and concentration, EOPOEO concentration, amount of crude LBP solution and temperature were studied. In the primary extraction process, LBP was preferentially partitioned to the bottom (salt-rich) phase with high recovery ratio of 96.3%, while 94.4% of impurity protein was removed to the top (EOPOEO-rich) phase. Moreover, the majority of pigments could be discarded to top phase. After phase-separation, the LBP in the bottom phase was further purified by dialysis membrane to remove salt and other small molecular impurities. The purity of LBP was enhanced to 64%. Additionally, the FT-IR spectrum was used to identify LBP. EOPOEO was recovered by a temperature-induced separation, and reused in a new ATPS. An ideal extraction and recycle result were achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Alternative methods to manage waste salt from repository excavation in the Deaf Smith County and Swisher County locations, Texas: A scoping study: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report describes and qualitatively evaluates eight options for managing the large volumes of salt and salt-laden rock that would result from the excavation of a high-level radioactive waste repository in Deaf Smith County or Swisher County, Texas. The options are: distribution for commercial use; ocean disposal; deep-well injection; disposal in multilevel mines on the site; disposal in abandoned salt mines off the site; disposal off the site in abandoned mines developed for minerals other than salt; disposal in excavated landfills; and surface disposal on alkali flats. The main features of each option are described, as well as the associated environmental and economic impacts, and regulatory constraints. The options are evaluated in terms of 11 factors that jointly constitute a test of relative suitability. The results of the evaluation and implications for further study are indicated. This document does not consider or include the actual numbers, findings, or conclusions contained in the final Deaf Smith County Environmental Assessment (DOE, 1986). 43 refs., 8 tabs

  6. Continuous Flow Hygroscopicity-Resolved Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (Hy-Res REA) Method of Measuring Size-Resolved Sea-Salt Particle Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, N.; Royalty, T. M.; Phillips, B.; Dawson, K. W.; Petters, M. D.; Reed, R.; Weinstein, J.; Hook, D.; Wiener, R.

    2017-12-01

    The accurate representation of aerosols in climate models requires direct ambient measurement of the size- and composition-dependent particle production fluxes. Here we present the design, testing, and analysis of data collected through the first instrument capable of measuring hygroscopicity-based, size-resolved particle fluxes using a continuous-flow Hygroscopicity-Resolved Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (Hy-Res REA) technique. The different components of the instrument were extensively tested inside the US Environmental Protection Agency's Aerosol Test Facility for sea-salt and ammoniums sulfate particle fluxes. The new REA system design does not require particle accumulation, therefore avoids the diffusional wall losses associated with long residence times of particles inside the air collectors of the traditional REA devices. The Hy-Res REA system used in this study includes a 3-D sonic anemometer, two fast-response solenoid valves, two Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs), a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), and a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA). A linear relationship was found between the sea-salt particle fluxes measured by eddy covariance and REA techniques, with comparable theoretical (0.34) and measured (0.39) proportionality constants. The sea-salt particle detection limit of the Hy-Res REA flux system is estimated to be 6x105 m-2s-1. For the conditions of ammonium sulfate and sea-salt particles of comparable source strength and location, the continuous-flow Hy-Res REA instrument was able to achieve better than 90% accuracy of measuring the sea-salt particle fluxes. In principle, the instrument can be applied to measure fluxes of particles of variable size and distinct hygroscopic properties (i.e., mineral dust, black carbon, etc.).

  7. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  8. Ultrasonic Technique for Predicting Grittiness of Salted Duck Egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erawan, S.; Budiastra, I. W.; Subrata, I. D. M.

    2018-05-01

    Grittiness of egg yolk is a major factor in consumer acceptance of salted duck egg product. Commonly, the grittiness level is determined by the destructive method. Salted egg industries need a grading system that can judge the grittiness accurately and nondestructively. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for determining grittiness of salted duck eggs nondestructively based on ultrasonic method. This study used 100 samples of salted duck eggs with 7,10,14 and 21 days of salting age. Velocity and attenuation were measured by an ultrasonic system at frequency 50 kHz, followed by physicochemical properties measurement (hardness of egg yolks and salt content), and organoleptic test. Ultrasonic wave velocity in salted duck eggs ranged from 620.6 m/s to 1334.6 m/s, while the coefficient of attenuation value ranged from – 0.76 dB/m to -0.51 dB/m. Yolk hardness was 2.68 N at 7 days to 5.54 N at 21 days of salting age. Salt content was 1.81 % at 7 days to 5.71 % at 21 days of salting age. Highest scores of organoleptic tests on salted duck eggs were 4.23 and 4.18 for 10 and 14 days of salting age, respectively. Discriminant function using ultrasonic velocity variables in minor and major diameter could predict grittiness with 95 % accuracy.

  9. A history of salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  10. Worth its salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The idea that all underground salt deposits can serve as storage sites for toxic and nuclear waste does not always hold water—literally. According to Daniel Ronen and Brian Berkowitz of Israel's Weizmann Institute of Science and Yoseph Yechieli of the Geological Survey of Israel, some buried salt layers are in fact highly conductive of liquids, suggesting that wastes buried in their confines could easily leech into groundwater and nearby soil.When drilling three wells into a 10,000-year-old salt layer near the Dead Sea, the researchers found that groundwater had seeped into the layer and had absorbed some of its salt.

  11. Calculation of β-effective of a molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, N.; Sakaba, H.

    1987-01-01

    A method to calculate the β eff of a molten salt reactor was developed taking the effect of the flow of the molten salt into account. The method was applied to the 1000MW MSR design made by ORNL. The change in β eff due to the change in the residence time outside of the core of the fuel salt and to the change in the flow velocity when the total amount of the fuel salt is kept constant were investigated. It was found that β eff was reduced to 47.9% of the value when the fuel salt is at rest for the present design. (author)

  12. Mined salt storage feasibility: Engineering study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This study addresses a method of eliminating the surface storage of mined salt at the Deaf Smith repository site. It provides rough estimates of the logistics and costs of transporting 3.7 million tons of salt from the repository to the salt disposal site near Carlsbad, New Mexico and returning it to the repository for decommissioning backfill. The study assumes that a railcar/truck system will be installed and that the excavated salt will be transported from the repository to an existing potash mine located near Carlsbad, New Mexico approximately 300 miles from the repository. The 3.7 million tons of salt required for repository decommissioning backfill can be stored in the potash mines along with the excess salt, with no additional capital costs required for either a railcar or a truck transportation system. The capital cost for facilities to reclaim the 3.7 million tons of salt from the potash mine is estimated to be $4,400,000 with either a rail or truck transportation system. Segregating the 3.7 million tons of backfill salt in a surface storage area at the potash mine requires a capital cost of $13,900,000 with a rail system or $11,400,000 with a truck system. Transportation costs are estimated at $0.08/ton-mile for rail and $0.13/ton-mile for truck. 2 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Specific investigations related to salt rock behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vons, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper results are given of work in various countries in rather unrelated areas of research. Nevertheless, since the studies have been undertaken to better understand salt behaviour, both from mechanical and chemical points of view, some connection between the studies can be found. In the French contribution the geological conditions have been investigated that might promote or prevent the formation of salt domes from layers in view of possible use of the latter type of formation. This was done theoretically by the finite element method, and a start was made with centrifuge tests. The density of a number of samples from salt and overburden from the Bresse basin was measured and it was shown that a favourable condition exists in this region for waste disposal. In the German contribution various subjects are touched upon, one being the effect of water on the mobility in the early stages of salt dome formation. Evidence was found for an anisotropy in salt. One Dutch contribution describes results of studies on the effect of small amounts of water on the rheology of salt. The results imply that flow laws obtained for salt at rapid strain rates and/or low confining pressure cannot be reliably extrapolated to predict the long term behaviour of wet or even very dry material under natural conditions. Preliminary results on the effect of water upon ion-mobility indicate a certain pseudo-absorptive capacity of salt e.g. for Sr

  14. Stabilized alcohol solution of reducing salt formulations for use in preparing radioisotope labelled scanning agents: liver scanning technetium-99m colloid and method of preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The preparation of a radiolabelled scanning agent for imaging reticuloendothelial organs, including the liver and spleen, is described. It consists of a sup(99m)Tc labelled colloid of a metal ion salt reductant, such as SnCl 2 , TiCl 3 , CrCl 2 or FeCl 2 , and an anhydrous non-oxidising organic solvent, such as diethyl ether, ethanol or another aliphatic alcohol. Examples are given of the effects of varying the pH, the metal ion salt reductant concentration, the eluate and solvent volumes and the temperature of the radiopharmaceutical on the tagging efficiency and organ distribution in mice and rabbits. (U.K.)

  15. Contribution of geophysical methods to the detection of underground cavities in salt series. Development in different projects in Morocco (roads, rail, etc…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tlemçani M.K.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the geotechnical studies of a road project, a geophysical investigation by electrical tomography, microgravimetry, and boreholes, was carried out in order to locate if the areas can present or not a risks of ground instability along the road alignment. The road is located near a rock salt mine. This geophysical survey had demonstrated that the area may present major risks for the stability of the road platform. This risk is related to the existence of large expanses of saliferous rocks.The dissolution and exploitation of salt provoked underground voids under the future road. The results of this geophysical survey have allowed the designer office to propose more suitable solutions to solve this problem or even the possibility of shifting another site.

  16. Fast and simple method for determination of iodide in human urine, serum, sea water, and cooking salt by capillary zone electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pantůčková, Pavla; Křivánková, Ludmila

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 25, 7-8 (2004), s. 1102-1110 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0023; GA ČR GA203/01/0401; GA AV ČR IAA4031103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : capillary zone electrophoresis * cooking salt * human serum Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.743, year: 2004

  17. Mn{sub 0.95}I{sub 0.02}[PO{sub 3}(OH)] · 2H{sub 2}O phosphate–iodate, an inorganic analogue of phosphonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belokoneva, E. L., E-mail: elbel@geol.msu.ru; Dimitrova, O. V.; Volkov, A. S. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Geology (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    The new Mn{sub 0.95}I{sub 0.02}[PO{sub 3}(OH)] · 2H{sub 2}O phosphate–iodate (space group Pnam = Pnma, D{sub 2h}{sup 16}) is obtained under hydrothermal conditions. The crystal structure is determined without preliminary knowledge of the chemical formula. The structure consists of layers of MnO{sub 6} octahedra connected with PO{sub 4} tetrahedra. Water molecules are located between the layers. [IO3]{sup –} groups having a typical umbrella-like coordination are statistically implanted in layers of MnO{sub 6} octahedra at a distance of 1.2 Å from Mn atoms. Their content in the crystal is minor. The structures of the phosphate–iodate coincides with the structures of phosphonates with consideration for the replacement of one (OH) vertex of the PO{sub 4} tetrahedron by the organic methyl radical CH{sub 3}. In the structures of phosphonates and earlier studied phosphates, identical layers are distinguished and the cause of the existence of two MDO varieties is established based on the analysis within the OD theory. Possible hybrid structures derived from the prototypes under consideration are predicted.

  18. MSR - SPHINX concept program Eros (Experimental zero power Salt reactor SR-0) - The proposed experimental program as a basis for validation of reactor physics methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hron, M.; Juricek, V.; Kyncl, J.; Mikisek, M.; Rypar, V. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc, Rez (Czech Republic)

    2007-07-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) - SPHINX (SPent Hot fuel Incinerator by Neutron fluX) concept solves this principal problem of spent fuel treatment by means of so-called nuclear incineration. It means the burning of fissionable part of its inventory and transmutation of other problematic radionuclides by use of nuclear reactions with neutrons in a MSR-SPHINX system. This reactor system is an actinide burner (most in resonance neutron spectrum) and a radionuclide transmuter in a well-thermalized neutron spectrum. In the frame of the physical part, there are computational analyses and experimental activities. The experimental program has been focused, in its first stage, on a short-term irradiation of small size samples of molten-salt systems as well as structural materials proposed for the MSR blanket in the field of high neutron flux of research reactors. The proposed next stage of the program will focus on a large-scale experimental verification of design inputs by use of MSR-type inserting zones into the existing light water moderated experimental reactor LR-0, which may allow us to modify it into the experimental zero power salt reactor SR-0. There will be a detail description of the proposed program given in the paper together with the so far performed experiments and their first results. These realized experiments help us also to verify computational codes used, and to recognize some anomalies related to molten fluorides utilization. (authors)

  19. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth H. M. Temme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011–2016 and differences in estimated salt intake over a 10-year period (2006–2015. Methods. To assess the salt contents of foods; we obtained recent data from chemical analyses and from food labels. Salt content of these foods in 2016 was compared to salt contents in the 2011 version Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO, version 2011, and statistically tested with General Linear Models. To estimate the daily dietary salt intake in 2006, 2010, and 2015, men and women aged 19 to 70 years were recruited through random population sampling in Doetinchem, a small town located in a rural area in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The characteristics of the study population were in 2006: n = 317, mean age 49 years, 43% men, in 2010: n = 342, mean age 46 years, 45% men, and in 2015: n = 289, mean age 46 years, 47% men. Sodium and potassium excretion was measured in a single 24-h urine sample. All estimates were converted to a common metric: salt intake in grams per day by multiplication of sodium with a factor of 2.54. Results. In 2016 compared to 2011, the salt content in certain types of bread was on average 19 percent lower and certain types of sauce, soup, canned vegetables and legumes, and crisps had a 12 to 26 percent lower salt content. Salt content in other types of foods had not changed significantly. Between 2006, 2010 and 2015 the estimated salt intake among adults in Doetinchem remained unchanged. In 2015, the median estimated salt intake was 9.7 g per day for men and 7.4 g per day for women. As in 2006 and 2010, the estimated salt intake in 2015 exceeded the recommended maximum intake of 6 g per day set by the Dutch Health Council

  20. Evaluation of methods and tools to develop safety concepts and to demonstrate safety for an HLW repository in salt. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollingerfehr, W.; Buhmann, D.; Doerr, S.; and others

    2017-03-15

    Salt formations have been the preferred option as host rocks for the disposal of high level radioactive waste in Germany for more than 40 years. During this period comprehensive geological investigations have been carried out together with a broad spectrum of concept and safety related R and D work. The behaviour of an HLW repository in salt formations, particularly in salt domes, has been analysed in terms of assessment of the total system performance. This was first carried out for concepts of generic waste repositories in salt and, since 1998, for a repository concept with specific boundary conditions, taking the geology of the Gorleben salt dome as an example. Suitable repository concepts and designs were developed, the technical feasibility has been proven and operational and long-term safety evaluated. Numerical modelling is an important input into the development of a comprehensive safety case for a waste repository. Significant progress in the development of numerical tools and their application for long-term safe ty assessment has been made in the last two decades. An integrated approach has been used in which the repository concept and relevant scientific and engineering data are combined with the results from iterative safety assessments to increase the clarity and the traceability of the evaluation. A safety concept that takes full credit of the favourable properties of salt formations was developed in the course of the R and D project ISIBEL, which started in 2005. This concept is based on the safe containment of radioactive waste in a specific part of the host rock formation, termed the containment providing rock zone, which comprises the geological barrier, the geotechnical barriers and the compacted backfill. The future evolution of the repository system will be analysed using a catalogue of Features, Events and Processes (FEP), scenario development and numerical analysis, all of which are adapted to suit the safety concept. Key elements of the

  1. Evaluation of methods and tools to develop safety concepts and to demonstrate safety for an HLW repository in salt. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollingerfehr, W.; Buhmann, D.; Doerr, S.

    2017-03-01

    Salt formations have been the preferred option as host rocks for the disposal of high level radioactive waste in Germany for more than 40 years. During this period comprehensive geological investigations have been carried out together with a broad spectrum of concept and safety related R and D work. The behaviour of an HLW repository in salt formations, particularly in salt domes, has been analysed in terms of assessment of the total system performance. This was first carried out for concepts of generic waste repositories in salt and, since 1998, for a repository concept with specific boundary conditions, taking the geology of the Gorleben salt dome as an example. Suitable repository concepts and designs were developed, the technical feasibility has been proven and operational and long-term safety evaluated. Numerical modelling is an important input into the development of a comprehensive safety case for a waste repository. Significant progress in the development of numerical tools and their application for long-term safe ty assessment has been made in the last two decades. An integrated approach has been used in which the repository concept and relevant scientific and engineering data are combined with the results from iterative safety assessments to increase the clarity and the traceability of the evaluation. A safety concept that takes full credit of the favourable properties of salt formations was developed in the course of the R and D project ISIBEL, which started in 2005. This concept is based on the safe containment of radioactive waste in a specific part of the host rock formation, termed the containment providing rock zone, which comprises the geological barrier, the geotechnical barriers and the compacted backfill. The future evolution of the repository system will be analysed using a catalogue of Features, Events and Processes (FEP), scenario development and numerical analysis, all of which are adapted to suit the safety concept. Key elements of the

  2. Chemical characterisation of himalayan rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.U.; Din, M.U.

    2017-01-01

    Present study involves the chemical evaluation of rock salt samples collected from the plugging sites of Himalayan salt (Khewra salt mines and Kalabagh salt mines) for their moisture content, water insoluble matter, calcium, magnesium, sulphate content and trace minerals such as Fe,Cu,Cd,Pb,As,Ag and Zn determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Moisture content of Khewra and Kalabagh salt samples ranged from 0.03 wt. % to 0.09 wt. % and 0.06 % to 0.08 %, respectively. Water insoluble matter ranged from 0.08 wt. % to 1.4 wt. % and 1.5 wt. % to 2.8wt. % for Khewra and Kalabagh salt samples, respectively. Sulphate content for Khewra salt sample was from 0.39 % to 0.91 % and for Kalabagh salt mines from 0.75 wt. % to 0.95 wt. %. For Khewra salt mines calcium ranged 0.15 wt. % to 0.32 wt. % and for Kalabagh salt samples from 0.1 wt. % to 0.27 wt. %. Magnesium ranged from 0.11 wt. % to 0.35 wt. % for Khewra salt mines, while for Kalabagh salt samples its range was 0.18 wt. % to 0.89 wt. %. Trace metals had the concentration ranges between 0.2 to 1.85 mg/kg for copper; between 0.21 to 0.42 mg/kg for manganese; between 0.04 to 0.06 mg/kg for zinc; between 0.12 to 0.18 mg/kg for arsenic and between 0.03 and 0.05 mg/kg for lead while cadmium content was either below the method's detection limits or in very trace amounts. The results show that the concentrations of all the parameters studied are below the limits set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Therefore, it can be concluded from the paper that the Himalayan salt from the plugging sites of Khewra and Kalabagh salt mines are safe to use. (author)

  3. Molten salt reactors: chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This work is a critical analysis of the 1000 MW MSBR project. Behavior of rare gases in the primary coolant circuit, their extraction from helium. Coating of graphite by molybdenum, chemistry of protactinium and niobium produced in the molten salt, continuous reprocessing of the fuel salt and use of stainless steel instead of hastelloy are reviewed [fr

  4. Electrosorption of Os(III)-complex at single-wall carbon nanotubes immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode: Application to nanomolar detection of bromate, periodate and iodate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimi, Abdollah; Kavosi, Begard; Babaei, Ali; Hallaj, Rahman

    2008-01-01

    A simple procedure was developed to prepare a glassy carbon electrode modified with single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and Os(III)-complex. The glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with CNTs was immersed into Os(III)-complex solution (direct deposition) for a short period of time (60 s). 1,4,8,12-Tetraazacyclotetradecane osmium(III) chloride, (Os(III)LCl 2 ).ClO 4 , irreversibly and strongly adsorbed on SWCNTs immobilized on the surface of GC electrode. Cyclic voltammograms of the Os(III)-complex-incorporated-SWCNTs indicate a pair of well defined and nearly reversible redox couple with surface confined characteristic at wide pH range (1-8). The surface coverage (Γ) and charge transfer rate constant (k s ) of the immobilized Os-complex on SWCNTs were 3.07 x 10 -9 mol cm -2 , 5.5 (±0.2) s -1 , 2.94 x 10 -9 mol cm -2 , 7.3 (±0.3) s -1 at buffer solution with pH 2 and 7, respectively, indicate high loading ability of SWCNTs for Os(III) complex and great facilitation of the electron transfer between electroactive redox center and carbon nanotubes immobilized on the electrode surface. Modified electrodes showed higher electrocatalytic activity toward reduction of BrO 3 - , IO 3 - and IO 4 - in acidic solutions. The catalytic rate constants for catalytic reduction bromate, periodate and iodate were 3.79 (±0.2) x 10 3 , 7.32 (±0.2) x 10 3 and 1.75 (±0.2) x 10 3 M -1 s -1 , respectively. The hydrodynamic amperometry of rotating modified electrode at constant potential (0.3 V) was used for nanomolar detection of selected analytes. Excellent electrochemical reversibility of the redox couple, good reproducibility, high stability, low detection limit, long life time, fast amperometric response time, wide linear concentration range, technical simplicity and possibility of rapid preparation are great advantage of this sensor

  5. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  6. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  7. Salt og forbrugervalg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Trine; Grunert, Klaus G

    af saltreducerede fødevarer og deres købsintention af disse. Dette blev undersøgt ved at måle forbrugerens viden om salt, anvendelse af salt, ønske om reduktion af salt og købsintention af saltreducerede fødevarer i en web-baseret undersøgelse. Efter den web-baserede undersøgelse, blev de samme mål...... undersøgt, men i et supermarked, hvor deltagerne blev inddelt i fire grupper for at undersøge effekten af priming og saltmærkning. Desuden blev der foretaget 15 kvalitative interviews, for at studere hvem og hvad der karakteriserer de deltagere i eksperimentet, som enten ender med ingen salt......-reducerede produkter at købe eller som ender med at købe alle de salt-reducerede produkter....

  8. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Everyone needs some salt to function. Also known as sodium chloride, salt ...

  9. Modeling of Salt Solubilities in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiavone-Filho, O.; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Huckel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Huckel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric...... constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubility product. It is shown that the proposed procedure can describe with good accuracy a series of salt...

  10. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  11. Production of gaseous radiotracers CH3I and I2 through Na123I salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candeiro, R.E.M.; Pereira, W.P.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop, separately, methodology for production of two gaseous tracers through the sodium iodide NaI marked with 123 I. Found in the nature in form different, the iodine has been used in diverse works in the area of the industry and health. These two forms of the gaseous iodine, the methyl iodide, CH 3 I, and molecular iodine, I 2 , are very unstable and volatile in the ambient temperature and presents different problems in clean-up and monitoring systems. The syntheses were processed with sodium iodide (NaI) 1M aqueous solution marked with 1 23I . The production of gas I 2 was realized with in chlorine acid (HCl) and sodium iodate salt (NaIO 3 ) and the CH 3 I was used, the salt of NaI and the reagent (CH 3 ) 2 SO 4 . The production of gases was initially realized through in unit in glass with an inert material and the purpose was to study the kinetic of reaction and to determine the efficiency of production. The two synthesis occurs in the reaction bottle and after of produced, the gas is stored in the collect bottle that contains a starch solution for fixed the I 2 , and in syntheses of CH 3 I contains a silver nitrate solution for your fixation. To determine the efficiency of production of gases, analytic tests were realized, where the consumption of iodide ions of the bottle of reaction are measured. The optimization of production of the each gaseous tracer was studied varying parameter as: concentration of iodide, concentration of acid and temperature. After, the syntheses of the radiotracers were realized in the compact unit, having been used as main reagent the salt radiated of sodium iodide, Na 123 I. The transportation of elementary iodine and methyl iodine was studied by a scintillation detector NaI (2 x 2)' positioned in the reaction bottle. (author)

  12. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  13. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well

  14. Molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Dufour, P.; Guidez, J.; Simon, N.; Renault, C.

    2014-01-01

    Molten salt reactors are one of the 6 concepts retained for the 4. generation of nuclear reactors. The principle of this reactor is very innovative: the nuclear fuel is dissolved in the coolant which allows the online reprocessing of the fuel and the online recovery of the fission products. A small prototype: the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE - 8 MWt) was operating a few years in the sixties in the USA. The passage towards a fast reactor by the suppression of the graphite moderator leads to the concept of Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) which is presently studied through different European projects such as MOST, ALISIA and EVOL. Worldwide the main topics of research are: the adequate materials resisting to the high level of corrosiveness of the molten salts, fuel salt reprocessing, the 3-side coupling between neutron transport, thermohydraulics and thermo-chemistry, the management of the changing chemical composition of the salt, the enrichment of lithium with Li 7 in the case of the use of lithium fluoride salt and the use of MSFR using U 233 fuel (thorium cycle). The last part of the article presents a preliminary safety analysis of the MSFR. (A.C.)

  15. Context-driven Salt Seeking Test (Rats)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephen E.; Smith, Kyle S.

    2018-01-01

    Changes in reward seeking behavior often occur through incremental learning based on the difference between what is expected and what actually happens. Behavioral flexibility of this sort requires experience with rewards as better or worse than expected. However, there are some instances in which behavior can change through non-incremental learning, which requires no further experience with an outcome. Such an example of non-incremental learning is the salt appetite phenomenon. In this case, animals such as rats will immediately seek out a highly-concentrated salt solution that was previously undesired when they are put in a novel state of sodium deprivation. Importantly, this adaptive salt-seeking behavior occurs despite the fact that the rats never tasted salt in the depleted state, and therefore never tasted it as a highly desirable reward. The following protocol is a method to investigate the neural circuitry mediating adaptive salt seeking using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. The procedure is designed to provide an opportunity to discover possible dissociations between the neural circuitry mediating salt seeking and salt consumption to replenish the bodily deficit after sodium depletion. Additionally, this procedure is amenable to incorporating a number of neurobiological techniques for studying the brain basis of this behavior.

