Sample records for salt electrolytes sorption

  1. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai


    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  2. Low molecular weight salts combined with fluorinated solvents for electrolytes (United States)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Lei, Norman; Guerrero-Zavala, Guillermo; Kwong, Kristie W.


    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. An electrolyte includes at least one salt having a molecular weight less than about 250. Such salts allow forming electrolytes with higher salt concentrations and ensure high conductivity and ion transport in these electrolytes. The low molecular weight salt may have a concentration of at least about 0.5M and may be combined with one or more other salts, such as linear and cyclic imide salts and/or methide salts. The concentration of these additional salts may be less than that of the low molecular weight salt, in some embodiments, twice less. The additional salts may have a molecular weight greater than about 250. The electrolyte may also include one or more fluorinated solvents and may be capable of maintaining single phase solutions at between about C. to about C.

  3. Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.S.; Geng, L.; Skotheim, T.A.


    The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity. 2 figs.

  4. Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hung-Sui (East Setauket, NY); Geng, Lin (Coram, NY); Skotheim, Terje A. (Shoreham, NY)


    The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity.

  5. Inorganic salt mixtures as electrolyte media in fuel cells (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen (Inventor); Belieres, Jean-Philippe (Inventor); Francis-Gervasio, Dominic (Inventor)


    Fuel cell designs and techniques for converting chemical energy into electrical energy uses a fuel cell are disclosed. The designs and techniques include an anode to receive fuel, a cathode to receive oxygen, and an electrolyte chamber in the fuel cell, including an electrolyte medium, where the electrolyte medium includes an inorganic salt mixture in the fuel cell. The salt mixture includes pre-determined quantities of at least two salts chosen from a group consisting of ammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate, ammonium trifluoroacetate, and ammonium nitrate, to conduct charge from the anode to the cathode. The fuel cell includes an electrical circuit operatively coupled to the fuel cell to transport electrons from the cathode.

  6. Fluoroalkyl containing salts combined with fluorinated solvents for electrolytes (United States)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Erickson, Michael Jason


    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. An electrolyte may include a fluoroalkyl-substituted LiPF.sub.6 salt or a fluoroalkyl-substituted LiBF.sub.4 salt. In some embodiments, at least one fluorinated alkyl of the salt has a chain length of from 1 to 8 or, more specifically, between about 2 and 8. These fluorinated alkyl groups, in particular, relatively large fluorinated alkyl groups improve solubility of these salts in fluorinated solvents that are less flammable than, for example, conventional carbonate solvents. At the same time, the size of fluoroalkyl-substituted salts should be limited to ensure adequate concentration of the salt in an electrolyte and low viscosity of the electrolyte. In some embodiments, the concentration of a fluoroalkyl-substituted salt is at least about 0.5M. Examples of fluorinated solvents include various fluorinated esters, fluorinated ethers, and fluorinated carbonates, such a 1-methoxyheptafluoropropane, methyl nonafluorobutyl ether, ethyl nonafluorobutyl ether, 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,5-decafluoro-3-methoxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)-pentane, 3-ethoxy-1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-dodecafluoro-2-trifluoromethyl-hexane, and 1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoro-4-(1,1,2,3,3,3-hexafluoropropoxy)-pentane.

  7. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell (United States)

    Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.; Troup, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.


    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride. 4 figs.

  8. Extraction of quaternary ammonium salts from aqueous solutions by sorption with hydrolyzed lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikiforov, A.F.; Astaf' eva, O.V.; Lobukhina, T.V.


    The sorption of surfactant quaternary ammonium salts by hydrolized lignin, recovered from the hydrolysis of wood and other plant materials, was studied in the context of the purification of low-concentration aqueous effluents. Infrared spectroscopy of the samples was conducted. Calculations showed that the relative intensity of the absorption bands of the hydrolized lignin before and after sorption of the surfactant changed by 0.8 to 5%. Sorption isotherms were also determined.

  9. Effect of temperature and salting-out agents on the sorption of nitrophenols from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Churilina


    Full Text Available Sorption of nitrophenols from aqueous media by сrosslinked N-vinylpyrrolidone-based polymer in static conditions are studied depending on the pH of the solution and the nature of the nitrophenols. It has been established that a temperature and the introduction of salting-out agents influence on the sorption of nitrophenols.

  10. Salting Out Effect of Electrolyte Solutions in The Extraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: The salting-out effect of various solutions of electrolyte in the extraction of tantalum and niobium using aqueous biphasic system (ABS) was ... using X-ray fluorescence method. The results show that the percentage ... Liquid/ liquid extraction separates the components of a homogeneous liquid mixture on the ...

  11. Combinations of fluorinated solvents with imide salts or methide salts for electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Lei, Norman; Guerrero-Zavala, Guillermo; Kwong, Kristie W


    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. The electrolytes include imide salts and/or methide salts as well as fluorinated solvents capable of maintaining single phase solutions at between about C. to about C. The fluorinated solvents, such as fluorinated carbonates, fluorinated esters, and fluorinated esters, are less flammable than their non-fluorinated counterparts and improve safety characteristics of cells containing these solvents. The amount of fluorinated solvents in electrolytes may be between about 30% and 80% by weight not accounting weight of the salts. Linear and cyclic imide salts, such as LiN(SO.sub.2CF.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.2, and LiN(SO.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.2, as well as methide salts, such as LiC(SO.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.3 and LiC(SO.sub.2CF.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.3, may be used in these electrolytes. Fluorinated alkyl groups enhance solubility of these salts in the fluorinated solvents. In some embodiments, the electrolyte may also include a flame retardant, such as a phosphazene, and/or one or more ionic liquids.

  12. The influence of salting out on the sorption of neutral organic compounds in estuaries. (United States)

    Turner, A; Rawling, M C


    The relative (unsaturated) solubility and sorption of 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl have been studied along an estuarine salinity gradient. The aqueous compound was salted out with increasing salinity and an aqueous salting constant of about 0.0021 g(-1) was derived. Sorption of the compound to estuarine particles increased with increasing salinity for a range of particle concentrations, but the magnitude of this effect (sorption salting constants of about 0.005-0.011 g(-1)) indicated that salting out of the aqueous phase was not solely responsible. It is suggested that the hydrophobicity of sediment organic matter is enhanced by its interaction with seawater ions through a reduction in the charge of the particle surface and, possibly, modification of the structure of the organic matter. Examination of literature data on the sorption of neutral organic compounds to estuarine sediment indicates a general increase in sorption with increasing salinity which can be empirically defined by a salting equation. Although charge reduction of estuarine particles is a general observation, it is not possible to establish the general significance of this effect (or any other form of salting out of sediment organic matter) on the sorption of organic compounds in estuaries because appropriate site- and compound-specific aqueous salting constants are unavailable. Increased sorption at high salinities has obvious implications for the disposal and transport of organic chemicals in estuaries. However, the inverse dependency of sediment-water partitioning on particle concentration is likely to be of at least equal significance in macrotidal environments where sediment resuspension occurs. An empirical model, combining the effects of salinity and particle concentration, is proposed for deriving first-order estimates of the partitioning of neutral organic compounds in estuaries.

  13. Stable lithium electrodeposition in salt-reinforced electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying


    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Development of high-energy lithium-based batteries that are safe remains a challenge due to the non-uniform lithium electrodeposition during repeated charge and discharge cycles. We report on the effectiveness of lithium bromide (LiBr) salt additives in a common liquid electrolyte (i.e. propylene carbonate (PC)) on the stability of lithium electrodeposition. From galvanostatic cycling measurements, we find that the presence of LiBr in PC provides more than 20-fold enhancement in cell lifetime over the control LiTFSI/PC electrolyte. Batteries containing 30 mol% LiBr additive in the electrolytes are able to cycle stably for at least 1.8 months with no observations of cell failure. From galvanostatic polarization measurements, an electrolyte containing 30 mol% LiBr shows a maximum improvement in lifetime. The formation of uneven lithium electrodeposits is significantly suppressed by the Br-containing SEI layers, evidenced by impedance spectra, post-mortem SEM and XPS analyses. The study also concludes that good solubility of halogenated salts is not necessary for achieving the observed improvements in cell lifetime.

  14. Stable lithium electrodeposition in salt-reinforced electrolytes (United States)

    Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Shu, Jonathan; Archer, Lynden A.


    Development of high-energy lithium-based batteries that are safe remains a challenge due to the non-uniform lithium electrodeposition during repeated charge and discharge cycles. We report on the effectiveness of lithium bromide (LiBr) salt additives in a common liquid electrolyte (i.e. propylene carbonate (PC)) on the stability of lithium electrodeposition. From galvanostatic cycling measurements, we find that the presence of LiBr in PC provides more than 20-fold enhancement in cell lifetime over the control LiTFSI/PC electrolyte. Batteries containing 30 mol% LiBr additive in the electrolytes are able to cycle stably for at least 1.8 months with no observations of cell failure. From galvanostatic polarization measurements, an electrolyte containing 30 mol% LiBr shows a maximum improvement in lifetime. The formation of uneven lithium electrodeposits is significantly suppressed by the Br-containing SEI layers, evidenced by impedance spectra, post-mortem SEM and XPS analyses. The study also concludes that good solubility of halogenated salts is not necessary for achieving the observed improvements in cell lifetime.

  15. Liquid electrolytes based on new lithium conductive imidazole salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedzicki, L.; Kasprzyk, M.; Kuziak, K.; Zukowska, G.Z.; Marcinek, M.; Wieczorek, W. [Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Armand, M. [LRCS, University de Picardie Jules Verne, UMR 6007 CNRS, 33 rue de Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens (France)


    In the present paper new generation of imidazole-derived lithium salts (LiTDI - lithium 4,5-dicyano-2-(trifluoromethyl)imidazolide, LiPDI - lithium 4,5-dicyano-2-(pentafluoroethyl)imidazolide and LiHDI - lithium 4,5-dicyano-2-(n-heptafluoropropyl)imidazolide) applied in a model liquid electrolyte, with propylene carbonate used as a solvent, is described. Room temperature ionic conductivities measured by Impedance Spectroscopy are as high as 10{sup -2} to 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} for the 0.1-1 mol dm{sup -3} salt concentration range. Lithium cation transference numbers calculated using the Bruce-Vincent method exceed 0.4 at salt concentration equal to 1 mol dm{sup -3}. Interface resistance measurements showed good stability at high - 0.5 mol dm{sup -3} or low - 0.01 mol dm{sup -3} salt concentrations. Ionic associations were estimated using Fuoss-Kraus semiempirical method revealing relatively low association rates. The effect of anion structure on ionic interactions and electrochemical characteristics of the studied electrolytes is discussed. (author)

  16. Polymer-in-salt like conduction behavior of small-molecule electrolytes. (United States)

    Wang, Hongxia; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Xue, Bofei; Meng, Qingbo; Huang, Xuejie; Chen, Liquan


    Abnormal salt content dependence of conductivity is observed in solid electrolytes exclusively composed of small molecules of 3-hydroxypropionitrile (HPN) and lithium iodide (LiI) induced by reinforced hydrogen bonding and formation of ionic clusters at high salt content.

  17. Lithium salts based on a series of new anilinyl-perfluorosulfonamide salts and their polymer electrolytes (United States)

    Thiam, A.; Iojoiu, C.; Leprêtre, J.-C.; Sanchez, J.-Y.


    Polymer electrolytes based on a series of new lithium anilinyl-perfluorosulfonamide exhibit conductivities close to LiTFSI ones and higher cationic transference numbers. Taking advantage of an extended delocalization on the negative charge, the anodic stability of the salts was found to range between 4.2 and 4.9 V vs Li/Li+, according to the electron-withdrawing group EWG located in para/ortho position. The simplicity of the synthesis process of the new salts, with lower fluorine content than LiPF6 and LiTFSI, paves the way for a further semi-pilot scale-up. Moreover, Linear Free Energy Relationships, LFER, were established for the first time, for both ionic conductivity and anodic stability. These LFER demonstrate unambiguously and quantitatively the conductivity dependence on anion basicity. Polymer electrolytes were soundly investigated through a variety of physicochemical and electrochemical characterizations.

  18. The impact of solution chemistry of electrolyte on the sorption of pentachlorophenol and phenanthrene by natural hematite nanoparticles. (United States)

    Zeng, Fanfeng; He, Yan; Lian, Zhenghua; Xu, Jianming


    Hematite nanoparticles (NPs) were studied as a sorbent for hydrophobic organic contaminants (OCs) under natural ambient conditions through specially designed contrasting solution chemistry of electrolyte. Ionizable pentachlorophenol (PCP) and non-ionizable phenanthrene (PHE) were selected as representative OCs. The sorption capacities of PCP and PHE were pH-dependent, and a larger amount of PCP was sorbed at pH values below its pKa (4.75). However, the PHE sorption capacity was higher at relatively high or low pHs (e.g. below 4.0 and above 10.0), possibly due to the larger available surface area of the hematite NPs, caused by the higher values of net charges and charge density. Changes in pH might thus affect the sorption of OCs by hematite NPs, through modification of the surface characteristics of the sorbent and the electronic properties of the sorbate molecules. The influence of different ionic strengths indicated that the amounts of PCP and PHE sorbed by hematite NPs decreased as a concentration function of different types of ions (e.g. Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)), with the underlying mechanism possibly being due to four interactions i.e. hydrogen-bonding, competitive sorption by ions in the ambient solution, screening effects and aggregation effects. The results confirmed that the surface chemistry of hematite NPs, the chemical properties of PCP and PHE, and solution chemistry (e.g. pH and ionic strength) of the electrolyte all played an important role in PCP and PHE sorption by hematite NPs. By comparison of both sorption capacity and ecologic advantages, our results suggested that natural hematite NPs would be more competitive and efficient for PCP and PHE sorption than engineered NPs. This finding increases our knowledge regarding the environmental function of natural NPs (such as hematite NPs) for OC remediation through manipulating their interfacial behavior. © 2013.

  19. Composite polymer electrolytes for fuel cell applications: filler-induced effect on water sorption and transport properties. (United States)

    Mecheri, Barbara; Felice, Valeria; D'Epifanio, Alessandra; Tavares, Ana C; Licoccia, Silvia


    Nafion- and sulfonated polysulfone (SPS)- based composite membranes were prepared by incorporation of SnO2 nanoparticles in a wide range of loading (0${ \\div }$35 wt. %). The composites were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic vapor sorption and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the filler effect on water sorption, water mobility, and proton conductivity. A detrimental effect of the filler was observed on water mobility and proton conductivity of Nafion-based membranes. An increase in water mobility and proton conductivity was instead observed in SPS-based samples, particularly at low hydration degree. Analysis of the water sorption isotherms and states of water revealed that the presence of SnO2 in SPS enhances interconnectivity of hydrophilic domains, while not affecting the Nafion microstructure. These results enable the design of suitable electrolyte materials that operate in proton exchange membrane fuel cell conditions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Benzimidazole and imidazole lithium salts for battery electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheers, Johan; Johansson, Patrik; Jacobsson, Per [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Szczecinski, Przemyslaw; Wieczorek, Wladyslaw [Polymer Ionics Research Group, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, PL-00664 Warsaw (Poland); Armand, Michel [Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue St. Leu, 80089 Amiens (France)


    The intrinsic anion oxidation potential ({delta}E{sub v}) and lithium ion pair dissociation energy ({delta}E{sub d}) are two important properties for predicting the potential use of new lithium salts for battery electrolytes. In this work several cyano substituted fluoroalkylated benzimidazole and imidazole anions have been investigated computationally to obtain {delta}E{sub v} and {delta}E{sub d}. Varying the number and position of cyano substituents results in large effects on the electrochemical stability of the anion and on the possible lithium ion pair configurations. The lengthening of the fluoroalkyl group introduces several new stable ion pair configurations and a small increase in anion oxidation stability. The most promising fluoroalkylated anions in the present work are the 4,5,6,7-tetracyano-2-fluoroalkylated benzimidazolides (TTB and PTB), with oxidation potentials suitable for high voltage Li-ion battery applications (<4.2 V) and much improved {delta}E{sub d} compared to PF{sub 6}{sup -} - a benchmark for commercially available anions. Further improvements in {delta}E{sub d}, with maintained stability towards oxidation, are obtainable by replacing the fluoroalkyl group by an additional cyano group, but possibly demanding increased synthesis efforts. (author)

  1. Serum electrolytes in children with neurocardiogenic syncope treated with fludrocortisone and salt. (United States)

    Salim, M A; DiSessa, T G


    We examined the changes in serum electrolytes of patients with syncope treated with salt and fludrocortisone. The most significant change was an increase in serum bicarbonate concentration, with minimal alteration of sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations; none was clinically significant.

  2. Electrolyte content of serum, erythrocyte, kidney and heart tissue in salt induced hypertensive rats. (United States)

    Mahboob, T; Mumtaz, M; Haleem, M A


    The effect of salt load on the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and electrolyte levels of serum, erythrocyte, kidney and heart tissue was studied in rats. NaCl treatment increased sodium (5.69 +/- 0.4 mmol/L p electrolyte levels of erythrocytes, serum, heart and kidney tissues in NaCl loaded rats may play a definite role in the development of salt induced hypertension.

  3. Recent development in electrolytic formation of carbon nanotubes in molten salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen G.Z.


    Full Text Available This article reviews the recent research development in the electrolytic production of carbon nano-tubes in molten salts. The experimental procedure and product morphologies of the electrolytic method are described in details. Different hypotheses of the carbon nano-tube formation mechanism in molten salts, particularly it relation with the erosion of the cathode, are compared and discussed. It is anticipated that the electrolytic method can potentially become a cheap and continuous process for the production of curved carbon nano-tubes, carbon sheathed metal nanowires and other carbon based nano-structures.

  4. Towards more thermally stable Li-ion battery electrolytes with salts and solvents sharing nitrile functionality (United States)

    Kerner, Manfred; Lim, Du-Hyun; Jeschke, Steffen; Rydholm, Tomas; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon; Scheers, Johan


    The overall safety of Li-ion batteries is compromised by the state-of-the-art electrolytes; the thermally unstable lithium salt, lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), and flammable carbonate solvent mixtures. The problem is best addressed by new electrolyte compositions with thermally robust salts in low flammability solvents. In this work we introduce electrolytes with either of two lithium nitrile salts, lithium 4,5-dicyano-1,2,3-triazolate (LiDCTA) or lithium 4,5-dicyano-2-trifluoromethylimidazolide (LiTDI), in solvent mixtures with high flashpoint adiponitrile (ADN), as the main component. With sulfolane (SL) and ethylene carbonate (EC) as co-solvents the liquid temperature range of the electrolytes are extended to lower temperatures without lowering the flashpoint, but at the expense of high viscosities and moderate ionic conductivities. The anodic stabilities of the electrolytes are sufficient for LiFePO4 cathodes and can be charged/discharged for 20 cycles in Li/LiFePO4 cells with coulombic efficiencies exceeding 99% at best. The excellent thermal stabilities of the electrolytes with the solvent combination ADN:SL are promising for future electrochemical investigations at elevated temperatures (> 60 °C) to compensate the moderate transport properties and rate capability. The electrolytes with EC as a co-solvent, however, release CO2 by decomposition of EC in presence of a lithium salt, which potentially makes EC unsuitable for any application targeting higher operating temperatures.

  5. Conductivity and phase structure of blend based proton polymeric electrolytes. Pt. 2; Ammonium salts complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrowska, A. (Inst. of Solid State Technology, Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland)); Wieczorek, W. (Inst. of Solid State Technology, Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland))


    The new class of highly conductive ambient temperature polymeric electrolytes based on complexes of ammonium salts with poly(ethylene oxide)-polymethacrylate or -polyacrylate blends is presented. An increase in ambient temperature conductivity in comparison with pristine poly(ethylene oxide) based electrolytes was achieved by suppression of the polymer crystallinity. The highest values of conductivity were obtained for samples doped with NH[sub 4]SCN and exceeded 10[sup -5] S cm[sup -1] at room temperature. (orig.)

  6. Novel ternary molten salt electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo


    The sodium–nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250–350 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200 °C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of β"-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin BASE (600 μm) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175 °C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. Finally, the cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150 °C.

  7. Dye-sensitized solar cells with ionic gel electrolytes prepared from imidazolium salts and agarose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazuharu, Suzuki; Makoto, Yamaguchi; Mikio, Kumagai [Institute of Research and Innovation, Photonics and Materials Research Dept., Takada, Kashiwa (Japan); Nobuo, Tanabe [Fujikura Ltd, Electronics Material Dept., Tokyo (Japan); Shozo, Yanagida [Osaka Univ. Center for Advanced Science and Innovation (Japan)


    New ionic gel electrolytes, semi-solid state electrolytes comprised of ionic liquid and gelator were investigated in order to improve the durability of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The ionic gels were prepared from agarose, natural polysaccharide, and 1-alkyl-3-methyl-imidazolium salts. The gels showed sufficient mechanical strength even though a very small amount of agarose was added (1.0-1.5 wt%). The photon to electron conversion efficiency of the DSCs containing ionic gel electrolyte was 2.93% under simulated sunlight (air mass 1.5) with a light intensity of 100 mW cm{sup -2}. (authors)

  8. Salt Distribution, Domain Spacing, and Interfacial Characteristics in Lithium Ion-Doped Block Polymer Electrolyte Films (United States)

    Gartner, Thomas; Shelton, Cameron; Morris, Melody; Jayaraman, Arthi; Epps, Thomas, III

    Block polymer (BP) electrolytes have significant potential for use as battery membranes; however, to enable the design of efficient and reliable battery materials, open questions must be answered about the effects of lithium ion dopants on BP microstructure (including domain spacing and mixing near the interface) and the distribution of lithium ions in the BP domains. In this work, X-ray and neutron reflectometry (XRR and NR, respectively) revealed the morphological changes introduced by doping lamellar polystyrene- b-poly(oligo(oxyethylene methacrylate)) (PS-POEM) block polymer films with various lithium salts, as well as the lithium ion distribution in the ion-conducting POEM domain. XRR indicated swelling of both the POEM and PS domains with increasing salt content, with a corresponding decrease in the interfacial width as the salt increased the segregation strength of the BP. However, at very high salt concentrations ([EO]:[Li] = 6:1), roughening of the film caused a slight increase in the interfacial width. NR showed similar trends in domain spacing with salt content, and fits to the NR allow for determination of the lithium salt distribution across the POEM domains. These results help identify the implications of doping lithium salts into BP battery membranes and inform the design of BP electrolyte materials with controlled structure and properties.

  9. Porous membrane electrochemical cell for uranium and transuranic recovery from molten salt electrolyte (United States)

    Willit, James L.


    An improved process and device for the recovery of the minor actinides and the transuranic elements (TRU's) from a molten salt electrolyte. The process involves placing the device, an electrically non-conducting barrier between an anode salt and a cathode salt. The porous barrier allows uranium to diffuse between the anode and cathode, yet slows the diffusion of uranium ions so as to cause depletion of uranium ions in the catholyte. This allows for the eventual preferential deposition of transuranics present in spent nuclear fuel such as Np, Pu, Am, Cm. The device also comprises an uranium oxidation anode. The oxidation anode is solid uranium metal in the form of spent nuclear fuel. The spent fuel is placed in a ferric metal anode basket which serves as the electrical lead or contact between the molten electrolyte and the anodic uranium metal.

  10. Salting Out Effect of Electrolyte Solutions in The Extraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    form aqueous biphasic are: PEG-Sodium carbonate or. PEG and phosphates, citrates or sulphates. ... of liquid-liquid extraction and also has a number of unique advantages due, in large part, to their aqueous nature. ... (wt/wt) sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) at PEG/salt ratio of. 1:1 (El Hussein, 2004) was also prepared. Equal.

  11. Ion Dynamics Study of Potato Starch + Sodium Salts Electrolyte System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhina Tiwari


    Full Text Available The effect of different anions, namely, SCN−, I−, and ClO4−, on the electrical properties of starch-based polymer electrolytes has been studied. Anion size and conductivity are having an inverse trend indicating systems to be predominantly anionic conductor. Impact of anion size and multiplet forming tendency is reflected in number of charge carriers and mobility, respectively. Ion dynamics study reveals the presence of different mechanisms in different frequency ranges. Interestingly, superlinear power law (SLPL is found to be present at <5 MHz frequency, which is further confirmed by dielectric data.

  12. Multi physics modeling of a molten-salt electrolytic process for nuclear waste treatment (United States)

    Kim, K. R.; Choi, S. Y.; Kim, J. G.; Paek, S.; Ahn, D. H.; Kwon, S. W.; Shim, J. B.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, H. S.; Park, B. G.; Yi, K. W.; Hwang, I. S.


    Multi physics electrochemical modeling in a framework of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code was proposed and dealt with in detail to simulate the electro-transport behaviour that appears in a molten-salt electrolytic system. The modeling approach in this study is focused on the mass transport and current arising due to the concentration and the surface overpotential based on a cell configuration and electrolyte turbulence. This comprehensive modelling approach was applied and compared to electroplating model in a prepared rotating cylinder Hull (RCH) cell system.

  13. Aqueous salting-out effect of inorganic cations and anions on non-electrolytes. (United States)

    Görgényi, Miklós; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman; Héberger, Károly


    The salting-out effects of 27 lithium, sodium, potassium, ammonium and magnesium salts and HCl on chloroform, benzene, chlorobenzene and anisole were characterized in aqueous solutions at 303 K by measuring the Henry's law constants. The concentration of the salt solutions was 0.5 mol dm(-3), i.e., similar to the salinity of sea water. The solubility change was described in terms of the Setschenow constant, K(S)(salt,solute). The highest salting-out effects were observed for the solutions of salts involving doubly charged anions, and the smallest for NO(-)(3). The individual ionic Setschenow constants, K(S)(cation,solute) and K(S)(anion,solute), were determined by multilinear regression, using the assumption of additivity for the ions. Cl(-) was selected as the reference ion for calculation of the K(S)(ion,solute) values of the other ions. The estimations resulted systematically in significant positive K(S)(cation,solute) values, ranging from 0.13+/-0.026 (NH(+)(4)) to 0.28+/-0.032 (Mg(2+)), which were hardly affected by the accompanying anion in solution, and only slightly affected by the non-electrolytes present. NO(-)(3) resulted in a slight salting-in effect: K(S)(NO(-)(3),solute)=-0.083+/-0.019; the other anions displayed salting-out effect for all of the non-electrolytes studied, with K(S)(anion,solute) ranging between 0.090+/-0.008 (HCO(-)(3)) and 0.21+/-0.035 (CO(2-)(3)).

  14. High voltage LIB cathodes enabled by salt-reinforced liquid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yingying; Xu, Shaomao; Shu, Jonathan; Aladat, Wajdi Issam A.; Archer, Lynden A.


    We report on electrochemical properties of Li/Li1.2Ni0.15Co0.1Mn0.55O2 secondary batteries in electrolytes designed to stabilize electrodeposition of lithium. Ethylene carbonate (EC): dimethyl carbonate (DMC) containing a LiPF6/LiF salt blend stabilizes lithium electrodeposition and enables Li/Li1.2Ni0.15Co0.1Mn0.55O2 batteries with a high discharge capacity of 270 mAh·g- 1 at 0.05 mA cm- 2. Cells containing the LiF-reinforced electrolytes also exhibit excellent capacity retention over 500 cycles with Columbic efficiencies approaching 100%. Post-mortem SEM analysis of the lithium anode shows more compact deposition in the presence of the LiF salt additive, while XPS depth profile analysis of cathodes show a more uniform distribution of Mn over the first 180 nm from the electrode/electrolyte interface. The results imply that LiF reinforced electrolytes simultaneously facilitate stable lithium electrodeposition and reduce Mn dissolution.

  15. Role of Brine Chemistry and Sorption in Potential Long-Term Storage of Radioactive Waste in Geologic Salt Formations: Experimental Evaluation of Sorption Parameters (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.; Emerson, H. P.; Michael, D. P.; Reed, D. T.


    Bedded geologic salt formations have been shown to have many favorable properties for the disposal of radioactive waste (i.e., reducing conditions, fracture healing). Performance assessment (PA) modeling for a 10,000 year period for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM have predicted an extremely low risk of radioactive material reaching the surrounding environment after the 100 year period required for creep to seal the waste panels and access shafts. Human intrusion caused by drilling operations for oil and gas exploration is the main pathway of concern for environmental release of radioactive material due to pressurized brine pockets located within the salt formation below the repository. Our work focuses on the long-term capability of salt repositories and the associated geologic media to safely isolate stored radioactive waste from the surrounding environment, even in the event of a human intrusion scenario such as a direct brine release (DBR) due to a drilling operation intersecting a brine pocket. In particular, we are revisiting the degree of conservatism in the estimated sorption partition coefficients (Kds) used in the PA model based on complementary batch and column experimental methods (Dittrich and Reimus, 2016). The main focus of this work is to investigate the role of ionic strength, solution chemistry, and oxidation state (III-VI) in actinide sorption to dolomite rock. Based on redox conditions and solution chemistry expected in the WIPP, possible actinide species include Pu(III), Pu(IV), U(IV), U(VI), Np(IV), Np(V), Am(III), and Th(IV). We will present (1) a conceptual overview of Kd use in the PA model, (2) background and evolution of the Kd ranges used, and (3) results from batch and column experiments and model predictions for Kds with WIPP-relevant geologic media. We will also briefly discuss the challenges of upscaling from lab experiments to field scale predictions, the presence of ligands (e.g., acetate, citrate, EDTA

  16. Restricting the Solubility of Polysulfides in Li-S Batteries Via Electrolyte Salt Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Junzheng [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Han, Kee Sung [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Henderson, Wesley A. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Lau, Kah Chun [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Vijayakumar, Murugesan [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Dzwiniel, Trevor [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Pan, Huilin [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Curtiss, Larry A. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Xiao, Jie [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Mueller, Karl T. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Shao, Yuyan [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Liu, Jun [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA


    Polysulfide solubility in the electrolyte has a critical role to the Li-S battery but the mechanism study on the solubility needs to be carefully carried out. In this paper we found that lithium 2-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazole (LiTDI) reveals a suppression of the polysulfide solubility in electrolytes (relative to the most widely used electrolyte formulation) and the Li-S cells achieved homogeneous stable capacity retention upon extensive cycling and Li metal deposition on the anode. Combined experimental, simulation and calculation methods suggest the dominate disproportionation product of Li2S8 is Li2S4 in the LiTDI electrolyte due to a different interaction between lithium ion and TDI anion. The Li2S4 would continuesly form a Li4S8 dimer and be fully locallized to precipitate out. The use of the electrolyte with the LiTDI salt (with polysulfide and LiNO3 additives) enabled a cell with a high sulfur (3 mg-S cm-2) loading to deliver a 1.67 mAh cm-2 areal capacity after 300 stable cycles at a high current (2.4 mA cm-2) density.

  17. Fluid and salt supplementation effect on body hydration and electrolyte homeostasis during bed rest and ambulation (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Kakurin, Vassily J.; Kuznetsov, Nikolai A.; Yarullin, Vladimir L.


    Bed rest (BR) induces significant urinary and blood electrolyte changes, but little is known about the effect of fluid and salt supplements (FSS) on catabolism, hydration and electrolytes. The aim was to measure the effect of FSS on catabolism, body hydration and electrolytes during BR. Studies were done during 7 days of a pre-bed rest period and during 30 days of a rigorous bed rest period. Thirty male athletes aged, 24.6±7.6 years were chosen as subjects. They were divided into three groups: unsupplemented ambulatory control subjects (UACS), unsupplemented bed rested subjects (UBRS) and supplemented bed rested subjects (SBRS). The UBRS and SBRS groups were kept under a rigorous bed rest regime for 30 days. The SBRS daily took 30 ml water per kg body weight and 0.1 sodium chloride per kg body weight. Plasma sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels, urinary Na, K, Ca and Mg excretion, plasma osmolality, plasma protein level, whole blood hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) level increased significantly ( p≤0.05), while plasma volume (PV), body weight, body fat, peak oxygen uptake, food and fluid intake decreased significantly ( p≤0.05) in the UBRS group when compared with the SBRS and UACS groups. In contrast, plasma and urinary electrolytes, osmolality, protein level, whole blood Hct and Hb level decreased significantly ( p≤0.05), while PV, fluid intake, body weight and peak oxygen uptake increased significantly ( p≤0.05) in the SBRS group when compared with the UBRS group. The measured parameters did not change significantly in the UACS group when compared with their baseline control values. The data indicate that FSS stabilizes electrolytes and body hydration during BR, while BR alone induces significant changes in electrolytes and body hydration. We conclude that FSS may be used to prevent catabolism and normalize body hydration status and electrolyte values during BR.

  18. Comparative study of imide-based Li salts as electrolyte additives for Li-ion batteries (United States)

    Sharova, Varvara; Moretti, Arianna; Diemant, Thomas; Varzi, Alberto; Behm, R. Jürgen; Passerini, Stefano


    Herein, we report the results of a detailed study on the use of different Li imide salts (LiTFSI, LiFSI, and LiFTFSI) as electrolyte additives for lithium-ion batteries. The introduction of lithium imide salts in the electrolyte is shown to considerably improve the first cycle coulombic efficiency and the long-term cycling stability of graphite/LiFePO4 cells. Using LiTFSI, a capacity fading of only ∼2% occurred over 600 cycles while the control cell with the state-of-the-art additive (VC) lost ∼20% of the initial capacity at 20 °C. The results of the XPS and impedance spectroscopy measurements of graphite electrodes show that, after the formation cycle, the SEI obtained in the presence of imide salts is thinner, contains more LiF and is less resistive than that obtained using VC. Despite the beneficial effect of the imide salts on the lithium-ion cell performance, a slightly reduced thermal stability of the SEI is observed.

  19. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery with molten salt electrolyte (United States)

    Liu, Shuzhi; Han, Wei; Cui, Baochen; Liu, Xianjun; Zhao, Fulin; Stuart, Jessica; Licht, Stuart


    Zinc-air batteries have been proposed for EV applications and large-scale electricity storage such as wind and solar power. Although zinc-air batteries are very promising, there are numerous technological barriers to overcome. We demonstrate for the first time, a new rechargeable zinc-air battery that utilizes a molten Li0.87Na0.63K0.50CO3 eutectic electrolyte with added NaOH. Cyclic voltammetry reveals that a reversible deposition/dissolution of zinc occurs in the molten Li0.87Na0.63K0.50CO3 eutectic. At 550 °C, this zinc-air battery performs with a coulombic efficiency of 96.9% over 110 cycles, having an average charging potential of ∼1.43 V and discharge potential of ∼1.04 V. The zinc-air battery uses cost effective steel and nickel electrodes without the need for any precious metal catalysts. Moreover, the molten salt electrolyte offers advantages over aqueous electrolytes, avoiding the common aqueous alkaline electrolyte issues of hydrogen evolution, Zn dendrite formation, "drying out", and carbonate precipitation.

  20. Six-Membered-Ring Malonatoborate-Based Lithium Salts as Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Li; Zhang, Hanjun; Driscoll, Peter; Lucht, Brett; Kerr, John


    A new class of lithium salts of malonatoborate anions has been synthesized. These six-membered-ring salts provided slightly lower ionic conductivity than that of LiBOB and LiBF4. Nevertheless, compared with LiBOB and LiPF6, the lowered ring strains in the malonatoborate structures and reduced numbers of fluorine atoms in the molecules was found to enhance the thermal and water stabilities and compatibilities of these salts with ether solvents. Small amount LiDMMDFB when used as an additive, was found to stabilize LiPF6 in carbonate electrolytes at 80°C for one month. Employing LiMDFB as the electrolyte in Li/Li cells and full cells, large interfacial impedances were observed on lithium metal and the cathode. Moreover, the large impedances are at least partially attributed to the acidic hydrogen atoms in the malonate structure. This issue can be addressed by replacing the acidic atoms with methyl groups.

  1. PC based electrolytes with LiDFOB as an alternative salt for lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Knight, Brandon M.

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been greatly sought after as a source of renewable energy storage. LIBs have a wide range of applications including but not limited portable electronic devices, electric vehicles, and power tools. As a direct result of their commercial viability an insatiable hunger for knowledge, advancement within the field of LIBs has been omnipresent for the last two decades. However, there are set backs evident within the LIB field; most notably the limitations of standard electrolyte formulations and LiPF6 lithium salt. The standard primary carbonate of ethylene carbonate (EC) has a very limited operating range due to its innate physical properties, and the LiPF6 salt is known to readily decompose to form HF which can further degrade LIB longevity. The goal of our research is to explore the use of a new primary salt LiDFOB in conjunction with a propylene carbonate based electrolyte to establish a more flexible electrolyte formulation by constructing coin cells and cycling them under various conditions to give a clear understanding of each formulation inherent performance capabilities. Our studies show that 1.2M LiDFOB in 3:7 PC/EMC + 1.5% VC is capable of performing comparably to the standard 1.2M LiPF6 in 3:7 EC/EMC at 25°C and the PC electrolyte also illustrates performance superior to the standard at 55°C. The degradation of lithium manganese spinel electrodes, including LiNi 0.5Mn1.5O4, is an area of great concern within the field of lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Manganese containing cathode materials frequently have problems associated with Mn dissolution which significantly reduces the cycle life of LIB. Thus the stability of the cathode material is paramount to the performance of Mn spinel cathode materials in LIBs. In an effort to gain a better understanding of the stability of LiNi0.5 Mn1.5O4 in common LiPF6/carbonate electrolytes, samples were stored at elevated temperature in the presence of electrolyte. Then after storage both

  2. Oral salt supplements to compensate for jejunostomy losses: comparison of sodium chloride capsules, glucose electrolyte solution, and glucose polymer electrolyte solution. (United States)

    Nightingale, J M; Lennard-Jones, J E; Walker, E R; Farthing, M J


    Six patients with jejunostomies and residual jejunal lengths of 105 to 250 cm took the same food and water each day for eight study days. In random order, three methods of salt replacement were tested, each over 48 hours, against a period without added salt. During the three test periods the patients took 120 mmol of sodium chloride daily, as salt in gelatine capsules, as an isotonic glucose electrolyte (280 mOsmol/kg; 30 kcal) solution, and as a glucose polymer (Maxijul) solution (280 mOsmol/kg; 200 kcal). The daily stomal output remained constant for each patient during the four test periods but varied between patients from 0.60 to 2.84 kg (daily intestinal fluid balance 0.74-2.61 kg). Without a salt supplement, three patients lost more sodium from the stoma than they took in by mouth (-25, -94, and -101 mmol/day) and the mean sodium balance for all six subjects was -16 mmol (range -101 to 79) daily. Extra salt was absorbed with each form of supplement (p less than 0.05); no patient with the glucose electrolyte solution (mean 96, range 0 to 226 mmol), but one patient with the glucose-polymer solution (mean 96, range -25 to 164 mmol) and two with the salt capsules (mean 66, range -8 to 145 mmol) were in negative balance. Two patients vomited with the salt capsules. There was only a small increase in energy absorption (mean 115 kcal) with the glucose polymer solution compared with the glucose electrolyte solution. A sipped glucose electrolyte solution seems to be the optimal mode of sodium replacement in patients with a high output jejunostomy. PMID:1624155

  3. Ionic conductivities of solid polymer electrolyte/salt systems: Group-contribution method (United States)

    Joo, Jae Ho; Bae, Young Chan

    We establish a new group-contribution model based on the Nernst-Einstein equation in which the diffusion coefficient is derived from the modified double-lattice (MDL) model and the Debye-Hückel (DH) theory. The model includes the combinatorial energy contribution that is responsible for the revised Flory-Huggins entropy of mixing, the van der Waals energy contribution from dispersion, and the polar force and the specific energy contribution from hydrogen bonding. The Nernst-Einstein equation takes into account the mobility of the salt and the motion of the polymer host. To describe the segmental motion of the polymer chain, which is the well known conduction mechanism for solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) systems, the effective co-ordinated unit parameter is introduced. Our results show that good agreement is obtained upon comparison with experimental data of various PEO and salt systems in the interested ranges.

  4. The effect of salt on the morphologies of compositionally asymmetric block copolymer electrolytes (United States)

    Loo, Whitney; Maslyn, Jacqueline; Oh, Hee Jeung; Balsara, Nitash

    Block copolymer electrolytes are promising for applications in lithium metal solid-state batteries. Due to their ability to microphase separate into distinct morphologies, their ion transport and mechanical properties can be decoupled. The addition of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt to poly(styrene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) has been shown to increase microphase separation in symmetric block copolymer systems due to an increase in the effective interaction parameter (χeff) ; however the effect of block copolymer compositional asymmetry is not well-understood. The effect of compositional asymmetry on polymer morphology was investigated through small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). The effective Flory-Huggins interaction parameter was extracted from the scattering profiles in order to construct a phase diagram to demonstrate the effect of salt and compositional asymmetry on block copolymer morphology.

  5. Optimization of hybrid polymer electrolytes with the effect of lithium salt concentration in PEO/PVdF-HFP blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeepa, P.; Edwin raj, S.; Sowmya, G.; Kalaiselvimary, J.; Ramesh Prabhu, M., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Polymer blends based on PVdF-HFP/PEO were prepared for Li-ion battery applications. • Structural and electrochemical studies were carried out on prepared electrolytes. • The electrolytes can be used as electrolyte in the possible device fabrications. - Abstract: Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) 6.25 wt%/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) [P(VdF-HFP)] 18.75 wt% blend based electrolyte films containing different concentrations (2–10) wt% of lithium salt were prepared. The miscibility studies have been performed by using X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The role of interaction between polymer hosts on conductivity is discussed using the results of a.c. impedance studies. A room temperature conductivity of 2.3912 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} has been obtained for PEO (6.25)–PVdF-HFP (18.75)–LiClO{sub 4} (8)–PC (67) polymer complex. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of polymer electrolyte seems to obey VTF relation. Electrochemical stability (3.3 V) was observed in the prepared polymer electrolyte. Reduction process and oxidation process of the prepared electrolyte system have also been evaluated by means of cyclic voltammetry. Thermogravimetric analysis results indicate thermal stability of PEO/PVdF-HFP lithium salt complexes. Roughness parameter of the sample having maximum ionic conductivity was studied by AFM. The morphology of the polymer complex is investigated by using SEM.

  6. Ion transport mechanisms in lamellar phases of salt-doped PS-PEO block copolymer electrolytes. (United States)

    Sethuraman, Vaidyanathan; Mogurampelly, Santosh; Ganesan, Venkat


    We use a multiscale simulation strategy to elucidate, at an atomistic level, the mechanisms underlying ion transport in the lamellar phase of polystyrene-polyethylene oxide (PS-PEO) block copolymer (BCP) electrolytes doped with LiPF6 salts. Explicitly, we compare the results obtained for ion transport in the microphase separated block copolymer melts to those for salt-doped PEO homopolymer melts. In addition, we also present results for dynamics of the ions individually in the PEO and PS domains of the BCP melt, and locally as a function of the distance from the lamellar interfaces. When compared to the PEO homopolymer melt, ions were found to exhibit slower dynamics in both the block copolymer (overall) and in the PEO phase of the BCP melt. Such results are shown to arise from the effects of slower polymer segmental dynamics in the BCP melt and the coordination characteristics of the ions. Polymer backbone-ion residence times analyzed as a function of distance from the interface indicate that ions have a larger residence time near the interface compared to that near the bulk of lamella, and demonstrates the influence of the glassy PS blocks and microphase segregation on the ion transport properties. Ion transport mechanisms in BCP melts reveal that there exist five distinct mechanisms for ion transport along the backbone of the chain and exhibit qualitative differences from the behavior in homopolymer melts. We also present results as a function of salt concentration which show that the mean-squared displacements of the ions decrease with increasing salt concentration, and that the ion residence times near the polymer backbone increase with increasing salt concentration.

  7. Ion transport mechanisms in lamellar phases of salt-doped PS–PEO block copolymer electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Sethuraman, Vaidyanathan


    We use a multiscale simulation strategy to elucidate, at an atomistic level, the mechanisms underlying ion transport in the lamellar phase of polystyrene–polyethylene oxide (PS–PEO) block copolymer (BCP) electrolytes doped with LiPF6 salts. Explicitly, we compare the results obtained for ion transport in the microphase separated block copolymer melts to those for salt-doped PEO homopolymer melts. In addition, we also present results for dynamics of the ions individually in the PEO and PS domains of the BCP melt, and locally as a function of the distance from the lamellar interfaces. When compared to the PEO homopolymer melt, ions were found to exhibit slower dynamics in both the block copolymer (overall) and in the PEO phase of the BCP melt. Such results are shown to arise from the effects of slower polymer segmental dynamics in the BCP melt and the coordination characteristics of the ions. Polymer backbone-ion residence times analyzed as a function of distance from the interface indicate that ions have a larger residence time near the interface compared to that near the bulk of lamella, and demonstrates the influence of the glassy PS blocks and microphase segregation on the ion transport properties. Ion transport mechanisms in BCP melts reveal that there exist five distinct mechanisms for ion transport along the backbone of the chain and exhibit qualitative differences from the behavior in homopolymer melts. We also present results as a function of salt concentration which show that the mean-squared displacements of the ions decrease with increasing salt concentration, and that the ion residence times near the polymer backbone increase with increasing salt concentration.

  8. Quantitative Visualization of Salt Concentration Distributions in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes during Battery Operation Using X-ray Phase Imaging. (United States)

    Takamatsu, Daiko; Yoneyama, Akio; Asari, Yusuke; Hirano, Tatsumi


    A fundamental understanding of concentrations of salts in lithium-ion battery electrolytes during battery operation is important for optimal operation and design of lithium-ion batteries. However, there are few techniques that can be used to quantitatively characterize salt concentration distributions in the electrolytes during battery operation. In this paper, we demonstrate that in operando X-ray phase imaging can quantitatively visualize the salt concentration distributions that arise in electrolytes during battery operation. From quantitative evaluation of the concentration distributions at steady states, we obtained the salt diffusivities in electrolytes with different initial salt concentrations. Because of no restriction on samples and high temporal and spatial resolutions, X-ray phase imaging will be a versatile technique for evaluating electrolytes, both aqueous and nonaqueous, of many electrochemical systems.

  9. Optimization of a Molten Salt Electrolytic Bath Geometry for Rare Earth Metal Recovery using a Finite Element Method (United States)

    Numata, Hiroo; Akatsuka, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Haruaki


    For a recycling procedure for rare earths from spent hydrogen absorbing alloys by rare earths electrodeposition in a molten salt, the electrolytic bath and the cathode accessories have been optimized by evaluating the appropriate secondary current distribution using finite element method (FEM) computer simulation. The desirable cathode dish as an accessory was designed to prevent drops of less adherent electrodeposits, which improved the current density distribution compared with an a priori determined one. In the bath optimization, a reciprocal proportionality of the difference between the maximum and minimum current densities vs. the ratio of volume to surface area (or electrolyte volume) was found. It was found by FEM that if a resistive floating mass is assumed on the electrolyte surface, the observed necking in the electrodeposit near the electrolyte surface can be analyzed.

  10. High-Performance Lithium-Oxygen Battery Electrolyte Derived from Optimum Combination of Solvent and Lithium Salt. (United States)

    Ahn, Su Mi; Suk, Jungdon; Kim, Do Youb; Kang, Yongku; Kim, Hwan Kyu; Kim, Dong Wook


    To fabricate a sustainable lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery, it is crucial to identify an optimum electrolyte. Herein, it is found that tetramethylene sulfone (TMS) and lithium nitrate (LiNO3) form the optimum electrolyte, which greatly reduces the overpotential at charge, exhibits superior oxygen efficiency, and allows stable cycling for 100 cycles. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) analyses reveal that neat TMS is stable to oxidative decomposition and exhibit good compatibility with a lithium metal. But, when TMS is combined with typical lithium salts, its performance is far from satisfactory. However, the TMS electrolyte containing LiNO3 exhibits a very low overpotential, which minimizes the side reactions and shows high oxygen efficiency. LSV-DEMS study confirms that the TMS-LiNO3 electrolyte efficiently produces NO2-, which initiates a redox shuttle reaction. Interestingly, this NO2-/NO2 redox reaction derived from the LiNO3 salt is not very effective in solvents other than TMS. Compared with other common Li-O2 solvents, TMS seems optimum solvent for the efficient use of LiNO3 salt. Good compatibility with lithium metal, high dielectric constant, and low donicity of TMS are considered to be highly favorable to an efficient NO2-/NO2 redox reaction, which results in a high-performance Li-O2 battery.

  11. Fluorine-free electrolytes for all-solid sodium-ion batteries based on percyano-substituted organic salts


    Anna Bitner-Michalska; Gene M. Nolis; Grażyna Żukowska; Aldona Zalewska; Marcin Poterała; Tomasz Trzeciak; Maciej Dranka; Michał Kalita; Piotr Jankowski; Leszek Niedzicki; Janusz Zachara; Marek Marcinek; Władysław Wieczorek


    A new family of fluorine-free solid-polymer electrolytes, for use in sodium-ion battery applications, is presented. Three novel sodium salts withdiffuse negative charges: sodium pentacyanopropenide (NaPCPI), sodium 2,3,4,5-tetracyanopirolate (NaTCP) and sodium 2,4,5-tricyanoimidazolate (NaTIM) were designed andtested in a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) matrix as polymer electrolytes for anall-solid sodium-ion battery. Due to unique, non-covalent structural configurations of anions, improved ionic...

  12. Investigation of the salting out of methane from aqueous electrolyte solutions using computer simulations. (United States)

    Docherty, H; Galindo, A; Sanz, E; Vega, C


    We calculate the excess chemical potential of methane in aqueous electrolyte solutions of NaCl using Monte Carlo computer simulations. In a recent work [Docherty et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 125, 074510], we presented a new potential model for methane in water which is capable of describing accurately the excess chemical potential of methane in pure water over a range of temperatures, a quantity that can be related to the solubility and which is commonly used to study the hydrophobic effect. Here, we use the same potential model for the water-methane interactions and investigate the effect of added salt on the chemical potential of methane in the solution. The methane molecules are modeled as single Lennard-Jones (LJ) interaction sites, and the water molecules are modeled with the TIP4P/2005 model. A correcting factor of chi = 1.07 for the energetic Berthelot (geometric) combining rule of the methane-water interaction is also used, which mimics the polarization of methane in water. We consider NaCl as the salt and treat the ions with the Smith and Dang model (i.e., as charged LJ interaction sites). Ion-water, ion-ion, and ion-methane interactions are treated using Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules. In addition, the Coulombic potential is used to model charge-charge interactions which are calculated using the Ewald sum. We have carried out isobaric-isothermal (NpT) simulations to determine the equilibrium densities of the solutions. The simulation data is in excellent agreement with experimental densities of aqueous NaCl solutions of different concentration. Hydration numbers are also obtained and found to be in agreement with reported data. Canonical (NVT) simulations at the averaged densities are then performed using the Widom test-particle insertion method to obtain the excess chemical potential of methane in the saline solutions. An increase in the chemical potential of methane, corresponding to a salting out effect, is observed when salt is added to the solution

  13. Polymer Electrolytes (United States)

    Hallinan, Daniel T.; Balsara, Nitash P.


    This review article covers applications in which polymer electrolytes are used: lithium batteries, fuel cells, and water desalination. The ideas of electrochemical potential, salt activity, and ion transport are presented in the context of these applications. Potential is defined, and we show how a cell potential measurement can be used to ascertain salt activity. The transport parameters needed to fully specify a binary electrolyte (salt + solvent) are presented. We define five fundamentally different types of homogeneous electrolytes: type I (classical liquid electrolytes), type II (gel electrolytes), type III (dry polymer electrolytes), type IV (dry single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes), and type V (solvated single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes). Typical values of transport parameters are provided for all types of electrolytes. Comparison among the values provides insight into the transport mechanisms occurring in polymer electrolytes. It is desirable to decouple the mechanical properties of polymer electrolyte membranes from the ionic conductivity. One way to accomplish this is through the development of microphase-separated polymers, wherein one of the microphases conducts ions while the other enhances the mechanical rigidity of the heterogeneous polymer electrolyte. We cover all three types of conducting polymer electrolyte phases (types III, IV, and V). We present a simple framework that relates the transport parameters of heterogeneous electrolytes to homogeneous analogs. We conclude by discussing electrochemical stability of electrolytes and the effects of water contamination because of their relevance to applications such as lithium ion batteries.

  14. Hydronium-dominated ion transport in carbon-dioxide-saturated electrolytes at low salt concentrations in nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Jensen, Kristian; Kristensen, Jesper Toft; Crumrine, Andrew Michael


    the nanochannel conductance at low salt concentrations and identify a conductance minimum before saturation at a value independent of salt concentration in the dilute limit. Via the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, our model self-consistently couples chemical-equilibrium dissociation models of the silica wall...... and of the electrolyte bulk, parametrized by the dissociation reaction constants. Experimental data with aqueous KCl solutions in 165-nm-high silica nanochannels are described well by our model, both with and without extra hydronium from added HCl....

  15. Ion pair dissociation effects of aza-based anion receptors on lithium salts in polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.Q.; Lee, H.S.; Xiang, C.; McBreen, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Choi, L.S. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Okamoto, Y. [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States)


    The addition of aza-based anion receptors greatly increases the conductivity of polymer electrolytes based on LiCl and KI complexes with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). In some cases the conductivity increase is more than two orders of magnitude. Also the addition of the anion acceptors imparts a rubber like consistency to the normally stiff PEO salt films. Ion-ion, ion-polymer and anion-complex interactions were studied using Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy at the K and Cl K edges and at the I L{sub I} edge. The NEXAFS results show that Cl{sup {minus}} and I{sup {minus}} anions are complexed with the nitrogen groups of the anion receptors. The degree of complexation is related the chain length of the complexing agent and the number of R{double_bond}CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2} groups that are used to substitute for the amine hydrogen atoms in these aza-ether compounds. NEXAFS spectra at potassium K edge provide supplemental evidence for the ion pair dissociation effects of the anion receptors. The results show that dissociated K{sup +} cations are complexed with oxygen atoms of the PEO chains.

  16. The effect of solution electrolytes on the uptake of photosensitizers by liposomal membranes: a salting-out effect. (United States)

    Minnes, Refael; Ytzhak, Shany; Weitman, Hana; Ehrenberg, Benjamin


    In this study we investigated, spectroscopically, the effect of electrolytes on the partitioning of hematoporphyrin IX (HP) and hypericin (Hy) into non-charged lipid vesicles. Our aim was to assess the salting-out effect of electrolytes on membrane-partitioning. We titrated aqueous solutions of HP and Hy with lecithin liposomes, at different concentrations of several monovalent and divalent electrolytes in the suspension. The partitioning constant of HP to lecithin liposomes increased from 3.3 (mL/mg) in water containing only 5mM buffer to 8.7 (mL/mg) at 0.36M KCl. KF had a similar effect. NaCl caused a 3-fold increase in the partitioning of Hy to liposomes. MgSO(4) and MgCl(2) also increased the partitioning of HP, by a factor of more than 4 and this occurred already at 0.03M concentration. We analyze the comparative effects of the electrolytes in relation to the Hofmeister series. The salting-out effect could be utilized to enhance the uptake of HP and Hy, and possibly other photosensitizers as well, by artificial and natural membranes.

  17. An Investigation of Oxide Coating Synthesized on an Aluminum Alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation in Molten Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sobolev


    Full Text Available Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO is a surface treatment process for obtaining oxide coatings with a high performance on valve metals. PEO is mostly performed in an aqueous solution electrolyte that limits the size of treated parts due to the fact that the system is heated. Therefore, the coating of large surfaces cannot be synthesized in an aqueous electrolyte. In the current work, an alternative approach of PEO treatment, whereby an aluminum 1050 alloy in nitrate molten salt at a temperature of 280 °C is applied, was investigated. The microstructure, phase and chemical compositions, and micro-hardness were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and micro-hardness tests. The obtained results show that formed coating contains from two sub-layers: one is the outer sub-layer of the α-Al2O3 phase and the second is its inner sub-layer. It was found that the formed coating was free of any contaminants originating from the electrolyte and had no cracks or pores, which are usually present in coatings formed by PEO treatment in an aqueous solution electrolyte.

  18. Corrosion behavior of Ni-based structural materials for electrolytic reduction in lithium molten salt (United States)

    Cho, Soo Haeng; Park, Sung Bin; Lee, Jong Hyeon; Hur, Jin Mok; Lee, Han Soo


    In this study, the corrosion behavior of new Ni-based structural materials was studied for electrolytic reduction after exposure to LiCl-Li 2O molten salt at 650 °C for 24-216 h under an oxidizing atmosphere. The new alloys with Ni, Cr, Al, Si, and Nb as the major components were melted at 1700 °C under an inert atmosphere. The melt was poured into a preheated metallic mold to prepare an as-cast alloy. The corrosion products and fine structures of the corroded specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscope (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The corrosion products of as cast and heat treated low Si/high Ti alloys were Cr 2O 3, NiCr 2O 4, Ni, NiO, and (Al,Nb,Ti)O 2; those of as cast and heat treated high Si/low Ti alloys were Cr 2O 3, NiCr 2O 4, Ni, and NiO. The corrosion layers of as cast and heat treated low Si/high Ti alloys were continuous and dense. However, those of as cast and heat treated high Si/low Ti alloys were discontinuous and cracked. Heat treated low Si/high Ti alloy showed the highest corrosion resistance among the examined alloys. The superior corrosion resistance of the heat treated low Si/high Ti alloy was attributed to the addition of an appropriate amount of Si, and the metallurgical evaluations were performed systematically.