  16. Enzymatic methods for the determination of pollution in seawater using salt resistant alkaline phosphatase from eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzorova, Natalie I.; Seitkalieva, Alexandra V.; Rasskazov, Valery A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Alkaline phosphatase from eggs of the sea urchin (StAP) proved to be active in seawater. • Activity of StAP is inhibited by very low concentrations of heavy metal. • A test to assess sea and fresh water quality has been developed basing on StAP. • For the first time a salt resistant alkaline phosphatase has been found in eukaryote. - Abstract: A new salt resistant alkaline phosphatase from eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius (StAP) has been shown to have a unique property to hydrolyze substrate in seawater without loss of enzymatic activity. The enzyme has pH optimum at 8.0–8.5. Model experiments showed various concentrations of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead added to seawater or a standard buffer mixture to inhibit completely the enzyme activity at the concentrations of 15–150 μg/l. StAP sensitivity to the presence in seawater of metals, pesticides, detergents and oil products appears to be considerably less. Samples of seawater taken from aquatic areas of the Troitsy Bay of the Peter the Great Bay, Japan Sea have been shown to inhibit the enzyme activity; the same was shown for the samples of fresh waters. The phosphatase inhibition assay developed proved to be highly sensitive, technically easy-to use allowing to test a great number of samples

  17. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  18. Development of a definitive method for iodine speciation in aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifenhaeuser, C.; Heumann, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    A definitive method of isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) was developed to determine four different iodine species in aquatic systems (iodide, iodate and two organoiodine compounds: one of the organic species is chromatographically elutable from a column filled with an anion exchanger resin, the other one is not). The iodine species were analysed after the isotope dilution step with an enriched 129 I spike and after their chromatographic separation. The total iodine concentration was measured after decomposition of organic compounds in the aquatic system by UV irradiation. Different types of natural water samples (river water, water of a pond, moorland lake water) were analysed and important water parameters like pH-value, redox potential, oxygen content and dissolved organic carbon were measured for each of these samples. The total iodine concentration in the different samples differed only slightly in the range of 2-7 μg/l. In most of the moorland lake water samples only the two organoiodine species could be detected. In these samples the concentration of iodide and iodate was less than the detection limit of 0.5 μg/l and 0.1 μg/l, respectively. On the other hand, all four iodine species could be determined in most of the river water samples. Positive correlations were found for the oxygen content of the water samples and the iodate concentration as well as for the redox potential and the anionic organoiodine compound. (orig.)

  19. A novel ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of xanthones and steroidal saponins in crude and salt-processed Anemarrhenae Rhizoma aqueous extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, De; Su, Xiaonan; Huang, Ziyan; Wang, Qiaohan; Lu, Tulin

    2018-06-01

    We established a rapid and sensitive ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of xanthones and steroidal saponins in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C 18 column with a mobile phase comprising acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid. The detection was performed by negative electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The validated method showed good linearity within the tested range (r > 0.9945). The intra- and interday precision at high, medium, and low concentrations was less than 7.96%. The bias of accuracies ranged from -1.92 to 9.62%. The extraction recoveries of the compounds ranged from 84.78 to 88.69%, and the matrix effects ranged from 96.76 to 108.59%. This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic comparison of crude and salt-processed Anemarrhenae Rhizoma aqueous extracts after oral administration in rats. The maximum plasma concentration and area under concentration-time curve of timosaponin BIII and timosaponin AIII increased significantly (P < 0.05 or 0.01) and those of timosaponin BII decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after processing. These results could contribute to the clinical application of crude and salt-processed Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and reveal the processing mechanism. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations (see or ... Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Cite this article APA Style MLA Style ...

  1. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  2. Polymeric salt bridges for conducting electric current in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepodd, Timothy J [Livermore, CA; Tichenor, Mark S [San Diego, CA; Artau, Alexander [Humacao, PR

    2009-11-17

    A "cast-in-place" monolithic microporous polymer salt bridge for conducting electrical current in microfluidic devices, and methods for manufacture thereof is disclosed. Polymeric salt bridges are formed in place in capillaries or microchannels. Formulations are prepared with monomer, suitable cross-linkers, solvent, and a thermal or radiation responsive initiator. The formulation is placed in a desired location and then suitable radiation such as UV light is used to polymerize the salt bridge within a desired structural location. Embodiments are provided wherein the polymeric salt bridges have sufficient porosity to allow ionic migration without bulk flow of solvents therethrough. The salt bridges form barriers that seal against fluid pressures in excess of 5000 pounds per square inch. The salt bridges can be formulated for carriage of suitable amperage at a desired voltage, and thus microfluidic devices using such salt bridges can be specifically constructed to meet selected analytical requirements.

  3. Mass transport in bedded salt and salt interbeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-08-01

    Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is nearly dry and probably impermeable. Although experiments and experience at potential salt sites indicate that salt may contain brine, the low porosity, creep, and permeability of salt make it still a good choice for geologic isolation. In this paper we summarize several mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. The mathematical details are given in our technical reports

  4. Immobilization of IFR salt wastes in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.F.; Johnson, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Portland cement-base mortars are being considered for immobilizing chloride salt wastes from the fuel cycle of an integral fast reactor (IFR). The IFR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with metal fuel. It has a close-coupled fuel cycle in which fission products are separated from the actinides in an electrochemical cell operating at 500 degrees C. This cell has a cadmium anode and a liquid salt electrolyte. The salt will be a low-melting mixture of alkaline and alkaline earth chlorides. This paper discusses one method being considered for immobilizing this treated salt, to disperse it in a portland cement-base motar, which would then be sealed in corrosion-resistant containers. For this application, the grout must be sufficiently fluid that it can be pumped into canisters where it will solidify into a strong, leach-resistant material

  5. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. Emphasize is put essentially on the fuel salt of the primary circuit inside which fission reactions occur. The reasons why the (LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 -UF 4 ) salt was chosen for the M.S.B.R. concept are examined; the physical, physicochemical and chemical properties of this salt are discussed with its interactions with the structural materials and its evolution in time. An important part of this volume is devoted to the continuous reprocessing of the active salt, the project designers having deemed advisable to take advantage at best from the availability of a continuous purification, in a thermal breeding. The problem of tritium formation and distribution inside the reactor is also envisaged and the fundamentals of the chemistry of the secondary coolant salt are given. The solutions proposed are: the hydrogen scavenging of the primary circuit, a reduction in metal permeability by an oxyde layer deposition on the side in contact with the vapor, and tritium absorption through an isotope exchange with the hydroxifluoroborate [fr

  6. A general salt-templating method to fabricate vertically aligned graphitic carbon nanosheets and their metal carbide hybrids for superior lithium ion batteries and water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jixin; Sakaushi, Ken; Clavel, Guylhaine; Shalom, Menny; Antonietti, Markus; Fellinger, Tim-Patrick

    2015-04-29

    The synthesis of vertically aligned functional graphitic carbon nanosheets (CNS) is challenging. Herein, we demonstrate a general approach for the fabrication of vertically aligned CNS and metal carbide@CNS composites via a facile salt templating induced self-assembly. The resulting vertically aligned CNS and metal carbide@CNS structures possess ultrathin walls, good electrical conductivity, strong adhesion, excellent structural robustness, and small particle size. In electrochemical energy conversion and storage such unique features are favorable for providing efficient mass transport as well as a large and accessible electroactive surface. The materials were tested as electrodes in a lithium ion battery and in electrochemical water splitting. The vertically aligned nanosheets exhibit remarkable lithium ion storage properties and, concurrently, excellent properties as electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution.

  7. Salt-bridge energetics in halophilic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, Arnab; Sen Gupta, Parth Sarthi; Banerjee, Shyamashree; Mondal, Buddhadev; Bandyopadhyay, Amal K

    2014-01-01

    Halophilic proteins have greater abundance of acidic over basic and very low bulky hydrophobic residues. Classical electrostatic stabilization was suggested as the key determinant for halophilic adaptation of protein. However, contribution of specific electrostatic interactions (i.e. salt-bridges) to overall stability of halophilic proteins is yet to be understood. To understand this, we use Adaptive-Poison-Boltzmann-Solver Methods along with our home-built automation to workout net as well as associated component energy terms such as desolvation energy, bridge energy and background energy for 275 salt-bridges from 20 extremely halophilic proteins. We then perform extensive statistical analysis on general and energetic attributes on these salt-bridges. On average, 8 salt-bridges per 150 residues protein were observed which is almost twice than earlier report. Overall contributions of salt-bridges are -3.0 kcal mol-1. Majority (78%) of salt-bridges in our dataset are stable and conserved in nature. Although, average contributions of component energy terms are equal, their individual details vary greatly from one another indicating their sensitivity to local micro-environment. Notably, 35% of salt-bridges in our database are buried and stable. Greater desolvation penalty of these buried salt-bridges are counteracted by stable network salt-bridges apart from favorable equal contributions of bridge and background terms. Recruitment of extensive network salt-bridges (46%) with a net contribution of -5.0 kcal mol-1 per salt-bridge, seems to be a halophilic design wherein favorable average contribution of background term (-10 kcal mol-1) exceeds than that of bridge term (-7 kcal mol-1). Interiors of proteins from halophiles are seen to possess relatively higher abundance of charge and polar side chains than that of mesophiles which seems to be satisfied by cooperative network salt-bridges. Overall, our theoretical analyses provide insight into halophilic signature in its

  8. Cooperativity of complex salt bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Gvritishvili, Anzor G.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2008-01-01

    The energetic contribution of complex salt bridges, in which one charged residue (anchor residue) forms salt bridges with two or more residues simultaneously, has been suggested to have importance for protein stability. Detailed analysis of the net energetics of complex salt bridge formation using double- and triple-mutant cycle analysis revealed conflicting results. In two cases, it was shown that complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, i.e., the net strength of the complex salt bridge...

  9. A systematic technique for the sequential restoration of salt structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Mark G.

    1993-12-01

    A method is described for the sequential restoration of cross sections in areas of salt tectonics where deformation is confined to the salt and higher layers. The subsurface geometry evolves with time through the interaction of various processes: sedimentation, compaction, isostatic adjustment, thermal subsidence (if present), faulting, and salt withdrawal/ diapirism. The technique systematically calculates and removes the effects of each of these processes during specified time intervals defined by the interpreted horizons. It makes no assumptions about salt kinematics and generally results in the area of the salt layer changing through time. The method is described for restoration of extensional terranes, but it is also suitable for areas of contractional salt tectonics with only minor modifications. After converting an interpreted seismic profile to depth, the top layer is stripped off and the underlying section is decompacted according to standard porosity-depth functions. A deep baseline, unaffected by compaction or deformation, is used to restore any isostatic compensation or thermal subsidence. Isostasy is calculated according to the Airy model, and differential sedimentary loading across a section is shown to be approximately balanced by changes in salt thickness so that the load is evenly distributed. After these processes have been reversed, the resulting geometry and the seismic data are used to create the sea-floor template for structural restoration. Fault offsets are removed and the layers down to the top salt are restored to this template, while the base salt remains fixed. The resulting space between the restored top salt and the fixed base salt defines the restored salt geometry. In addition, the difference between the sea-floor template and a fixed sea level provides a measure of the change in water depth (ignoring eustatic changes in sea level). The technique is applied to an interpreted seismic profile from the eastern Green Canyon/Ewing Bank

  10. [Study on quality standards of decoction pieces of salt Alpinia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbing; Hu, Changjiang; Long, Lanyan; Huang, Qinwan; Xie, Xiuqiong

    2010-12-01

    To establish the quality criteria for decoction pieces of salt Alpinia. Decoction pieces of salt Alpinia were measured with moisture, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-extract and volatile oils according to the procedures recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010. The content of Nootkatone was determined by HPLC, and NaCl, by chloridion electrode method. We obtained results of total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-extract and volatile oils of 10 batches of decoction pieces of salt Alpinia moisture; Meanwhile we set the HPLC and chloridion electrode method. This research established a fine quality standard for decoction pieces of salt Alpinia.

  11. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  12. Immobilization of IFR salt wastes in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.F.; Johnson, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Portland cement-base mortars are being considered for immobilizing chloride salt wastes produced by the fuel cycles of Integral Fast Reactors (IFR). The IFR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with metal alloy fuels. It has a close-coupled fuel cycle in which fission products are separated from the actinides in an electrochemical cell operating at 500/degree/C. This cell has a liquid cadmium anode in which the fuels are dissolved and a liquid salt electrolyte. The salt will be a mixture of either lithium, potassium, and sodium chlorides or lithium, calcium, barium, and sodium chlorides. One method being considered for immobilizing the treated nontransuranic salt waste is to disperse the salt in a portland cement-base mortar that will be sealed in corrosion-resistant containers. For this application, the grout must be sufficiently fluid that it can be pumped into canister-molds where it will solidify into a strong, leach-resistant material. The set times must be longer than a few hours to allow sufficient time for processing, and the mortar must reach a reasonable compressive strength (/approximately/7 MPa) within three days to permit handling. Because fission product heating will be high, about 0.6 W/kg for a mortar containing 10% waste salt, the effects of elevated temperatures during curing and storage on mortar properties must be considered

  13. A simple LC-MS/MS method facilitated by salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction to simultaneously determine trans-resveratrol and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhixia; Yu, Jiaojiao; Dai, Yu; Yang, Yue; Lu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jiaqiu; Qin, Zhiying; Huang, Fang; Li, Ning

    2017-11-01

    A simple LC-MS/MS method facilitated by salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) was applied to simultaneously investigate the pharmacokinetics of trans-resveratrol (Res) and its major glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in rat plasma. Acetonitrile-methanol (80:20, v/v) and ammonium acetate (10 mol L -1 ) were used as extractant and salting-out reagent to locate the target analytes in the supernatant after the aqueous and organic phase stratification, then the analytes were determined via gradient elution by LC-MS/MS in negative mode in a single run. The analytical method was validated with good selectivity, acceptable accuracy (>85%) and low variation of precision (extraction efficiency of target glucuronide and sulfate conjugates (>80%). The method was successfully applied to determine Res and its four conjugated metabolites in rat after Res administration (intragastric, 50 mg kg -1 ; intravenous, 10 mg kg -1 ). The systemic exposures to Res conjugates were much higher than those to Res (AUC 0-t , i.v., 7.43 μm h; p.o., 8.31 μm h); Res-3-O-β-d-glucuronide was the major metabolite (AUC 0-t , i.v., 66.1 μm h; p.o., 333.4 μm h). The bioavailability of Res was estimated to be ~22.4%. The reproducible SALLE method simplified the sample preparation, drastically improved the accuracy of the concomitant assay and gave full consideration of extraction recovery to each target analyte in bio-samples. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Salt Solubility Products of Diprenorphine Hydrochloride, Codeine and Lidocaine Hydrochlorides and Phosphates – Novel Method of Data Analysis Not Dependent on Explicit Solubility Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Völgyi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel general approach was described to address many of the challenges of salt solubility determination of drug substances, with data processing and refinement of equilibrium constants encoded in the computer program pDISOL-XTM. The new approach was illustrated by the determinations of the solubility products of diprenorphine hydrochloride, codeine hydrochloride and phosphate, lidocaine hydrochloride and phosphate at 25 oC, using a recently-optimized saturation shake-flask protocol.  The effects of different buffers (Britton-Robinson universal and Sörensen phosphate were compared. Lidocaine precipitates were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD and polarization light microscopy. The ionic strength in the studied systems ranged from 0.25 to 4.3 M. Codeine (and possibly diprenorphine chloride were less soluble than the phosphates for pH > 2. The reverse trend was evident with lidocaine.  Diprenorphine saturated solutions showed departure from the predictions of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation in alkaline (pH > 9 solutions, consistent with the formation of a mixed-charge anionic dimer.

  15. Pebble Bed Reactors Design Optimization Methods and their Application to the Pebble Bed Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactor (PB-FHR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Anselmo Tomas, Jr.

    The Fluoride salt cooled High temperature Reactor (FHR) is a class of advanced nuclear reactors that combine the robust coated particle fuel form from high temperature gas cooled reactors, direct reactor auxillary cooling system (DRACS) passive decay removal of liquid metal fast reactors, and the transparent, high volumetric heat capacitance liquid fluoride salt working fluids---flibe (33%7Li2F-67%BeF)---from molten salt reactors. This combination of fuel and coolant enables FHRs to operate in a high-temperature low-pressure design space that has beneficial safety and economic implications. In 2012, UC Berkeley was charged with developing a pre-conceptual design of a commercial prototype FHR---the Pebble Bed- Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactor (PB-FHR)---as part of the Nuclear Energy University Programs' (NEUP) integrated research project. The Mark 1 design of the PB-FHR (Mk1 PB-FHR) is 236 MWt flibe cooled pebble bed nuclear heat source that drives an open-air Brayton combine-cycle power conversion system. The PB-FHR's pebble bed consists of a 19.8% enriched uranium fuel core surrounded by an inert graphite pebble reflector that shields the outer solid graphite reflector, core barrel and reactor vessel. The fuel reaches an average burnup of 178000 MWt-d/MT. The Mk1 PB-FHR exhibits strong negative temperature reactivity feedback from the fuel, graphite moderator and the flibe coolant but a small positive temperature reactivity feedback of the inner reflector and from the outer graphite pebble reflector. A novel neutronics and depletion methodology---the multiple burnup state methodology was developed for an accurate and efficient search for the equilibrium composition of an arbitrary continuously refueled pebble bed reactor core. The Burnup Equilibrium Analysis Utility (BEAU) computer program was developed to implement this methodology. BEAU was successfully benchmarked against published results generated with existing equilibrium depletion codes VSOP

  16. Crack closure and healing studies in WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] salt using compressional wave velocity and attenuation measurements: Test methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, N.S.

    1990-11-01

    Compressional wave ultrasonic data were used to qualitatively assess the extent of crack closure during hydrostatic compression of damaged specimens of WIPP salt. Cracks were introduced during constant strain-rate triaxial tests at low confining pressure (0.5 MPa) as specimens were taken to either 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 percent axial strain. For three specimens taken to 1.0 percent axial strain, the pressure was increased to 5, 10 or 15 MPa. For the remaining specimens, pressure was raised to 15 MPa. Waveforms for compressional waves traveling both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of maximum principal stress were measured in the undamaged state, during constant strain-rate tests, and then monitored as functions of time while the specimens were held at pressure. Both wave velocities and amplitudes increased over time at pressure, indicating that cracks closed and perhaps healed. The recovery of ultrasonic wave characteristics depended upon both pressure and damage level. The higher the pressure, the greater the velocity recovery; however, amplitude recovery showed no clear correlation with pressure. For both amplitudes and velocities, recoveries were greatest in the specimens with the least damage. 13 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  17. Synthesis of thiazolium salts and their screening for catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seul Ki; Kim, Do Joong; Park, Jin Kyoon [Dept. of Chemistry and Institute of Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A facile synthetic method to prepare thiazolium-based ionic liquids in high yield was developed. The direct alkylation of thiazole was performed using a trialkyl orthoester as both the alkyl donor and the solvent. The synthesized thiazolium salts were subsequently screened for their ability to catalyze the benzoin condensation reaction. Of the salts that were tested, 3-butyl,4,5-dimethyl thiazolium salt, was found to be the best catalyst.

  18. Molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Tsukada, Kineo; Nakahara, Yasuaki; Oomichi, Toshihiko; Oono, Hideo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To simplify the structure, as well as improve the technical reliability and safety by the elimination of a proton beam entering window. Constitution: The nuclear reactor container main body is made of Hastelloy N and provided at the inner surface with two layers of graphite shields except for openings. An aperture was formed in the upper surface of the container, through which protons accelerated by a linear accelerator are directly entered to the liquid surface of molten salts such as 7LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 , 7LiF-NaF-ThF 4 , 7LiF-Rb-UF 4 , NaF-KF-UF 4 and the like. The heated molten salts are introduced by way of a pipeway into a heat exchanger where the heat is transferred to coolant salts and electric generation is conducted by way of heated steams. (Furukawa, Y.)

  19. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  20. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. This part 'CIRCUITS' regroups under a condensed form - in French and using international units - the essential information contained in both basic documents of the American project for a molten-salt breeder power plant. This part is only dealing with things relating to the CEA-EDF workshop 'CIRCUITS'. It is not concerned with information on: the reactor and the moderator replacement, the primary and secondary salts, and the fuel salt reprocessing, that are dealt with in parts 'CORE' and 'CHEMISTRY' respectively. The possible evolutions in the data - and solutions - taken by the American designers for their successive projects (1970 to 1972) are shown. The MSBR power plant comprises three successive heat transfer circuits. The primary circuit (Hastelloy N), radioactive and polluted, containing the fuel salt, includes the reactor, pumps and exchangers. The secondary circuit (pipings made of modified Hastelloy N) contaminated in the exchanger, ensures the separation between the fuel and the fluid operating the turbo-alternator. The water-steam circuit feeds the turbine with steam. This steam is produced in the steam generator flowed by the secondary fluid. Some subsidiary circuits (discharge and storage of the primary and secondary salts, ventilation of the primary circuit ...) complete the three principal circuits which are briefly described. All circuits are enclosed inside the controlled-atmosphere building of the nuclear boiler. This building also ensures the biological protection and the mechanical protection against outer aggressions [fr

  1. Free energy landscape of a minimalist salt bridge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xubin; Lv, Chao; Corbett, Karen M; Zheng, Lianqing; Wu, Dongsheng; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Salt bridges are essential to protein stability and dynamics. Despite the importance, there has been scarce of detailed discussion on how salt bridge partners interact with each other in distinct solvent exposed environments. In this study, employing a recent generalized orthogonal space tempering (gOST) method, we enabled efficient molecular dynamics simulation of repetitive breaking and reforming of salt bridge structures within a minimalist salt-bridge model, the Asp-Arg dipeptide and thereby were able to map its detailed free energy landscape in aqueous solution. Free energy surface analysis shows that although individually-solvated states are more favorable, salt-bridge states still occupy a noticeable portion of the overall population. Notably, the competing forces, e.g. intercharge attractions that drive the formation of salt bridges and solvation forces that pull the charged groups away from each other, are energetically comparable. As the result, the salt bridge stability is highly tunable by local environments; for instance when local water molecules are perturbed to interact more strongly with each other, the population of the salt-bridge states is likely to increase. Our results reveal the critical role of local solvent structures in modulating salt-bridge partner interactions and imply the importance of water fluctuations on conformational dynamics that involves solvent accessible salt bridge formations. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  2. Sol-gel processing with inorganic metal salt precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2004-10-19

    Methods for sol-gel processing that generally involve mixing together an inorganic metal salt, water, and a water miscible alcohol or other organic solvent, at room temperature with a macromolecular dispersant material, such as hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) added. The resulting homogenous solution is incubated at a desired temperature and time to result in a desired product. The methods enable production of high quality sols and gels at lower temperatures than standard methods. The methods enable production of nanosize sols from inorganic metal salts. The methods offer sol-gel processing from inorganic metal salts.

  3. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the...

  4. Emulsifying salt increase stability of cheese emulsions during holding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå; Sijbrandij, Anna G.; Varming, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    In cheese powder production, cheese is mixed and melted with water and emulsifying salt to form an emulsion (cheese feed) which is required to remain stable at 60°C for 1h and during further processing until spray drying. Addition of emulsifying salts ensures this, but recent demands for reduction...... of sodium and phosphate in foods makes production of cheese powder without or with minimal amounts of emulsifying salts desirable. The present work uses a centrifugation method to characterize stability of model cheese feeds. Stability of cheese feed with emulsifying salt increased with holding time at 60°C......, especially when no stirring was applied. No change in stability during holding was observed in cheese feeds without emulsifying salt. This effect is suggested to be due to continued exerted functionality of the emulsifying salt, possibly through reorganizations of the mineral balance....

  5. to salt stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tony

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... 3Inner Mongolia Industrial Engineering Research, Center of University for Castor, Tongliao 028042, ... strengthen and improve salt stress tolerance in plants. .... 2 µl cDNA, 1 µl each of 4 µM forward and reverse primer, 0.2 µl.

  6. Molten salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    Molten salt reactor is an advanced breeder concept which is suited for the utilization of thorium for nuclear power production. This reactor is based on the use of solutions of uranium or plutonium fluorides in LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 as fuel. Unlike the conventional reactors, no external coolant is used in the reactor core and the fuel salt itself is circulated through heat exchangers to transfer the fission produced heat to a secondary salt (NaF-NaBF 4 ) for steam generation. A part of the fuel stream is continuously processed to isolate 233 Pa, so that it can decay to fissile 233 U without getting converted to 234 Pa, and for the removal of neutron absorbing fission products. This on-line processing scheme makes this reactor concept to achieve a breeding ratio of 1.07 which is the highest for any thermal breeder reactor. Experimental studies at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have established the use of plutonium as fuel for this reactor. This molten salt reactor concept is described and the work conducted at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is summarised. (auth.)

  7. Borehole closure in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1988-12-01

    Constitutive law parameters are determined from salt behavior characterization experiments. The results are applied to predict creep (time-dependent) closure of boreholes in salt specimens subjected to various loading configurations. Rheological models (linear and nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic models), empirical models, and physical theory models have been formulated from the results of uniaxial creep tests, strain and stress rate controlled uniaxial tests, constant strain rate triaxial tests, cyclic loading tests, and seismic velocity measurements. Analytical solutions for a thick-walled cylinder subjected to internal and external pressures and for a circular hole in an infinite plate subjected to a biaxial or uniaxial stressfield have been derived from each of the linear viscoelastic models and from one of the empirical laws. The experimental results indicate that the salt samples behave as an elastic-viscoplastic material. The elastic behavior tends to be linear and time-independent. The plastic deformation is time-dependent. The stress increment to strain rate increment ratio gradually decreases as the stress level increases. The transient potential creep law seems to give the simplest satisfactory governing equation describing the viscoplastic behavior of salt during the transient phase. 204 refs., 27 figs., 29 tabs

  8. Salt repository design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure

  9. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  10. Waste salt recovery, recycle, and destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.