  19. Novel concepts in electrochemical solar cells. Second quarterly progress report, August 15, 1979-October 15, 1979. [Molten salt electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuBow, J.; Job, R.; Krishnan, R.; Gale, B.


    It is considered that the short term stability of n-GaAs PEC's in a ferrocene-based, ambient temperature molten salt electrolyte is reasonably good. However, longer term evaluation is required to determine the extent and significance of corrosion, stability, etc. Extremely few fundamental studies have been made of the semiconductor/molten salt interphase and experiments in this area would be most useful. Indeed, even the design parameters for PECs of any kind have not been quantitatively delineated and present consideration will be given to models for PEC solar cells and limitations caused by ion transport in the electrolyte. The MoSe/sub 2/ and MoS/sub 2/ electrodes appear to have substrate reproducibility and transport limitations that make them unsuitable candidates for efficient PEC's at this time. Similarly, the lack of availability of high quality CuInSe/sub 2/ and CuInS/sub 2/ substrates limits the quantitative experimental evaluation of their utility for PEC applications. We are presently focusing attention on CdSe/CdTe mixtures and CdS as electrodes as well as Si and GaAs in molten salt and polyelectrolyte solutions. The system for solar cell evaluation and network analysis of substrates and cells was mode operational. Preliminary work on economic and theoretical modelling was begun. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  20. Ionic conductivity of dual-phase polymer electrolytes comprised of NBR/SBR latex films swollen with lithium salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Morihiko; Ichino, Toshihiro; Rutt, J.S.; Nishi, Shiro (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp., Tokyo (Japan). NTT Interdisciplinary Research Lab.)


    Dual-phase polymer electrolytes (DPE) with high ionic conductivity and good mechanical strength were prepared by swelling poly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene) rubber (NBR) and poly(styrene-co-butadiene) rubber (SBR) mixed latex films with lithium salt solutions (e.g., 1M LiClO[sub 4]/[gamma]-butyrolactone). The latex films retain particle morphology in the solid state. The NBR phase (formed from fused NBR latex particles) is polar and is impregnated selectively with polar lithium salt solutions, yielding ion-conductive channels, whereas the SBR phase (formed from fused SBR latex particles) is nonpolar and is not impregnated, providing a mechanically supportive matrix. The ionic conductivity of the DPE increased dramatically with increasing content of lithium salt solution, and higher amounts of solution were imbibed with increasing content of NBR relative to SBR. Several factors which affect the ionic conductivity of this system were examined, and the highest ionic conductivity (>10[sup [minus]3] S/cm) was obtained when either an NBR/SBR 70/30 (w/w) or a 50/50 (w/w) latex film was saturated with 1M LiClO[sub 4]/[gamma]-BL solution or 1M LiClO[sub 4]/[gamma]-BL/DME solution. Ion-conductive behavior changed critically with increasing lithium salt solution uptake. At low levels of lithium salt solution uptake, evidence suggested that ionic conductivity of the absorbed lithium salt solution was strongly influenced by the presence of the NBR in the ion-conductive channel, but at higher levels, the effects of the NBR were reduced and free'' lithium salt solution was present.

  1. The changes of electrolytes in serum and urine in children with neurally mediated syncope cured by oral rehydration salts. (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhua; Zou, Runmei; Wu, Lijia; Luo, Xuemei; Xu, Yi; Li, Fang; Lin, Ping; Xie, Zhenwu; Wang, Cheng


    To detect the changes of electrolytes in serum and urine in children with nerve mediated syncope (NMS) cured by oral rehydration salts (ORS). From May 2014 to April 2015, 135 patients with symptoms like unexplained syncope and presyncope were administrated in our hospital, including 60 boys and 75 girls, aged between 4 and 16 (10.2±2.7) years. After head-up tilt test (HUTT), their electrolytes in serum and urine were examined. Those who were positive to the HUTT received ORS and health education, while others were only treated by health education. With the period of subsequent visit arranging 21-154 (42.6±27.7) days, the improvement of their clinical manifestation were inquired and electrolytes in serum and urine were re-tested. (1) The total effective percentage of ORS treatment was 63.0%, and the negative conversion rate of HUTT was 48.2%. (2) In the first time of visit to hospital, there was no statistical significance between the HUTT-positive and the HUTT- negative in serum electrolytes, 24-h urine electrolytes and 24-h urine volume (P>0.05). (3) In the return visit to hospital, the serum calcium and serum phosphorus in the HUTT-positive were higher than those in the HUTT-negative (P<0.05). (4) With the intake of ORS, 24-h urine sodium, 24-h urine chlorine and 24-h urine volume were improved than pre-treatment (P<0.05 or 0.01). ORS was an effective treatment to the NMS children, with 24-h urine volume and urine chloride increasing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. LiCl-LiI molten salt electrolyte with bismuth-lead positive electrode for liquid metal battery (United States)

    Kim, Junsoo; Shin, Donghyeok; Jung, Youngjae; Hwang, Soo Min; Song, Taeseup; Kim, Youngsik; Paik, Ungyu


    Liquid metal batteries (LMBs) are attractive energy storage device for large-scale energy storage system (ESS) due to the simple cell configuration and their high rate capability. The high operation temperature caused by high melting temperature of both the molten salt electrolyte and metal electrodes can induce the critical issues related to the maintenance cost and degradation of electrochemical properties resulting from the thermal corrosion of materials. Here, we report a new chemistry of LiCl-LiI electrolyte and Bi-Pb positive electrode to lower the operation temperature of Li-based LMBs and achieve the long-term stability. The cell (Li|LiCl-LiI|Bi-Pb) is operated at 410 °C by employing the LiCl-LiI (LiCl:LiI = 36:64 mol %) electrolyte and Bi-Pb alloy (Bi:Pb = 55.5:44.5 mol %) positive electrode. The cell shows excellent capacity retention (86.5%) and high Coulombic efficiencies over 99.3% at a high current density of 52 mA cm-2 during 1000th cycles.

  3. Extended UNIQUAC Model for Correlation and Prediction of Vapor-Liquid-Liquid-Solid Equilibria in Aqueous Salt Systems Containing Non-Electrolytes. Part B. Alcohol (Ethanol, Propanols, Butanols) - Water-salt systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Iliuta, Maria Cornelia; Rasmussen, Peter


    -Redlich-Kwong equation of state. The model only requires binary, temperature-dependent interaction parameters. It has previously been used to describe the excess Gibbs energy for aqueous electrolyte mixtures and aqueous electrolyte systems containing methanol. It has been found to be an adequate model for representing......, and liquid-liquid equilibrium data for solvent mixtures and for mixed solvent-electrolyte systems. The application of this model to represent the vapor-liquid-liquid-solid equilibria in aqueous systems containing various non-electrolytes (ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2- butanol, 2-methyl I...... solid-liquid-vapor equilibrium and thermal property data for strongly non-ideal systems. In this work, the model is extended to aqueous salt systems containing higher alcohols. The calculations are based on an extensive database consisting of salt solubility data, vapor liquid equilibrium data...

  4. Molar conductivity behavior of ionic liquid compare to inorganic salt in electrolyte solution at ambien temperature (United States)

    Hanibah, H.; Hashim, N. Z. Nor; Shamsudin, I. J.


    Molar Conductivity (Λ) behaviour of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (Bmin) acetate and Bmin chloride (Bmin Cl) ionic liquids compared to lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) has been studied in aqueous and acetonitrile (ACN) solution at ambient temperature. The limiting molar conductivity (Λ0) was obtained using the Kohlrausch's and Ostwald's equation for the investigated systems. The results show that the Λ0 value for LiClO4 in both aqueous or acetonitrile (ACN) electrolyte system with a highest value as compare to ionic liquid electrolyte systems. This might as a result of ions association of LiClO4 in aqueous medium as the concentration of the solute increases in the solvent. In addition, the partial dissociation behaviour of LiClO4 in less polar solvent such as ACN also significantly affects the Λ0 value for this electrolyte system. However, for Bmin acetate and Bmin Cl in the aqueous or ACN medium show a much lower Λ0 value as compare to LiClO4 electrolyte system, 45.64, 74.63 and 107.32 S cm2 mol-1 respectively. This as a result of the nature behaviour of ionic liquid itself that present as free moving ions at room temperature before any dissolution into the solvent. In addition, a vice versa trend of Λ0 value is noted for Bmin acetate and Bmin Cl, 21.34 and 14.56 S cm2 mol-1 respectively in ACN electrolyte system. This indicated the solvent and the size of the anion play an important role in the estimation of limiting molar conductivity values which significantly affect the present of total free moving ions in an electrolyte system.

  5. Improvement of N-phthaloylchitosan based gel polymer electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cells using a binary salt system. (United States)

    Yusuf, S N F; Azzahari, A D; Selvanathan, V; Yahya, R; Careem, M A; Arof, A K


    A binary salt system utilizing lithium iodide (LiI) as the auxiliary component has been introduced to the N-phthaloylchitosan (PhCh) based gel polymer electrolyte consisting of ethylene carbonate (EC), dimethylformamide (DMF), tetrapropylammonium iodide (TPAI), and iodine (I2) in order to improve the performance of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with efficiency of 6.36%, photocurrent density, JSC of 17.29mAcm-2, open circuit voltage, VOC of 0.59V and fill factor, FF of 0.62. This efficiency value is an improvement from the 5.00% performance obtained by the DSSC consisting of only TPAI single salt system. The presence of the LiI in addition to the TPAI improves the charge injection rates and increases the iodide contribution to the total conductivity and both factors contribute to the increase in efficiency of the DSSC. The interaction behavior between polymer-plasticizer-salt was thoroughly investigated using EIS, FTIR spectroscopy and XRD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Solid lithium electrolyte via addition of lithium salts to metal-organic frameworks (United States)

    Wiers, Brian M.; Balsara, Nitash P.; Long, Jeffrey R.


    Various embodiments of the invention disclose that the uptake of LiO.sup.iPr in Mg.sub.2(dobdc) (dobdc.sup.4-=1,4-dioxido-2,5-benzenedicarboxylate) followed by soaking in a typical electrolyte solution leads to a new solid lithium electrolyte Mg.sub.2(dobdc).0.35LiO.sup.iPr.0.25LiBF.sub.4.EC.DEC. Two-point ac impedance data show a pressed pellet of this material to have a conductivity of 3.1.times.10.sup.-4 S/cm at 300 K. In addition, the results from variable-temperature measurements reveal an activation energy of approximately 0.15 eV, while single-particle data suggest that intraparticle transport dominates conduction.

  7. Chemical Stability of Conductive Ceramic Anodes in LiCl–Li2O Molten Salt for Electrolytic Reduction in Pyroprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Wook Kim


    Full Text Available Conductive ceramics are being developed to replace current Pt anodes in the electrolytic reduction of spent oxide fuels in pyroprocessing. While several conductive ceramics have shown promising electrochemical properties in small-scale experiments, their long-term stabilities have not yet been investigated. In this study, the chemical stability of conductive La0.33Sr0.67MnO3 in LiCl–Li2O molten salt at 650°C was investigated to examine its feasibility as an anode material. Dissolution of Sr at the anode surface led to structural collapse, thereby indicating that the lifetime of the La0.33Sr0.67MnO3 anode is limited. The dissolution rate of Sr is likely to be influenced by the local environment around Sr in the perovskite framework.

  8. Polymer electrolytes with multiple conductive channels prepared from NBR/SBR latex films impregnated with lithium salt and plasticizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Morihiko; Rutt, J.S.; Nishi, Shiro [Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp., Musashino, Tokyo (Japan)


    Polymer electrolytes, composed of a polar polymer acting as a host matrix for lithium-salt solutions, have high ionic conductivity and have been studied for application in advanced electronic devices such as the rechargeable lithium battery. Polymer electrolytes with high ionic conductivity (> 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm) and good tensile strength were prepared by swelling poly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene) (NBR)/poly(styrene-co-butadiene) (SBR)/LiClO{sub 4} latex films with {gamma}-butyrolactone ({gamma}-BL) or LiClO{sub 4}/{gamma}-BL plasticizer. Before swelling, the LiClO{sub 4} phase is formed at the particle interface. After politicization, two ion-conductive channels are present: the LiClO{sub 4} phase is present at the interface of the latex particles, and the NBR phase is formed from NBR latex particles. These regions are polar and impregnated selectively with polar {gamma}-BL solvent or LiClO{sub 4}/{gamma}-BL solution, building primary and secondary ion-conductive channels, respectively. The SBR phase (formed from SBR latex particles) is nonpolar and not impregnated, providing a mechanically supportive matrix. High ionic conductivity on the order of 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm is achieved when NBR/SBR(50/50)/LiClO{sub 4} latex film was saturated on 0.2 to 0.4M LiClO{sub 4}/{gamma}-BL solutions. Various microscopic and macroscopic analyses suggest that two types of ion-conductive channels exist in the polymer electrolyte film.

  9. Enhanced conductivity of sodium versus lithium salts measured by impedance spectroscopy. Sodium cobaltacarboranes as electrolytes of choice. (United States)

    Fuentes, Isabel; Andrio, Andreu; Teixidor, Francesc; Viñas, Clara; Compañ, Vicente


    The development of new types of ion conducting materials is one of the most important challenges in the field of energy. Lithium salt polymer electrolytes have been the most convenient, and thus the most widely used in the design of the new generation of batteries. However, in this work, we have observed that Na+ ions provide a higher conductivity, or at least a comparable conductivity to that of Li+ ions in the same basic material. This provides an excellent possibility to use Na+ ions in the design of a new generation of batteries, instead of lithium, to enhance conductivity and ensure wide supply. Our results indicate that the dc-conductivity is larger when the anion is [Co(C2B9H11)2]-, [COSANE]-, compared to tetraphenylborate, [TPB]-. Our data also prove that the dc-conductivity behavior of Li+ and Na+ salts is opposite with the two anions. At 40 °C, the conductivity values change from 1.05 × 10-2 S cm-1 (Li[COSANE]) and 1.75 × 10-2 S cm-1 (Na[COSANE]) to 2.8 × 10-3 S cm-1 (Li[TPB]) and 1.5 × 10-3 S cm-1 (Na[TPB]). These findings indicate that metallacarboranes can be useful components of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs), providing excellent conductivity when the medium contains sufficient amounts of ionic components and a certain degree of humidity.

  10. High ambient dc and ac conductivities in solvent-free, low-dimensional polymer electrolyte blends with lithium salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yungui Zheng; Fusiong Chia; Ungar, G.; Wright, P.V. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering Materials; Richardson, T.H. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics


    Measurements of dc conductivity on solvent-free, low dimensional polymer electrolyte complexes with lithium salts using Li metal electrodes and giving{sigma} = 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 25-40{sup o}C are reported. The materials are blends of the amphiphilic helical polyethers poly[2,5,8,11,14-pentaoxapentadecamethylene(5-alkyloxy-1,3-phenylene)] , coded CmO5 or (I) (where m = 16, 18 or equimolar 12/16 mixture is the number of carbon atoms in the n-alkyl side chains), and a polytetrahydrofuran copolymer (II) with various Li salts. Heptamer segments of II are in equimolar proportion to the repeating units of I. In Li | I:II:Li salt | Li cells, dc conductivities of 1 x 10{sup -3} to 3 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} are achieved by an apparent 'self-tracking' process from a low level (10{sup -7}-10{sup -6} S cm{sup -1}) over 12 to 24 h. The dc results are complemented by ac impedance spectroscopy measurements with ITO electrodes that show a 'transformation' from the low level up to 6 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} at 20{sup o}C after a heating excursion to 100{sup o}C. The ac data also demonstrate temperature-independent conductivity, with {sigma} = 8 x 10{sup -5} S cm{sup -1} at -5{sup o}C. X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and molecular dynamics modelling suggest a structure that would allow Li{sup +} to be mobile in the polyether helices of I whilst anions are mobile in the unimpeded spaces between them. Ions transfer between the pathways of I via a matrix of II when the polymers are intimately blended. (author)

  11. High accuracy calibration of a dynamic vapor sorption instrument and determination of the equilibrium humidities using single salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Svensson, Staffan


    to generate and measure the relative humidity (RH). Both control modes were separately examined and combined to overcome the shortcomings of each of the two control modes and thereby obtain the most accurate results. Repeated calibration testing with the single salts (LiCl, MgCl2, Mg(NO3)2, NaCl, and KNO3...... are the heat of solution, heat of condensation, and the kinetics connected to the salt phase transition, as these influence the microclimate surrounding the salts during calibration. All these issues were dealt with to obtain precise calibration results. The DVS instrument comprises two control modes...

  12. Application of centrifugal fields in fused salt electrowinning with a view to reducing electrolytic energy consumption (United States)

    Cox, Antony; Fray, Derek J.


    A high-temperature, laboratory scale electrochemical cell was designed, constructed, and commissioned to investigate the use of centrifugal fields in fused salt electrolysis production of light metals. Fused salt electrowinning of zinc was initially investigated due to the simpler physical and chemical nature of the Zn( l)‖ZnCl2( l):KCl( l)‖Cl2( g) system. Current efficiencies of 93 pct were obtained for an electrode spacing of 8 mm using 70-mm-diameter plane disc electrodes rotating at 100 rpm, significantly reducing the resistive contribution to the cell voltage. By reducing the immersion depth of the electrodes from 25 to 10 mm, current efficiencies of 88 pct were obtained for an electrode spacing of only 4 mm for the same operating conditions, further decreasing the resistive contribution to the cell voltage.

  13. Physicochemical properties of magnesium aluminum silicate (smectone) gels prepared using electrolytic-reduction ion water (2): Effects of various salts on the phase diagram. (United States)

    Okajima, Masahiro; Shimokawa, Ken-ichi; Ishii, Fumiyoshi


    We produced gels using electrolytic-reduction ion water and magnesium aluminum silicates (smectone), and evaluated in detail gel properties in the presence of various types of salt (NaCl, KCl, CaCl(2), MgCl(2), and AlCl(3)). Each salt was added to deionized-distilled water or electrolytic-reduction ion water, and phase diagrams for the smectone concentration (2.0-4.0%) were produced. The areas of the three phases of smectone (gel, sol, and separation) at each salt concentration were expressed as percentages of the total area. As a result, uni- and polyvalent cations (excluding Ca(2+) ions) affected the stability of gels produced using electrolytic-reduction ion water, and, particularly, univalent cations (Na(+), K(+)) markedly improved gel stability. Using electrolytic-reduction ion water as a dispersal medium, drug delivery systems (DDS) that can maintain the gelling state can be prepared. Thus, gel preparations with maintained functions or controlled-release transdermal drugs can be obtained.

  14. Sorption of Th (IV) to silica as a function of pH, humic/fulvic acid, ionic strength, electrolyte type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Changlun [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, 230031, Anhui (China)]. E-mail:; Wang Xiangke [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, 230031, Anhui (China)]. E-mail:


    The removal behavior of thorium (Th(IV)) has been investigated in multicomponent systems containing silica (SiO{sub 2}) as the model of inorganic particles because of its widespread presence in the earth's crust and soil humic acid (HA)/fulvic acid (FA) by batch experiments. The influence of pH from 2 to 12, ionic strength from 0.02 to 0.2 M KNO{sub 3}, soil HA/FA concentration from 8.3 to 22.5 mg/L, and foreign cations (Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}) and anions (NO{sub 3} {sup -}, Cl{sup -}) on the sorption of Th(IV) onto SiO{sub 2} was also tested. The sorption isotherms of Th(IV) at approximately constant pH (3.50{+-}0.02) were determined and analyzed regressively with three kinds of sorption isotherm models, i.e., linear, Langmuir, and Freundlich models. The results demonstrated that the sorption of Th(IV) onto SiO{sub 2} increased steeply with increasing pH from 2 to 4. Generally, humic substances (HSs) were shown to enhance Th(IV) sorption at low pH, but to reduce Th(IV) sorption at intermediate and high pH. It was a hypothesis that the significantly positive influence of HA/FA at pH from 2 to 4 on the sorption of Th(IV) onto SiO{sub 2} was attributed to strong surface binding of HA/FA on SiO{sub 2} and subsequently the formation of ternary surface complexes such as {identical_to}MO-O-HA-Th or {identical_to}MO-O-FA-Th. The results also demonstrated that the sorption was strongly dependent on the concentration of HA/FA, and independent of ionic strength and foreign ions under our experimental conditions.

  15. Stabilization of Li Metal Anode in DMSO-Based Electrolytes via Optimization of Salt-Solvent Coordination for Li-O 2 Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Xu, Wu [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Yan, Pengfei [Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Kim, Sun Tai [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Department of Energy Engineering, School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 South Korea; Engelhard, Mark H. [Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Sun, Xiuliang [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Mei, Donghai [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Cho, Jaephil [Department of Energy Engineering, School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 South Korea; Wang, Chong-Min [Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Zhang, Ji-Guang [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA


    The conventional DMSO-based electrolyte (1 M lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in DMSO) is unstable against the Li metal anode and therefore cannot be used directly in practical Li-O2 batteries. Here, we demonstrate that a highly concentrated electrolyte based on LiTFSI in DMSO (with a molar ratio of 1:3) can greatly improve the stability of the Li metal anode against DMSO and significantly improve the cycling stability of Li-O2 batteries. This highly concentrated electrolyte contains no free DMSO solvent molecules, but only complexes of (TFSI–)a-Li+-(DMSO)b (where a + b = 4), and thus enhances their stability with Li metal anodes. In addition, such salt-solvent complexes have higher Gibbs activation energy barriers than the free DMSO solvent molecules, indicating improved stability of the electrolyte against the attack of superoxide radical anions. Therefore, the stability of this highly concentrated electrolyte at both Li metal anodes and carbon-based air electrodes has been greatly enhanced, resulting in improved cyclic stability of Li-O2 batteries. The fundamental stability of the electrolyte with free-solvent against the chemical and electrochemical reactions can also be used to enhance the stability of other electrochemical systems.

  16. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte (United States)

    Elliott, Brian [Wheat Ridge, CO; Nguyen, Vinh [Wheat Ridge, CO


    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  17. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Polyvinylalcohol Based Gel Electrolyte

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nirwan Syarif; Nurlisa Hidayanti; Edy Herianto Majlan; Monica Sari Jayanti


    Research on the effect of electrolyte ammonium salt, concentration electrolyte with plasticizer to ionic and electronic conductivity of polymer gel electrolyte has been conducted with the variations...

  18. Extended UNIQUAC model for correlation and prediction of vapour-liquid-solid equilibria in aqueous salt systems containing non-electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliuta, Maria C.; Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter


    to aqueous salt systems containing non-electrolytes in order to demonstrate its ability in representing solid-liquid-vapour (SLV) equilibrium and thermal property data for these strongly non-ideal systems. The model requires only pure component and binary temperature-dependent interaction parameters....... The calculations are based on an extensive database consisting of salt solubility data in pure and mixed solvents, VLE data for solvent mixtures and mixed solvent-electrolyte systems and thermal properties for mixed solvent solutions. Application of the model to the methanol-water system in the presence of several...... ions (Na+, K+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, CO2- and HCO3-) shows that the Extended UNIQUAC model is able to give an accurate description of VLE and SLE in ternary add quaternary mixtures, using the name set of binary interaction parameters. The capability of the model to predict accurately the phase...

  19. Separation of Electrolytic Reduction Product from Stainless Steel Wire Mesh Cathode Basket via Salt Draining and Reuse of the Cathode Basket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Choi


    Full Text Available We demonstrated that the metallic product obtained after electrolytic reduction (also called oxide reduction (OR can be simply separated from a stainless steel wire mesh cathode basket only by using a salt drain. First, the OR run of a simulated oxide fuel (0.6 kg/batch was conducted in a molten Li2O–LiCl salt electrolyte at 650°C. The simulated oxide fuel of the porous cylindrical pellets was used as a cathode by loading a stainless steel wire mesh cathode basket. Platinum was employed as an anode. After the electrolysis, the residual salt of the cathode basket containing the reduction product was drained by placing it at gas phase above the molten salt using a holder. Then, at a room temperature, the complete separation of the reduction product from the cathode basket was achieved by inverting it without damaging or deforming the basket. Finally, the emptied cathode basket obtained after the separation was reused for the second OR run by loading a fresh simulated oxide fuel. We also succeeded in the separation of the metallic product from the reused cathode basket for the second OR run.

  20. Removal of charged micropollutants from water by ion-exchange polymers -- effects of competing electrolytes. (United States)

    Bäuerlein, Patrick S; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Hofman-Caris, Roberta C H M; de Voogt, Pim; Droge, Steven T J


    A wide variety of environmental compounds of concern, e.g. pharmaceuticals or illicit drugs, are acids or bases that may predominantly be present as charged species in drinking water sources. These charged micropollutants may prove difficult to remove by currently used water treatment steps (e.g. UV/H(2)O(2), activated carbon (AC) or membranes). We studied the sorption affinity of some ionic organic compounds to both AC and different charged polymeric materials. Ion-exchange polymers may be effective as additional extraction phases in water treatment, because sorption of all charged compounds to oppositely charged polymers was stronger than to AC, especially for the double-charged cation metformin. Tested below 1% of the polymer ion-exchange capacity, the sorption affinity of charged micropollutants is nonlinear and depends on the composition of the aqueous medium. Whereas oppositely charged electrolytes do not impact sorption of organic ions, equally charged electrolytes do influence sorption indicating ion-exchange (IE) to be the main sorption mechanism. For the tested polymers, a tenfold increased salt concentration lowered the IE-sorption affinity by a factor two. Different electrolytes affect IE with organic ions in a similar way as inorganic ions on IE-resins, and no clear differences in this trend were observed between the sulphonated and the carboxylated cation-exchanger. Sorption of organic cations is five fold less in Ca(2+) solutions compared to similar concentrations of Na(+), while that of anionic compounds is three fold weaker in SO(4)(2-) solutions compared to equal concentrations of Cl(-). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact resistant electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veith, Gabriel M.; Armstrong, Beth L.; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E.; Dudney, Nancy J.


    A passively impact resistant composite electrolyte composition includes an electrolyte solvent, up to 2M of an electrolyte salt, and shear thickening ceramic particles having a polydispersity index of no greater than 0.1, an average particle size of in a range of 50 nm to 1 .mu.m, and an absolute zeta potential of greater than .+-.40 mV.

  2. Corrosion behaviors and effects of corrosion products of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AZ31 magnesium alloy under the salt spray corrosion test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Zhiquan; Yan, Qin; Liu, Chen; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Guo, Changhong; Jiang, Guirong [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Shen, Dejiu, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)


    Highlights: • Corrosion behaviors of a PEO coating was investigated after the salt spray test. • Corrosion products have significant effects on corrosion behaviors of the coating. • An electrochemical corrosion model is proposed. - Abstract: The effects of corrosion products on corrosion behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy with a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating were investigated under the salt spray corrosion test (SSCT). The surface morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, chemical and phase compositions of the PEO coating were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. Further, the corrosion process of the samples under the SSCT was examined in a non-aqueous electrolyte (methanol) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) coupled with equivalent circuit. The results show that the inner layer of the coating was destroyed firstly and the corrosion products have significant effects on the corrosion behaviors of the coating. The results above are discussed and an electrochemical corrosion model is proposed in the paper.

  3. Quadrupole terms in the Maxwell equations: Debye-Hückel theory in quadrupolarizable solvent and self-salting-out of electrolytes. (United States)

    Slavchov, Radomir I


    If the molecules of a given solvent possess significant quadrupolar moment, the macroscopic Maxwell equations must involve the contribution of the density of the quadrupolar moment to the electric displacement field. This modifies the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and all consequences from it. In this work, the structure of the diffuse atmosphere around an ion dissolved in quadrupolarizable medium is analyzed by solving the quadrupolar variant of the Coulomb-Ampere's law of electrostatics. The results are compared to the classical Debye-Hückel theory. The quadrupolar version of the Debye-Hückel potential of a point charge is finite even in r = 0. The ion-quadrupole interaction yields a significant expansion of the diffuse atmosphere of the ion and, thus, it decreases the Debye-Hückel energy. In addition, since the dielectric permittivity of the electrolyte solutions depends strongly on concentration, the Born energy of the dissolved ions alters with concentration, which has a considerable contribution to the activity coefficient γ± known as the self-salting-out effect. The quadrupolarizability of the medium damps strongly the self-salting-out of the electrolyte, and thus it affects additionally γ±. Comparison with experimental data for γ± for various electrolytes allows for the estimation of the quadrupolar length of water: LQ ≈ 2 Å, in good agreement with previous assessments. The effect of quadrupolarizability is especially important in non-aqueous solutions. Data for the activity of NaBr in methanol is used to determine the quadrupolarizability of methanol with good accuracy.

  4. Solid electrolytes (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed


    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mudzakir


    Full Text Available A new series of ionic liquids based on 1,3-alkylmethyl-1,2,3-benzotriazolium cation has been prepared. The spectroscopic, physical and electrochemical characteristics of this family of salts have been investigated with respect to potential usage as ionic solvents, electrolytes and engineering fluids. Incorporation of diverse anions including weak coordinating anion and pseudohalide with this benzotriazolium cation produces ionic liquids with advantageously low melting points and good thermal stability. Thermal analyses of these very stable salts included the determination of melting points (-65 to 164 oC and decomposition temperatures (up to 291 oC. The electrochemical windows of representative benzotriazolium species has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and determined to be ~ 3 V. The X-ray single crystal and spectroscopic studies revealed that weak hydrogen-bonding interactions between the benzotriazolium ring protons and the anions are present both in the solid state as well as in solution.   Keywords: ionic liquids, X-ray single crystal, thermal analysis, electrochemical analysis, benzotriazolium salt

  6. Electrolytic reduction runs of 0.6 kg scale-simulated oxide fuel in a Li2O-LiCl molten salt using metal anode shrouds (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Lee, Jeong; Heo, Dong Hyun; Lee, Sang Kwon; Jeon, Min Ku; Hong, Sun Seok; Kim, Sung-Wook; Kang, Hyun Woo; Jeon, Sang-Chae; Hur, Jin-Mok


    Ten electrolytic reduction or oxide reduction (OR) runs of a 0.6 kg scale-simulated oxide fuel in a Li2O-LiCl molten salt at 650 °C were conducted using metal anode shrouds. During this procedure, an anode shroud surrounds a platinum anode and discharges hot oxygen gas from the salt to outside of the OR apparatus, thereby preventing corrosion of the apparatus. In this study, a number of anode shrouds made of various metals were tested. Each metallic anode shroud consisted of a lower porous shroud for the salt phase and an upper nonporous shroud for the gas phase. A stainless steel (STS) wire mesh with five-ply layer was a material commonly used for the lower porous shroud for the OR runs. The metals tested for the upper nonporous shroud in the different OR runs are STS, nickel, and platinum- or silver-lined nickel. The lower porous shroud showed no significant damage during two consecutive OR runs, but exhibited signs of damage from three or more runs due to thermal stress. The upper nonporous shrouds made up of either platinum- or silver-lined nickel showed excellent corrosion resistance to hot oxygen gas while STS or nickel without any platinum or silver lining exhibited poor corrosion resistance.

  7. Molecular simulation of aqueous electrolyte solubility. 3. Alkali-halide salts and their mixtures in water and in hydrochloric acid. (United States)

    Moučka, Filip; Lísal, Martin; Smith, William R


    We extend the osmotic ensemble Monte Carlo (OEMC) molecular simulation method (Moučka et al. J. Phys Chem. B 2011, 115, 7849-7861) for directly calculating the aqueous solubility of electrolytes and for calculating their chemical potentials as functions of concentration to cases involving electrolyte hydrates and mixed electrolytes, including invariant points involving simultaneous precipitation of several solutes. The method utilizes a particular semigrand canonical ensemble, which performs simulations of the solution at a fixed number of solvent molecules, pressure, temperature, and specified overall electrolyte chemical potential. It avoids calculations for the solid phase, incorporating available solid chemical potential data from thermochemical tables, which are based on well-defined reference states, or from other sources. We apply the method to a range of alkali halides in water and to selected examples involving LiCl monohydrate, mixed electrolyte solutions involving water and hydrochloric acid, and invariant points in these solvents. The method uses several existing force-field models from the literature, and the results are compared with experiment. The calculated results agree qualitatively well with the experimental trends and are of reasonable accuracy. The accuracy of the calculated solubility is highly dependent on the solid chemical potential value and also on the force-field model used. Our results indicate that pairwise additive effective force-field models developed for the solution phase are unlikely to also be good models for the corresponding crystalline solid. We find that, in our OEMC simulations, each ionic force-field model is characterized by a limiting value of the total solution chemical potential and a corresponding aqueous concentration. For higher values of the imposed chemical potential, the solid phase in the simulation grows in size without limit.

  8. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes (United States)

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Kang; Liu, Changle


    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  9. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes (United States)

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.


    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  10. Temperature dependence of ion pairing of a potassium salt in nonaqueous liquid and polymer electrolytes: X-ray absorption studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.Q.; Lee, H.S.; McBreen, J. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)); Xu, Z.S.; Skotheim, T.A. (Moltech Corporation, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2275 (United States)); Okamoto, Y. (Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, New York 11201 (United States)); Lu, F. (CFFLS, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States))


    Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy was used to study the effect of temperature on ion pairing of a potassium salt in a modified carbonate (MC3) solution and in a poly(ethylene oxide)-potassium salt complex that used MC3 as a plasticizer. The modified carbonate was made by attaching three ethylene oxide units to the four position of ethylene carbonate. Spectra were obtained, at the [ital K] edge of potassium, over the temperature range of 25--110 [degree]C. Studies of reference systems showed a correlation between ion pairing and white line splitting in the near-edge region of the spectra. The degree of white line splitting was used as a qualitative indicator of the degree of ion pairing as a function of temperature. The results indicate that, in both systems, the number of ion pairs increases with increasing temperature.

  11. Mechanisms of cesium sorption onto magnetite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granizo, N.; Missana, T. [CIEMAT, Dept. de Medioambiente, Madrid (Spain)


    One of the current options for the final disposal of high level radioactive wastes is the deep geological repository (DGR). The metal canisters represent the first physical barrier to radionuclide migration towards the geosphere and their corrosion products may play a significant role in sequestering radionuclides by sorption and/or (co)precipitation phenomena. In this work, the sorption of {sup 137}Cs on pure nanocrystalline magnetite has been experimentally studied in a wide range of pH, ionic strength, and radionuclide and sorbent concentration. The magnetite was synthesized in laboratory under controlled conditions and its main physico-chemical properties as microstructure, surface area and surface charge were analysed previous to sorption experiments. Sorption was negligible up to pH 8.5 and maximum sorption values were reached around pH 12. A significant increase in Cs sorption was observed when decreasing the ionic strength. Linear sorption isotherms were observed within the range of Cs concentration used (up to 10{sup -6} M). As expected, Cs showed very small sorption onto the oxide, but the whole experimental results could be satisfactorily fit with a simple model. In addition, the model developed in the oxide-electrolyte system was able to reproduce fairly well the sorption of Cs onto magnetite in two more complex waters (synthetic bentonite and cement porewaters). All the possible effects on sorption that could increase the uncertainties on the (small) sorption values were analysed in depth. In addition, the possible influence of mineral trace impurities on the sorption (for example silicates from experimental vessels), already discussed in the literature, was avoided. (orig.)

  12. Solid polymer electrolytes (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.


    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  13. Non-aqueous electrolytes for electrochemical cells (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Dong, Jian; Amine, Khalil


    An electrolyte electrochemical device includes an anodic material and an electrolyte, the electrolyte including an organosilicon solvent, a salt, and a hybrid additiving having a first and a second compound, the hybrid additive configured to form a solid electrolyte interphase film on the anodic material upon application of a potential to the electrochemical device.

  14. Experimental investigation on the formation mechanism of the TiFe alloy by the molten-salt electrolytic titanium concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi R.


    Full Text Available The ferrotitanium alloy was prepared in the molten CaCl2 system, in which resolidified ilmenite and the graphite crucible were used as cathode and anode. In this study, the electrolytic voltage was fixed at 3.1V, and three different temperatures were applied: 850oC, 875oC and 900ºC. Finally, the product was examined by SEM and XRD to determine the phase transformation after the electrolysis. The results show that the ilmenite was firstly reduced to Fe, and finally the TiFe alloy was formed. The intermediate products include CaTiO3, TiO2, Ti2O3, TiO, Fe, TiFe2, and Ti. Different product and structure can be obtained by changing temperature. According to thermodynamic calculation, the principal electroreduction products are Ti and TiFe2 and then Ti and TiFe2 are formed by interdiffusion which is governed by temperature.

  15. Effects of current generation and electrolyte pH on reverse salt flux across thin film composite membrane in osmotic microbial fuel cells. (United States)

    Qin, Mohan; Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M; He, Zhen


    Osmotic microbial fuel cells (OsMFCs) take advantages of synergy between forward osmosis (FO) and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to accomplish wastewater treatment, current generation, and high-quality water extraction. As an FO based technology, OsMFCs also encounter reverse salt flux (RSF) that is the backward transport of salt ions across the FO membrane into the treated wastewater. This RSF can reduce water flux, contaminate the treated wastewater, and increase the operational expense, and thus must be properly addressed before any possible applications. In this study, we aimed to understand the effects of current generation and electrolyte pH on RSF in an OsMFC. It was found that electricity generation could greatly inhibit RSF, which decreased from 16.3 ± 2.8 to 3.9 ± 0.7 gMH when the total Coulomb production increased from 0 to 311 C. The OsMFC exhibited 45.9 ± 28.4% lower RSF at the catholyte pH of 3 than that at pH 11 when 40 Ω external resistance was connected. The amount of sodium ions transported across the FO membrane was 18.3-40.7% more than that of chloride ions. Ion transport was accomplished via diffusion and electrically-driven migration, and the theoretical analysis showed that the inhibited electrically-driven migration should be responsible for the reduced RSF. These findings are potentially important to control and reduce RSF in OsMFCs or other osmotic-driven processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rheological Studies of PMMA–PVC Based Polymer Blend Electrolytes with LiTFSI as Doping Salt (United States)

    Liew, Chiam–Wen; Durairaj, R.; Ramesh, S.


    In this research, two systems are studied. In the first system, the ratio of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) is varied, whereas in the second system, the composition of PMMA–PVC polymer blends is varied with dopant salt, lithium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) with a fixed ratio of 70 wt% of PMMA to 30 wt% of PVC. Oscillation tests such as amplitude sweep and frequency sweep are discussed in order to study the viscoelastic properties of samples. Elastic properties are much higher than viscous properties within the range in the amplitude sweep and oscillatory shear sweep studies. The crossover of and is absent. Linear viscoelastic (LVE) range was further determined in order to perform the frequency sweep. However, the absence of viscous behavior in the frequency sweep indicates the solid-like characteristic within the frequency regime. The viscosity of all samples is found to decrease as shear rate increases. PMID:25051241

  17. Rheological studies of PMMA-PVC based polymer blend electrolytes with LiTFSI as doping salt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiam-Wen Liew

    Full Text Available In this research, two systems are studied. In the first system, the ratio of poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA and poly (vinyl chloride (PVC is varied, whereas in the second system, the composition of PMMA-PVC polymer blends is varied with dopant salt, lithium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide (LiTFSI with a fixed ratio of 70 wt% of PMMA to 30 wt% of PVC. Oscillation tests such as amplitude sweep and frequency sweep are discussed in order to study the viscoelastic properties of samples. Elastic properties are much higher than viscous properties within the range in the amplitude sweep and oscillatory shear sweep studies. The crossover of G' and G'' is absent. Linear viscoelastic (LVE range was further determined in order to perform the frequency sweep. However, the absence of viscous behavior in the frequency sweep indicates the solid-like characteristic within the frequency regime. The viscosity of all samples is found to decrease as shear rate increases.

  18. Cross-Sectional Study of 24-Hour Urinary Electrolyte Excretion and Associated Health Outcomes in a Convenience Sample of Australian Primary Schoolchildren: The Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) Study Protocol


    Grimes, Carley A; Baxter, Janet R; Campbell, Karen; Riddell, Lynn J; Rigo, Manuela; Liem, Djin Gie; Keast, Russell S; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A


    Background Dietary sodium and potassium are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Data exploring the cardiovascular outcomes associated with these electrolytes within Australian children is sparse. Furthermore, an objective measure of sodium and potassium intake within this group is lacking. Objective The primary aim of the Salt and Other Nutrient Intakes in Children (?SONIC?) study was to measure sodium and potassium intakes in a sample of primary schoolchildren located in ...

  19. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.


    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Investigation of metal ions sorption of brown peat moss powder (United States)

    Kelus, Nadezhda; Blokhina, Elena; Novikov, Dmitry; Novikova, Yaroslavna; Chuchalin, Vladimir


    For regularities research of sorptive extraction of heavy metal ions by cellulose and its derivates from aquatic solution of electrolytes it is necessary to find possible mechanism of sorption process and to choice a model describing this process. The present article investigates the regularities of aliovalent metals sorption on brown peat moss powder. The results show that sorption isotherm of Al3+ ions is described by Freundlich isotherm and sorption isotherms of Na+ i Ni2+ are described by Langmuir isotherm. To identify the mechanisms of brown peat moss powder sorption the IR-spectra of the initial brown peat moss powder samples and brown peat moss powder samples after Ni (II) sorption were studied. Metal ion binding mechanisms by brown peat moss powder points to ion exchange, physical adsorption, and complex formation with hydroxyl and carboxyl groups.

  1. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.


    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  2. Separation of Electrolytic Reduction Product from Stainless Steel Wire Mesh Cathode Basket via Salt Draining and Reuse of the Cathode Basket

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eun-Young Choi; Jeong Lee; Dong Hyun Heo; Jin-Mok Hur


    .... Platinum was employed as an anode. After the electrolysis, the residual salt of the cathode basket containing the reduction product was drained by placing it at gas phase above the molten salt using a holder...

  3. Electrolytes for magnesium electrochemical cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Sa, Niya; Proffit, Danielle Lee; Lipson, Albert; Liao, Chen; Vaughey, John T.; Ingram, Brian J.


    An electrochemical cell includes a high voltage cathode configured to operate at 1.5 volts or greater; an anode including Mg.sup.0; and an electrolyte including an ether solvent and a magnesium salt; wherein: a concentration of the magnesium salt in the ether is 1 M or greater.

  4. Effects of pored separator films at the anode and cathode sides on concentration changes of electrolyte salt in lithium ion batteries (United States)

    Yamanaka, Toshiro; Nakagawa, Hiroe; Tsubouchi, Shigetaka; Domi, Yasuhiro; Doi, Takayuki; Abe, Takeshi; Ogumi, Zempachi


    The concentration change of ions in the electrolyte solution in deep narrow spaces between electrodes in batteries was studied by in situ multi-probe Raman spectroscopy. When two separator films were placed at the anode and cathode sides, the concentration change became greater, suggesting that the resistance for ion migration at the anode side increased more than that at the cathode side. Thus, there seems to be a concerted effect of the surface film at the anode [solid electrolyte interphase (SEI)] and the adjacent separator film to form an effective diffusion barrier for Li+.

  5. Electrolyte chemistry control in electrodialysis processing (United States)

    Hayes, Thomas D.; Severin, Blaine F.


    Methods for controlling electrolyte chemistry in electrodialysis units having an anode and a cathode each in an electrolyte of a selected concentration and a membrane stack disposed therebetween. The membrane stack includes pairs of cationic selective and anionic membranes to segregate increasingly dilute salts streams from concentrated salts stream. Electrolyte chemistry control is via use of at least one of following techniques: a single calcium exclusionary cationic selective membrane at a cathode cell boundary, an exclusionary membrane configured as a hydraulically isolated scavenger cell, a multivalent scavenger co-electrolyte and combinations thereof.

  6. Low molecular mass organogelator based gel electrolyte gelated by a quaternary ammonium halide salt for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (United States)

    Huo, Zhipeng; Zhang, Changneng; Fang, Xiaqin; Cai, Molang; Dai, Songyuan; Wang, Kongjia

    Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) are fabricated using tetradodecylammonium bromide as a low molecular mass organogelator (LMOG) to form gel electrolyte with a high solution-to-gel transition temperature (T SG) of 75 °C to hinder flow and volatilization of the liquid. The steady-state voltammograms reveal that the diffusion of the I 3 - and I - in the gel electrolyte is hindered by the self-assembled network of the gel. An increased interfacial exchange current density (j 0) of 4.95 × 10 -8 A cm -2 and a decreased electron recombination lifetime (τ) of 117 ms reveal an increased electron recombination at the dyed TiO 2 photoelectrode/electrolyte interface in the DSC after gelation. The results of the accelerated aging tests show that the gel electrolyte based dye-sensitized solar cell can retain over 93% of its initial photoelectric conversion efficiency value after successive heating at 60 °C for 1000 h, and device degradation is negligible after one sun light soaking with UV cutoff filter for 1000 h.

  7. Low molecular mass organogelator based gel electrolyte gelated by a quaternary ammonium halide salt for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huo, Zhipeng; Zhang, Changneng; Fang, Xiaqin; Cai, Molang; Dai, Songyuan; Wang, Kongjia [Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)


    Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) are fabricated using tetradodecylammonium bromide as a low molecular mass organogelator (LMOG) to form gel electrolyte with a high solution-to-gel transition temperature (T{sub SG}) of 75 C to hinder flow and volatilization of the liquid. The steady-state voltammograms reveal that the diffusion of the I{sub 3}{sup -} and I{sup -} in the gel electrolyte is hindered by the self-assembled network of the gel. An increased interfacial exchange current density (j{sub 0}) of 4.95 x 10{sup -8} A cm{sup -2} and a decreased electron recombination lifetime ({tau}) of 117 ms reveal an increased electron recombination at the dyed TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode/electrolyte interface in the DSC after gelation. The results of the accelerated aging tests show that the gel electrolyte based dye-sensitized solar cell can retain over 93% of its initial photoelectric conversion efficiency value after successive heating at 60 C for 1000 h, and device degradation is negligible after one sun light soaking with UV cutoff filter for 1000 h. (author)

  8. Gel electrolytes and electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischmann, Sven; Bunte, Christine; Mikhaylik, Yuriy V.; Viner, Veronika G.


    Gel electrolytes, especially gel electrolytes for electrochemical cells, are generally described. In some embodiments, the gel electrolyte layers comprise components a) to c). Component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer comprising polymerized units of: a1) at least one monomer containing an ethylenically unsaturated unit and an amido group and a2) at least one crosslinker. Component b) may be at least one conducting salt and component c) may be at least one solvent. Electrodes may comprise the components a), d) and e), wherein component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein. Component d) may be at least one electroactive layer and component e) may be at least one ceramic layer. Furthermore, electrochemical cells comprising component a) which may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein, are also provided.

  9. Electrolytic formation of carbon nanostructures (United States)

    Hsu, W. K.; Terrones, M.; Hare, J. P.; Terrones, H.; Kroto, H. W.; Walton, D. R. M.


    Carbon nanotubes (with and without encapsulated material) as well as nanoparticles and onion-like structures have been generated by electrolysis in molten alkali halide salts using carbon electrodes under an argon atmosphere. The nature of the products depends upon several factors including the electrolysis voltage and current, depth of electrode immersion in the electrolyte, the length of time the current is maintained and the electrolyte.

  10. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries (United States)

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.


    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  11. Cadmium sorption characteristics of phosphorylated sago starch-extraction residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igura, Masato, E-mail: [Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakacho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Okazaki, Masanori [Institute of Symbiotic Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)


    The residue produced by the extraction of sago starch is usually discarded as a waste material. In this study, we phosphorylated the sago starch-extraction residue with phosphoryl chloride and used the phosphorylated residue to remove cadmium from wastewater. The phosphoric ester functionality in the phosphorylated residue was evaluated by means of infrared microspectrometry and solid-state NMR. The dependence of the cadmium sorption behavior on pH, contact time, and electrolyte concentration and the maximum sorption capacity of the phosphorylated residue were also studied. The cadmium sorption varied with pH and electrolyte concentration, and the maximum sorption capacity was 25.2 mg g{sup -1}, which is almost half the capacity of commercially available weakly acidic cation exchange resins. The phosphorylated residue could be reused several times, although cadmium sorption gradually decreased as the number of sorption-desorption cycles increased. The phosphorylated residue sorbed cadmium rapidly, which is expected to be favorable for the continuous operation in a column.

  12. Transfer of charges and substances in a gas-discharge plasma from the liquid electrolyte cathode containing salts of alkali metal (United States)

    Tazmeev, Kh K.; Timerkaev, B. A.; Tazmeev, G. K.


    A gas discharge in the air between the flowing liquid cathode and a solid anode was studied experimentally. Aqueous solution of sodium chloride was used as the liquid cathode electrolyte. Mass loss due to evaporating and sputtering was compensated by adding distilled water in a continuous mode. It was found that the specific electric conductivity of the aqueous solution is almost unchanged. The regularities of changes in the composition of an anionic solution were discovered.

  13. Sorption isotherm characteristics of aonla flakes. (United States)

    Alam, Md Shafiq; Singh, Amarjit


    The equilibrium moisture content was determined for un-osmosed and osmosed (salt osmosed and sugar osmosed) aonla flakes using the static method at temperatures of 25, 40,50, 60 and 70 °C over a range of relative humidities from 20 to 90%. The sorption capacity of aonla decreased with an increase in temperature at constant water activity. The sorption isotherms exhibited hysteresis, in which the equilibrium moisture content was higher at a particular equilibrium relative humidity for desorption curve than for adsorption. The hysteresis effect was more pertinent for un-osmosed and salt osmosed samples in comparison to sugar osmosed samples. Five models namely the modified Chung Pfost, modified Halsey, modified Henderson, modified Exponential and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) were evaluated to determine the best fit for the experimental data. For both adsorption and desorption process of aonla fruit, the equilibrium moisture content of un-osmosed and osmosed aonla samples can be predicted well by GAB model as well as modified Exponential model. Moreover, the modified Exponential model was found to be the best for describing the sorption behaviour of un-osmosed and salt osmosed samples while, GAB model for sugar osmosed aonla samples.

  14. Development of electrolytic process in molten salt media for light rare-earth metals production. The metallic cerium electrodeposition; Desenvolvimento de processo de eletrolise em meio de sais fundidos para a producao de metais de terras-raras leves. A obtencao do cerio metalico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restivo, T.A.G.


    The development of molten salt process and the respective equipment aiming rare-earth metals recovery was described. In the present case, the liquid cerium metal electrodeposition in a molten electrolytes of cerium chloride and an equimolar mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides in temperatures near 800{sup C} was studied. Due the high chemical reactivity of the rare-earth metals in the liquid state and their molten halides, an electrolytic cell was constructed with controlled atmosphere, graphite crucibles and anodes and a tungsten cathode. The electrolytic process variables and characteristics were evaluated upon the current efficiency and metallic product purity. Based on this evaluations, were suggested some alterations on the electrolytic reactor design and upon the process parameters. (author). 90 refs, 37 figs, 20 tabs.

  15. The Salt Matters: Enhanced Reversibility of Li-O2 Batteries with a Li[(CF3 SO2 )(n-C4 F9 SO2 )N]-Based Electrolyte. (United States)

    Tong, Bo; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Zhibin; Peng, Zhangquan


    The safety hazards and cycle instability of lithium metal anodes (LMA) constitute significant barriers to progress in lithium metal batteries. This situation is worse in Li-O2 batteries because the LMA is prone to be chemically attacked by O2 shuttled from the cathode. Notwithstanding, efforts on LMA are much sparse than those on the cathode in the realm of Li-O2 batteries. Here, a novel lithium salt of Li[(CF3 SO2 )(n-C4 F9 SO2 )N] (LiTNFSI) is reported, which can effectively suppress the parasitic side reactions and dendrite growth of LMA during cycling and thereby significantly enhance the overall reversibility of Li-O2 batteries. A variety of advanced research tools are employed to scrutinize the working principles of the LiTNFSI salt. It is revealed that a stable, uniform, and O2 -resistive solid electrolyte interphase is formed on LMA, and hence the "cross-talk" between the LMA and O2 shuttled from the cathode is remarkably inhibited in LiTNFSI-based Li-O2 batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Factors influencing sorption of ciprofloxacin onto activated sludge: Experimental assessment and modelling implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polesel, Fabio; Lehnberg, Kai; Dott, Wolfgang


    to identify whether the assessed factors caused a significant increase of aqueous ciprofloxacin concentration in full-scale bioreactors. Simulation results suggest that a pH increase, rather than a reduction in iron salt dosing, could be responsible for a systematic deterioration of sorption of ciprofloxacin...... and described, particularly for zwitterionic chemicals. Here we present an assessment of the effects of pH and iron salt dosing on the sorption of ciprofloxacin onto activated sludge using laboratory experiments and full-scale fate modelling. Experimental results were described with Freundlich isotherms...... and showed that non-linear sorption occurred under all the conditions tested. The greatest sorption potential was measured at pH = 7.4, at which ciprofloxacin is speciated mostly as zwitterion. Iron salt dosing increased sorption under aerobic and, to a lesser extent, anoxic conditions, whereas no effect...

  17. Hydrogen Sorption and Transport (United States)

    McNeece, C. J.; Hesse, M. A.


    Hydrogen is unique among aqueous ions, both in its importance for geochemical reactions, and in its complex transport behavior through reactive media. The structure of hydrogen reaction fronts can be analyzed in the advective limit of the transport equation. At local chemical equilibrium, sorption of hydrogen onto the media surface (sorption isotherm) controls reaction front morphology. Transport modeling thus necessitates accurate knowledge of surface chemistry. Though motivated by transport, sorption models are often parameterized against batch titration experiments. The validity of these parameterizations, in a transport setting, are seldom tested. The analytic solution to the transport equation gives an algebraic relationship between concentration velocity and equilibrium sorption behavior. In this study, we conduct a suite of column flow experiments through quartz sand. Hydrogen concentration breakthrough curves at the column outlet are used to infer the "transport sorption isotherm." These results are compared to the batch titration derived sorption isotherm. We find excellent agreement between the datasets. Our findings suggest that, for aqueous hydrogen, local chemical equilibrium is a valid assumption. With the goal of a predictive transport model, we parameterize various sorption models against this dataset. Models which incorporate electrostatic effects at the surface predict transport well. Nonelectrostatic models such as the Kd, Langmuir, and Freundlich models fail. These results are particularly compelling as nonelectrostatic models are often employed to predict hydrogen transport in many reactive transport code.

  18. Normal saline versus balanced-salt solution as intravenous fluid therapy during neurosurgery: effects on acid-base balance and electrolytes. (United States)

    Hafizah, Mohamed; Liu, Chian Y; Ooi, Joanna S


    This prospective, randomized controlled study compared the changes in acid-base balance and serum electrolytes with the use of intravenous balanced and non-balanced crystalloid solutions intraoperatively during elective neurosurgery. Thirty consented adult patients who underwent craniotomy were randomly allocated into two groups of 15 patients each. The non-balanced group received 0.9% normal saline while the balanced group received Sterofundin®ISO as the intraoperative fluid for maintenance. Biochemical indices for acid-base balance and serum electrolytes were analyzed periodically. In the non-balanced group, significant changes were noted in the pH, base excess and bicarbonate values over time compared to its respective baseline values (P<0.01). Four patients (27.7%) also developed a pH<7.35 and 5 patients (33.3%) developed marked acidosis with base excess <-4.0 at the end of surgery. Both mean sodium and chloride levels were also significantly higher compared to its baseline values respectively (142.6±2.4 versus 138±2.7 mmol/L, P<0.01 and 105.7±4.1 versus 113.2±3.0 mmol/L (P<0.01). A balanced solution (Sterofundin®ISO) provided significantly better control over acid-base balance, sodium and chloride levels when used as intraoperative fluid maintenance and replacement during elective neurosurgery.

  19. Electrolytes for Wide Operating Temperature Lithium-Ion Cells (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)


    Provided herein are electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells, electrochemical cells employing the electrolytes, methods of making the electrochemical cells and methods of using the electrochemical cells over a wide temperature range. Included are electrolyte compositions comprising a lithium salt, a cyclic carbonate, a non-cyclic carbonate, and a linear ester and optionally comprising one or more additives.

  20. Conductivity behaviour of polymer gel electrolytes: Role of polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 26; Issue 3 ... Polymer is an important constituent of polymer gel electrolytes along with salt and solvent. ... Although the polymer added provides mechanical stability to the electrolytes yet its effect on the conductivity behaviour of gel electrolytes as well as the interaction ...

  1. Sorption properties of wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radetić Maja M.


    Full Text Available Strict ecological legislation, especially in highly developed countries, imposed requirements for the purification of industrial effluents and the need for efficient oil clean up after sea and inland water spills. Although numerous processes have been developed, the application of sorbents is still one of the most efficient methods to remove heavy metal ions, dyes and crude oil from water. Recently, special attention was paid to sorbents based on natural fibres. A review of studies concerning the sorption properties of wool is presented in this paper. The presence of various functional groups on the wool fibre surface contributes to the efficient sorption of heavy metal ions and dyes. A hydrophobic, scaly surface and fibre crimp strongly influence the high sorption capacity of wool for oil. Wool has great sorption potential even as a recycled material. Accordingly, it can be used as a viable substitute to commercially available synthetic sorbents that show poor biodegradab ility.