    1992-12-01

    Starting in 1943 and continuing into the 1970s, radioactive wastes resulting from plutonium processing at Hanford were stored underground in 149 single shell tanks. Of these tanks, 66 are known or believedto be leaking, and over a period are believed to have leaked about 750,000 gal into the surrounding soil. The bulk of the aqueous solution has been removed and transferred to double shell tanks, none of which are leaking. The waste consists of 37 million gallons of salt cake and sludge. Most of the salt cake is sodium nitrate and other sodium salts. A substantial fraction of the sludge is sodium nitrate. Small amounts of the radionuclides are present in the sludge as oxides or hydroxides. In addition, some of the tanks contain organic compounds and ferrocyanide complexes, many of which have undergone radiolytic induced chemical changes during the years of storage. As part of the Hanford site remediation effort, the tank wastes must be removed, treated, and the residuals must be immobilized and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. Removal methods of the waste from the tanks fall generally into three approaches: dry removal, slurry removal, and solution removed. The latter two methods are likely to result in some additional leakage to the surrounding soil, but that may be acceptable if the tank can be emptied and remediated before the leaked material permeates deeply into the soil. This effort includes three parts: salt splitting, acid separation, and destruction, with initial emphasis on salt splitting

  11. Dicarbonic acid anilides containing radioactive iodine (iodine 131, 123, 125, or 132) as well as their metal and amine salts; methods for the preparation of these compounds and of radioactive functional diagnostics containing them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttermann, G.

    1976-01-01

    A method for the preparation of dicarbonic acid anilides containing radioactive iodine is described. The initial substances are N,N dimethyl-p-toluene sulfonamide, N,N bis-dimethyl aminosulfon, or dimethyl sulfon, or mixtures of these, which are heated in aqueous solution or in a melt with an alkali or alkaline earth radioiodide as carrier-free as possible. From the water-soluble salts of the obtained iodine-labelled dicarbonic acid anilides aqueous solutions are produced with 1 mg up to 5 g iodine-labelled dicarbonic acid anilide per 10 ml and an activity of 0.025 and 25 mCi per ml with physiologically compatible bases as radioactive functional diagnostics. (RB) [de

  12. High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team Final Report, Volumes I, II, and III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccolo, S.F.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the process used and results obtained by the High Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team to select a primary and backup alternative salt disposition method for the Savannah River Site

  13. Synthesis of quaternary aryl phosphonium salts: photoredox-mediated phosphine arylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, A F; An, J; Jackson, M; Lindovska, P; Denton, R M

    2016-04-11

    We report a synthesis method for the construction of quaternary aryl phoshonium salts at ambient temperature. The regiospecific reaction involves the coupling of phosphines with aryl radicals derived from diaryliodonium salts under photoredox conditions.

  14. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  15. Modelling of the thermomechanical behaviour of salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albers, G.; Graefe, V.; Korthaus, E.; Pudewillis, A.; Prij, J.

    1986-01-01

    The modelling of the thermomechanical behaviour of salt rock is examined, with respect to the disposal of radioactive waste in salt formations. The calculation methods and programmes currently available for the modelling are described. Some examples are given of calculations carried out in parallel with tests. Some results of modelling calculations for a repository are presented by way of illustration. (U.K.)

  16. Genetic predisposition to salt-sensitivity : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeks, Esther; Kessels, Alfons G H; Kroon, Abraham A; van der Klauw, Melanie M; de Leeuw, Peter W

    PURPOSE: To assess the role of genetic polymorphisms in salt sensitivity of blood pressure. DATA IDENTIFICATION: We conducted a systematic review by searching the Medline literature from March 1993 to June 2003. Each paper was scrutinized and data concerning study population, method of salt

  17. Internally Pressurized Spherical and Cylindrical Cavities in Rock Salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    1978-01-01

    -linear zone and the volume reduction. Results are given for cavities in rock salt, and a comparison with measured stress concentrations is used to support the assumption of a hydrostatic stress state in undisturbed salt formations. Finally a method to estimate convergence due to creep is outlined....

  18. Isotopic study of water origin in salt mines in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulinski, M.; Grabczak, J.; Garlicki, A.; Zuber, A.

    1998-01-01

    The most important results of isotopic analyses carried out so far in salt mines in Wieliczka, Bochnia, Klodawa, Wapno and Inowroclaw are presented. Discussion of these results for individual leakages proofs that isotopic methods are fully useful in determining of the origin of water appearing in salt mines. (author)

  19. Effect of Salt Forms of Chitosan on In Vitro Permeability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of chitosan (CS) salt forms and pH condition on the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of Caco-2 cell monolayer for enhanced permeability. Methods: Solutions (2 %w/v) of four different salt forms of CS-aspartate (CS-A), CS-ethylene diamine tetraacetate (CS-EDTA), ...

  20. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions......, In this study we compare results of analogue and numerical models of diapirs with two natural salt diapris (Klodawa and Gorleben diapirs) to explain their salt supply and asymmetric evolution. In a NW-SE section, the Gorleben salt diapir possesses an asymmetric external geometry represented by a large...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...

  1. Comparison of brown sugar, hot water, and salt methods for detecting western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae in sweet cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown sugar or hot water methods have been developed to detect larvae of tephritid fruit flies in post-harvest fruit in order to maintain quarantine security. It would be useful to determine if variations of these methods can yield better results and if less expensive alternatives exist. This stud...

  2. Nonlinear Analysis of Cavities in Rock Salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, N. S.; Krenk, Steen

    1979-01-01

    The paper covers some material and computational aspects of the rock mechanics of leached cavities in salt. A material model is presented in which the instantaneous stiffness of the salt is obtained by interpolation between the unloaded state and a relevant failure state. The model enables predic...... prediction of short term triaxial behaviour from uniaxial stress-strain curves. Key results from a nonlinear finite element calculation of a gas-filled cavity are given, and the general features are related to a simple nonlinear method of stress evaluation....

  3. Salt crystallization tests: Focus on their objective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charola, A. Elena; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Chwast, Jacek

    Many factors influence the durability of a building material, such as its mechanical resistance, exposure conditions and the presence of soluble salts in it. Since the latter interact with each other, it is difficult to relate any of them to the specific damage observed. Lubelli et al. [1] have r...... compatibility of restoration mortars, and another where the efflorescence of gypsum for brick masonry is evaluated. These methods have proven their reliability and lead to the conclusion that salt tests should be designed for specific objectives....

  4. Treatment of waste salt from the advanced spent fuel conditioning process (I): characterization of Zeolite A in Molten LiCl Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Lee, Jae Hee; Yoo, Jae Hyung; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2004-01-01

    The oxide fuel reduction process based on the electrochemical method (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process; ACP) and the long-lived radioactive nuclides partitioning process based on electro-refining process, which are being developed ay the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), are to generate two types of molten salt wastes such as LiCl salt and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, respectively. These waste salts must meet some criteria for disposal. A conditioning process for LiCl salt waste from ACP has been developed using zeolite A. This treatment process of waste salt using zeolite A was first developed by US ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt waste from an electro-refining process of EBR (Experimental Breeder Reactor)-II spent fuel. This process has been developed recently, and a ceramic waste form (CWF) is produced in demonstration-scale V-mixer (50 kg/batch). However, ANL process is different from KAERI treatment process in waste salt, the former is LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the latter is LiCl salt. Because of melting point, the immobilization of eutectic salt is carried out at about 770 K, whereas LiCl salt at around 920 K. Such difference has an effect on properties of immobilization media, zeolite A. Here, zeolite A in high-temperature (923 K) molten LiCl salt was characterized by XRD, Ion-exchange, etc., and evaluated if a promising media or not

  5. Comparison of salting-out and sugaring-out liquid-liquid extraction methods for the partition of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid in royal jelly and their co-extracted protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xijuan; Sun, Fanyi; Wu, Siyuan; Liu, Weiyi; Gao, Zhaosheng; Huang, Shaokang; Chen, Wenbin

    2018-01-15

    Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction (h-LLE) has been receiving considerable attention as a sample preparation method due to its simple and fast partition of compounds with a wide range of polarities. To better understand the differences between the two h-LLE extraction approaches, salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) and sugaring-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SULLE), have been compared for the partition of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) from royal jelly, and for the co-extraction of proteins. Effects of the amount of phase partition agents and the concentration of acetonitrile (ACN) on the h-LLE were discussed. Results showed that partition efficiency of 10-HDA depends on the phase ratio in both SALLE and SULLE. Though the partition triggered by NaCl and glucose is less efficient than MgSO 4 in the 50% (v/v) ACN-water mixture, their extraction yields can be improved to be similar with that in MgSO 4 SALLE by increasing the initial concentration of ACN in the ACN-water mixture. The content of co-extracted protein was correlated with water concentration in the obtained upper phase. MgSO 4 showed the largest protein co-extraction at the low concentration of salt. Glucose exhibited a large protein co-extraction in the high phase ratio condition. Furthermore, NaCl with high initial ACN concentration is recommended because it produced high extraction yield for 10-HDA and the lowest amount of co-extracted protein. These observations would be valuable for the sample preparation of royal jelly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Molten salt burner fuel behaviour and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, V.V.; Zakirov, R.Y.; Grebenkine, K.F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the feasibility of molten salt reactor technology for treatment of Pu, minor actinides and fission products, when the reactor and fission product clean-up unit are planned as an integral system. This contribution summarises the available R and D which led to selection of the fuel compositions for the molten salt reactor of the TRU burner type (MSB). Special characteristics of behaviour of TRUs and fission products during power operation of MSB concepts are presented. The present paper briefly reviews the processing developments underlying the prior molten salt reactor programmes and relates them to the separation requirements of the MSB concept, including the permissible range of processing cycle times and removal times. Status and development needs in the thermodynamic properties of fluorides, fission product clean-up methods and container materials compatibility with the working fluids for the fission product clean-up unit are discussed. (authors)

  7. Kinetics study of thermal decomposition of calcium carboxylate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landoll, Michael P.; Holtzapple, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    The MixAlco™ process ferments lignocellulosic biomass to carboxylate salts that are thermally decomposed into ketones, which are then chemically converted to a wide variety of chemicals and fuels. To perform these decompositions, suitable reaction models are necessary to properly design, scale, and optimize commercial reactors. For three salt types (calcium acetate, and two types of mixed calcium carboxylate salts), activation energy was determined using three isoconversional methods that employed TGA curves at different heating rates. For all three salt types, activation energy varied significantly with conversion. The average activation energy for calcium acetate was 556.75 kJ mol −1 , and the activation energies for the two mixed calcium carboxylate salts were 232.87, and 176.55 kJ mol −1 . In addition, three functions of conversion were employed to see which one best modeled the experimental data. The Sestak–Berggren model provides the best universal fit for all three salt types. -- Highlights: •Calcium carboxylate salts from fermentation broth thermally decompose to ketones. •Activation energy varies with conversion for all three salt types. •Sestak–Berggren model provides best fit overall for all three salt types

  8. Kinetics study of thermal decomposition of sodium carboxylate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landoll, Michael P.; Holtzapple, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    The MixAlco™ process ferments lignocellulosic biomass to carboxylate salts that are thermally decomposed into ketones, which are then chemically converted to a wide variety of chemicals and fuels. To perform these decompositions, suitable reaction models are necessary to properly design, scale, and optimize commercial reactors. For three salt types (sodium acetate, and two types of mixed sodium carboxylate salts), activation energy was determined using three isoconversional methods that employed TGA curves at different heating rates. For all three salt types, activation energy varied significantly with conversion. The average activation energy for sodium acetate was 226.65 kJ/mol, and the activation energies for the two mixed sodium carboxylate salts were 195.61, and 218.18 kJ/mol. In addition, three functions of conversion were employed to see which one best modeled the experimental data. The Sestak-Berggren model fits all three salt types best. -- Highlights: ► Sodium carboxylate salts from fermentation broth thermally decompose to ketones. ► Activation energy varies with conversion for all three salt types. ► Sestak-Berggren model provides best fit for all three salt types.

  9. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  10. Evaluation of the salt deposition on the canister surface of concrete cask. Part 2. Measurement test of the salt concentration in air and salt deposition in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataru, Masumi

    2012-01-01

    Concerning the storage facility of spent nuclear fuel using the concrete cask, there is an issue of stress corrosion cracking(SCC). The cooling air goes up along the canister surface in the concrete cask. To evaluate the initiation of SCC or rusting, it is important to verify the estimation method of the sea salt deposition on the metal canister surface transported by cooling air including sea salt particles. To measure the deposition rate, field tests were performed in Choushi test center. In the field test, it was found that the amount of sea salt deposition was very low because the density of the atmospheric sea salt concentration was very low compared with the laboratory test. Using relation between laboratory data and filed data, it is possible to evaluate the salt deposition rate on the canister surface. We also measured atmospheric sea salt concentration in Choushi test center to make the environment condition clear and compared the measurement data with the calculation data to verify the evaluation model. We are developing the automatic measuring device for atmospheric sea salt concentration. To check its performance, we are measuring atmospheric sea salt concentration in Yokosuka Area of CRIEPI and it was confirmed that the device works for one month automatically and fulfills its specifications. (author)

  11. Development of a new extraction method based on counter current salting-out homogenous liquid-liquid extraction followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction: Application for the extraction and preconcentration of widely used pesticides from fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Feriduni, Behruz; Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza Afshar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new extraction method based on counter current salting-out homogenous liquid-liquid extraction (CCSHLLE) followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of widely used pesticides in fruit juice samples prior to their analysis by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). In this method, initially, sodium chloride as a separation reagent is filled into a small column and a mixture of water (or fruit juice) and acetonitrile is passed through the column. By passing the mixture sodium chloride is dissolved and the fine droplets of acetonitrile are formed due to salting-out effect. The produced droplets go up through the remained mixture and collect as a separated layer. Then, the collected organic phase (acetonitrile) is removed with a syringe and mixed with 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (extraction solvent at µL level). In the second step, for further enrichment of the analytes the above mixture is injected into 5 mL de-ionized water placed in a test tube with conical bottom in order to dissolve acetonitrile into water and to achieve a sedimented phase at µL-level volume containing the enriched analytes. Under the optimal extraction conditions (extraction solvent, 1.5 mL acetonitrile; pH, 7; flow rate, 0.5 mL min(-1); preconcentration solvent, 20 µL 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane; NaCl concentration; 5%, w/w; and centrifugation rate and time, 5000 rpm and 5 min, respectively), the extraction recoveries and enrichment factors ranged from 87% to 96% and 544 to 600, respectively. Repeatability of the proposed method, expressed as relative standard deviations, ranged from 2% to 6% for intra-day (n=6, C=250 or 500 µg L(-1)) and inter-days (n=4, C=250 or 500 µg L(-1)) precisions. Limits of detection are obtained between 2 and 12 µg L(-1). Finally, the proposed method is applied for the determination of the target pesticide residues in the juice samples. Copyright © 2015

  12. Continuous extraction of molten chloride salts with liquid cadmium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, L.S.; Basco, J.K.; Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    A pyrochemical method is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to provide contnuous multistage extractions between molten chloride salts and liquid cadmium alloys at 500 degrees C. The extraction method will be used to recover transuranic (TRU) elements from the process salt in the electroretiner used in the pyrochemical reprocessing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). The IFR is one of the Department of Energy's advanced power reactor concepts. The recovered TRU elements are returned to the electrorefiner. The extracted salt undergoes further processing to remove rare earths and other fission products so that most of the purified salt can also be returned to the electrorefiner, thereby extending the useful life of the process salt many times

  13. The material flow of salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostick, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Salt (NaCl) is a universal mineral commodity used by virtually every person in the world. Although a very common mineral today, at one time it was considered as precious as gold in certain cultures. This study traces the material flow of salt from its origin through the postconsumer phase of usage. The final disposition of salt in the estimated 14,000 different uses, grouped into several macrocategories, is traced from the dispersive loss of salt into the environment to the ultimate disposal of salt-base products into the waste stream after consumption. The base year for this study is 1990, in which an estimated 196 million short tons of municipal solid waste was discarded by the US population. Approximately three-fourths of domestic salt consumed is released to the environment and unrecovered while about one-fourth is discharged to landfills and incinerators as products derived from salt. Cumulative historical domestic production, trade, and consumption data have been compiled to illustrate the long-term trends within the US salt industry and the cumulative contribution that highway deicing salt has had on the environment. Salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and to increase the density of the drilling fluid in order to overcome high down-well gas pressures. Whenever drilling activities encounter salt formations, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution and minimize the dissolution within the salt strata. Salt is also used to increase the set rate of concrete in cemented casings. This subsector includes companies engaged in oil, gas, and crude petroleum exploration and in refining and compounding lubricating oil. It includes SIC major groups 13 and 29. 13 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Molten salt/metal extractions for recovery of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, L.S.; Basco, J.K.; Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    The integral fast reactor (EFR) is an advanced reactor concept that incorporates metallic driver and blanket fuels, an inherently safe, liquid-sodium-cooled, pool-type, reactor design, and on-site pyrochemical reprocessing (including electrorefining) of spent fuels and wastes. This paper describes a pyrochemical method that is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory to recover transuranic elements from the EFR electrorefiner process salt. The method uses multistage extractions between molten chloride salts and cadmium metal at high temperatures. The chemical basis of the salt extraction method, the test equipment, and a test plan are discussed

  15. Salt briquette: the form of salt monopoly in madura, 1883-1911

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnu; Alrianingrum, S.; Artono; Liana, C.

    2018-01-01

    This study describes the history of the salt monopoly in Indonesia because it is associated with the issue of salt crisis lately, widely reported in various media. This study tried to find answers to the relationship between monopoly and crisis events through the study of history. Monopoly policy by the government of the colonial period is actually an industrial modernization effort, but it turned out another impact. Although the colonial government wanted to issue a policy that ends strengthens the position of the government in the industry, but ultimately backfire and disasters in the salt industry at the time. This article discusses only the focus of the salt monopoly in Madura as a selection of events, arguing the island as a center of salt in Indonesia. The method used in this study using a review of history. Therefore, their explanations using historical sources. Methodologically through the process of collecting historical sources, criticize these sources, synthesize and interpret the analysis in an array of historical writing. In conclusion, although the salt monopoly policy gives a great advantage to the colonial government, but the overall population of Madura remains in a poor state. It is evident that the Madurese to migrate Madurese to various areas outside the island of Madura, to fix the economy.

  16. Structural and physicochemical characterization of pyridine derivative salts of anti-inflammatory drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechipadappu, Sunil Kumar; Trivedi, Darshak R.

    2017-08-01

    Salts of common anti-inflammatory drugs mefenamic acid (MFA), tolfenamic acid (TFA) and naproxen (NPX) with various pyridine derivatives (4-amino pyridine (4AP), 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) and 2-amino pyridine (2AP)) were synthesized by crystal engineering approach based on the pKa values of API's and the salt former. All the salts were characterized systematically by various spectroscopic methods including FT-IR and 1H NMR and the crystal structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques (SCXRD). DMAP salt of NPX and 2AP salts of MFA and TFA were not obtained in the salt screening experiments. All the molecular salts exhibited 1:1 molecular stoichiometry in the asymmetric unit and except NPX-2AP salt, all the molecular salts included a water molecule in the crystal lattice. Physicochemical and structural properties between drug-drug molecular salts of MFA-4AP, TFA-4AP and NPX-4AP have been evaluated and it was found that these molecular salts were found to be stable for a time period of six months at ambient condition and further hydration of molecular salts were not observed even at accelerated humid conditions (∼75% RH). It was found that 4AP salts of MFA and TFA and DMAP salts of MFA and TFA are isostructural.

  17. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography in dual salt system increases protein binding capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senczuk, Anna M; Klinke, Ralph; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Vedantham, Ganesh; Yigzaw, Yinges

    2009-08-01

    Hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) uses weakly hydrophobic resins and requires a salting-out salt to promote protein-resin interaction. The salting-out effects increase with protein and salt concentration. Dynamic binding capacity (DBC) is dependent on the binding constant, as well as on the flow characteristics during sample loading. DBC increases with the salt concentration but decreases with increasing flow rate. Dynamic and operational binding capacity have a major raw material cost/processing time impact on commercial scale production of monoclonal antibodies. In order to maximize DBC the highest salt concentration without causing precipitation is used. We report here a novel method to maintain protein solubility while increasing the DBC by using a combination of two salting-out salts (referred to as dual salt). In a series of experiments, we explored the dynamic capacity of a HIC resin (TosoBioscience Butyl 650M) with combinations of salts. Using a model antibody, we developed a system allowing us to increase the dynamic capacity up to twofold using the dual salt system over traditional, single salt system. We also investigated the application of this novel approach to several other proteins and salt combinations, and noted a similar protein solubility and DBC increase. The observed increase in DBC in the dual salt system was maintained at different linear flow rates and did not impact selectivity.

  18. Measurement of water lost from heated geologic salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlfelder, J.J.

    1979-07-01

    This report describes three methods used to measure the rate at which water is lost from heated geologic salt. The three methods were employed in each of a series of proof tests which were performed to evaluate instrumentation designed to measure the water-loss rate. It was found that the water lost from heated, 1-kg salt specimens which were measured according to these three methods was consistent to within an average 9 percent

  19. Evaluation of the salt deposition on the canister surface of concrete cask. Part 3. Long-term measurement of salt concentration in air and evaluation of the salt deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataru, Masumi; Takeda, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    To realize the dry storage using concrete cask in Japan, it is important to develop the evaluation method of the SCC of the canister. One of the key issues is sea salt deposition on the canister surface during the storage period. If the amount of salt deposition exceeds the critical value, the SCC may occur. The amount of salt deposition depends on the ambient air condition. We developed the measurement device of salt in air to make clear the ambient condition. The device sucks the air including sea salt and the sea salt dissolves in water. We analyze the water including sea salt. This device works automatically for one or two months. In this study, the performance of this device was verified comparing the data obtained by the air sampler using filter pack. In Yokosuka area of CRIEPI, we measured the ambient air condition using this device for three years. Furthermore, we performed the salt deposition test using the small ducts in the same area. The ambient air including sea salt flows in the duct and the sea salt deposits on the test specimen put on the duct inner surface. We took out the specimen after certain time and measured the salt amount on the test specimen. Using these data, we obtained the relation between the salt deposition and the time on this ambient condition. The results of this study are useful to evaluate the SCC of the canister. (author)

  20. Green and simple analytical method to determine benzimidazoles in milk samples by using salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction and capillary liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Casado, Carmen; Del Olmo-Iruela, Monsalud; García-Campaña, Ana M; Lara, Francisco J

    2018-08-01

    A green and simple multiresidue method using capillary liquid chromatography (CLC) with UV-diode array detection (DAD) has been developed for the determination of sixteen benzimidazoles (BZs) and its metabolites in milk samples. The separation was achieved in  0.9985 for all BZs) with limits of detection (LOD) between 1.0 and 2.8 μg kg -1 . Relative standard deviations of repeatability and intermediate precision were below 1.6 and 14.2%, respectively. Satisfactory recoveries between 79.1 and 99.6% were also obtained for three types of milk samples (cow, sheep and goat). The advantages of a miniaturized technique such as CLC in terms of better efficiencies and reduced solvent consumption, combined with the simplicity of the SALLE procedure, make this method a useful alternative for the monitoring of these residues at trace level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural and optical properties of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Eu{sup 3+}: Mg{sup 2+} or Ca{sup 2+} phosphor prepared by molten salt method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Naveen, E-mail: vermanaveen17@gmail.com; Singh, Krishan Chander; Jindal, Jitender [Department of chemistry, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124001 – India (India); Mari, Bernabe; Mollar, Miguel; Manjón, F. J. [Institut de Disseny per la Fabricació Automatitzada - Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera s/n, 46022 València (Spain); Rana, Ravi [Department of Chemistry, SGT University, Gurgaon (India); Pereira, A. L. J. [Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 València (Spain)

    2016-04-13

    Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Eu{sup 3+}: Mg{sup 2+} or Ca{sup 2+} phosphor materials were prepared by molten salt method using KCl as flux. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns illustrated that the well crystallized Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Eu{sup 3+}: Mg{sup 2+} or Ca{sup 2+} were formed in the presence of flux under reduced temperature (800 °C) in contrast to conventional solid state method (1200-1500 °C). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images indicate the achievement of well dispersed particles (hexagonal tablet and rod-like structures). Meanwhile, the photo-luminescent studies demonstrated that Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} is an efficient host to sensitize europium red emissions. The addition of Mg{sup 2+} or Ca{sup 2+} as co-dopant enhanced the luminescent intensity of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}: Eu{sup 3+} compound.

  2. Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shih-Perng

    1997-01-01

    A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

  3. Laboratory investigation of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory test program was conducted to investigate the consolidation behavior of crushed salt and fracture healing in natural and artificial salt. Crushed salt is proposed for use as backfill in a nuclear waste repository in salt. Artificial block salt is proposed for use in sealing a repository. Four consolidation tests were conducted in a hydrostatic pressure vessel at a maximum pressure of 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) and at room temperature. Three 1-month tests were conducted on salt obtained from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and one 2-month test was conducted on salt from Avery Island. Permeability was obtained using argon and either a steady-state or transient method. Initial porosities ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 and initial permeabilities from 2000 to 50,000 md. Final porosities and permeabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 and from -5 md to 110 md, respectively. The lowest final porosity (0.05) and permeability ( -5 md) were obtained in a 1-month test in which 2.3% moisture was added to the salt at the beginning of the test. The consolidation rate was much more rapid than in any of the dry salt tests. The fracture healing program included 20 permeability tests conducted on fractured and unfractured samples. The tests were conducted in a Hoek cell at hydrostatic pressures up to 3000 psi (20.6 MPa) with durations up to 8 days. For the natural rock salt tested, permeability was strongly dependent on confining pressure and time. The effect of confining pressure was much weaker in the artificial salt. In most cases the combined effects of time and pressure were to reduce the permeability of fractured samples to the same order of magnitude (or less) as the permeability measured prior to fracturing

  4. Titanium for salt water service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadiyar, H.S.; Shibad, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Titanium has potential as major material of construction in desalination plants, in condensers and heat exchangers, in view of its excellent corrosion resistance to salt water upto at least 120deg C. The advantages of titanium in such applications are brought out. The various specific problems such as pitting, crevice and galvanic corrosion and the preventive methods, for adopting titanium have been discussed. The hydriding problem can be overcome by suitably controlling the operating parameters such as temperature and surface preparation. A case has been made to prove the economic viability of titanium in comparison to Al-brass and Cu-Ni alloy. The future of titanium seems to be very promising in view of the negligible tube failures and outages. (auth.)