  2. Metal Production by Molten Salt Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.; Qingfeng, Li

    Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed.......Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed....

  3. Determination of the moisture sorption behavior of osmotically dehydrated mackerel fillets by means of binary and ternary solutions. (United States)

    Agustinelli, Silvina Paola; Salvadori, Viviana Olga; Yeannes, Maria Isabel


    In this study, the moisture sorption isotherm of osmotically dehydrated mackerel fillets (Scomber japonicus) was experimentally determined. The fillets were osmotically dehydrated with solutions of salt (NaCl) (120 and 180 g per liter of solution) or in combination with sugar (350 to 700 g per liter of solution). The sorption isotherms were determined using the static gravimetric methodology with six salts for the water activity range of 0.33-0.98 at 5 degrees C and 25 degrees C. All the sorption curves were found to be type III. Temperature and the final tissue salt content had significant (p sorption isotherms. A regression program was used to fit the Halsey, Oswin and Smith moisture sorption isotherm models. Oswin equation gave the best fit for the whole range of water activity and temperatures. The Smith equation only presented valuable results for the mackerel fillets samples with the higher salt content.

  4. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson


    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  5. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR); Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA)


    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

  6. Preliminary Evaluations of Polymer-based Lithium Battery Electrolytes Under Development for the Polymer Electrolyte Rechargeable Systems Program (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Bennett, William R.


    A component screening facility has been established at The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to evaluate candidate materials for next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. Procedures have been implemented to provide standardized measurements of critical electrolyte properties. These include ionic conductivity, electronic resistivity, electrochemical stability window, cation transference number, salt diffusion coefficient and lithium plating efficiency. Preliminary results for poly(ethy1ene oxide)-based polymer electrolyte and commercial liquid electrolyte are presented.

  7. Salting-in and salting-out of water-soluble polymers in aqueous salt solutions. (United States)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Jahani, Farahnaz


    To obtain further experimental evidence for the mechanisms of the salting effect produced by the addition of salting-out or sating-in inducing electrolytes to aqueous solutions of water-soluble polymers, systematic studies on the vapor-liquid equilibria and liquid-liquid equilibria of aqueous solutions of several polymers are performed in the presence of a large series of electrolytes. Polymers are polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 250 (PEGDME250), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 2000 (PEGDME2000), and polypropylene glycol 400 (PPG400), and the investigated electrolytes are KCl, NH(4)Cl, MgCl(2), (CH(3))(4)NCl, NaCl, NaNO(3), Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit (tri-sodium citrate). Aqueous solutions of PPG400 form aqueous two-phase systems with all the investigated salts; however, other investigated polymers form aqueous two-phase systems only with Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit. A relation was found between the salting-out or sating-in effects of electrolyte on the polymer aqueous solutions and the slopes of the constant water activity lines of ternary polymer-salt aqueous solutions, so that, in the case of the salting-out effect, the constant water activity lines had a concave slope, but in the case of the salting-in effects, the constant water activity lines had a convex slope. The effect of temperature, anion of electrolyte, cation of electrolyte, and type and molar mass of polymers were studied and the results interpreted in terms of the solute-water and solute-solute interactions. The salting-out effect results from the formation of ion (specially anion)-water hydration complexes, which, in turn, decreases hydration, and hence, the solubility of the polymer and the salting-in effect results from a direct binding of the cations to the ether oxygens of the polymers.

  8. Electrolyte Racers (United States)

    Kellie, Shawn; Kellie, Tonya; Corbin-Tipton, Elizabeth


    A fast way to teach investigative skills in science is to tie them to NASCAR using Hot Wheels Formula Fuelers Race Cars. These inexpensive toy cars travel different distances based on the strength of the "electrolyte" (a substance that conducts electricity when dissolved in water) in their "fuel" tanks. Advertisements for these race cars urge kids…

  9. Transition at the deliquesce point in single salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge


    the increasing numbers of thin film water till 20 mbar at 25˚C whereas the deliquescence point is at 24 mbar. These results suggest a stepwise change in the state of the salt. During preparation to salt calibration tests (in a Dynamic Vapour Sorption equipment (DVS)) the author noticed that some single salts...

  10. In-situ study of the dendritic growth in lithium/polymer electrolyte-salt/lithium cells; Etude in-situ de la croissance dendritique dans des cellules lithium/POE-sel/lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissot, C.; Rosso, M.; Chazalviel, J.N. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Baudry, P.; Lascaud, S. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches


    The in-situ observation of dendritic growth in lithium/polymer electrolyte-LiTFSI/lithium battery cells shows that dendrites grow up with about the same rate as anion migration. Memory effects have been evidenced in cycling experiments and limit the dendrites length. An overall movement of the electrolyte due to variations of electrolyte concentration in the vicinity of the electrodes has been observed too. (J.S.) 13 refs.

  11. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil


    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing anion receptor additives to enhance the power capability of lithium-ion batteries. The anion receptor of the present invention is a Lewis acid that can help to dissolve LiF in the passivation films of lithium-ion batteries. Accordingly, one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising a lithium salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and an anion receptor additive; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  12. Electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Jow, T Richard; Borodin, Oleg; Ue, Makoto


    Electrolytes for Lithium and Lithium-ion Batteries provides a comprehensive overview of the scientific understanding and technological development of electrolyte materials in the last?several years. This book covers key electrolytes such as LiPF6 salt in mixed-carbonate solvents with additives for the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries as well as new electrolyte materials developed recently that lay the foundation for future advances.?This book also reviews the characterization of electrolyte materials for their transport properties, structures, phase relationships, stabilities, and impurities.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report presents information and references to aid in the selection of 99Tc sorption media for feasibility studies regarding the removal of 99Tc from Hanford's low activity waste. The report contains literature search material for sorption media (including ion exchange media) for the most tested media to date, including SuperLig 639, Reillex HPQ, TAM (Kruion), Purolite A520E and A530E, and Dowex 1X8. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which comprises both the Hanford Site tank farms and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities in a safe, environmentally compliant, cost-effective and energy-effective manner.

  14. Sorption of actinides onto nanodiamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchatskaya, Yulia; Romanchuk, Anna; Yakovlev, Ruslan; Kulakova, Inna [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; Shiryaev, Andrei [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry; Kalmykov, Stepan [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry


    Detonation nanodiamonds (ND) present a significant part of nanocarbons group, which could be produced on commercial scale by detonation of explosives in a closed chamber. Their unique properties of high surface area, low weight and radiation resistance make ND a prospective candidate for applications in sorption processes in radiochemistry. To study the influence of surface chemistry on sorption properties, apristine sample of ND was treated with acids and hydrogen. The surface chemistry of the samples was characterised by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Boehm titration. The sorption properties of ND were tested fordifferent radionuclides. The sorption capacity of ND was shown to be higher than those of commonly used radionuclide sorbents like activated carbon and compariable to other members of nanocarbon group like graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes. The sorption properties were shown to be influenced by the presence of oxygen-containing groups on the surface of ND. This represents an opportunity to increase the sorption capacity of ND.

  15. Sorption of Arsenite onto Mackinawite Coated Sand (United States)

    Gallegos, T. J.; Hayes, K. F.; Abriola, L. M.


    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a widespread problem affecting aquifers in the United States as well as abroad. Recent strengthening of the US EPA MCL for arsenic has prompted the need for technology capable of removing both arsenite and arsenate from solution. Arsenite, the more toxic form of arsenic, is more difficult to remove from anoxic zones in the subsurface. Studies by others have demonstrated the affinity of some types of iron sulfides for arsenite, such as troilite, pyrite, amorphous iron sulfide and mackinawite. However, these studies have not provided a comprehensive investigation of the macroscopic behavior of arsenite in the presence of crystalline mackinawite in a form that can be readily applied to real-world treatment technologies. This study examines the behavior of arsenite in the presence of mackinawite coated sand. PH edge results demonstrate that arsenite sorption onto mackinawite coated sand increases with increasing pH, reaching maximum removal at pH 10. Arsenite removal, albeit slight, occurring below pH 5 is independent of pH indicative of a different removal mechanism. Isotherm studies show that at low concentrations, removal is Langmuirian in nature. Arsenite sorption abruptly converts to linear behavior at high concentrations, possibly attributed to the saturation of the monolayer. Ionic strength effects were assessed by comparing pH edge data developed for three different concentrations of NaCl background electrolyte solution. Increases in ionic strength enhance the removal of arsenite from solution, suggesting possible inner-sphere surface complexation removal mechanisms. Information gathered in this study can be used to further develop surface complexation models to describe and predict reactivity of arsenite in the presence of mackinawite coated sands in anoxic regions. Mackinawite coated sands investigated here may provide a feasible reactive medium for implementation in above-ground sorption reactors or subsurface

  16. Sorption isotherms and isosteric heats of sorption of mint variety ( Mentha viridis) leaves and stems: Experimental and mathematical investigations (United States)

    Taoufik, Fatima; El Hadek, Miloud; Hnini, Moulay Chrif; Benchanaa, M'Barek; El Hammioui, Mustapha; Hassani, Lala Mina Idrissi


    Knowledge of sorption isotherms of agricultural products is necessary to control rehydration/dehydration and storage processes. The aim of this work is to determine moisture adsorption and desorption isotherms of Moroccan mint leaves and stems ( Mentha viridis). The sorption isotherms of the plants was determined within the range of 0.0549-0.964 relative air humidity at three different temperatures (40, 50 and 60 ∘C) using saturated salt solutions method. Guggenheim, Anderson and Boer (GAB) model was used to describe the experimental data. The isosteric heats of desorption and adsorption were determined. Then, the isosteric heat of desorption was compared to the isosteric heat of adsorption and both decreased continuously with increasing the equilibrium moisture content. Finally, the comparison between the sorption net isosteric of mint leaves and stems was studied.

  17. Lithium ion conducting solid polymer blend electrolyte based on bio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lithium ion conducting polymer blend electrolyte films based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) with different Mwt% of lithium nitrate (LiNO3) salt, using a solution cast technique, have been prepared. The polymer blend electrolyte has been characterized by XRD, FTIR, DSC and impedance ...

  18. Nonaqueous Electrolyte Development for Electrochemical Capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Xu; S. P. Ding; T. R. Jow


    The objectives of this project were to demonstrate and develop new nonaqueous electrolytes that enable the development of high power (in excess of 2 kW/kg) and high energy (in excess of 8 Wh/kg) capacitors. Electrochemical capacitors are attractive to use because of their long cycle life and inherent high-power (or fast charge/discharge) capabilities. To realize the inherent high-power nature of the capacitor, the resistance of the capacitor needs to be low. The main focus of this project is on the ionic part of capacitor resistance, which is largely determined by the electrolyte, especially the electrolyte's conductivity. To achieve the objectives of this project, two approaches were used. The first was to search for the proper solvent mixtures within the commercially available quaternary ammonium salts such as tetraethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (Et4NBF4) or tetraethyl ammonium hexafluorophosphate (Et4NPF6). The second approach was to use the commonly available solvent system s but develop new salts. Substantial advances were made in quaternary ammonium salts and solvent systems were identified that can withstand high voltage operations. However, improvement in the salt alone is not sufficient. Improvements in the low-temperature stability of a capacitor rely not only on the salts but also on the solvents. Likewise, the high-temperature stability of the capacitor will depend not only on the salts but also on the solvents and carbon electrode materials.

  19. Ionic-Liquid-Tethered Nanoparticles: Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Moganty, Surya S.


    A new class of solventless electrolytes was created by tethering ionic liquids to hard inorganic ZrO2 nanostructures (see picture; NIM=nanoscale ionic material). These hybrid fluids exhibit exceptional redox stability windows, excellent thermal stability, good lithium transference numbers, long-term interfacial stability in the presence of a lithium anode and, when doped with lithium salt, reasonable ionic conductivities.

  20. Influence of humic acid on neptunium(V) sorption and diffusion in Opalinus Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, D.R.; Amayri, S.; Drebert, J.; Reich, T. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry


    The influence of {sup 14}C-labeled M42 humic acid (HA) on the interaction between neptunium(V) and natural clay rock (Opalinus Clay (OPA), Switzerland) has been investigated in batch sorption and diffusion experiments under ambient air conditions. The effect of 10 mg/L HA on the diffusion of 8 {mu}M Np(V) in OPA has been investigated in synthetic OPA pore water (pH 7.6, I = 0.4M) for the first time. Batch sorption experiments as a function of solid-to-liquid ratio (4-20 g/L) were performed under same experimental conditions to compare distribution coefficients obtained from both diffusion and sorption experiments. These experiments showed only a slight influence of HA on Np(V) uptake by OPA in both cases and provided comparable distribution coefficients (presence of HA: K{sub d} = 22-32 L/kg, absence of HA: K{sub d} = 30-46 L/kg). As it is known that the interactions of humic substances with actinides depend on various experimental parameters, the effect of HA on Np(V) sorption on 15 g/L OPA was also investigated as a function of pH (6-10) and initial Np concentration (8 {mu}M and 7 pM). A saturated calcite solution was used as a background electrolyte in this case to prevent any dissolution of calcite contained in OPA at low pH. The results showed that the presence of M42 HA increases Np(V) sorption at pH < 7 while lower sorption was obtained above pH 8. Higher sorption at acidic pH can be attributed to strong sorption of HA which increases the number of sorption sites, while sorption decreases at higher pH probably due to formation of soluble ternary neptunium humate carbonate species. (orig.)

  1. Novel Nonflammable Electrolytes for Secondary Magnesium Batteries and High Voltage Electrolytes for Electrochemcial Supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Brian


    Magnesium has been used successfully in primary batteries, but its use in rechargeable cells has been stymied by the lack of suitable non-aqueous electrolyte that can conduct Mg+2 species, combined with poor stripping and plating properties. The development of a suitable cathode material for rechargeable magnesium batteries has also been a roadblock, but a nonflammable electrolyte is key. Likewise, the development of safe high voltage electrochemical supercapaitors has been stymied by the use of flammable solvents in the liquid electrolyte; to wit, acetonitrile. The purpose of the research conducted in this effort was to identify useful compositions of magnesium salts and polyphosphate solvents that would enable magnesium ions to be cycled within a secondary battery design. The polyphosphate solvents would provide the solvent for the magnesium salts while preventing the electrolyte from being flammable. This would enable these novel electrolytes to be considered as an alternative to THF-based electrolytes. In addition, we explored several of these solvents together with lithium slats for use as high voltage electrolytes for carbon-based electrochemical supercapacitors. The research was successful in that: 1) Magnesium imide dissolved in a phosphate ester solvent that contains a halogented phosphate ester appears to be the preferred electrolyte for a rechargeable Mg cell. 2) A combination of B-doped CNTs and vanadium phosphate appear to be the cathode of choice for a rechargeable Mg cell by virtue of higher voltage and better reversibility. 3) Magnesium alloys appear to perform better than pure magnesium when used in combination with the novel polyphosphate electrolytes. Also, this effort has established that Phoenix Innovation's family of phosphonate/phosphate electrolytes together with specific lithium slats can be used in supercapacitor systems at voltages of greater than 10V.

  2. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauzi, Iqbal, E-mail:; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Groups, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)


    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component’s composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it’s characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10{sup −6} S/cm up to 6.01 × 10{sup −4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10{sup −3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  3. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan (United States)

    Fauzi, Iqbal; Arcana, I. Made


    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component's composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it's characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10-6 S/cm up to 6.01 × 10-4 S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10-3 S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and sorption properties of silica modified with some derivatives of β-cyclodextrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvets, Oleksandra, E-mail:; Belyakova, Lyudmila, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • β-Cyclodextrin-containing silicas have been synthesized. • Effect of salts of water hardness on sorption of cadmium (II) was studied. • Organosilicas show high affinity to cadmium (II) at sorption from multi-component solutions. • Cations interaction with functional organosilicas consistent with HSAB theory. - Abstract: Nanoporous β-cyclodextrin-containing silicas which differ by functional substituents of wide edge of attached cyclic oligosaccharide molecules (alcohol, bromoacetyl, thiosemicarbazidoacetyl groups) have been synthesized. The structure and chemical composition of the surface, porosity of obtained materials, their chemical and thermal stability have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, nitrogen ad-desorption, elemental and chemical analyses of solid surface. Sorption of trace amounts of cadmium (II) in the presence of ten- and hundred-fold excess of hardness salts by synthesized organosilicas has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the sorption equilibrium is reached after 30 min. The sorption of trace amounts of cadmium (II) from multi-component solutions does not decrease, but even increases in the presence of hardness salts, simulating soft and hard water. Coefficients of distribution and selectivity as well as the sorption parameters of Langmuir and Freundlich equations have been calculated. It was found that the driving force of cadmium (II) sorption on the surface of functional β-cyclodextrin-containing silicas is the formation of inclusion complexes “β-cyclodextrin–nitrate-anion”. It has been proved the formation of supramolecular structures on the surface of synthesized organosilicas as a result of cadmium (II) sorption. Chemical composition of supermolecules depends on the structure of surface active centers.

  5. Ionic-Liquid-Based Polymer Electrolytes for Battery Applications. (United States)

    Osada, Irene; de Vries, Henrik; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano


    The advent of solid-state polymer electrolytes for application in lithium batteries took place more than four decades ago when the ability of polyethylene oxide (PEO) to dissolve suitable lithium salts was demonstrated. Since then, many modifications of this basic system have been proposed and tested, involving the addition of conventional, carbonate-based electrolytes, low molecular weight polymers, ceramic fillers, and others. This Review focuses on ternary polymer electrolytes, that is, ion-conducting systems consisting of a polymer incorporating two salts, one bearing the lithium cation and the other introducing additional anions capable of plasticizing the polymer chains. Assessing the state of the research field of solid-state, ternary polymer electrolytes, while giving background on the whole field of polymer electrolytes, this Review is expected to stimulate new thoughts and ideas on the challenges and opportunities of lithium-metal batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Sorption of Pesticides to Natural and Synthetic Nanoparticles (United States)

    Guluzada, Leyla; Luo, Leilei; Pattky, Martin; Anwander, Reiner; Huhn, Carolin; Haderlein, Stefan


    Many organic pollutants tend to associate with particles in environment. Such interactions with solid surfaces may not only alter the reactivity and bioavailability of pesticides, but also their uptake. This alteration may occur both in the way and in the amount the compound enters the organisms. In its turn this may change the overall effects of these compounds on organisms and ecosystems. The main goal of the work presented here is to provide mechanistic information on the sorbate-sorbent interactions between nanoparticles and a set of pesticides under environmentally relevant and physiological conditions. As such, the work is part of the interdisciplinary graduate research program EXPAND at the University of Tübingen investigating molecular interactions between pesticides and particles to elucidate how such interactions impact the toxicological effects. To this end, natural and synthetic nanoparticles covering a wide range of physicochemical properties and pesticides for different target organisms were used. Sorption experiments were carried out with insecticides (imidacloprid; thiacloprid), fungicides (hexaconazole; propiconazole) and herbicides (glyphosate with its metabolite AMPA; glufosinate). The choice of the pesticides was based on their environmental significance and their mode of action. Both engineered nanoparticles with tailored surface properties and nanoparticles of natural origin were characterized and applied to cover various modes of sorptive interactions with the pesticides. The impact of various geochemical and physiological conditions including pH, temperature, ionic strength, background electrolytes and DOM (dissolved organic matter) on the sorption of the pesticides to nanoparticles was studied. Sorption kinetics and sorption isotherms were determined and the results are discussed in terms of predominant sorption mechanisms and the suitability of certain nanoparticles for toxicological studies in the framework of the EXPAND project.

  7. Sorption isotherm measurements by NMR. (United States)

    Leisen, Johannes; Beckham, Haskell W; Benham, Michael


    An experimental setup is described for the automated recording of sorption isotherms by NMR experiments at precisely defined levels of relative humidity (RH). Implementation is demonstrated for a cotton fabric; Bloch decays. T1 and T2* relaxation times were measured at predefined steps of increasing and decreasing relative humidities (RHs) so that a complete isotherm of NMR properties was obtained. Bloch decays were analyzed by fitting to relaxation functions consisting or a slow- and a fast-relaxing component. The fraction of slow-relaxing component was greater than the fraction of sorbed moisture determined from gravimetric sorption data. The excess slow-relaxing component was attributed to plasticized segments of the formerly rigid cellulose matrix. T1 and T2* sorption isotherms exhibit hysteresis similar to gravimetric sorption isotherms. However, correlating RH to moisture content (MC) reveals that both relaxation constants depend only on MC, and not on the history of moisture exposure.

  8. Negative Transference Numbers in Polymer Electrolytes (United States)

    Pesko, Danielle; Timachova, Ksenia; Balsara, Nitash

    Energy density and safety of conventional lithium-ion batteries is limited by the use of flammable organic liquids as a solvent for lithium salts. Polymer electrolytes have the potential to address both limitations. The poor performance of batteries with polymer electrolytes is generally attributed to low ionic conductivity. The purpose of our work is to show that another transport property, the cation transference number, t +, of polymer electrolytes is fundamentally different from that of conventional electrolytes. Our experimental approach, based on concentrated solution theory, indicates that t + of mixtures of poly(ethylene oxide) and LiTFSI salt are negative over most of the accessible concentration window. In contrast, approaches based on dilute solution theory suggest that t + in the same system is positive. In addition to presenting a new approach for determining t +, we also present data obtained from the steady-state current method, pulsed-field-gradient NMR, and the current-interrupt method. Discrepancies between different approaches are resolved. Our work implies that in the absence of concentration gradients, the net fluxes of both cations and anions are directed toward the positive electrode. Conventional liquid electrolytes do not suffer from this constraint.

  9. Recent results on aqueous electrolyte cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin


    The improved safety of aqueous electrolytes makes aqueous lithium-ion batteries an attractive alternative to commercial cells utilizing flammable and expensive organic electrolytes. Two important issues relating to their use have been addressed in this work. One is the extension of the usable voltage range by the incorporation of lithium salts, and the other is the investigation of a useful negative electrode reactant, LiTi 2(PO 4) 3. The electrochemical stability of aqueous lithium salt solutions containing two lithium salts, LiNO 3 and Li 2SO 4, has been characterized using a constant current technique. In both cases, concentrated solutions had effective electrolyte stability windows substantially greater than that of pure water under standard conditions. At an electrolyte leakage current of 10 μA cm -2 between two platinum electrodes in 5 M LiNO 3 the cell voltage can reach 2.0 V, whereas with a leakage current of 50 μA cm -2 it can reach 2.3 V. LiTi 2(PO 4) 3 was synthesized using a Pechini method and cycled in pH-neutral Li 2SO 4. At a reaction potential near the lower limit of electrolyte stability, an initial discharge capacity of 118 mAh g -1 was measured at a C/5 rate, while about 90% of this discharge capacity was retained after 100 cycles. This work demonstrates that it is possible to have useful aqueous electrolyte lithium-ion batteries using the LiTi 2(PO 4) 3 anode with cell voltages of 2 V and above. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrolytes including fluorinated solvents for use in electrochemical cells (United States)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan


    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. The electrolytes include ion-supplying salts and fluorinated solvents capable of maintaining single phase solutions with the salts at between about C. to about C. The fluorinated solvents, such as fluorinated carbonates, fluorinated esters, and fluorinated esters, are less flammable than their non-fluorinated counterparts and increase safety characteristics of cells containing these solvents. The amount of fluorinated solvents in electrolytes may be between about 30% and 80% by weight not accounting weight of the salts. Fluorinated salts, such as fluoroalkyl-substituted LiPF.sub.6, fluoroalkyl-substituted LiBF.sub.4 salts, linear and cyclic imide salts as well as methide salts including fluorinated alkyl groups, may be used due to their solubility in the fluorinated solvents. In some embodiments, the electrolyte may also include a flame retardant, such as a phosphazene or, more specifically, a cyclic phosphazene and/or one or more ionic liquids.

  11. Effect of glutamic acid on copper sorption onto kaolinite - Batch experiments and surface complexation modeling. (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Lotfollah; Barthen, Robert; Stockmann, Madlen; Gruendig, Marion; Franke, Karsten; Lippmann-Pipke, Johanna


    High carbonate content of the European Kupferschiefer ore deposits is a challenge for acid copper leaching (pH ≤ 2). Therefore investigating the mobility behavior of Cu(II) under conditions related to an alternative, neutrophil biohydrometallurgical Cu(II) leaching approach is of interest. As glutamic acid (Glu) might be present as a component in the growth media, we studied its effects on the adsorption of Cu(II) onto kaolinite. The binary and ternary batch sorption measurements of Cu(II) and Glu onto kaolinite were performed in the presence of 10 mM NaClO 4 as background electrolyte and at a pH range from 4 to 9. Sorption experiments were modeled by the charge-distribution multi-site ion complexation (CD-MUSIC) model by using single sorption site (≡SOH) and monodentate surface complexation reactions. Glu sorption on kaolinite is weak (copper mobility. The results of isotherms show that Cu(II)-Glu sorption onto kaolinite mimics the Freundlich model. The proposed CD-MUSIC model provides a close fit to the experimental data and predicts the sorption of Cu(II), Cu(II)-Glu and Glu onto kaolinite as well as the effect of Glu on Cu(II) mobility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. New polysaccharide-based polymer electrolytes; Nouveaux electrolytes polymeres a base de polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Morales, P.; Le Nest, J.F.; Gandini, A. [Ecole Francaise de Papeterie et des Industries Graphique, 38 - Saint Martin d`Heres (France)


    Polysaccharides like cellulose and chitosan are known for their filmic properties. This paper concerns the synthesis and the study of chitosan-based polymer electrolytes. A preliminary work concerns the study of glucosamine reactivity. The poly-condensation of chitosan ethers (obtained by reaction with ethylene oxide or propylene oxide) with bifunctional and monofunctional oligo-ethers leads to the formation of thin lattices (10 {mu}m) having excellent mechanical properties. The presence of grafted polyether chains along the polysaccharide skeleton allows to modify the vitreous transition temperature and the molecular disorder of the system. Two type of polymer electrolytes have been synthesized: electrolytes carrying a dissolved alkaline metal salt and ionomers. The analysis of their thermal, dynamical mechanical, nuclear magnetic relaxation, electrical, and electrochemical properties shows that this new class of polymer electrolytes has the same performances as ethylene poly-oxide based amorphous lattices plus the advantage of having good filmic properties. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  13. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen; Liu, Changle; Xu, Kang; Skotheim, Terje A.


    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  14. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.; Xu, K.; Skotheim, T.A.


    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  15. Conductivity through Polymer Electrolytes and Its Implications in Lithium-Ion Batteries: Real-World Application of Periodic Trends (United States)

    Compton, Owen C.; Egan, Martin; Kanakaraj, Rupa; Higgins, Thomas B.; Nguyen, SonBinh T.


    Periodic conductivity trends are placed in the scope of lithium-ion batteries, where increases in the ionic radii of salt components affect the conductivity of a poly(ethyleneoxide)-based polymer electrolyte. Numerous electrolytes containing varying concentrations and types of metal salts are prepared and evaluated in either one or two laboratory…

  16. Characterization of Pvp Based Solid Polymer Electrolytes Using Spectroscopic Techniques (United States)

    Ramya, C. S.; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Bhuvaneswari, M. S.; Savitha, T.


    Polymer electrolytes based on poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) - ammonium thiocyanate have beeri prepared by solution cast technique. The interaction of salt with the polymer has been examined using Raman spectroscopy. Results revealed that the interaction of the salt has been found to be through the carbonyl group of the polymer matrix. Conductivity measurements showed that these systems conduct ionically. The possible correlation between the conductivity and the structure of these electrolytic systems was also investigated which shows that the conductivity values are directly related to the total "free anion" concentration. Conductivity analysis showed that the addition of ammonium thiocyanate as a dopant in the polymeric electrolyte system enhanced the ionic conductivity. 20 mol% ammonium thiocyanate doped polymer electrolyte exhibits high ionic conductivity and has been found to be 1.7 × 10-4 S cm-1, at room temperature.

  17. Ion-Chain Dynamics in Polymer Electrolytes


    Carlos, L. D.; Videira, A. L. L.


    Representing polyether-salt systems by chains of interacting coordination shells, defined by the cation and by its nearest ligands, we derive the interaction potential between closest shells -- the inter-shells potential -- in terms of two-electron polarization effects. Values are presented for monovalent-based crystalline poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, electrolytes. For the eutectic composition $\\text{PEO}_{12} \\text{EuBr}_3$, the inter-shells energy is evaluated also by relating the empirical v...

  18. Effect of Electrolytes on the Adsorption of Nitrite and Nitrate from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrite and nitrate levels were quantitatively adsorbed to wood-derived activated carbon in aqueous system and the effects of electrolytes investigated in this study using batch sorption process. The data showed that nitrate adsorbed nearly 1.5 times higher than that of nitrite. The adsorption is adequately explained by ...

  19. Effect of Electrolytes on the Adsorption of Nitrite and Nitrate from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    derived activated carbon in aqueous system and the effects of electrolytes investigated in this study using batch sorption process. The data showed that nitrate adsorbed nearly 1.5 times higher than that of nitrite. The adsorption is adequately ...

  20. Energy storage devices having anodes containing Mg and electrolytes utilized therein (United States)

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun


    For a metal anode in a battery, the capacity fade is a significant consideration. In energy storage devices having an anode that includes Mg, the cycling stability can be improved by an electrolyte having a first salt, a second salt, and an organic solvent. Examples of the organic solvent include diglyme, triglyme, tetraglyme, or a combination thereof. The first salt can have a magnesium cation and be substantially soluble in the organic solvent. The second salt can enhance the solubility of the first salt and can have a magnesium cation or a lithium cation. The first salt, the second salt, or both have a BH.sub.4 anion.

  1. Sorption isotherms, GAB parameters and isosteric heat of sorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quirijns, E.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Straten, van G.


    The diffusion-sorption drying model has been developed as a physics-based way to model the decreasing drying rate at low moisture contents. This new model is founded on the existence of different classes of water: free and bound water. The transition between these classes and the corresponding

  2. Polymer electrolytes based on aromatic lithium sulfonyl-imide compounds; Electrolytes polymeres a base de sulfonylimidures de lithium aromatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reibel, L.; Bayoudh, S. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France). Institut Charles Sadron; Baudry, P. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Majastre, H. [Bollore Technologies, 29 - Quimper (France); Herlem, G. [UFR de Sciences et Techniques, L.E.S., 25 - Besancon (France)


    This paper presents ionic conductivity results obtained with polymer electrolytes and also with propylene carbonate solutions. The domain of electrochemical activity of this salt has been determined using cycle volt-amperometry in propylene carbonate. Preliminary experiments on the stability of the polymer electrolyte with respect to the lithium electrode have been carried out for a possible subsequent use in lithium batteries. (J.S.) 4 refs.

  3. Nonflammable perfluoropolyether-based electrolytes for lithium batteries. (United States)

    Wong, Dominica H C; Thelen, Jacob L; Fu, Yanbao; Devaux, Didier; Pandya, Ashish A; Battaglia, Vincent S; Balsara, Nitash P; DeSimone, Joseph M


    The flammability of conventional alkyl carbonate electrolytes hinders the integration of large-scale lithium-ion batteries in transportation and grid storage applications. In this study, we have prepared a unique nonflammable electrolyte composed of low molecular weight perfluoropolyethers and bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium salt. These electrolytes exhibit thermal stability beyond 200 °C and a remarkably high transference number of at least 0.91 (more than double that of conventional electrolytes). Li/LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cells made with this electrolyte show good performance in galvanostatic cycling, confirming their potential as rechargeable lithium batteries with enhanced safety and longevity.

  4. Nonflammable perfluoropolyether-based electrolytes for lithium batteries (United States)

    Wong, Dominica H. C.; Thelen, Jacob L.; Fu, Yanbao; Devaux, Didier; Pandya, Ashish A.; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Balsara, Nitash P.; DeSimone, Joseph M.


    The flammability of conventional alkyl carbonate electrolytes hinders the integration of large-scale lithium-ion batteries in transportation and grid storage applications. In this study, we have prepared a unique nonflammable electrolyte composed of low molecular weight perfluoropolyethers and bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium salt. These electrolytes exhibit thermal stability beyond 200 °C and a remarkably high transference number of at least 0.91 (more than double that of conventional electrolytes). Li/LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cells made with this electrolyte show good performance in galvanostatic cycling, confirming their potential as rechargeable lithium batteries with enhanced safety and longevity. PMID:24516123

  5. Electrical properties of cellulose acetate-based polymer gel electrolytes (United States)

    Abidin, S. Z. Z.; Ali, A. M.; Jaafar, N. K.; Yahya, M. Z. A.


    Polymer gel electrolytes based on cellulose acetate with lithium bis(oxalato)borate salt were prepared by dissolving in γ-butyrolactone solvent. The ionic conductivity and dielectric constant of the polymer gel electrolyte samples are investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy over a frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz. The ionic conductivity increased with increasing in the cellulose acetate concentration up to 2.4 wt.% (1.41 × 10-2 S cm-1) and thereafter decreased. The relationship between the dielectric constant and ionic conductivity has been interpreted. The optimum conducting polymer gel electrolyte shows electrochemical stability up to 4.7 V versus Li.

  6. Sorption media for stormwater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild


    Five sorption materials were studied with focus on polishing pretreated stormwater: crushed limestone, shell-sand, zeolite and two granulates of olivine. These materials are commercially available at comparatively low cost and have been subjected to a minimum of modification from their natural st...... be designed for long life expectancy at comparatively low cost by applying the materials tested....

  7. Moisture Sorption in Porous Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang


    Abstract: Information on pore geometry is very important in any study of the mechanical and physical behavior of porous materials. Unfortunately pores are not very accessible for direct measurements. Indirect methods have to be used which involve impregnation (sorption) experiments from which...... in the subject considered this software is available on request to the author. Keywords: Porous materials, moisture, adsorption, desorption, BET-parameters....

  8. Sorption properties of modified zeolit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beikut Balgysheva


    Full Text Available The modification of zeolites in the presence of sodium phosphate hydrogen in a mechanical chemical activation (type of mill is “NATO” №2607 was carried out. High degree of sorption of k =87.5% at a ratio of zeolite : Mn2+ = 1 : 150 and duration 60 min, СMn2+ -1000 mkg/L was determined.

  9. A High Efficiency Chlorophyll Sensitized Solar Cell with Quasi Solid PVA Based Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Hassan


    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the performance of chlorophyll sensitized solar cells (CSSCs with gel electrolyte based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA with single iodide salt (potassium iodide (KI and double salt (KI and tetrapropylammonium iodide (TPAI. Chlorophyll was extracted from the bryophyte Hyophila involuta. The CSSC with electrolyte containing only KI salt produced a short circuit current density (Jsc of 4.59 mA cm−2, open circuit voltage (Voc of 0.61 V, fill factor (FF of 0.64, and efficiency (η of 1.77%. However, the CSSC with double salt electrolyte exhibited Jsc of 5.96 mA cm−2, Voc of 0.58 V, fill factor FF of 0.58, and η of 2.00%. Since CSSC with double salt electrolyte showed better efficiency, other cells fabricated will use the double salt electrolyte. On addition of 0.7 M tetrabutyl pyridine (TBP to the double salt electrolyte, the cell’s efficiency increased to 2.17%, Jsc=5.37 mA cm−2, Voc=0.55 V, and FF = 0.73. With 5 mM chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA added to the chlorophyll, the light to electricity efficiency increased to 2.62% with Jsc of 8.44 mA cm−2, Voc of 0.54 V, and FF of 0.58.

  10. Physiological and proteomic responses of diploid and tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) subjected to salt stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhiming; Wang, Mingyue; Liu, Likun; Meng, Fanjuan


    .... After salt treatment, plant growth was inhibited, photosynthesis was reduced, reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde content, and relative electrolyte leakage increased, and defense-related enzyme...

  11. Effects of Solvent Composition on Liquid Range, Glass Transition, and Conductivity of Electrolytes of a (Li, Cs)PF6 Salt in EC-PC-EMC Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Michael S.; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Xing; Xu, Wu; Xu, Kang


    Electrolytes of 1 M LiPF6 (lithium hexafluorophosphate) and 0.05 M CsPF6 (cesium hexafluorophosphate) in EC-PC-EMC (ethylene carbonate-propylene carbonate-ethyl methyl carbonate) solvents of varying solvent compositions were studied for the effects of solvent composition on the lower limit of liquid range, viscosity (as reflected by the glass transition temperature), and electrolytic conductivity. In addition, a ternary phase diagram of EC-PC-EMC was constructed and crystallization temperatures of EC and EMC were calculated to assist the interpretation and understanding of the change of liquid range with solvent composition. A function based on Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation was fitted to the conductivity data in their entirety and plotted as conductivity surfaces in solvent composition space for more direct and clear comparisons and discussions. Changes of viscosity and dielectric constant of the solvents with their composition, in relation to those of the solvent components, were found to be underlying many of the processes studied.

  12. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes Containing Flame Retardant Additives for Increased Safety Characteristics (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Smith, Kiah A. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick Charles (Inventor)


    The invention discloses various embodiments of Li-ion electrolytes containing flame retardant additives that have delivered good performance over a wide temperature range, good cycle life characteristics, and improved safety characteristics, namely, reduced flammability. In one embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a fluorinated co-solvent, a flame retardant additive, and a lithium salt. In another embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film forming agent, and a lithium salt.

  13. INNER SALTS (United States)

    been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a...Products that have been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a mesomeric inner salt . (Author)...Novel phosphonium and phosphorane compounds ere prepared by a variety of m hods from triphenylphosphine and methylene bromide. Products that have

  14. Charge Transport in Nonaqueous Liquid Electrolytes: A Paradigm Shift (United States)


    where the exponential prefactor is a function of the temperature-dependent static dielectric constant. We discovered a scaling procedure in which...Daniel T. Glatzhofer, Roger Frech. Mass and Charge Transport in Cyclic Carbonates: Implications forImproved Lithium Ion Battery Electrolytes, J...trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate). Most of our work focused on two salts: lithium triflate and tetrabutylammomium triflate. Although these two salts have a

  15. A simple apparatus for the measurement of colligative properties in aqueous electrolyte systems: an educational approach


    Pinho, Simão; Macedo, Eugénia A.


    The importance of systems with electrolytes is well known nowadays, and many examples can be given about their industrial applications. However, at undergraduate level the properties of electrolyte solutions are neither theoretically nor experimental]y focused in accordance to the role they play in chemical industry. In this work simple equipment for the measurement of freezing point depression due to the presence of strong electrolytes in water is introduced. A study with the salts NaCI...

  16. Sorption Characteristics of Organic Powder Sorption Material in Fluidized Bed with a Cooling Pipe (United States)

    Horibe, Akihiko; Husain, Syahrul; Inaba, Hideo; Haruki, Naoto

    The dynamic sorption characteristics of organic sorbent materials have been studied by using fluidized bed with a cooling pipe. The organic powder type sorbent made from a bridged complex of sodium polyacrylate which is one of the sorption polymers is adopted in this study. Sorption rate of water vapor and the variation of temperature in the sorbent bed with time were measured under various conditions. As a result, sorption ratio increases and the completion time for the sorption process decreases by using a cooling pipe. Furthermore, the non-dimensional correlation equations were obtained for water vapor mass transfer under sorption process in terms of relevant non-dimensional parameters.

  17. New low temperature electrolytes with thermal runaway inhibition for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries (United States)

    Mandal, Braja K.; Padhi, Akshaya K.; Shi, Zhong; Chakraborty, Sudipto; Filler, Robert

    This paper describes a low temperature electrolyte system for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. The electrolyte exhibits high ionic conductivity, good electrochemical stability and no exothermic reaction in the presence of lithium metal. The system features a low lattice energy lithium salt in a specific mixture of carbonate solvents and a novel thermal runaway inhibitor.

  18. Complex hydrides as room-temperature solid electrolytes for rechargeable batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, P. E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186125372; Blanchard, D.; Matsuo, M.; Udovic, T. J.; Orimo, S.

    A central goal in current battery research is to increase the safety and energy density of Li-ion batteries. Electrolytes nowadays typically consist of lithium salts dissolved in organic solvents. Solid electrolytes could facilitate safer batteries with higher capacities, as they are compatible with

  19. Complex hydrides as room-temperature solid electrolytes for rechargeable batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, P. E. de; Blanchard, D.; Matsuo, M.


    A central goal in current battery research is to increase the safety and energy density of Li-ion batteries. Electrolytes nowadays typically consist of lithium salts dissolved in organic solvents. Solid electrolytes could facilitate safer batteries with higher capacities, as they are compatible w...

  20. A comparative study on metal sorption by brown seaweed. (United States)

    Tsui, Martin T K; Cheung, K C; Tam, Nora F Y; Wong, M H


    This study compared the sorption of Ag, Cd, Co, Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn by a Ca-treated Sargassum biomass at pH 5.0, under low and high ionic strength (IS) conditions. The sorption isotherms of As [As(V)] and Cr [Cr(III) and Cr(VI)] were also determined at low IS. The isotherm data for the eight cationic metals and Cr(III) were well fitted by Langmuir equations. Generally, the maximum metal uptake (Umax) followed: Cr(III) > Pb approximately Cu > Ag approximately Zn approximately Cd > Ni approximately Mn approximately Co > Cr(VI) > As(V) at low IS and Pb > Cu > Co > Mn approximately Cd > Zn approximately Ag > Ni at high IS. As(V) did not bind to the seaweed at pH 5.0. The results indicated that sorption of Pb was not affected by the increasing IS, though the percentage of free Pb ions in the water was greatly reduced as predicted by the speciation model. High IS lowered Umax by 10-36% (except Co and Pb), and lowered the affinity constant of the metal by 33-91% for all cationic metals, as compared to low IS. Moreover, the removal efficiency of the cationic metals and Cr decreased exponentially with initial metal concentrations and was lower at high IS. Ion-exchange was the mechanism responsible for the cationic metal sorption onto the seaweed, and Na ion interfered with the cationic metal binding through electrostatic interaction. In conclusion, this study showed the differential binding capacity of the Sargassm biomass for different metals and oxidation states and the differential effects of IS. According to the present results, Sargassum may be considered a good biosorbent for cationic metals (especially Pb) in both low and high-salt containing wastewater.

  1. Sorption of perfluoroalkyl substances in sewage sludge. (United States)

    Milinovic, Jelena; Lacorte, Silvia; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel


    The sorption behaviour of three perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) (perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS)) was studied in sewage sludge samples. Sorption isotherms were obtained by varying initial concentrations of PFOS, PFOA and PFBS. The maximum values of the sorption solid-liquid distribution coefficients (Kd,max) varied by almost two orders of magnitude among the target PFASs: 140-281 mL g(-1) for PFOS, 30-54 mL g(-1) for PFOA and 9-18 mL g(-1) for PFBS. Freundlich and linear fittings were appropriate for describing the sorption behaviour of PFASs in the sludge samples, and the derived KF and Kd,linear parameters correlated well. The hydrophobicity of the PFASs was the key parameter that influenced their sorption in sewage sludge. Sorption parameters and log(KOW) were correlated, and for PFOS (the most hydrophobic compound), pH and Ca + Mg status of the sludge controlled the variation in the sorption parameter values. Sorption reversibility was also tested from desorption isotherms, which were also linear. Desorption parameters were systematically higher than the corresponding sorption parameters (up to sixfold higher), thus indicating a significant degree of irreversible sorption, which decreased in the sequence PFOS > PFOA > PFBS.

  2. based gel polymer electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vity at ambient temperature (Wright 1975; Martuscelli et al 1984). Generally solid polymer electrolytes have many advantages, viz. high ionic conductivity, high specific energy, wide electrochemical stability windows, light and easy processibility. Apart from this, polymer electrolyte studies have been carried out in poly(vinyl ...

  3. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Polyvinylalcohol Based Gel Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirwan Syarif


    Full Text Available Research on the effect of electrolyte ammonium salt, concentration electrolyte with plasticizer to ionic and electronic conductivity of polymer gel electrolyte has been conducted with the variations of two electrolyte NH4Cl-PVA and NH4SCN-PVA at a concentration of 10, 30, 40 (wt%. The measurement of using ionic conductivity by using impedance spectroscopy method showed that the highest value was 0.0156 Scm-1 i.e. in the 54.6% propilen carbonate with 40% NH4Cl and PVA. The lowest value was 0.009 Scm-1 i.e. in the NH4SCN based electrolyte without propilene carbonate and electronic conductivity showed that the highest value was 0.0156 Scm-1 i.e. 40% NH4Cl-PVA and NH4SCN-PVA and the lowest value was 0.009 Scm-1, i.e. in the NH4SCN based electrolyte without propilene carbonate. Factorial analyses showed that the concentrations of electrolyte and the plasticizer affect conductivity value. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared measurement showed that the addition of propilene carbonate did not show new bond formation between electrolyte and PVA. It can be shown in absence of characteristic wave number for propilene carbonate and NH4+ ion.

  4. Understanding Ion Transport in Epoxy-based Polymer Electrolyte (United States)

    Choi, U. Hyeok; Jang, Hyekyeong; Jung, Byung Mun; Lee, Sang-Bok

    We prepare epoxy-based networked polymer electrolytes including Li salts with either ionic liquids or plastic crystals. The epoxy resins are particularly attractive as polymer matrices for solid polymer electrolytes due to their high mechanical performance combined with good adhesive properties. The selected electrolyte components are allowed to boost ionic conductivity owing to solvating the Li cation and plasticizing the epoxy matrix. As a result, the curing of a homogeneous mixture of epoxy and electrolyte can generate a two-phase system in which the epoxy phase is selected to provide mechanical strength and the electrolyte phase is selected to maximize ionic conductivity. Here, we conduct an investigation of the effect of electrolyte types and their concentration on the conductometric, dielectric and rheological properties of epoxy-based networked polymer electrolytes, using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy and oscillatory shear. These results are complemented by morphology studies in order to understand structure-property relations. Our study leads to insight regarding optimal design of multifunctional electrolytes for energy storage devices.

  5. Human Water and Electrolyte Balance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montain, S. J; Cheuvront, S. N; Carter, R; Sawka, M. N


    .... Sweat losses, if not replaced, reduce body water volume and electrolyte content. Excessive body water or electrolyte losses can disrupt physiological homeostasis and threaten both health and performance...

  6. Towards Prognostics of Electrolytic Capacitors (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A remaining useful life prediction algorithm and degradation model for electrolytic capacitors is presented. Electrolytic capacitors are used in several applications...

  7. Molten-salt synthesis of oxyapatite La{sub 9.33}Si{sub 6}O{sub 26} powders as electrolytes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhaoxiang [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wenhua College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Buyin; Liu, Jia [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)


    Lanthanum silicate oxy-apatites are thought of as ytrria-stabilized zirconia substitutes in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells. Lanthanum silicate oxy-apatite powders La{sub 9.33}Si{sub 6}O{sub 26} are successfully synthesized at lower temperature by a molten-salt method. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and precision impedance analysis used to characterize the structure, appearance, and conductivity of La{sub 9.33}Si{sub 6}O{sub 26}. The results indicate that the apatite phase has been synthesized. The synthesis method decreases the synthesis temperature by about 300 C in comparison to the conventional solid-state reaction route and obtains homogeneous and nanosize powders. Dense ceramics have been prepared at sintering temperatures around 1450 C. The used of molten-salt powders allows a decrease of the dense ceramic pellet sintering temperature of about 200 C. The ceramic pellets sintering at 1550 C for 4 h have a relative density of 92% and an electrical conductivity of 1.1 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 700 C, higher than the some reported for the solid-state synthesis method and the sol-gel method. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Fire-extinguishing organic electrolytes for safe batteries (United States)

    Wang, Jianhui; Yamada, Yuki; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Watanabe, Eriko; Takada, Koji; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Atsuo


    Severe safety concerns are impeding the large-scale employment of lithium/sodium batteries. Conventional electrolytes are highly flammable and volatile, which may cause catastrophic fires or explosions. Efforts to introduce flame-retardant solvents into the electrolytes have generally resulted in compromised battery performance because those solvents do not suitably passivate carbonaceous anodes. Here we report a salt-concentrated electrolyte design to resolve this dilemma via the spontaneous formation of a robust inorganic passivation film on the anode. We demonstrate that a concentrated electrolyte using a salt and a popular flame-retardant solvent (trimethyl phosphate), without any additives or soft binders, allows stable charge-discharge cycling of both hard-carbon and graphite anodes for more than 1,000 cycles (over one year) with negligible degradation; this performance is comparable or superior to that of conventional flammable carbonate electrolytes. The unusual passivation character of the concentrated electrolyte coupled with its fire-extinguishing property contributes to developing safe and long-lasting batteries, unlocking the limit toward development of much higher energy-density batteries.

  9. Lithium ion conducting solid polymer blend electrolyte based on bio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) with different Mwt% of lithium nitrate (LiNO3) salt, using a solution cast technique, have been prepared. The polymer blend electrolyte has been characterized by XRD, FTIR, DSC and ...

  10. Lithium air batteries having ether-based electrolytes (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Curtiss, Larry A.; Lu, Jun; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Sun, Yang-Kook


    A lithium-air battery includes a cathode including a porous active carbon material, a separator, an anode including lithium, and an electrolyte including a lithium salt and polyalkylene glycol ether, where the porous active carbon material is free of a metal-based catalyst.

  11. Li-air batteries having ether-based electrolytes (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Curtiss, Larry A; Lu, Jun; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Sun, Yang-Kook


    A lithium-air battery includes a cathode including a porous active carbon material, a separator, an anode including lithium, and an electrolyte including a lithium salt and polyalkylene glycol ether, where the porous active carbon material is free of a metal-based catalyst.

  12. Solubility of non-polar gases in electrolyte solutions (United States)

    Walker, R. L., Jr.


    Solubility theory describes the effects of both concentration and temperature on solute activity coefficients. It predicts the salting-out effect and the decrease in solubility of non-polar gases with increased electrolyte concentration, and can be used to calculate heats of solution, entropies, and partial molal volumes of dissolved gases

  13. Safer Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: State of the Art and Perspectives. (United States)

    Kalhoff, Julian; Eshetu, Gebrekidan Gebresilassie; Bresser, Dominic; Passerini, Stefano


    Lithium-ion batteries are becoming increasingly important for electrifying the modern transportation system and, thus, hold the promise to enable sustainable mobility in the future. However, their large-scale application is hindered by severe safety concerns when the cells are exposed to mechanical, thermal, or electrical abuse conditions. These safety issues are intrinsically related to their superior energy density, combined with the (present) utilization of highly volatile and flammable organic-solvent-based electrolytes. Herein, state-of-the-art electrolyte systems and potential alternatives are briefly surveyed, with a particular focus on their (inherent) safety characteristics. The challenges, which so far prevent the widespread replacement of organic carbonate-based electrolytes with LiPF6 as the conducting salt, are also reviewed herein. Starting from rather "facile" electrolyte modifications by (partially) replacing the organic solvent or lithium salt and/or the addition of functional electrolyte additives, conceptually new electrolyte systems, including ionic liquids, solvent-free, and/or gelled polymer-based electrolytes, as well as solid-state electrolytes, are also considered. Indeed, the opportunities for designing new electrolytes appear to be almost infinite, which certainly complicates strict classification of such systems and a fundamental understanding of their properties. Nevertheless, these innumerable opportunities also provide a great chance of developing highly functionalized, new electrolyte systems, which may overcome the afore-mentioned safety concerns, while also offering enhanced mechanical, thermal, physicochemical, and electrochemical performance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Electrolyte for batteries with regenerative solid electrolyte interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Shao, Yuyan; Bennett, Wendy D.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang


    An energy storage device comprising: an anode; and a solute-containing electrolyte composition wherein the solute concentration in the electrolyte composition is sufficiently high to form a regenerative solid electrolyte interface layer on a surface of the anode only during charging of the energy storage device, wherein the regenerative layer comprises at least one solute or solvated solute from the electrolyte composition.

  15. Phenanthrene Sorption on Biochar-Amended Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumari, K. G I D; Moldrup, Per; Paradelo, Marcos


    on their influences on the sorption of environmental contaminants. In a field-based study at two experimental sites in Denmark, we investigated the effect of birch wood-derived biochar (Skogans kol) on the sorption of phenanthrene in soils with different properties. The soil sorption coefficient, Kd (L kg-1......), of phenanthrene was measured on sandy loam and loamy sand soils which have received from zero up to 100 t ha-1 of biochar. Results show that birch wood biochar had a higher Kd compared to soils. Furthermore, the application of birch wood biochar enhanced the sorption of phenanthrene in agricultural soils...

  16. Moisture sorption in naturally coloured cotton fibres (United States)

    Ceylan, Ö.; De Clerck, K.


    Increasing environmental concerns have stimulated an interest in naturally coloured cottons. As many commercial and technical performance aspects of cotton fibres are influenced by their response towards atmospheric humidity, an in-depth research on moisture sorption behaviour of these fibres using dynamic vapour sorption is carried out. Significant differences were observed in sorption capacity and hysteresis behaviour of brown and green cotton fibres. These differences are mainly attributed to the variations in maturity and crystallinity index of the fibres. This study provides valuable insights into the moisture sorption behaviour of naturally coloured cotton fibres.

  17. Thermodynamic properties of gases dissolved in electrolyte solutions. (United States)

    Tiepel, E. W.; Gubbins, K. E.


    A method based on perturbation theory for mixtures is applied to the prediction of thermodynamic properties of gases dissolved in electrolyte solutions. The theory is compared with experimental data for the dependence of the solute activity coefficient on concentration, temperature, and pressure; calculations are included for partial molal enthalpy and volume of the dissolved gas. The theory is also compared with previous theories for salt effects and found to be superior. The calculations are best for salting-out systems. The qualitative feature of salting-in is predicted by the theory, but quantitative predictions are not satisfactory for such systems; this is attributed to approximations made in evaluating the perturbation terms.

  18. Ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates sorption from simulated reclaimed waters by modified clinoptilolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huo, Hanxin [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education of China for High-Efficient Mining and Safety of Metal Mines, Beijing 100083 (China); Lin, Hai, E-mail: [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education of China for High-Efficient Mining and Safety of Metal Mines, Beijing 100083 (China); Dong, Yingbo; Cheng, Huang; Wang, Han; Cao, Lixia [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education of China for High-Efficient Mining and Safety of Metal Mines, Beijing 100083 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The salt and thermally modified clinoptilolite can effectively sorb NH{sub 3}-N and phosphates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorus and nitrogen removal was consistent with Langmuir isotherm model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modified clinoptilolite possesses rapid adsorption and slow balance characteristics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption is more in line with the Elovich adsorption dynamics equation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The entropy effect plays the role of the main driving force in the adsorption. - Abstract: This paper presents the investigation of the ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates sorption from simulated reclaimed wastewater by modified clinoptilolite. The results showed that the modified clinoptilolite has a high sorption efficiency and removal performance. The ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates removal rate of the modified clinoptilolite reached to 98.46% and 99.80%, respectively. The surface of modified clinoptilolite became loose and some pores appeared, which enlarged the specific surface area; the contents of Na and Fe increased, and the contents of Ca and Mg decreased. The modified clinoptilolite possesses rapid sorption and slow balance characteristics and ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates sorption is more consistent with the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics of ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates follows the Elovich adsorption dynamics equation, which describes the sorption of ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates in aqueous solution as mainly a chemical sorption. Results from the thermodynamics experiment involving ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates sorption reveal that the process is a spontaneous and endothermic process, and is mainly driven by entropy effect.

  19. Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Liquid or Inorganic Solid Electrolytes. (United States)

    Yu, Xingwen; Manthiram, Arumugam


    Electrode-electrolyte interfacial properties play a vital role in the cycling performance of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The issues at an electrode-electrolyte interface include electrochemical and chemical reactions occurring at the interface, formation mechanism of interfacial layers, compositional/structural characteristics of the interfacial layers, ionic transport across the interface, and thermodynamic and kinetic behaviors at the interface. Understanding the above critical issues is paramount for the development of strategies to enhance the overall performance of Li-S batteries. Liquid electrolytes commonly used in Li-S batteries bear resemblance to those employed in traditional lithium-ion batteries, which are generally composed of a lithium salt dissolved in a solvent matrix. However, due to a series of unique features associated with sulfur or polysulfides, ether-based solvents are generally employed in Li-S batteries rather than simply adopting the carbonate-type solvents that are generally used in the traditional Li+-ion batteries. In addition, the electrolytes of Li-S batteries usually comprise an important additive, LiNO3. The unique electrolyte components of Li-S batteries do not allow us to directly take the interfacial theories of the traditional Li+-ion batteries and apply them to Li-S batteries. On the other hand, during charging/discharging a Li-S battery, the dissolved polysulfide species migrate through the battery separator and react with the Li anode, which magnifies the complexity of the interfacial problems of Li-S batteries. However, current Li-S battery development paths have primarily been energized by advances in sulfur cathodes. Insight into the electrode-electrolyte interfacial behaviors has relatively been overshadowed. In this Account, we first examine the state-of-the-art contributions in understanding the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on the Li-metal anode and sulfur cathode in conventional liquid-electrolyte Li

  20. Effect of soil composition and dissolved organic matter on pesticide sorption. (United States)

    Spark, K M; Swift, R S


    The effect of the solid and dissolved organic matter fractions, mineral composition and ionic strength of the soil solution on the sorption behaviour of pesticides were studied. A number of soils, chosen so as to have different clay mineral and organic carbon content, were used to study the sorption of the pesticides atrazine (6-chloro-N2-ethyl-N4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), 2,4-D ((2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid), isoproturon (3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) and paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) in the presence of low and high levels of dissolved organic carbon and different background electrolytes. The sorption behaviour of atrazine, isoproturon and paraquat was dominated by the solid state soil components and the presence of dissolved organic matter had little effect. The sorption of 2,4-D was slightly affected by the soluble organic matter in the soil. However, this effect may be due to competition for adsorption sites between the pesticide and the soluble organic matter rather than due to a positive interaction between the pesticide and the soluble fraction of soil organic matter. It is concluded that the major factor governing the sorption of these pesticides is the solid state organic fraction with the clay mineral content also making a significant contribution. The dissolved organic carbon fraction of the total organic carbon in the soil and the ionic strength of the soil solution appear to have little or no effect on the sorption/transport characteristics of these pesticides over the range of concentrations studied.

  1. Electrolytic refining of gold


    Wohlwill, Emil


    At the request of the editor of ELECTROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY, I herewith give some notes on the electrolytic method of gold refining, to supplement the article of Dr. Tuttle (Vol. I, page 157, January, 1903).

  2. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes (United States)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik


    Anion exchange polymer electrolytes that include guanidinium functionalized polymers may be used as membranes and binders for electrocatalysts in preparation of anodes for electrochemical cells such as solid alkaline fuel cells.

  3. Determination of the deliquesce point in double salts and in in-situ multicomponent salts with DVS equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge


    Accelerated salt induced deterioration occurs by frequently changes across the deliquescence point. Therefore does the actual deliquescence point of the present salts have a major impact on preventive conservation being able to ensure a relative humidity not causing salt phase transition and to in......-situ desalination as dissolution of the salts is the essential criterion to enable transport of salt (ions) in the construction. In the present work deliquescence points were measured with dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) equipment in salt mixtures and the results are shown to be in agreement with values from...... the literature. Also in-situ-multi salt samples were measured including the difference between the second critical relative humidity and the efflorescence relative humidity being a measure for the critical supersaturation required for crystallization at the specific experimental conditions. The DVS equipment...

  4. Nonlinear effects of electrolyte diodes and transistors in a polymer gel medium. (United States)

    Hegedus, Laszlo; Kirschner, Norbert; Wittmann, Maria; Simon, Peter; Noszticzius, Zoltan; Amemiya, Takashi; Ohmori, Takao; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko


    The polarization curve of an acid-base interface in a hydrogel medium has a diode characteristic. Two of each such electrolyte diodes can be combined to give an electrolyte transistor. When a salt is added to the alkaline or to the acidic part of a reverse biased electrolyte diode, the current response is highly nonlinear. If the salt is added to the acidic side, even bistability can be observed. This bistability can generate complex oscillations in a base-acid-base electrolyte transistor. These nonlinear effects are studied experimentally and theoretically. While the nonlinear salt effect can be explained with the Nernst-Planck equations, to understand the bistable behavior further investigations are necessary. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Optimization of non-aqueous electrolytes for Primary lithium/air batteries operated in Ambient Enviroment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jiguang


    The selection and optimization of non-aqueous electrolytes for ambient operations of lithium/air batteries has been studied. Organic solvents with low volatility and low moisture absorption are necessary to minimize the change of electrolyte compositions and the reaction between lithium anode and water during discharge process. It is critical to make the electrolytes with high polarity so that it can reduce wetting and flooding of carbon based air electrode and lead to improved battery performance. For ambient operations, the viscosity, ionic conductivity, and oxygen solubility of the electrolyte are less important than the polarity of organic solvents once the electrolyte has reasonable viscosity, conductivity, and oxygen solubility. It has been found that PC/EC mixture is the best solvent system and LiTFSI is the most feasible salt for ambient operations of Li/air batteries. Battery performance is not very sensitive to PC/EC ratio or salt concentration.

  6. Removal of Oil Spills from Salt Water by Magnesium, Calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnesium, calcium carbonates and oxides that are widely used in cement industries were employed in studying sorption of petroleum oil spills from salt water at different condition parameters such as temperature, loading weight, degree of salinity. Treatment of magnesium, calcium carbonates and oxides by dodecyl ...

  7. Electric current-producing device having sulfone-based electrolyte (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen; Sun, Xiao-Guang


    Electrolytic solvents and applications of such solvents including electric current-producing devices. For example, a solvent can include a sulfone compound of R1--SO2--R2, with R1 being an alkyl group and R2 a partially oxygenated alkyl group, to exhibit high chemical and thermal stability and high oxidation resistance. For another example, a battery can include, between an anode and a cathode, an electrolyte which includes ionic electrolyte salts and a non-aqueous electrolyte solvent which includes a non-symmetrical, non-cyclic sulfone. The sulfone has a formula of R1--SO2--R2, wherein R1 is a linear or branched alkyl or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms, and R2 is a linear or branched or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched oxygen containing alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms. The electrolyte can include an electrolyte co-solvent and an electrolyte additive for protective layer formation.

  8. The investigation of electrolytic surface roughening for PCB copper foil (United States)

    Lee, Shuo-Jen; Liu, Chao-Kai


    This study is the application of the principle of electrochemical. The anodic dissolution has no concentration polarization. Hence, electrolyte life is substantially increased. The waste copper is high in ion concentration with a recovery value. As compared with the current PCB chemical pre-treatment method, it may have advantages of cost-saving, improvement of overall efficiency, reduction of production costs and reduction of the amount of waste generated. In the development of the copper foil for electrochemical roughening process, the use of electrolysis reaction affects the copper surface dissolution to form a unique bump coarsening. It will increase in the surface area of the copper foil to improve dry film solder mask and the adhesion between the copper surfaces. Four electrolytes, two neutral salts and two acids, were selected to explore the best of the electrolytic roughening parameters of temperature, time and voltage. The surface roughness and the surface morphology of the copper foil were measured before and after the electrolytic surface roughening. Finally, after repeated experiments, electrolytes A and B copper generates obvious inter-granular corrosion, resulting in a rough surface similar to the chemical pre-treatment. On the other hands, the surface morphology resulted from electrolytes C and D appears more like pitting. Both electrolytic could generate surface roughness of Ra 0.3 um roughened copper surface higher than industrial standard.

  9. Regenerative sorption compressors for cryogenic refrigeration (United States)

    Bard, Steven; Jones, Jack A.

    Dramatic efficiency improvements for sorption coolers appear possible with use of compressor heat regeneration techniques. The general theory of sorption compressor heat regeneration is discussed in this paper, and several design concepts are presented. These designs result in long-life, low-vibration cryocoolers that potentially have efficiencies comparable to Stirling refrigerators for 65 to 90 K spacecraft instrument cooling applications.

  10. Phosphorus sorption isotherms and external phosphorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on P sorption characteristics of soils is important for making profitable P fertiliser recommendations and designing appropriate P management strategies for improving crop productivity. An experiment was conducted to determine the P sorption capacities and external P requirements (EPR) of some soils of ...

  11. Developing New Electrolytes for Advanced Li-ion Batteries (United States)

    McOwen, Dennis Wayne

    The use of renewable energy sources is on the rise, as new energy generating technologies continue to become more efficient and economical. Furthermore, the advantages of an energy infrastructure which relies more on sustainable and renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly apparent. The most readily available of these renewable energy sources, wind and solar energy in particular, are naturally intermittent. Thus, to enable the continued expansion and widespread adoption of renewable energy generating technology, a cost-effective energy storage system is essential. Additionally, the market for electric/hybrid electric vehicles, which both require efficient energy storage, continues to grow as more consumers seek to reduce their consumption of gasoline. These vehicles, however, remain quite expensive, due primarily to costs associated with storing the electrical energy. High-voltage and thermally stable Li-ion battery technology is a promising solution for both grid-level and electric vehicle energy storage. Current limitations in materials, however, limit the energy density and safe operating temperature window of the battery. Specifically, the state-of-the-art electrolyte used in Li-ion batteries is not compatible with recently developed high-voltage positive electrodes, which are one of the most effectual ways of increasing the energy density. The electrolyte is also thermally unstable above 50 °C, and prone to thermal runaway reaction if exposed to prolonged heating. The lithium salt used in such electrolytes, LiPF6, is a primary contributor to both of these issues. Unfortunately, an improved lithium salt which meets the myriad property requirements for Li-ion battery electrolytes has eluded researchers for decades. In this study, a renewed effort to find such a lithium salt was begun, using a recently developed methodology to rapidly screen for desirable properties. Four new lithium salts and one relatively new but uncharacterized lithium salt were

  12. Number density of liquid inclusions formed in frozen aqueous electrolyte. (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takuya; Harada, Makoto; Nojima, Shuichi; Okada, Tetsuo


    Frozen aqueous chlorides (≤50 mM) are characterized by using confocal fluorescence microscopy and small angel X-ray scattering (SAXS). The former method allows us to determine the size of a liquid inclusion formed in the ice matrix at temperatures above the eutectic point of the system (t(eu)). Isolated liquid inclusions of a uniform size are formed when the temperature of a frozen electrolyte increases past t(eu). The size of the liquid inclusions depends on the observation temperature as well as on the concentration (c(salt)) and type of salt dissolved in the original unfrozen solution. However, the number density of liquid inclusions is almost constant and independent of these experimental parameters, particularly when an electrolyte is frozen in liquid nitrogen. Salt accumulation can then occur at the imperfections of the ice crystals. The occurrence probability of the imperfections is independent of the nature of an incorporated salt. The amount of a salt confined in each inclusion ranges from 7 to 240 fmol, depending on c(salt). SAXS measurements provide information on the size of individual salt crystals formed at temperatures below t(eu). The radius of gyration of a salt crystal ranges from 2 to 2.8 nm, and does not depend significantly on c(salt). Thus, each inclusion is formed from 10(6)-10(9) nanocrystals, which can act as seeds. When doped ice is prepared at higher temperatures, for example -16 °C, the isolation of liquid inclusions is not sufficient and coalescence occurs more easily upon an increase in temperature or cs(alt). However, when c(salt) is lower than 10 mM, the number density of liquid inclusions is almost constant, irrespective of the freezing temperature. Copyright © 2013 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Water activity is an important parameter needed to predict the solubility of hydrated salts in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. A number of models available in the scientific literature predict water activity from electrolyte solution composition. The Cisternas-Lam model is one of those models and has several advantages for nuclear waste application. One advantage is that it has a single electrolyte specific parameter that is temperature independent. Thus, this parameter can be determined from very limited data and extrapolated widely. The Cisternas-Lam model has five coefficients that are used for all aqueous electrolytes. The present study aims to determine if there is a substantial improvement in making all six coefficients electrolyte specific. The Cisternas-Lam model was fit to data for six major electrolytes in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. The model was first fit to all data to determine the five global coefficients, when they were held constant for all electrolytes it yielded a substantially better fit. Subsequently, the model was fit to each electrolyte dataset separately, where all six coefficients were allowed to be electrolyte specific. Treating all six coefficients as electrolyte specific did not make sufficient difference, given the complexity of applying the electrolyte specific parameters to multi-solute systems. Revised water specific parameters, optimized to the electrolytes relevant to Hanford waste, are also reported.

  14. Stable lithium electrodeposition in liquid and nanoporous solid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying


    Rechargeable lithium, sodium and aluminium metal-based batteries are among the most versatile platforms for high-energy, cost-effective electrochemical energy storage. Non-uniform metal deposition and dendrite formation on the negative electrode during repeated cycles of charge and discharge are major hurdles to commercialization of energy-storage devices based on each of these chemistries. A long-held view is that unstable electrodeposition is a consequence of inherent characteristics of these metals and their inability to form uniform electrodeposits on surfaces with inevitable defects. We report on electrodeposition of lithium in simple liquid electrolytes and in nanoporous solids infused with liquid electrolytes. We find that simple liquid electrolytes reinforced with halogenated salt blends exhibit stable long-term cycling at room temperature, often with no signs of deposition instabilities over hundreds of cycles of charge and discharge and thousands of operating hours. We rationalize these observations with the help of surface energy data for the electrolyte/lithium interface and impedance analysis of the interface during different stages of cell operation. Our findings provide support for an important recent theoretical prediction that the surface mobility of lithium is significantly enhanced in the presence of lithium halide salts. Our results also show that a high electrolyte modulus is unnecessary for stable electrodeposition of lithium.

  15. Stable lithium electrodeposition in liquid and nanoporous solid electrolytes. (United States)

    Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Archer, Lynden A


    Rechargeable lithium, sodium and aluminium metal-based batteries are among the most versatile platforms for high-energy, cost-effective electrochemical energy storage. Non-uniform metal deposition and dendrite formation on the negative electrode during repeated cycles of charge and discharge are major hurdles to commercialization of energy-storage devices based on each of these chemistries. A long-held view is that unstable electrodeposition is a consequence of inherent characteristics of these metals and their inability to form uniform electrodeposits on surfaces with inevitable defects. We report on electrodeposition of lithium in simple liquid electrolytes and in nanoporous solids infused with liquid electrolytes. We find that simple liquid electrolytes reinforced with halogenated salt blends exhibit stable long-term cycling at room temperature, often with no signs of deposition instabilities over hundreds of cycles of charge and discharge and thousands of operating hours. We rationalize these observations with the help of surface energy data for the electrolyte/lithium interface and impedance analysis of the interface during different stages of cell operation. Our findings provide support for an important recent theoretical prediction that the surface mobility of lithium is significantly enhanced in the presence of lithium halide salts. Our results also show that a high electrolyte modulus is unnecessary for stable electrodeposition of lithium.

  16. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban


    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  17. Moisture Sorption Characteristics of Corn Stover and Big Bluestem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Karunanithy


    Full Text Available Moisture content is an important feedstock quality in converting it into energy through biochemical or thermochemical platforms. Knowledge of moisture sorption relationship is useful in drying and storage to preserve the quality of feedstocks. Moisture sorption isotherms for potential feedstocks such as corn stover and big bluestem are missing. EMC values of corn stover and big bluestem were determined using static gravimetric technique with saturated salt solutions (ERH 0.12–0.89 at different temperatures (20, 30, and 40°C. Depending upon the ERH values, EMC values were ranged from 8.0 to 19.6 and 8.8 to 19.2% db for corn stover and big bluestem, respectively, and they followed typical type II isotherm found in food materials. Nonlinear regression was used to fit five commonly used three-parameter isotherm models (i.e., modified Oswin model, modified Halsey model, modified Chung-Pfost model, modified Henderson model, and the modified Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB model to the experimental data. Modified Halsey emerged as the best model with high F-statistic and R2 values with low Em and Es and fairly random scattered residual plot for corn stover and big bluestem. These models can be used to predict the equilibrium moisture content of these feedstocks starting from harvesting, drying, preprocessing, transportation, storage, and conversion.

  18. Moisture Sorption Isotherms of Sesame Flour at Several Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albena G. Durakova


    Full Text Available Moisture equilibrium data (adsorption and desorption of sesame flour were determined using the static gravimetric method of saturated salt solutions at three temperatures, 10, 25 and 40 °C. The range of water activities for each temperature was between 0.11 and 0.85. Equilibrium moisture content decreased with the increase in storage temperature at any given water activity. The experimental data were fitted by five mathematical models (modified Oswin, modified Halsey, modified Chung-Pfost, modified Henderson and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB. The GAB model was found to be the most suitable for describing the sorption data. The monolayer moisture content was estimated using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation.

  19. Sorption of methylxanthines by different sorbents (United States)

    Dmitrienko, S. G.; Andreeva, E. Yu.; Tolmacheva, V. V.; Terent'eva, E. A.


    Sorption of caffeine, theophylline, theobromine, diprophylline, and pentoxyphylline on different sorbents (supercross-linked polystyrene, surface-modified copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene Strata-X, and carbon nanomaterials Taunit and Diasorb-100-C16T) was studied in a static mode in an effort to find new sorbents suitable for sorption isolation and concentration of methylxanthines. The peculiarities of sorption of methylxanthines were explained in relation to the solution acidity, the nature of the sorbates and their concentration, the nature of the solvent, and the structural characteristics of the sorbents.

  20. Seebeck effect in electrolytes. (United States)

    Chikina, I; Shikin, V; Varlamov, A A


    We study Seebeck effect in liquid electrolytes, starting from its simple neutral analog--thermodiffusion (so-called Ludwig-Soret or Soret effect). It is observed that when two or more subsystems of mobile particles are subjected to the temperature gradient, various types of them respond to it differently. In the case when these fractions, with different mobility parameters (Soret coefficients), are oppositely charged (a case typical for electrolytes), the nonhomogeneous internal electric field is generated. The latter field prevents these fractions from space separation and determines the intensity of the appearing Seebeck effect.

  1. Sorption of cesium and strontium from concentrated brines by backfill barrier materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winslow, C D


    The sorption of radionuclides from potentially intruding groundwater at a nuclear waste repository is a major chemical function of backfill barriers. In this study, various materials (including clays, zeolites and an inorganic ion exchanger) were screened for the sorption of the fission products cesium and strontium in concentrated brines. Representative brines A and B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed radioactive waste repository and test facility in bedded salt were used. Sorption properties were quantified using empirical distribution coefficients, k/sub d/. Of the materials examined, sodium titanate had the highest k/sub d/ for the sorption of Sr(II) in both brine A (k/sub d/ = 125 ml/g) and brine B(k/sub d/ = 500 to 600 ml/g). A mordenite-type zeolite was the most effective getter for Cs(I) in brine A (k/sub d = 27 ml/g), while illite yielded the highest k/sub d/ for Cs(I) in brine B (k/sub d/ = 115 ml/g). The relative merit of these k/sub d/ values is evaluated in terms of calculated estimates of breakthrough times for a backfill barrier containing the getter. Results show that a backfill mixture containing these getters is potentially an effective barrier to the migration of Sr(II) and Cs(I), although further study (especially for the sorption of cesium from brine A) is recommended. Initial mechanistic studies revealed competing ion effects which would support an ion exchange mechanism. K/sub d/'s were constant over a Sr(II) concentration range of 10/sup -11/ to 10/sup -5/ M and a Cs(I) concentration range of 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -5/ M, supporting the choice of a linear sorption isotherm as a model for the results. Constant batch composition was shown to be attained within one week.

  2. Spin coating of electrolytes (United States)

    Stetter, Joseph R.; Maclay, G. Jordan


    Methods for spin coating electrolytic materials onto substrates are disclosed. More particularly, methods for depositing solid coatings of ion-conducting material onto planar substrates and onto electrodes are disclosed. These spin coating methods are employed to fabricate electrochemical sensors for use in measuring, detecting and quantifying gases and liquids.

  3. Computer simulation of molecular sorption in zeolites

    CERN Document Server

    Calmiano, M D


    The work presented in this thesis encompasses the computer simulation of molecular sorption. In Chapter 1 we outline the aims and objectives of this work. Chapter 2 follows in which an introduction to sorption in zeolites is presented, with discussion of structure and properties of the main zeolites studied. Chapter 2 concludes with a description of the principles and theories of adsorption. In Chapter 3 we describe the methodology behind the work carried out in this thesis. In Chapter 4 we present our first computational study, that of the sorption of krypton in silicalite. We describe work carried out to investigate low energy sorption sites of krypton in silicalite where we observe krypton to preferentially sorb into straight and sinusoidal channels over channel intersections. We simulate single step type I adsorption isotherms and use molecular dynamics to study the diffusion of krypton and obtain division coefficients and the activation energy. We compare our results to previous experimental and computat...

  4. Mechanisms of cesium sorption onto magnetite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granizo, N.; Missana, T. [Environmental Impact of Energy Department. CIEMAT 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    Full text of publication follows: One of the current options for the final disposal of the high level radioactive waste is the deep geological repository. The radioactive waste canisters represent the first physical barrier to radionuclide migration to the geosphere and their corrosion products may play a significant role in sequestering radionuclide due to sorption and coprecipitation phenomena. In this work, the sorption of the fission product Cs-137 on magnetite, which is considered to be the main corrosion products under the reducing conditions expected in the repository, has been studied in a wide range of pH, ionic strength, radionuclide and sorbent concentration. The magnetite was synthesized in the laboratory and the main physico-chemical properties as microstructure, surface area and surface charge were analysed prior to sorption experiments. A measurable cesium sorption, generally never exceeding 20 %, was found only in alkaline conditions. Linear sorption isotherms were observed within the range of Cs concentration used (up to 10{sup -6} M). A slight increase in the sorption of cesium was seen when decreasing the ionic strength and increasing the pH, probably indicating the formation of outer sphere complexes. The possible effects on sorption of silicate impurities from the experimental vessels was deeply analysed and finally discarded. The experimental data have been satisfactorily modelled supposing the formation of a monodentate outer sphere complex and considering just one type of surface site on the magnetite. The combination of the structural information derived from XAS analysis, which is ongoing, together with wet chemistry sorption data will clarify the physical and chemical structure of sorbed complex and confirm the validity of surface complexation model proposed. (authors)

  5. Sorption of organophosphate esters by carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Wei; Yan, Li [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Duan, Jinming [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Jing, Chuanyong, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)


    Graphical abstract: The interfacial interactions between the OPE molecules and CNTs. - Highlights: • Oxygen-containing groups on CNTs change the sorption property for OPEs. • Molecular configuration of OPEs has insignificant impact on their sorption. • Hydrophobic, π–π EDA and Brønsted acid–base interaction occurred between the CNTs and OPEs. - Abstract: Insights from the molecular-level mechanism of sorption of organophosphate esters (OPEs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can further our understanding of the fate and transport of OPEs in the environment. The motivation for our study was to explore the sorption process of OPEs on multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs), single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) and their oxidized counterparts (O-MWCNTs and O-SWCNTs), and its molecular mechanism over a wide concentration range. The sorption isotherm results revealed that the hydrophobicity of OPEs dominated their affinities on a given CNT and the π–π electron donor–acceptor (EDA) interaction also played an important role in the sorption of aromatic OPEs. This π–π EDA interaction, verified with Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy, could restrict the radial vibration of SWCNTs and affect the deformation vibration γ(CH) bands of OPE molecules. The OPE surface coverage on CNTs, estimated using the nonlinear Dubinin–Ashtakhov model, indicated that the oxygen-containing functional groups on CNTs could interact with water molecules by H-bonding, resulting in a decrease in effective sorption sites. In addition, FTIR analysis also confirmed the occurrence of Brønsted acid–base interactions between OPEs and surface OH groups of SWCNTs. Our results should provide mechanistic insights into the sorption mechanism of OPE contaminants on CNTs.

  6. Thermodynamics of cationic surfactant sorption onto natural clinoptilolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, E.J.; Bowman, R.S. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Carey, J.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    Sorption enthalpies of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA) as monomers and micelles and tetraethylammonium bromide (TEA) were used with surfactant, counterion, and co-ion sorption isotherms to infer the conformation, sorption mechanism, and relative stability of the sorbed surfactants on natural clinoptilolite. The average value of the sorption enthalpy was {minus}10.38 kJ/mol for monomers, {minus}11.98 kJ/mol for micelles, and +3.03 kJ/mol for TEA. Sorption of monomers produced a lower sorption plateau than equivalent micelle sorption (maxima 145 mmol/kg, 225 mmol/kg). Analysis of the sorption data demonstrated a change in the sorption mechanism at the external cation exchange capacity (ECEC) of clinoptilolite. Sorption data from below and above the ECEC were fit to a simple polynomial model and the Gibbs free energy of sorption ({Delta} G{sub m}{sup 0}) and sorption entropies were calculated. Resultant values of {Delta} G{sub m}{sup 0} were {minus}9.27 and {minus}14.38 kJ/mol for HDTMA monomers and micelles, respectively, for sorption below the ECEC, and {minus}16.11 and {minus}23.10 kJ/mol, respectively, for sorption above the ECEC. The value for TEA was {minus}1.04 kJ/mol, indicating weaker sorption than for HDTMA. Monomer sorption to clinoptilolite exceeded the ECEC, even when the solution concentration was below the critical micelle concentration. Hydrophobic (tail-tail) components of {Delta} G{sub m}{sup 0} were the driving force for sorption of HDTMA, both below and above the ECEC. A significant kinetic effect was observed in the sorption isotherms with a period of rapid sorption followed by slow equilibration requiring 7 days to achieve steady state for HDTMA; TEA equilibration occurred within 24 h.

  7. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William


    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at C.

  8. Hydration patterns and salting effects in sodium chloride solution. (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Mu, Yuguang


    The salting effects of 2M sodium chloride electrolyte are studied based on a series of model solutes with properties ranging from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Generally, hydrophobic solutes will be salted out and hydrophilic solutes will be salted in by NaCl solution. The solvation free energy changes are highly correlated with Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The underlying mechanism resorts to the preferential binding of ions and water to solutes. Our results demonstrate that the salting effect not only depends on the salt's position in Hofmeister series, but also on the solutes' specifics. Taking the hydration free energies of solutes and ions as independent variables, a schematic diagram of salting effects is suggested. The resolved multifaceted salting effects rely on the sensitive balance of the tripartite interaction among solutes, ions, and water. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  9. Zinc-based electrolyte compositions, and related electrochemical processes and articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniajanski, Sergei; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev


    An aqueous electrolyte composition is described, including a zinc salt based on zinc acetate or zinc glocolate. The saturation concentration of zinc in the electrolyte composition is in the range of about 2.5M to about 3.5M. The composition also contains at least one salt of a monovalent cation. The molar ratio of zinc to the monovalent cation is about 1:2. An aqueous zinc electroplating bath, containing the aqueous electrolyte composition, is also disclosed, along with a method for the electrochemical deposition of zinc onto a substrate surface, using the electroplating bath. Related flow batteries are also described, including a catholyte, as well as an anolyte based on the aqueous electrolyte composition, with a membrane between the catholyte and the anolyte.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes...... electrolyte membrane by hot-press. The fuel cell can operate at temperatures up to at least 200 °C with hydrogen-rich fuel containing high ratios of carbon monoxide such as 3 vol% carbon monoxide or more, compared to the carbon monoxide tolerance of 10-20 ppm level for Nafion$m(3)-based polymer electrolyte...

  11. Sorption kinetics of heavy oil into porous carbons. (United States)

    Nishi, Yoko; Iwashita, Norio; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Inagaki, Michio


    Sorption kinetics of heavy oil into porous carbons was evaluated by a concept of liquid sorption coefficient obtained from the weight increase of heavy oil with sorption time, which was measured by a wicking test. Exfoliated graphite, carbonized fir fibers and carbon fiber felts were used as porous materials. It was found that the liquid sorption coefficient of fibrous carbons was twice larger than that of exfoliated graphite. Such a difference in the liquid sorption coefficient between the exfoliated graphite and two fibrous carbons was caused by a difference in effective sorption porosity and tortuosity between them. For the exfoliated graphite and carbonized fir fibers, the liquid sorption coefficient and the effective sorption porosity were strongly dependent on their density. The maximum values of both liquid sorption coefficient and effective sorption porosity of the exfoliated graphite were shown at the bulk density around 16 kg/m3. The liquid sorption coefficient of the carbonized fir fibers increased with increasing the density in the range from 6 to 30 kg/m3. When the carbonized fir fibers were densified above 30 kg/m3, the sorption rate was saturated. On the other hand, the sorption kinetics into the carbon fiber felt was almost independent of the bulk density, because the density of the carbon fiber felt is not effective for the pore structure. The effect of bulk density on the sorption kinetics could be supported from an analysis of pore structure of the porous carbons with different densities, which was measured by mercury porosimeter.

  12. Cadmium ion sorption onto lignocellulosic biosorbent modified by sulfonation : the origin of sorption capacity improvement (United States)

    Eun Woo Shin; Roger M. Rowell


    Juniper (Juniperus monosperma), a small-diameter underutilized material, has been studied as a lignocellulosic bio-sorbent for removing heavy metals from water. In this study, juniper wood was modified by sulfonation to enhance sorption capacity for cadmium in water. The origin of the enhancement was investigated by observing the sorption behaviors and the change in...

  13. Surface tension and related thermodynamic quantities of aqueous electrolyte solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Matubayasi, Norihiro


    Surface tension provides a thermodynamic avenue for analyzing systems in equilibrium and formulating phenomenological explanations for the behavior of constituent molecules in the surface region. While there are extensive experimental observations and established ideas regarding desorption of ions from the surfaces of aqueous salt solutions, a more successful discussion of the theory has recently emerged, which allows the quantitative calculation of the distribution of ions in the surface region. Surface Tension and Related Thermodynamic Quantities of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions provides a d

  14. Electrolyte Suitable for Use in a Lithium Ion Cell or Battery (United States)

    McDonald, Robert C. (Inventor)


    Electrolyte suitable for use in a lithium ion cell or battery. According to one embodiment, the electrolyte includes a fluorinated lithium ion salt and a solvent system that solvates lithium ions and that yields a high dielectric constant, a low viscosity and a high flashpoint. In one embodiment, the solvent system includes a mixture of an aprotic lithium ion solvating solvent and an aprotic fluorinated solvent.

  15. Study of the carbon material / electrolyte interface; Etude de l`interface materiau carbone / electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genies, S.; Yazami, R. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d`Electrochimie et d`Electrometallurgie, 38 - Saint-Martin-d`Heres (France); Frison, J.C. [CNET, Centre de Recherches de Lannion, 22 (France); Ledran, J. [CNET, 92 - Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)


    The aim of this work is the comparative study of the properties of the natural graphite/liquid organic electrolyte interface by impedance spectroscopy with respect to different lithium salts (LiX with X = ClO{sub 4}{sup -}, BF{sub 4}{sup -}, CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}{sup -}, N(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}{sup -}, PF{sub 6}{sup -}). The evolution of the interface properties during the first electrochemical reduction suggests different mechanisms of formation of passivation films. A more stable, thin and homogenous film seems to develop when the LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2} or LiPF{sub 6} lithium salts are used. The chemical diffusion coefficient of lithium in graphite has been determined by impedance spectroscopy. (J.S.) 16 refs.

  16. Nanoporous hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.


    Oligomer-suspended SiO2-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles are studied as porous media electrolytes. At SiO2 volume fractions, , bracketing a critical value y ≈ 0.29, the suspensions jam and their mechanical modulus increase by more than seven orders. For >y, the mean pore diameter is close to the anion size, yet the ionic conductivity remains surprisingly high and can be understood, at all , using a simple effective medium model proposed by Maxwell. SiO 2-polyethylene glycol hybrid electrolytes are also reported to manifest attractive electrochemical stability windows (0.3-6.3 V) and to reach a steady-state interfacial impedance when in contact with metallic lithium. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Ice electrode electrolytic cell (United States)

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.


    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  18. Non-electrolytic microelectroporation. (United States)

    Lyu, Chenang; Wang, Jianping; Rubinsky, Boris


    Micro and nano technologies are of increasing importance in microfluidics devices used for electroporation (electroporation - the permeabilization of the cell membrane with brief high electric field pulses). Electrochemical reactions of electrolysis occur whenever an electric current flows between an electrode and an ionic solution. It can have substantial detrimental effects, both on the cells and solutions during the electroporation. As electrolysis is a surface phenomenon, between electrodes and solution, the extent of electrolysis is increased in micro and nano electroporation over macro-electroporation, because the surface area of the electrodes in micro and nano electroporation is much larger. A possible way to eliminate the electrolytic effect is to develop non-electrolytic microelectroporation by coating the microelectroporation devices with a dielectric insulating layer. In this study, we examine the effect of a dielectric insulating layer on the performance of a singularity microelectroporation device that we have recently designed. Using numerical analysis, we study the effects of various design parameters including, input sinusoidal voltage amplitude and frequency, geometrical configuration and material electrical properties on the electroporation performance of the non-electrolytic microelectroporation device. In the simulation, we used properties of four real dielectric materials and four solutions of interest for microelectroporation. We characterized the effect of various design parameters of relevance to singularity based microelectroporation, on non-electrolytic microelectroporation. Interestingly, we found that the system behaves in some aspects as a filter and in many circumstances saturation of performance is reached. After saturation is reached, changes in parameters will not affect the performance of the device.

  19. Electrochemical polymer electrolyte membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Jianhua; Wilkinson, David P


    Electrochemical Polymer Electrolyte Membranes covers PEMs from fundamentals to applications, describing their structure, properties, characterization, synthesis, and use in electrochemical energy storage and solar energy conversion technologies. Featuring chapters authored by leading experts from academia and industry, this authoritative text: Discusses cutting-edge methodologies in PEM material selection and fabricationPoints out important challenges in developing PEMs and recommends mitigation strategies to improve PEM performanceAnalyzes the cur

  20. Electrolyte Concentrates Treat Dehydration (United States)


    Wellness Brands Inc. of Boulder, Colorado, exclusively licensed a unique electrolyte concentrate formula developed by Ames Research Center to treat and prevent dehydration in astronauts returning to Earth. Marketed as The Right Stuff, the company's NASA-derived formula is an ideal measure for athletes looking to combat dehydration and boost performance. Wellness Brands also plans to expand with products that make use of the formula's effective hydration properties to help treat conditions including heat stroke, altitude sickness, jet lag, and disease.

  1. Sorption of oil pollution by organoclays and a coal/mineral complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.G. Ramos Vianna


    Full Text Available Recently, increasing concern about pollution of groundwater by organic chemicals has led to research on the use of various adsorbents. This study addressed the sorption of phenol and organic compounds by two organoclays and a coal/mineral complex (ARO. The organoclays used were a bentonite from Brazil (SVC and Wyoming bentonite (SWy with quaternary ammonium salt (ABDMA. Swelling capacity of the sorbents in toluene, diesel, gas, Varsol and kerosene were measured. Absorption of organic compounds served as an ASTM D 281-95 base, which resulted in the following order for ABDMA-SVC: gas > toluene > kerosene > diesel > Varsol. ABDMA-SWy absorbed in the following order: gas > toluene > Varsol > diesel > kerosene. ARO absorbed: gas > toluene >diesel > Varsol > kerosene. Sorption of phenol followed the order of ABDMA-SVC > ABDMA-SWy > ARO. The adsorption data show that the materials prepared were effective in sorbing phenol, and that the Brazilian clay was the most efficient of the three materials.

  2. Final progress report for linking ion solvation and lithium battery electrolyte properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Wesley [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)


    The research objective of this proposal was to provide a detailed analysis of how solvent and anion structure govern the solvation state of Li+ cations in solvent-LiX mixtures and how this, in turn, dictates the electrolyte physicochemical and electrochemical properties which govern (in part) battery performance. Lithium battery electrolytes remain a poorly understood and hardly studied topic relative to the research devoted to battery electrodes. This is due to the fact that it is the electrodes which determine the energy (capacity) of the battery. The electrolyte, however, plays a crucial role in the practical energy density, power, low and/or high temperature performance, lifetime, safety, etc. which is achievable. The development within this project of a "looking glass" into the molecular interactions (i.e., solution structure) in bulk electrolytes through a synergistic experimental approach involving three research thrusts complements work by other researchers to optimize multi-solvent electrolytes and efforts to understand/control the electrode-electrolyte interfaces, thereby enabling the rational design of electrolytes for a wide variety of battery chemistries and applications (electrolytes-on-demand). The three research thrusts pursued include: (1) conduction of an in-depth analysis of the thermal phase behavior of diverse solvent-LiX mixtures, (2) exploration of the ionic association/solvate formation behavior of select LiX salts with a wide variety of solvents, and (3) linking structure to properties-determination of electrolyte physicochemical and electrochemical properties for comparison with the ionic association and phase behavior.

  3. Prediction of metal sorption in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Radionuclide transport in soils and groundwaters is routinely calculated in performance assessment (PA) codes using simplified conceptual models for radionuclide sorption, such as the K{sub D} approach for linear and reversible sorption. Model inaccuracies are typically addressed by adding layers of conservativeness (e.g., very low K{sub D}'s), and often result in failed transport predictions or substantial increases in site cleanup costs. Realistic assessments of radionuclide transport over a wide range of environmental conditions can proceed only from accurate, mechanistic models of the sorption process. They have focused on the sorption mechanisms and partition coefficients for Cs{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+} (analogue for Ra{sup 2+}) onto iron oxides and clay minerals using an integrated approach that includes computer simulations, sorption/desorption measurements, and synchrotron analyses of metal sorbed substrates under geochemically realistic conditions. Sorption of Ba{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+} onto smectite is strong, pH-independent, and fully reversible, suggesting that cation exchange at the interlayer basal sites controls the sorption process. Sr{sup 2+} sorbs weakly onto geothite and quartz, and is pH-dependent. Sr{sup 2+} sorption onto a mixture of smectite and goethite, however, is pH- and concentration dependent. The adsorption capacity of montmorillonite is higher than that of goethite, which may be attributed to the high specific surface area and reaction site density of clays. The presence of goethite also appears to control the extent of metal desorption. In-situ, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopic measurements for montmorillonite and goethite show that the first shell of adsorbed Ba{sup 2+} is coordinated by 6 oxygens. The second adsorption shell, however, varies with the mineral surface coverage of adsorbed Ba{sup 2+} and the mineral substrate. This suggests that Ba{sup 2+} adsorption on mineral surfaces

  4. New polymer lithium secondary batteries based on ORMOCER (R) electrolytes-inorganic-organic polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popall, M.; Buestrich, R.; Semrau, G.


    Based on new plasticized inorganic-organic polymer electrolytes CM. Popall, M. Andrei, J. Kappel, J. Kron, K. Olma, B. Olsowski,'ORMOCERs as Inorganic-organic Electrolytes for New Solid State Lithium Batteries and Supercapacitors', Electrochim. Acta 43 (1998) 1155] new flexible foil-batteries in ......Based on new plasticized inorganic-organic polymer electrolytes CM. Popall, M. Andrei, J. Kappel, J. Kron, K. Olma, B. Olsowski,'ORMOCERs as Inorganic-organic Electrolytes for New Solid State Lithium Batteries and Supercapacitors', Electrochim. Acta 43 (1998) 1155] new flexible foil......-batteries in 'coffee bag arrangement' were assembled and tested. The electrolyte works as separator and binder for the cathodes. Self-diffusion NMR studies on the system (EC/PC/Li+N(SO2CF3)(2)(-)/ORMOCER(R)) resulted in cationic transport numbers t(+)) of 0.42 for the EC/PC/salt system and 0.35 for the ternary...

  5. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes with Improved Safety Tolerance to High Voltage Systems (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick C. (Inventor)


    The invention discloses various embodiments of electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries, the electrolytes having improved safety and the ability to operate with high capacity anodes and high voltage cathodes. In one embodiment there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion battery comprising an anode and a high voltage cathode. The electrolyte has a mixture of a cyclic carbonate of ethylene carbonate (EC) or mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) co-solvent, ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a lithium salt, and an electrolyte additive that improves compatibility and performance of the lithium-ion battery with a high voltage cathode. The lithium-ion battery is charged to a voltage in a range of from about 2.0 V (Volts) to about 5.0 V (Volts).

  6. Sorption of small molecules in polymeric media (United States)

    Camboni, Federico; Sokolov, Igor M.


    We discuss the sorption of penetrant molecules from the gas phase by a polymeric medium within a model which is very close in spirit to the dual sorption mode model: the penetrant molecules are partly dissolved within the polymeric matrix, partly fill the preexisting voids. The only difference with the initial dual sorption mode situation is the assumption that the two populations of molecules are in equilibrium with each other. Applying basic thermodynamics principles we obtain the dependence of the penetrant concentration on the pressure in the gas phase and find that this is expressed via the Lambert W-function, a different functional form than the one proposed by dual sorption mode model. The Lambert-like isotherms appear universally at low and moderate pressures and originate from the assumption that the internal energy in a polymer-penetrant-void ternary mixture is (in the lowest order) a bilinear form in the concentrations of the three components. Fitting the existing data shows that in the domain of parameters where the dual sorption mode model is typically applied, the Lambert function, which describes the same behavior as the one proposed by the gas-polymer matrix model, fits the data equally well.

  7. Moisture sorption of Thai red curry powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudathip Inchuen


    Full Text Available Moisture sorption study was conducted on Thai red curry powder prepared by two different drying methods, viz. microwave and hot-air drying. Moisture sorption isotherms of the red curry powder at 30 C and water activity in the range of 0.113-0.970 were determined by a static gravimetric method. The isotherms exhibited Type III behaviour. The moisture sorption data were fitted to several sorption models and a non-linear regression analysis method was used to evaluate the constants of the sorption equations. The fit was evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2, the reduced chi-square (2 and the root mean square error (RMSE. The GAB model followed by the Lewiski-3 model gave the best fit to the experimental data. The monolayer moisture content, taken as the safe minimum moisture level in the red curry powder, was determined using the BET equation and was found to range between 0.080 - 0.085 gram water per gram dry matter.

  8. Kinetic Modelling of the Removal of Multiple Heavy Metallic Ions from Mine Waste by Natural Zeolite Sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Ciosek


    Full Text Available This study investigates the sorption of heavy metallic ions (HMIs, specifically lead (Pb2+, copper (Cu2+, iron (Fe3+, nickel (Ni2+ and zinc (Zn2+, by natural zeolite (clinoptilolite. These HMIs are combined in single-, dual-, triple-, and multi-component systems. The batch mode experiments consist of a total initial concentration of 10 meq/L normality for all systems, acidified to a pH of 2 by concentrated nitric (HNO3 acid. A zeolite dosage of 4 g per 100 mL of synthetic nitrate salt aqueous solution is applied, for a contact period of 5 to 180 min. Existing kinetic models on HMIs sorption are limited for multi-component system combinations. Therefore, this study conducts kinetic analysis by both reaction and diffusion models, to quantify the sorption process. The study concludes that the process correlates best with the pseudo-second-order (PSO kinetic model. In the multi-component system combining all five HMIs, the initial sorption rate and theoretical equilibrium capacity are determined as 0.0033 meq/g·min and 0.1159 meq/g, respectively. This provides significant insight into the mechanisms associated with the sorption process, as well as contributing to the assessment of natural zeolite as a sorbent material in its application in industrial wastewater treatment.

  9. Lithium Ion Electrolytes and Lithium Ion Cells With Good Low Temperature Performance (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)


    There is provided in one embodiment of the invention an electrolyte for use in a lithium ion electrochemical cell. The electrolyte comprises a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), an ester cosolvent, and a lithium salt. The ester cosolvent comprises methyl propionate (MP), ethyl propionate (EP), methyl butyrate (MB), ethyl butyrate (EB), propyl butyrate (PB), or butyl butyrate (BB). The electrochemical cell operates in a temperature range of from about -60 C to about 60 C. In another embodiment there is provided a lithium ion electrochemical cell using the electrolyte of the invention.

  10. A Key concept in Magnesium Secondary Battery Electrolytes. (United States)

    Bertasi, Federico; Hettige, Chaminda; Sepehr, Fatemeh; Bogle, Xavier; Pagot, Gioele; Vezzù, Keti; Negro, Enrico; Paddison, Stephen J; Greenbaum, Steve G; Vittadello, Michele; Di Noto, Vito


    A critical roadblock toward practical Mg-based energy storage technologies is the lack of reversible electrolytes that are safe and electrochemically stable. Here, we report on high-performance electrolytes based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) doped with AlCl3 and highly amorphous δ-MgCl2 . The phase diagram of the electrolytes reveals the presence of four thermal transitions that strongly depend on salt content. High-level density functional theory (DFT)-based electronic structure calculations substantiate the structural and vibrational assignment of the coordination complexes. A 3D chloride-concatenated dynamic network model accounts for the outstanding redox behaviour and the electric and magnetic properties, providing insight into the conduction mechanism of the electrolytes. Mg anode cells assembled using the electrolytes were cyclically discharged at a high rate (35 mA g(-1) ), exhibiting an initial capacity of 80 mA h g(-1) and a steady-state voltage of 2.3 V. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Electrolytic synthesis of ammonia in molten salts under atmospheric pressure. (United States)

    Murakami, Tsuyoshi; Nishikiori, Tokujiro; Nohira, Toshiyuki; Ito, Yasuhiko


    Ammonia was successfully synthesized by using a new electrochemical reaction with high current efficiency at atmospheric pressure and at lower temperatures than the Haber-Bosch process. In this method, nitride ion (N3-), which is produced by the reduction from nitrogen gas at the cathode, is anodically oxidized and reacts with hydrogen to produce ammonia at the anode.

  12. Blood pressure and fluid-electrolyte balance in mice with reduced or absent ANP. (United States)

    John, S W; Veress, A T; Honrath, U; Chong, C K; Peng, L; Smithies, O; Sonnenberg, H


    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-gene knockout mice of three genotypes (+/+, +/-, and -/-) were maintained on a low-salt diet (0.008% NaCl). They were then fed either the same low-salt diet or a high-salt diet (8% NaCl) for 1 wk. No differences were found among genotypes in daily food and water intakes or in urinary volume and electrolyte excretions. Arterial blood pressures measured in anesthetized animals at the end of the dietary regimen were significantly and similarly increased in -/- compared with +/+ mice on each diet. Renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes was measured in anesthetized mice before and after acute blood volume expansion. No genotype differences were observed before volume expansion. After volume expansion the wild-type (+/+) mice had much greater saluretic responses than either the heterozygous (+/-) or the homozygous mutant (-/-) animals on the low-salt diet but not on the high-salt diet. We conclude that ANP lowers blood pressure in the absence of detected changes in renal function; ANP is not essential for normal salt balance, even on high-salt intake; and ANP is essential for the natriuretic response to acute blood volume expansion on a low-salt but not high-salt intake.

  13. Sorption kinetics of cesium on natural mordenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tienjui Liang; Yuecheung Tsai Joseph [Taiwan Power Co., Taipei, Taiwan (China). Radiation Lab.


    The characteristics of sorption kinetics of cesium on natural mordenite, including apparent rate constant, intraparticle diffusion coefficient and reaction mechanisms, were investigated in this study. The apparent rate constant of sorption, as derived from the semi-empirical Elovich equation, was indicated from the experimental results to be about 56.9 {mu}equiv {center_dot} g{sup -1}{center_dot} s{sup -1}. The rate-determining step of sorption reaction was identified as the intraparticle diffusion of cesium cation from the main channel to site B, which is located in the side void, through the side channel system of mordenite. The linear and nonlinear intraparticle diffusion coefficients of Cs{sup +} were observed via calculation by the spherical diffusion model as being 4.7 x 10{sup 18} and 3.5 x 10{sup 18} m{sup 2}{center_dot} s{sup -1}, respectively. (author).

  14. Molecular simulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sorption to black carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.; Govers, H.A.J.


    Strong sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants to soot or black carbon (BC) is an important environmental process limiting the bioremediation potential of contaminated soils and sediments. Reliable methods to predict BC sorption coefficients for organic contaminants are therefore required. A

  15. Water sorption and transport in dry crispy bread crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders, M.B.J.; Nieuwenhuijzen, van N.H.; Tromp, R.H.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.


    Water sorption and dynamical properties of bread crust have been studied using gravimetric sorption experiments. Water uptake and loss were followed while relative humidity (RH) was stepwise in- or decreased (isotherm experiment) or varied between two adjusted values (oscillatory experiment).

  16. Water Sorption and Transport in Dry, Crispy Bread Crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders, M.B.J.; Nieuwenhuijzen, N.H. van; Tromp, R.H.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, T. van


    Water - sorption and dynamic properties of bread crust have been studied in gravimetric sorption experiments. Water uptake and loss were measured while relative humidity (RH) was stepwise increased or decreased (isotherm experiment) or varied between two adjusted values (oscillatory experiment).

  17. A multi-scale assessment of Pb(II) sorption on dolomite. (United States)

    Lee, Shinwoo; Dyer, James A; Sparks, Donald L; Scrivner, Noel C; Elzinga, Evert J


    Macroscopic sorption studies indicated that Pb sorption capacity was independent of pH over the pH range 5-7, while sorption as a function of reaction time up to two weeks for systems with no bulk precipitate phases showed continuous Pb uptake on dolomite. This could be due to diffusion of Pb into the micropores of dolomite as well as an increase in surface sites caused by particle size reduction during suspension mixing. Normalized XANES spectra for systems undersaturated with respect to Pb carbonate precipitates resembled the spectrum of Pb4(OH)4(4+), suggesting that Pb is mainly coordinated to dolomite as an inner-sphere surface complex. On the other hand, the XANES spectrum for 10(-3) M Pb at 1 atm CO2(g) in a 2 M Mg(NO3)2 background electrolyte solution resembled that of cerussite, while a sample at 5 x 10(-4) M Pb in equilibrium with air and 2 M Mg(NO3)2 resembled that of hydrocerussite. EXAFS analyses of sorption samples in chloride solutions showed that there were only first-shell contributions under 1 atm CO2(g), while higher shell contributions from Ca/Mg were seen at 10(-3.42) atm CO2(g). On the other hand, EXAFS samples prepared in nitrate solutions showed noticeable differences in speciation under different reaction conditions-from outer-sphere surface complexes at low Pb concentrations and pH, to inner-sphere surface complexes at moderate Pb concentrations and neutral pH, to the formation of Pb carbonate precipitates at the highest Pb loadings.

  18. Gas Sorption and Storage Properties of Calixarenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Rahul S.; Banerjee, Debasis; Atwood, Jerry L.; Thallapally, Praveen K.


    Calixarenes, a class of organic macrocyclic molecules have shown interesting gas sorption properties towards industrially important gases such as carbon di-oxide, hydrogen, methane and acetylene. These macrocycles are involved in weak van der Waals interaction to form multidimensional supramolecular frameworks. The gas-diffusion and subsequent sorption occurs due to a cooperative behavior between neighboring macrocycles. Furthermore, the flexibility at the upper rim functional group also plays a key role in the overall gas uptake of calixarene. In this book chapter, we give a brief account of interaction and diffusion of gases in calixarene and selected derivatives.

  19. Sorption Properties of Some Romanian Gingerbread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulbure Anca


    Full Text Available Water activity of gingerbread is very important for keeping the product freshness and shelf life. Water activity is influenced by composition, water content and temperature. The water content of gingerbread could vary according with storage condition. i.e. rH. 11 gingerbread samples were analysed. The water content and water activity lies between 7.0 and 12.6% and respectively 0.590 and 0.715. The sorption isotherms were determined at 30°C by gravimetric method. The moisture sorption is influenced by composition, especially sweeteners and humectants. Honey and invert sugar have the same impact on gingerbread higroscopicity.

  20. Solid state electrolyte systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others


    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  1. Physical properties of Li ion conducting polyphosphazene based polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, S.; Zawodzinski, T.; Hermes, R.; Davey, J.; Dai, Hongli


    We report a systematic study of the transport properties and the underlying physical chemistry of some polyphosphazene (PPhz)-based polymer electrolytes. We synthesized MEEP and variants which employed mixed combinations of different length oxyethylene side-chains. We compare the conductivity and ion-ion interactions in polymer electrolytes obtained with lithium triflate and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI) salts added to the polymer. The combination of the lithium imide salt and MEEP yields a maximum conductivity of 8 x 10{sup -5} {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1} at room temperature at a salt loading of 8 monomers per lithium. In one of the mixed side-chain variations, a maximum conductivity of 2 x 10{sup -4} {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1} was measured at the same molar ratio. Raman spectral analysis shows some ion aggregation and some polymer - ion interactions in the PPhz-LiTFSI case but much less than observed with Li CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}. A sharp increase in the Tg as salt is added corresponds to concentrations above which the conductivity significantly decreases and ion associations appear.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Savvina


    Full Text Available The widespread use of aromatic acids (benzoic acid, salicylic as preservatives necessitates their qualitative and quantitative determination in food. Effective and common way to separation and concentration of aromatic acids liquid extraction. Biphasic system of water-soluble polymers based on (poly-N-vinyl pyrrolidone, and poly-N-vinylcaprolactam satisfy the requirements of the extraction system. When sorption concentration improved definition of the metrological characteristics, comply with the requirements for sensitivity and selectivity definition appears possible, use of inexpensive and readily available analytical equipment. When studying the adsorption of benzoic acid used as a sorbent crosslinked polymer based on N-vinyl pyrrolidone, obtained by radical polymerisation of a functional monomer and crosslinker. In the extraction of benzoic acid to maximize the allocation of water and the organic phase of the polymer used salt solutions with concentrations close to saturation. Regardless of the nature of the anion salt is used as salting-out agent, aromatic acids sorption increases with the size of the cations. In the experiment the maximum recovery rate (80% benzoic acid obtained in the PVP (0.2 weight%. Ammonium sulphate. The dependence stepepni benzoic acid extraction from time sorption sorbent mass and the pH of the aqueous phase. To establish equilibrium in the system, for 20 minutes. The dependence of the degree of extraction of the acid pH indicates that the acid is extracted into the molecular form. The maximum adsorption is reached at pH 3,5, with its efficiency decreases symbatically reduce the amount of undissociated acid molecules in solution.

  3. Sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate to carbon nanotubes in aquatic sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.; Velzeboer, I.; Koelmans, A.A.


    To date, sorption of organic compounds to nanomaterials has mainly been studied for the nanomaterial in its pristine state. However, sorption may be different when nanomaterials are buried in sediments. Here, we studied sorption of Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to sediment and to sediment with 4%

  4. suitability of murram for phosphorus sorption in constructed wetlands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: The study of Moshi Pumice's phosphorus sorption behaviours and properties was carried out in laboratory scale where by 1-2 mm, 2-4 mm and 4-8 mm grains were tested using batch experiments. The results show that Moshi Pumice has high phosphorus sorption capacity. The sorption capacity for the Moshi ...

  5. An improved experimental and regression methodology for sorption isotherms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quirijns, E.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Straten, van G.


    Sorption isotherms of corn and starch cylinders with immobilised catalase are experimentally determined at different temperatures for use in drying models in optimal control studies. This application of the sorption isotherm requires an accurate prediction of the sorption data at different

  6. Attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyl sorption to charcoal by humic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Meulman, B.; Meijer, T.; Jonker, M.T.O.


    Strong sorption to black carbon may limit the environmental risks of organic pollutants, but interactions with cosorbing humic acid (HA) may interfere. We studied the attenuative effect of HA additions on the sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to a charcoal. "Intrinsic" sorption to

  7. Attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyl sorption to charcoal by humic acids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Meulman, B.; Meijer, T.; Jonker, M.T.O.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/175518793


    Strong sorption to black carbon may limit the environmental risks of organic pollutants, but interactions with cosorbing humic acid (HA) may interfere. We studied the attenuative effect of HA additions on the sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to a charcoal. "Intrinsic" sorption to

  8. Effect of added salt on preformed surface nanobubbles: A scaling estimate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, S.


    In this paper we propose a scaling argument to quantify the role of added electrolyte salt in affecting the stability and the morphology of preformed surface nanobubbles on hydrophobic substrates like the water-OTS-silicon or the water-HOPG interfaces. The added salt controls the electric double

  9. Role of salt concentration in blend polymer for energy storage conversion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arya, Anil; Sharma, A. L., E-mail: [Centre for Physical Sciences, Central university of Punjab, Bathinda-151001. INDIA (India); Sadiq, M. [Department of Physics, I.I.T. (BHU), Varanasi-India (India)


    Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPE) are materials of considerable interest worldwide, which serves dual purpose of electrolyte and separator between electrode compartments in renewable energy conversion/storage devices such as; high energy density batteries, electrochromic display devices, and supercapacitors. Polymer blend electrolytes are prepared for various concentration of salt (Ö/Li) with the constant ratio (0.5 gm) of each PEO and PAN polymers (blend polymer) using solution casting technique. Solid polymeric ionic conductor as a separator is the ultimate substitute to eliminate the drawback related to liquid and gel polymer ionic conductors. In the present work, solid polymer electrolyte film consisting of PEO, PAN and LiPF{sub 6} are examined for various concentration of lithium salt by keeping PEO/PAN blend ratio as a constant with a view to optimize the dominant salt concentration which could give the maximum conductivity at ambient temperature.

  10. Lung health and heart rate variability changes in salt workers. (United States)

    Glad Mohesh, M I; Sundaramurthy, A


    India is the third largest salt producing country in the World, with a global annual production of 230 million tonnes. Large number of salt workers get employed in these salt milling plants risking their life from the effects of salt. Recent foreign evidences reported that these salt workers are exposed to aerosol salt particles that disturb their lung and cardiovascular autonomic control. To compare the status of lung health, cardiovascular autonomic control and biochemical changes in a group of salt industry workers with that of the age-matched normal subjects. Volunteers of both sexes (25-35 years) were divided into Group I (n=10) controls and Group II (n=10) non-brine salt workers in salt milling plants. From fasting blood sample, complete blood count, plasma electrolyte and lipid profile estimation were done. After resting for 15min, blood pressure and lead II ECG were recorded. Spirometry was done using RMS Helios spirometer. Data collected were later analysed using GraphPad Prism 5.0 with statistical significance set at pworkers in the salt industry has shown a little or no impact on the respiratory system, however there are changes in the blood and cardiovascular system, which need to be further studied to understand the long-term influences of salt in this population. Copyright © 2015 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Microporous Carbon Disks For Sorption Refrigerators (United States)

    Munukutla, Lakshmi V.; Moore, Mark R.