  5. The method of determination of micro quantities of labeled iodide in carrier free Na125 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholbaev, A.Kh.; Shilin, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    The method of determination of microquantities of labelled iodide in Na 125 carrier-free solution was elaborated. This method permits to increase the sensitivity and radiation protection of the determination of labeled iodide. It includes oxidation of iodide by iodate in diluted sulphuric acid with molar concentration 0,03-0,04 mole/l. The extraction of I 2 is made by toluene. The coloured solution is made and optical density is measured at λ=640 nm at the 10 mm optical path .(A.A.D.)

  6. Generic aspects of salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughon, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    The history of geological disposal of radioactive wastes in salt is presented from 1957 when a panel of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council recommended burial in bedded salt deposits. Early work began in the Kansas, portion of the Permian Basin where simulated wastes were placed in an abandoned salt mine at Lyons, Kansas, in the late 1960's. This project was terminated when the potential effect of nearby solution mining activities could not be resolved. Evaluation of bedded salts resumed a few years later in the Permian Basin in southeastern New Mexico, and search for suitable sites in the 1970's resulted in the formation of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program in 1976. Evaluation of salt deposits in many regions of the United States has been virtually completed and has shown that deposits having the greatest potential for radioactive waste disposal are those of the largest depositional basins and salt domes of the Gulf Coast region

  7. Development of High Throughput Salt Separation System with Integrated Liquid Salt Separation - Salt Distillation Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sangwoon; Park, K. M.; Kim, J. G.; Jeong, J. H.; Lee, S. J.; Park, S. B.; Kim, S. S.

    2013-01-15

    The capacity of a salt distiller should be sufficiently large to reach the throughput of uranium electro-refining process. In this study, an assembly composing a liquid separation sieve and a distillation crucible was developed for the sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation in the same tower. The feasibility of the sequential salt separation was examined by the rotation test of the sieve-crucible assembly and sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation. The adhered salt in the uranium deposits was removed successfully. The salt content in the deposits was below 0.1 wt% after the sequential operation of the liquid salt separation - salt distillation. From the results of this study, it could be concluded that efficient salt separation can be realized by the sequential operation of liquid salt separation and vacuum distillation in one distillation tower since the operation procedures are simplified and no extra operation of cooling and reheating is necessary.

  8. Molten salt engineering for thorium cycle. Electrochemical studies as examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yasuhiko

    1998-01-01

    A Th-U nuclear energy system utilizing accelerator driven subcritical molten salt breeder reactor has several advantages compared to conventional U-Pu nuclear system. In order to obtain fundamental data on molten salt engineering of Th-U system, electrochemical study was conducted. As the most primitive simulated study of beam irradiation of molten salt, discharge electrolysis was investigated in molten LiCl-KCl-AgCl system. Stationary discharge was generated under atmospheric argon gas and fine Ag particles were obtained. Hydride ion (H - ) behavior in molten salts was also studied to predict the behavior of tritide ion (T - ) in molten salt fuel. Finally, hydrogen behavior in metals at high temperature was investigated by electrochemical method, which is considered to be important to confine and control tritium. (author)

  9. Detection of Corrosion Resistance of Components in Cyclic Salt Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Álló

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is, to investigate the influence of two types of cyclic salt spray tests on parts surface treated with galvanizing. On the selected components was performed the method Zn-Ni surface treating on the bath line. Subsequently were the components embedded in the corrosion chamber, where was performed two types of cyclic salt test. In the first test was performed 4 hour salt spray, 8 hours drying, 60 hours condensation and 24 hours drying. Once cycle lasted 96 hours, and it was repeated 4 times. During the second test was performed 2 hours salt spray, 2 hours condensation. The cycle was repeated 4 times, that means 96 hours. After the cycle was performed 72 hours free relaxation in the corrosion chamber, on 20–25 °C temperature. As the research showed, after the cyclic salt spray was no red corrosion on the selected components. The white corrosion appeared only slightly.

  10. Cast iron deterioration with time in various aqueous salt solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    various aqueous salt solutions have been carried out using total immersion test ... circuit potential, Icorr, Tafel slopes, corrosion rate, have been calculated by standard methods. ..... Rao B V S 1980 in Maintenance for reliability (Bombay: Media.

  11. Salt formations offer disposal alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funderburk, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses how three U.S. firms are spending millions to permit and build underground disposal sites in salt formations. These companies claim salt is the ideal geological medium for holding hazardous wastes. Two Texas locations and one in Michigan have been targeted as future sites for hazardous waste disposal. The Michigan site, outside Detroit, is a former salt mine 2,000 feet beneath the Ford Motor Co. (Detroit) assembly works in Dearborn. Both Texas sites are atop salt domes---one east and one west of Houston

  12. Possible origin, nature, extent and tectomic position of joints and fracture in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, H.M.

    1984-01-01

    The evaluation of about 500 bibliographic references for the safe ultimate storage in salt leds to the following results: fractures in rock salt and potash salt are formed in all types of storage, fractures are less numerous in a vertical storage than in a horizontal storage, nevertheless fissures are found in salt fomations containing liquids or gas undergoing rock pressures, fractures can be created during salt formation. Datation of formations by geologic methods and K-Ar method are considered. Deep formations (about 300m) are liquid and gas-tight, if homogenous and non perturbated. In all German permian formations are found indications of brine accumulation along fractures and tectonic zones

  13. Fused salt electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    Working conditions for zirconium preparation by fused salt electrolysis were studied. For such purpose, a cell was built for operation under argon atmosphere. A graphite crucible served as anode, with steel cathodes. Proper design allowed cathode rechange under the inert atmosphere. Cathodic deposits of zirconium powder occluded salts from the bath. After washing with both water and hydrochloric acid, the metallic powder was consolidated by fusion. Optimum operating conditions were found to arise from an electrolyte of 12% potassium hexafluorzirconate -88% sodium chloride, at 820 deg C and 5 A/cm 2 cathodic current density. Deposits contained 35% of metal and current efficiency reached 66%. The powder contained up to 600 ppm of chlorine and 1.700 ppm of fluorine; after fusion, those amounts decreased to 2 ppm and 3 ppm respectively, with low proportion of metallic impurities. Though oxygen proportion was 4.500 ppm, it should be lowered by improving working conditions, as well as working on an ampler scale. (Author)

  14. Salt fortified with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) as an effective intervention for lymphatic filariasis, with lessons learned from salt iodization programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, R

    2000-01-01

    DEC-fortified salt has been used successfully as a principal public health tool to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) in China and, less extensively, in several other countries. Studies from 1967 to the present conducted in Brazil, Japan, Tanzania, India, China, and Taiwan involving administration of DEC salt for 18 days to 1 year, have shown this intervention to be effective for both bancroftian and brugian filariasis, as measured by reductions in both microfilarial density and positivity, and in some studies through reduction in mosquito positivity rates as well. Furthermore, studies suggest specific advantages from using DEC salt, including lack of side effects, particularly for bancroftian filariasis, and ability to reduce prevalence below 1% when used in conjunction with standard regimens of DEC tablets. However, use of DEC salt as a control tool suffers from a concern that health authorities might find it difficult to manage a programme involving a commodity such as salt. In the past decade, the very successful global efforts to eliminate iodine deficiency through universal salt iodization have demonstrated that partnership with the salt industry can be both successful and effective as a public health tool. Use of DEC salt can be most successfully implemented in areas in which (a) there is adequate governmental support for its use and for elimination of filariasis, (b) filariasis-endemic areas are clearly defined, (c) political leaders, health officials and the salt industry agree that DEC salt is an appropriate intervention, (d) the salt industry is well-organized and has known distribution patterns, (e) a successful national salt iodization effort exists, (f) a monitoring system exists that ensures adequacy of salt iodine content during production and that can also measure household coverage, and (g) measurement of impact on transmission of LF with the new antigen or filarial DNA detection methods can be established. There are advantages and disadvantages

  15. Method to increase the safety of a final storage site in a salt cavern filled with solidified radioactive waste with regard to unforeseen rock movements and/or water ingress into cavities of the final storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, R.; Rudolph, G.; Kroebel, R.

    1986-01-01

    The wastes of weak or average radio-activity (e.g. T) are stored in barrels in a salt mine. In order to prevent leaching of the waste after the ingress of water into the salt mine, the intermediate spaces between the barrels are filled with a concrete grout. This grout consists of a water/bentonite/cement mixture, to which sand may be added, and which hardens. It forms a monolithic block. (orig./PW)

  16. Method to increase the safety of a final storage site in a salt cavern filled with solidified radioactive waste with regard to unforeseen rock movements and/or water ingress into cavities of the final storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, R.; Rudolph, G.; Kroebel, R.

    1980-01-01

    The wastes of weak or average radio-activity (e.g. T) are stored in barrels in a salt mine. In order to prevent leaching of the waste after the ingress of water into the salt mine, the intermediate spaces between the barrels are filled with a concrete grout. This grout consists of a water/bentonite/cement mixture, to which sand may be added, and which hardens. It forms a monolithic block. (DG) [de

  17. Molten salt fueled reactors with a fast salt draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventre, Edmond; Blum, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a molten salt nuclear reactor which comprises a new arrangement for shutting it down in complete safety. This nuclear reactor has a molten salt primary circuit comprising, in particular, the core of this reactor. It includes a leak tight vessel the capacity of which is appreciably greater than that of the molten salt volume of the circuit and placed so that the level of the molten salt, when all the molten salt of the circuit is contained in this vessel, is less than that of the base of the core. There are facilities for establishing and maintaining an inert gas pressure in the vessel above the molten salt, for releasing the compressed gas and for connecting the vessel to the primary circuit entering this vessel at a lower level than that of the molten salt and enabling molten salt to enter or leave the vessel according to the pressure of the inert gas. The particular advantage of this reactor is that it can be shut down safely since the draining of the primary circuit no longer results from a 'positive action' but from the suppression of an arrangement essential for the operation of the reactor consisting of the build-up of the said inert gas pressure in the said vessel [fr

  18. Impact of Light Salt Substitution for Regular Salt on Blood Pressure of Hypertensive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lôbo de Almeida Barros

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown sodium restriction to have a beneficial effect on blood pressure (BP of hypertensive patients. Objective: To evaluate the impact of light salt substitution for regular salt on BP of hypertensive patients. Methods: Uncontrolled hypertensive patients of both sexes, 20 to 65 years-old, on stable doses of antihypertensive drugs were randomized into Intervention Group (IG - receiving light salt and Control Group (CG - receiving regular salt. Systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP were analyzed by using casual BP measurements and Home Blood Pressure Monitoring (HBPM, and sodium and potassium excretion was assessed on 24-hour urine samples. The patients received 3 g of salt for daily consumption for 4 weeks. Results: The study evaluated 35 patients (65.7% women, 19 allocated to the IG and 16 to the CG. The mean age was 55.5 ± 7.4 years. Most participants had completed the Brazilian middle school (up to the 8th grade; n = 28; 80.0%, had a family income of up to US$ 600 (n = 17; 48.6% and practiced regular physical activity (n = 19; 54.3%. Two patients (5.7% were smokers and 40.0% consumed alcohol regularly (n = 14. The IG showed a significant reduction in both SBP and DBP on the casual measurements and HBPM (p < 0.05 and in sodium excretion (p = 0.016. The CG showed a significant reduction only in casual SBP (p = 0.032. Conclusions: The light salt substitution for regular salt significantly reduced BP of hypertensive patients.

  19. Experiments in connection with Salt Domes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.G.; Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1928-01-01

    The different theories concerning the origin of Salt Domes in Roumania, Germany, Texas, Louisiana, Colorado and Utah are discussed. In Roumania the salt occurs in cores of “Diapir” anticlines. The existance of hills of salt indicates, that the salt is still pushing upwards. In Germany the salt

  20. Effects of salting processes and time on the chemical composition, textural properties, and microstructure of cooked duck egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewmanee, Thammarat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop

    2011-03-01

    Chemical composition, textural properties, and microstructure of cooked duck egg salted by 2 methods (coating and immersing) were determined during 4 wk of salting. As the salting time increased, moisture content increased and salt content decreased for both cooked salted egg white and yolk. Oil exudation of cooked yolk and expressible water content of cooked egg white obtained from both salting methods increased as salting proceeded (P cooking, oil exudation accompanied by the solubilized pigments, especially at the outer layer of yolk, was obtained. At week 3 of salting, egg yolk from coating method had the higher egg exudation than that from immersing method. As the salting times increased, the lower hardness, springiness, gumminess, chewiness, and resilience with higher adhesiveness and cohesiveness were generally found in cooked salted egg white (P cooked yolk increased continuously and reached the maximum at week 2 and 2 to 3 for immersing and coating method (P egg after heating, compared with the fresh counterpart. As visualized by scanning electron microscope, gel of cooked salted egg white was coagulum type with larger voids. Salting methods determined oil exudation in egg yolk and texture profile of egg white gel after cooking; however, those attributes were also governed by the salting time. Salted duck egg can be made by 2 methods (coating and immersing) affecting the characteristic of salted egg white and yolk after cooking. Desirable cooked salted egg having the red yolk with hardness and high oil exudation could be obtained when salting was carried out for 3 and 4 wk for immersing and coating method, respectively.

  1. Salt stripping: a pyrochemical approach to the recovery of plutonium electrorefining salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.C.; Mullins, L.J.

    1982-10-01

    A pyrochemical process has been developed to take the salt residue from the plutonium electrorefining process and strip the plutonium from it. The process, called salt stripping, uses calcium as a reducing/coalescing agent. In a one-day operation, greater than 95% of the plutonium can be recovered as a metallic button. As much as 88% of the residue is either reused as metal or discarded as a clean salt. A thin layer of black salts, which makes up the bulk of the unrecovered Pu, is a by-product of the initial reductions. A number of black salts can be collected together and re-reduced in a second step. Greater than 88% of this plutonium can be successfully recovered in this second stage with the resulting residues being discardable. The processing time, number of processor hours, and the volume of secondary residues are greatly reduced over the classical aqueous recovery methods. In addition, the product metal is of sufficient quality to be fed directly to the electrorefining process for purification. 8 figures, 7 tables

  2. Improvement to molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienvenu, Claude.

    1975-01-01

    The invention proposes a molten salt nuclear reactor whose core includes a mass of at least one fissile element salt to which can be added other salts to lower the melting temperature of the mass. This mass also contains a substance with a low neutron capture section that does not give rise to a chemical reaction or to an azeotropic mixture with these salts and having an atmospheric boiling point under that of the mass in operation. Means are provided for collecting this substance in the vapour state and returning it as a liquid to the mass. The kind of substance chosen will depend on that of the molten salts (fissile element salts and, where required, salts to lower the melting temperature). In actual practice, the substance chosen will have an atmospheric pressure boiling point of between 600 and 1300 0 C and a melting point sufficiently below 600 0 C to prevent solidification and clogging in the return line of the substance from the exchanger. Among the materials which can be considered for use, mention is made of magnesium, rubidium, cesium and potassium but metal cesium is not employed in the case of many fissile salts, such as fluorides, which it would reduced to the planned working temperatures [fr

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

    2014-09-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  4. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450-470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl-KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. •The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept.•This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L.•The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going.

  5. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450–470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl–KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. • The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept. • This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L. • The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going. PMID:26150977

  6. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. This part describes the MSBR core (data presented are from ORNL 4541). The principal characteristics of the core are presented in tables together with plane and elevation drawings, stress being put upon the reflector, and loading and unloading. Neutronic, and thermal and hydraulic characteristics (core and reflectors) are more detailed. The reasons why a graphite with a tight graphite layer has been chosen are briefly exposed. The physical properties of the standard graphite (irradiation behavior) have been determined for an isotropic graphite with fine granulometry; its dimensional variations largely ressemble that of Gilsonite. The mechanical stresses computed (Wigner effect) do not implicate in any way the graphite stack [fr

  7. The Salt II Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, D.

    1991-01-01

    The first strategic arms limitation talks resulted in two agreements: the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and the Interim Agreement to Limit Strategic Offensive Arms. Senator Henry M. (Scoop) Jackson (D-Wa.) was concerned about the numerical advantage granted to the USSR by the Latter agreement and proposed an amendment that would prohibit future negotiators from granting the Soviet Union similar terms. This paper discusses the second round of SALT negotiations which opened in November 1972 and continued under presidents Richard M. Nixon, Gerald Ford, and Jimmy Carter. As the negotiators met, U.S. and Soviet scientists and engineers continued their work to develop new nuclear weapons and launchers. Particularly problematic were modern, large ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and the Soviet Backfire bomber

  8. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  9. Salt power - Is Neptune's ole salt a tiger in the tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, G. S.

    1980-02-01

    Methods of exploiting the 24 atm osmotic pressure difference between fresh and salt water to generate energy include reverse electrodialysis, wherein 80 millivolts of electricity cross each ion-selective membrane placed between solutions of fresh and salt water. Pressure-retarded osmosis, using pumps and pressure chambers, relies on semipermeable membranes that allow fresh water to flow into saline, with power generated by the permeated water being released through a turbine. In reverse vapor compression, water vapor rapidly transfers from fresh water to salt water in an evacuated chamber (due to the vapor pressure difference between them), and power can be extracted using 24 m diameter turbine blades. Environmental concerns include protecting estuaries from stress, managing sediments, and protecting marine animals, while filtration would be needed to keep the membranes free from corrosion, biological fouling, or silting.

  10. The simplified convergence rate calculation for salt grit backfilled caverns in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Within the research and development project 3609R03210 of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, different methods were investigated, which are used for the simplified calculation of convergence rates for mining cavities in salt rock that have been backfilled with crushed salt. The work concentrates on the approach of Stelte and on further developments based on this approach. The work focuses on the physical background of the approaches. Model specific limitations are discussed and possibilities for further development are pointed out. Further on, an alternative approach is presented, which implements independent material laws for the convergence of the mining cavity and the compaction of the crushed salt backfill.

  11. Multiclass method for the determination of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in compost from sewage sludge using ultrasound and salt-assisted liquid-liquid extraction followed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Muñoz, A; Vílchez, J L; Zafra-Gómez, A

    2017-07-21

    An analytical method for the analysis of 16 pharmaceuticals and personal care products in compost from sewage sludge is successfully validated. Ultrasound assisted extraction with a mixture of acetonitrile:ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) containing 10% (v/v) of acetic acid was carried out. Two cycles of extraction of 10min were applied. A clean-up of the extracts using salt-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) was also included. Experimental design was used for the optimization of the main parameters involved in the extraction and cleaned-up steps. The chromatographic separation was carried out by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography using a mobile phase gradient mixture of a 13mM buffer ammonium formate solution (pH 9.25) (solvent A) and methanol (solvent B). An ACQUITY UPLC ® BEH C18 column (1.7μm; 2.1×50mm) column was used. Analytes were separated in less than 11min. The compounds were detected and quantified using single reaction monitoring electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The limits of detection calculated ranged from 0.5 to 4ngg -1 d.w., and the limits of quantification from 2 to 13ngg -1 d.w. Recoveries from 93% to 111%, with relative standar deviations lower than 11% in all cases, were obtained. The method was applied to natural compost samples. High concentrations of some analytes were found. Ketoprofen (510ngg -1 d.w.), methylparaben (240ngg -1 d.w.), diclofenac (175ngg -1 d.w.) and flufenamic acid (128ngg -1 d.w.) were the most abundant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt

    OpenAIRE

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450?470??C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, a...

  13. Ion exchange removal of technetium from salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    Ion exchange methods for removing technetium from waste salt solutions have been investigated by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). These experiments have shown: Commercially available anion exchange resins show high selectivity and capacity for technetium. In column runs, 150 column volumes of salt solution were passed through an ion exchange column before 50% 99 Tc breakthrough was reached. The technetium can be eluted from the resin with nitric acid. Reducing resins (containing borohydride) work well in simple hydroxide solutions, but not in simulated salt solutions. A mercarbide resin showed a very high selectivity for Tc, but did not work well in column operation

  14. Salt brickwork as long-term sealing in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.; Yaramanci, U.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can be disposed of in deep salt formations. Rock salt is a suitable geologic medium because of its unique characteristics. Open boreholes, shafts and drifts are created to provide physical access to the repository. Long-term seals must be emplaced in these potential pathways to prevent radioactive release into the biosphere. The sealing materials must be mechanically and, most important, geochemically stable within the host rock. Salt bricks made from compressed salt-powder are understood to be the first choice long-term sealing material. Seals built of salt bricks will be ductile. Large sealing systems are built by combining the individual bricks with mortar. Raw materials for mortar are fine-grained halite powder and ground saliferous clay. This provides for the good adhesive strength of the mortar to the bricks and the high shear-strength of the mortar itself. To test the interaction of rock salt with an emplaced long-term seal, experiments will be carried out in situ, in the Asse salt mine in Germany. Simple borehole sealing experiments will be performed in horizontal holes and a complicated drift sealing experiment is planned, to demonstrate the technology of sealing a standard size drift or shaft inside a disturbed rock mass. Especially, the mechanical stability of the sealing system has to be demonstrated

  15. Salt tolerance in wheat - an overview. (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.

    2005-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been made during the past few years to overcome the problem of salinity through the development of salt tolerant lines of important crop species using screening, breeding and molecular biology techniques. In view of considerable importance of spring wheat as a major staple food crop of many countries, plant scientists have directed there attention to identify and develop salt tolerant genotypes that can be of direct use on salt-affected soils. Although considerable progress in understanding individual phenomenon and genes involved in plant response to salinity stress has been made over the past few years, underlying physiological mechanisms producing salt tolerant plants is still unclear. It has been suggested that salt tolerance of plants could be improved by defining genes or characters. Twenty years ago, it was suggested that genes located on the D genome of bread wheat confer salinity tolerance to hexaploid wheat by reducing Na/sup +/ accumulation in the leaf tissue and increasing discrimination in favour of K/sup +/. However, recently, low Na/sup +/ accumulation and high K/sup +/Na/sup +/ discrimination, of similar magnitude to bread wheat, in several selections of durum wheat has been observed, supporting the notion that salt tolerance is controlled by multiple genes, which are distributed throughout the entire set of chromosomes. In addition, various physiological selection criteria such as compatible osmolytes (glycinebetaine, proline, trehalose, mannitol etc.), antioxidants, carbon discrimination, high K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratio etc. have been discussed. Although tolerance to salinity is known to have a multigenic inheritance, mediated by a large number of genes, knowledge of heritability and the genetic mode of salinity tolerance is still lacking because few studies have yet been conducted in these areas. Indeed, genetic information is lagging behind the physiological information. Modern methods such as recombinant DNA technology

  16. Transfer characteristics of a lithium chloride–potassium chloride molten salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Mullen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing is an alternative method of reprocessing spent fuel, usually involving the dissolving spent fuel in a molten salt media. The National Nuclear Laboratory designed, built, and commissioned a molten salt dynamics rig to investigate the transfer characteristics of molten lithium chloride–potassium chloride eutectic salt. The efficacy and flow characteristics of a high-temperature centrifugal pump and argon gas lift were obtained for pumping the molten salt at temperatures up to 500°C. The rig design proved suitable on an industrial scale and transfer methods appropriate for use in future molten salt systems. Corrosion within the rig was managed, and melting techniques were optimized to reduce stresses on the rig. The results obtained improve the understanding of molten salt transport dynamics, materials, and engineering design issues and support the industrialization of molten salts pyroprocessing.

  17. Long-term sealing of openings in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.; Stockmann, N.; Yaramanci, U.; Laurens, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can be disposed of in deep salt formations. Rock salt is a suitable geologic medium because of its unique characteristics. Open boreholes, shafts and drifts are created to provide physical access to the repository. Long-term seals must be emplaced in those potential pathways to prevent radioactive release to the biosphere. The sealing materials must be mechanically and, most important, geochemically stable within the host rock. Salt bricks made of compressed salt-powder are understood to be the first choice long-term sealing material. Seals built from salt bricks will be ductile. The permeability of the salt bricks is assumed to be in the order of 2*10 -15 m 2 . Large sealing systems are built by combining the individual bricks with mortar. Raw materials for mortar are fine-grained halite powder and ground saliferous clay. The permeability of the mortar decreases with its salt content to approx. 2*10 -14 m 2 . Moistened saliferous clay may show temporary swelling. Sealing experiments will be carried out in the Asse salt mine. Long-term seals will be built into holes of 1 m diameter. The contact and merging of the brick-wall with the surrounding rock salt will be investigated in long-term tests. Within the in situ sealing program a number of geophysical methods are applied. Acoustic emission measurements are used to study the effects of high pressure gas injection and a geoelectrical observation program is aiming to estimate the permeability in and around the long-term seal. High frequency electromagnetic methods contribute to the knowledge of the petrophysical rock properties. 11 refs., 12 figs

  18. Moltex Energy's stable salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, R.; Laurie, J.

    2016-01-01

    A stable salt reactor is a molten salt reactor in which the molten fuel salt is contained in fuel rods. This concept was invented in 1951 and re-discovered and improved recently by Moltex Energy Company. The main advantage of using molten salt fuel is that the 2 problematic fission products cesium and iodine do not exist in gaseous form but rather in a form of a salt that present no danger in case of accident. Another advantage is the strongly negative temperature coefficient for reactivity which means the reactor self-regulates. The feasibility studies have been performed on a molten salt fuel composed of sodium chloride and plutonium/uranium/lanthanide/actinide trichloride. The coolant fluid is a mix of sodium and zirconium fluoride salts that will need low flow rates. The addition of 1 mol% of metal zirconium to the coolant fluid reduces the risk of corrosion with standard steels and the addition of 2% of hafnium reduces the neutron dose. The temperature of the coolant is expected to reach 650 Celsius degrees at the exit of the core. This reactor is designed to be modular and it will be able to burn actinides. (A.C.)