    Slow, carefully controlled pyrolysis found to turn polyvinylidene chloride disks into carbon disks having small pores and large surface areas. Disks exhibit high adsorptivities making them useful in krypton-sorption refrigerators. Carbons made from polyvinylidene chloride have greater adsorptive capacities. Thermal instability controlled and variability of product reduced by careful control of rates of heating, heating times, and rate of final cooling.

  12. A Sorption Hysteresis Model For Cellulosic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Damkilde, Lars


    The equilibrium concentration of adsorbed water in cellulosic materials is dependent on the history of the variations of vapor pressure in the ambient air, i.e. sorption hysteresis. Existing models to describe this phenomenon such as the independent domain theory have numerical drawbacks and/or i...

  13. Optimization of salt concentration in polymer based ionic conductor (United States)

    Thakur, Deep Kumar; Sharma, A. L.


    Free standing polymeric films (electrolytes) have been prepared by PAN as a polymer host and Li salt (LiPF6) using the standard solution cast process. Interaction of polymer-salt complex of the host matrix has also been observed in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum results. The cation (Li+) coordination at nitrile (-C≡N) site of the polymer backbone along with the appearance of a shoulder suggesting strong evidence of polymer-ion interaction. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), was used to study morphological information of grain boundaries and cracks while Complex impedance spectroscopy suggests bulk electrical conduction. Solid electrolytes provide advantages in terms of simplicity of design and operational safety, but typically SPE's have the conductivities that are lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes.

  14. High Energy Density Electrolytic Capacitor (United States)

    Evans, David A.


    A new type of electrolytic capacitor which combines an electrolytic capacitor anode with an electrochemical capacitor cathode was developed. The resulting capacitor has a four time higher energy density than standard electrolytic capacitors, with comparable electric performance. The prototype, a 480 microFarad, 200 V device, has an energy density exceeding 4 J/cc. Now a 680 microFarad 50 V, MIL-style all tantalum device has been constructed and is undergoing qualification testing. Pending a favorable outcome, work will begin on other ratings. The potential for commercially significant development exists in applying this technology to aluminum-based electrolytic capacitors. It is possible to at least double the energy density of aluminum electrolytics, while using existing manufacturing methods, and without adding material expense. Data presented include electrical characteristics and performance measurements of the 200 V and 50 V hybrid capacitors and results from ongoing qualification testing of the MIL-style tantalum capacitors.

  15. Water vapor sorption properties of cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibers using dynamic vapor sorption apparatus. (United States)

    Guo, Xin; Wu, Yiqiang; Xie, Xinfeng


    Hygroscopic behavior is an inherent characteristic of nanocellulose which strongly affects its applications. In this study, the water vapor sorption behavior of four nanocellulose samples, such as cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibers with cellulose I and II structures (cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) I, CNC II, cellulose nanofibers (CNF) I, and CNF II) were studied by dynamic vapor sorption. The highly reproducible data including the running time, real-time sample mass, target relative humidity (RH), actual RH, and isotherm temperature were recorded during the sorption process. In analyzing these data, significant differences in the total running time, equilibrium moisture content, sorption hysteresis and sorption kinetics between these four nanocellulose samples were confirmed. It was important to note that CNC I, CNC II, CNF I, and CNF II had equilibrium moisture contents of 21.4, 28.6, 33.2, and 38.9%, respectively, at a RH of 95%. Then, the sorption kinetics behavior was accurately described by using the parallel exponential kinetics (PEK) model. Furthermore, the Kelvin-Voigt model was introduced to interpret the PEK behavior and calculate the modulus of these four nanocellulose samples.

  16. New type of imidazole based salts designed specifically for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedzicki, L., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00664 Warsaw (Poland); Zukowska, G.Z.; Bukowska, M.; Szczecinski, P. [Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00664 Warsaw (Poland); Grugeon, S.; Laruelle, S.; Armand, M. [Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides University de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue de Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Panero, S.; Scrosati, B. [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Marcinek, M.; Wieczorek, W. [Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00664 Warsaw (Poland)


    In this manuscript we announce new type of 'tailored' imidazole-derived salts designed, synthesized and tested for application in lithium conductive electrolytes. Basic characterization of the structure of described materials has been made by Raman, IR and NMR ({sup 13}C NMR, {sup 19}F NMR) techniques. DSC and CV studies showed thermal stability of all salts over 200 deg. C and electrochemical stability in liquid and solid polymer solvents up to +4.6 V vs. metallic lithium anode and Al collectors. Such properties proved applicability of these salts as lithium electrolytes for modern types of lithium ion batteries.

  17. Polystyrene-Al2O3 composite solid polymer electrolyte for lithium secondary battery. (United States)

    Lim, Yu-Jeong; An, Yu-Ha; Jo, Nam-Ju


    In a common salt-in-polymer electrolyte, a polymer which has polar groups in the molecular chain is necessary because the polar groups dissolve lithium salt and coordinate cations. Based on the above point of view, polystyrene [PS] that has nonpolar groups is not suitable for the polymer matrix. However, in this PS-based composite polymer-in-salt system, the transport of cations is not by segmental motion but by ion-hopping through a lithium percolation path made of high content lithium salt. Moreover, Al2O3 can dissolve salt, instead of polar groups of polymer matrix, by the Lewis acid-base interactions between the surface group of Al2O3 and salt. Notably, the maximum enhancement of ionic conductivity is found in acidic Al2O3 compared with neutral and basic Al2O3 arising from the increase of free ion fraction by dissociation of salt. It was revealed that PS-Al2O3 composite solid polymer electrolyte containing 70 wt.% salt and 10 wt.% acidic Al2O3 showed the highest ionic conductivity of 9.78 × 10-5 Scm-1 at room temperature.

  18. Sorption behaviour of perfluoroalkyl substances in soils. (United States)

    Milinovic, Jelena; Lacorte, Silvia; Vidal, Miquel; Rigol, Anna


    The sorption behaviour of three perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), was studied in six soils with contrasting characteristics, especially in the organic carbon content. Sorption isotherms were obtained by equilibrating the soil samples with 0.01 mol L(-1) CaCl2 solutions spiked with increasing concentrations of the target PFAS. The sorption reversibility of PFASs was also tested for some of the samples. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify the target PFASs in the solutions. Both the Freundlich and linear models were appropriate to describe the sorption behaviour of PFASs in soils, and enabled us to derive solid-liquid distribution coefficients (Kd) for each compound in each soil. Kd values increased from 19 to 295 mL g(-1) for PFOS, from 2.2 to 38 mL g(-1) for PFOA and from 0.4 to 6.8 mL g(-1) for PFBS, and were positively correlated with the organic carbon content of the soil. KOC values obtained from the correlations were 710, 96 and 17 mL g(-1) for PFOS, PFOA and PFBS, respectively. Whereas Kd values decreased in the sequence PFOS>PFOA>PFBS, desorption yields were lower than 13% for PFOS, from 24 to 58% for PFOA, and from 32 to 60% for PFBS. This shows that the physicochemical characteristics of PFASs, basically their hydrophobicity, controlled their sorption behaviour in soils, with PFOS being the most irreversibly sorbed PFAS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sorption of niobium on boreal forest soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, Mervi; Hakanen, Martti; Lehto, Jukka [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Radiochemistry


    The sorption of niobium (Nb) was investigated on humus and mineral soil samples taken from various depths of a four-metre deep forest soil pit on Olkiluoto Island, southwestern Finland. Mass distribution coefficients, K{sub d}, were determined in batch sorption tests. The steady state of Nb sorption was observed in the mineral soil samples already after one week of equilibration, and sorption decreased with depth from a very high value of 185000 mL/g at 0.7 m to 54000 mL/g at 3.4 m. The reason behind this decrease is probably the tenfold reduction in the specific surface area of the soil at the same depth range. Distribution coefficients were clearly lower in the humus layer (1000 mL/g). The K{sub d} values determined in pure water at a pH range of 4.7-6.5 were at a high level (above 55000 mL/g), but decreased dramatically above pH 6.5, corresponding to the change in the major Nb species from the neutral Nb(OH){sub 5} to the low-sorbing anionic Nb(OH){sub 6}{sup -} and Nb(OH){sub 7}{sup 2-}. However, the K{sub d} values in the model soil solution were in the slightly alkaline range an order of magnitude higher than in pure water, which is probably caused by the formation of calcium niobate surface precipitate or electrostatic interaction between surface-sorbed calcium and solute Nb. Among nine soil constituent minerals kaolinite performed best in retaining Nb in both pure water and model soil solution at pH 8, whereas potassium feldspar showed the poorest sorption. The K{sub d} value for kaolinite was above 500000 mL/g in both solutions, while the respective potassium feldspar values were in the range of 120-220 mL/g.

  20. Modeling Fission Product Sorption in Graphite Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szlufarska, Izabela [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Morgan, Dane [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Allen, Todd [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    The goal of this project is to determine changes in adsorption and desorption of fission products to/from nuclear-grade graphite in response to a changing chemical environment. First, the project team will employ principle calculations and thermodynamic analysis to predict stability of fission products on graphite in the presence of structural defects commonly observed in very high- temperature reactor (VHTR) graphites. Desorption rates will be determined as a function of partial pressure of oxygen and iodine, relative humidity, and temperature. They will then carry out experimental characterization to determine the statistical distribution of structural features. This structural information will yield distributions of binding sites to be used as an input for a sorption model. Sorption isotherms calculated under this project will contribute to understanding of the physical bases of the source terms that are used in higher-level codes that model fission product transport and retention in graphite. The project will include the following tasks: Perform structural characterization of the VHTR graphite to determine crystallographic phases, defect structures and their distribution, volume fraction of coke, and amount of sp2 versus sp3 bonding. This information will be used as guidance for ab initio modeling and as input for sorptivity models; Perform ab initio calculations of binding energies to determine stability of fission products on the different sorption sites present in nuclear graphite microstructures. The project will use density functional theory (DFT) methods to calculate binding energies in vacuum and in oxidizing environments. The team will also calculate stability of iodine complexes with fission products on graphite sorption sites; Model graphite sorption isotherms to quantify concentration of fission products in graphite. The binding energies will be combined with a Langmuir isotherm statistical model to predict the sorbed concentration of fission

  1. SORPTION OF Au(III BY Saccharomyces cerevisiae BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaria Amaria


    Full Text Available Au(III sorption by S. cerevisiae biomass extracted from beer waste industry was investigated. Experimentally, the sorption was conducted in batch method. This research involved five steps: 1 identification the functional groups present in the S. cerevisiae biomass by infrared spectroscopic technique, 2 determination of optimum pH, 3 determination of the sorption capacity and energy, 4 determination of the sorption type by conducting desorption of sorbed Au(III using specific eluents having different desorption capacity such as H2O (van der Waals, KNO3 (ion exchange, HNO3 (hydrogen bond, and tiourea (coordination bond, 5 determination of effective eluents in Au(III desorption by partial desorption of sorbed Au(III using thiourea, NaCN and KI. The remaining Au(III concentrations in filtrate were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results showed that: 1 Functional groups of S. cerevisiae biomass that involved in the sorption processes were hydroxyl (-OH, carboxylate (-COO- and amine (-NH2, 2 maximum sorption was occurred at pH 4, equal to 98.19% of total sorption, 3 The sorption capacity of biomass was 133.33 mg/g (6.7682E-04 mol/g and was involved sorption energy 23.03 kJ mol-1, 4 Sorption type was dominated by coordination bond, 5 NaCN was effective eluent to strip Au(III close to 100%.   Keywords: sorption, desorption, S. cerevisiae biomass, Au(III

  2. Design and synthesis of new electrolyte systems for lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Amartya

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are extensively used in consumer electronic products, including laptop computers, cellular phones, cameras, camcorders, and medical devices. They have great potential for application in electric and hybrid electric vehicles by virtue of their high energy and power density. Research and development in this direction have been focused all around the globe. The major challenges include the higher cost, safety issues related to the solvents, and conductivities at lower ambient temperature of the solvent-free solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) systems. In this dissertation, three different approaches are presented to achieve an improved electrolyte system for lithium-ion batteries. A plasticizer was synthesized and incorporated into a conventional poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based solid polymer electrolyte system. The ambient temperature ionic conductivity observed at room temperature was noteworthy, due to the decrease of the glass transition temperature of the polymer. Secondly, a branched polymer was synthesized and used as the base matrix in SPEs. Polymers with a higher order of branching remained undissolved in common organic solvents, thereby limiting the scope of their use for making films for the study. The ones with a lower order of branching exhibited ionic conductivities comparable to regular PEO-based electrolytes. The third and most successful approach involved the strategic design and synthesis of a series of low lattice energy lithium salts and their chemical, thermal and electrochemical characterization. In this methodology, the two-to-three step synthetic strategy involved chlorosulfonation of an activated aromatic ring, reaction of the corresponding sulfonyl chloride with trifluoromethanesulfonamide in the presence of triethylamine as a base, followed by lithiation of the resulting triethylammonium salt to generate monolithium, dilithium and scaffolded polylithium salts. The mono- and dilithium salts were tested in

  3. The analysis of isotherms of radionuclides sorption by inorganic sorbents (United States)

    Bykova, E. P.; Nedobukh, T. A.


    The isotherm of cesium sorption by an inorganic sorbent based on granulated glauconite obtained in a wide cesium concentrations range was mathematically treated using Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson sorption models. The algorithms of mathematical treatment of experimental data using these models were described; parameters of all isotherms were determined. It was shown that estimating the correctness of various sorption models relies not only on the correlation coefficient values but also on the closeness of the calculated and experimental data. Various types of sorption sites were found as a result of mathematical treatment of the isotherm of cesium sorption. The algorithm was described and calculation of parameters of the isotherm was performed under the assumption that simultaneous sorption on all three types of sorption sites occurs in accordance with Langmuir isotherm.

  4. Surface Charge and Ion Sorption Properties of Titanium Dioxide (United States)

    Ridley, M. K.; Machesky, M. L.; Wesolowski, D. J.; Finnegan, M. P.; Palmer, D. A.


    The interaction of submicron metal oxide particles with natural aqueous solutions results in the hydroxylation of surface sites, which impart a pH-dependent surface charge. The charged submicron particles influence processes such as nanoparticle assembly and alteration, crystal growth rates and morphologies, colloid flocculation, and contaminant transport. The surface charge and ion sorption properties of metal-oxide particles may be studied by potentiometric titrations, using hydrogen-electrode concentration-cells or traditional glass electrodes and an autotitrator. These techniques have been used to quantify the adsorption of various ions (Na+, Rb+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Cl-) on rutile, at ionic strengths up to 1.0 molality and temperatures to 250° C. The crystalline rutile used in these studies is less than 400 nm in diameter, has a BET surface area of 17 m2/g, and the 110 and 100 faces predominate. The negative surface charge of the rutile was enhanced by increasing temperature, increasing ionic strength, and decreasing the ionic radii of the electrolyte cation. Moreover, the addition of a divalent cation significantly enhances the negative charge of the rutile surface. These data have been rationalized with the MUSIC model of Hiemestra and van Riemsdijk, and a Basic Stern layer description of the electric double layer (EDL). Model fitting of the experimental data provides binding constants for the adsorbed counterions and divalent cations, and capacitance values as well as corresponding electrical potential values of the binding planes. Recently, new studies have been initiated to determine particle size affects on the proton induced surface charge and ion sorption properties of titanium dioxide. In these studies, anatase with a BET surface area of 40 and 100 m2/g (primary particle sizes of 40 and 10 nm, respectively) is being investigated. The complexity of both the experimental and modeling procedures increases with decreasing particle size. For example, the fine

  5. Using solid phase micro extraction to determine salting-out (Setschenow) constants for hydrophobic organic chemicals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/175518793; Muijs, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/194995526


    With increasing ionic strength, the aqueous solubility and activity of organic chemicals are altered. This so-called salting-out effect causes the hydrophobicity of the chemicals to be increased and sorption in the marine environment to be more pronounced than in freshwater systems. The process can

  6. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson


    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  7. Isotherms and isosteric heat of sorption of two varieties of Peruvian quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Pumacahua-Ramos


    Full Text Available The isosteric heats of sorption of two varieties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoaWilld. grain were determined by the static gravimetric method at four temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C andin relative humidity environments provided by six saturated salt solutions. Six mathematical equations were used to model the experimental data: GAB, Oswin, Henderson, Peleg, Smith and Halsey. The isosteric heat of sorption was determined using the parameters of the GAB model. All the equations were shown to be appropriate by the coefficients of determination (R2 and the mean absolute error (MA%E. The influence of temperature was observed because the adsorption of water by the grains was lower at highertemperatures. The equilibrium moisture contents for security of storage, for long periods of time at water activity lower than 0.65, were 12 -13%. The effect of temperature on the parameters of the GAB model was analysed using the exponential Arrhenius equation. The isosteric heats of sorption were determined by applying the Clausius-Clapeyron equation as a function of humidity. The isosteric heat at 5% moisture for grains of the Blanca de Juli variety was 3663 kJ/kg and for the Pasankalla variety it was 3393 kJ/kg. The experimental data for isosteric heat as a function of humidity were satisfactorily modelled using three mathematical equations.

  8. Electrolytes and thermoregulation (United States)

    Nielsen, B.; Greenleaf, J. E.


    The influence of ions on temperature is studied for cases where the changes in ionic concentrations are induced by direct infusion or injection of electrolyte solutions into the cerebral ventricles or into specific areas of brain tissue; intravenous infusion or injection; eating food or drinking solutions of different ionic composition; and heat or exercise dehydration. It is shown that introduction of Na(+) and Ca(++) into the cerebral ventricles or into the venous system affects temperature regulation. It appears that the specific action of these ions is different from their osmotic effects. It is unlikely that their action is localized to the thermoregulatory centers in the brain. The infusion experiments demonstrate that the changes in sodium balance occurring during exercise and heat stress are large enough to affect sweat gland function and vasomotor activity.

  9. Fluctuation-enhanced electric conductivity in electrolyte solutions. (United States)

    Péraud, Jean-Philippe; Nonaka, Andrew J; Bell, John B; Donev, Aleksandar; Garcia, Alejandro L


    We analyze the effects of an externally applied electric field on thermal fluctuations for a binary electrolyte fluid. We show that the fluctuating Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations for charged multispecies diffusion coupled with the fluctuating fluid momentum equation result in enhanced charge transport via a mechanism distinct from the well-known enhancement of mass transport that accompanies giant fluctuations. Although the mass and charge transport occurs by advection by thermal velocity fluctuations, it can macroscopically be represented as electrodiffusion with renormalized electric conductivity and a nonzero cation-anion diffusion coefficient. Specifically, we predict a nonzero cation-anion Maxwell-Stefan coefficient proportional to the square root of the salt concentration, a prediction that agrees quantitatively with experimental measurements. The renormalized or effective macroscopic equations are different from the starting PNP equations, which contain no cross-diffusion terms, even for rather dilute binary electrolytes. At the same time, for infinitely dilute solutions the renormalized electric conductivity and renormalized diffusion coefficients are consistent and the classical PNP equations with renormalized coefficients are recovered, demonstrating the self-consistency of the fluctuating hydrodynamics equations. Our calculations show that the fluctuating hydrodynamics approach recovers the electrophoretic and relaxation corrections obtained by Debye-Huckel-Onsager theory, while elucidating the physical origins of these corrections and generalizing straightforwardly to more complex multispecies electrolytes. Finally, we show that strong applied electric fields result in anisotropically enhanced "giant" velocity fluctuations and reduced fluctuations of salt concentration.

  10. Supercapacitor Electrolyte Solvents with Liquid Range Below -80 C (United States)

    Brandon, Erik; Smart, Marshall; West, William


    A previous NASA Tech Brief ["Low-Temperature Supercapacitors" (NPO-44386) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No 7 (July 2008), page 32] detailed ongoing efforts to develop non-aqueous supercapacitor electrolytes capable of supporting operation at temperatures below commercially available cells (which are typically limited to charging and discharging at > or equal to -40 C). These electrolyte systems may enable energy storage and power delivery for systems operating in extreme environments, such as those encountered in the Polar regions on Earth or in the exploration of space. Supercapacitors using these electrolytes may also offer improved power delivery performance at moderately low temperatures (e.g. -40 to 0 C) relative to currently available cells, offering improved cold-cranking and cold-weather acceleration capabilities for electrical or hybrid vehicles. Supercapacitors store charge at the electrochemical double-layer, formed at the interface between a high surface area electrode material and a liquid electrolyte. The current approach to extending the low-temperature limit of the electrolyte focuses on using binary solvent systems comprising a high-dielectric-constant component (such as acetonitrile) in conjunction with a low-melting-point co-solvent (such as organic formates, esters, and ethers) to depress the freezing point of the system, while maintaining sufficient solubility of the salt. Recent efforts in this area have led to the identification of an electrolyte solvent formulation with a freezing point of -85.7 C, which is achieved by using a 1:1 by volume ratio of acetonitrile to 1,3-dioxolane


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Khorasani


    Full Text Available Adjustment of composition of body fluids and electrolytes is one of the most important aspects of patients care. Sodium and Potassium are the most important body cations, the improper adjustment of them will cause sever disorders in neuromuscular, gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Acute renal failure indicated by increase in creatinine and nitrogen urea, brings an accumulation of fluids, salts and metabolites of nitrogen in body. This study intends to assess the status of electrolyte abnormalities and mortality rates of the patients hospitalized in ICU wards in our country. This is a descriptive and retrospective study on the records of 378 patients hospitalized in ICU. A questionnaire was prepared and the data were entered in SPSS system. They were statistically analyzed by using chi-square and fisher's Exact test methods. Out of 378 patients hospitalized in ICU, over 2/3 of them were male and over half of them were>45 years old. Frequency distribution of electrolyte abnormalities was as follows: Hyponatremia 59% hypernatremia 23% hypokalemia 37% hyperkalemia 28%, 35% and 21% of patients had respectively BUN and creatinine more than the normal range. 26% of patients hospitalized in ICU had nonsurgical problems and 74% of the patients had surgical problems. Average time of hospitalization in ICU was 85 days and mortality rate was 35%. The most common electrolyte abnormality was related to variation in serum sodium levels in the form of hyponatremia. And the highest prevalence electrolyte abnormality in dead patients was hyponatremia. This study proves that the prevalence of electrolyte abnormalities is directly related to mortality and increase in hospitalization period and those having undergone surgical operations during hospitalization in ICU, manifested more abnormalities.

  12. Serum electrolyte derangements in patients with traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Rafiq, Mirza Faisal Ahmed; Ahmed, Noor; Khan, Adil Aziz


    Electrolyte derangements are common sequel of traumatic brain injury. Use of intravenous fluids, diuretics, syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion and cerebral salt washing are some of the factors responsible for this. Proper in time detection followed by appropriate treatment not only improves neurological status but also decrease morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to know serum derangements of different electrolytes in patients with traumatic brain injury. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences. Islamabad, Pakistan from Feb 2009 to Feb 2010. All adult patients with traumatic brain injury who presented to Neurosurgical department with severe head injury (GCS < 8) and who need monitoring in high dependency unit, were included in this study. Initially twice daily serum electrolyte monitoring for one week then once daily for remaining period of hospital stay was carried out. All samples were sent to Pathology department of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. Patients who need corrective measures for imbalance had repetition of sampling after giving appropriate therapy. Statistical analysis was performed on SPSS-16. Total 215 patients presented with severe head injury that were managed in high dependency unit. Out of which 127 (59.1%) were male and 88 (40.9%) were females. Most of them were adults between 21-40) years of age (21.4%; 24.7%). Sodium was the main electrolyte that underwent change & out of which hyper-natremia was major abnormality that occurred in 140 (65.1%) of patients. This is followed by hypo-kalemia that occurred in 79 (36.7%) of patients. Serum calcium & magnesium levels show little derangements. Electrolyte imbalance following traumatic head injury is an important cause to look for in patient monitoring. Sodium is the chief electrolytes of concern. Serum potassium and calcium levels also under goes notable changes.

  13. Cantera and Cantera Electrolyte Thermodynamics Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Cantera is a suite of object-oriented software tools for problems involving chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, and/or transport processes. It is a multi-organizational effort to create and formulate high quality 0D and 1D constitutive modeling tools for reactive transport codes.Institutions involved with the effort include Sandia, MIT, Colorado School of Mines, U. Texas, NASA, and Oak Ridge National Labs. Specific to Sandia's contributions, the Cantera Electrolyte Thermo Objects (CETO) packages is comprised of add-on routines for Cantera that handle electrolyte thermochemistry and reactions within the overall Cantera package. Cantera is a C++ Cal Tech code that handles gas phase species transport, reaction, and thermodynamics. With this addition, Cantera can be extended to handle problems involving liquid phase reactions and transport in electrolyte systems, and phase equilibrium problemsinvolving concentrated electrolytes and gas/solid phases. A full treatment of molten salt thermodynamics and transport has also been implemented in CETO. The routines themselves consist of .cpp and .h files containing C++ objects that are derived from parent Cantera objects representing thermodynamic functions. They are linked unto the main Cantera libraries when requested by the user. As an addendum to the main thermodynamics objects, several utility applications are provided. The first is multiphase Gibbs free energy minimizer based on the vcs algorithm, called vcs_cantera. This code allows for the calculation of thermodynamic equilibrium in multiple phases at constant temperature and pressure. Note, a similar code capability exists already in Cantera. This version follows the same algorithm, but gas a different code-base starting point, and is used as a research tool for algorithm development. The second program, cttables, prints out tables of thermodynamic and kinetic information for thermodynamic and kinetic objects within Cantera. This program serves as a "Get the

  14. Enhanced Cycling Stability of Rechargeable Li-O2 Batteries Using High Concentration Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Sun, Xiuliang; Bowden, Mark E.; Read, Jeffrey; Qian, Jiangfeng; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang


    The electrolyte stability against reactive reduced-oxygen species is crucial for the development of rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. In this work, we systematically investigated the effect of lithium salt concentration in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME)-based electrolytes on the cycling stability of Li-O2 batteries. Cells with high concentration electrolyte illustrate largely enhanced cycling stability under both the full discharge/charge (2.0-4.5 V vs. Li/Li+) and the capacity limited (at 1,000 mAh g-1) conditions. These cells also exhibit much less reaction-residual on the charged air electrode surface, and much less corrosion to the Li metal anode. The density functional theory calculations are conducted on the molecular orbital energies of the electrolyte components and the Gibbs activation barriers for superoxide radical anion to attack DME solvent and Li+-(DME)n solvates. In a highly concentrated electrolyte, all DME molecules have been coordinated with salt and the C-H bond scission of a DME molecule becomes more difficult. Therefore, the decomposition of highly concentrated electrolyte in a Li-O2 battery can be mitigated and both air-cathodes and Li-metal anodes exhibits much better reversibility. As a results, the cyclability of Li-O2 can be largely improved.

  15. Dynamics of Lithium Polymer Electrolytes using X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and Rheology (United States)

    Oparaji, Onyekachi; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec; Hallinan, Daniel, Jr.

    Polymer electrolytes are promising materials for high energy density rechargeable batteries. Battery fade can be caused by structural evolution in the battery electrode and loss of electrode/electrolyte adhesion during cycling. Both of these effects are dependent on polymer mechanical properties. In addition, cycling rate is dictated by the ion mobility of the polymer electrolyte. Lithium ion mobility is expected to be strongly coupled to polymer dynamics. Therefore, we investigate polymer dynamics as a function of salt concentration using X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS) and rheology. We report the influence of lithium salt concentration on the structural relaxation time (XPCS) and stress relaxation time (rheology) of high molecular weight poly(styrene - ethylene oxide) block copolymer membranes.

  16. Experimental study and modeling of the influence of mixed electrolytes on adsorption of macromolecules on a hydrophobic resin. (United States)

    Werner, Albert; Hasse, Hans


    The influence of mixed electrolytes on the adsorption of macromolecules on a hydrophobic resin is explored. The macromolecules are native lysozyme, di-PEG-lysozyme-5kDa and pure PEG-6kDa, the adsorbent is Toyopearl PPG-600M, a mildly hydrophobic resin. The solvent is a 25 mM aqueous sodium phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 containing additional salts with an overall ionic strength of 3000 mM. The studied salts are sodium chloride, ammonium sulfate, sodium sulfate and ammonium chloride. Both pure salts as well as binary and ternary mixtures of these salts with varying ratios of the amounts of the salts are studied. For all solvents adsorption equilibrium isotherms are measured at 25°C. Mixing electrolytes can lead to synergetic effects, i.e. the adsorption in the mixed electrolyte system is sometimes distinctly larger than expected from the results of the single electrolyte systems. The single ions, not the salts, drive the adsorption. A mathematical model is developed, which describes the influence of the different ions and their cross-interactions on the studied adsorption process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Defluoridation by Bacteriogenic Iron Oxides: Sorption Studies (United States)

    Evans, K.; Ferris, F.


    At concentrations above 1 mg/L, fluoride in drinking water can lead to dental and skeletal fluorosis, a disease that causes mottling of the teeth, calcification of ligaments, crippling bone deformities and many other physiological disorders that can, ultimately, lead to death. Conservative estimates are that fluorosis afflicts tens of millions of people worldwide. As there is no treatment for fluorosis, prevention is the only means of controlling the disease. While numerous defluoridation techniques have been explored, no single method has been found to be both effective and inexpensive enough to implement widely. Our research began in India, with a large-scale geochemical study of the groundwater in a fluoride-contaminated region of Orissa. Having developed a better understanding of the geochemical relationships that exist between fluoride and other parameters present in an affected area, as well as the complex relationships that arise among those parameters that can impact the presence of fluoride, we began investigating certain remediation scenarios involving iron oxides. A common approach to remediation involves the partitioning of fluoride from groundwater by sorption onto a variety of materials, one of the most effective of which is iron oxide whose surface area acts as a scavenger for fluoride. In the presence of iron oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation rate of iron has been shown to be ˜6 times greater than in their absence; fluoride should, therefore, be removed from an aqueous environment by bacteriogenic iron oxides (BIOS) much more quickly than by abiotic iron oxides. Most recently, sorption studies have been conducted using both BIOS and synthetic hydrous ferric oxides in order to compare the behavior between biotic and abiotic sorbents. These studies have provided sorption isotherms that allow comparison of fluoride removed by sorption to BIOS versus synthetic iron oxides. Sorption affinity constants have also been determined, which allow for the

  18. Composite Polymer Electrolytes: Nanoparticles Affect Structure and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang


    Full Text Available Composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs can significantly improve the performance in electrochemical devices such as lithium-ion batteries. This review summarizes property/performance relationships in the case where nanoparticles are introduced to polymer electrolytes. It is the aim of this review to provide a knowledge network that elucidates the role of nano-additives in the CPEs. Central to the discussion is the impact on the CPE performance of properties such as crystalline/amorphous structure, dielectric behavior, and interactions within the CPE. The amorphous domains of semi-crystalline polymer facilitate the ion transport, while an enhanced mobility of polymer chains contributes to high ionic conductivity. Dielectric properties reflect the relaxation behavior of polymer chains as an important factor in ion conduction. Further, the dielectric constant (ε determines the capability of the polymer to dissolve salt. The atom/ion/nanoparticle interactions within CPEs suggest ways to enhance the CPE conductivity by generating more free lithium ions. Certain properties can be improved simultaneously by nanoparticle addition in order to optimize the overall performance of the electrolyte. The effects of nano-additives on thermal and mechanical properties of CPEs are also presented in order to evaluate the electrolyte competence for lithium-ion battery applications.

  19. Scaling Analysis of the Screening Length in Concentrated Electrolytes (United States)

    Lee, Alpha A.; Perez-Martinez, Carla S.; Smith, Alexander M.; Perkin, Susan


    The interaction between charged objects in an electrolyte solution is a fundamental question in soft matter physics. It is well known that the electrostatic contribution to the interaction energy decays exponentially with object separation. Recent measurements reveal that, contrary to the conventional wisdom given by the classic Poisson-Boltzmann theory, the decay length increases with the ion concentration for concentrated electrolytes and can be an order of magnitude larger than the ion diameter in ionic liquids. We derive a simple scaling theory that explains this anomalous dependence of the decay length on the ion concentration. Our theory successfully collapses the decay lengths of a wide class of salts onto a single curve. A novel prediction of our theory is that the decay length increases linearly with the Bjerrum length, which we experimentally verify by surface force measurements. Moreover, we quantitatively relate the measured decay length to classic measurements of the activity coefficient in concentrated electrolytes, thus showing that the measured decay length is indeed a bulk property of the concentrated electrolyte as well as contributing a mechanistic insight into empirical activity coefficients.

  20. Optimized Carbonate and Ester-Based Li-Ion Electrolytes (United States)

    Smart, Marshall; Bugga, Ratnakumar


    To maintain high conductivity in low temperatures, electrolyte co-solvents have been designed to have a high dielectric constant, low viscosity, adequate coordination behavior, and appropriate liquid ranges and salt solubilities. Electrolytes that contain ester-based co-solvents in large proportion (greater than 50 percent) and ethylene carbonate (EC) in small proportion (less than 20 percent) improve low-temperature performance in MCMB carbon-LiNiCoO2 lithium-ion cells. These co-solvents have been demonstrated to enhance performance, especially at temperatures down to 70 C. Low-viscosity, ester-based co-solvents were incorporated into multi-component electrolytes of the following composition: 1.0 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC) + ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) + X (1:1:8 volume percent) [where X = methyl butyrate (MB), ethyl butyrate EB, methyl propionate (MP), or ethyl valerate (EV)]. These electrolyte formulations result in improved low-temperature performance of lithium-ion cells, with dramatic results at temperatures below 40 C.

  1. Corrosion behavior of Mg/graphene composite in aqueous electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvam, M. [Centre for Nano Science and Technology, KS Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode, 637215, Tamil Nadu (India); Saminathan, K., E-mail: [Centre for Nano Science and Technology, KS Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode, 637215, Tamil Nadu (India); Siva, P. [Centre for Nano Science and Technology, KS Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode, 637215, Tamil Nadu (India); Saha, P. [Department of Ceramic Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India-769008 (India); Rajendran, V. [Centre for Nano Science and Technology, KS Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode, 637215, Tamil Nadu (India)


    In the present work, the electrochemical corrosion behavior of magnesium (Mg) and thin layer graphene coated Mg (Mg/graphene) are studied in different salt electrolyte such as NaCl, KCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The phase structure, crystallinity, and surface morphology of the samples are investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDAX), and Raman spectroscopy techniques. The electrochemical corrosion behavior of the Mg and graphene coated Mg are also investigated using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis. The tafel plot reveals that the corrosion of Mg drastically drops when coated with thin layer graphene (Mg/graphene) compared to Mg in KCl electrolyte. Moreover, the EIS confirms that Mg/graphene sample shows improve corrosion resistance and lower corrosion rate in KCl solution compare to all other electrolytes studied in the present system. - Highlights: • The corrosion behavior of magnesium alloy (AZ91) was investigated in three different electrolyte solution. • To study the anti-corrosion behavior of graphene coated with magnesium alloy. • To improve the corrosion resistance for magnesium alloy. • Nyquist plots confirms that MgG shows better corrosion resistance and lower corrosion rate in KCl solution.

  2. The use of anions with sulfate function in electrolyte for lithium battery. Study of transport mechanism; Utilisation d'anions a fonction sulfate dans des electrolytes pour batterie au lithium. Etude des mecanismes de transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvin, Ch.


    Lithium salts based on oligo-ether sulfate were synthesized and characterised. They incorporate oxy-ethylene units which enable the lithium cation salvation and, potentially, their use as ionic liquids. Their properties as lithium salts dissolved in liquid or polymer electrolytes were evaluated. Their electrochemical and thermal stabilities are sufficient for lithium battery application. Due to their weak dissociation in POE, their conductivities are fairly low. On the other hand, they have high cationic transference numbers. In mixture with usual salts as LiTFSI, they provide a good compromise between conductivities/transference number/cost. The second part of this study deals with the synthesis and characterisation of an ionomer with sulfate function and polyether backbone. The electrochemical, physical and chemical properties of this material show that it could be used as polymer electrolyte. Its potential as cross-linked gelled polymer electrolyte is outstanding. Structural analyses on an ionomeric monocrystal have been corroborated with quantum chemistry calculations. (author)

  3. Study of sorption mechanisms of europium(3) and uranium(6) ions on clays : impact of silicates; Etude des mecanismes de retention des ions U(6) et Eu(3) sur les argiles: influence des silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowal-Fouchard, A


    Bentonite clay has been selected as a potential buffer or backfill material in a number of disposal programmes for high level waste. In order to enhance the thermodynamic database of sorption phenomena at the solid-water interface, we have investigated sorption mechanisms of europium(III) and uranium(VI) ions onto montmorillonite and bentonite. Thermodynamic data were obtained for different ions concentrations, different background electrolytes and different ionic strengths. The structural identification of the surface complexes and sorption sites was carried out using two spectroscopies, XPS and TRLIFS, while sorption edges were performed using batch experiments. However, clays are complex minerals and in order to understand these sorption mechanisms we have studied europium(III) and uranium(VI) retention on a silica and an alumina because these solids are often considered as basic components of clays. The comparison of structural results shows that europium ions are significantly sorbed on permanently charged sites of clay until pH 7. But this ion is also sorbed on {identical_to}SiOH and {identical_to}AlOH sites of montmorillonite at pH higher than 6. Uranyl ions sorption on montmorillonite is mainly explained by retention of three complexes on {identical_to}SiOH sites. Moreover, we have shown that nitrate ions and dissolved silicates affect on uranium(VI) sorption mechanisms onto alumina. Nevertheless, uranyl ions sorption on montmorillonite and bentonite only decreases with increasing carbonate concentration. Finally, all the sorption edges were then modeled using these results and a surface complexation model (2 pK and constant capacitance models). (author)

  4. Sorption of Sr, Co and Zn on illite: Batch experiments and modelling including Co in-diffusion measurements on compacted samples (United States)

    Montoya, V.; Baeyens, B.; Glaus, M. A.; Kupcik, T.; Marques Fernandes, M.; Van Laer, L.; Bruggeman, C.; Maes, N.; Schäfer, T.


    occupancies. The pH dependent sorption determined for trace Zn concentrations showed large Rd values across the entire pH range with almost no dependence on the background electrolyte concentration. Additional sorption experiments carried out at substantial fractional Zn loadings demonstrated that the selectivity for the exchange of Na+ for Zn2+ at the planar sites could not explain the large Rd values measured at low pH and trace Zn concentrations. This suggests that another mechanism is ruling Zn uptake under these conditions.

  5. Isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic study of ciprofloxacin sorption on sediments. (United States)

    Mutavdžić Pavlović, Dragana; Ćurković, Lidija; Grčić, Ivana; Šimić, Iva; Župan, Josip


    In this study, equilibrium isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics of ciprofloxacin on seven sediments in a batch sorption process were examined. The effects of contact time, initial ciprofloxacin concentration, temperature and ionic strength on the sorption process were studied. The K d parameter from linear sorption model was determined by linear regression analysis, while the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) sorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms by linear and nonlinear methods. The estimated K d values varied from 171 to 37,347 mL/g. The obtained values of E (free energy estimated from D-R isotherm model) were between 3.51 and 8.64 kJ/mol, which indicated a physical nature of ciprofloxacin sorption on studied sediments. According to obtained n values as measure of intensity of sorption estimate from Freundlich isotherm model (from 0.69 to 1.442), ciprofloxacin sorption on sediments can be categorized from poor to moderately difficult sorption characteristics. Kinetics data were best fitted by the pseudo-second-order model (R 2  > 0.999). Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) were calculated to estimate the nature of ciprofloxacin sorption. Results suggested that sorption on sediments was a spontaneous exothermic process.

  6. Sorption kinetics and its effects on retention and leaching. (United States)

    de Wilde, Tineke; Mertens, Jan; Spanoghe, Pieter; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Jaeken, Peter; Springael, Dirk


    Sorption of pesticides to substrates used in biopurification systems is important as it controls the system's efficiency. Ideally, pesticide sorption should occur fast so that leaching of the pesticide in the biopurification system is minimized. Although modeling of pesticide transport commonly assumes equilibrium, this may not always be true in practice. Sorption kinetics have to be taken into account. This study investigated the batch sorption kinetics of linuron, isoproturon, metalaxyl, isoxaben and lenacil on substrates commonly used in a biopurification system, i.e. cow manure, straw, willow chopping, sandy loam soil, coconut chips, garden waste compost and peat mix. The first-order sorption kinetics model was fitted to the observed pesticide concentrations versus time resulting in an estimated kinetic rate constant alpha. Sorption appeared to be fast for the pesticides linuron and isoxaben, pesticides which were classified as immobile, while less mobile pesticides displayed an overall slower sorption. However, the substrate does not seem to be the main parameter influencing the sorption kinetics. Coconut chips, which is a substrate with a high organic matter content showed slow sorption for most of the pesticides. The effect of different estimated alpha values on the breakthrough of pesticides through a biopurification system was evaluated using the HYDRUS 1D model. Significant differences in leaching behavior were observed as a result of the obtained differences in sorption kinetics.

  7. Testosterone sorption and desorption: Effects of soil particle size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yong, E-mail: [Civil Engineering Dept., University of Nebraska-Lincoln at Omaha Campus, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States); Zhang, Tian C. [Civil Engineering Dept., University of Nebraska-Lincoln at Omaha Campus, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States); Ren, Yongzheng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Smaller soil particles have higher sorption and lower desorption rates. • The sorption capacity ranks as clay > silt > sand. • Small particles like clays have less potential for desorption. • Colloids (clays) have high potential to facilitate the transport of hormones in soil–water environments. - Abstract: Soils contain a wide range of particles of different diameters with different mobility during rainfall events. Effects of soil particles on sorption and desorption behaviors of steroid hormones have not been investigated. In this study, wet sieve washing and repeated sedimentation methods were used to fractionate the soils into five ranges. The sorption and desorption properties and related mechanisms of testosterone in batch reactors filled with fractionated soil particles were evaluated. Results of sorption and desorption kinetics indicate that small soil particles have higher sorption and lower desorption rates than that of big ones. Thermodynamic results show the sorption processes are spontaneous and exothermal. The sorption capacity ranks as clay > silt > sand, depending mainly on specific surface area and surface functional groups. The urea control test shows that hydrogen bonding contributes to testosterone sorption onto clay and silt but not on sand. Desorption tests indicate sorption is 36–65% irreversible from clay to sand. Clays have highest desorption hysteresis among these five soil fractions, indicating small particles like clays have less potential for desorption. The results provide indirect evidence on the colloid (clay)-facilitated transport of hormones (micro-pollutants) in soil environments.

  8. Surface complexation modeling or organic acid sorption to goethite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evanko, C.R.; Dzombak, D.A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering


    Surface complexation modeling was performed using the Generalized Two-Layer Model for a series of low molecular weight organic acids. Sorption of these organic acids to goethite was investigated in a previous study to assess the influence of particular structural features on sorption. Here, the ability to describe the observed sorption behavior for compounds with similar structural features using surface complexation modeling was investigated. A set of surface reactions and equilibrium constants yielding optimal data fits was obtained for each organic acid over a range of total sorbate concentrations. Surface complexation modeling successfully described sorption of a number of the simple organic acids, but an additional hydrophobic component was needed to describe sorption behavior of some compounds with significant hydrophobic character. These compounds exhibited sorption behavior of some compounds with significant hydrophobic character. These compounds exhibited sorption behavior that was inconsistent with ligand exchange mechanisms since sorption behavior of some compounds with significant hydrophobic character. These compounds exhibited sorption behavior that was inconsistent with ligand exchange mechanisms since sorption did not decrease with increasing total sorbate concentration and/or exceeded surface site saturation. Hydrophobic interactions appeared to be most significant for the compound containing a 5-carbon aliphatic chain. Comparison of optimized equilibrium constants for similar surface species showed that model results were consistent with observed sorption behavior: equilibrium constants were highest for compounds having adjacent carboxylic groups, lower for compounds with adjacent phenolic groups, and lowest for compounds with phenolic groups in the ortho position relative to a carboxylic group. Surface complexation modeling was also performed to fit sorption data for Suwannee River fulvic acid. The data could be described well using reactions and

  9. Antireduction Insulator For Solid-Electrolyte Cell (United States)

    Shlichta, Paul J.


    Depletion of oxygen from electrolyte prevented. Proposed to add layer of electrical insulation between solid electrolyte and portion of porous negative electrode under negative metal contact in solid-electrolyte cell. Helps maintain efficiency of cell by preventing "shadow" effect degrading portion of electrolyte under negative contact and sometimes near seals.

  10. Electrochemical Behavior of PEDOT/Lignin in Ionic Liquid Electrolytes: Suitable Cathode/Electrolyte System for Sodium Batteries. (United States)

    Casado, Nerea; Hilder, Matthias; Pozo-Gonzalo, Cristina; Forsyth, Maria; Mecerreyes, David


    Biomass-derived polymers, such as lignin, contain quinone/ hydroquinone redox moieties that can be used to store charge. Composites based on the biopolymer lignin and several conjugated polymers have shown good charge-storage properties. However, their performance has been only studied in acidic aqueous media limiting their applications mainly to supercapacitors. Here, we show that PEDOT/lignin (PEDOT: poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) biopolymers are electroactive in aprotic ionic liquids (ILs) and we move a step further by assembling sodium full cell batteries using PEDOT/lignin as electrode material and IL electrolytes. Thus, the electrochemical activity and cycling of PEDOT/lignin electrodes was investigated in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMPyrTFSI), 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (BMPyrFSI), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EMImTFSI) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (EMImFSI) IL electrolytes. The effects of water and sodium salt addition to the ILs were investigated to obtain optimum electrolyte systems for sodium batteries. Finally, sodium batteries based on PEDOT/lignin cathode with imidazolium-based IL electrolyte showed higher capacity values than pyrrolidinium ones, reaching 70 mAhg-1 . Our results demonstrate that PEDOT/lignin composites can serve as low cost and sustainable cathode materials for sodium batteries. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Li Ion Conducting Polymer Gel Electrolytes Based on Ionic Liquid/PVDF-HFP Blends (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Huang, Jian; Xu, Jun John; Khalfan, Amish; Greenbaum, Steve G.


    Ionic liquids thermodynamically compatible with Li metal are very promising for applications to rechargeable lithium batteries. 1-methyl-3-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P13TFSI) is screened out as a particularly promising ionic liquid in this study. Dimensionally stable, elastic, flexible, nonvolatile polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) with high electrochemical stabilities, high ionic conductivities and other desirable properties have been synthesized by dissolving Li imide salt (LiTFSI) in P13TFSI ionic liquid and then mixing the electrolyte solution with poly(vinylidene-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) copolymer. Adding small amounts of ethylene carbonate to the polymer gel electrolytes dramatically improves the ionic conductivity, net Li ion transport concentration, and Li ion transport kinetics of these electrolytes. They are thus favorable and offer good prospects in the application to rechargeable Li batteries including open systems like Li/air batteries, as well as more “conventional” rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. PMID:20354587

  12. Investigations of the Electrochemical Stability of Aqueous Electrolytes for Lithium Battery Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin


    The electrolytic stability windows of several aqueous electrolytes were investigated by a constant current method. The electrode potential range depended upon the value of the imposed current. The magnitude of this behavior varied with the salt solution, its concentration, and pH of the electrolyte. At a leakage current density of 50 μA/cm2, a 5 M solution of LiNO3 had an electrolytic window of 2.3 V, spanning from -0.55 to 1.75 V with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode. These results demonstrate the feasibility of operating lithium batteries at voltages appreciably above the theoretical decomposition voltage of water. © 2010 The Electrochemical Society.

  13. Vibrational and impedance spectroscopic study on PVP-NH{sub 4}SCN based polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramya, C.S. [Solid State and Radiation Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641 046 (India); Selvasekarapandian, S. [Solid State and Radiation Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641 046 (India)]. E-mail:; Savitha, T. [Solid State and Radiation Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641 046 (India); Hirankumar, G. [Solid State and Radiation Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641 046 (India); Angelo, P.C. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, P.S.G. College of Technology, Coimbatore-641 004 (India)


    Polymer electrolytes based on poly (N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and ammonium thiocyanate (NH{sub 4}SCN) prepared by solution cast technique have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and impedance spectroscopic techniques. The XRD and Raman spectra for the electrolytes indicate that the amorphous nature of PVP increases with the increase of the concentration of ammonium thiocyanate. The spectral changes in the Raman bands of the C=O and the C{identical_to}N stretching indicate the interaction between the salt and the polymer. The conductivity analysis shows that the 20 mol% ammonium thiocyanate doped polymer electrolyte exhibits high ionic conductivity and it has been found to be 1.7x10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1}, at room temperature. The ionic coordination in the polymeric electrolytes, as determined by Raman spectroscopy, has been discussed in relation to the conductance behavior.

  14. Vibrational and impedance spectroscopic study on PVP-NH 4SCN based polymer electrolytes (United States)

    Ramya, C. S.; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Savitha, T.; Hirankumar, G.; Angelo, P. C.


    Polymer electrolytes based on poly ( N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and ammonium thiocyanate (NH 4SCN) prepared by solution cast technique have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and impedance spectroscopic techniques. The XRD and Raman spectra for the electrolytes indicate that the amorphous nature of PVP increases with the increase of the concentration of ammonium thiocyanate. The spectral changes in the Raman bands of the C dbnd O and the C tbnd N stretching indicate the interaction between the salt and the polymer. The conductivity analysis shows that the 20 mol% ammonium thiocyanate doped polymer electrolyte exhibits high ionic conductivity and it has been found to be 1.7×10 -4 S cm -1, at room temperature. The ionic coordination in the polymeric electrolytes, as determined by Raman spectroscopy, has been discussed in relation to the conductance behavior.

  15. Comparative Study of Ether-Based Electrolytes for Application in Lithium-Sulfur Battery. (United States)

    Carbone, Lorenzo; Gobet, Mallory; Peng, Jing; Devany, Matthew; Scrosati, Bruno; Greenbaum, Steve; Hassoun, Jusef


    Herein, we report the characteristics of electrolytes using various ether-solvents with molecular composition CH3O[CH2CH2O]nCH3, differing by chain length, and LiCF3SO3 as the lithium salt. The electrolytes, considered as suitable media for lithium-sulfur batteries, are characterized in terms of thermal properties (TGA, DSC), lithium ion conductivity, lithium interface stability, cyclic voltammetry, self-diffusion properties of the various components, and lithium transference number measured by NMR. Furthermore, the electrolytes are characterized in lithium cells using a sulfur-carbon composite cathode by galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The results clearly evidence the influence of the solvent chain length on the species mobility within the electrolytes that directly affects the behavior in lithium sulfur cell. The results may effectively contribute to the progress of an efficient, high-energy lithium-sulfur battery.

  16. Computer simulation of aqueous Na-Cl electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummer, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Soumpasis, D.M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biophysikalische Chemie (Karl-Friedrich-Bonhoeffer-Institut), Goettingen (Germany); Neumann, M. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik


    Equilibrium structure of aqueous Na-Cl electrolytes between 1 and 5 mol/l is studied by means of molecular dynamics computer simulation using interaction site descriptions of water and ionic components. Electrostatic interactions are treated both with the newly developed charged-clouds scheme and with Ewald summation. In the case of a 5 mol/l electrolyte, the results for pair correlations obtained by the two methods are in excellent agreement. However, the charged-clouds technique is much faster than Ewald summation and makes simulations at lower salt concentrations feasible. It is found that both ion-water and ion-ion correlation functions depend only weakly on the ionic concentration. Sodium and chloride ions exhibit only a negligible tendency to form contact pairs. In particular, no chloride ion pairs in contact are observed.

  17. Sorption of phenanthrene on agricultural soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Antonio; Møldrup, Per; Minh, Luong Nhat


    Polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) sorption to soil is a key process deciding the transport and fate of PAH, and potential toxic impacts in the soil and groundwater ecosystems, for example in connection with atmospheric PAH deposition on soils. There are numerous studies on PAH sorption in relatively......, 0.25–1-m depth) by the single-point adsorption method. The organic carbon partition coefficient, KOC (liter per kilogram) for topsoils was found generally to fall between the KOC values estimated by the two most frequently used models for PAH partitioning, the Abdul et al. (Hazardous Waste...... & Hazardous Materials 4(3):211–222, 1987) model and Karickhoff et al. (Water Research 13:241–248, 1979) model. A less-recognized model by Karickhoff (Chemosphere 10:833–846, 1981), yielding a KOC of 14,918 L kg−1, closely corresponded to the average measured KOC value for the topsoils, and this model...

  18. Sorption and transport characteristics of composite sorbent (United States)

    Zinovyev, V. N.; Kazanin, I. V.; Lebiga, V. A.; Pak, A. Y.; Vereshchagin, A. S.; Fomin, V. M.


    The study of sorption and transport characteristics of a composite sorbent based on various types of glass microspheres is carried out. In order to carry out this research, an experimental stand has been prepared for measuring sorbent characteristics at specified pressure and temperature values. The technique of carrying out the experiment and processing the experimental data for the purpose of determining the helium permeability of composite sorbents with a filler made of different material: sodium borosilicate glass, silica microspheres, cenospheres has been worked out. The values of the helium permeability of the composite sorbent in the temperature range from 20 to 140 °C are determined. The transport characteristics of the medium formed by the granules of the composite sorbent, as well as the values of the characteristic time of helium sorption by the composite sorbent are found.

  19. Sorption of three synthetic musks by microplastics. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Zheng, Minggang; Wang, Ling; Lou, Yinghua; Shi, Lei; Jiang, Shujun


    Microplastics and synthetic musks (SMs) are two typical organic pollutants in the marine environment. In this study, the sorption of three SMs to microplastics in a simulated seawater environment was examined. Tonalide (AHTN), musk xylene (MX), and musk ketone (MK) were the musks investigated, while polypropylene (PP) was used as the microplastic. It was found that the equilibrium sorption time was about 10h and the adsorption kinetics model conformed to a Lagergren adsorption model. The adsorption capacity increased with decreasing particle size. Adsorption reached a peak at 25°C, and the adsorption capacity was not sensitive to the concentration of sodium chloride. There is a need for more research and monitoring of microplastics in the marine environment due to their strong ability to absorb organic pollutants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. [Electrolyte metabolism and emergency]. (United States)

    Nakao, I; Ito, T; Kasai, N


    In outlining the pathology of various electrolyte metabolism abnormalities in cancer patients we considered the main clinical points between pathologies and emergency treatment. In regard to sodium (Na+) metabolism, one pathologic state that requires our attention is hypernatremia. Hypernatremia is accompanied with dehydration and is due to water loss, vomiting, diarrhea and renal insufficiency. One of the major causes of this condition is lack of the antidiuretic hormone due to intracranial metastasis of the tumor. When hypernatremia becomes severe, it is accompanied with circulatory failure, muscular asthenia, disorientation, convulsions, coma and other cerebral symptoms. Treatment consists of replenishing the water content by infusion of electrolyte solutions which should be carefully conducted after complete diagnose of the severity of the patient's pathological condition. Hyponatremia, like sick cell syndrome, is observed relatively frequently in cancer patients. When the serum Na level falls markedly, it induces cerebral edema and causes disorders of consciousness. The major treatment consists of providing both water and sodium supplements. Hyperkalemia is observed at the time of renal insufficiency, tissue lesions, vomiting, and diarrhea. When serum potassium level rises, it causes bradycardia, ventricular fibrillation, or cardiac arrest. It is important to diagnostically apprehend the severity of this condition using EKG and determining the serum K1+ level. For emergency treatment injection of calcium gluconate is very effective. Hypokalemia is often manifested by the loss of intestinal fluids due to diarrhea or during administration of diuretic agents. Clinical symptoms include neural paralysis but emergencies occur relatively infrequently. K C1 injections are used in treating this condition. Hypercalcemia is manifested in cancer patients during hyperparathyroidism. Its clinical symptoms include lassitude, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, and renal dys

  1. High Lithium Transference Number Electrolytes via Creation of 3-Dimensional, Charged, Nanoporous Networks from Dense Functionalized Nanoparticle Composites

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.


    High lithium transference number, tLi+, electrolytes are desired for use in both lithium-ion and lithium metal rechargeable battery technologies. Historically, low tLi+ electrolytes have hindered device performance by allowing ion concentration gradients within the cell, leading to high internal resistances that ultimately limit cell lifetime, charging rates, and energy density. Herein, we report on the synthesis and electrochemical features of electrolytes based on nanoparticle salts designed to provide high tLi+. The salts are created by cofunctionalization of metal oxide nanoparticles with neutral organic ligands and tethered lithium salts. When dispersed in a conducting fluid such as tetraglyme, they spontaneously form a charged, nanoporous network of particles at moderate nanoparticle loadings. Modification of the tethered anion chemistry from -SO3 - to -SO3BF3 - is shown to enhance ionic conductivity of the electrolytes by facilitating ion pair dissociation. At a particle volume fraction of 0.15, the electrolyte exists as a self-supported, nanoporous gel with an optimum ionic conductivity of 10 -4 S/cm at room temperature. Galvanostatic polarization measurements on symmetric lithium metal cells containing the electrolyte show that the cell short circuit time, tSC, is inversely proportional to the square of the applied current density tSC ∼ J-2, consistent with previously predicted results for traditional polymer-in-salt electrolytes with low tLi+. Our findings suggest that electrolytes with tLi+ ≈ 1 and good ion-pair dissociation delay lithium dendrite nucleation and may lead to improved lithium plating in rechargeable batteries with metallic lithium anodes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. Phosphate sorption characteristics of European alpine soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaňa, Jiří; Kopáček, Jiří; Camarero, L.; Garcia-Pausas, J.


    Roč. 75, č. 3 (2011), s. 862-870 ISSN 0361-5995 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/09/0567; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600960907 Grant - others:EU EMERGE(CZ) EVK1-CT-1999-00032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : phosphate sorption * alpine soils * acidification Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.979, year: 2011

  3. Sorption of sulfuryl fluoride by food commodities. (United States)

    Sriranjini, Venkata-rao; Rajendran, Somiahnadar


    The use of sulfuryl fluoride, a structural fumigant for termite and woodborer control, has recently been expanded to treating stored food commodities and food facilities. There is, however, a lack of data on the sorption of sulfuryl fluoride by food commodities. Knowledge about sorption is important in the context of effective treatment and residues. When sulfuryl fluoride was applied at a dose of 50 g m(-3) to various food commodities (total 68) with 300 g per replicate in 0.75 L gas wash bottles (fumigation chambers) at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, in most cases (81%) the gas concentrations in the free space of the commodities exceeded 50 g m(-3) (range 51-80 g m(-3)) at the end of 24 h exposure. In chambers without the substrate, an average concentration of 49.7 g m(-3) was recorded. About 54% of the commodities showed low-level ( sulfuryl fluoride, 34% showed medium-level (26-50%) sorption and only 12% were highly sorptive (>50%). The latter include white oats (terminal gas concentration 17.8 g m(-3)), some of the decorticated split pulses (24.0-29.3 g m(-3)), chickpea flour (26.3 g m(-3)), dried ginger (29.0 g m(-3)), refined wheat flour (30.3 g m(-3)) and coriander powder (40.5 g m(-3)). In unfumigated control commodities, owing to interfering volatiles, Fumiscope readings in the range 0-13 were noted. Sulfuryl fluoride has the advantage of a low or moderate level of sorption with the majority of the food commodities.

  4. Moisture sorption isotherms of dehydrated whey proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Rimac Brnčić


    Full Text Available Moisture sorption isotherms describe the relation between the moisture content of the dry material (food and relative humidity of the surrounding environment. The data obtained are important in modelling of drying process conditions, packaging and shelf-life stability of food that will provide maximum retaining of aroma, colour and texture as well as nutritive and biological value. The objective of this research was to establish the equilibrium moisture content and water activity, as well as monolayer value of two commercial powdered whey protein isolates before and after tribomechanical micronisation and enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively. At the same time it was necessary to evaluate the best moisture sorption isotherm equation to fit the experimental data. The equilibrium moisture contents in investigated samples were determined using standard gravimetric method at 20 °C. The range of water activities was 0.11 to 0.75. The monolayer moisture content was estimated from sorption data using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB models. The results have shown that tribomechanically treated whey protein isolates as well as protein hydrolizates had lower monolayer moisture content values as well as higher corresponding water activity. Therefore, in spite of the fact that they have lower moisture content, they can be storage at higher relative humidity compared to untreated samples. BET model gave better fit to experimental sorption data for a water activity range from 0.11-0.54, while GAB model gave the closest fit for a water activity to 0.75.

  5. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (United States)

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.


    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  6. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (United States)

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.


    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  7. Experiments on sorption hysteresis of desiccant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.; Zangrando, F.


    Solid desiccant cooling systems take advantage of solar energy for air conditioning. The process involves passing air through a desiccant bed for drying and subsequent evaporative cooling to provide the air conditioning. The desiccant is then regenerated with hot air provided by a gas burner or solar collectors. This performance is limited by the capacity of the desiccant, its sorption properties, and the long-term stability of the desiccant material under cyclic operation conditions. Therefore, we have developed a versatile test facility to measure the sorption properties of candidate solid desiccant materials under dynamic conditions, under different geometrical configurations, and under a broad range of process air stream conditions, characteristic of desiccant dehumidifer operation. We identified a dependence of the sorption processes on air velocity and the test cell aspect ratio and the dynamic hysteresis between adsorption and desorption processes. These experiments were geared to provide data on the dynamic performance of silica gel in a parallel-passage configuration to prepare for tests with a rotary dehumidifier that will be conducted at SERI in late FY 1984. We also recommend improving the accuracy of the isotopic perturbation technique.

  8. New dual-phase polymer electrolytes prepared from NBR/SBR lattices. [polyacryloNitrile-Butadiene Rubber/poly(Styrene-Butadiene) copolymer Rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Morihiko; Ichino, Toshihiro; Rutt, J.S.; Nishi, Shiro (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp., Tokyo (Japan). NTT Interdisciplinary Research Lab.)


    A new type of Li[sup +] ion conducting polymer electrolytes consisting of two phases, one of which is a highly polar region (impregnated with lithium salt solution), forming ion-conductive channels, while the other is a nonpolar region, forming supporting polymer matrices have been prepared from NBR/SBR lattices. TEM measurement and EDX analysis show evidence that dual-phase structure is constructed in the electrolyte. Ionic conductivity of the electrolyte increases with increase of lithium salt solution content. Maximum ionic conductivity of 2.2 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] S/cm is obtained at the lithium salt solution content of 60.5% (w/w). The electrolyte retains rubber-like film with good mechanical strength despite the presence of the solution.

  9. Plasma electrolytic oxide coatings on silumin for oxidation CO (United States)

    Borisov, V. A.; Sigaeva, S. S.; Anoshkina, E. A.; Ivanov, A. L.; Litvinov, P. V.; Vedruchenko, V. R.; Temerev, V. L.; Arbuzov, A. B.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Mukhin, V. A.; Suprunov, G. I.; Chumychko, I. A.; Shlyapin, D. A.; Tsyrul'nikov, P. G.


    Some catalysts of CO oxidation on silumin alloy AK12M2, used for the manufacture of pistons for Russian cars were investigated. The catalysts were prepared by the method of plasma electrolytic oxidation of silumin in electrolytes of various compositions with further activation by the salts Ce, Cu, Co, Ni, Mn and Al. The catalytic tests were carried out in a flow reactor in a mixture of 1% CO and 99% air, with the temperature range of 25-500 °C. The most active catalysts in CO oxidation are those activated with Ce and Cu salts on silumin, treated for 3 hours in an electrolyte containing 4 g/l KOH, 40 g/l Na2B4O7 (conversion of CO is 93.7% at a contact time of 0.25 s). However, the catalysts obtained from silumin treated in the electrolyte containing 3 g/l KOH, 30 g/l Na2SiO3 are more suitable for practical usage. Because when the treatment time of those catalysts is 10 - 20 minutes it is possible to achieve comparable CO conversion. The morphology and composition of the catalysts were studied by the methods of a scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive surface analysis and X-ray phase analysis. The surface of the non-activated sample consists of γ-Al2O3 and SiO2 particles, due to which the active components get attached to the support. CeO2 and CuO are present on the surface of the sample with the active component.

  10. Cosolvent electrolytes for electrochemical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessells, Colin Deane; Firouzi, Ali; Motallebi, Shahrokh; Strohband, Sven


    A system and method for stabilizing electrodes against dissolution and/or hydrolysis including use of cosolvents in liquid electrolyte batteries for three purposes: the extension of the calendar and cycle life time of electrodes that are partially soluble in liquid electrolytes, the purpose of limiting the rate of electrolysis of water into hydrogen and oxygen as a side reaction during battery operation, and for the purpose of cost reduction.

  11. Cosolvent electrolytes for electrochemical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessells, Colin Deane; Firouzi, Ali; Motallebi, Shahrokh; Strohband, Sven


    A method for stabilizing electrodes against dissolution and/or hydrolysis including use of cosolvents in liquid electrolyte batteries for three purposes: the extension of the calendar and cycle life time of electrodes that are partially soluble in liquid electrolytes, the purpose of limiting the rate of electrolysis of water into hydrogen and oxygen as a side reaction during battery operation, and for the purpose of cost reduction.

  12. [Cancer and electrolytes imbalance]. (United States)

    Shibata, Hiroyuki


    The electrolyte imbalance in advanced cancer patients, including hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia and hyponatremia, can be induced by various factors. Hyperkalemia is occasionally induced by chemotherapy for very large malignant tumors, due to tumor lysis syndrome. Hypercalcemia and hyponatremia are often observed in patients with breast cancer, renal cancer, prostate cancer, and the like, as a paraneoplastic syndrome. Some part of hypercalcemia results from osteolysis, but the majority is induced by hormonal factors, such as parathyroid hormone-related protein. One of the paraneoplastic causes of hyponatremia is antidiuretic hormone-producing tumor. These disorders could be morbid or even motile, resulting from encephalopathy or arrhythmia in some cases. However, it should be kept in mind that they could be improved or cured by prompt treatment. Recently, after approval of the molecular targeted drugs for epidermal growth factor receptors, such as cetuximab and panitumumab, the incidence of hypomagnesia with use of these monoclonal antibodies, is relatively frequent. In addition, small molecular targeted drugs, such as m-TORinhibitors and ABL kinase inhibitors, also exert adverse reactions including hypomagnesia and hypophosphatemia. Careful monitoring of the serum concentration of magnesium and phosphate ions, to which little attention was paid previously, is a key issue in these cases.

  13. Electrolytes: Sodium Disorders. (United States)

    Braun, Michael M; Mahowald, Megan


    Sodium disorders (ie, hyponatremia, hypernatremia) are common electrolyte disturbances in clinical medicine and are associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality. Etiologies of hyponatremia are classified into four categories. The first is pseudohyponatremia, in which the sodium level is low due to hyperproteinemia, hyperlipidemia, or hyperglycemia. The other three categories are based on overall patient fluid status and include hypovolemic (commonly due to fluid loss), hypervolemic (commonly due to fluid retention from heart failure, cirrhosis, or renal failure), and euvolemic (most often because of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone). Hypovolemic hyponatremia is managed by rehydration with isotonic saline. Hypervolemic hyponatremia is managed by addressing the underlying cause. Euvolemic hyponatremia is managed by restricting free water intake, addressing the underlying cause, and occasionally with drugs (eg, vasopressin receptor antagonists). Patients with severe or acutely symptomatic hyponatremia (eg, altered mental status, seizures), including those with acute symptomatic exercise-induced hyponatremia, require urgent treatment. This should consist of hypertonic saline administration along with monitoring of sodium levels to avoid overly rapid correction. Hypernatremia most often occurs because of water loss or inadequate water intake. Depending on severity, management involves oral or intravenous hypotonic fluids and addressing the underlying cause. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  14. Influence of mixed electrolytes and pH on adsorption of bovine serum albumin in hydrophobic interaction chromatography. (United States)

    Hackemann, Eva; Hasse, Hans


    Using salt mixtures instead of single salts can be beneficial for hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). The effect of electrolytes on the adsorption of proteins, however, depends on the pH. Little is known on that dependence for mixed electrolytes. Therefore, the effect of the pH on protein adsorption from aqueous solutions containing mixed salts is systematically studied in the present work for a model system: the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the mildly hydrophobic resin Toyopearl PPG-600M. The pH is adjusted to 4.0, 4.7 or 7.0 using 25mM sodium phosphate or sodium citrate buffer. Binary and ternary salt mixtures of sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, sodium sulfate and ammonium sulfate as well as the pure salts are used at overall ionic strengths between 1500 and 4200mM. The temperature is always 25°C. The influence of the mixed electrolytes on the adsorption behavior of BSA changes completely with varying pH. Positive as well as negative cooperative effects of the mixed electrolytes are observed. The results are analyzed using a mathematical model which was recently introduced by our group. In that model the influence of the electrolytes is described by a Taylor series expansion in the individual ion molarities. After suitable parametrization using a subset of the data determined in the present work, the model successfully predicts the influence of mixed electrolytes on the protein adsorption. Furthermore, results for BSA from the present study are compared to literature data for lysozyme, which are available for the same adsorbent, temperature and salts. By calculating the ratio of the loading of the adsorbent for both proteins particularly favorable separation conditions can be selected. Hence, a model-based optimization of solvents for protein separation is possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Doped ceria-chloride composite electrolyte for intermediate temperature ceramic membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Q.X.; Zhang, W.; Peng, R.R.; Peng, D.K.; Meng, G.Y.; Zhu, B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei (China)


    A kind of oxide-salt composite electrolyte, gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC)-LiCl-SrCl{sub 2}, prepared with hot-press technique, shows superior ionic conductivity, which is 2-10 times higher than that of GDC itself at the temperature range of 400-600C. More interestingly, not like the GDC electrolyte, which has some extent of electronic conduction under reducing atmosphere, the composite electrolyte is almost a pure ionic conductor, evidenced by the fuel cell's (FC) open circuit voltage (OCV) close to the theoretical one. The fuel cells based on this composite electrolyte show excellent power density output even at temperature as low as 500C (240 mW cm{sup -2} ) in spite of the relatively thick electrolyte (0.4 mm). Such high performance, in combination with its low cost in both raw materials and fabrication process, make this kind of composite electrolyte a good candidate electrolyte material for future ultra-low-cost intermediate temperature ceramic membrane fuel cells (IT-CMFCs)

  16. Enhancing ionic conductivity in composite polymer electrolytes with well-aligned ceramic nanowires (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Lee, Seok Woo; Lin, Dingchang; Shi, Feifei; Wang, Shuang; Sendek, Austin D.; Cui, Yi


    In contrast to conventional organic liquid electrolytes that have leakage, flammability and chemical stability issues, solid electrolytes are widely considered as a promising candidate for the development of next-generation safe lithium-ion batteries. In solid polymer electrolytes that contain polymers and lithium salts, inorganic nanoparticles are often used as fillers to improve electrochemical performance, structure stability, and mechanical strength. However, such composite polymer electrolytes generally have low ionic conductivity. Here we report that a composite polymer electrolyte with well-aligned inorganic Li+-conductive nanowires exhibits an ionic conductivity of 6.05 × 10-5 S cm-1 at 30 ∘C, which is one order of magnitude higher than previous polymer electrolytes with randomly aligned nanowires. The large conductivity enhancement is ascribed to a fast ion-conducting pathway without crossing junctions on the surfaces of the aligned nanowires. Moreover, the long-term structural stability of the polymer electrolyte is also improved by the use of nanowires.

  17. Mathematical Modeling of Moisture Sorption Isotherms and Determination of Isosteric Heats of Sorption of Ziziphus Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Saad


    Full Text Available Desorption and adsorption equilibrium moisture isotherms of Ziziphus spina-christi leaves were determined using the gravimetric-static method at 30, 40, and 50°C for water activity (aw ranging from 0.057 to 0.898. At a given aw, the results show that the moisture content decreases with increasing temperature. A hysteresis effect was observed. The experimental data of sorption were fitted by eight models (GAB, BET, Henderson-Thompson, modified-Chung Pfost, Halsey, Oswin, Peleg, and Adam and Shove. After evaluating the models according to several criteria, the Peleg and Oswin models were found to be the most suitable for describing the sorption curves. The net isosteric heats of desorption and adsorption of Ziziphus spina-christi leaves were calculated by applying the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to the sorption isotherms and an expression for predicting these thermodynamic properties was given.

  18. Plutonium sorption onto hematite colloids at femto- and nanomolar concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanchuk, A.Yu.; Kalmykov, S.N.; Aliev, R.A. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Radiochemistry Div.


    The surface-mediated reduction of Pu(VI) upon sorption onto hematite colloids is addressed in the paper that bring some new light on the mechanisms of interaction of Pu in high valence states with different Fe(III) oxides. We study the sorption of Pu taken at two different total concentrations around 10{sup -9} and 10{sup -14} M using {sup 239}Pu and short-lived {sup 237}Pu tracer. In order to conclude on the mechanisms of Pu sorption onto hematite, the kinetics of sorption of Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) at two concenrations is studied as well as its leaching behavior. The rate limiting step in Pu(VI) sorption is its surface-mediated reduction. The experimental evidence of the polymerization of Pu(IV) on the surface taken at Pu total concentration of {proportional_to} 10{sup -9} M is presented based on the kinetics of sorption and leaching behavior. (orig.)

  19. Implementation of sorption hysteresis in multi-Fickian moisture transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Svensson, Staffan


    In the cellular structure of wood, bound-water diffusion and water-vapor diffusion interact via sorption in a complex moisture-transportation system. At low relative humidities, moisture transport may be modeled by a Fickian diffusion equation with a good approximation. At higher relative...... represent this behavior. The multi-Fickian model describes the combined transport of bound water and vapor and their interaction through sorption. The bound-water concentration is also influenced by sorption hysteresis. In the worst case, sorption hysteresis may result in deviations of up to 30......-35% in moisture content. Hence, for a precise moisture content computation, sorption hysteresis must be taken into account. The present paper explains the relation between sorption hysteresis and multi-Fickian moisture transport, and clarifies how models for the two phenomena are coupled. To illustrate...

  20. Implementation of sorption hysteresis in multi-Fickian moisture transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Svensson, Staffan


    In the cellular structure of wood, bound-water diffusion and water-vapor diffusion interact via sorption in a complex moisture-transportation system. At low relative humidity, moisture transport may be modeled by a Fickian diffusion equation to a good approximation. At higher relative humidity...... this behavior. The multi-Fickian model describes the combined transport of bound water and vapor and their interaction through sorption. The bound-water concentration is also influenced by sorption hysteresis. In the worst case, sorption hysteresis may result in deviations of up to 30-35% in moisture content....... Hence, for a precise moisture content computation, sorption hysteresis must be taken into account. The present paper explains the relation between sorption hysteresis and multi-Fickian moisture transport, and clarifies how models for the two phenomena are coupled. To illustrate the effects, a finite...

  1. Salt-specific effects in lysozyme solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Janc


    Full Text Available The effects of additions of low-molecular-mass salts on the properties of aqueous lysozyme solutions are examined by using the cloud-point temperature, T_{cloud}, measurements. Mixtures of protein, buffer, and simple salt in water are studied at pH=6.8 (phosphate buffer and pH=4.6 (acetate buffer. We show that an addition of buffer in the amount above I_{buffer} = 0.6 mol dm^{-3} does not affect the T_{cloud} values. However, by replacing a certain amount of the buffer electrolyte by another salt, keeping the total ionic strength constant, we can significantly change the cloud-point temperature. All the salts de-stabilize the solution and the magnitude of the effect depends on the nature of the salt. Experimental results are analyzed within the framework of the one-component model, which treats the protein-protein interaction as highly directional and of short-range. We use this approach to predict the second virial coefficients, and liquid-liquid phase diagrams under conditions, where T_{cloud} is determined experimentally.

  2. Proton magnetic relaxation in aromatic polyamides during water vapor sorption (United States)

    Smotrina, T. V.; Chulkova, Yu. S.; Karasev, D. V.; Lebedeva, N. P.; Perepelkin, K. E.; Grebennikov, S. F.


    The state of the components in the aromatic polyamide-water system was studied by NMR and sorption. A comparative analysis of spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation in aromatic para-polyamide ( para-aramid) technical fibers Rusar, Kevlar, and Technora was performed depending on the sorption value. The NMR results correlated with the supramolecular structure of polymers and quasi-chemical equation parameters for water vapor sorption.

  3. Hysteresis and Temperature Dependency of Moisture Sorption – New Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard


    It is well known that sorption characteristics of building materials exhibit hysteresis in the way the equilibrium curves develop between adsorption and desorption, and that the sorption curves are also somewhat temperature dependent. However, these two facts are most often neglected in models...... measurements of hysteresis and temperature dependency of the moisture sorption characteristics of three different porous building materials: aerated concrete, cement paste and spruce. Scanning curves are measured for all three materials where periods with adsorption and desorption interrupt each other...

  4. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Ionic Liquid Based Electrolytes for Na-Ion Batteries: Effects of Force Field. (United States)

    Kubisiak, Piotr; Eilmes, Andrzej


    Classical molecular dynamics simulations were performed for Na(+) conducting electrolytes based on EMIM-TFSI ionic liquid and NaTFSI salt. Several parametrizations of force fields have been tested, including polarizable fields with dipole polarizabilities or Drude-type polarization. Trajectories up to 1 μs long have been used to estimate viscosities, diffusion coefficients, and conductivities of electrolytes with increasing amount of sodium salt. Results have been compared to available experimental data. In most cases the best agreement to measured values has been obtained in nonpolarizable simulations. Nevertheless, results have indicated the need for further development of polarizable parametrizations, preferably based on the Drude polarization model.

  5. Characterization of lithium and electrolytes by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahner, D. [Dresden Univ. of Technology, Inst. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Dresden (Germany); Machill, S. [Dresden Univ. of Technology, Inst. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Dresden (Germany); Ludwig, G. [Dresden Univ. of Technology, Inst. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Dresden (Germany)


    The electrochemical behaviour of lithium has been tested by d.c. and a.c. measurements in propylene carbonate and mixtures with 1,3-dioxolane and 1,2-dimethoxyethane using LiClO{sub 4} and LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} as electrolytes. The solvent and the anion of the lithium salt have an influence on the properties of the formed surface layer. This influence is obvious in a change of the layer thickness, the exchange-current density, the charge-transfer resistance and the maximum frequency of the charge-transfer arc. (orig.)

  6. Safeguard monitoring of direct electrolytic reduction (United States)

    Jurovitzki, Abraham L.

    Nuclear power is regaining global prominence as a sustainable energy source as the world faces the consequences of depending on limited fossil based, CO2 emitting fuels. A key component to achieving this sustainability is to implement a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Without achieving this goal, a relatively small fraction of the energy value in nuclear fuel is actually utilized. This involves recycling of spent nuclear fuel (SNF)---separating fissile actinides from waste products and using them to fabricate fresh fuel. Pyroprocessing is a viable option being developed for this purpose with a host of benefits compared to other recycling options, such as PUREX. Notably, pyroprocessing is ill suited to separate pure plutonium from spent fuel and thus has non-proliferation benefits. Pyroprocessing involves high temperature electrochemical and chemical processing of SNF in a molten salt electrolyte. During this batch process, several intermediate and final streams are produced that contain radioactive material. While pyroprocessing is ineffective at separating pure plutonium, there are various process misuse scenarios that could result in diversion of impure plutonium into one or more of these streams. This is a proliferation risk that should be addressed with innovative safeguards technology. One approach to meeting this challenge is to develop real time monitoring techniques that can be implemented in the hot cells and coupled with the various unit operations involved with pyroprocessing. Current state of the art monitoring techniques involve external chemical assaying which requires sample removal from these unit operations. These methods do not meet International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) timeliness requirements. In this work, a number of monitoring techniques were assessed for their viability as online monitoring tools. A hypothetical diversion scenario for the direct electrolytic reduction process was experimentally verified (using Nd2O3 as a surrogate for PuO2

  7. Electrolyte Mixtures Based on Ethylene Carbonate and Dimethyl Sulfone for Li-Ion Batteries with Improved Safety Characteristics. (United States)

    Hofmann, Andreas; Migeot, Matthias; Thißen, Eva; Schulz, Michael; Heinzmann, Ralf; Indris, Sylvio; Bergfeldt, Thomas; Lei, Boxia; Ziebert, Carlos; Hanemann, Thomas


    In this study, novel electrolyte mixtures for Li-ion cells are presented with highly improved safety features. The electrolyte formulations are composed of ethylene carbonate/dimethyl sulfone (80:20 wt/wt) as the solvent mixture and LiBF4 , lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)azanide, and lithium bis(oxalato)borate as the conducting salts. Initially, the electrolytes are characterized with regard to their physical properties, their lithium transport properties, and their electrochemical stability. The key advantages of the electrolytes are high flash points of >140 °C, which enhance significantly the intrinsic safety of Li-ion cells containing these electrolytes. This has been quantified by measurements in an accelerating rate calorimeter. By using the newly developed electrolytes, which are liquid down to T=-10 °C, it is possible to achieve C-rates of up to 1.5 C with >80 % of the initial specific capacity. During 100 cycles in cell tests (graphite||LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 ), it is proven that the retention of the specific capacity is >98 % of the third discharge cycle with dependence on the conducting salt. The best electrolyte mixture yields a capacity retention of >96 % after 200 cycles in coin cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Determination of sorption of seventy five pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hörsing, Maritha; Ledin, Anna; Grabic, Roman


    Sorption of 75 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to three different types of sludge (primary sludge, secondary sludge with short and long sludge age respectively) were investigated. To obtain the sorption isotherms batch studies with the APIs mixture were performed in four nominal concentr......Sorption of 75 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to three different types of sludge (primary sludge, secondary sludge with short and long sludge age respectively) were investigated. To obtain the sorption isotherms batch studies with the APIs mixture were performed in four nominal...... was estimated to >80%. 24 APIs were estimated to be present in the liquid phase between 20 and 80%, and 14 APIs were found to have...

  9. Sorption of fibronectin to human root surfaces in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendieta, C.; Caravana, C.; Fine, D.H. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA))


    The purpose of this study was to determine the conditions that favor the sorption and retention of human plasma fibronectin to cementum. Rectangular root segments prepared from teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were mounted on a capillary pipette and immersed in solutions of {sup 125}I fibronectin for assay of cementum sorption under various conditions. Kinetic studies showed sorption to be rapid, with 77% of the maximum fibronectin sorption occurring within 1 minute. Fibronectin sorption was reduced when added in conjunction with serum and was inhibited by monovalent ions (such as sodium), but enhanced in the presence of divalent cations (such as calcium). Exposure of cementum to serum partially blocked subsequent sorption of fibronectin, while cementum bound fibronectin was eluted by subsequent exposure to serum. Treatment of cementum with citric acid pH 1.1 (4 minutes) followed by 5% sodium hypochlorite (5 minutes) caused a significant increase in fibronectin sorption with maximum retention upon subsequent exposure to serum (P less than 0.05). Fibronectin sorption to cementum was: rapid, electrostatic in nature, competitive, reversible, Ca+(+)-facilitated, and maximized by prior treatment of the root with citric acid and sodium hypochlorite. It is concluded that sorption of fibronectin to cementum can be achieved for clinical gain; however, conditions of application can significantly influence both accumulation and subsequent release of root sorbed material.

  10. Sorption of curium by silica colloids: Effect of humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kar, Aishwarya Soumitra; Kumar, Sumit [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Tomar, B.S., E-mail: [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Manchanda, V.K. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)


    Sorption of curium by silica colloids has been studied as a function of pH and ionic strength using {sup 244}Cm as a tracer. The sorption was found to increase with increasing pH and reach a saturation value of {approx}95% at pH beyond 5.3. The effect of humic acid on the sorption of {sup 244}Cm onto silica was studied by changing the order of addition of the metal ion and humic acid. In general, in the presence of humic acid (2 mg/L), the sorption increased at lower pH (<5) while it decreased in the pH range 6.5-8 and above pH 8, the sorption was found to increase again. As curium forms strong complex with humic acid, its presence results in the enhancement of curium sorption at lower pH. At higher pH the humic acid present in the solution competes with the surface sites for curium thus decreasing the sorption. The decrease in the Cm sorption in presence of humic acid was found to be less when humic acid was added after the addition of curium. Linear additive model qualitatively reproduced the profile of the Cm(III) sorption by silica in presence of humic acid at least in the lower pH region, however it failed to yield quantitative agreement with the experimental results. The results of the present study evidenced the incorporation of Cm into the silica matrix.

  11. Sorption of tebuconazole onto selected soil minerals and humic acids. (United States)

    Cadková, Eva; Komárek, Michael; Kaliszová, Regina; Koudelková, Věra; Dvořák, Jiří; Vaněk, Aleš


    The aim of the present study was to investigate tebuconazole sorption on common soil minerals (birnessite, ferrihydrite, goethite, calcite and illite) and humic acids (representing soil organic matter). Tebuconazole was used (i) in the commercial form Horizon 250 EW and (ii) as an analytical grade pure chemical. In the experiment with the commercially available tebuconazole, a significant pH-dependent sorption onto the oxides was observed (decreasing sorption with increasing pH). The highest sorption was found for ferrihydrite due to its high specific surface area, followed by humic acids, birnessite, goethite and illite. No detectable sorption was found for calcite. The sorption of analytical grade tebuconazole on all selected minerals was significantly lower compared to the commercial product. The sorption was the highest for humic acids, followed by ferrihydrite and illite and almost negligible for goethite and birnessite without any pH dependence. Again, no sorption was observed for calcite. The differences in sorption of the commercially available and analytical grade tebuconazole can be attributed to the additives (e.g., solvents) present in the commercial product. This work proved the importance of soil mineralogy and composition of the commercially available pesticides on the behavior of tebuconazole in soils.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of PVA blended LiClO4 as electrolyte material for battery Li-ion (United States)

    Gunawan, I.; Deswita; Sugeng, B.; Sudaryanto


    It have been synthesized the materials for Li ion battery electrolytes, namely PVA with the addition of LiClO4 salt were varied 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight respectively. The objective of this study is to control the ionic conductivity in traditional polymer electrolytes, to improve ionic conductivity with the addition of lithium perchlorat (LiClO4). These electrolyte materials prepared by PVA powder was dissolved into distilled water and added LiClO4 salt were varied. After drying the solution, PVA sheet blended LiClO4 salt as electrolyte material for Li ion battery obtained. PVA blended LiClO4 salt crystallite form was confirmed using X-Ray Difraction (XRD) equipment. Observation of the morphology done by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). While the electrical conductivity of the material is measured using LCR meter. The results of XRD pattern of LiClO4 shows intense peaks at angles 2θ = 23.2, 32.99, and 36.58°, which represent the crystalline nature of the salt. Particles morphology of the sample revealed by scanning electron microscopy are irregular in shape and agglomerated, with mean size 200-300 nm. It can be concluded that polycrystalline particles are composed of large number of crystallites. The study of conductivity by using LCR meter shows that all the graphs represent the DC and AC conductivity phenomena.

  13. Characterization of ‘Aged’ Metolachlor Sorption in Soil Using an Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) Technique (United States)

    Sorption interactions of pesticides with soil determine pesticide availability for transport and degradation in soil. Thus, knowing and understanding pesticide sorption, particularly in aged soils, is important in determining pesticide fate in soils. Sorption of pesticides is traditionally character...

  14. Investigations on electrical properties of PVP:KIO4 polymer electrolyte films (United States)

    Ravi, M.; Bhavani, S.; Kiran Kumar, K.; Narasimaha Rao, V. V. R.


    Solid polymer electrolytes based on poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) complexed with potassium periodide (KIO4) salt at different weight percent ratios were prepared using solution-cast technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed that the amorphous nature of PVP polymer matrix increased with the increase of KIO4 salt concentration. The complexation of the salt with the polymer was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy studies. The ionic conductivity was found to increase with the increase of temperature as well as dopant concentration. The maximum ionic conductivity (1.421 × 10-4 S cm-1) was obtained for 15 wt% KIO4 doped polymer electrolyte at room temperature. The variation of ac conductivity with frequency obeyed Jonscher power law. The dynamical aspects of electrical transport process in the electrolyte were analyzed using complex electrical modulus. The peaks found in the electric modulus plots have been characterized in terms of the stretched exponential parameter. Optical absorption studies were performed in the wavelength range 200-600 nm and the absorption band energies (direct band gap and indirect band gap) values were evaluated. Using these polymer electrolyte films electrochemical cells were fabricated and their discharge characteristics were studied.

  15. Superconcentrated electrolytes for a high-voltage lithium-ion battery (United States)

    Wang, Jianhui; Yamada, Yuki; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Chiang, Ching Hua; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Atsuo


    Finding a viable electrolyte for next-generation 5 V-class lithium-ion batteries is of primary importance. A long-standing obstacle has been metal-ion dissolution at high voltages. The LiPF6 salt in conventional electrolytes is chemically unstable, which accelerates transition metal dissolution of the electrode material, yet beneficially suppresses oxidative dissolution of the aluminium current collector; replacing LiPF6 with more stable lithium salts may diminish transition metal dissolution but unfortunately encounters severe aluminium oxidation. Here we report an electrolyte design that can solve this dilemma. By mixing a stable lithium salt LiN(SO2F)2 with dimethyl carbonate solvent at extremely high concentrations, we obtain an unusual liquid showing a three-dimensional network of anions and solvent molecules that coordinate strongly to Li+ ions. This simple formulation of superconcentrated LiN(SO2F)2/dimethyl carbonate electrolyte inhibits the dissolution of both aluminium and transition metal at around 5 V, and realizes a high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite battery that exhibits excellent cycling durability, high rate capability and enhanced safety. PMID:27354162

  16. Electrical and electrochemical studies on sodium ion-based gel polymer electrolytes (United States)

    Isa, K. B. Md; Othman, L.; Hambali, D.; Osman, Z.


    Gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) have captured great attention because of their unique properties such as good mechanical stability, high flexibility and high conductivity approachable to that of the liquid electrolytes. In this work, we have prepared sodium ion conducting gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) films consisting of polyvinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP) as a polymer host using the solution casting technique. Sodium trifluoromethane- sulfonate (NaCF3SO3) was used as an ionic salt and the mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) as a plasticizing solvent. Impedance spectroscopy measurements were carried out to determine the ionic conductivity of the GPE films. The sample containing 20 wt.% of NaCF3SO3 salt exhibits the highest room temperature ionic conductivity of 2.50 × 10-3 S cm-1. The conductivity of the GPE films was found to depend on the salt concentration that added to the films. The ionic and cationic transference numbers of GPE films were estimated by DC polarization and the combination of AC and DC polarization method, respectively. The results had shown that both ionic and cationic transference numbers are consistent with the conductivity studies. The electrochemical stability of the GPE films was tested using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and the value of working voltage range appears to be high enough to be used as an electrolyte in sodium batteries. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies confirmed the sodium ion conduction in the GPE films.

  17. An electrolyte CPA equation of state for mixed solvent electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn; Thomsen, Kaj; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.


    using a self-consistent model for the static permittivity. A simple scheme for parameterization of salts with a limited number of parameters is proposed and model parameters for a range of salts are determined from experimental data of activity and osmotic coefficients as well as freezing point...

  18. Cerebral salt wasting following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Taylor


    Full Text Available Hyponatraemia is the most commonly encountered electrolyte disturbance in neurological high dependency and intensive care units. Cerebral salt wasting (CSW is the most elusive and challenging of the causes of hyponatraemia, and it is vital to distinguish it from the more familiar syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH. Managing CSW requires correction of the intravascular volume depletion and hyponatraemia, as well as mitigation of on-going substantial sodium losses. Herein we describe a challenging case of CSW requiring large doses of hypertonic saline and the subsequent substantial benefit with the addition of fludrocortisone.

  19. Multivalent weak electrolytes - risky background electrolytes for capillary zone electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beckers, J. L.; Boček, Petr


    Roč. 23, č. 12 (2002), s. 1942-1946 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/0044; GA ČR GA203/02/0023; GA ČR GA203/01/0401; GA AV ČR IAA4031703; GA AV ČR IAA4031103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : background electrolytes * capillary zone electrophoresis * multivalent electrolytes Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.325, year: 2002

  20. Fixed bed sorption of phosphorus from wastewater using iron oxide-based media derived from acid mine drainage (United States)

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Tucker, T.W.


    Phosphorus (P) releases to the environment have been implicated in the eutrophication of important water bodies worldwide. Current technology for the removal of P from wastewaters consists of treatment with aluminum (Al) or iron (Fe) salts, but is expensive. The neutralization of acid mine drainage (AMD) generates sludge rich in Fe and Al oxides that has hitherto been considered a waste product, but these sludges could serve as an economical adsorption media for the removal of P from wastewaters. Therefore, we have evaluated an AMD-derived media as a sorbent for P in fixed bed sorption systems. The homogenous surface diffusion model (HSDM) was used to analyze fixed bed test data and to determine the value of related sorption parameters. The surface diffusion modulus Ed was found to be a useful predictor of sorption kinetics. Values of Ed process with the HSDM confirmed that if Ed was known, the shape of the breakthrough curve could be calculated. The surface diffusion coefficient D s was a critical factor in the calculation of Ed and could be estimated based on the sorption test conditions such as media characteristics, and influent flow rate and concentration. Optimal test results were obtained with a relatively small media particle size (average particle radius 0.028 cm) and resulted in 96 % removal of P from the influent over 46 days of continuous operation. These results indicate that fixed bed sorption of P would be a feasible option for the utilization of AMD residues, thus helping to decrease AMD treatment costs while at the same time ameliorating the impacts of P contamination.

  1. Studies of anions sorption on natural zeolites. (United States)

    Barczyk, K; Mozgawa, W; Król, M


    This work presents results of FT-IR spectroscopic studies of anions-chromate, phosphate and arsenate - sorbed from aqueous solutions (different concentrations of anions) on zeolites. The sorption has been conducted on natural zeolites from different structural groups, i.e. chabazite, mordenite, ferrierite and clinoptilolite. The Na-forms of sorbents were exchanged with hexadecyltrimethylammonium cations (HDTMA(+)) and organo-zeolites were obtained. External cation exchange capacities (ECEC) of organo-zeolites were measured. Their values are 17mmol/100g for chabazite, 4mmol/100g for mordenite and ferrierite and 10mmol/100g for clinoptilolite. The used initial inputs of HDTMA correspond to 100% and 200% ECEC of the minerals. Organo-modificated sorbents were subsequently used for immobilization of mentioned anions. It was proven that aforementioned anions' sorption causes changes in IR spectra of the HDTMA-zeolites. These alterations are dependent on the kind of anions that were sorbed. In all cases, variations are due to bands corresponding to the characteristic Si-O(Si,Al) vibrations (occurring in alumino- and silicooxygen tetrahedra building spatial framework of zeolites). Alkylammonium surfactant vibrations have also been observed. Systematic changes in the spectra connected with the anion concentration in the initial solution have been revealed. The amounts of sorbed CrO4(2-), AsO4(3-) and PO4(3-) ions were calculated from the difference between their concentrations in solutions before (initial concentration) and after (equilibrium concentration) sorption experiments. Concentrations of anions were determined by spectrophotometric method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Humidity sorption on natural building stone (United States)

    Franzen, C.; Mirwald, P.


    processes, physical, chemical or biological, depend on the presence of water. Like most porous materials building stone respond on humidity by water uptake. The sorption isotherm represents the equilibrium moisture, specific for each material. The determination of the isotherm for stone of low and small porosity like marble is difficult. With the help of a newly developed water sorption analysis chamber [2], which allows the simultaneous measurement of 11 samples, good results on stone/rock samples have been obtained. Even at marble species with pore volumes lower than 0.4 % isotherms are measured. This analytical method offers new insights in the pore behaviour of low porosity materials. The advantages of this technique which supplements other techniques (e.g. BET, Hg-porosimetry) are: i) the testing agent is identical to the weathering agent, water; ii) the atmospheric parameters at the measurement reflect the natural conditions - thus no changes to the material properties have to be considered; iii) due to the small diameter of the water molecule (~0.28 nm), smaller pores are reached than e.g. with N2 (~0.31 nm). Sorption isotherms of sandstone (Baumberg, Obernkirchen, Groeden), granite (Brixen), and marble (Sterzing, Laas) are presented. Particular as to marbles the resolution is considerably higher. A previously observed negative hysteresis [3] seems an effect due to limited data resolution. [1] Snethlage, R. (1984) Steinkonservierung, Bayer. LA Denkmalpflege, Ah. 22, 203 S. [2] Griesser, U.J., Dillenz, J. (2002) Neuartiges, vollautomatisches Feuchtesorptionsprüfgerät mit hohem Probendurchsatz, Feuchtetag 2002, Weimar, 85-93. [3] Fimmel, R. (1996) Verwitterungsverhalten der alpinen Marmore von Laas und Sterzing, Diss. Univ. Ibk, 116 S.

  3. Formalized methodology for the separation of three component electrolytic systems: Partial separation of the system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suljkanović Midhat


    Full Text Available This work presents a formalized methodology for salt's separation from three component electrolytic systems. The methodology is based on the multi-variant modelling block of a generalized crystallization process, with options for simulating the boundary conditions of feasible equilibrium processes and the elements of crystallization techniques. The following techniques are considered: cooling crystallization, adiabatic evaporative-cooling crystallization, salt-out crystallization, isothermal crystallization, and a combination of the mentioned techniques. The multi-variant options of the crystallization module are based on different variable sets with assigned values for solving mathematical models of generalized crystallization processes. The first level of the methodology begins with the determination of salt crystallization paths from a hypothetical electrolytic AX-BX-H2O system, following by an examination of salt-cooling crystallization possibilities. The second level determines feasible processes by the communication of a feed-system with the environment through a stream of evaporated water, or introduced water with introduced crystallized BX salt. The third level determines the value intervals of the variables for feasible processes. The methodological logic and possibilities for the created process simulator are demonstrated on examples of sodium sulphate separation from the NaCl-Na2SO4-H2O system, using different salt concentrations within the feed system.

  4. Thermodynamics of imidacloprid sorption in Croatian soils (United States)

    Milin, Čedomila; Broznic, Dalibor


    Neonicotinoids are increasingly replacing the organophosphate and methylcarbamate acetylcholinesterase inhibitors which are losing their effectiveness because of selection for resistant pest populations. Imidacloprid is the most important neonicotinoid with low soil persistence, high insecticidal potency and relatively low mammalian toxicity. In Croatia, imidacloprid is most commonly used in olive growing areas, including Istria and Kvarner islands, as an effective means of olive fruit fly infestation control. Sorption-desorption behavior of imidacloprid in six soils collected from five coastal regions in Croatia at 20, 30 and 40°C was investigated using batch equilibrium technique. Isothermal data were applied to Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin equation, and the thermodynamic parameters ΔH°, ΔG°, ΔS° were calculated. The sorption isotherm curves were of non-linear and may be classified as L-type suggesting a relatively high sorption capacity for imidacloprid. Our results showed that the KFsor values decreased for all the tested soils as the temperature increases, indicating that the temperature strongly influence the sorption. Values of ΔG° were negative (-4.65 to -2.00 kJ/mol) indicating that at all experimental temperatures the interactions of imidacloprid with soils were spontaneous process. The negative and small ΔH° values (-19.79 to -8.89 kJ/mol) were in the range of weak forces, such as H-bonds, consistent with interactions and par¬titioning of the imidacloprid molecules into soil organic matter. The ΔS° values followed the range of -57.12 to -14.51 J/molK, suggesting that imidacloprid molecules lose entropy during transition from the solution phase to soil surface. It was found that imidacloprid desorption from soil was concentration and temperature dependent, i.e. at lower imidacloprid concentrations and temperature, lower desorption percentage occurred. Desorption studies revealed that hysteretic behavior under different temperature

  5. Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite......, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral....

  6. Thermal Analysis of Surrogate Simulated Molten Salts with Metal Chloride Impurities for Electrorefining Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson; Vivek Utgikar


    This project is a fundamental study to measure thermal properties (liquidus, solidus, phase transformation, and enthalpy) of molten salt systems of interest to electrorefining operations, which are used in both the fuel cycle research & development mission and the spent fuel treatment mission of the Department of Energy. During electrorefining operations the electrolyte accumulates elements more active than uranium (transuranics, fission products and bond sodium). The accumulation needs to be closely monitored because the thermal properties of the electrolyte will change as the concentration of the impurities increases. During electrorefining (processing techniques used at the Idaho National Laboratory to separate uranium from spent nuclear fuel) it is important for the electrolyte to remain in a homogeneous liquid phase for operational safeguard and criticality reasons. The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely affected by the buildup of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are: (i) build up of fissile elements in the salt approaching the criticality limits specified for the vessel (ii) freezing of the salts due to change in the liquidus temperature and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution) of elements. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This work describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, consisting of chlorides of strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium (as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium), used in the processing of used nuclear fuels. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze numerous salt samples providing results on the thermal properties. The property of most interest to pyroprocessing is the liquidus temperature. It was

  7. Hermetically Sealed Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitor (United States)

    Alwitt, Robert S.; Liu, Yanming; Elias, William


    Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are presently not allowed on NASA missions because they outgas water and organic vapors, as well as H2. As a consequence, for some applications, much larger and heavier packages of tantalum capacitors must be used. A hermetically sealed aluminum capacitor has been developed. This contains a nongassing electrolyte that was developed for this application so internal pressure would remain low. Capacitors rated from 250 V to 540 V have been operated under full load for thousands of hours at 85 and 105 C with good electrical performance and absence of gas generation. Electrolyte chemistry and seal engineering will be discussed, as well as the extension of this design concept to lower voltage ratings.

  8. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel


    A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics.

  9. Semiconductor electrolyte photovoltaic energy converter (United States)

    Anderson, W. W.; Anderson, L. B.


    Feasibility and practicality of a solar cell consisting of a semiconductor surface in contact with an electrolyte are evaluated. Basic components and processes are detailed for photovoltaic energy conversion at the surface of an n-type semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte which is oxidizing to conduction band electrons. Characteristics of single crystal CdS, GaAs, CdSe, CdTe and thin film CdS in contact with aqueous and methanol based electrolytes are studied and open circuit voltages are measured from Mott-Schottky plots and open circuit photo voltages. Quantum efficiencies for short circuit photo currents of a CdS crystal and a 20 micrometer film are shown together with electrical and photovoltaic properties. Highest photon irradiances are observed with the GaAs cell.

  10. Towards Renewable Iodide Sources for Electrolytes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Sagaidak


    Full Text Available A novel family of iodide salts and ionic liquids based on different carbohydrate core units is herein described for application in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC. The influence of the molecular skeleton and the cationic structure on the electrolyte properties, device performance and on interfacial charge transfer has been investigated. In combination with the C106 polypyridyl ruthenium sensitizer, power conversion efficiencies lying between 5.0% and 7.3% under standard Air Mass (A.M. 1.5G conditions were obtained in association with a low volatile methoxypropionitrile (MPN-based electrolyte.

  11. Electrolyte solutions including a phosphoranimine compound, and energy storage devices including same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaehn, John R.; Dufek, Eric J.; Rollins, Harry W.; Harrup, Mason K.; Gering, Kevin L.


    An electrolyte solution comprising at least one phosphoranimine compound and a metal salt. The at least one phosphoranimine compound comprises a compound of the chemical structure ##STR00001## where X is an organosilyl group or a tert-butyl group and each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 is independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl group, an aryl group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. An energy storage device including the electrolyte solution is also disclosed.

  12. Structural and electrical properties of lithio-borate solid electrolyte thin films (United States)

    Dzwonkowski, P.; Julien, C.; Balkanski, M.


    The effect of deposition conditions on the growth structure of amorphous thin films of lithio-borate solid electrolyte was investigated by means of infrared absorption and complex impedance spectroscopies. Thin films of vitreous solid electrolyte in the alkali-oxide/borate-oxide system were grown by vacuum quasi-flash evaporation. The complex impedance measurements of the thin solid films in the sandwich geometry show a high ionic conductivity. Incorporation of lithium salt dopant has been also studied. The structure was determined using infrared absorption spectra which are sensitive to deposition conditions and to the amount of lithium incorporated.

  13. CO2 sorption of a ceramic separation membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wormeester, Herbert; Benes, Nieck Edwin; Spijksma, G.I.; Verweij, H.; Poelsema, Bene


    The ellipsometric characterization of the CO2 sorption of a silica membrane provides a fast and accurate technique for the characterization of maximum sorption and the heat of adsorption. Both parameters are evaluated for the 73 nm thick silica layer as well as the 1650 nm thick supporting γ-layer.

  14. Manometric determination of supercritical gas sorption in coal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hemert, P.


    The characteristics of the manometric method are investigated so that it can be used to obtain accurate data of sorption of supercritical gas in coal. Furthermore, data of the sorption of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen in coal at in situ conditions have been determined. Accurate data are

  15. Thermodynamic optimization of sorption-based- Joule-Thompson coolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, G.F.M.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.; Burger, Johannes Faas; Holland, Herman J.; Rogalla, Horst


    A cooler consisting of a sorption compressor with a Joule–Thomson (JT) cold stage has several advantages. These coolers have no moving parts which is attractive for a variety of reasons. Unfortunately, the efficiency of sorption-based JT coolers is in many cases relatively small. This paper presents

  16. Sorption of Heavy Metal Ions from Mine Wastewater by Activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 2, 2016 ... Buah, W. K. and Dankwah, J. R. (2016), “Sorption of Heavy Metals from Mine Wastewater by Activated. Carbons Prepared ... A study on sorption of heavy metal ions: Lead (Pb2+), Copper (Cu2+) and Cadmium (Cd2+) from mine wastewater by activated ... (Pb), having relatively high densities and are toxic.

  17. [Sorption of nitrobenzene to anionic surfactant modified layered double hydroxides]. (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Zhu, Run-Liang; Tao, Qi; Liu, Han-Yang


    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) modified MgAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were synthesized at different surfactant concentrations (0.5-2.0 TAEC) by the co-precipitation method. The LDH-DS samples obtained were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy. The results showed that SDS was successfully intercalated into the interlayer of the LDH, and the basal spacing was expanded from 0.80 nm to 3.98 nm. The intercalated SDS was considered consistent with a paraffin bilayers arrangement. The sorption of nitrobenzene on LDH-DS was examined, and the results showed that linear model could fit the sorption isotherms well (R2 > 0.99), which implied a partitioning sorption process. The sorption coefficient of nitrobenzene (K(d)) on LDH-DS was positively related to the DS - loading amount, but the organic carbon content normalized sorption coefficient of nitrobenzene (K(oc)) was shown to remain relatively constant. The sorption thermodynamics results showed that the sorption of nitrobenzene on LDH-DS was an endothermic process, and the increase of entropy was the driving force for the sorption process.

  18. Sorption and desorption of diuron in Oxisol under biochar application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano André Petter

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to verify the kinetics of sorption and desorption of diuron in an Oxisol under application of biochar. The samples were collected in a field experiment conducted in randomized design blocks consisted of 2 base fertilization levels (0 and 400 kg∙ha−1 NPK 00-20-20 fertilizer formula and 3 doses of biochar (0, 8 and 16 Mg∙ha−1. In the evaluation of sorption and desorption, Batch Equilibrium method was used. The kinetics of sorption and desorption of diuron, total organic carbon, fulvic acid, humic acid and humin, pH and partition coefficient to organic carbon were evaluated. The Freundlich isotherm was adjusted appropriately to describe diuron sorption kinetics in all the studied treatments. The application of biochar provided increment in the sorption (Kf and reduction in the desorption of diuron in 64 and 44%, respectively. This effect is attributed to the biochar contribution to the total organic carbon and C-humin and of these to diuron through hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds. The positive correlation between the partition coefficient to organic carbon and Kf confirms the importance of soil organic compartment in the sorption of diuron. There was no competition of NPK fertilizer for the same sorption site of diuron. The increase and reduction in sorption and desorption, respectively, show that the application of biochar is an important alternative for the remediation of soil leaching of diuron, especially in sandy soils.

  19. Dynamic water vapour sorption in gluten and starch films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliver, L.; Meinders, M.B.J.


    Water sorption of gluten and wheat starch films as a function of water activity was studied using gravimetric step-change sorption experiments. Films of different thicknesses were used with the aim to vary the characteristic diffusion time and to get insights in the contribution of the polymer-chain

  20. Status report on SIRS: sorption information retrieval system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostetler, D.D.; Serne, R.J.; Baldwin, A.J.; Petrie, G.M.


    Two major uses were identified for the Sorption Information Retrieval System: (1) to aid geochemists in the elucidation of sorption mechanisms; and (2) to aid safety assessment modelers in selection of Kds for any given scenerio. Other benefits such as providing an auditable vehicle for the Kd selection were also discussed.

  1. Sorption of malachite green (MG) by cassava stem biochar (CSB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sorption of MG by CSB was best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model. The Langmuir sorption capacity of CSB was 40.5 mg/g. Monolayer of MG molecules formed chemical bonds on the homogenous surface of CSB. Keywords: Manihotesculenta Crantz charcoal; black ...

  2. Competitive sorption of heavy metals by water hyacinth roots. (United States)

    Zheng, Jia-Chuan; Liu, Hou-Qi; Feng, Hui-Min; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Lam, Paul Kwan-Sing; Yu, Han-Qing


    Heavy metal pollution is a global issue severely constraining aquaculture practices, not only deteriorating the aquatic environment but also threatening the aquaculture production. One promising solution is adopting aquaponics systems where a synergy can be established between aquaculture and aquatic plants for metal sorption, but the interactions of multiple metals in such aquatic plants are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the absorption behaviors of Cu(II) and Cd(II) in water by water hyacinth roots in both single- and binary-metal systems. Cu(II) and Cd(II) were individually removed by water hyacinth roots at high efficiency, accompanied with release of protons and cations such as Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ . However, in a binary-metal arrangement, the Cd(II) sorption was significantly inhibited by Cu(II), and the higher sorption affinity of Cu(II) accounted for its competitive sorption advantage. Ionic exchange was identified as a predominant mechanism of the metal sorption by water hyacinth roots, and the amine and oxygen-containing groups are the main binding sites accounting for metal sorption via chelation or coordination. This study highlights the interactive impacts of different metals during their sorption by water hyacinth roots and elucidates the underlying mechanism of metal competitive sorption, which may provide useful implications for optimization of phytoremediation system and development of more sustainable aquaculture industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Kinetics and reversibility of micropollutant sorption in sludge. (United States)

    Barret, Maialen; Carrère, Hélène; Patau, Mathieu; Patureau, Dominique


    The fate of micropollutants throughout wastewater treatment systems is highly dependent on their sorption interactions with sludge matter. In this study, both the sorption and desorption kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in activated sludge were shown to be very rapid in comparison to biodegradation kinetics. It was concluded that PAH transfer does not limit their biodegradation and that their fate is governed by the sorption/desorption equilibrium state. The effect of contact time between sludge and PAHs was also investigated. It was shown that aging did not influence the sorption/desorption equilibrium although PAH losses during aging suggest that sequestration phenomena had occurred. This implies that for PAH sorption assessment within treatment processes there is no need to include a contact time dimension. As a consequence, thanks to an innovative approach taking into account sorption equilibria and sequestration, this work has demonstrated that studies in the literature which, in main, deal with micropollutant sorption in sewage sludge with only a short contact time can be extrapolated to real systems in which sorption, desorption and aging occur.

  4. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.


    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A

  5. Sorption of organic phosphates and its effects on aggregation of hematite nanoparticles in monovalent and bivalent solutions. (United States)

    Xu, Chen-Yang; Li, Jiu-Yu; Xu, Ren-Kou; Hong, Zhi-Neng


    Sorption of organic phosphates-myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP) and glycerol phosphate (GP) and its effects on the early stage of hematite aggregation kinetics were investigated at different pH and electrolyte composition. KH2PO4 (KP) was taken as an inorganic P source for comparison. Results indicated that for all types of P, the sorption amounts decreased with increasing solution pH. Sorption amount of IHP was almost two times that of KP, while those of GP and KP were close. Both organic P and inorganic P interacted with hematite via ligand exchange through their phosphate groups, which conveyed negative charges to mineral surface and significantly decreased the zeta potential of hematite. In Na+ solution, critical coagulation concentrations (CCCs) of hematite suspensions increased with increasing P concentration and followed the order of KP hematite suspension not only through increasing the negative charges and electrostatic repulsive force, but also through steric repulsion between P-sorbed hematite nanoparticles. When the pH was increased from 5.5 to 10.0, the CCCs of the hematite suspensions with GP and IHP decreased mainly because of the great reductions in organic P sorption amounts and consequent decreases in electrostatic and steric repulsive forces. However, enhanced aggregation was observed in the presence of IHP at pH 4.5 and above in low Ca2+ solutions. The precipitation of calcium phytate formed net-like structure, which served as bridges to bind hematite nanoparticles and resulted in enhanced aggregation. These results have important implications for assessing the fate and transport of organic P and hematite nanoparticles in soil and aquatic environments.

  6. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension


    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan


    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivit...

  7. Moisture sorption studies on vacuum dried coconut presscake. (United States)

    Jena, Sujata; Das, H


    Moisture sorption isotherms of vacuum dried coconut presscake were determined at 25 °C, 30 °C, and 38 °C using a gravimetric technique. Sorption isotherms exhibited Type II behaviour. The effect of temperature on equilibrium moisture content was not significant (p > 0.05). Three models available in the literature viz., GAB, BET, and Halsey models were fitted to the sorption data. Out of the three tested models, Halsey model best fitted the experimental data with a relative deviation percent below 10%. The net isosteric heat of sorption was determined from the equilibrium adsorption data using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Isosteric heats of sorption were found to decrease exponentially with increasing moisture content.

  8. Moisture Sorption Isotherms of Yogurt Powder Containing Candied Chestnut Puree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Zungur Bastıoğlu


    Full Text Available Yogurt powder was produced by freeze drying and with added candied chestnut puree at ratios of 5, 10, and 20 % by weight. Moisture sorption isotherms of yogurt powder samples, plain (YP, and containing 5, 10, 20% candied chestnut puree (CCP were determined at 25°C using the standard, static-gravimetric method. The experimental adsorption data of yogurt powders at 25°C were fitted to 14 sorption equations which are most widely used to fit experimental sorption data of various food materials. The parameters of the sorption models were estimated from the experimental results by using the nonlinear regression analysis. The GAB model gave the closet fit to the sorption data of freeze dried yogurt powders with candied chestnut puree at 25°C. BET, Ferro Fanton, Henderson, Halsey, Oswin and Modified Oswin models are also acceptable for describing the adsorption isotherms for freeze dried yogurt with candied chestnut puree at 25°C.