  19. Reports on 1977 result of Sunshine Project. R and D on high calorie gas manufacturing technology (molten salt/lime slurry bath gasification method); 1977 nendo kokarori gas seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Yoyuen sekkai slurry yo gas ka hoshiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    The following results were obtained by fundamental studies on molten salt/lime slurry bath gasification method. A comparison between a gasification process in a literature and the subject process shows the characteristics as follows. It is necessary to withdraw a high temperature molten salt slurry from under pressurization to atmospheric pressure and to separate only the ash content from other components; however, a large burden of this operation is a problem. In addition, CaO reacts with a part of the ash, making complete recovery of CaO difficult. From these two reasons, the subject gasification process has disadvantage, compared with the fluidized-bed process, against coal that contains much ash content. The gasification process, however, has the following advantage. It can reduce oxygen usage. It is unaffected by the grain size and caking of coal. The reaction rate of CaO in carbonation is several times greater in molten salt than in a fluidized bed. The heat of reaction of CaO for carbonation is an exothermic reaction and can supply several tens of percentages of the heat of reaction in coal gasification. The desulfurization effect of CaO is great. Molten salt has a catalytic effect, making particularly the reaction rate of methanization several times greater. (NEDO)

  20. Arenediazonium salts transformations in water media: Coming round to origins

    OpenAIRE

    Marina E. Trusova; Ksenia V. Kutonova; Victor V. Kurtukov; Victor D. Filimonov; Pavel S. Postnikov

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic diazonium salts belong to an important class of organic compounds. The chemistry of these compounds has been originally developed in aqueous media, but then chemists focused on new synthetic methods that utilize reactions of diazonium salts in organic solvents. However, according to the principles of green chemistry and resource-efficient technologies, the use of organic solvents should be avoided. This review summarizes new trends of diazonium chemistry in aqueous media that satisfy...

  1. Cation exchange process for molten salt extraction residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, S.G.

    1975-01-01

    A new method, utilizing a cation exchange technique, has been developed for processing molten salt extraction (MSE) chloride salt residues. The developed ion exchange procedure has been used to separate americium and plutonium from gross quantities of magnesium, potassium, and sodium chloride that are present in the residues. The recovered plutonium and americium contained only 20 percent of the original amounts of magnesium, potassium, and sodium and were completely free of any detectable amounts of chloride impurity. (U.S.)

  2. An application of LOTEM around salt dome near Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paembonan, Andri Yadi; Arjwech, Rungroj; Davydycheva, Sofia; Smirnov, Maxim; Strack, Kurt M.

    2017-07-01

    A salt dome is an important large geologic structure for hydrocarbon exploration. It may seal a porous reservoir of rocks that form petroleum reservoirs. Several techniques such as seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic including magnetotelluric have successfully yielded salt dome interpretation. Seismic has difficulties seeing through the salt because the seismic energy gets trapped by the salt due to its high velocity. Gravity and electromagnetics are more ideal methods. Long Offset Transient Electromagnetic (LOTEM) and Focused Source Electromagnetic (FSEM) were tested over a salt dome near Houston, Texas. LOTEM data were recorded at several stations with varying offset, and the FSEM tests were also made at some receiver locations near a suspected salt overhang. The data were processed using KMS's processing software: First, for assurance, including calibration and header checking; then transmitter and receiver data are merged and microseismic data is separated; Finally, data analysis and processing follows. LOTEM processing leads to inversion or in the FSEM case 3D modeling. Various 3D models verify the sensitivity under the salt dome. In addition, the processing was conducted pre-stack, stack, and post-stack. After pre-stacking, the noise was reduced, but showed the ringing effect due to a low-pass filter. Stacking and post-stacking with applying recursive average could reduce the Gibbs effect and produce smooth data.

  3. Salt in bread in Europe: potential benefits of reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilez, Joan; Salas-Salvado, Jordi

    2012-11-01

    Bread is widely considered to be the foodstuff that provides the most dietary salt to the diet. As such, it is one of the key public health targets for a salt reduction policy. In this respect, it has been shown that a reduction in the salt content of bread is possible, and an alternative approach involves partial replacement with other, mainly potassium-based salts, which also counteract the effects of sodium. This replacement should be undertaken on the basis of criteria that maintain the product's sensory profile, and it tends to be more successful in breads with more naturally flavorful taste. The present review was conducted to examine salt intake in Europe and the health problems associated with its excessive consumption; particular focus is placed on the salt content of bread and the effects of its possible reduction and/or correction. The beneficial effects of such changes are highlighted by way of a theoretical calculation in baguette-type wheat bread. European legislation in the field of nutrition and health claims allows the positive aspects of such salt reduction and replacement methods to be stated. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  4. Salt Damage and Rising Damp Treatment in Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. P. Q. Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt damage can affect the service life of numerous building structures, both historical and contemporary, in a significant way. In this review, various damage mechanisms to porous building materials induced by salt action are analyzed. The importance of pretreatment investigations is discussed as well; in combination with the knowledge of salt and moisture transport mechanisms they can give useful indications regarding treatment options. The methods of salt damage treatment are assessed then, including both passive techniques based on environmental control, reduction of water transport, or conversion to less soluble salts and active procedures resulting in the removal of salts from deterioration zones. It is concluded that cellulose can still be considered as the favorite material presently used in desalination poultices but hydrophilic mineral wool can serve as its prospective alternative in future applications. Another important cause of building pathologies is the rising damp and, in this phenomenon, it is particularly severe considering the presence of salts in water. The treatment of rising damp in historic building walls is a very complex procedure and at Laboratory of Building Physics (LFC-FEUP a wall base hygroregulated ventilation system was developed and patented.

  5. Treatment of waste salts by oxygen sparging and vacuum distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.J.; Yang, H.C.; Kim, E.H.; Kin, I.T.; Eun, H.C.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. During the electrorefining process of the oxide spent fuel from LWR, amounts of waste salts containing some metal chloride species such as rare earths and actinide chlorides are generated, where the reuse of the waste salts is very important from the standpoint of an economical as well as an environmental aspect. In order to reuse the waste salts, a salt vacuum distillation method can be used. For the best separation by a vacuum distillation, the metal chloride species involved in the waste salts must be converted into their oxide(or oxychloride) forms due to the their low volatility compared to that of LiCl-KCl. In this study, an oxygen sparging process was adopted for the oxidation (or precipitation) of rare earth chlorides. The effects of oxygen flow rate and molten salt temperature on the conversion of rare earth chlorides to the precipitate phase (i.e. oxide or oxychloride) were investigated. In addition, distillation characteristics of LiCl-KCl molten salt with system pressure and temperature were studied. (authors)

  6. Molten salts in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirian, J.; Saint-James

    1959-01-01

    Collection of references dealing with the physicochemical studies of fused salts, in particular the alkali and alkali earth halides. Numerous binary, ternary and quaternary systems of these halides with those of uranium and thorium are examined, and the physical properties, density, viscosity, vapour pressure etc... going from the halides to the mixtures are also considered. References relating to the corrosion of materials by these salts are included and the treatment of the salts with a view to recuperation after irradiation in a nuclear reactor is discussed. (author) [fr

  7. Salt effects on ionization equilibria of histidines in myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Y H; Fitch, C A; Bhattacharya, S; Sarkisian, C J; Lecomte, J T; García-Moreno E, B

    2000-09-01

    The salt dependence of histidine pK(a) values in sperm whale and horse myoglobin and in histidine-containing peptides was measured by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. Structure-based pK(a) calculations were performed with continuum methods to test their ability to capture the effects of solution conditions on pK(a) values. The measured pK(a) of most histidines, whether in the protein or in model compounds, increased by 0.3 pH units or more between 0.02 M and 1.5 M NaCl. In myoglobin two histidines (His(48) and His(36)) exhibited a shallower dependence than the average, and one (His(113)) showed a steeper dependence. The (1)H-NMR data suggested that the salt dependence of histidine pK(a) values in the protein was determined primarily by the preferential stabilization of the charged form of histidine with increasing salt concentrations rather than by screening of electrostatic interactions. The magnitude and salt dependence of interactions between ionizable groups were exaggerated in pK(a) calculations with the finite-difference Poisson-Boltzmann method applied to a static structure, even when the protein interior was treated with arbitrarily high dielectric constants. Improvements in continuum methods for calculating salt effects on pK(a) values will require explicit consideration of the salt dependence of model compound pK(a) values used for reference in the calculations.

  8. Investigation of Various LiCl Waste Salt Purification Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung-Zun Cho; Hee-Chul Yang; Han-Soo Lee; In-Tae Kim

    2008-01-01

    Various purification research of LiCl waste molten salt generated from electroreduction process were tested. The purification of the LiCl waste salt very important in a various aspects, where the purification means separation of cesium and strontium form LiCl salt melts. In this study, for the separation of cesium and strontium from LiCl salt melts, precipitant agent addition techniques such as sulfate and carbonate addition method and, as a new attempt, zone freezing technique for concentration of cesium and strontium elements was investigated. As a results of this research, only strontium was carbonated by reaction with Li 2 CO 3 (cesium did not react with Li 2 CO 3 ). In case of sulfate addition method, both cesium and strontium were converted into their sulfate that is Cs 2 S 2 O 6 and SrSO 4 and maximum sulfate efficiency of cesium and strontium were about 72% and 95%, respectively. Cesium and strontium involved in LiCl molten salt could be concentrated in the molten salt by using zone freezing method. (authors)

  9. Rock salt constitutive modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Serata model is the best operational model available today because it incorporates: (1) a yield function to demarcate between viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of rock salt; (2) a pressure and temperature dependence for yield stresses; and (3) a standard linear solid, which can be readily extended into the non-linear regime, to represent creep behavior. Its only deficiencies appear to be the lack of secondary creep behavior (a free dashpot) and some unsettling arbitrariness about the Poisson's ratio (ν → 0.5) argument for viscoplasticity. The Sandia/WIPP model will have good primary and secondary creep capability, but lacks the viscoplastic behavior. In some cases, estimated inelastic strains may be underpredicted. If a creep acceleration mechanism associated with brine inclusions is observed, this model may require extensive revision. Most of the other models available (SAI, RE-SPEC, etc.) are only useful for short-term calculations, because they employ temporal power law (t/sup n/) primary creep representations. These models are unsatisfactory because they cannot represent dual mechanisms with differing characteristic times. An approach based upon combined creep and plasticity is recommended in order to remove the remaining deficiency in the Serata model. DOE/Sandia/WIPP should be encouraged to move aggressively in this regard

  10. Variance-based Salt Body Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Ovcharenko, Oleg

    2017-05-26

    Seismic inversions of salt bodies are challenging when updating velocity models based on Born approximation- inspired gradient methods. We propose a variance-based method for velocity model reconstruction in regions complicated by massive salt bodies. The novel idea lies in retrieving useful information from simultaneous updates corresponding to different single frequencies. Instead of the commonly used averaging of single-iteration monofrequency gradients, our algorithm iteratively reconstructs salt bodies in an outer loop based on updates from a set of multiple frequencies after a few iterations of full-waveform inversion. The variance among these updates is used to identify areas where considerable cycle-skipping occurs. In such areas, we update velocities by interpolating maximum velocities within a certain region. The result of several recursive interpolations is later used as a new starting model to improve results of conventional full-waveform inversion. An application on part of the BP 2004 model highlights the evolution of the proposed approach and demonstrates its effectiveness.

  11. Development of High-Temperature Transport System for Molten Salt in Pyroprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, In Tae; Park, Sung Bin

    2014-01-01

    The electrorefining process, which is a key process in pyroprocessing, is composed of two parts, electrorefining to deposit a uranium with a solid cathode and electrowinning to co-deposit TRU and RE with a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC). As the electrorefining operation proceedes, TRU and RE are accumulated in electrolyte LiCl-KCl salt, and after the electrorefining process, the molten salt used in an electrorefining reactor should by transported to the next process, the electrowinning process, to recover U/TRU/RE; Thus, a molten salt transfer system by suction is now being developed. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and constructed for the development of high- temperature molten salt transport technology. Suction transport experiments were performed using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The feasibility of pyro-reprocessing has been demonstrated through many laboratory-scale experiments. In pyroprocessing, a eutectic LiCl-KCl salt was used as a liquid elextrolyte for a recovery of actinides. However, reliable transport technologies for these high temperature liquids have not yet been developed. A preliminary study on high-temperature transport technology for molten salt by suction is now being carried out. In this study, three different salt transport technologies (gravity, suction pump, and centrifugal pump) were investigated to select the most suitable method for molten salt transport. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and installed for the development of high-temperature molten salt transport technology. Basic preliminary suction transport experiments were carried out using the prepared LiC-KCl eutectic salt at 500 .deg. C to observe the transport behavior of LiCl-KCl molten salt. In addition, a PRIDE salt transport system was designed and installed for an engineering-scale salt transport demonstration. Several types of suction transport experiments using molten salt (LiCl-KCl eutectics) for the development of a high

  12. Development of High-Temperature Transport System for Molten Salt in Pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, In Tae; Park, Sung Bin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The electrorefining process, which is a key process in pyroprocessing, is composed of two parts, electrorefining to deposit a uranium with a solid cathode and electrowinning to co-deposit TRU and RE with a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC). As the electrorefining operation proceedes, TRU and RE are accumulated in electrolyte LiCl-KCl salt, and after the electrorefining process, the molten salt used in an electrorefining reactor should by transported to the next process, the electrowinning process, to recover U/TRU/RE; Thus, a molten salt transfer system by suction is now being developed. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and constructed for the development of high- temperature molten salt transport technology. Suction transport experiments were performed using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The feasibility of pyro-reprocessing has been demonstrated through many laboratory-scale experiments. In pyroprocessing, a eutectic LiCl-KCl salt was used as a liquid elextrolyte for a recovery of actinides. However, reliable transport technologies for these high temperature liquids have not yet been developed. A preliminary study on high-temperature transport technology for molten salt by suction is now being carried out. In this study, three different salt transport technologies (gravity, suction pump, and centrifugal pump) were investigated to select the most suitable method for molten salt transport. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and installed for the development of high-temperature molten salt transport technology. Basic preliminary suction transport experiments were carried out using the prepared LiC-KCl eutectic salt at 500 .deg. C to observe the transport behavior of LiCl-KCl molten salt. In addition, a PRIDE salt transport system was designed and installed for an engineering-scale salt transport demonstration. Several types of suction transport experiments using molten salt (LiCl-KCl eutectics) for the development of a high

  13. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  14. INORGANIC AND ORGANIC ONIUM SALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrosonium NO ion absorbs in the infrared between 1/2400 and 1/ 2150 cm. Salts of complex fluoro-acids absorb at higher frequencies than salts...halide adducts generally contain nitrosonium ions . Hexaphenylditin does not undergo marked heterolytic dissociation in nitromethane solution...influencing the covalent-ionic equilibrium are discussed. Infrared spectrum nitrosonium ion ; ionic character in lattice and position nitrosonium ion absorption

  15. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  16. Molten-salt converter reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    Molten-salt reactors appear to have substantial promise as advanced converters. Conversion ratios of 0.85 to 0.9 should be attainable with favourable fuel cycle costs, with 235 U valued at $12/g. An increase in 235 U value by a factor of two or three ($10 to $30/lb. U 3 O 8 , $75/SWU) would be expected to increase the optimum conversion ratio, but this has not been analyzed in detail. The processing necessary to recover uranium from the fuel salt has been partially demonstrated in the MSRE. The equipment for doing this would be located at the reactor, and there would be no reliance on an established recycle industry. Processing costs are expected to be quite low, and fuel cycle optimization depends primarily on inventory and burnup or replacement costs for the fuel and for the carrier salt. Significant development problems remain to be resolved for molten-salt reactors, notably the control of tritium and the elimination of intergranular cracking of Hastelloy-N in contact with tellurium. However, these problems appear to be amenable to solution. It is appropriate to consider separating the development schedule for molten-salt reactors from that for the processing technology required for breeding. The Molten-Salt Converter Reactor should be a useful reactor in its own right and would be an advance towards the achievement of true breeding in thermal reactors. (author)

  17. Residual salt separation from simulated spent nuclear fuel reduced in a LiCl-Li2O salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Jin-Mok; Hong, Sun-Seok; Seo, Chung-Seok

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of spent nuclear fuel in LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt for the conditioning of spent nuclear fuel requires the separation of the residual salts from a reduced metal product after the reduction process. Considering the behavior of spent nuclear fuel during the electrochemical reduction process, a surrogate material matrix was constructed and inactive tests on a salt separation were carried out to produce the data required for active tests. Fresh uranium metal prepared from the electrochemical reduction of U 3 O 8 powder was used as the surrogates of the spent nuclear fuel Atomic Energy Society of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, All rights reservedopyriprocess. LiCl, Li 2 O, Y 2 O 3 and SrCl 2 were selected as the components of the residual salts. Interactions between the salts and their influence on the separation of the residual salts were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). Eutectic melting of LiCl-Li 2 O and LiCl-SrCl 2 led to a melting point which was lower than that of the LiCl molten salt was observed. Residual salts were separated by a vaporization method. Co-vaporization of LiCl-Li 2 O and LiCl-SrCl 2 was achieved below the temperatures which could make the uranium metal oxidation by Li 2 O possible. The salt vaporization rates at 950degC were measured as follows: LiCl-8 wt% Li 2 O>LiCl>LiCl-8 wt% SrCl 2 >SrCl 2 . (author)

  18. Residual Salt Separation from the Metal Products Reduced in a LiCl-Li2O Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Jin Mok; Hong, Sun Seok; Kang, Dae Seung; Jeong, Meong Soo; Seo, Chung Seok

    2006-02-01

    The electrochemical reduction of spent nuclear fuel in a LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt for the conditioning of spent nuclear fuel requires the separation of the residual salts from a reduced metal product after the reduction process. Considering the behavior of spent nuclear fuel during the electrochemical reduction process, a surrogate material matrix was constructed and inactive tests on a salt separation were carried out to produce the data required for the active tests. Fresh uranium metal prepared from the electrochemical reduction of U 3 O 8 powder was used as the surrogates of the spent nuclear fuel components which might be metallized by the electrochemical reduction process. LiCl, Li 2 O, Y 2 O 3 and SrCl 2 were selected as the components of the residual salts. Interactions between the salts and their influence on the separation of the residual salts were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). Eutectic melting of LiCl-Li 2 O and LiCl-SrCl 2 led to a melting point which was lower than that of a LiCl molten salt was observed. Residual salts were separated by a vaporization method. Co-vaporization of LiCl-Li 2 O and LiCl-SrCl 2 was achieved below temperatures which could make the uranium metal oxidation by Li 2 O possible. The salt vaporization rates at 950 .deg. C were measured as follows: LiCl-8 wt% Li 2 O > LiCl > LiCl-8 wt% SrCl 2 > SrCl 2

  19. Residual Salt Separation from the Metal Products Reduced in a LiCl-Li{sub 2}O Molten Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Jin Mok; Hong, Sun Seok; Kang, Dae Seung; Jeong, Meong Soo; Seo, Chung Seok

    2006-02-15

    The electrochemical reduction of spent nuclear fuel in a LiCl-Li{sub 2}O molten salt for the conditioning of spent nuclear fuel requires the separation of the residual salts from a reduced metal product after the reduction process. Considering the behavior of spent nuclear fuel during the electrochemical reduction process, a surrogate material matrix was constructed and inactive tests on a salt separation were carried out to produce the data required for the active tests. Fresh uranium metal prepared from the electrochemical reduction of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder was used as the surrogates of the spent nuclear fuel components which might be metallized by the electrochemical reduction process. LiCl, Li{sub 2}O, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SrCl{sub 2} were selected as the components of the residual salts. Interactions between the salts and their influence on the separation of the residual salts were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). Eutectic melting of LiCl-Li{sub 2}O and LiCl-SrCl{sub 2} led to a melting point which was lower than that of a LiCl molten salt was observed. Residual salts were separated by a vaporization method. Co-vaporization of LiCl-Li{sub 2}O and LiCl-SrCl{sub 2} was achieved below temperatures which could make the uranium metal oxidation by Li{sub 2}O possible. The salt vaporization rates at 950 .deg. C were measured as follows: LiCl-8 wt% Li{sub 2}O > LiCl > LiCl-8 wt% SrCl{sub 2} > SrCl{sub 2}.

  20. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Status of iodized salt coverage in urban slums of Cuttack City, Orissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panigrahi Ansuman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: For sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD, it is necessary to consume adequately iodized salt on a regular basis and optimal iodine nutrition can be achieved through universal salt iodization. Objective: To assess the extent of use of adequately iodized salt in the urban slums of Cuttack. Materials and Methods: Using a stratified random multi-stage cluster sampling design, a cross-sectional study involving 336 households and 33 retail shops selected randomly from 11 slums of Cuttack was conducted in 2005. A predesigned pretested schedule was used to obtain relevant information and salt iodine was estimated qualitatively by using a spot testing kit and quantitatively using the iodometric titration method. Statistical Analysis: Proportion, Chi-square test. Results: Only 60.1% of the households in urban slums of Cuttack were using adequately iodized salt i.e., the iodine level in the salt was ≥15 ppm. Iodine deficiency was significantly marked in sample salts collected from katcha houses as compared with salts collected from pucca houses. Households with low financial status were using noniodized/inadequately-iodized salt. Both crystalline and refined salts were sold at all retail shops. Crystalline salts collected from all retailers had an iodine content < 15 ppm and refined salts collected from one retailer had iodine content < 15 ppm. About 48.5% of salt samples collected from retail shops were adequately iodized. Conclusion: In the urban slums of Cuttack, retailers were selling crystalline salts, which were inadequately iodized- this would be a setback in the progress towards eliminating IDD.

  2. Salt removal from tanks containing high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiser, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    At the Savannah River Plant (SRP), there are 23 waste storage tanks containing high-level radioactive wastes that are to be retired. These tanks contain about 23 million liters of salt and about 10 million liters of sludge, that are to be relocated to new Type III, fully stress-relieved tanks with complete secondary containment. About 19 million liters of salt cake are to be dissolved. Steam jet circulators were originally proposed for the salt dissolution program. However, use of steam jet circulators raised the temperature of the tank contents and caused operating problems. These included increased corrosion risk and required long cooldown periods prior to transfer. Alternative dissolution concepts were investigated. Examination of mechanisms affecting salt dissolution showed that the ability of fresh water to contact the cake surface was the most significant factor influencing dissolution rate. Density driven and mechanical agitation techniques were developed on a bench scale and then were demonstrated in an actual waste tank. Actual waste tank demonstrations were in good agreement with bench-scale experiments at 1/85 scale. The density driven method utilizes simple equipment, but leaves a cake heel in the tank and is hindered by the presence of sludge or Zeolite in the salt cake. Mechanical agitation overcomes the problems found with both steam jet circulators and the density driven technique and is the best method for future waste tank salt removal

  3. Effects of salting treatment on the physicochemical properties, textural properties, and microstructures of duck eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lilan; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Mingsheng; Yao, Yao; Nie, Xuliang; Du, Huaying

    2017-01-01

    In order to illuminate the forming process of salted egg, the effects of the brine solution with different salt concentrations on the physicochemical properties, textural properties, and microstructures of duck eggs were evaluated using conventional physicochemical property determination methods. The results showed that the moisture contents of both the raw and cooked egg whites and egg yolks, the springiness of the raw egg yolks and cooked egg whites exhibited a decreasing trend with the increase in the salting time and salt concentration. The salt content, oil exudation and the hardness of the raw egg yolks showed a constantly increasing trend. Viscosity of the raw egg whites showed an overall trend in which it first deceased and then increased and decreased again, which was similar to the trend of the hardness of the cooked egg whites and egg yolks. As the salting proceeded, the pH value of the raw and cooked egg whites declined remarkably and then declined slowly, whereas the pH of the raw and cooked egg yolks did not show any noticeable changes. The effect of salting on the pH value varied significantly with the salt concentration in the brine solution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that salted yolks consist of spherical granules and embedded flattened porosities. It was concluded that the treatment of salt induces solidification of yolk, accompanied with higher oil exudation and the development of a gritty texture. Different salt concentrations show certain differences. PMID:28797071

  4. Salt-Induced Physical Weathering of Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiro, M.; Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.

    2010-12-01

    Salt weathering is recognized as an important mechanism that contributes to the modeling and shaping of the earth’s surface, in a range of environments spanning from the Sahara desert to Antarctica. It also contributes to the degradation and loss of cultural heritage, particularly carved stone and historic buildings. Soluble salts have recently been suggested to contribute to the shaping of rock outcrops on Mars and are being identified in other planetary bodies such as the moons of Jupiter (Europa and IO)1. Soluble salts such as sulfates, nitrates, chlorides and carbonates of alkali and alkali earth metals can crystallize within the porous system of rocks and building stones, exerting sufficient pressure against the pore walls to fracture the substrate. This physical damage results in increased porosity, thus providing a higher surface area for salt-enhanced chemical weathering. To better understand how salt-induced physical weathering occurs, we have studied the crystallization of the particularly damaging salt, sodium sulfate2, in a model system (a sintered porous glass of controlled porosity and pore size). For this elusive task of studying sub-surface crystallization in pores, we combined a variety of instruments to identify which phases crystallized during evaporation and calculated the supersaturation and associated crystallization pressure that caused damage. The heat of crystallization was measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), providing the timing of crystallization events and phase transitions3, while the evaporation rate was recorded using thermal gravimetry (TG). These methods enabled calculation of the sodium sulfate concentration in solution at every point during evaporation. Two-dimensional X-ray diffraction (2D-XRD) performs synchrotron-like experiments in a normal lab by using a Molybdenum X-ray source (more than 5 times more penetrative than conventional Copper source). Using this method, we determined that the first phase to

  5. Computer simulation on molten ionic salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, K.; Okada, I.

    1978-01-01

    The extensive advances in computer technology have since made it possible to apply computer simulation to the evaluation of the macroscopic and microscopic properties of molten salts. The evaluation of the potential energy in molten salts systems is complicated by the presence of long-range energy, i.e. Coulomb energy, in contrast to simple liquids where the potential energy is easily evaluated. It has been shown, however, that no difficulties are encountered when the Ewald method is applied to the evaluation of Coulomb energy. After a number of attempts had been made to approximate the pair potential, the Huggins-Mayer potential based on ionic crystals became the most often employed. Since it is thought that the only appreciable contribution to many-body potential, not included in Huggins-Mayer potential, arises from the internal electrostatic polarization of ions in molten ionic salts, computer simulation with a provision for ion polarization has been tried recently. The computations, which are employed mainly for molten alkali halides, can provide: (1) thermodynamic data such as internal energy, internal pressure and isothermal compressibility; (2) microscopic configurational data such as radial distribution functions; (3) transport data such as the diffusion coefficient and electrical conductivity; and (4) spectroscopic data such as the intensity of inelastic scattering and the stretching frequency of simple molecules. The computed results seem to agree well with the measured results. Computer simulation can also be used to test the effectiveness of a proposed pair potential and the adequacy of postulated models of molten salts, and to obtain experimentally inaccessible data. A further application of MD computation employing the pair potential based on an ionic model to BeF 2 , ZnCl 2 and SiO 2 shows the possibility of quantitative interpretation of structures and glass transformation phenomena

  6. An analysis of SALT in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludolph Botha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the use of SALT/Suggestopedia for the teaching of beginners' German to students at the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. Two experimental groups and a control group are involved to determine, amongst others, whether SALT is viable in South African conditions and whether it really accelerates the learning of a foreign language. This study is approached pragmatically and on a relatively small scale to ensure a sound basis. A number of challenges have been encountered of which the most important are the rigid system at a university (for example the timetable and the difficulty of producing convincing, quantitative results. Qualitatively the students show an early competence and spontaneity not experienced before, in comparison with the control group. The most promising aspect is the fact that the lecturers of the experimental groups are convinced that Suggestopedia offers and satisfies the students as well as the lecturers much more than any other conventional method used by them. In hierdie artikel word die gebruik van SALT/Suggestopedagogiek vir die aanlecr van Duits op beginnersvlak geanaliseer, soos gei"mplementeer aan die Universiteit van Stellenbosch. Twee eksperimentele groepe sowel as 'n kontrolegroep is betrek om ondcr meer te bepaal of SALT lewensvatbaar is in Suid-Afrikaanse omstandighede en of dit werklik die aanleer van 'n vreemde taal versnel. Hierdie studie is pragmatics aangepak en op 'n relatiewe klein skaal om 'n gesonde basis te verseker. 'n Aantal struikelblokke moes oorkom word, soos die onbuigbare sisteem aan 'n Universiteit (die rooster en die probleem om oortuigende kwantitatiewe resultate te ewer. Kwalitatief gesproke, vertoon die studente 'n vroee bekwaamheid en 'n spontanei"teit wat nog nooit tevore ondervind is nie. Die belowendste aspek is egter dat die lektore van die eksperimentele groep oortuig is dat Suggestopedagogiek meer te bied het, en lektore sowel as stildente meer bevredig as enige

  7. Thermal diffusivity measurement of molten fluoride salt containing ThF4 (improvement of the simple ceramic cell)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Y.; Araki, N.; Kobayashi, K.; Makino, A.

    1985-01-01

    Design conditions of a cylindrical ceramic cell are estimated which can be used to measure the absolute value of thermal diffusivity of molten salts by applying the stepwise heating method. Molten salt is expected to be used in nuclear systems such as the Molten-Salt Reactor, the Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder, the Fusion Reactor Blanket Coolant, the Fuel Reprocessing System, and so on

  8. Process for improving the energy density of feedstocks using formate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R.P.; Case, Paige A.

    2015-09-01

    Methods of forming liquid hydrocarbons through thermal deoxygenation of cellulosic compounds are disclosed. Aspects cover methods including the steps of mixing a levulinic acid salt-containing feedstock with a formic acid salt, exposing the mixture to a high temperature condition to form hydrocarbon vapor, and condensing the hydrocarbon vapor to form liquid hydrocarbons, where both the formic acid salt and the levulinic acid salt-containing feedstock decompose at the high temperature condition and wherein one or more of the mixing, exposing, and condensing steps is carried out a pressure between about vacuum and about 10 bar.

  9. Removal of uranium from spent salt from the moltensalt oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, L.; Hsu, P.C.; Holtz, E.V.; Hipple, D.; Wang, F.; Adamson, M.

    1997-03-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that has the capability of destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials. In this process, combustible waste and air are introduced into the molten sodium carbonate salt. The organic constituents of the waste materials are oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, while most of the inorganic constituents, including toxic metals, minerals, and radioisotopes, are retained in the molten salt bath. As these impurities accumulate in the salt, the process efficiency drops and the salt must be replaced. An efficient process is needed to separate these toxic metals, minerals, and radioisotopes from the spent carbonate to avoid generating a large volume of secondary waste. Toxic metals such as cadmium, chromium, lead, and zinc etc. are removed by a method described elsewhere. This paper describes a separation strategy developed for radioisotope removal from the mixed spent salt, as well as experimental results, as part of the spent salt cleanup. As the MSO system operates, inorganic products resulting from the reaction of halides, sulfides, phosphates, metals and radionuclides with carbonate accumulate in the salt bath. These must be removed to prevent complete conversion of the sodium carbonate, which would result in eventual losses of destruction efficiency and acid scrubbing capability. There are two operational modes for salt removal: (1) during reactor operation a slip-stream of molten salt is continuously withdrawn with continuous replacement by carbonate, or (2) the spent salt melt is discharged completely and the reactor then refilled with carbonate in batch mode. Because many of the metals and/or radionuclides captured in the salt are hazardous and/or radioactive, spent salt removed from the reactor would create a large secondary waste stream without further treatment. A spent salt clean up/recovery system is necessary to segregate these materials and minimize the amount of

  10. Characterization of salt consumption among hypertensives according to socio-demographic and clinical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Sia Perin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the relationship between the behaviors of salt consumption and socio-demographic and clinical variables. METHOD: sodium consumption was evaluated using the methods: self-reporting (considering 3 different behaviors related to salt consumption, 24- hr dietary recall, discretionary salt, food frequency questionnaire, estimation of total sodium intake and 24-hr urinary excretion of sodium (n=108. RESULTS: elevated salt intake according to the different measurements of consumption of the nutrient was associated with the variables: male sex, low level of schooling and monthly income, being Caucasian, and being professionally inactive; and with the clinical variables: elevated Body Mass Index, tensional levels, ventricular hypertrophy and the number of medications used. CONCLUSION: the data obtained shows a heterogenous association between the different behaviors related to salt consumption and the socio-demographic and clinical variables. This data can be used to optimize the directing of educational activities with a view to reducing salt consumption among hypertensives.

  11. Research on Dynamic Dissolving Model and Experiment for Rock Salt under Different Flow Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinrong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing deep rock salt cavern is not only a widely recognized energy reserve method but also a key development direction for implementing the energy strategic reserve plan. And rock salt cavern adopts solution mining techniques to realize building cavity. In view of this, the paper, based on the dissolving properties of rock salt, being simplified and hypothesized the dynamic dissolving process of rock salt, combined conditions between dissolution effect and seepage effect in establishing dynamic dissolving models of rock salt under different flow quantities. Devices were also designed to test the dynamic dissolving process for rock salt samples under different flow quantities and then utilized the finite-difference method to find the numerical solution of the dynamic dissolving model. The artificial intelligence algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO, was finally introduced to conduct inverse analysis of parameters on the established model, whose calculation results coincide with the experimental data.

  12. Thermal conductivity of crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    Heat transfer through an annular space filled with crushed salt depends primarily on the thermal conductivity, lambda, of the material. This report gives a formula with which lambda can be computed. The formula includes two quantities that can be influenced through screening of the salt smalls: the porosity, psi, and the fraction, alpha, of the more highly resistive heat-flow paths. The report computes and presents graphically the thermal conductivities for various values of psi and alpha. Heat-transfer properties are computed and compared for an annular space filled with crushed salt and for an air gap. The comparison shows that the properties of the annular space are larger only up to a certain temperature, because the properties of the air gap increase exponentially while those f the annular space increase only in an approximately linear way. Experimental results from Project Salt Vault in the U.S. are in good agreement with the calculations performed. Trials in Temperature Experimental Field 2 at the Asse II salt mine will provide an additional check on the calculations. 3 figures, 3 tables

  13. Thermodynamic characterization of the molten salt reactor fuel - 5233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capelli, E.; Konings, R.J.M.; Benes, O.

    2015-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) has been selected as one of the Generation IV nuclear systems. The very unique feature of this reactor concept is the liquid nature of the fuel which offers numerous advantages concerning the reactor safety. Nowadays, the research in Europe is focused on an innovative concept, the MSFR (Molten Salt Fast Reactor), that combines the generic assets of molten salt as liquid fuel with those related to fast neutron reactors and the thorium fuel cycle. For the design and safety assessment of the MSFR concept, it is extremely important to have a thorough knowledge of the physico-chemical properties of fluorides salts, which is the class of materials that is the best suited for nuclear applications. Potential chemical systems have been critically reviewed and an extensive thermodynamic database describing the most relevant systems has been created at the Institute for Transuranium Elements of the Joint Research Centre (JRC). Thermochemical equilibrium calculations are a very important tool that allows the evaluation of the performance of several salt mixtures predicting their properties and thus the optimization of the fuel composition. The work combines the experimental determination of different salt properties with the modelling of the thermodynamic functions, using the Calphad method. An overview of the experimental work and the thermodynamic assessments will be given in this paper and different fuel options for the MSFR will be discussed. (authors)

  14. Sealing considerations for repository shafts in bedded and dome salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    The report reviews the geologic and hydrologic data base for penetration seal designs referenced to the Los Medanos bedded salt site in New Mexico and to four candidate salt domes in the Gulf Interior. Experience with existing shafts highlights the importance, for shaft decommissioning as well as operation, of achieving an adequate seal at and immediately below the top of salt. Possible construction procedures for repository shafts are reviewed, noting advantages and disadvantages with respect to repository sealing. At this stage, there does not appear to be a clear preference for excavation by drill and blast or by drilling. If conventional drill and blast methods are used, it may be necessary to grout in permeable zones above the salt. An important consideration with respect to sealing is that grouting operations (or freezing should it be used) should not establish connections between the top of salt and water-bearing zones higher in the stratigraphic section. Generally, it is concluded that Los Medanos and the dome salt sites are favorable candidate repository sites from the point of view of sealing

  15. Constitutive modeling of salt behavior: State of the technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Wawersik, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    The modern investigation of the thermomechanical behavior of salt started in the mid-1930's and, for what appears to be a very narrow discipline, ''salt mechanics'' has acquired considerable technical depth and sophistication. The last three decades have been especially productive in constitutive model development and laboratory investigations of time-dependent creep behavior. This has been largely due ot anticipated use of domal or bedded salt deposits as sites for radioactive waste repositories and to expanded need for hydrocarbon and feedback storage caverns. Salt is an interesting material, in that it is ''metal-like''; and, therefore, constitutive modeling can draw upon a large body of metal deformation information to arrive at appropriate models of behavior. Testing apparatus and methods have centered on either uniaxial or triaxial compression to obtain steady state and transient creep responses. Flow and fracture potentials have been defined. Validation attempts of the models against field data, although limited, have proved promising. The objective here is to summarize the state-of-the-technology of the constitutive modeling of salt behavior or ''salt mechanics.''

  16. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  17. Genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic approaches towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance in Frankia strains isolated from Casuarina trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshone, Rediet; Ngom, Mariama; Chu, Feixia; Mansour, Samira; Sy, Mame Ourèye; Champion, Antony; Tisa, Louis S

    2017-08-18

    Soil salinization is a worldwide problem that is intensifying because of the effects of climate change. An effective method for the reclamation of salt-affected soils involves initiating plant succession using fast growing, nitrogen fixing actinorhizal trees such as the Casuarina. The salt tolerance of Casuarina is enhanced by the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis that they form with the actinobacterium Frankia. Identification and molecular characterization of salt-tolerant Casuarina species and associated Frankia is imperative for the successful utilization of Casuarina trees in saline soil reclamation efforts. In this study, salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive Casuarina associated Frankia strains were identified and comparative genomics, transcriptome profiling, and proteomics were employed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of salt and osmotic stress tolerance. Salt-tolerant Frankia strains (CcI6 and Allo2) that could withstand up to 1000 mM NaCl and a salt-sensitive Frankia strain (CcI3) which could withstand only up to 475 mM NaCl were identified. The remaining isolates had intermediate levels of salt tolerance with MIC values ranging from 650 mM to 750 mM. Comparative genomic analysis showed that all of the Frankia isolates from Casuarina belonged to the same species (Frankia casuarinae). Pangenome analysis revealed a high abundance of singletons among all Casuarina isolates. The two salt-tolerant strains contained 153 shared single copy genes (most of which code for hypothetical proteins) that were not found in the salt-sensitive(CcI3) and moderately salt-tolerant (CeD) strains. RNA-seq analysis of one of the two salt-tolerant strains (Frankia sp. strain CcI6) revealed hundreds of genes differentially expressed under salt and/or osmotic stress. Among the 153 genes, 7 and 7 were responsive to salt and osmotic stress, respectively. Proteomic profiling confirmed the transcriptome results and identified 19 and 8 salt and/or osmotic stress-responsive proteins in the

  18. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information on methods for protecting against such risk, into an MSDS as described in § 721.72(c) within 90... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... substance is any manner or method of manufacture, import, or processing associated with any use of this...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... methods for protecting against such risk, into an MSDS as described in § 721.72(c) within 90 days from the..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... manner or method of manufacture, import, or processing associated with any use of this substance without...

  20. Preparation of fused chloride salts for use in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

    1986-07-01

    The Plutonium Metal Technology Group at Los Alamos routinely uses pyrochemical processes to produce and purify plutonium from impure sources. The basic processes (metal production, metal purification, and residue treatment) involve controlling oxidation and reduction reactions between plutonium and its compounds in molten salts. Current production methods are described, as well as traditional approaches and recent developments in the preparation of solvent salts for electrorefining, molten salt extraction, lean metal (pyroredox) purification, and direct oxide reduction

  1. Cu(ii)-catalyzed sulfide construction: both aryl groups utilization of intermolecular and intramolecular diaryliodonium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Wei, Jianpeng; Fan, Qiaoling; Jiang, Xuefeng

    2017-03-07

    A sulfur-iodine exchange protocol of diaryliodonium salts with inorganic sulfur salt was developed. Both aryl groups in the diaryliodonium salt were fully exerted in this transformation. Five- to eight-membered sulfur-containing heterocycles were achieved. Note that [1]benzothieno-[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (BTBT) (an organic field-effect transistor (OFET) material) and Zaltoprofen were efficiently established through this method.

  2. Preparation of fused chloride salts for use in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

    1986-07-01

    The Plutonium Metal Technology Group at Los Alamos routinely uses pyrochemical processes to produce and purify plutonium from impure sources. The basic processes (metal production, metal purification, and residue treatment) involve controlling oxidation and reduction reactions between plutonium and its compounds in molten salts. Current production methods are described, as well as traditional approaches and recent developments in the preparation of solvent salts for electrorefining, molten salt extraction, lean metal (pyroredox) purification, and direct oxide reduction.

  3. Field experiments in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    1986-01-01

    Field experiments in salt formations started as early as 1965 with Project Salt Vault in the Lyons Mine, Kansas, U.S.A., and with the purchase of the Asse salt mine by the German Federal Government. Underground tests concentrated on the heat dissipation around buried high-level radioactive wastes and the geomechanical consequences of their disposal. Near-field investigations cover the properties of water and gas release, radiolysis and corrosion. Further objectives of field experiments are the development and underground testing of a handling system for high-level wastes. The performance of an underground test disposal for such wastes is not only considered to be necessary for technical and scientific reasons but also for improving public acceptance of the concept of radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  4. The molten salt reactor adventure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    A personal history of the development of molten salt reactors in the United States is presented. The initial goal was an aircraft propulsion reactor, and a molten fluoride-fueled Aircraft Reactor Experiment was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1954. In 1956, the objective shifted to civilian nuclear power, and reactor concepts were developed using a circulating UF 4 -ThF 4 fuel, graphite moderator, and Hastelloy N pressure boundary. The program culminated in the successful operation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment in 1965 to 1969. By then the Atomic Energy Commission's goals had shifted to breeder development; the molten salt program supported on-site reprocessing development and study of various reactor arrangements that had potential to breed. Some commercial and foreign interest contributed to the program which, however, was terminated by the government in 1976. The current status of the technology and prospects for revived interest are summarized

  5. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures

  6. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...... to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME...

  7. Mesocarbon microbead based graphite for spherical fuel element to inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt in molten salt reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yajuan, E-mail: yajuan.zhong@gmail.com [Center for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor System, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Carbon Materials, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Zhang, Junpeng [CAS Key Laboratory of Carbon Materials, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Lin, Jun, E-mail: linjun@sinap.ac.cn [Center for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor System, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Xu, Liujun [Center for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor System, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Feng; Xu, Hongxia; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Haitao; Li, Ziwei; Zhu, Zhiyong [Center for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor System, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Guo, Quangui [CAS Key Laboratory of Carbon Materials, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) and quasi-isostatic pressing method were used to prepare MCMB based graphite (MG) for spherical fuel element to inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt in molten salt reactor (MSR). Characteristics of mercury infiltration and molten salt infiltration in MG were investigated and compared with A3-3 (graphite for spherical fuel element in high temperature gas cooled reactor) to identify the infiltration behaviors. The results indicated that MG had a low porosity about 14%, and an average pore diameter of 96 nm. Fluoride salt occupation of A3-3 (average pore diameter was 760 nm) was 10 wt% under 6.5 atm, whereas salt gain did not infiltrate in MG even up to 6.5 atm. It demonstrated that MG could inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt effectively. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of MG lies in 6.01 × 10{sup −6} K{sup −1} (α{sub ∥}) and 6.15 × 10{sup −6} K{sup −1} (α{sub ⊥}) at the temperature range of 25–700 °C. The anisotropy factor of MG calculated by CTE maintained below 1.02, which could meet the requirement of the spherical fuel element (below 1.30). The constant isotropic property of MG is beneficial for the integrity and safety of the graphite used in the spherical fuel element for a MSR.

  8. Salting our landscape: An integrated catchment model using readily accessible data to assess emerging road salt contamination to streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Li; Whitehead, Paul; Siegel, Donald I.; Findlay, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    A new integrated catchment model for salinity has been developed to assess the transport of road salt from upland areas in watersheds to streams using readily accessible landscape, hydrologic, and meteorological data together with reported salt applications. We used Fishkill Creek (NY) as a representative watershed to test the model. Results showed good agreement between modeled and measured stream water chloride concentrations. These results suggest that a dominant mode of catchment simulation that does not entail complex deterministic modeling is an appropriate method to model salinization and to assess effects of future applications of road salt to streams. We heuristically increased and decreased salt applications by 100% and results showed that stream chloride concentrations increased by 13% and decreased by 7%, respectively. The model suggests that future management of salt application can reduce environmental concentrations, albeit over some time. - Highlights: → A new Integrated Catchment Model (INCA-Cl) is developed to simulate salinity. → Road salt application is important in controlling stream chloride concentration. → INCA-Cl can be used to manage and forecast the input and transport of chloride to the rivers. - A newly developed integrated catchment model for salinity can be used to manage and forecast the inputs and transport of chloride to streams.

  9. Mesocarbon microbead based graphite for spherical fuel element to inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt in molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Yajuan; Zhang, Junpeng; Lin, Jun; Xu, Liujun; Zhang, Feng; Xu, Hongxia; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Haitao; Li, Ziwei; Zhu, Zhiyong; Guo, Quangui

    2017-01-01

    Mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) and quasi-isostatic pressing method were used to prepare MCMB based graphite (MG) for spherical fuel element to inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt in molten salt reactor (MSR). Characteristics of mercury infiltration and molten salt infiltration in MG were investigated and compared with A3-3 (graphite for spherical fuel element in high temperature gas cooled reactor) to identify the infiltration behaviors. The results indicated that MG had a low porosity about 14%, and an average pore diameter of 96 nm. Fluoride salt occupation of A3-3 (average pore diameter was 760 nm) was 10 wt% under 6.5 atm, whereas salt gain did not infiltrate in MG even up to 6.5 atm. It demonstrated that MG could inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt effectively. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of MG lies in 6.01 × 10 −6 K −1 (α ∥ ) and 6.15 × 10 −6 K −1 (α ⊥ ) at the temperature range of 25–700 °C. The anisotropy factor of MG calculated by CTE maintained below 1.02, which could meet the requirement of the spherical fuel element (below 1.30). The constant isotropic property of MG is beneficial for the integrity and safety of the graphite used in the spherical fuel element for a MSR.

  10. Salting our landscape: An integrated catchment model using readily accessible data to assess emerging road salt contamination to streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Li, E-mail: li.jin@ouce.ox.ac.uk [Earth Sciences Department, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Whitehead, Paul [School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Siegel, Donald I. [Earth Sciences Department, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); Findlay, Stuart [Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, 2801 Sharon Turnpike, Millbrook, NY 12545 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    A new integrated catchment model for salinity has been developed to assess the transport of road salt from upland areas in watersheds to streams using readily accessible landscape, hydrologic, and meteorological data together with reported salt applications. We used Fishkill Creek (NY) as a representative watershed to test the model. Results showed good agreement between modeled and measured stream water chloride concentrations. These results suggest that a dominant mode of catchment simulation that does not entail complex deterministic modeling is an appropriate method to model salinization and to assess effects of future applications of road salt to streams. We heuristically increased and decreased salt applications by 100% and results showed that stream chloride concentrations increased by 13% and decreased by 7%, respectively. The model suggests that future management of salt application can reduce environmental concentrations, albeit over some time. - Highlights: > A new Integrated Catchment Model (INCA-Cl) is developed to simulate salinity. > Road salt application is important in controlling stream chloride concentration. > INCA-Cl can be used to manage and forecast the input and transport of chloride to the rivers. - A newly developed integrated catchment model for salinity can be used to manage and forecast the inputs and transport of chloride to streams.

  11. Simulation of salt behavior using in situ response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    The time-dependent nonlinear structural behavior in a salt formation around the openings can be obtained by either performing computational analysis of measuring in situ responses. However, analysis using laboratory test data may often deviate from the actual in situ conditions and geomechanical instruments can provide information only up to the time when the measurements were taken. A method has been suggested for simulating the salt behavior by utilizing the steady-state portion of in situ response history. Governing equations for computational analysis were normalized to the creep constant, the equations were solved, and the analytical response history was then computed in terms of normalized time. By synchronizing the response history obtained from the analysis to the one measured at the site, the creep constant was determined. Then the structural response of the salt was computed. This paper presents an improved method for simulating the salt behavior. In this method, the governing equations are normalized to the creep function, which represents the transient and the steady-state creep behavior. Both the transient and the steady-state portions of in situ response history are used in determining the creep function. Finally, a nonlinear mapping process relating the normalized and real time domains determines the behavior of the salt

  12. Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

    1998-12-04

    The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary

  13. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior which can be used effectively to reduce the amount of development required for future systems, some significant molten salt chemical questions must still be addressed. copyright American Institute of Physics 1995

  14. Salted, dried and smoked fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamprecht, E.; Riley, F.R.; Vermaak, K.; Venn, C.

    1986-01-01

    Heat resistance tests were carried out using a heat resistant strain of red halophiles isolated from a commercial salt and comparing this with three known species, i.e. Halobacterium halobium, H. salinarum and H. antirubrum. These four halophic strains were used to prepare artificially infected salts which were then subjected to three different forms of heat treatment: heat-treatment in oil bath, microwave heating and gamma radiation. The conclusion was made that gamma radiation appears to be less effective than microwave heating at the levels tested

  15. Simulation of salt production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraveva, E. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper an approach to the use of simulation software iThink to simulate the salt production system has been proposed. The dynamic processes of the original system are substituted by processes simulated in the abstract model, but in compliance with the basic rules of the original system, which allows one to accelerate and reduce the cost of the research. As a result, a stable workable simulation model was obtained that can display the rate of the salt exhaustion and many other parameters which are important for business planning.

  16. An experimental design method leading to chemical Turing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Judit; Szalai, István; De Kepper, Patrick

    2009-05-08

    Chemical reaction-diffusion patterns often serve as prototypes for pattern formation in living systems, but only two isothermal single-phase reaction systems have produced sustained stationary reaction-diffusion patterns so far. We designed an experimental method to search for additional systems on the basis of three steps: (i) generate spatial bistability by operating autoactivated reactions in open spatial reactors; (ii) use an independent negative-feedback species to produce spatiotemporal oscillations; and (iii) induce a space-scale separation of the activatory and inhibitory processes with a low-mobility complexing agent. We successfully applied this method to a hydrogen-ion autoactivated reaction, the thiourea-iodate-sulfite (TuIS) reaction, and noticeably produced stationary hexagonal arrays of spots and parallel stripes of pH patterns attributed to a Turing bifurcation. This method could be extended to biochemical reactions.