  9. Gas Sorption, Diffusion, and Permeation in Nafion

    KAUST Repository

    Mukaddam, Mohsin Ahmed


    The gas permeability of dry Nafion films was determined at 2 atm and 35 °C for He, H2, N2, O2, CO2, CH4, C2H6, and C3H8. In addition, gas sorption isotherms were determined by gravimetric and barometric techniques as a function of pressure up to 20 atm. Nafion exhibited linear sorption uptake for low-solubility gases, following Henry’s law, and convex behavior for highly sorbing condensable gases, indicating rubber-like behavior at 35 °C. XRD results demonstrated that Nafion contains bimodal amorphous chain domains with average d-spacing values of 2.3 and 5.3 Å. Only helium and hydrogen showed relatively high gas permeability of 37 and 7 barrers, respectively; all other gases exhibited low permeability that decreased significantly as penetrant size increased. Dry Nafion was characterized by extraordinarily high selectivities: He/H2 = 5.2, He/CH4 = 445, He/C2H6 = 1275, He/C3H8 = 7400, CO2/CH4 = 28, CO2/C2H6 = 79, CO2/C3H8 = 460, H2/CH4 = 84, H2/C2H6 = 241, and H2/C3H8 = 1400. These high selectivities could make Nafion a potential candidate membrane material for dry feeds for helium recovery and carbon dioxide separation from natural gas and removal of higher hydrocarbons from hydrogen-containing refinery gases.

  10. Zn Isotope Fractionation during Sorption onto Kaolinite. (United States)

    Guinoiseau, Damien; Gélabert, Alexandre; Moureau, Julien; Louvat, Pascale; Benedetti, Marc F


    In this study, we quantify zinc isotope fractionation during its sorption onto kaolinite, by performing experiments under various pH, ionic strength, and total Zn concentrations. A systematic enrichment in heavy Zn isotopes on the surface of kaolinite was measured, with Δ(66)Znadsorbed-solution ranging from 0.11‰ at low pH and low ionic strength to 0.49‰ at high pH and high ionic strength. Both the measured Zn concentration and its isotopic ratio are correctly described using a thermodynamic sorption model that considers two binding sites: external basal surfaces and edge sites. Based on this modeling approach, two distinct Zn isotopic fractionation factors were calculated: Δ(66)Znadsorbed-solution = 0.18 ± 0.06‰ for ion exchange onto basal sites, and Δ(66)Znadsorbed-solution = 0.49 ± 0.06‰ for specific complexation onto edge sites. These two distinct factors indicate that Zn isotope fractionation is dominantly controlled by the chemical composition of the solution (pH, ionic strength).

  11. Characterization of Novel Castor Oil-Based Polyurethane Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmiah Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Castor oil-based polyurethane as a renewable resource polymer has been synthesized for application as a host in polymer electrolyte for electrochemical devices. The polyurethane was added with LiI and NaI in different wt% to form a film of polymer electrolytes. The films were characterized by using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry and transference number measurement. The highest conductivity of 1.42 × 10−6 S cm−1 was achieved with the addition of 30 wt% LiI and 4.28 × 10−7 S·cm−1 upon addition of 30 wt% NaI at room temperature. The temperature dependence conductivity plot indicated that both systems obeyed Arrhenius law. The activation energy for the PU-LiI and PU-NaI systems were 0.13 and 0.22 eV. Glass transition temperature of the synthesized polyurethane decreased from −15.8 °C to ~ −26 to −28 °C upon salts addition. These characterizations exhibited the castor oil-based polyurethane polymer electrolytes have potential to be used as alternative membrane for electrochemical devices.

  12. Polymer-electrolyte-gated nanowire synaptic transistors for neuromorphic applications (United States)

    Zou, Can; Sun, Jia; Gou, Guangyang; Kong, Ling-An; Qian, Chuan; Dai, Guozhang; Yang, Junliang; Guo, Guang-hua


    Polymer-electrolytes are formed by dissolving a salt in polymer instead of water, the conducting mechanism involves the segmental motion-assisted diffusion of ion in the polymer matrix. Here, we report on the fabrication of tin oxide (SnO2) nanowire synaptic transistors using polymer-electrolyte gating. A thin layer of poly(ethylene oxide) and lithium perchlorate (PEO/LiClO4) was deposited on top of the devices, which was used to boost device performances. A voltage spike applied on the in-plane gate attracts ions toward the polymer-electrolyte/SnO2 nanowire interface and the ions are gradually returned after the pulse is removed, which can induce a dynamic excitatory postsynaptic current in the nanowire channel. The SnO2 synaptic transistors exhibit the behavior of short-term plasticity like the paired-pulse facilitation and self-adaptation, which is related to the electric double-effect regulation. In addition, the synaptic logic functions and the logical function transformation are also discussed. Such single SnO2 nanowire-based synaptic transistors are of great importance for future neuromorphic devices.

  13. Polyether-PMMA adhesive electrolytes for electrochromic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, J.R.; Such, K.; Cho, N.; Wieczorek, W. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)


    Stable to atmospheric moisture, adhesive and transparent polymer blend electrolytes have been synthesized by the free radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in a range of polyethers and doped with LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} and LiClO{sub 4}. The polyethers include poly(ethylene glycol), poly(propylene glycol), ethylene oxide/propylene oxide (EO/PO) copolymers and oxymethylene linked poly(ethylene oxide). Polyether molecular weights range from 350 to 2600, salt concentrations from ether oxygen to lithium ratios of 8:1 to 25:1 and MMA concentrations from 4 vol% to 50 vol%. Ionic conductivities range from 10{sup -4} S/cm to 10{sup -6} S/cm at room temperature. Conductivities, morphologies, stability, and adhesive properties are discussed. Electrolytes are viscoelastic ranging from soft elastomers to castable thin films. The most favourable blends are thin films based upon EO/PO copolymers with salt concentrations of 25:1 and MMA concentrations in the range 8 to 40 vol%

  14. Electrodiffusiophoresis: Particle motion in electrolytes under direct current (United States)

    Rica, Raúl A.; Bazant, Martin Z.


    Colloidal particles in electrolytes move in response to electric fields (electrophoresis) and salt concentration gradients (diffusiophoresis), and related flows also occur at fixed surfaces (electro-osmosis and diffusio-osmosis, respectively). In isolation, these electrokinetic phenomena are well understood, e.g., electrophoresis without far-field concentration gradients and diffusiophoresis without applied electric fields. When the electrolyte passes direct current, however, concentration gradients accompany the bulk electric field (concentration polarization) and the resulting particle motion, called "electrodiffusiophoresis," involves a nonlinear combination of electrophoresis and diffusiophoresis, depending on ion transference numbers and particle properties. In this work, we analyze the electrodiffusiophoresis of spherical particles in the limit of thin double layers, neglecting surface conduction (Du≪1) and convection (Pe≪1), considering both nonpolarizable (fixed charge) and ideally polarizable (induced-charge) surfaces. Via asymptotic approximations and numerical solutions, we develop a physical picture to guide potential applications in electrochemical cells, such as analyte focusing, electrophoretic deposition, and microfluidic mixing near membranes or electrodes. By controlling the mean salt concentration, particle size, current, and concentration gradient, significant motion of particles (or fluid) is possible toward either electrode and toward high or low concentration.

  15. Micellization of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide: effect of small chain Bola electrolytes. (United States)

    Pan, Animesh; Sil, Pallabi; Dutta, Sounak; Das, Prasanta Kumar; Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra; Rakshit, Animesh Kumar; Aswal, Vinod Kumar; Moulik, Satya Priya


    Sodium dicarboxylates (or Bola salts) with methylene spacers 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 were studied in aqueous solution to investigate their influence on the micellization of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Since bolas with spacer length ≤12 are known not to micellize in general, the herein used sodium dicarboxylates were treated as 2:1 amphiphilic electrolytes which reduced surface tension of water (except sodium oxalate with zero spacer) without self-association. Their concentration dependent conductance was also linear without breaks. The bolas affected the micellization of CTAB but acted like salts to decrease its CMC. Their combinations did not form bilayer aggregates as found in vesicles. Nevertheless, they synergistically interacted with CTAB at the air/water interface as revealed from Rosen's thermodynamic model. Hydrodynamic radius (Rh), Zeta-potential (ζ), and electrical double layer behavior of bola interacted CTAB micelles were assessed. From SANS measurements, micelle shape, shape parameters, aggregation number (Nagg), surface charge of the bola influenced CTAB micelles were also determined. NMR study as well supported the non-mixing of bolas with the CTAB micelles. They interacted in solution like "amphiphilic electrolytes" to influence the surface and micelle forming properties of CTAB.

  16. Low-salt diet (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  17. Study of SEI forming process with Li BOB-DMS/SL electrolyte in first cycle (United States)

    Li, Chunlei; Wang, Peng; Li, Bucheng; Li, Shiyou


    Lithium bis (oxalate) borate (Li BOB) has attracted much attention as a lithium salt or an additive in no aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery. Tn this work, the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase (SET) film of sulfolane (SL) with Li BOB was studied by employment of dimethyl sulfite (DMS) as mixed solvents. When used in Li/MCMB (mesosphere carbon micro beads) cells, cell with 0.7M Li BOB-zSL/DMS (1:1) electrolyte at high temperature shows lower impedance than that at room temperature. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) results find that 0.7M Li BOB-SL/DMS (1:1) electrolyte at high temperature shows excellent film-forming characteristics than that at room temperature. The Li2SO3, ROSO2Li, Li2S, Li2CO3 substances are found in SET film by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It suggests that Li BOB-SL/DMS electrolyte has an excellent solid electrolyte interphase formation capacity.

  18. A Synopsis of Interfacial Phenomena in Lithium-Based Polymer Electrolyte Electrochemical Cells (United States)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennett, William R.


    The interfacial regions between electrode materials, electrolytes and other cell components play key roles in the overall performance of lithium-based batteries. For cell chemistries employing lithium metal, lithium alloy or carbonaceous materials (i.e., lithium-ion cells) as anode materials, a "solid electrolyte interphase" (SEI) layer forms at the anode/electrolyte interface, and the properties of this "passivating" layer significantly affect the practical cell/battery quality and performance. A thin, ionically-conducting SEI on the electrode surface can beneficially reduce or eliminate undesirable side reactions between the electrode and the electrolyte, which can result in a degradation in cell performance. The properties and phenomena attributable to the interfacial regions existing at both anode and cathode surfaces can be characterized to a large extent by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and related techniques. The intention of the review herewith is to support the future development of lithium-based polymer electrolytes by providing a synopsis of interfacial phenomena that is associated with cell chemistries employing either lithium metal or carbonaceous "composite" electrode structures which are interfaced with polymer electrolytes (i.e., "solvent-free" as well as "plasticized" polymer-binary salt complexes and single ion-conducting polyelectrolytes). Potential approaches to overcoming poor cell performance attributable to interfacial effects are discussed.

  19. Lithium-ion battery electrolyte emissions analyzed by coupled thermogravimetric/Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Bertilsson, Simon; Larsson, Fredrik; Furlani, Maurizio; Albinsson, Ingvar; Mellander, Bengt-Erik


    In the last few years the use of Li-ion batteries has increased rapidly, powering small as well as large applications, from electronic devices to power storage facilities. The Li-ion battery has, however, several safety issues regarding occasional overheating and subsequent thermal runaway. During such episodes, gas emissions from the electrolyte are of special concern because of their toxicity, flammability and the risk for gas explosion. In this work, the emissions from heated typical electrolyte components as well as from commonly used electrolytes are characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy and FT-IR coupled with thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, when heating up to 650 °C. The study includes the solvents EC, PC, DEC, DMC and EA in various single, binary and ternary mixtures with and without the LiPF6 salt, a commercially available electrolyte, (LP71), containing EC, DEC, DMC and LiPF6 as well as extracted electrolyte from a commercial 6.8 Ah Li-ion cell. Upon thermal heating, emissions of organic compounds and of the toxic decomposition products hydrogen fluoride (HF) and phosphoryl fluoride (POF3) were detected. The electrolyte and its components have also been extensively analyzed by means of infrared spectroscopy for identification purposes.

  20. Characteristics of and sorption to biochars derived from waste material (United States)

    Sun, Huichao; Kah, Melanie; Sigmund, Gabriel; Hofmann, Thilo


    Biochars can exhibit a high sorption potential towards heavy metals and organic contaminants in various environmental matrices (e.g., water, soil). They have therefore been proposed for environmental remediation purposes to sequester contaminants. To date, most studies have focused on the physicochemical and sorption properties of mineral phases poor biochars, which are typically produced from plant residues. Only little knowledge is available for biochars derived from human and animal waste material, which are typically characterized by high mineral contents (e.g., sewage sludge, manure). Using human and animal waste as source material to produce biochars would support the development of attractive combined strategies for waste management and remediation. The potential impact of mineral phases on the physicochemical and sorption properties of biochars requires further studies so that the potential as sorbent material can be evaluated. With this purpose, different source material biochars were produced at 200°C, 350°C and 500°C, to yield a series of biochars representing a range of mineral content. The derived biochars from wood shavings (toxic elements (i.e., heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) of all materials were within the guidelines values proposed by the International Biochar Initiative, indicating their suitability for environmental application. Single point sorption coefficients for the model sorbate pyrene were measured to investigate the effect of mineral content, feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, particle size fractions and acid demineralization on sorption behavior. Overall, sorption of pyrene was strong for all materials (4 < Log Kd < 6.5 L/kg). Sorption generally increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature but there was no effect of particle size on sorption affinity. For mineral phase rich biochars, sorption generally increased after acid demineralization. When considering all materials together, the sorbent aromaticity

  1. Effect of humic acid on sorption of technetium by alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.; Rawat, N.; Kar, A.S. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, Maharastra (India); Tomar, B.S., E-mail: [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, Maharastra (India); Manchanda, V.K. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, Maharastra (India)


    Highlights: {yields} Tc sorption on alumina has been studied under aerobic as well anaerobic condition over pH 3-10. {yields} Effect of humic acid on sorption of Tc by alumina has been investigated. {yields} Linear additive modeling and surface complexation modeling were carried out to delineate the role of humic acid in Tc(IV) sorption in ternary system of Tc(IV)-humic acid-alumina. {yields} Sorption of humic acid onto alumina and strong complexation of Tc(IV) with humic acid were found to govern the sorption of Tc(IV) in the ternary system. - Abstract: Sorption of technetium by alumina has been studied in absence as well as in presence of humic acid using {sup 95}Tc{sup m} as a tracer. Measurements were carried out at fixed ionic strength (0.1 M NaClO{sub 4}) under varying pH (3-10) as well as redox (aerobic and reducing anaerobic) conditions. Under aerobic conditions, negligible sorption of technetium was observed onto alumina both in absence and in presence of humic acid. However, under reducing conditions (simulated with [Sn(II)] = 10{sup -6} M), presence of humic acid enhanced the sorption of technetium in the low pH region significantly and decreased at higher pH with respect to that in absence of humic acid. Linear additive as well as surface complexation modeling of Tc(IV) sorption in presence of humic acid indicated the predominant role of sorbed humic acid in deciding technetium sorption onto alumina.

  2. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries


    Natarajan eAngulakshmi; Arul Manuel Stephan


    This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium–sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium–sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i) non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii) ionic liquids, (iii) solid polyme...

  3. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries


    The Nam Long Doan; Denise Gosselink; Yongguang Zhang; Mikhail Sadhu; Ho-Jae Cheang; Pu Chen; Yan Zhao


    This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S) batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  4. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan


    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  5. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Yongguang; Gosselink, Denise; Doan, The Nam Long; Sadhu, Mikhail; Cheang, Ho-Jae; Chen, Pu


    This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S) batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes. PMID:24958296

  6. Rechargeable solid polymer electrolyte battery cell (United States)

    Skotheim, Terji


    A rechargeable battery cell comprising first and second electrodes sandwiching a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a layer of a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said polymer blend and a layer of dry solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said layer of polymer blend and said second electrode.

  7. Capacitive energy storage in nanostructured carbon-electrolyte systems. (United States)

    Simon, P; Gogotsi, Y


    Securing our energy future is the most important problem that humanity faces in this century. Burning fossil fuels is not sustainable, and wide use of renewable energy sources will require a drastically increased ability to store electrical energy. In the move toward an electrical economy, chemical (batteries) and capacitive energy storage (electrochemical capacitors or supercapacitors) devices are expected to play an important role. This Account summarizes research in the field of electrochemical capacitors conducted over the past decade. Overall, the combination of the right electrode materials with a proper electrolyte can successfully increase both the energy stored by the device and its power, but no perfect active material exists and no electrolyte suits every material and every performance goal. However, today, many materials are available, including porous activated, carbide-derived, and templated carbons with high surface areas and porosities that range from subnanometer to just a few nanometers. If the pore size is matched with the electrolyte ion size, those materials can provide high energy density. Exohedral nanoparticles, such as carbon nanotubes and onion-like carbon, can provide high power due to fast ion sorption/desorption on their outer surfaces. Because of its higher charge-discharge rates compared with activated carbons, graphene has attracted increasing attention, but graphene had not yet shown a higher volumetric capacitance than porous carbons. Although aqueous electrolytes, such as sodium sulfate, are the safest and least expensive, they have a limited voltage window. Organic electrolytes, such as solutions of [N(C2H5)4]BF4 in acetonitrile or propylene carbonate, are the most common in commercial devices. Researchers are increasingly interested in nonflammable ionic liquids. These liquids have low vapor pressures, which allow them to be used safely over a temperature range from -50 °C to at least 100 °C and over a larger voltage window

  8. Novel electrolyte mixtures based on dimethyl sulfone, ethylene carbonate and LiPF6 for lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Hofmann, Andreas; Hanemann, Thomas


    In this study, novel electrolyte mixtures for Li-ion cells are presented which are composed of ethylene carbonate/dimethyl sulfone (80:20 wt./wt.) as a solvent mixture and LiPF6, lithium bis(oxalato)borate and lithium difluoro(oxalato)borate as conducting salts. The main advantages of the solvent mixture are high flash points of >140 °C which enhance the intrinsic safety of Li-ion cells while maintaining good cell performance above 0-5 °C. The movability of the lithium ions in the electrolyte is investigated via programmed current derivative chronopotentiometry. It is found that pure electrolyte properties cannot necessarily predict the electrolyte behavior in real Li-ion cells but the complex interplay between electrolytes, electrode materials and separators has to be taken into account. Using the newly developed electrolytes, it is possible to achieve C-rates up to 1.5C with >80% of the initial specific discharge capacity (25 °C). Within 200 cycles during one month in cell tests (C||NMC) it is proven that the retention of the specific capacity is >98% of the third discharge cycle in dependence of the conducting salt.

  9. Group 15 quaternary alkyl bistriflimides: Ionic liquids with potential application in electropositive metal deposition and as supporting electrolytes


    Bhatt, Anand I.; May, Iain; Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Hetherington, Melissa E.; Lewin, Bob G.; Thied, Robert C.; Ertok, Nigar


    The eletrochemical properties of Group 15 quaternary alkyl bistriflimides salts were reported. The ionic liquids with potential application in electropositive metal deposition when used as supporting electrolytes in MeCN was also discussed. It was found that the three Group 15 based ionic liquids that were prepared have extremely large electrochemical windows.

  10. New Polymer and Liquid Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBreen, J.; Lee, H. S.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, X.


    All non-aqueous lithium battery electrolytes are Lewis bases that interact with cations. Unlike water, they don't interact with anions. The result is a high degree of ion pairing and the formation of triplets and higher aggregates. This decreases the conductivity and the lithium ion transference and results in polarization losses in batteries. Approaches that have been used to increase ion dissociation in PEO based electrolytes are the use of salts with low lattice energy, the addition of polar plasticizers to the polymer, and the addition of cation completing agents such as crown ethers or cryptands. Complexing of the anions is a more promising approach since it should increase both ion dissociation and the lithium transference. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) we have synthesized two new families of neutral anion completing agents, each based on Lewis acid centers. One is based on electron deficient nitrogen sites on substituted aza-ethers, wherein the hydrogen on the nitrogen is replaced by electron withdrawing groups such as CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3{sup -}}. The other is based on electron deficient boron sites on borane or borate compounds with various fluorinated aryl or alkyl groups. Some of the borane based anion receptors can promote the dissolution of LiF in several solvents. Several of these compounds, when added in equivalent amounts, produce 1.2M LiF solutions in DME, an increase in volubility of LiF by six orders of magnitude. Some of these LiF electrolytes have conductivities as high as 6 x 10{sup -3} Scm{sup -1}. The LiF electrolytes with borane anion acceptors in PC:EC:DEC solvents have excellent electrochemical stability. This has been demonstrated in small Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells.

  11. Wide-Temperature Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qiuyan; Jiao, Shuhong; Luo, Langli; Ding, Michael S.; Zheng, Jianming; Cartmell, Samuel S.; Wang, Chong-Min; Xu, Kang; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu


    Formulating electrolytes with solvents of low freezing points and high dielectric constants is a direct approach to extend the service temperature range of lithium (Li)-ion batteries (LIBs), for which propylene carbonate (PC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), methyl butyrate (MB) are excellent candidates. In this work, we report such low temperature electrolyte formulations by optimizing the content of ethylene carbonate (EC) in the EC-PC-EMC ternary solvent system with LiPF6 salt and CsPF6 additive. An extended service temperature range from 40°C to 60°C was obtained in LIBs with lithium nickel cobalt aluminum mixed oxide (LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2, NCA) as cathode and graphite as anode. The discharge capacities at low temperatures and the cycle life at room and elevated temperatures were systematically investigated in association with the ionic conductivity and phase transition behaviors. The most promising electrolyte formulation was identified as 1.0 M LiPF6 in EC-PC-EMC (1:1:8 by wt.) with 0.05 M CsPF6, which was demonstrated in both coin cells of graphite||NCA and 1 Ah pouch cells of graphite||LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2. This optimized electrolyte enables excellent wide-temperature performances, as evidenced by the 68% capacity retention at 40C and C/5 rate, and nearly identical stable cycle life at room and elevated temperatures up to 60C.

  12. Water and Salt Transport Properties of Triptycene-Containing Sulfonated Polysulfone Materials for Desalination Membrane Applications. (United States)

    Luo, Hongxi; Aboki, Joseph; Ji, Yuanyuan; Guo, Ruilan; Geise, Geoffrey M


    A series of triptycene-containing sulfonated polysulfone (TRP-BP) materials was prepared via condensation polymerization, and the desalination membrane-relevant fundamental water and salt transport properties (i.e., sorption, diffusion, and permeability coefficients) of the polymers were characterized. Incorporating triptycene into sulfonated polysulfone increased the water content of the material compared to sulfonated polysulfone materials that do not contain triptycene. No significant difference in salt sorption was observed between TRP-BP membranes and other sulfonated polysulfone membranes, suggesting that the presence of triptycene in the polymer did not dramatically affect thermodynamic interactions between salt and the polymer. Both water and salt diffusion coefficients in the TRP-BP membranes were suppressed relative to other sulfonated polysulfone materials with comparable water content, and these phenomena may result from the influence of triptycene on polymer chain packing and/or free-volume distribution, which could increase the tortuosity of the transport pathways in the polymers. Enhanced water/salt diffusivity selectivity was observed for some of the TRP-BP membranes relative to those materials that did not contain triptycene, and correspondingly, incorporation of triptycene into sulfonated polysulfone resulted in an increase, particularly for acid counterion form TRP-BP materials, in water/salt permeability selectivity, which is favorable for desalination membrane applications.

  13. Spills of Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals on Agricultural Topsoil: Biodegradation, Sorption, and Co-contaminant Interactions. (United States)

    McLaughlin, Molly C; Borch, Thomas; Blotevogel, Jens


    Hydraulic fracturing frequently occurs on agricultural land. Yet the extent of sorption, transformation, and interactions among the numerous organic frac fluid and oil and gas wastewater constituents upon environmental release is hardly known. Thus, this study aims to advance our current understanding of processes that control the environmental fate and toxicity of commonly used hydraulic fracturing chemicals. Poly(ethylene glycol) surfactants were completely biodegraded in agricultural topsoil within 42-71 days, but their transformation was impeded in the presence of the biocide glutaraldehyde and was completely inhibited by salt at concentrations typical for oil and gas wastewater. At the same time, aqueous glutaraldehyde concentrations decreased due to sorption to soil and were completely biodegraded within 33-57 days. While no aqueous removal of polyacrylamide friction reducer was observed over a period of 6 months, it cross-linked with glutaraldehyde, further lowering the biocide's aqueous concentration. These findings highlight the necessity to consider co-contaminant effects when we evaluate the risk of frac fluid additives and oil and gas wastewater constituents in agricultural soils in order to fully understand their human health impacts, likelihood for crop uptake, and potential for groundwater contamination.

  14. Physicochemical effect of activation temperature on the sorption properties of pine shell activated carbon. (United States)

    Wasim, Agha Arslan; Khan, Muhammad Nasiruddin


    Activated carbons produced from a variety of raw materials are normally selective towards a narrow range of pollutants present in wastewater. This study focuses on shifting the selectivity of activated carbon from inorganic to organic pollutants using activation temperature as a variable. The material produced from carbonization of pine shells substrate was activated at 250°C and 850°C. Both adsorbents were compared with commercial activated carbon for the sorption of lead, cadmium, methylene blue, methyl blue, xylenol orange, and crystal violet. It was observed that carbon activated at 250°C was selective for lead and cadmium whereas the one activated at 850°C was selective for the organic dyes. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study revealed that AC850 had less surface functional groups as compared to AC250. Point of zero charge and point of zero salt effect showed that AC250 had acidic groups at its surface. Scanning electron microscopy depicted that increase in activation temperature resulted in an increase in pore size of activated carbon. Both AC250 and AC850 followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Temkin isotherm model was a best fit for empirical data obtained at equilibrium. The model also showed that sorption process for both AC250 and AC850 was physisorption.

  15. Interindividual variability in sweat electrolyte concentration in marathoners. (United States)

    Lara, Beatriz; Gallo-Salazar, César; Puente, Carlos; Areces, Francisco; Salinero, Juan José; Del Coso, Juan


    Sodium (Na(+)) intake during exercise aims to replace the Na(+) lost by sweat to avoid electrolyte imbalances, especially in endurance disciplines. However, Na(+) needs can be very different among individuals because of the great inter-individual variability in sweat electrolyte concentration. The aim of this investigation was to determine sweat electrolyte concentration in a large group of marathoners. A total of 157 experienced runners (141 men and 16 women) completed a marathon race (24.4 ± 3.6 °C and 27.7 ± 4.8 % of humidity). During the race, sweat samples were collected by using sweat patches placed on the runners' forearms. Sweat electrolyte concentration was measured by using photoelectric flame photometry. As a group, sweat Na(+) concentration was 42.9 ± 18.7 mmol·L(-1) (minimal-maximal value = 7.0-95.5 mmol·L(-1)), sweat Cl(-) concentration was 32.2 ± 15.6 mmol·L(-1) (7.3-90.6 mmol·L(-1)) and sweat K(+) concentration was 6.0 ± 0.9 mmol·L(-1) (3.1-8.0 mmol·L(-1)). Women presented lower sweat Na(+) (33.9 ± 12.1 vs 44.0 ± 19.1 mmol·L(-1); P = 0.04) and sweat Cl(-) concentrations (22.9 ± 10.5 vs 33.2 ± 15.8 mmol·L(-1); P = 0.01) than men. A 20 % of individuals presented a sweat Na(+) concentration higher than 60 mmol·L(-1) while this threshold was not surpassed by any female marathoner. Sweat electrolyte concentration did not correlate to sweat rate, age, body characteristics, experience or training. Although there was a significant correlation between sweat Na(+) concentration and running pace (r = 0.18; P = 0.03), this association was weak to interpret that sweat Na(+) concentration increased with running pace. The inter-individual variability in sweat electrolyte concentration was not explained by any individual characteristics except for individual running pace and sex. An important portion (20 %) of marathoners might need special sodium intake recommendations due to

  16. Sorption of triazine and organophosphorus pesticides on soil and biochar. (United States)

    Uchimiya, Minori; Wartelle, Lynda H; Boddu, Veera M


    Sorption and degradation are the primary processes controlling the efficacy and runoff contamination risk of agrochemicals. Considering the longevity of biochar in agroecosystems, biochar soil amendment must be carefully evaluated on the basis of the target agrochemical and soil types to achieve agricultural (minimum impact on efficacy) and environmental (minimum runoff contamination) benefits. In this study, sorption-desorption isotherms and kinetics of triazine (deisopropylatrazine) and organophosphorus (malathion, parathion, and diazinon) pesticides were first investigated on various soil types ranging from clayey, acidic Puerto Rican forest soil (PR) to heavy metal contaminated small arms range (SAR) soils of sandy and peaty nature. On PR, malathion sorption did not reach equilibrium during the 3 week study. Comparison of solution-phase molar phosphorus and agrochemical concentrations suggested that degradation products of organophosphorus pesticides were bound on soil surfaces. The degree of sorption on different soils showed the following increasing trend: deisopropylatrazine < malathion < diazinon < parathion. While sorption of deisopropylatrazine on SAR soils was not affected by diazinon or malathion, deisopropylatrazine suppressed the sorption of diazinon and malathion. Deisopropylatrazine irreversibly sorbed on biochars, and greater sorption was observed with higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of biochar (4.7-2061 mg g(-1)). The results suggested the utility of biochar for remediation of sites where concentrations of highly stable and mobile agrochemicals exceed the water-quality benchmarks.

  17. Fluid, electrolytes and nutrition: physiological and clinical aspects. (United States)

    Lobo, Dileep N


    Fluid and electrolyte balance is often poorly understood and inappropriate prescribing can cause increased post-operative morbidity and mortality. The efficiency of the physiological response to a salt or water deficit, developed through evolution, contrasts with the relatively inefficient mechanism for dealing with salt excess. Saline has a Na+:Cl- of 1:1 and can produce hyperchloraemic acidosis, renal vasoconstriction and reduced glomerular filtration rate. In contrast, the more physiological Hartmann's solution with a Na+:Cl- of 1.18:1 does not cause hyperchloraemia and Na excretion following infusion is more rapid. Salt and water overload causes not only peripheral and pulmonary oedema, but may also produce splanchnic oedema, resulting in ileus or acute intestinal failure. This overload may sometimes be an inevitable consequence of resuscitation, yet it may take 3 weeks to excrete this excess. It is important to avoid unnecessary additional overload by not prescribing excessive maintenance fluids after the need for resuscitation has passed. Most patients require 2-2.5 litres water and 60-100 mmol Na/d for maintenance in order to prevent a positive fluid balance. This requirement must not be confused with those for resuscitation of the hypovolaemic patient in whom the main aim of fluid therapy is repletion of the intravascular volume. Fluid and electrolyte balance is a vital component of the metabolic care of surgical and critically-ill patients, with important consequences for gastrointestinal function and hence nutrition. It is also of importance when prescribing artificial nutrition and should be given the same careful consideration as other nutritional and pharmacological needs.

  18. SISGR: Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trulove, Paul C. [U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Foley, Matthew P. [U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States)


    The solvation and phase behavior of the model battery electrolyte salt lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3) in commonly used organic solvents; ethylene carbonate (EC), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and propylene carbonate (PC) was explored. Data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were correlated to provide insight into the solvation states present within a sample mixture. Data from DSC analyses allowed the construction of phase diagrams for each solvent system. Raman spectroscopy enabled the determination of specific solvation states present within a solvent-salt mixture, and X-ray diffraction data provided exact information concerning the structure of a solvates that could be isolated Thermal analysis of the various solvent-salt mixtures revealed the phase behavior of the model electrolytes was strongly dependent on solvent symmetry. The point groups of the solvents were (in order from high to low symmetry): C2V for EC, CS for GBL, and C1 for PC(R). The low symmetry solvents exhibited a crystallinity gap that increased as solvent symmetry decreased; no gap was observed for EC-LiTf, while a crystallinity gap was observed spanning 0.15 to 0.3 mole fraction for GBL-LiTf, and 0.1 to 0.33 mole fraction for PC(R)-LiTf mixtures. Raman analysis demonstrated the dominance of aggregated species in almost all solvent compositions. The AGG and CIP solvates represent the majority of the species in solutions for the more concentrated mixtures, and only in very dilute compositions does the SSIP solvate exist in significant amounts. Thus, the poor charge transport characteristics of CIP and AGG account for the low conductivity and transport properties of LiTf and explain why is a poor choice as a source of Li+ ions in a Li-ion battery.

  19. Methods for measuring water activity (aw) of foods and its applications to moisture sorption isotherm studies. (United States)

    Zhang, Lida; Sun, Da-Wen; Zhang, Zhihang


    Moisture sorption isotherm is commonly determined by saturated salt slurry method, which has defects of long time cost, cumbersome labor, and microbial deterioration of samples. Thus, a novel method, aw measurement (AWM) method, has been developed to overcome these drawbacks. Fundamentals and applications of this fast method have been introduced with respects to its typical operational steps, a variety of equipment set-ups and applied samples. The resultant rapidness and reliability have been evaluated by comparing with conventional methods. This review also discussed factors impairing measurement precision and accuracy, including inappropriate choice of predryingwetting techniques and unachieved moisture uniformity in samples due to inadequate time. This analysis and corresponding suggestions can facilitate improved AWM method with more satisfying accuracy and time cost.

  20. Sorption of phenanthrene in agricultural soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, António Carlos Alves; Minh, Luong Nhat; Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are among the major contaminants in the terrestrial environment. The background level in normal agricultural land has increased for many years and it is expected to further increase in the future. Because of the very low water solubility and high Kow values...... was analyzed, as derived from the Dexter et al. (2008) n-index (ratio of clay to organic carbon of 10 kg kg-1), on KOC, but we did not find it to markedly influence KOC nor be useful to better predict KOC for cultivated soils. Globally, the soils split into two groups with one group above and the other below...... the saturation line as defined by Dexter. Top soils and subsoils showed different sorption behavior, with typically higher Koc for topsoils, likely due to different organic matter quality related to soil management and hydrological impact. Topsoils generally exhibited Koc values between the traditionally applied...

  1. Effect of Natural Organic Matter on Plutonium Sorption to Goethite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Nathan A. [Department; Zavarin, Mavrik [Glenn T. Seaborg; Kersting, Annie B. [Glenn T. Seaborg; Powell, Brian A. [Department


    The effect of citric acid (CA), desferrioxamine B (DFOB), fulvic acid (FA), and humic acid (HA) on plutonium (Pu) sorption to goethite was studied as a function of organic carbon concentration and pH using batch sorption experiments at 5 mgC·L–1 and 50 mgC·L–1 natural organic matter (NOM), 10–9–10–10 M 238Pu, and 0.1 g·L–1 goethite concentrations, at pH 3, 5, 7, and 9. Low sorption of ligands coupled with strong Pu complexation decreased Pu sorption at pH 5 and 7, relative to a ligand-free system. Conversely, CA, FA, and HA increased Pu sorption to goethite at pH 3, suggesting ternary complex formation or, in the case of humic acid, incorporation into HA aggregates. Mechanisms for ternary complex formation were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the absence of Pu. CA and FA demonstrated clear surface interactions at pH 3, HA appeared unchanged suggesting HA aggregates had formed, and no DFOB interactions were observed. Plutonium sorption decreased in the presence of DFOB (relative to a ligand free system) at all pH values examined. Thus, DFOB does not appear to facilitate formation of ternary Pu-DFOB-goethite complexes. At pH 9, Pu sorption in the presence of all NOM increased relative to pH 5 and 7; speciation models attributed this to Pu(IV) hydrolysis competing with ligand complexation, increasing sorption. The results indicate that in simple Pu-NOM-goethite ternary batch systems, NOM will decrease Pu sorption to goethite at all but particularly low pH conditions.

  2. Towards a stable ion-solvating polymer electrolyte for advanced alkaline water electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Wright, Andrew G.; Kraglund, Mikkel Rykær


    stability in alkaline environments. The novel electrolytes are extensively characterized with respect to physicochemical and electrochemical properties and the chemical stability is assessed in 0-50 wt% aqueous KOH for more than 6 months at 88 degrees C. In water electrolysis tests using porous 3......Advanced alkaline water electrolysis using ion-solvating polymer membranes as electrolytes represents a new direction in the field of electrochemical hydrogen production. Polybenzimidazole membranes equilibrated in aqueous KOH combine the mechanical robustness and gas-tightness of a polymer...... with the conductive properties of an aqueous alkaline salt solution, and are thus of particular interest in this field of research. This work presents a comprehensive study of ternary alkaline polymer electrolyte systems developed around a polybenzimidazole derivative that is structurally tailored towards improved...

  3. Electrolyte gated TFT biosensors based on the Donnan's capacitance of anchored biomolecules (United States)

    Manoli, Kyriaki; Palazzo, Gerardo; Macchia, Eleonora; Tiwari, Amber; Di Franco, Cinzia; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Favia, Pietro; Mallardi, Antonia; Torsi, Luisa


    Biodetection using electrolyte gated field effect transistors has been mainly correlated to charge modulated transduction. Therefore, such platforms are designed and studied for limited applications involving relatively small charged species and much care is taken in the operating conditions particularly pH and salt concentration (ionic strength). However, there are several reports suggesting that the device conductance can also be very sensitive towards variations in the capacitance coupling. Understanding the sensing mechanism is important for further exploitation of these promising sensors in broader range of applications. In this paper, we present a thorough and in depth study of a multilayer protein system coupled to an electrolyte gated transistor. It is demonstrated that detection associated to a binding event taking place at a distance of 30 nm far from the organic semiconductor-electrolyte interface is possible and the device conductance is dominated by Donnan's capacitance of anchored biomolecules.

  4. Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries: Ionic Liquids in APTES Crosslinked Polymers (United States)

    Tigelaar, Dean M.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Bennett, William R.


    Solvent free polymer electrolytes were made consisting of Li(+) and pyrrolidinium salts of trifluoromethanesulfonimide added to a series of hyperbranched poly(ethylene oxide)s (PEO). The polymers were connected by triazine linkages and crosslinked by a sol-gel process to provide mechanical strength. The connecting PEO groups were varied to help understand the effects of polymer structure on electrolyte conductivity in the presence of ionic liquids. Polymers were also made that contain poly(dimethylsiloxane) groups, which provide increased flexibility without interacting with lithium ions. When large amounts of ionic liquid are added, there is little dependence of conductivity on the polymer structure. However, when smaller amounts of ionic liquid are added, the inherent conductivity of the polymer becomes a factor. These electrolytes are more conductive than those made with high molecular weight PEO imbibed with ionic liquids at ambient temperatures, due to the amorphous nature of the polymer.

  5. Luminescent Polymer Electrolyte Composites Using Silica Coated-Y2O3:Eu as Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikrajuddin Abdullah


    Full Text Available Luminescent polymer electrolyte composites composed of silica coated Y2O3:Eu in polyethylene glycol (PEG matrix has been produced by initially synthesizing silica coated Y2O3:Eu and mixing with polyethylene glycol in a lithium salt solution. High luminescence intensity at round 600 nm contributed by electron transitions in Eu3+ (5D0 -> 7F0, 5D0 -> 7F1, and 5D0 -> 7F3 transitions were observed. The measured electrical conductivity was comparable to that reported for polymer electrolyte composites prepared using passive fillers (non luminescent. This approach is therefore promising for production of high intensity luminescent polymer electrolyte composites for use in development of hybrid battery/display.

  6. Molten phosphonium iodides as electrolytes in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Rosa E.; Sanchez, Eduardo M. [Laboratorio de Investigacion del Vidrio, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Pedro de Alba S/N, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico)


    We have synthesized new room temperature ionic liquids and test them as new potential electrolytes for dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells (DNSCs) of Gratzel type based on asymmetric tetraalkylphosphonium iodides. A systematic study on the conductivity behavior of BH{sub 3}PI, iBH{sub 3}PI, OH{sub 3}PI and iBO{sub 3}PI molten salts and the effect of the addition of low concentrations of iodine with and without 3-methoxypropionitrile is presented. Solar cells using iBH{sub 3}PI-based electrolyte reached an overall light-to-electricity efficiency of 5.7% under moderate light intensity (27000lx) conditions and those results are compared to similar systems using alternative ionic liquids as electrolytes. (author)

  7. Enhanced electrochemical performance of Lithium-ion batteries by conformal coating of polymer electrolyte. (United States)

    Plylahan, Nareerat; Maria, Sébastien; Phan, Trang Nt; Letiche, Manon; Martinez, Hervé; Courrèges, Cécile; Knauth, Philippe; Djenizian, Thierry


    This work reports the conformal coating of poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (P(MePEGMA)) polymer electrolyte on highly organized titania nanotubes (TiO2nts) fabricated by electrochemical anodization of Ti foil. The conformal coating was achieved by electropolymerization using cyclic voltammetry technique. The characterization of the polymer electrolyte by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) shows the formation of short polymer chains, mainly trimers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results confirm the presence of the polymer and LiTFSI salt. The galvanostatic tests at 1C show that the performance of the half cell against metallic Li foil is improved by 33% when TiO2nts are conformally coated with the polymer electrolyte.

  8. Towards a stable ion-solvating polymer electrolyte for advanced alkaline water electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Wright, Andrew G.; Kraglund, Mikkel Rykær


    Advanced alkaline water electrolysis using ion-solvating polymer membranes as electrolytes represents a new direction in the field of electrochemical hydrogen production. Polybenzimidazole membranes equilibrated in aqueous KOH combine the mechanical robustness and gas-tightness of a polymer...... stability in alkaline environments. The novel electrolytes are extensively characterized with respect to physicochemical and electrochemical properties and the chemical stability is assessed in 0-50 wt% aqueous KOH for more than 6 months at 88 degrees C. In water electrolysis tests using porous 3...... with the conductive properties of an aqueous alkaline salt solution, and are thus of particular interest in this field of research. This work presents a comprehensive study of ternary alkaline polymer electrolyte systems developed around a polybenzimidazole derivative that is structurally tailored towards improved...

  9. Nanocomposite polymeric electrolytes to record electrophysiological brain signals in prolonged, unconventional or extreme conditions. (United States)

    Licoccia, Silvia; Luisa Di Vona, M; Romagnoli, Paola; Narici, Livio; Acquaviva, Massimo; Carozzo, Simone; Marco, Stefano Di; Saturno, Moreno; Sannita, Walter G; Traversa, Enrico


    Chemically stable nanocomposite iono-conducting polymeric membranes (based on lithium salts and nanocrystalline oxide powders dispersed in a polymethyl methacrylate matrix) performed successfully in the recording of human brain responses to visual stimulation. Impedance was higher than that of conventional electrodes. However, the electrophysiological signals recorded by acid Al(2)O(3) and neutral Al(2)O(3) 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% nanocomposite gel electrolytes were comparable to those obtained with standard electrodes, even without preliminary skin cleaning and in the absence of gel electrolytes allowing better contact with and skin-electrode ionic conductance. The electrochemical and mechanical characteristics of these membranes make them fit for human and animal research, for clinical application (specifically in emergencies, prolonged electrophysiological recordings), or in unconventional or extreme conditions when fluid electrolytes are unsuitable (e.g., biomedical space research).

  10. BFR Electrolyte Additive Safety and Flammability Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Lithium-ion battery safety is a critical issue in the adoption of the chemistry to larger scale applications such as transportation and stationary storage. One of the critical components impacting the safety of lithium-ion batteries is their use of highly flammable organic electrolytes. In this work, brominated flame retardants (BFR’s) – an existing class of flame retardant materials – are incorporated as additives to lithium-ion battery electrolytes with the intention to reduce the electrolyte flammability and thereby improve safety. There are a few critical needs for a successful electrolyte additive: solubility in the electrolyte, electrochemical stability over the range of battery operation, and minimal detrimental effects on battery performance. Those detrimental effects can take the form of electrolyte specific impacts, such as a reduction in conductivity, or electrode impacts, such as SEI-layer modification or chemical instability to the active material. In addition to these needs, the electrolyte additive also needs to achieve its intended purpose, which in this case is to reduce the flammability of the electrolyte. For the work conducted as part of this SPP agreement three separate BFR materials were provided by Albemarle to be tested by Sandia as additives in a traditional lithium-ion battery electrolyte. The provided BFR materials were tribromo-neopentyl alcohol, tetrabromo bisphenol A, and tribromoethylene. These materials were incorporated as separate 4 wt.% additives into a traditional lithium-ion battery electrolyte and compared to said traditional electrolyte, designated Gen2.

  11. Electrolyte Additives for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Hjuler, H.A.; Olsen, C.A.


    Electrochemical characteristics of a series of modified phosphoric acid electrolytes containing fluorinated car on compounds and silicone fluids as additives are presented. When used in phosphoric acid fuel cells, the modified electrolytes improve the performance due to the enhanced oxygen......, as a fuel-cell performance with the modified electrolytes. Specific conductivity measurements of some of the modified phosphoric acid electrolytes are reported. At a given temperature, the conductivity of the C4F9SO3K-modified electrolyte decreases with an increasing amount of the additive; the conductivity...... of the remains at the same value as the conductivity of the pure phosphoric acid. At a given composition, the conductivity of any modified electrolyte increases with temperature. We conclude that the improved cell performance for modified electrolytes is not due to any increase in conductivity....

  12. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan eAngulakshmi


    Full Text Available This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium-sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium-sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium-sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii ionic liquids, (iii solid polymer and (iv glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li-S cells is discussed.

  13. Radionuclide sorption-desorption pattern in soils from Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil-Garcia, C.J.; Rigol, A.; Rauret, G. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 3a Planta, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Vidal, M. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 3a Planta, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail:


    The pattern of radiostrontium and radiocesium sorption-desorption was examined in 30 Spanish soils by the quantification of the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) with batch tests, the evaluation of sorption reversibility with a single extraction, the estimation of sorption dynamics by the application of drying-wetting cycles, and the calculation of K{sub d}{sup adjusted} values as an input for risk assessment models. The data obtained overlapped with those found in soils from other climatic areas, suggesting identical interaction mechanisms and allowing the extrapolation of parameterisations and prediction models among different scenarios.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Rusu


    Full Text Available Studies of the sorption capacity towards Cu2+ ions of diatomite from the Ghidirim location of RM, as well as of the extracted clay phase are presented. Separated clay fraction from diatomic material is clean enough, and especially is rich in montmorillonite. Maximum sorption capacity for studied clay fraction is achieved by rising the temperature of calcination treatment up to 200oC. At higher temperatures the lattice of montmorillonite is contracted and its sorption capacity towards Cu2+ ions decreases strongly.

  15. Effect of illite particle shape on cesium sorption (United States)

    Rajec, Pavol; Šucha, Vladimír; Eberl, Dennis D.; Środoń, Jan; Elsass, Françoise E.


    Samples containing illite and illite-smectite, having different crystal shapes (plates, “barrels”, and filaments), were selected for sorption experiments with cesium. There is a positive correlation between total surface area and Cs-sorption capacity, but no correlation between total surface area and the distribution coefficient, Kd. Generally Kd increases with the edge surface area, although “hairy” (filamentous) illite does not fit this pattern, possibly because elongation of crystals along one axis reduces the number of specific sorption sites.

  16. Arsenic Sorption on Mechanically Activated Magnetite and Olivine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Bujňáková


    Full Text Available Arsenic sorption on mechanically activated minerals such as magnetite Fe3O4 (Kiruna, Sweden and olivine (Mg,Fe2SiO4 (Ǻheim,Norway has been studied and compared in this work. Experiments were carried out with non-activated and mechanically activatedsamples. The activation of both minerals was performed in a planetary mill at different milling conditions. The specific surface areaand consequent sorption activity were enhanced by mechanical activation. The using of olivine seems to be better than magnetite fromthe point of view of milling time, which is necessary for achievement of the same sorption effect.

  17. Development of a Self-Consistent Model of Plutonium Sorption: Quantification of Sorption Enthalpy and Ligand-Promoted Dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Brian [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Kaplan, Daniel I [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Arai, Yuji [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Becker, Udo [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ewing, Rod [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    This university lead SBR project is a collaboration lead by Dr. Brian Powell (Clemson University) with co-principal investigators Dan Kaplan (Savannah River National Laboratory), Yuji Arai (presently at the University of Illinois), Udo Becker (U of Michigan) and Rod Ewing (presently at Stanford University). Hypothesis: The underlying hypothesis of this work is that strong interactions of plutonium with mineral surfaces are due to formation of inner sphere complexes with a limited number of high-energy surface sites, which results in sorption hysteresis where Pu(IV) is the predominant sorbed oxidation state. The energetic favorability of the Pu(IV) surface complex is strongly influenced by positive sorption entropies, which are mechanistically driven by displacement of solvating water molecules from the actinide and mineral surface during sorption. Objectives: The overarching objective of this work is to examine Pu(IV) and Pu(V) sorption to pure metal (oxyhydr)oxide minerals and sediments using variable temperature batch sorption, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and quantum-mechanical and empirical-potential calculations. The data will be compiled into a self-consistent surface complexation model. The novelty of this effort lies largely in the manner the information from these measurements and calculations will be combined into a model that will be used to evaluate the thermodynamics of plutonium sorption reactions as well as predict sorption of plutonium to sediments from DOE sites using a component additivity approach.

  18. Nanostructured Electrolytes for Stable Lithium Electrodeposition in Secondary Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan


    of ceramic electrolytes that meet the modulus and stability requirements have to date proven to be insurmountable obstacles to progress. In this Account, we first review recent advances in continuum theory for dendrite growth and proliferation during metal electrodeposition. We show that the range of options for designing electrolytes and separators that stabilize electrodeposition is now substantially broader than one might imagine from previous literature accounts. In particular, separators designed at the nanoscale to constrain ion transport on length scales below a theory-defined cutoff, and structured electrolytes in which a fraction of anions are permanently immobilized to nanoparticles, to a polymer network or ceramic membrane are considered particularly promising for their ability to stabilize electrodeposition of lithium metal without compromising ionic conductivity or room temperature battery operation. We also review recent progress in designing surface passivation films for metallic lithium that facilitate fast deposition of lithium at the electrolyte/electrode interface and at the same time protect the lithium from parasitic side reactions with liquid electrolytes. A promising finding from both theory and experiment is that simple film-forming halide salt additives in a conventional liquid electrolyte can substantially extend the lifetime and safety of LMBs.

  19. Transport and spectroscopic studies of liquid and polymer electrolytes (United States)

    Bopege, Dharshani Nimali

    Liquid and polymer electrolytes are interesting and important materials to study as they are used in Li rechargeable batteries and other electrochemical devices. It is essential to investigate the fundamental properties of electrolytes such as ionic conductivity, diffusion, and ionic association to enhance battery performance in different battery markets. This dissertation mainly focuses on the temperature-dependent charge and mass transport processes and ionic association of different electrolyte systems. Impedance spectroscopy and pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to measure the ionic conductivity and diffusion coefficients of ketone and acetate based liquid electrolytes. In this study, charge and mass transport in non-aqueous liquid electrolytes have been viewed from an entirely different perspective by introducing the compensated Arrhenius formalism. Here, the conductivity and diffusion coefficient are written as an Arrhenius-like expression with a temperature-dependent static dielectric constant dependence in the exponential prefactor. The compensated Arrhenius formalism reported in this dissertation very accurately describes temperature-dependent conductivity data for acetate and ketone-based electrolytes as well as temperature-dependent diffusion data of pure solvents. We found that calculated average activation energies of ketone-based electrolytes are close to each other for both conductivity and diffusion data (in the range 24-26 kJ/mol). Also, this study shows that average activation energies of acetate-based electrolytes are higher than those for the ketone systems (in the range 33-37 kJ/mol). Further, we observed higher dielectric constants and ionic conductivities for both dilute and concentrated ketone solutions with temperature. Vibrational spectroscopy (Infrared and Raman) was used to probe intermolecular interactions in both polymer and liquid electrolytes, particularly those which contain lithium

  20. Evaluating Transport Properties and Ionic Dissociation of LiPF6 in Concentrated Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Zhange; Higa, Kenneth; Han, Kee Sung; Srinivasan, Venkat


    The presence of lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) ion pairs in carbonate-based electrolyte solutions is widely accepted in the field of battery electrolyte research and is expected to affect solution transport properties. No existing techniques are capable of directly quantifying salt dissociation in these solutions. Previous publications by others have provided estimates of dissociation degrees using dilute solution theory and pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (PFG-NMR) measurements of self-diffusivity. However, the behavior of a concentrated electrolyte solution can deviate significantly from dilute solution theory predictions. This work, for the first time, instead uses Onsager–Stefan–Maxwell concentrated solution theory and the generalized. Darken relation with PFG-NMR measurements to quantify the degrees of dissociation in electrolyte solutions (LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate, 1:1 by weight). At LiPF6 concentrations ranging from 0.1 M to 1.5 M, the salt dissociation degree is found to range from 61% to 37%. Transport properties are then calculated through concentrated solution theory with corrections for these significant levels of ion pairing.

  1. Improved Electrolytic Hydrogen Peroxide Generator (United States)

    James, Patrick I.


    An improved apparatus for the electrolytic generation of hydrogen peroxide dissolved in water has been developed. The apparatus is a prototype of H2O2 generators for the safe and effective sterilization of water, sterilization of equipment in contact with water, and other applications in which there is need for hydrogen peroxide at low concentration as an oxidant. Potential applications for electrolytic H2O2 generators include purification of water for drinking and for use in industrial processes, sanitation for hospitals and biotechnological industries, inhibition and removal of biofouling in heat exchangers, cooling towers, filtration units, and the treatment of wastewater by use of advanced oxidation processes that are promoted by H2O2.

  2. Studies on the sorption and desorption characteristics of Zn(II) on the surface soils of nuclear power plant sites in India using a radiotracer technique. (United States)

    Dahiya, Sudhir; Shanwal, A V; Hegde, A G


    Zinc adsorption was studied in the soils of three nuclear power plant sites of India. 65Zn was used as a radiotracer to study the sorption characteristics of Zn(II). The sorption of zinc was determined at 25 and 45 degrees C at pH 7.8+/-0.2 in the solution of 0.01 M Ca(NO3)2 as supporting electrolyte. The sorption data was tested both in Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms and could be described satisfactorily. The effect of organic matter and other physico-chemical properties on the uptake of zinc was also studied in all the soil samples. The results showed that the cation exchange capacity, organic matter, pH and clay content were the main contributors to zinc sorption in these soils. The adsorption maximum was found to be higher in the soil on Kakarpara Atomic Power Plant sites soils having high organic matter and clay content. The zinc supply parameters of the soils are also discussed. In the desorption studies, the sequential extraction of the adsorbed zinc from soils showed that the diethylene triamine penta acetic acid extracted maximum amount of adsorbed zinc than CaCl2 and Mg(NO3)2. The zinc sorption on the soil and amount of zinc retention after extractants desorption shows a positively correlation with vermiculite and smectite mineral content present in the clay fraction of the soil. The amount desorbed by strong base (NaOH) and demineralised water was almost negligible from soils of all the sites, whereas the desorption by strong acid (HNO3) was 75-96% of the adsorbed zinc.

  3. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin


    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  4. Compositional effect investigation by addition PEG, PEO plasticiser of LiBOB based solid polymer electrolyte for lithium ion batteries (United States)

    Sabrina, Qolby; Ratri, Christin Rina


    Development polymer electrolyte with high ionic conductivity is main of object in solid state electrolyte will be potential application as electrolyte batteries. Casting method have been used to prepared solid polymer electrolyte. Adding polyethylene(glycol) PEG and Poly(ethylene oxide) PEO as polymer matrix be made of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) and lithium bis(oxalato) borate (LiBOB) to improve structure morphology and impedance characterization of solid electrolyte. The ratio of PEG and PEO is varied to study effect on the conductivity. Electro impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies are carried out on the prepared samples. The impedance measurement show that the conductivity with composition PVdF- PEG- LiBOB 10% better than the other varieties to applied as solid electrolyte batteries. SEM morphology PVdF- PEG- LiBOB 10% sample showed the low crystallinity was caused by interaction between lithium salt and polymer. With their properties the solid polymer electrolyte are considered as promising candidates of applications for lithium ion batteries.

  5. Cesium sorption and desorption on selected Los Alamos soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, K.S.; Chan, J.; Longmire, P.; Fowler, M.


    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the sorptivity of cesium onto Los Alamos soils under controlled experimental conditions. Four soil profiles were collected and each soil profile which is broken into layers according to previously identified soil horizons were studied. Batch sorption isotherms were studied to quantify the chemical reactivity of each soil horizon toward cesium ion. Radioactive cesium-137 was used as sorbent and gamma counting was used to quantify the amount of sorption. Desorption experiments were conducted after the sorption experiments. Batch desorption isotherms were studied to quantify the desorption of presorbed cesium from these Los Alamos soils. This study suggests cesium may sorb strongly and irreversibly on most Los Alamos soils. The amount of cesium sorption and desorption is possibly related to the clay content of the soil sample since subsurface sample has a higher clay content than that of surface sample.