  17. Relationship Between Salt Intake, Salt-Taste Threshold and Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Sodium intake measured as 24-hour urinary sodium is increased in subjects with hypertension attesting to sodium intake as a risk factor for the development of high blood pressure. Subjects with high salt taste threshold also have increased urinary sodium excretion which may predispose them to deveploment ...

  18. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a

  19. Salt tectonics in Santos Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, David G.; Nielsen, Malene; Raven, Madeleine [Maersk Oil and Gas, Copenhagen (Denmark); Menezes, Paulo [Maersk Oil and Gas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    From Albian to end Cretaceous times, the inboard part of the Santos Basin in Brazil was affected by extension as salt flowed basinwards under the effect of gravity. Salt rollers, flip-flop salt diapirs and the famous Albian Gap were all formed by this process. Outboard of these extensional structures, contraction was taken up in a wide zone of thickened salt where salt collected. The overburden was carried on top of the salt as it flowed down-dip, with up to 40 km of translation recorded in Albian strata. (author)

  20. Molten salt thermal energy storage systems: salt selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Dullea, J.F.; Huang, V.S.

    1976-08-01

    A research program aimed at the development of a molten salt thermal energy storage system commenced in June 1976. This topical report describes Work performed under Task I: Salt Selection is described. A total of 31 inorganic salts and salt mixtures, including 9 alkali and alkaline earth carbonate mixtures, were evaluated for their suitability as heat-of-fusion thermal energy storage materials at temperatures of 850 to 1000/sup 0/F. Thermophysical properties, safety hazards, corrosion, and cost of these salts were compared on a common basis. We concluded that because alkali carbonate mixtures show high thermal conductivity, low volumetric expansion on melting, low corrosivity and good stability, they are attractive as heat-of-fusion storage materials in this temperature range. A 35 wt percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-65 wt percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (50 mole percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-50 mole percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) mixture was selected as a model system for further experimental work. This is a eutectoid mixture having a heat of fusion of 148 Btu/lb (82 cal/g) that forms an equimolar compound, LiKCO/sub 3/. The Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ mixture is intended to serve as a model system to define heat transfer characteristics, potential problems, and to provide ''first-cut'' engineering data required for the prototype system. The cost of a thermal energy storage system containing this mixture cannot be predicted until system characteristics are better defined. However, our comparison of different salts indicated that alkali and alkaline earth chlorides may be more attractive from a salt cost point of view. The long-term corrosion characteristics and the effects of volume change on melting for the chlorides should be investigated to determine their overall suitability as a heat-of-fusion storage medium.

  1. Assessment of iodine concentration in dietary salt at household level in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahidi, Ahmed; Zahidi, Meriem; Taoufik, Jamal

    2016-05-20

    Following WHO recommendations, Morocco adopted in 1995 the universal salt iodization (USI) as a strategy to prevent and control iodine deficiency disorders. In 2009, the standard salt iodine concentration was adjusted to 15-40 mg/kg. The success of USI for the control of iodine deficiency disorders requires an evaluation of iodine concentration in salt prior to assessing the iodine nutritional status of a population. In our study we refer to the anterior studies that were made in Morocco in 1993 and 1998. 178 salt samples from households were tested for iodine using spot-testing kits. The iodometric titration method was used to analyze accurately the concentration of iodine in the 178 household salt samples. An empiric polling method was adopted, using a non-probability sampling method; across the different twelve regions in the country. The median and interquartile range iodine concentration in salt was 2.9 mg/kg (IQR: 2.4-3.7). The results show that only 25 % of households use iodized salt. The recommended iodine concentration in salt of 15-40 mg/kg was met only in 4.5 % of salt samples. The bulk salt is used by 8 % of households. All samples of this bulk salt were found in rural areas. According to nonparametric appropriate tests used, there is no significant difference in iodine concentrations between regions, between urban and rural areas and between packaged and bulk salt. Two decades since introducing legislation on Universal Salt Iodization, our survey shows that generalization of iodized salt is far from being reached. In 2015, only a quarter of Moroccan households use the iodized salt and only 4.5 % of salt is in conformity with regulations. The use of bulk salt by households in rural areas constitutes a major obstacle to the success of USI. The National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Program can only be achieved if an internal follow-up and a control of external quality of program is put in place.

  2. Steady state investigation on neutronics of a molten salt reactor considering the flow effect of fuel salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dalin; Qiu Suizheng; Su Guanghui; Liu Changliang

    2008-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), one of the 'Generation IV' concepts, is a liquid-fuel reactor, which is different from the conventional reactors using solid fissile materials due to the flow effect of fuel salt. The study on its neutronics considering the fuel salt flow, which is the base of the thermal-hydraulic calculation and safety analysis, must be done. In this paper, the theoretical model on neutronics under steady condition for a single-liquid-fueled MSR is conducted and calculated by numerical method. The neutronics model consists of two group neutron diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes, and balance equations for six-group delayed neutron precursors considering the flow effect of fuel salt. The spatial discretization of the above models is based on the finite volume method, and the discretization equations are computed by the source iteration method. The distributions of neutron fluxes and the distributions of the delayed neutron precursors in the core are obtained. The numerical calculated results show that, the fuel salt flow has little effect on the distribution of fast and thermal neutron fluxes and the effective multiplication factor; however, it affects the distribution of the delayed neutron precursors significantly, especially the long-lived one. In addition, it could be found that the delayed neutron precursors influence the neutronics slightly under the steady condition. (authors)

  3. Steady state investigation on neutronics of a molten salt reactor considering the flow effect of fuel salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Da-Lin; QIU Sui-Zheng; LIU Chang-Liang; SU Guang-Hui

    2008-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR),one of the‘Generation Ⅳ'concepts,is a liquid-fuel reactor,which is different from the conventional reactors using solid fissile materials due to the flow effect of fuel salt.The study on its neutronice considering the fuel salt flow,which is the base of the thermal-hydraulic calculation and safety analysis,must be done.In this paper,the theoretical model on neutronics under steady condition for a single-liquid-fueled MSR is conducted and calculated by numerical method.The neutronics model consists of two group neutron diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes,and balance equations for six-group delayed neutron precursors considering the flow effect of fuel salt. The spatial discretization of the above models is based on the finite volume method,and the discretization equations are computed by the source iteration method.The distributions of neutron fluxes and the distributions of the delayed neutron precursors in the core are obtained.The numerical calculated results show that,the fuel salt flow has little effect on the distribution of fast and thermal neutron fluxes and the effective multiplication factor;however,it affects the distribution of the delayed neutron precursors significantly,especially the long-lived one.In addition,it could be found that the delayed neutron precursors influence the nentronics slightly under the steady condition.

  4. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  5. The testing of a method for dosing plutonium by {alpha}-counting in the presence of strong concentrations of salts or of uranium; Essai d'une methode de dosage du plutonium par comptage {alpha} en presence de fortes concentrations en sels ou en uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, A M; Baude-Malafosse, L M; Cunq, M J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This report describes a method for dosing small quantities of plutonium in a solution having a high concentration of salts. It shows the possibility of dosing up to 5.10{sup -3} {mu}g of Pu in the presence of 10 mg of NaNO{sub 3} with out decreasing the counting-rate. The only error possible is that in the counting. It is also possible to dose 10{sup -3} {mu}g of Pu in the presence of 1,7 mg of uranyl nitrate. (author) [French] Ce rapport decrit une methode de dosage de faibles quantites de plutonium dans une solution de forte concentration en sels. Il montre la possibilite de doser jusqu'a 5.10{sup -3} {mu}g de Pu en presence de 10 mg de NO{sub 3}Na sans diminution du taux de comptage. La seule erreur que l'on puisse faire est l'erreur de comptage. On peut aussi doser 10{sup -3} {mu}g de Pu en presence de 1,7 mg de nitrate d'uranyle. (auteur)

  6. Large-scale dynamic compaction demonstration using WIPP salt: Fielding and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, E.H.; Hansen, F.D.

    1995-10-01

    Reconsolidation of crushed rock salt is a phenomenon of great interest to programs studying isolation of hazardous materials in natural salt geologic settings. Of particular interest is the potential for disaggregated salt to be restored to nearly an impermeable state. For example, reconsolidated crushed salt is proposed as a major shaft seal component for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project. The concept for a permanent shaft seal component of the WIPP repository is to densely compact crushed salt in the four shafts; an effective seal will then be developed as the surrounding salt creeps into the shafts, further consolidating the crushed salt. Fundamental information on placement density and permeability is required to ensure attainment of the design function. The work reported here is the first large-scale compaction demonstration to provide information on initial salt properties applicable to design, construction, and performance expectations. The shaft seals must function for 10,000 years. Over this period a crushed salt mass will become less permeable as it is compressed by creep closure of salt surrounding the shaft. These facts preclude the possibility of conducting a full-scale, real-time field test. Because permanent seals taking advantage of salt reconsolidation have never been constructed, performance measurements have not been made on an appropriately large scale. An understanding of potential construction methods, achievable initial density and permeability, and performance of reconsolidated salt over time is required for seal design and performance assessment. This report discusses fielding and operations of a nearly full-scale dynamic compaction of mine-run WIPP salt, and presents preliminary density and in situ (in place) gas permeability results

  7. Impacts of a national strategy to reduce population salt intake in England: serial cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Millett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The UK introduced an ambitious national strategy to reduce population levels of salt intake in 2003. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strategy on salt intake in England, including potential effects on health inequalities. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data from the Health Survey for England. Our main outcome measure was trends in estimated daily salt intake from 2003-2007, as measured by spot urine. Secondary outcome measures were knowledge of government guidance and voluntary use of salt in food preparation over this time period. RESULTS: There were significant reductions in salt intake between 2003 and 2007 (-0.175 grams per day per year, p<0.001. Intake decreased uniformly across all other groups but remained significantly higher in younger persons, men, ethnic minorities and lower social class groups and those without hypertension in 2007. Awareness of government guidance on salt use was lowest in those groups with the highest intake (semi-skilled manual v professional; 64.9% v 71.0% AOR 0.76 95% CI 0.58-0.99. Self reported use of salt added at the table reduced significantly during the study period (56.5% to 40.2% p<0.001. Respondents from ethnic minority groups remained significantly more likely to add salt during cooking (white 42.8%, black 74.1%, south Asian 88.3% and those from lower social class groups (unskilled manual 46.6%, professional 35.2% were more likely to add salt at the table. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction a national salt reduction strategy was associated with uniform but modest reductions in salt intake in England, although it is not clear precisely which aspects of the strategy contributed to this. Knowledge of government guidance was lower and voluntary salt use and total salt intake was higher among occupational and ethnic groups at greatest risk of cardiovascular disease.

  8. Bioavailability of zinc and copper in biosolids compared to their soluble salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heemsbergen, Diane A.; McLaughlin, Mike J.; Whatmuff, Mark; Warne, Michael St.J.; Broos, Kris; Bell, Mike; Nash, David; Barry, Glenn; Pritchard, Deb; Penney, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    For essential elements, such as copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), the bioavailability in biosolids is important from a nutrient release and a potential contamination perspective. Most ecotoxicity studies are done using metal salts and it has been argued that the bioavailability of metals in biosolids can be different to that of metal salts. We compared the bioavailability of Cu and Zn in biosolids with those of metal salts in the same soils using twelve Australian field trials. Three different measures of bioavailability were assessed: soil solution extraction, CaCl 2 extractable fractions and plant uptake. The results showed that bioavailability for Zn was similar in biosolid and salt treatments. For Cu, the results were inconclusive due to strong Cu homeostasis in plants and dissolved organic matter interference in extractable measures. We therefore recommend using isotope dilution methods to assess differences in Cu availability between biosolid and salt treatments. - Metals in biosolids are not necessarily less bioavailable than their soluble salt.

  9. Bioavailability of zinc and copper in biosolids compared to their soluble salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heemsbergen, Diane A., E-mail: diane.heemsbergen@csiro.a [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia); McLaughlin, Mike J., E-mail: mike.mclaughlin@csiro.a [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia); School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia); Whatmuff, Mark, E-mail: mark.whatmuff@csiro.a [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia); NSW Department of Primary Industries, Locked Bag 4 Richmond, NSW 2753 (Australia); Warne, Michael St.J., E-mail: michael.warne@csiro.a [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia); Broos, Kris, E-mail: kris.broos@vito.b [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia); Bell, Mike, E-mail: Mike.Bell@dpi.qld.gov.a [Department of Primary Industries, Kingaroy, Queensland 4610 (Australia); Nash, David, E-mail: David.Nash@dpi.vic.gov.a [Department of Primary Industries, Ellinbank, Victoria 3821 (Australia); Barry, Glenn, E-mail: Glenn.Barry@nrw.qld.gov.a [Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Pritchard, Deb, E-mail: D.Pritchard@curtin.edu.a [Curtin University of Technology, Muresk Institute, Northam, Western Australia 6401 (Australia); Penney, Nancy, E-mail: Nancy.Penney@WaterCorporation.com.a [Water Corporation of Western Australia, Leederville, Western Australia 6001 (Australia)

    2010-05-15

    For essential elements, such as copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), the bioavailability in biosolids is important from a nutrient release and a potential contamination perspective. Most ecotoxicity studies are done using metal salts and it has been argued that the bioavailability of metals in biosolids can be different to that of metal salts. We compared the bioavailability of Cu and Zn in biosolids with those of metal salts in the same soils using twelve Australian field trials. Three different measures of bioavailability were assessed: soil solution extraction, CaCl{sub 2} extractable fractions and plant uptake. The results showed that bioavailability for Zn was similar in biosolid and salt treatments. For Cu, the results were inconclusive due to strong Cu homeostasis in plants and dissolved organic matter interference in extractable measures. We therefore recommend using isotope dilution methods to assess differences in Cu availability between biosolid and salt treatments. - Metals in biosolids are not necessarily less bioavailable than their soluble salt.

  10. Influence of complexing on physicochemical properties of polymer-salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroushko, A.A.; Yushkova, S.M.; Koridze, N.V.; Skobkoreva, N.V.; Zhuravleva, L.I.; Palitskaya, T.A.; Antropova, S.V.; Ostroushko, I.P.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1993-01-01

    Using the methods of spectrophotometry, viscosimetry, conductometry the influence of salt-polymer complexing processes on physicochemical prperties of aqueous solutions of yttrium, barium, copper nitrates and formates with polyvinyl alcohol was studied. Change of dynamic viscosity, specific electric conductivity of solutions in the process of complexing was shown. Thermal effects of salt-polymer interaction were measured. It is shown that decrease of transition temperature of polymer to plastic state in films, temperature and effective activation energy of salt decomposition is also connected with complexing. Effective values of surface tension on the boundary with air are measured. Coefficients of cation diffusion in polymer-salt solutions are estimated

  11. Modification of a Brazilian smectite clay with different quaternary ammonium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Flávia Delbem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a smectite clay from the State of Paraiba, Brazil, was treated with six different types of ammonium salts, which is an usual method to enhance the affinity between the clay and polymer for the preparation of nanocomposites. The clays, before and after modification, were characterized by X ray diffraction. The conformation of the salts within the platelets of the clay depended on the number of long alkyl chains of the salt. The thermal stability of the clays was also studied. The ammonium salts thermal decomposition was explained in light of their position within the organoclays.

  12. Properties of organic salt superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whangbo, M.H.; Jung, D.; Evain, M.; Williams, J.M.; Beno, M.A.; Schultz, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Structural and electronic properties of the β- and κ-phase superconducting salts of organic donor molecules are compared. Importance of donor... donor and donor...anion interactions involving the C-H bonds in setting the lattice softness, the electron-phonon coupling constant, and the superconducting transitions temperature are discussed

  13. Salt decontamination demonstration test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, E.B.; Heng, C.J.

    1983-06-01

    The Salt Decontamination Demonstration confirmed that the precipitation process could be used for large-scale decontamination of radioactive waste sale solution. Although a number of refinements are necessary to safely process the long-term requirement of 5 million gallons of waste salt solution per year, there were no observations to suggest that any fundamentals of the process require re-evaluation. Major accomplishments were: (1) 518,000 gallons of decontaminated filtrate were produced from 427,000 gallons of waste salt solution from tank 24H. The demonstration goal was to produce a minimum of 200,000 gallons of decontaminated salt solution; (2) cesium activity in the filtrate was reduced by a factor of 43,000 below the cesium activity in the tank 24 solution. This decontamination factor (DF) exceeded the demonstration goal of a DF greater than 10,000; (3) average strontium-90 activity in the filtrate was reduced by a factor of 26 to less than 10 3 d/m/ml versus a goal of less than 10 4 d/m/ml; and (4) the concentrated precipitate was washed to a final sodium ion concentration of 0.15 M, well below the 0.225 M upper limit for DWPF feed. These accomplishments were achieved on schedule and without incident. Total radiation exposure to personnel was less than 350 mrem and resulted primarily from sampling precipitate slurry inside tank 48. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  14. thermic oil and molten salt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boukelia T.E, Mecibah M.S and Laouafi A

    1 mai 2016 ... [27] Zavoico, AB. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document. Tech. rep, Sandia National. Laboratories, SAND2001-2100, 2001. How to cite this article: Boukelia T.E, Mecibah M.S and Laouafi A. Performance simulation of parabolic trough solar collector using two fluids (thermic oil and molten salt).

  15. Blanching, salting and sun drying of different pumpkin fruit slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workneh, T S; Zinash, A; Woldetsadik, K

    2014-11-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of pumpkin (Cucuribita Spp.) slices that were subjected to pre-drying treatments and drying using two drying methods (uncontrolled sun and oven) fruit accessions. Pre-drying had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on the quality of dried pumpkin slices. 10 % salt solution dipped pumpkin fruit slices had good chemical quality. The two-way interaction between drying methods and pre-drying treatments had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on chemical qualities. Pumpkin subjected to salt solution dipping treatment and oven dried had higher chemical concentrations. Among the pumpkin fruit accessions, pumpkin accession 8007 had the superior TSS, total sugar and sugar to acid ratio after drying. Among the three pre-drying treatment, salt solution dipping treatment had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect and the most efficient pre-drying treatment to retain the quality of dried pumpkin fruits without significant chemical quality deterioration. Salt dipping treatment combined with low temperature (60 °C) oven air circulation drying is recommended to maintain quality of dried pumpkin slices. However, since direct sun drying needs extended drying time due to fluctuation in temperature, it is recommended to develop or select best successful solar dryer for use in combination with pre-drying salt dipping or blanching treatments.

  16. Development of salt tolerant plants through genetic engineering (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, Z.; Khan, S.A.; Zafar, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Salinity stress is one of the most serious factors limiting the productivity of agricultural crops. Genetic engineering provides a useful tool for tailoring plants with enhanced salt tolerance characteristics. Many organisms have evolved mechanisms to survive and grow under such extreme environments. These organisms provide us with a useful source of genes which can be used to improve salt tolerance in plants. The present study aims at identification and cloning of useful halo tolerance conferring genes from fungi and plants and to develop salt tolerant transgenic plants. Here we describe the cloning and use of HSR1 gene (a yeast transcription factor known to confer salt tolerance) and Na/sup +//H/sup +/ antiporter gene AtNHX1 (3016 bp) from Arabidopsis thaliana, and transformation of tobacco with HSR1 and AtNHX1 genes through Agrobacterium method. A number of transgenic tobacco plants were regenerated from leaf explants transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (LBA4404) having HSR1 and AtNHX1 genes by leaf disc method. The putative transgenic plants were analyzed by PCR and dot blot analysis. Screening of these transgenic plants at different salinity levels is in progress which will help identify the suitable plant lines and thus the promising genes which can be further exploited to engineer salt tolerant crop plants. (author)

  17. Ambazone-lipoic acid salt: Structural and thermal characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kacso, Irina [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath street, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Racz, Csaba-Pal; Santa, Szabolcs [Babes-Bolyai' University, Faculty of Chemistry, 11 Arany Janos street, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Rus, Lucia [' Iuliu Hatieganu' University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, 6 Louis Pasteur street, 400349 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dadarlat, Dorin; Borodi, Gheorghe [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath street, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Bratu, Ioan, E-mail: ibratu@gmail.com [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath street, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2012-12-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salt of Ambazone with lipoic acid obtained by solvent-drop grinding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ambazone lipoate salt crystallizes in monoclinic system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FTIR data suggest the deprotonation of the lipoic acid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal behaviour different of ambazone salt as compared to the starting compounds. - Abstract: A suitable method for increasing the solubility, dissolution rate and consequently the bioavailability of poor soluble acidic or basic drugs is their salt formation. The aim of this study is to investigate the structural and thermal properties of the compound obtained by solvent drop grinding (SDG) method at room temperature, starting from the 1:1 molar ratios of ambazone (AMB) and {alpha}-lipoic acid (LA). The structural characterization was performed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The thermal behaviour of the obtained compound (AMB{center_dot}LA) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). The photopyroelectric calorimetry, in front detection configuration (FPPE), was applied to measure and compare the room temperature values of one dynamic thermal parameter (thermal effusivity) for starting and resulting compounds. Both structural and supporting calorimetric techniques pointed out a salt structure for AMB{center_dot}LA compound as compared to those of the starting materials.

  18. Dietary salt reduction for control of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In developed as well as developing countries, the four main factors affecting blood pressure are high salt intake, low potassium intake, overweight, and low physical activity level. This is also true for the increase in blood pressure with advancing age, occurring in all societies. It is now accepted that excess dietary salt raises blood pressure levels, whereas dietary salt reduction reduces blood pressure and prevents vascular complications.(1 The effect of salt on blood pressure is presumably due to the inability of the kidneys to excrete large amounts of salt, as humans are evolutionary adapted to ingest and excrete less than 1 gram of salt per day.(2 In this connection it should be noted that the more important element in common salt (sodium chloride is the sodium ion, and any restrictions applying to common salt also apply to all food items that contain sodium ions, such as sodium glutamate and baking soda.

  19. High temperature salting of fish mince

    OpenAIRE

    Talabi, S.O.; Sorinmade, S.O.; Nwanekezie, R.U.; Aliu, A.

    1986-01-01

    Freshly caught miscellaneous fish were transported to the laboratory, gutted and washed before mechanical separation into bone and mince. Seven batches of the mince were then treated with seven different concentrations (Wt/Wt) of sodium chloride before cooking. The cooked mince was divided into two groups, pressed and unpressed. Percentage residual salt of the salted cooked mince, cooked water and salted pressed mince was determined. Also, the moisture content of the salted cooked mince and s...

  20. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gadbury, Casey [USDOE Carlsbad Field Office, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  1. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Francis D.; Gadbury, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  2. Adaptive resolution simulation of salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevc, Staš; Praprotnik, Matej; Junghans, Christoph; Kremer, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    We present an adaptive resolution simulation of aqueous salt (NaCl) solutions at ambient conditions using the adaptive resolution scheme. Our multiscale approach concurrently couples the atomistic and coarse-grained models of the aqueous NaCl, where water molecules and ions change their resolution while moving from one resolution domain to the other. We employ standard extended simple point charge (SPC/E) and simple point charge (SPC) water models in combination with AMBER and GROMOS force fields for ion interactions in the atomistic domain. Electrostatics in our model are described by the generalized reaction field method. The effective interactions for water–water and water–ion interactions in the coarse-grained model are derived using structure-based coarse-graining approach while the Coulomb interactions between ions are appropriately screened. To ensure an even distribution of water molecules and ions across the simulation box we employ thermodynamic forces. We demonstrate that the equilibrium structural, e.g. radial distribution functions and density distributions of all the species, and dynamical properties are correctly reproduced by our adaptive resolution method. Our multiscale approach, which is general and can be used for any classical non-polarizable force-field and/or types of ions, will significantly speed up biomolecular simulation involving aqueous salt. (paper)

  3. Salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions of methylcellulose in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Wang, C; Tam, K C; Li, L

    2004-02-03

    The effects of various salts on the sol-gel transition of aqueous methylcellulose (MC) solutions have been studied systematically by means of a micro differential scanning calorimeter. It was found that the heating process was endothermic while the cooling process was exothermic for both MC solutions with and without salts. The addition of salts did not change the patterns of gelation and degelation of MC. However, the salts could shift the sol-gel transition and the gel-sol transition to lower or higher temperatures from a pure MC solution, depending on the salt type. These opposite effects were termed the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions. Either the salt-assisted transition or the salt-suppressed sol-gel transition was a function of salt concentration. In addition, each salt was found to have its own concentration limit for producing a stable aqueous solution of MC at a given concentration of MC, which was related to the anionic charge density of the salt. Cations were proved to have weaker effects than anions. The "salt-out strength", defined as the salt effect per mole of anion, was obtained for each anion studied. The thermodynamic mechanisms involved in the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions are discussed.

  4. Synthesis of Quinolines through Three-Component Cascade Annulation of Aryl Diazonium Salts, Nitriles, and Alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Xu, Qian; Shen, Sheng; Yu, Shouyun

    2017-01-06

    An efficient and rapid synthesis of multiply substituted quinolines is described. This method is enabled by a three-component cascade annulation of readily available aryl diazonium salts, nitriles, and alkynes. This reaction is catalyst- and additive-free. Various aryl diazonium salts, nitriles, and alkynes can participate in this transformation, and the yields are up to 83%.

  5. Influence of Ammonium Salt and Fermentation pH on Acarbose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of ammonium salts and fermentation pH on the biosynthesis of acarbose by Streptomyces M37. Methods: Different ammonium salts were added to the fermentation broth of Streptomyces M37 to explore their effects on acarbose production. The concentration and addition time of ammonium ...

  6. Determination of resistance to salt crystallization on natural stone measured with ultrasonic wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, D.; Brix, S.; Kjærgaard, H. Howe

    2008-01-01

    and after salt exposure. Four different stones are investigated: the limestone Bateig Azul, the sandstone Oberkirchener, the limestone Perlatino, and the limestone Travertine. The procedure for the salt crystallization test is EN 12370 standard “Natural stone test methods – Determination of resistance...