  6. Strength and sorption properties of cement-bonded composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strength and sorption properties of cement-bonded composites produced from eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus tereticornis SM.) veneer waste. ... applications where sound absorption is important. Keywords: Eucalyptus, Veneer waste, Cement composite, Strength, dimensional stability. Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and ...

  7. [Moisture sorption of gelatin powder and collagen fibers]. (United States)

    Boki, K; Kawasaki, N; Minami, K


    Moisture sorption properties of gelatin powder and collagen fibers were investigated on the basis of the moisture sorption isotherm, the differential heat of moisture sorption, the decrease in entropy of moisture sorption and the parameter constants of the applicable isotherm equation. The amount of moisture sorbed on collagen fibers was larger than that on gelatin powder. The water molecules were absorbed on gelatin itself rather than on the active sites of gelatin. They were adsorbed on the polar groups of constitutive amino acids at amounts of moisture sorbed up to one or two monolayers and then were absorbed into collagen fibers at higher monolayers. They were kept loosely in gelatin and tightly in collagen. The structural stability of collagen to moisture was higher than that of gelatin.

  8. Simulation of nonlinear sorption of N-heterocyclic organic contaminates in soil columns. (United States)

    Bi, Erping; Zhang, Lunliang; Schmidt, Torsten C; Haderlein, Stefan B


    The transport of organic contaminants in porous media is frequently influenced by nonequilibrium sorption and/or nonlinear sorption. In this study, sorption of coal tar related contaminants with different sorption properties, i.e., toluene, quinoline, quinaldine, and benzotriazole, was studied in column experiments using a European reference soil and compared with batch sorption results in order to quantify the governing sorption features. The breakthrough curves (BTCs) were simulated with a versatile 1-D reactive transport model using a one-site first-order sorption approach. Some differences in fitted parameters from batch and column experiments were found and discussed in terms of different sorption mechanisms in different aqueous concentration ranges, effects of solution properties (e.g., pH) and differences in solid-to-solution ratio and accessible sorption sites. The modeling results show that the fitting results were not sensitive to mass transfer coefficients and that a local equilibrium assumption provides excellent agreement with BTCs in our designed column when Damkohler numbers were greater than 20. Nonequilibrium sorption resulting from intraparticle diffusion thus was negligible in the column experiments. Tailing of BTCs nevertheless occurred and was primarily attributed to nonlinear sorption due to specific interactions in the sorption processes rather than to sorption nonequilibrium. Our study demonstrates how column experiments with different concentrations and flow velocities can be designed to obtain reliable sorption parameters for polar solutes with nonlinear sorption isotherms from modeling.

  9. Moist heat treatment on physicochemical change of chitosan salt films. (United States)

    Ritthidej, Garnpimol C; Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Koizumi, Tamotsu


    Chitosan salt films were prepared by casting method using acetic, citric, formic, glycolic, lactic, malic and propionic acids as solubilizers. The films were then exposed to moist heat at 60 degrees C and 75% relative humidity for several time intervals. The influence of moist heat treatment on their physicochemical characteristics was investigated. All freshly prepared films were soluble in deionized water and HCl buffer solution. Chitosan citrate film also dissolved in phosphate buffer solution. After treatment, the percentage of water sorption and dissolution of chitosan films in three media were gradually decreased. Longer alkyl group and less carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in the molecule of organic acid resulted in lower percentage of water sorption and dissolution of treated films. The FT-IR spectra revealed that there was amide formation between chitosan and organic acids after treatment especially in chitosan acetate and propionate films. However, the absorption peaks of ammonium ['NH3+] and free carboxylate groups were still remained in treated chitosan citrate and malate films. Change in the degree of crystallinity from powder X-ray diffractogram and thermal characteristic from DSC thermogram were also related to the water sorption and dissolution of films.

  10. Understanding mechanisms to predict and optimize biochar for agrochemical sorption (United States)

    Hall, Kathleen; Gámiz, Beatriz; Cox, Lucia; Spokas, Kurt; Koskinen, William


    The ability of biochars to bind various organic compounds has been widely studied due to the potential effects on pesticide fate in soil and interest in the adoption of biochar as a "low-cost" filter material. However, the sorptive behaviors of biochars are extremely variable and much of the reported data is limited to specific biochar-chemical interactions. The lack of knowledge regarding biochar sorption mechanisms limits our current ability to predict and optimize biochar's use. This work unveils mechanistic drivers of organic pesticide sorption on biochars through targeted alteration of biochar surface chemistry. Changes in the quantity and type of functional groups on biochars and other black carbon materials were achieved through treatments with H2O2, and CO2, and characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM/EDX). The sorption capacities of these treated biochars were subsequently measured to evaluate the effects of different surface moieties on the binding of target herbicides cyhalofop acid ((R)-2-[4-(4-cyano-2-fluorophenoxy)phenoxy]propionic acid) and clomazone (2-[(2-chlorophenyl)methyl]-4,4-dimethyl-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one). Sorption of both herbicides on the studied biochars increased following H2O2 activation; however, the influence of the H2O2 activation on sorption was more pronounced for cyhalofop acid (pKa = 3.9) than clomazone, which is non-ionizable. Increased cyhalofop acid sorption on H2O2 treated biochars can be attributed to the increase in oxygen containing functional groups as well as the decrease in biochar pH. In contrast, CO2 activation reduced the sorption of cyhalofop acid compared to untreated biochar. FTIR data suggest the reduced sorption on CO2 -treated biochar was due to the removal of surface carboxyl groups, further supporting the role of specific functionality in the sorption of ionizable herbicides. Results from this work offer insight into the mechanisms of sorption and

  11. Sorption og diffusion af glyphosat i moræneler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, L.; Broholm, Mette Martina; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen


    Glyphosat er det aktive stof i blandt andet ukrudtbekæmpelsesmidlet Roundup. Ved transport i sprækket moræneler retarderes stoffer ved diffusion og sorption til matrix. I dette projekt undersøges sorption og diffusion af glyphosat i moræneler i vandig opslemning. Diffusion ind i morænelermatrix...... for transport til og dermed forurening med glyphosat i grundvandsakviferer under aflejringer af opsprækket moræneler....

  12. Sorption heat engines: simple inanimate negative entropy generators


    Anthonie W. J. Muller; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk


    The name 'sorption heat engines' is proposed for simple negative entropy generators that are driven by thermal cycling and work on alternating adsorption and desorption. These generators are in general not explicitly recognized as heat engines. Their mechanism is applicable to the fields of engineering, physics, chemistry, geology, and biology, in particular the origin of life. Four kinds of sorption heat engines are distinguished depending on the occurrence of changes in the adsorbent or ads...

  13. Moisture sorption isotherms of cereals at different temperatures. (United States)

    Ertugay, M F; Certel, M


    In this research, moisture sorption isotherms of wheat (Kink and Lancer) barley, rye, oat and corn were determined at 20, 25, 35, 50 and 70 degrees C. The sorption isotherm curves of all cereal samples showed the characteristics of type II isotherm. This indicated that the adsorption occurred in cereal samples was a multilayer adsorption and cereal samples were of a microcapillary structure. In addition, the adsorption in cereal samples decreased as temperature increased.

  14. Uranium sorption on bentonite modified by octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majdan, Marek, E-mail: [Maria Curie Sklodowska University, Faculty of Chemistry, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Pikus, Stanislaw; Gajowiak, Agnieszka; Sternik, Dariusz [Maria Curie Sklodowska University, Faculty of Chemistry, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Zieba, Emil [Catholic University of Lublin, SEM Laboratory, 20-718 Lublin (Poland)


    Graphical abstract: The influence of pH on U(VI) sorption on ODTMA-bentonite. Research highlights: {yields}ODTMA-bentonite has high sorption affinity for U(VI) in a pH range: 6-10. {yields} Anionic complexes: (UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(OH){sub 7}{sup -} sorption is the most probable. {yields} U(VI) sorption data can be evaluated by straight line dependence. - Abstract: The sorption of U(VI) on octadecyltrimethyl-bentonite was investigated at the pH values of the aqueous phase ranging from 3 to 10 and the concentrations of U(VI): 0.1-1 mmol/dm{sup 3}. The concentrations of alkylammonium cation in bentonite were increased from 21% to 150% of CEC (cation exchange capacity). It was determined that the sorption of U(VI) on modified bentonite, i.e. the distribution constant -K{sub d} decreases with the percent of mineral modification until it attains a minimum at 76% of CEC and then increases again. The effective sorption of U(VI) was found to be in the pH range: 6-10 for the modified bentonite and was explained as the consequence of U(VI) anionic hydroxy complexes sorption. Both FT-IR and XRD spectra of the modified bentonite were analyzed and provided arguments for the existence of surfactant cations in the form of monolayer and bilayer in the interlamellar space of bentonite. In turn the luminescence spectra of bentonite suspensions, i.e. their character at different values of pH, proved the existence of hydroxide-like planar polymeric U(VI) species in the bentonite phase at pH 9.

  15. Segmental dynamics in polymer electrolytes

    CERN Document Server

    Triolo, A; Lo Celso, F; Triolo, R; Passerini, S; Arrighi, V; Frick, B


    Polymer dynamics in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-salt mixtures is investigated by means of quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS). In a previous study, we reported QENS data from the NEAT spectrometer (BENSC) that evidenced, for the first time, a dynamic heterogeneity in PEO-salt mixtures induced by salt addition. This finding is supported by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations carried out by Borodin et al. In agreement with MD simulations, our QENS data revealed two distinct processes: a fast motion corresponding to the bulk polymer and a slower relaxation, which we attribute to formation of PEO-cation complexes. In this paper we present new QENS data from the high-resolution spectrometer IN16 that further support MD simulations as well as our previous data interpretation. (orig.)

  16. Sequential sorption and desorption of chlorinated phenols in organoclays. (United States)

    Kim, J H; Shin, W S; Kim, Y H; Choi, S J; Jeon, Y W; Song, D I


    Effect of pH on the sorption and desorption of the chlorinated phenols (2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol) in HDTMA-montmorillonite organoclays was investigated using sequential batch experiments. 2,4-dichlorophenol exhibited higher affinity in both sorption and desorption than 2-chlorophenol at pH 4.85 and 9.15. For both chlorophenols, the protonated speciation (at pH 4.85) exhibited a higher affinity in both sorption and desorption than the predominant deprotonated speciation (about 80% and 95% of 2-chlorophenate and 2,4-dichlophenate anions at pH 9.15, respectively). Desorption of chlorinated phenols was strongly dependent on the current pH regardless of their speciation during the previous sorption stage. No appreciable desorption resistance of the chlorinated phenols was observed in organoclays after sequential desorptions. Affinity of both chlorophenols in bisolute competitive sorption and desorption was reduced compared to that in a single-solute system due to the competition between solutes. The ideal adsorbed solution theory coupled with the single-solute Freundlich model successfully predicted the bisolute competitive sorption and desorption equilibria.

  17. Sorption of copper by vegetated copper-mine tailings (United States)

    de Coninck, A.; Karam, A.; Jaouich, A.


    The lixiviation of copper (Cu) from vegetated mine tailings may present an environmental risk because of the potential adverse effects it may pose to ground and surface water around mines. However, bonding of Cu to mine tailings can limit transfer to surrounding water. The main objective of the present study is to assess Cu sorption by cultivated Cu-mine tailings containing calcite (pH 7.7) as influenced by commercial peat moss-shrimp waste compost (PSC) and chelating solution. Fresh tailing and tailing that had been used in pot experiments were tested and compared. Samples (0.50 g) of tailings were equilibrated with 20 cm3 of 0.01 M CaCl2 solution containing 100 mg Cu dm-3, as CuCl2, for 72 h at room temperature. After equilibration period, the samples were centrifuged and filtered. Concentration of Cu in the equilibrium solution was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The sorption coefficient (Ks) was used to interpret the sorption data. The sorption experiment was replicated two times. Compost was the most effective organic amendment in enhancing Cu sorption. The Ks values were positively and significantly correlated with organic matter content and Cu associated with the organic fraction of tailing samples. The mineralogy and organic matter content can influence the sorption capacity of Cu-mine tailings. Calcite-containing mine tailings amended with PSC can be used to sorb Cu from chloride solutions.

  18. Surface complexation modeling of americium sorption onto volcanic tuff. (United States)

    Ding, M; Kelkar, S; Meijer, A


    Results of a surface complexation model (SCM) for americium sorption on volcanic rocks (devitrified and zeolitic tuff) are presented. The model was developed using PHREEQC and based on laboratory data for americium sorption on quartz. Available data for sorption of americium on quartz as a function of pH in dilute groundwater can be modeled with two surface reactions involving an americium sulfate and an americium carbonate complex. It was assumed in applying the model to volcanic rocks from Yucca Mountain, that the surface properties of volcanic rocks can be represented by a quartz surface. Using groundwaters compositionally representative of Yucca Mountain, americium sorption distribution coefficient (Kd, L/Kg) values were calculated as function of pH. These Kd values are close to the experimentally determined Kd values for americium sorption on volcanic rocks, decreasing with increasing pH in the pH range from 7 to 9. The surface complexation constants, derived in this study, allow prediction of sorption of americium in a natural complex system, taking into account the inherent uncertainty associated with geochemical conditions that occur along transport pathways. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Iron-impregnated biochars as effective phosphate sorption materials. (United States)

    Micháleková-Richveisová, Barbora; Frišták, Vladimír; Pipíška, Martin; Ďuriška, Libor; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo; Soja, Gerhard


    A new post-treatment method was applied for improving the sorption efficiency of biochar-based sorbents for anionic forms of phosphorus. The Fe-impregnation through direct hydrolysis of Fe(NO3)3 was used to produce impregnated corn cob- (IBC A), garden wood waste- (IBC B), and wood chip-derived biochars (IBC C). The qualitative and quantitative effects of impregnation process on biochars were confirmed by SEM-EDX, FTIR, and ICP-MS. The analyses revealed increased concentrations of N and thus potential NO3(-) participation in the phosphate sorption process. Biochar surface area showed a significant decrease after the impregnation process due to the filling of micro- and mesopores with Fe maximum sorption capacity (Q max) increased by a factor of 12-50. The sorption processes of phosphates by IBC A, IBC B, and IBC C were dependent on pH, initial concentration, and time. Speciation analysis and pH-study confirmed the range of pH 4.5-5.5 as optimum values at which most of phosphorus is present in form of mononuclear H2PO4(-). Batch sorption experiments showed a significant increase in the sorption capacity for phosphates by Fe impregnation of biochar as well as effectiveness and stability of this treatment. These findings indicate an option for utilizing engineered biochars as tools for the recovery of phosphorus from the aquatic environment.

  20. Dynamic Triple-Mode Sorption and Outgassing in Materials. (United States)

    Sharma, Hom N; Harley, Stephen J; Sun, Yunwei; Glascoe, Elizabeth A


    Moisture uptake and outgassing can be detrimental to a system by altering the chemical and mechanical properties of materials within the system over time. In this work, we conducted isotherm experiments to investigate dynamic moisture sorption and desorption in markedly different materials, i.e., a polymeric material, Sylgard-184 and a ceramic aluminosilicate material, Zircar RS-1200, at different temperatures (30 °C-70 °C) by varying the water activity (0.0-0.90). Sylgard-184 showed a linear sorption and outgassing behavior with no-hysteresis over the entire temperature and water activity range considered here. Whereas, the sorption and outgassing of Zircar RS-1200 was highly non-linear with significant hysteresis, especially at higher water activities, at all temperatures considered here. The type of hysteresis suggested the presence of mesopores in Zircar RS-1200, whereas the lack of hysteresis in Sylgard-184 indicates that it has a nonporous structure. A diffusion model coupled with a dynamic, triple-mode sorption (Langmuir, Henry, and pooling modes) model employed in this study matched our experimental data very well and provides mechanistic insight into the processes. Our triple-mode sorption model was adaptive enough to (1) model these distinctly different materials and (2) predict sorption and outgassing under conditions that are distinctly different from the parameterization experiments.

  1. Sodium concentration in home made salt – sugar – solution (sss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a cohort of 210 young mothers, selected through cluster sampling technique from Ogida health district of Egor Local Government Area of Edo State, the electrolyte concentration of prepared salt-sugar-solutions (SSS) were evaluated. This was predicated on the need to determine the effects of introduction of various ...

  2. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on Alkaline Degradation of Cellulose and its Impact on the Sorption of Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loon, L.R. van; Glaus, M.A


    For more than ten years, cellulose degradation has been regarded as an important process which can adversely effect the sorption of radionuclides on cement in a radioactive waste repository. However, so far, it was not possible to quantify this effect. This study reports new experimental data on alkaline degradation of cellulose, together with a re-evaluation of old literature data. For the first time now, it becomes possible to quantitatively estimate the potential role of cellulose degradation in performance assessment studies. In the first part of this study, a literature overview of other studies on alkaline degradation of cellulose is given, together with a general discussion on the effect of organic ligands on the sorption of radionuclides. Further, an overview of the important mechanisms of alkaline degradation of cellulose and some kinetic aspects of the main reactions taking place is presented. The relevance of the processes for performance assessment is explained in detail. The discussion forms the starting-point for a detailed experimental program for evaluating the role of alkaline degradation of cellulose in performance assessment. In the second part, experimental studies on alkaline degradation are presented. Different cellulosic materials were degraded in an artificial cement pore water, representing the first stage of cement degradation. The most important degradation products ({alpha}- and {beta}-isosaccharinic acid) were characterised and the results compared with other studies. Kinetic parameters for the main reactions were measured and discussed. A good agreement was found between the measured values and values extrapolated from the literature. The solubility of the sparingly soluble Ca-salt of {alpha}-isosaccharinic acid (ISA) was studied as well as the interaction of ISA with cement. Sorption of ISA on cement can keep the ISA concentration in the pore water of a repository at a low level. The effect of pure ISA and degradation products on the

  3. Hydrogen production through sorption enhanced reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reijers, H.T.J.; Roskam-Bakker, D.F.; Dijkstra, J.W.; Smidt, R.P. de; Groot, A. de; Van den Brink, R.W. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, ECN, Petten (Netherlands)


    Introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier offers an opportunity to reduce the CO{sub 2} emission from diffuse sources, like vehicles and newly built residential districts. In the long term, it is expected that a hydrogen infrastructure will contribute to CO{sub 2} reduction. In the short term, hydrogen will likely play a role where the application, especially fuel cells, asks for hydrogen. These applications include the transport sector and small-scale combined heat and power. On-site hydrogen production on a gas station or in a residential district requires an average hydrogen production rate between 1000 and 4000 Nm{sup 3}/hour. At the moment, hydrogen is produced industrially in large-scale steam-reformers at rates in the order of 100,000 Nm{sup 3}/hour and at high pressures (20 - 40 bar) and high temperatures (800 - 950 degrees C). To withstand these extreme conditions, expensive materials are required. Besides, a considerable amount of export steam is produced, which cannot be used in the small-scale hydrogen energy systems mentioned before. So there is a need for hydrogen production units operating at milder conditions, while maintaining a high system efficiency. One of the technologies currently investigated at ECN for this purpose is sorption enhanced reforming (SER). Here the methane steam reforming process is conducted in the presence of a CO{sub 2} sorbent. By removing reaction product CO{sub 2}, the equilibrium is shifted to the product side, yielding a relatively pure hydrogen stream. The system is operated periodically in two modes: an sorption cycle during which natural gas and steam are fed to the SER reactor, and a desorption cycle in which the sorbent is regenerated. The CO{sub 2} that is released during regeneration could possibly be used for CO{sub 2} sequestration. The CO{sub 2} sorbent should fulfill the following requirements: high CO{sub 2} uptake, rapid kinetics, chemical stability at high H{sub 2}O concentrations and low costs. A

  4. Enabling bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide-based ionic liquid electrolytes for application in dual-ion batteries (United States)

    Beltrop, Kolja; Qi, Xin; Hering, Tobias; Röser, Stephan; Winter, Martin; Placke, Tobias


    In this work, we present a comprehensive study on the effect of adding different conductive salt additives including LiPF6, LiBF4 and LiDFOB, as well as the fluorinated solvent additive methyl difluoroacetate (MDFA) to a bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (FSI)-based ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte, i.e. Pyr14FSI/LiFSI, to protect the Al current collector (ACC) from anodic dissolution and, thus, enable reversible charge/discharge cycling in a high performance dual-ion cell. Chronocoulometry and scanning electron microscopy measurements were conducted to evaluate the specific ACC passivation ability of each electrolyte. Furthermore, the influence of these additives on anion intercalation behavior into the graphite positive electrode with special emphasis on the Coulombic efficiency (CE), reversible capacity, as well as capacity retention is presented. Overall, we can show that the addition of small amounts of LiPF6, LiBF4 and MDFA (0.5 wt%) into the FSI-based IL electrolyte significantly increases the overall cell performance, whereas LiDFOB as electrolyte additive deteriorates the dual-ion cell performance. In addition, an excellent cycling performance for 1000 cycles is obtained for the Pyr14FSI electrolyte having 5 wt% LiPF6, displaying an average reversible capacity of 40 mAh g-1, a CE exceeding 98% and a capacity retention of 91%, which has not been reported so far.

  5. Self-Healable and Cold-Resistant Supercapacitor Based on a Multifunctional Hydrogel Electrolyte. (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Qin, Liming; Wang, Zhikui; Pan, Qinmin


    Excellent self-healability and cold resistance are attractive properties for a portable/wearable energy-storage device. However, achieving the features is fundamentally dependent on an intrinsically self-healable electrolyte with high ionic conduction at low temperature. Here we report such a hydrogel electrolyte comprising sodium alginate cross-linked by dynamic catechol-borate ester bonding. Since its dynamically cross-linked alginate network can tolerate high-content inorganic salts, the electrolyte possesses excellent healing efficiency/cyclability but also high ionic conduction at both room temperature and low temperature. A supercapacitor with the multifunctional hydrogel electrolyte completely restores its capacitive properties even after breaking/healing for 10 cycles without external stimulus. At a low temperature of -10 °C, the capacitor is even able to maintain at least 80% of its room-temperature capacitance. Our investigations offer a strategy to assemble self-healable and cold-resistant energy storage devices by using a multifunctional hydrogel electrolyte with rationally designed polymeric networks, which has potential application in portable/wearable electronics, intelligent apparel or flexible robot, and so on.

  6. Improved Low-Temperature Performance of Li-Ion Cells Using New Electrolytes (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Buga, Ratnakumar V.; Gozdz, Antoni S.; Mani, Suresh


    As part of the continuing efforts to develop advanced electrolytes to improve the performance of lithium-ion cells, especially at low temperatures, a number of electrolyte formulations have been developed that result in improved low-temperature performance (down to 60 C) of 26650 A123Systems commercial lithium-ion cells. The cell type/design, in which the new technology has been demonstrated, has found wide application in the commercial sector (i.e., these cells are currently being used in commercial portable power tools). In addition, the technology is actively being considered for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and electric vehicle (EV) applications. In current work, a number of low-temperature electrolytes have been developed based on advances involving lithium hexafluorophosphate-based solutions in carbonate and carbonate + ester solvent blends, which have been further optimized in the context of the technology and targeted applications. The approaches employed, which include the use of ternary mixtures of carbonates, the use of ester co-solvents [e.g., methyl butyrate (MB)], and optimized lithium salt concentrations (e.g., LiPF6), were compared with the commercial baseline electrolyte, as well as an electrolyte being actively considered for DoE HEV applications and previously developed by a commercial enterprise, namely LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC) + ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC)(30:70%).

  7. High-performance zinc bromine flow battery via improved design of electrolyte and electrode (United States)

    Wu, M. C.; Zhao, T. S.; Jiang, H. R.; Zeng, Y. K.; Ren, Y. X.


    The zinc bromine flow battery (ZBFB) is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for large-scale energy storage attributed to its high energy density and low cost. However, it suffers from low power density, primarily due to large internal resistances caused by the low conductivity of electrolyte and high polarization in the positive electrode. In this work, chloride based salts including KCl and NH4Cl are investigated as supporting electrolyte to enhance electrolyte conductivity, while graphite-felt electrodes are thermally treated to improve electrocatalytic activity. It is found that the use of 4 M NH4Cl as a supporting electrolyte enables the battery to be operated at a current density of 40 mA cm-2 with an energy efficiency of 74.3%, whereas without the addition of a supporting electrolyte the battery only outputs an energy efficiency of 60.4%. In combination with a thermally treated graphite-felt electrode, efficiency further reaches up to 81.8% at the same current density. More impressively, we demonstrate that even at a high current density of up to 80 mA cm-2, the battery is capable of delivering an energy efficiency of 70%, representing one of the highest performances of ZBFBs in the open literature.

  8. Li-Doped Ionic Liquid Electrolytes: From Bulk Phase to Interfacial Behavior (United States)

    Haskins, Justin B.; Lawson, John W.


    Ionic liquids have been proposed as candidate electrolytes for high-energy density, rechargeable batteries. We present an extensive computational analysis supported by experimental comparisons of the bulk and interfacial properties of a representative set of these electrolytes as a function of Li-salt doping. We begin by investigating the bulk electrolyte using quantum chemistry and ab initio molecular dynamics to elucidate the solvation structure of Li(+). MD simulations using the polarizable force field of Borodin and coworkers were then performed, from which we obtain an array of thermodynamic and transport properties. Excellent agreement is found with experiments for diffusion, ionic conductivity, and viscosity. Combining MD simulations with electronic structure computations, we computed the electrochemical window of the electrolytes across a range of Li(+)-doping levels and comment on the role of the liquid environment. Finally, we performed a suite of simulations of these Li-doped electrolytes at ideal electrified interfaces to evaluate the differential capacitance and the equilibrium Li(+) distribution in the double layer. The magnitude of differential capacitance is in good agreement with our experiments and exhibits the characteristic camel-shaped profile. In addition, the simulations reveal Li(+) to be highly localized to the second molecular layer of the double layer, which is supported by additional computations that find this layer to be a free energy minimum with respect to Li(+) translation.

  9. Acquisition of sorption isotherms for modified woods by the use of dynamic vapour sorption instrumentation. Principles and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang; Klamer, Morten; Venås, Thomas Mark


    depending on the number of data points required. The fast data acquisition makes DVS a useful tool in studying the sorption properties of wood, and especially in studying the effect of different modification treatments on these properties. This study includes an investigation of the sorption properties......The complex wood-water relationship has been the topic of numerous studies. Sorption isotherms – in particular – have been derived for hundreds of wood species, their sap- and heartwood sections as well as for decayed, engineered and modified wood materials. However, the traditional methods...... not commencing from full water saturation. The sorption properties of heat treated Scots pine (Celloc) and acetylated Radiata pine (Accoya) showed a greater hysteresis effect for the previous than both acetylated and untreated softwood. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the different modification treatments...

  10. Influence of the external conditions on salt retention and pressure-induced electrical potential measured across a composite membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benavente, Juana; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil


    Transport on single electrolyte solutions (NaCl and MgCl2) due to pressure gradients across a commercial reverse osmosis membrane was studied by measuring volume flux (J(v)), salt rejection (S) and pressure induced electrical potential (Delta E) in a crossflow cell. The influence on these paramet......Transport on single electrolyte solutions (NaCl and MgCl2) due to pressure gradients across a commercial reverse osmosis membrane was studied by measuring volume flux (J(v)), salt rejection (S) and pressure induced electrical potential (Delta E) in a crossflow cell. The influence...... with respect to the value determined with single electrolytes at the same concentration was obtained, which is attributed to a strong coupling among the fluxes of individual ions and their distribution in the membrane when transport of mixed salt is studied. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  11. Electrolytic hydrogen fuel production with solid polymer electrolyte technology. (United States)

    Titterington, W. A.; Fickett, A. P.


    A water electrolysis technology based on a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) concept is presented for applicability to large-scale hydrogen production in a future energy system. High cell current density operation is selected for the application, and supporting cell test performance data are presented. Demonstrated cell life data are included to support the adaptability of the SPE system to large-size hydrogen generation utility plants as needed for bulk energy storage or transmission. The inherent system advantages of the acid SPE electrolysis technology are explained. System performance predictions are made through the year 2000, along with plant capital and operating cost projections.

  12. Hectorite-based nanocomposite electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Riley, Michael William

    Hectorite clay is presented in this work as a promising component for electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. This negatively-charged, plate-shaped (250 nm diameter by 1 nm thickness) clay has exchangeable cations for which lithium may be substituted. When properly dispersed in high-dielectric solvents such as the carbonates (ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate) typically used in lithium-ion cells, a shear-thinning physical gel is created possessing a good conductivity (as high as 2 x 10-4 S/cm at room temperature has been measured) with near unity lithium-ion transference numbers. As a result, hectorite-based electrolytes could drastically reduce concentration polarization and present an inherently safer electrolyte as toxic salts such as LiPF6 that are typically used could be eliminated. Hectorite clay dispersions in aqueous and non-aqueous (1:1 (v:v) ethylene carbonate: poly(ethylene)glycol dimethyl ether 250 MW) solvents have been studied using rheology (dynamic and steady) and conductivity. The aqueous dispersions show a highly-exfoliated microstructure (fractal dimension, Df ≈ 1.6) created primarily through electrostatic repulsive forces which recovers after shear deformation by reorientation of the clay platelets. The non-aqueous dispersions form gel structures with a much higher degree of aggregation (Df ≈ 2.5), and recovery after shear deformation appears to be an aggregation controlled process as well. TEM imaging of non-aqueous clay dispersions shows the clay to be uniformly distributed, with the platelets existing in aggregates of 3 to 5 layers. Use of the hectorite-based electrolytes in lithium-ion cells requires electrodes that contain a single-ion conductor in the typically porous structures. Cathodes based on LiCoO2 that contain various lithium-conducting species (lithium hectorite, lithium LaponiteRTM, and lithium-exchanged NAFIONRTM) have been studied. AC impedance spectroscopy was used to probe the cells and equivalent circuits were

  13. PENENTUAN UMUR SIMPAN TORTILLA DENGAN METODE AKSELERASI BERDASARKAN KADAR AIR KRITIS SERTA PEMODELAN KETEPATAN SORPSI ISOTHERMINYA [Shelf Life Study of Tortilla Using Accelerated Shelf Life Testing (ASLT Method and its Mathematical Modeling of Moisture Sorption Isotherms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Budijanto*


    Full Text Available Accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT method was used to determine the shelf life of tortilla chips based on critical moisture content approach. Crispiness was found to be the critical parameter in tortilla chips deterioation. The curve of moisture sorption isotherm was resulted by plotting water activity values (aw and equilibrium moisture contents (Me using eight salts with RH values at range of 11.3-90.3%. There were five models of sorption isotherm tested, namely Hasley, Chen-Clayton, Henderson, Caurie, dan Oswin model. Conclusively, Oswin model was the suitable one to depict the sorptions isotherm phenomenon in tortilla chips with MRD value of 2.33. By gathering all variables to be used in Labuza’s equation, the shelf life of tortilla chips at 38oC and 70% of RH was about 56 days.

  14. 16th Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Symposium (United States)


    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The 16th Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Symposium was devoted to all aspects of research, development, and engineering of...polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), as well as low-temperature direct-fuel cells using either anion or cation exchange membranes. The symposium...29-11-2016 1-Sep-2016 28-Feb-2017 Final Report: 16th Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Symposium The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this

  15. Electrolytic cell. [For separating anolyte and catholyte (United States)

    Bullock, J.S.; Hale, B.D.


    An apparatus is described for the separation of the anolyte and the catholyte during electrolysis. The electrolyte flows through an electrolytic cell between the oppositely charged electrodes. The cell is equipped with a wedge-shaped device, the tapered end being located between the electrodes on the effluent side of the cell. The wedge diverts the flow of the electrolyte to either side of the wedge, substantially separating the anolyte and the catholyte.

  16. Solid electrolytes general principles, characterization, materials, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hagenmuller, Paul


    Solid Electrolytes: General Principles, Characterization, Materials, Applications presents specific theories and experimental methods in the field of superionic conductors. It discusses that high ionic conductivity in solids requires specific structural and energetic conditions. It addresses the problems involved in the study and use of solid electrolytes. Some of the topics covered in the book are the introduction to the theory of solid electrolytes; macroscopic evidence for liquid nature; structural models; kinetic models; crystal structures and fast ionic conduction; interstitial motion in

  17. MEMS tandem ion-sorption micropump (United States)

    Grzebyk, T.


    This paper presents a two-stage MEMS ion-sorption micropump, which works in a wide range of pressures—it allows efficient evacuation of gases from the internal volume of any microsystem starting from atmospheric pressure down to 10‑6 hPa. The miniature pre-vacuum pump is realized as a two-electrode silicon–glass structure with a very close inter-electrode distance. The use of the silicon substrate as a getter material instead of a metallic layer significantly increases the pumping capacity and as a result, the initial pressure can be reduced to a level of 1 hPa. From this point the pumping is continued with the second glow-discharge high vacuum micropump. This pump is a multilayer structure, in which ions are trapped in crossed electric and magnetic fields. It allows further reduction of pressure down to 10‑6 hPa. Both pumps are technologically compatible and together they enable the on-chip generation of avacuum at the desired level in a variety of miniaturized devices.

  18. Enhancing peat metal sorption and settling characteristics. (United States)

    Leiviskä, Tiina; Khalid, Muhammad Kamran; Gogoi, Harshita; Tanskanen, Juha


    Peat is an excellent material for metal sorption since it naturally contains different kinds of functional groups that can sorb metal cations from water. The main objective of this work was to test low-cost treatment (acid and alkali) methods for natural peat, which would improve the settling properties of peat particles while maintaining its metal removal efficiency. Particularly, the poor settling properties of peat hinder its practical application. The study revealed that NaOH-treated peat (0.1M) had excellent settling properties and could be applied in wastewater applications having mixing and settling systems without a settling aid. The superior leaching of humic and fulvic acids in alkaline treatment caused a change in morphology, making it a harder and sticky material. Moreover, the NaOH-treated (0.1M) peat was proven to be the most efficient material for nickel removal followed by the HCl-treated (0.2M) peat, citric acid-treated (0.16M) peat and water-treated peat. A higher temperature and longer time slightly increased the Ni removal efficiency with NaOH-treated peat material. The settling of HCl-treated peat was studied further using polyacrylamide flocculants (cationic, neutral, anionic). Cationic flocculants performed best and the cationic charge density also had an effect on the flocculation performance of peat particles. This study provides further evidence that peat can be applied in the treatment of metal-containing wastewaters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vertical barriers with increased sorption capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradl, H.B. [Bilfinger + Berger Bauaktiengesellschaft, Mannheim (Germany)


    Vertical barriers are commonly used for the containment of contaminated areas. Due to the very small permeability of the barrier material which is usually in the order of magnitude of 10-10 m/s or less the advective contaminant transport can be more or less neglected. Nevertheless, there will always be a diffusive contaminant transport through the barrier which is caused by the concentration gradient. Investigations have been made to increase the sorption capacity of the barrier material by adding substances such as organoclays, zeolites, inorganic oxides and fly ashes. The contaminants taken into account where heavy metals (Pb) and for organic contaminants Toluole and Phenantrene. The paper presents results of model calculations and experiments. As a result, barrier materials can be designed {open_quotes}tailor-made{close_quotes} depending on the individual contaminant range of each site (e.g. landfills, gasworks etc.). The parameters relevant for construction such as rheological properties, compressive strength and permeability are not affected by the addition of the sorbents.

  20. Moisture sorption characteristics of microalgae Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Oliveira


    Full Text Available In recent times, the microalgae Spirulina platensis has been used as a functional ingredient in several food applications; its process involving drying and storage steps. Moisture equilibrium data for adsorption isotherms of microalgae Spirulina were investigated at 10, 20 and 30ºC and for desorption, at 40, 50 and 60ºC, using the gravimetric static method. The experimental data were analyzed by GAB and BET models. The GAB equation showed the best fitting to the experimental data with R² ≈ 99% and MRE < 10%. The water surface area values calculated by GAB and BET models were very similar. The isosteric heats were determined by application of Clausius-Clapeyron equation to sorption isotherms obtained from the best-fitting equation. The isosteric heat and the entropy of desorption isotherm presented similar behavior, with a sharp change in an equilibrium moisture content of 10%. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was applied to the isotherms, indicating that they are enthalpy-controlled.

  1. Sorption og nedbrydning af dichlobenil og BAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Arildskov, N.P.; Larsen, Flemming


    I forbindelse med Miljøstyrelsen projekt ”Pesticider og Vandværker” er udført en detailundersøgelse af sorption og nedbrydning af dichlobenil og BAM. Sorptionen er undersøgt i 22 sedimenter udtaget fra 6 lokaliteter i Danmark. Dichlobenil sorberer til alle undersøgte sedimenter (Kd-værdier = 0......,20-126 l/kg). Sorptionen af BAM er væsentlig mindre end sorptionen af dichlobenil men dog signifikant i 18 sedimenter (Kd-værdier = 0,07-0,93 l/kg). Nedbrydningen af dichlobenil og BAM er undersøgt i 16 sedimenter. Nedbrydningen af dichlobenil foregår primært i de øverste meter under terræn (DT50-værdier...... = 0,4-12 år) mens nedbrydningen er begrænset i sedimenter udtaget dybere end 4 mut. Der er kun detekteret en begrænset nedbrydning af BAM i sedimenter fra 0-0,75 mut. og for en enkelt lokalitet også i dybdeintervallet 4,96-6,18 mut. I de nævnte dybdeintervaller er nedbrydningsraten for BAM som et...

  2. Cesium sorption reversibility and kinetics on illite, montmorillonite, and kaolinite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrant, Chad B.; Begg, James D.; Kersting, Annie B.; Zavarin, Mavrik


    Understanding sorption and desorption processes is essential to predicting the mobility of radionuclides in the environment. We investigate adsorption/desorption of cesium in both binary (Cs + one mineral) and ternary (Cs + two minerals) experiments to study component additivity and sorption reversibility over long time periods (500 days). Binary Cs sorption experiments were performed with illite, montmorillonite, and kaolinite in a 5 mM NaCl/0.7 mM NaHCO3 solution (pH 8) and Cs concentration range of 10–3 to 10–11 M. The binary sorption experiments were followed by batch desorption experiments. The sorption behavior was modeled with the FIT4FD code and the results used to predict desorption behavior. Sorption to montmorillonite and kaolinite was linear over the entire concentration range but sorption to illite was non-linear, indicating the presence of multiple sorption sites. Based on the 14 day batch desorption data, cesium sorption appeared irreversible at high surface loadings in the case of illite but reversible at all concentrations for montmorillonite and kaolinite. A novel experimental approach, using a dialysis membrane, was adopted in the ternary experiments, allowing investigation of the effect of a second mineral on Cs desorption from the original mineral. Cs was first sorbed to illite, montmorillonite or kaolinite, then a 3.5–5 kDalton Float-A-Lyzer® dialysis bag with 0.3 g of illite was introduced to each experiment inducing desorption. Nearly complete Cs desorption from kaolinite and montmorillonite was observed over the experiment, consistent with our equilibrium model, indicating complete Cs desorption from these minerals. Results from the long-term ternary experiments show significantly greater Cs desorption compared to the binary desorption experiments. Approximately ~ 45% of Cs desorbed from illite. However, our equilibrium model predicted ~ 65% desorption. Importantly, the data imply that in some cases, slow desorption kinetics rather

  3. Electrolyte effects on the stability of nematic and lamellar lyotropic liquid crystal phases: colligative and ion-specific aspects. (United States)

    Dawin, Ute C; Lagerwall, Jan P F; Giesselmann, Frank


    We investigated the electrolyte effects on the stability of nematic and lamellar lyotropic liquid crystalline (LLC) phases formed by the simple anionic surfactant cesium pentadecafluorooctanoate (CsPFO) in water. To the lyotropic guest phase, at the constant CsPFO-mass fraction of 0.55, the series of electrolytes LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CsCl, CsI, and Cs(2)SO(4), respectively, was added at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 mol %. With increasing electrolyte concentration two substantially different effects were observed. At low concentrations all added electrolytes caused an increase of the thermal stability of the LLC phases, favoring the lamellar phase over the nematic phase. This behavior is, at least qualitatively, understood within the packing parameter model. The extent of the stabilization clearly depends on the chemical nature of the added cation. For a given cation, however, the effect is colligative, i.e., independent of the chemical nature of the added anion. At higher salt concentrations a salting-out-like phase separation was induced. This effect is clearly ion-specific as the salting-out concentration varied for each cation following the order of the Hofmeister series for cations.

  4. Distribution of electrolytes in a flow battery (United States)

    Darling, Robert Mason; Smeltz, Andrew; Junker, Sven Tobias; Perry, Michael L.


    A method of determining a distribution of electrolytes in a flow battery includes providing a flow battery with a fixed amount of fluid electrolyte having a common electrochemically active specie, a portion of the fluid electrolyte serving as an anolyte and a remainder of the fluid electrolyte serving as a catholyte. An average oxidation state of the common electrochemically active specie is determined in the anolyte and the catholyte and, responsive to the determined average oxidation state, a molar ratio of the common electrochemically active specie between the anolyte and the catholyte is adjusted to increase an energy discharge capacity of the flow battery for the determined average oxidation state.

  5. Electrodeposition of Fe powder from acid electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Polarization characteristics of the electrodeposition processes of Fe powders from sulfate and chloride electrolytes and the morphology of the obtained powders were investigated. The morphology depended on the anion presence in the electrolyte but not on the current density in the investigated range. A characteristic feature of the dendritic powder with cauliflower endings obtained from sulfate electrolyte is the presence of cone-like cavities and the crystallite morphology of the powders surface. On the other hand, Fe powders electrodeposited from chloride electrolyte appear in the form of agglomerates. A soap solution treatment applied as a method of washing and drying provides good protection from oxidation of the powders.

  6. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.


    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  7. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N


    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  8. SALT for Language Acquisition. (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane


    Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

  9. Block Copolymer Electrolytes: Thermodynamics, Ion Transport, and Use in Solid- State Lithium/Sulfur Cells (United States)

    Teran, Alexander Andrew

    Nanostructured block copolymer electrolytes containing an ion-conducting block and a modulus-strengthening block are of interest for applications in solid-state lithium metal batteries. These materials can self-assemble into well-defined microstructures, creating conducting channels that facilitate ion transport. The overall objective of this dissertation is to gain a better understanding of the behavior of salt-containing block copolymers, and evaluate their potential for use in solid-state lithium/sulfur batteries. Anionically synthesized polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) copolymers doped with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt were used as a model system. This thesis investigates the model system on several levels: from fundamental thermodynamic studies to bulk characterization and finally device assembly and testing. First, the thermodynamics of neat and salt-containing block copolymers was studied. The addition of salt to these materials is necessary to make them conductive, however even small amounts of salt can have significant effects on their phase behavior, and consequently their iontransport and mechanical properties. As a result, the effect of salt addition on block copolymer thermodynamics has been the subject of significant interest over the last decade. A comprehensive study of the thermodynamics of block copolymer/salt mixtures over a wide range of molecular weights, compositions, salt concentrations and temperatures was conducted. Next, the effect of molecular weight on ion transport in both homopolymer and copolymer electrolytes were studied over a wide range of chain lengths. Homopolymer electrolytes show an inverse relationship between conductivity and chain length, with a plateau in the infinite molecular weight limit. This is due to the presence of two mechanisms of ion conduction in homopolymers; the first mechanism is a result of the segmental motion of the chains surrounding the salt ions, 2 creating a liquid

  10. Effects of freshwater housing and fluid types on aquatic bird serum electrolyte concentrations. (United States)

    Frankfurter, Greg; Ziccardi, Michael H; Massey, J Gregory


    Recent seabird mass morbidity events have highlighted the need to elucidate the effects of freshwater and hypertonic saline use for fluid therapy and housing in captive aquatic birds. Serum electrolyte concentrations of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis; n = 9), western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis; n = 6), and common murres (Uria aalge; n = 25) housed on freshwater while undergoing rehabilitation at the San Francisco Bay Oiled Wildlife Care and Education Center in Fairfield, California, were compared to reference intervals from free-ranging populations. Additionally, northern fulmars were given intermittent oral boluses of hypertonic saline. In birds housed on freshwater, there were significant decreases in serum sodium and chloride, with 44% of northern fulmars and 72% of common murres falling below the established reference interval. All of the western grebes were able to maintain serum sodium and chloride within the reference intervals. The significance of these findings reflect the behavior and natural history of the species studied. The physiologic regulation of salt by the salt glands, gastrointestinal tract, and renal systems of seabirds, along with their behavior and natural history, should be considered when working with these birds in a rehabilitation or captive setting. Salt supplementation is necessary for some species of seabirds. Monitoring of serum electrolytes should be used for individual animals or salt supplementation should be considered in holopelagic species.

  11. Mg(PF6)2-Based Electrolyte Systems: Understanding Electrolyte-Electrode Interactions for the Development of Mg-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Keyzer, Evan N; Glass, Hugh F J; Liu, Zigeng; Bayley, Paul M; Dutton, Siân E; Grey, Clare P; Wright, Dominic S


    Mg(PF6)2-based electrolytes for Mg-ion batteries have not received the same attention as the analogous LiPF6-based electrolytes used in most Li-ion cells owing to the perception that the PF6(-) anion decomposes on and passivates Mg electrodes. No synthesis of the Mg(PF6)2 salt has been reported, nor have its solutions been studied electrochemically. Here, we report the synthesis of the complex Mg(PF6)2(CH3CN)6 and its solution-state electrochemistry. Solutions of Mg(PF6)2(CH3CN)6 in CH3CN and CH3CN/THF mixtures exhibit high conductivities (up to 28 mS·cm(-1)) and electrochemical stability up to at least 4 V vs Mg on Al electrodes. Contrary to established perceptions, Mg electrodes are observed to remain electrochemically active when cycled in the presence of these Mg(PF6)2-based electrolytes, with no fluoride (i.e., MgF2) formed on the Mg surface. Stainless steel electrodes are found to corrode when cycled in the presence of Mg(PF6)2 solutions, but Al electrodes are passivated. The electrolytes have been used in a prototype Mg battery with a Mg anode and Chevrel (Mo3S4)-phase cathode.

  12. Comparative study of polymer matrices for gelled electrolytes of lithium batteries; Etude comparative de matrices polymeres pour electrolytes gelifies de batteries au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Pasquier, A.; Sarrazin, C.; Fauvarque, J.F. [CNAM, 75 - Paris (France); Andrieu, X. [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France)


    A solid electrolyte for lithium batteries requires several properties: a good ionic conductivity of about 10{sup -3} S/cm at 298 deg. K, a high cationic transport number (greater than 0.5), a redox stability window higher than 4.5 V, a good stability of the interface with the lithium electrode, and a sufficient mechanical stability. The family of gelled or hybrid electrolytes seems to meet all these requirements. Thus, a systematic study of the gelling of an ethylene carbonate and lithium bistrifluorosulfonimide (LiTFSI) based electrolyte has been carried out. The polymers used for gel or pseudo-gel synthesis are POE, PMMA and PAN which represent 3 different cases of interaction with the electrolyte. All the properties mentioned above have been studied according to the nature of the polymer and to the concentration of lithium salt, showing the advantages and drawbacks of each polymer. The possibility of using some of these gels in lithium-ion batteries has been tested by lithium intercalation tests in UF2 graphite at the C/10 regime and by the cycling of LiCoO{sub 2}/UF{sub 2} batteries at the C/5 regime. Interesting performances have been obtained on Li/PPy batteries which can operate at the 7.5 C regime. (J.S.)

  13. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of tantalum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Marija


    Full Text Available This paper is a review of our research on the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO process of tantalum in 12-tungstosilicic acid. For the characterization of microdischarges during PEO, real-time imaging and optical emission spectroscopy (OES were used. The surface morphology, chemical and phase composition of oxide coatings were investigated by AFM, SEM-EDS and XRD. Oxide coating morphology is strongly dependent on PEO time. The elemental components of PEO coatings are Ta, O, Si and W. The oxide coatings are partly crystallized and mainly composed of WO3, Ta2O5 and SiO2.

  14. Therapeutic approach to electrolyte emergencies. (United States)

    Schaer, Michael


    Hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, hypernatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypercalcemia are commonly seen in emergency medicine. Severe abnormalities in any of these electrolytes can cause potentially life-threatening consequences to the patient. It is essential that the clinician understand and correct (if possible) the underlying cause of each disorder and recognize the importance of the rates of correction, especially with serum sodium disorders. The recommended doses in this article might have to be adjusted to the individual patient, and these modifications must be adjusted again to the pathophysiology of the primary underlying disorder.

  15. Resedimented salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaczka, A.; Kolasa, K. (Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland))


    Carparthian foredeep's Wieliczka salt mine, unique gravity deposits were lately distinguished. They are mainly built of salt particles and blocks with a small admixture of fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks, deposited on precipitated salt. The pattern of sediment distribution is similar to a submarine fan. Gravels are dominant in the upper part and sands in lower levels, creating a series of lobes. Coarse-grained deposits are represented by disorganized, self-supported conglomerates passing into matrix-supported ones, locally with gradation, and pebbly sandstones consisting of salt grains and scattered boulder-size clasts. The latter may show in the upper part of a single bed as indistinct cross-bedding and parallel lamination. These sediments are interpreted as debris-flow and high-density turbidity current deposits. Salt sandstones (saltstones) which build a lower part of the fan often show Bouma sequences and are interpreted as turbidity-current deposits. The fan deposits are covered by a thick series of debrites (olistostromes) which consist of clay matrix with salt grains and boulders. The latter as represented by huge (up to 100,000 m{sup 3}) salt blocks, fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks. These salt debrites represent slumps and debris-flow deposits. The material for resedimented deposits was derived from the southern part of the salt basin and from the adjacent, advancing Carpathian orogen. The authors believe the distinct coarsening-upward sequence of the series is the result of progressive intensification of tectonic movements with paroxysm during the sedimentation of salt debrites (about 15 Ma).

  16. High salt-diet reduces SLC14A1 gene expression in the choroid plexus of Dahl salt sensitive rats. (United States)

    Guo, Lirong; Meng, Jie; Xuan, Chengluan; Ge, Jingyan; Sun, Wenzhu; O'Rourke, Stephen T; Sun, Chengwen


    Elevated Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contributes to the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. CSF is formed by the choroid plexus (CP) in cerebral ventricles, and [Na(+)] in CSF is controlled by transporters in CP. Here, we examined the effect of high salt diet on the expression of urea transporters (UTs) in the CP of Dahl S vs Dahl R rats using real time PCR. High salt intake (8%, for 2 weeks) did not alter the mRNA levels of UT-A (encoded by SLC14A2 gene) in the CP of either Dahl S or Dahl R rats. In contrast, the mRNA levels of UT-B (encoded by SLC14A1 gene) were significantly reduced in the CP of Dahl S rats on high salt diet as compared with Dahl R rats or Dahl S rats on normal salt diet. Reduced UT-B expression was associated with increased [Na(+)] in the CSF and elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP) in Dahl S rats treated with high salt diet, as measured by radiotelemetry. High salt diet-induced reduction in UT-B protein expression in the CP of Dahl S rats was confirmed by Western blot. Immunohistochemistry using UT-B specific antibodies demonstrated that UT-B protein was expressed on the epithelial cells in the CP. These data indicate that high salt diet induces elevations in CSF [Na(+)] and in MAP, both of which are associated with reduced UT-B expression in the CP of Dahl S rats, as compared with Dahl R rats. The results suggest that altered UT-B expression in the CP may contribute to an imbalance of water and electrolytes in the CSF of Dahl S rats on high salt diet, thereby leading to alterations in MAP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Natural minerals and synthetic materials for sorption of radioactive anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Mun Ja; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Seung Soo


    Technetium-99 and iodine-129 are fission products with long half-lives, and exist as highly soluble anionic species. Studies on natural and synthetic materials sorbing TcO{sub 4} and/or I have been performed by several researchers. The application of these materials as an additive in the high-level waste disposal has been considered. The iron- or sulfide-containing minerals such as metal iron, iron powder, stibnite and pyrrhotite show a high capacity for TcO{sub 4} sorption. And the small amounts of activated carbon are reported to have high distribution coefficients recently. In the iodine sorption studies, sulfide-, copper-, lead- or mercury-containing minerals can be a candidate. Pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, Cu{sub 2}S and CuS reveal a high capacity for I sorption. The synthetic materials were found to have high sorption capacity and compensate the defects of natural minerals, which contain hydrous oxides such as zirconium oxide, aluminium oxide and mercarbide. The mercarbide has the high distribution coefficients for the sorption of TcO{sub 4} and I. Recently it was proposed that the synthetic clay, hydrotalcite, could be useful for the fixation of anion. However, to determine the applicability of those natural and synthetic materials as an additive to a buffer or backfill material for sorption of TcO{sub 4} and/or I, the sorption behavior of the anions on those materials under the repository conditions should be identified. (author). 32 refs., 21 tabs., 10 figs

  18. Water sorption and solubility of polyamide denture base materials. (United States)

    Nguyen, Long G; Kopperud, Hilde M; Øilo, Marit


    Purpose: Some patients experience adverse reactions to poly(methyl methacrylate)-based (PMMA) dentures. Polyamide (PA) as an alternative to PMMA has, however, not been well documented with regard to water sorption and water solubility. The aim of this in vitro study was to measure water sorption and water solubility of two PA materials compared with PMMA, and to evaluate the major components released from the PA materials and the effect on hardness of the materials. Methods: Ten discs (40.0 mm diameter, 2.0 mm thick) of each material (PA: Valplast and Breflex; PMMA: SR Ivocap HIP) were prepared according to manufacturers' recommendations. The specimens were tested for water sorption and water solubility, according to a modification of ISO 20795-1:2008. Released substances were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results: There were statistically significant differences among the materials regarding water sorption, water solubility and time to water saturation. Breflex had the highest water sorption (30.4 μg/mm(3)), followed by PMMA-material (25.8 μg/mm(3)) and Valplast (13.6 μg/mm(3)). Both PA materials had statistically significant lower water solubility than the PMMA. Both PA had a net increase in weight. Analysis by GC/MS identified release of the compound 12-aminododecanolactam from the material Valplast. No release was found from the Breflex material. Conclusions: The PA denture materials show differences in water sorption and solubility, but within the limits of the standard requirements. The PA showed a net increase in weight after long-term water sorption. The clinical implications of the findings are not elucidated.

  19. Catalytic gasification of biomass (Miscanthus) enhanced by CO2sorption. (United States)

    Zamboni, I; Debal, M; Matt, M; Girods, P; Kiennemann, A; Rogaume, Y; Courson, C


    The main objective of this work concerns the coupling of biomass gasification reaction and CO 2 sorption. The study shows the feasibility to promote biomass steam gasification in a dense fluidized bed reactor with CO 2 sorption to enhance tar removal and hydrogen production. It also proves the efficiency of CaO-Ca 12 Al 14 O 33 /olivine bi-functional materials to reduce heavy tar production. Experiments have been carried out in a fluidized bed gasifier using steam as the fluidizing medium to improve hydrogen production. Bed materials consisting of CaO-based oxide for CO 2 sorption (CaO-Ca 12 Al 14 O 33 ) deposited on olivine for tar reduction were synthesized, their structural and textural properties were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) methods, and the determination of their sorption capacity and stability analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It appears that this CaO-Ca 12 Al 14 O 33 /olivine sorbent/catalyst presents a good CO 2 sorption stability (for seven cycles of carbonation/decarbonation). Compared to olivine and Fe/olivine in a fixed bed reactor for steam reforming of toluene chosen as tar model compound, it shows a better hydrogen production rate and a lower CO 2 selectivity due to its sorption on the CaO phase. In the biomass steam gasification, the use of CaO-Ca 12 Al 14 O 33 /olivine as bed material at 700 °C leads to a higher H 2 production than olivine at 800 °C thanks to CO 2 sorption. Similar tar concentration and lighter tar production (analyzed by HPLC/UV) are observed. At 700 °C, sorbent addition allows to halve tar content and to eliminate the heaviest tars.

  20. Water sorption and solubility of core build-up materials. (United States)

    Zankuli, M A; Devlin, H; Silikas, N


    To investigate the variation in water sorption and solubility across a range of different core build-up materials. Five materials were tested, four of which are resin-based materials (Grandio Core, Core.X Flow, Bright Flow Core, Speedee) and one resin-modified glass ionomer (Fuji II LC). All specimens (n=10) were immersed in 10ml distilled water in individual glass containers and weighed at one week, 14 and 28 days. After a total immersion time of 28 days, 7 specimens were dried to a constant mass, in a desiccator for 28 days. Three samples of each material were not dried, but were left in distilled water for 1 year, to determine the long-term water sorption properties. Specimens were weighed at monthly intervals until 6 months and then at the 9th and 12th months. Each specimen was measured using a digital electronic caliper (Mitutoyo Corporation, Japan). After 28 days immersion, the change in water sorption and solubility of the materials ranged from 12.9 to 67.1μg/mm(3) (P<0.001) and 0.9-6.4μg/mm(3) respectively (P<0.001). Except for Fuji II LC, an independent T-test showed significantly higher water sorption and solubility for the other materials after 1-year total immersion in water compared to 1 month (P<0.05). Using repeated measures ANOVA, all materials showed mass changes over time (1 month) (P<0.001). Grandio Core had the lowest water sorption and solubility among the tested materials. According to the ISO 4049 standards, all the tested materials showed acceptable water sorption and solubility, apart from the water sorption behavior of Fuji II LC. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.