  7. Effects of salt stress on germination and early seedling growth of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... the relationship between speed of germination and seed vigor, salt stress decreased seed vigor of rice cultivars LD a superior ... Key words: Salinity, seed germination, seedling property, seed vigor. INTRODUCTION ... The salt solutions were prepared based on the methods by. (Rhoades et al., 1992) with ...

  8. Determination of sulfate in thorium salts using gravimetric technique with previous thorium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.M. da; Pires, M.A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Available as short communication only. A simple analytical method to analyze sulfates in thorium salt, is presented. The method is based on the thorium separation as hydroxide. The gravimetric technique is used to analyze the sulfate in the filtered as barium sulfate. Using this method, the sulfate separation from thorium has been reach 99,9% yield, and 0,1% precision. This method is applied to thorium salts specifically thorium sulfate, carbonate and nitrate. (author). 5 refs, 2 tabs

  9. In situ permeability testing of rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, E.W.; Lagus, P.L.; Broce, R.D.; Lie, K.

    1981-04-01

    Storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes in bedded salt formations requires a knowledge of the in situ permeability of SENM rock salt. Since assumptions for safety assessments have been made in which these wastes could generate gas pressures on the order of the lithostatic pressure over geologic time scales, the permeability of the surrounding formation becomes an important parameter for determining the manner in which the gases will be contained or dispersed. This report describes the series of tests conducted in the AEC-7 borehole, located near the WIPP site, to determine the in situ gas flow characteristics of the bedded salt. In these tests, compressed air was injected into the borehole and flow into the surrounding formation measured. These measured flow rates were interpreted in terms of formation permeabilities and porosities which were, in turn, used as modeling parameters for the repository response analysis. Two series of field tests were performed. The first series consisted of a number of whole-hole flow tests conducted to provide preliminary design information required for future operation of a guarded straddle packer system capable of measuring permeabilities > or = 0.1 μdarcy. The second series of tests were conducted using the Systems, Science and Software (S-Cubed) designed guarded straddle packer system. In these interval permeability tests, 100-foot lengths of borehole were isolated and the flow characteristics of the surrounding formation examined. In this report, a complete description of the test procedures, instrumentation, and measurement techniques is first given. The analytical/numerical methods used for data interpretation are then presented, followed by results of the interval and permeability tests. (The whole-hole tests are summarized in Appendix A.) Conclusions are presented in the final section

  10. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient is used as a dough strengthener as defined in § 170.3(o)(6) of this chapter. (d) The ingredient is used in the manufacture of bread in accordance with § 184.1(b)(2) of this chapter in an amount not to...

  11. Leaching of Nutrient Salts from Fly Ash from Biomass Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Vu, Duc Thuong; Stenby, Mette

    2005-01-01

    Methods to selectively leach nutrient salts from fly ash, while leaving cadmium un-dissolved were studied. Temperature, pH, water to fly ash ratio are all expected to influence the kinetics and the equilibrium boundaries for this process. Three different leaching methods were investigated....... The first method was a counter current moving bed process in four stages. The ash was kept in filter bags and leached with water that was introduced into the bags at 40-50°C. In the second method, fly ash and water was brought into contact in a partially fluidized bed. The third method was a counter current...... moving bed process with agitation/centrifugation. It was found that a satisfactory leaching of the nutrient salts could be achieved with the third method using only two or three stages, depending on the water to fly ash ratio. It is an advantage to perform the process at temperatures above 50°C...

  12. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for the Molten Salt Reactor Fuel - 15573

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capelli, E.; Konings, R.J.M.; Benes, A.

    2015-01-01

    Molten fluoride salts are considered as primary candidates for nuclear fuel in the Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), one of the 6 generation IV nuclear reactor designs. In order to determine the safety limits and to access the properties of the potential fuel mixtures, thermodynamic studies are very important. This study is a combination of experimental work and thermodynamic modelling and focusses on the fluoride systems with alkaline and alkaline earth fluorides as matrix and ThF 4 , UF 4 and PuF 3 as fertile and fissile materials. The purification of the single components was considered as essential first step for the study of more complex systems and ternary phase diagrams were described using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and drop calorimetry, which are used to measure phase transitions, enthalpy of mixing and heat capacity. In addition to the calorimetric techniques, Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were used to collect data on vapour pressure and crystal structure of fluorides. The results are then coupled with thermodynamic modelling using the Calphad method for the assessment of the phase diagrams. A thermodynamic database describing the most important systems for MSR application has been developed and it has been used to optimize the fuel composition in view of the relevant properties such as melting temperature. A reliable database of thermodynamic properties of fluoride salts has been generated. It includes the key systems for the MSR fuel and it is very useful to predict the properties of the fuel

  13. Participation of civil engineers in designing facilities in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duddeck, H.; Westhaus, T.

    1990-01-01

    For the design of underground facilities in rock salt layers or domes, as caverns for repositories, the civil engineering approach may be useful. The underground openings are analysed by determining the displacements and the stresses for actual states and hypothetical situations. The paper reports on the state of art in the development of suited time dependent material laws for rock salt, on time integration methods for the analysis, and on a possible procedure for a consistent safety analysis. The examples given include caverns filled by oil, analysis of a mine with vertical excavation chambers, and dams closing mine galleries. (orig.) [de

  14. The safe disposal of radioactive wastes in geologic salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.; Proske, R.

    Geologic salt formations appear to be particularly suitable for final storage. Their existance alone - the salt formations in Northern Germany are more than 200 million years old - is proof of their stability and of their isolation from biological cycles. In 1967 the storage of LAW and later, in 1972, of MAW was started in the experimental storage area Asse, south-east of Braunschweig, after the necessary technical preparations had been made. In more than ten years of operation approx. 114,000 drums of slightly active and 1,298 drums of medium-active wastes were deposited without incident. Methods have been developed for filling the available caverns with wastes and salt to ensure the security of long term disposal without supervision. Tests with electric heaters for simulation of heat-generating highly active wastes confirm the good suitability of salt formations for storing these wastes. Safety analyses for the operating time as well as for the long term phase after closure of the final storage area, which among others also comprise the improbable ''greatest expected accident'', namely break through of water, are carried out and confirm the safety of ultimate storage of radioactive wastes in geological salt formations. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Hydrogeological research at the site of the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batsche, H.; Rauert, W.; Klarr, K.

    1980-01-01

    In connection with the storage of radioactive wastes in the abandoned Asse salt mine near Brunswick (Federal Republic of Germany), the hydrogeology of the ridge of hills of Asse has been investigated. In order to obtain as detailed information as possible on the hydrogeological conditions, a long-term investigation programme has been set up and many methods of investigation have been used. Hydrogeological boring operations resulted in important scientific findings regarding, for example, the course of the salt table and the main anhydrite which towers up above the salt table into the overlying collapsed rocks. Hydrochemical data showed the hydraulic effect of transverse faults. Isotopic hydrological measurements permitted distinction between the flow behaviour of the groundwater in different aquifers. The origin of the salt springs at the northwest end of the structure can be explained. Some additional pumping and labelling tests are expected to yield quantitative results concerning hydraulic interrelationships recognized to date. The very complex hydrogeological structure of the ridge of hills of Asse is the result of the multiple succession of permeable and impermeable layers on the flanks of the structure, and, furthermore, is possibly due to the fact that in some individual faults groundwater may seep through normally impermeable layers as well as via waterways at the salt table. (author)

  16. Influence of salty food preference on daily salt intake in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamura K

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Kazuhiro Takamura,1 Masanobu Okayama,2 Taro Takeshima,2 Shinji Fujiwara,3 Masanori Harada,4 Junichi Murakami,5 Masahiko Eto,6 Eiji Kajii21Department of Community Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Miyazaki Prefectural Miyazaki Hospital, Miyazaki, Japan; 2Division of Community and Family Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan; 3Mima City National Health Insurance Koyadaira Clinic, Mima, Tokushima, Japan; 4Department of Support of Rural Health Care, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, Hofu, Yamaguchi, Japan; 5Division of Chest Surgery, Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi, Japan; 6Department of Internal Medicine, Wakuya Medical and Welfare Center, Wakuya, Miyagi, JapanPurpose: A salt preference questionnaire may be a convenient and cost-effective method for predicting salt intake; however, the influence of salt preference on daily salt intake is unclear. This study aimed at revealing the effectiveness of the salt preference question in determining the daily salt intake in primary care outpatients.Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,075 outpatients (men, n=436, 40.6% at six primary care institutions in Japan. Primary outcomes included a salty food preference assessed by using one question and a daily salt intake, assessed using early morning second urine samples. Multivariate analyses determined the relationships between the salt intake and the two salt preference levels.Results: The mean age was 67.6±14.6 years, and 594 (55.3% preferred salty foods. The daily salt intake was 12.3±4.0 g per day and 11.4±3.7 g per day in the salt preference and nonsalt preference groups, respectively (P<0.001. A salt intake <10 g per day was consumed by 169 (28.5% and 181 (37.6% patients (P=0.001, respectively, and <6 g salt per day was consumed by 28 (4.7% and 26 (5.4% patients (P=0.606, respectively. The patients

  17. Association constants of telluronium salts; Konstanty assotsiatsii telluronievykh solej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, N A; Rivkin, B B; Sadekov, T D; Shvajka, O P

    1997-12-31

    Association constants in acetonitrile of triphenyl telluronium salts, which are dilute electrolytes, are determined through the conductometry method. Satisfactory correlation dependence of constants of interion association and threshold molar electroconductivity on the Litvinenko-Popov constants for depositing groups is identified. 6 refs.

  18. Ageing behaviour of unary hydroxides in trivalent metal salt solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LDH)-like phases on ageing in solutions of Al or Cr salts. This reaction is similar to acid leaching and proceeds by a dissolution–reprecipitation mechanism offering a simple method of LDH synthesis, with implications for the accepted theories of ...

  19. Improved methodologies for extraction of salt in halophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Morais

    2014-06-01

    This method yield rates in Salicornia appear to be higher than the expected based on previous publication. The data suggests other elements of interest may be differently distributed between the two genera. A nutritional profile, which we intend to do, may elucidate about the contents of vegetable salt.

  20. Nonmetal-metal transition in metal–molten-salt solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestrelli, P.-L.; Alavi, A.; Parrinello, M.; Frenkel, D.

    1996-01-01

    The method of ab initio molecular dynamics, based on finite-temperature density-functional theory, is used to study the nonmetal-metal transition in two different metal–molten-salt solutions, Kx(KCl)1-x and Nax(NaBr)1-x. As the excess metal concentration is increased the electronic density becomes

  1. Solid state syntheses and interconversion of new metal salts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... dehydrochlorinated via thermal or mechanochemical methods to obtain the coordination compounds [MCl2(H2biim)]. X-ray single crystal structure determination, powder diffraction (XRDP), thermogravimetric and elemental analyses were used in the preliminary characterization of the new salts and the derived materials.

  2. Speciation of Zinc Mixed Ligand Complexes in Salt Water Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Speciation of Zinc Mixed Ligand Complexes in Salt Water Systems. ... method has been used to study heavy metal interaction in model lake water in KNO3 ... is of no consequential effect because in its normal state, the [OH-] of the lake water is ...

  3. R and D activities on the management of waste chloride salts in KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-Tae, Kim; Hwan-Seo, Park; Jeong-Gook, Kim; Hee-Chul, Yang; Yong-Joon, Cho; Eung-Ho Kim

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Electrochemical treatment of spent oxide fuels has been intensively studied in KAERI to reduce the volume, heat load and radiotoxicity of high-level wastes. It consists of an electrolytic reduction process to convert the oxide fuel into a metallic form and an electro-refining process to separate TRU elements from the electro-reduced metal ingot. Two types of waste salts are expected to generate from the electrochemical pyro-processes, that is, LiCl salt from the reduction process and LiCl+KCl eutectic salt form the refining process. The R and D strategy of the waste salt management in KAERI can be categorized into two parts: 1) enhancement of safety by the stabilisation/solidification of waste salt that is to be finally disposed of and 2) reduction of the waste generation by the regeneration/recycle of the spent salt after removal of radionuclides in it. A sol-gel technique and a zeolite occlusion technique are under development to stabilize the waste salt. The LiCl salt is stabilised by a low-temperature sol-gel process and then the gel product is solidified into a ceramic-like waste form with an addition of glass frit. Another method uses Zeolite-4A to occlude the LiCl salt into its cage and adsorption site to immobilize the radionuclides. The product, salt-occluded zeolite, is fabricated into another type of a ceramic waste form. For the regeneration and recycle of the spent salt, the radionuclides in the salt are removed by a zeolite process for the LiCl salt and by an oxidation/distillation process for the eutectic salt. The target nuclides to be removed in each process are Cs/Sr and rare earth (RE) elements, respectively. In the oxidation/ distillation process, the rare earth chloride nuclides are oxidised by an oxygen sparging method, and the products are precipitated in the form of oxide or oxychloride REs. After separation of the RE elements from the precipitates by distillation, the refined spent salt with a low content

  4. Electrochemical-metallothermic reduction of zirconium in molten salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Talko, F.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method for separating hafnium from zirconium of the type wherein a feed containing zirconium and hafnium chlorides is prepared from zirconium-hafnium chloride and the feed is introduced into a distillation column, which distillation column has a reboiler connected at the bottom and a reflux condenser connected at the top and wherein a hafnium chloride enriched stream is taken from the top of the column and a zirconium enriched chloride stream is taken from the bottom of the column. It comprises: reducing the zirconium enriched chloride stream taken from the distillation column to metal by electrochemically reducing an alkaline earth metal in a molten salt bath with the molten salt in the molten salt bath consisting essentially of a mixture of at least one alkali metal chloride and at least one alkaline earth metal chloride and zirconium chloride, with the reduced alkaline earth metal reacting with the zirconium chloride to produce zirconium metal and alkaline earth metal chloride

  5. Hydronephrosis causes salt-sensitive hypertension in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlström, Mattias; Wåhlin, Nils; Sällström, Johan

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a common disease in the Western world and approximately 5% of all cases are secondary to kidney malfunction. It is not clear whether unilateral hydronephrosis due to partial obstruction affects blood pressure. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine whether...... hypertension develops and to investigate the effects of different salt diets on the blood pressure in hydronephrotic animals. METHODS: Unilateral partial ureteral obstruction was created in 3-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. A telemetric device was implanted 4-6 weeks later and blood pressure was measured...... on normal, low- and high-salt diets. Plasma samples were collected on all diets for renin analysis. RESULTS: All hydronephrotic animals developed hypertension that correlated to the degree of hydronephrosis. The blood pressure increased slowly with time and was salt sensitive. In severe hydronephrosis...

  6. Salt tolerance at single cell level in giant-celled Characeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane eBeilby

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Characean plants provide an excellent experimental system for electrophysiology and physiology due to: (i very large cell size, (ii position on phylogenetic tree near the origin of land plants and (iii continuous spectrum from very salt sensitive to very salt tolerant species. A range of experimental techniques is described, some unique to characean plants. Application of these methods provided electrical characteristics of membrane transporters, which dominate the membrane conductance under different outside conditions. With this considerable background knowledge the electrophysiology of salt sensitive and salt tolerant genera can be compared under salt and/or osmotic stress. Both salt tolerant and salt sensitive Characeae show a rise in membrane conductance and simultaneous increase in Na+ influx upon exposure to saline medium. Salt tolerant Chara longifolia and Lamprothamnium sp. exhibit proton pump stimulation upon both turgor decrease and salinity increase, allowing the membrane PD to remain negative. The turgor is regulated through the inward K+ rectifier and 2H+/Cl- symporter. Lamprothamnium plants can survive in hypersaline media up to twice seawater strength and withstand large sudden changes in salinity. Salt-sensitive Chara australis succumbs to 50 - 100 mM NaCl in few days. Cells exhibit no pump stimulation upon turgor decrease and at best transient pump stimulation upon salinity increase. Turgor is not regulated. The membrane PD exhibits characteristic noise upon exposure to salinity. Depolarization of membrane PD to excitation threshold sets off trains of action potentials, leading to further loses of K+ and Cl-. In final stages of salt damage the H+/OH- channels are thought to become the dominant transporter, dissipating the proton gradient and bringing the cell PD close to 0. The differences in transporter electrophysiology and their synergy under osmotic and/or saline stress in salt sensitive and salt tolerant characean cells

  7. Association between Salt Intake and Albuminuria in Normotensive and Hypertensive Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsalan Khaledifar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a little published data regarding the association between salt intake and albuminuria as an important alarm for progression of cardiovascular and renal dysfunction. We aimed to assess this relationship to emphasize the major role of restricting salt intake to minimize albuminuria and prevent these life-threatening events. Methods. The study population comprised 820 individuals. Participants were assigned to groups as follows: normal albuminuria, slight albuminuria, and clinical albuminuria. Daily salt intake was assessed on the basis of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, since urinary sodium excretion largely equals sodium intake. Results. In normotensive participants, the mean level of urine albumin was higher in those who had higher amounts of salt intake with a significantly upward trend (the mean urinary albumin level in low-salt-diet group, in medium-salt-intake group, and in high-salt-intake group was 42.70±36.42, 46.89±38.91, and 53.38±48.23, resp., (P=0.017. There was a significant positive correlation between 24-hour urinary sodium secretion and the level of urine albumin (beta = 0.130, P<0.001. The amount of salt intake was significantly associated with urine albumin concentration (beta = 3.969, SE = 1.671, P=0.018. Conclusion. High salt intake was shown to be associated with higher level of microalbuminuria even adjusted for potential underlying risk factors.

  8. Accelerator molten-salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Kuroi, Hideo; Kato, Yoshio; Oomichi, Toshihiko.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain fission products and to transmute transuranium elements and other radioactive wastes by the use of Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor. Constitution: Beams from an accelerator pipe at one end of a target vessel is injected through a window into target molten salts filled inside of the target vessel. The target molten salts are subjected to pump recycling or spontaneous convection while forcively cooled by blanket molten salts in an outer vessel. Then, energy is recovered from the blanket molten salts or the target molten salts at high temperatures through electric power generation or the like. Those salts containing such as thorium 232 and uranium 238 are used as the blanket molten salts so that fission products may be produced by neutrons generated in the target molten salts. PbCl 2 -PbF 2 and LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 can be used as the target molten salts and as the blanket molten salts respectively. (Seki, T.)

  9. Molten salt reactors: reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this critical analysis of the MSBR I project are examined the problems concerning the reactor core. Advantages of breeding depend essentially upon solutions to technological problems like continuous reprocessing or graphite behavior under neutron irradiation. Graphite deformation, moderator unloading, control rods and core instrumentation require more studies. Neutronics of the core, influence of core geometry and salt composition, fuel evolution, and thermohydraulics are reviewed [fr

  10. Mixing of zeolite powders and molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Transuranics and fission products in a molten salt can be incorporated into zeolite A by an ion exchange process and by a batch mixing or blending process. The zeolite is then mixed with glass and consolidated into a monolithic waste form for geologic disposal. Both processes require mixing of zeolite powders with molten salt at elevated temperatures (>700 K). Complete occlusion of salt and a uniform distribution of chloride and fission products are desired for incorporation of the powders into the final waste form. The relative effectiveness of the blending process was studied over a series of temperature, time, and composition profiles. The major criteria for determining the effectiveness of the mixing operations were the level and uniformity of residual free salt in the mixtures. High operating temperatures (>775 K) improved salt occlusion. Reducing the chloride levels in the mixture to below 80% of the full salt capacity of the zeolite significantly reduced the free salt level in the final product

  11. Bile salts as semiochemicals in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Bile salts are potent olfactory stimuli in fishes; however the biological functions driving such sensitivity remain poorly understood. We provide an integrative review of bile salts as semiochemicals in fish. First, we present characteristics of bile salt structure, metabolism, and function that are particularly relevant to chemical communication. Bile salts display a systematic pattern of structural variation across taxa, are efficiently synthesized, and are stable in the environment. Bile salts are released into the water via the intestine, urinary tract, or gills, and are highly water soluble. Second, we consider the potential role of bile salts as semiochemicals in the contexts of detecting nearby fish, foraging, assessing risk, migrating, and spawning. Lastly, we suggest future studies on bile salts as semiochemicals further characterize release into the environment, behavioral responses by receivers, and directly test the biological contexts underlying olfactory sensitivity.

  12. Method of reducing zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megy, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for making nuclear-grade zirconium from a zirconium compound, which ismore economical than previous methods since it uses aluminum as the reductant metal rather than the more expensive magnesium. A fused salt phase containing the zirconium compound to be reduced is first prepared. The fused salt phase is then contacted with a molten metal phase which contains aluminum and zinc. The reduction is effected by mutual displacment. Aluminum is transported from the molten metal phase to the fused salt phase, replacing zirconium in the salt. Zirconium is transported from the fused salt phase to the molten metal phase. The fused salt phase and the molten metal phase are then separated, and the solvent metal and zirconium are separated by distillation or other means. (DN)

  13. Yttria hydroxy-salt binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Binder phase (primarily chloride or nitrate) formation was examined in YX 3 --NaOH--H 2 O, Y 2 O 3 --acid--H 2 O, and Y 2 O 3 --salt--H 2 O systems. The cementitious phase consisted mostly of plate- (or needle-) shaped hydroxy salts of the general formula Y 2 (OH)/sub 6-m/X/sub m/ nH 2 O, where m and n normally equal one. These binders were examined by x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques. Nitrate binders decompose to Y 2 O 3 by 600 0 C, whereas chloride binders form oxychlorides that sublime or convert to Y 2 O 3 after oxygen replacement of chlorine (in air) at > 1000 0 C. Although nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions form porous ( 2 O 3 powder, salt solutions (i.e., NH 4 NO 3 , Mg(NO 3 ) 2 , NH 4 Cl, and YCl 3 approx. = 6H 2 O) slow the reaction considerably (48 h to 4 weeks), allowing 70- to 80%-dense cements to form. The effects of formation conditions on physical properties of binders were studied. Examination of scandium and lanthanide oxides showed that several behave in the same way as yttria

  14. Salt disproportionation: A material science perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakral, Naveen K; Kelly, Ron C

    2017-03-30

    While screening the counter-ions for salt selection for an active pharmaceutical substance, there is often an uncertainty about disproportionation of the salt and hence physical stability of the final product formulation to provide adequate shelf life. Several examples of disproportionation reactions are reviewed to explain the concepts of pHmax, microenvironmental pH, and buffering capacity of excipients and APIs to gain mechanistic understanding of disproportionation reaction. Miscellaneous factors responsible for disproportionation are examined. In addition to the dissolution failure due to the formation of less soluble unionized form, various implications of the disproportionation are evaluated with specific examples. During lead optimization and early stages of development, when only a limited amount of material is available, use of predictive tools like mathematical models and model free kinetics to rank order the various counter-ions are discussed in detail. Finally, analytical methods and mitigation strategies are discussed to prevent the disproportionation by detecting it during early stages of drug development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. High-salt diet combined with elevated angiotensin II accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Maria E; Bernberg, Evelina; Andersson, Irene J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: High-salt diet likely elevates blood pressure (BP), thus increasing the risk of cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that a high-salt diet plays a critical role in subjects whose renin-angiotensin systems cannot adjust to variable salt intake, rendering them more susceptible...... to atherosclerosis. METHODS: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice received standard or high-salt diet (8%) alone or in combination with fixed angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion (0.5 microg/kg per min). BP was measured using telemetry, and plaque burden was assessed in the thoracic aorta and innominate artery. We...... used urinary isoprostane as a marker for oxidative stress. RESULTS: Although high-salt diet per se did not affect plaque extension, high salt combined with Ang II increased plaque area significantly in both the aorta and the innominate artery as compared with Ang II or salt alone (P

  16. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Pérez, J V; De Prados, M; Pérez-Muelas, N; Cárcel, J A; Benedito, J

    2012-01-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p 2 = 0.975) and moisture (R 2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  17. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Free Acid by Titration in an Oxalate Solution 8 to 15 Free Acid by Iodate Precipitation-Potentiometric Titration Test Method 16 to 22 Uranium by Arsenazo I Spectrophotometric Test Method 23 to 33 Thorium by Thorin Spectrophotometric Test Method 34 to 42 Iron by 1,10-Phenanthroline Spectrophotometric Test Method 43 to 50 Impurities by ICP-AES Chloride by Thiocyanate Spectrophotometric Test Method 51 to 58 Fluoride by Distillation-Spectrophotometric Test Method 59 to 66 Sulfate by Barium Sulfate Turbidimetric Test Method 67 to 74 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrom...

  18. Characteristics of solidified products containing radioactive molten salt waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae; Cho, Yong-Zun; Eun, Hee-Chul; Kim, Joon-Hyung

    2007-11-01

    The molten salt waste from a pyroprocess to recover uranium and transuranic elements is one of the problematic radioactive wastes to be solidified into a durable wasteform for its final disposal. By using a novel method, named as the GRSS (gel-route stabilization/solidification) method, a molten salt waste was treated to produce a unique wasteform. A borosilicate glass as a chemical binder dissolves the silicate compounds in the gel products to produce one amorphous phase while most of the phosphates are encapsulated by the vitrified phase. Also, Cs in the gel product is preferentially situated in the silicate phase, and it is vitrified into a glassy phase after a heat treatment. The Sr-containing phase is mainly phosphate compounds and encapsulated by the glassy phase. These phenomena could be identified by the static and dynamic leaching test that revealed a high leach resistance of radionuclides. The leach rates were about 10(-3) - 10(-2) g/m2 x day for Cs and 10(-4) - 10(-3) g/m2 x day for Sr, and the leached fractions of them were predicted to be 0.89% and 0.39% at 900 days, respectively. This paper describes the characteristics of a unique wasteform containing a molten salt waste and provides important information on a newly developed immobilization technology for salt wastes, the GRSS method.

  19. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W. L.; Snyder, C. T.; Frank, Steven; Riley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop ''advanced'' glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na_2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl- in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease the waste

  20. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, C. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop “advanced” glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl– in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease