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Sample records for salt disposition alternatives

  1. Salt disposition alternatives filtration at SRTC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B. W.; Hobbs, D.

    2000-01-27

    Several of the prospective salt disposition alternative technologies require a monosodium titanate (MST) contact to remove strontium and actinides from inorganic salt solution feedstock. This feedstock also contains sludge solids from waste removal operations and may contain defoamers added in the evaporator systems. Filtration is required to remove the sludge and MST solids before sending the salt solution for further processing. This report describes testing performed using the Parallel Theological Experimental Filter (PREF). The PREF contains two single tube Mott sintered metal crossflow filters. For this test one filter was isolated so that the maximum velocities could be achieved. Previous studies showed slurries of MST and sludge in the presence of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) were filterable since the NaTPB slurry formed a filter cake which aided in removing the smaller MST and sludge particles. Some of the salt disposition alternative technologies do not use NaTPB raising the question of how effective crossflow filtration is with a feed stream containing only sludge and MST. Variables investigated included axial velocity, transmembrane pressure, defoamer effects, and solids concentration (MST and sludge). Details of the tests are outlined in the technical report WSRC-RP-98-O0691. Key conclusions from this study are: (1) Severe fouling of the Mott sintered metal filter did not occur with any of the solutions filtered. (2) The highest fluxes, in the range of .46 to 1.02 gpm/f{sup 2}, were obtained when salt solution decanted from settled solids was fed to the filter. These fluxes would achieve 92 to 204 gpm filtrate production for the current ITP filters. The filtrate fluxes were close to the flux of 0.42 gpm/f{sup 2} reported for In Tank Precipitation Salt Solution by Morrisey. (3) For the range of solids loading studied, the filter flux ranged from .04 to .17 gpm/f{sup 2} which would result in a filtrate production rate of 9 to 31 gpm for the current HP

  2. Computational Analysis of the SRS Phase III Salt Disposition Alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimenna, R.A.

    1999-10-07

    Completion of the Phase III evaluation and comparison of salt disposition alternatives was supported with enhanced computer models and analysis for each case on the ''short list'' of four options. SPEEDUP(TM) models and special purpose models describing mass and energy balances and flow rates were developed and used to predict performance and production characteristics for each of the options. Results from the computational analysis were a key part of the input used to select a primary and an alternate salt disposition alternative.

  3. Independent Assessment of the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Alternatives Evaluation

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    J. T. Case (DOE-ID); M. L. Renfro (INEEL)

    1998-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Independent Project Evaluation (IPE) Team assessment of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering (SE) Team's deliberations, evaluations, and selections. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company concluded in early 1998 that production goals and safety requirements for processing SRS HLW salt to remove Cs-137 could not be met in the existing In-Tank Precipitation Facility as currently configured for precipitation of cesium tetraphenylborate. The SE Team was chartered to evaluate and recommend an alternative(s) for processing the existing HLW salt to remove Cs-137. To replace the In-Tank Precipitation process, the Savannah River Site HLW Salt Disposition SE Team downselected (October 1998) 140 candidate separation technologies to two alternatives: Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate (TPB) Precipitation (primary alternative) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Nonelutable Ion Exchange (backup alternative). The IPE Team, commissioned by the Department of Energy, concurs that both alternatives are technically feasible and should meet all salt disposition requirements. But the IPE Team judges that the SE Team's qualitative criteria and judgments used in their downselection to a primary and a backup alternative do not clearly discriminate between the two alternatives. To properly choose between Small-Tank TPB and CST Ion Exchange for the primary alternative, the IPE Team suggests the following path forward: Complete all essential R and D activities for both alternatives and formulate an appropriate set of quantitative decision criteria that will be rigorously applied at the end of the R and D activities. Concurrent conceptual design activities should be limited to common elements of the alternatives.

  4. Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimenna, R.A.; Jacobs, R.A.; Taylor, G.A.; Durate, O.E.; Paul, P.K.; Elder, H.H.; Pike, J.A.; Fowler, J.R.; Rutland, P.L.; Gregory, M.V.; Smith III, F.G.; Hang, T.; Subosits, S.G.; Campbell, S.G.

    2001-03-26

    The High Level Waste (HLW) Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team was formed on March 13, 1998, and chartered to identify options, evaluate alternatives, and recommend a selected alternative(s) for processing HLW salt to a permitted wasteform. This requirement arises because the existing In-Tank Precipitation process at the Savannah River Site, as currently configured, cannot simultaneously meet the HLW production and Authorization Basis safety requirements. This engineering study was performed in four phases. This document provides the technical bases, assumptions, and results of this engineering study.

  5. Identification and evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of fluoride fuel and flush salts from the molten salt reactor experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-15

    This document presents an initial identification and evaluation of the alternatives for disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salts stored in the drain tanks at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It will serve as a resource for the U.S. Department of Energy contractor preparing the feasibility study for this activity under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). This document will also facilitate further discussion on the range of credible alternatives, and the relative merits of alternatives, throughout the time that a final alternative is selected under the CERCLA process.

  6. Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, H.H.

    2001-07-11

    The HLW salt waste (salt cake and supernate) now stored at the SRS must be treated to remove insoluble sludge solids and reduce the soluble concentration of radioactive cesium radioactive strontium and transuranic contaminants (principally Pu and Np). These treatments will enable the salt solution to be processed for disposal as saltstone, a solid low-level waste.

  7. The Path to Nitrate Salt Disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-16

    The topic is presented in a series of slides arranged according to the following outline: LANL nitrate salt incident as thermal runaway (thermally sensitive surrogates, full-scale tests), temperature control for processing, treatment options and down selection, assessment of engineering options, anticipated control set for treatment, and summary of the overall steps for RNS.

  8. Preliminary siting characterization Salt Disposition Facility - Site B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyatt, D.

    2000-01-04

    A siting and reconnaissance geotechnical program has been completed in S-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This program investigated the subsurface conditions for the area known as ``Salt Disposition Facility (SDF), Site B'' located northeast of H-Area and within the S-Area. Data acquired from the Site B investigation includes both field exploration and laboratory test data.

  9. Sample results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 9 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H.

  10. Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 11 Tank 21H Acceptance Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of verification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 11 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) for processing. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H and fulfills the requirements of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR).

  11. Verb Disposition in Argument Structure Alternations: A Corpus Study of the Dative Alternation in Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleman, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Semantic accounts of verb pattern alternations often rely on observations about "verb disposition": the preference of verbs with particular lexical semantic characteristics for one of two competing constructions is taken as a clue to the semantic differences between the two constructions. For instance, it has been observed with regard to the…

  12. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROGRAM MACROBATCH 4 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-22

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H to qualify them for use in the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 4 processing. All sample results agree with expectations based on prior analyses where available. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 4 strategy are identified. This revision includes additional data points that were not available in the original issue of the document, such as additional plutonium results, the results of the monosodium titanate (MST) sorption test and the extraction, scrub strip (ESS) test. This report covers the revision to the Tank 21H qualification sample results for Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 4 of the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). A previous document covers initial characterization which includes results for a number of non-radiological analytes. These results were used to perform aluminum solubility modeling to determine the hydroxide needs for Salt Batch 4 to prevent the precipitation of solids. Sodium hydroxide was then added to Tank 21 and additional samples were pulled for the analyses discussed in this report. This work was specified by Task Technical Request and by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP).

  13. Non-proliferation, safeguards, and security for the fissile materials disposition program immobilization alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, R.A.; Jaeger, C.D.; Tolk, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moore, L.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy is analyzing long-term storage and disposition alternatives for surplus weapons-usable fissile materials. A number of different disposition alternatives are being considered. These include facilities for storage, conversion and stabilization of fissile materials, immobilization in glass or ceramic material, fabrication of fissile material into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for reactors, use of reactor based technologies to convert material into spent fuel, and disposal of fissile material using geologic alternatives. This paper will focus on how the objectives of reducing security and proliferation risks are being considered, and the possible facility impacts. Some of the areas discussed in this paper include: (1) domestic and international safeguards requirements, (2) non-proliferation criteria and measures, (3) the threats, and (4) potential proliferation, safeguards, and security issues and impacts on the facilities. Issues applicable to all of the possible disposition alternatives will be discussed in this paper. However, particular attention is given to the plutonium immobilization alternatives.

  14. Sample results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  15. Sample Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub- Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  16. Sample results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 8 tank 21H qualification MST solids sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-02-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) processing. As part of this qualification work, SRNL performed an Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction, Scrub, Strip (ESS) tests. This document reports characterization of the monosodium titanate (MST) solids from the ARP test. The results of these analyses are reported and are within historical precedent.

  17. Alternative Waste Forms for Electro-Chemical Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Brian J.; Matyas, Josef; Arreguin, Shelly A.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-10-28

    This study was undertaken to examine alternate crystalline (ceramic/mineral) and glass waste forms for immobilizing spent salt from the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) electrochemical separations process. The AFCI is a program sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a process for recycling spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The electrochemical process is a molten salt process for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in an electrorefiner and generates spent salt that is contaminated with alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanide fission products (FP) that must either be cleaned of fission products or eventually replaced with new salt to maintain separations efficiency. Currently, these spent salts are mixed with zeolite to form sodalite in a glass-bonded waste form. The focus of this study was to investigate alternate waste forms to immobilize spent salt. On a mole basis, the spent salt is dominated by alkali and Cl with minor amounts of alkaline earth and lanthanides. In the study reported here, we made an effort to explore glass systems that are more compatible with Cl and have not been previously considered for use as waste forms. In addition, alternate methods were explored with the hope of finding a way to produce a sodalite that is more accepting of as many FP present in the spent salt as possible. This study was done to investigate two different options: (1) alternate glass families that incorporate increased concentrations of Cl; and (2) alternate methods to produce a mineral waste form.

  18. Results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 10 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-02-23

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 10 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H and fulfills the requirements of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR). Further work will report the results of the Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing (Task 5 of the TTR) using the Tank 21H material. Task 4 of the TTR (MST Strike) will not be completed for Salt Batch 10.

  19. Evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J.S.; Butler, J.C. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Edmunds, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-04

    The Department of Energy Record of Decision (ROD) selected alternatives for disposition of surplus, weapons grade plutonium. A major objective of this decision was to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Other concerns addressed included economic, technical, institutional, schedule, environmental, and health and safety issues. The analysis reported here was conducted in parallel with technical, environmental, and nonproliferation analyses; it uses multiattribute utility theory to combine these considerations in order to facilitate an integrated evaluation of alternatives. This analysis is intended to provide additional insight regarding alternative evaluation and to assist in understanding the rationale for the choice of alternatives recommended in the ROD. Value functions were developed for objectives of disposition, and used to rank alternatives. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the ranking of alternatives for the base case was relatively insensitive to changes in assumptions over reasonable ranges. The analyses support the recommendation of the ROD to pursue parallel development of the vitrification immobilization alternative and the use of existing light water reactors alternative. 27 refs., 109 figs., 20 tabs.

  20. A preliminary analysis of the reactor-based plutonium disposition alternative deployment schedules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurn, R.M.

    1997-09-01

    This paper discusses the preliminary analysis of the implementation schedules of the reactor-based plutonium disposition alternatives. These schedule analyses are a part of a larger process to examine the nine decision criteria used to determine the most appropriate method of disposing of U.S. surplus weapons plutonium. The preliminary analysis indicates that the mission durations for the reactor-based alternatives range from eleven years to eighteen years and the initial mission fuel assemblies containing surplus weapons-usable plutonium could be loaded into the reactors between nine and fourteen years after the Record of Decision.

  1. Alternative technical summary report for direct disposition in deep boreholes: Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound canisters, Version 4.0. Fissile Materials Disposition Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijesinghe, A.M.

    1996-08-23

    This report summarizes and compares the Immobilized and Direct Beep Borehole Disposition Alternatives. The important design concepts, facility features and operational procedures are briefly described, and a discussion of the issues that affect the evaluation of each alternative against the programmatic assessment criteria that have been established for selecting the preferred alternatives for plutonium disposition.

  2. Use of alternative curing salts for processing salamis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Chung, Ku-Young; Jo, Cheorun; Nam, Ki-Chang

    2017-08-16

    This study was performed to determine effects of different curing salts on the quality of salamis and to assess feasibility of using NaCl-alternative salts. Various types of curing salts (KCl or MgCl2) as well as NaCl (sun-dried or refined) were incorporated for processing of salamis. The proximate composition, fatty acids, nucleotide-related compounds, and free amino acids of the salamis were analyzed during 40 days of ripening. The substitution of NaCl by KCl caused higher fat and ash content, but lower moisture content of the salami after 20 days of ripening (pcuring salts such as KCl and MgCl2 could substitute NaCl in consideration of quality factor of a fermented meat product. Especially replacement of NaCl with KCl will be a suitable strategy for developing relatively low sodium salami products without compromising product quality.

  3. Some Lake Level Control Alternatives for the Great Salt Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Marvin E.; Christensen, Ronald K.; Riley, J. Paul

    1983-01-01

    Fluctuations of the level of the Great Salt Lake cause large changes in both surface area and shoreline. Developments adjacent to the lake have been damaged by both high and low lake levels; and unless measures are implemented to regulate lake level fluctuations or otherwise to protect these developments, damages will continue. Various possible managment alternatives for mitigating potential damages from lake leve...

  4. Alternative technical summary report for immobilized disposition in deep boreholes: Immobilized disposal of plutonium in coated ceramic pellets in grout without canisters, Version 4.0. Fissile materials disposition program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijesinghe, A.M.

    1996-08-23

    This paper summarizes and compares the immobilized and direct borehole disposition alternatives previously presented in the alternative technical summary. The important design concepts, facility features and operational procedures are first briefly described. This is followed by a discussion of the issues that affect the evaluation of each alternative against the programmatic assessment criteria that have been established for selecting the preferred alternatives for plutonium disposition.

  5. Engineering evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of Niagara Falls Storage Site, its residues and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The final disposition scenarios selected by DOE for assessment in this document are consistent with those stated in the Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) (DOE, 1983d) and the modifications to the alternatives resulting from the public scoping process. The scenarios are: take no action beyond interim remedial measures other than maintenance and surveillance of the NFSS; retain and manage the NFSS as a long-term waste management facility for the wastes and residues on the site; decontaminate, certify, and release the NFSS for other use, with long-term management of the wastes and residues at other DOE sites; and partially decontaminate the NFSS by removal and transport off site of only the more radioactive residues, and upgrade containment of the remaining wastes and residues on site. The objective of this document is to present to DOE the conceptual engineering, occupational radiation exposure, construction schedule, maintenance and surveillance requirements, and cost information relevant to design and implementation of each of the four scenarios. The specific alternatives within each scenario used as the basis for discussion in this document were evaluated on the bases of engineering considerations, technical feasibility, and regulatory requirements. Selected alternatives determined to be acceptable for each of the four final disposition scenarios for the NFSS were approved by DOE to be assessed and costed in this document. These alternatives are also the subject of the EIS for the NFSS currently being prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). 40 figures, 38 tables.

  6. Extraction, -scrub, -strip test results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 10 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-26

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 10 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). The Salt Batch 10 characterization results were previously reported.ii,iii An Extraction, -Scrub, -Strip (ESS) test was performed to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)) and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Tank Farm Engineering to project a cesium decontamination factor (DF). This test used actual Tank 21H material, and a sample of the NGS Blend solvent currently being used at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The ESS test showed acceptable performance with an extraction D(Cs) value of 110. This value is consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. This is better than the predicted value of 39.8 from a recently created D(Cs) model.

  7. Nonproliferation and arms control assessment of weapons-usable fissile material storage and excess plutonium disposition alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (DOE-NN) with support from the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD). Its purpose is to analyze the nonproliferation and arms reduction implications of the alternatives for storage of plutonium and HEU, and disposition of excess plutonium, to aid policymakers and the public in making final decisions. While this assessment describes the benefits and risks associated with each option, it does not attempt to rank order the options or choose which ones are best. It does, however, identify steps which could maximize the benefits and mitigate any vulnerabilities of the various alternatives under consideration.

  8. Results From The Salt Disposition Project Next Generation Solvent Demonstration Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Taylor-Pashow, K. M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-04-02

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples were taken throughout the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Demonstration Plan. These samples were analyzed and the results are reported. SHT: The solvent behaved as expected, with no bulk changes in the composition over time, with the exception of the TOA and TiDG. The TiDG depletion is higher than expected, and consideration must be taken on the required rate of replenishment. Monthly sampling of the SHT is warranted. If possible, additional SHT samples for TiDG analysis (only) would help SRNL refine the TiDG degradation model. CWT: The CWT samples show the expected behavior in terms of bulk chemistry. The 137Cs deposited into the CWT varies somewhat, but generally appears to be lower than during operations with the BOBCalix solvent. While a few minor organic components were noted to be present in the Preliminary sample, at this time these are thought to be artifacts of the sample preparation or may be due to the preceding solvent superwash. DSSHT: The DSSHT samples show the predicted bulk chemistry, although they point towards significant dilution at the front end of the Demonstration. The 137Cs levels in the DSSHT are much lower than during the BOBCalix operations, which is the expected observation. SEHT: The SEHT samples represent the most different output of all four of the outputs from MCU. While the bulk chemistry is as expected, something is causing the pH of the SEHT to be higher than what would be predicted from a pure stream of 0.01 M boric acid. There are several possible different reasons for this, and SRNL is in the process of investigating. Other than the pH issue, the SEHT is as predicted. In summary, the NGS Demonstration Plan samples indicate that the MCU system, with the Blend Solvent, is operating as expected. The only issue of concern regards the pH of the SEHT, and SRNL is in the process of investigating

  9. Motivation and Dispositions: Alternative Approaches to Explain the Performance of Critical Thinking Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Valenzuela

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Critical thinking depends on the mastery degrees of some skills and on the will to activate them when reasoning. Traditionally, this second aspect has been focused from a disposition approach (Facione, 1990. However, this perspective demonstrates problems in theoretical as in practical level to explain and to develop critical thinking. For this, it is proposed to approach the problem from the Motivation perspective (Eccles and Wigfield, 2002. In this context, our research deals with the evaluation of the convenience to choose one perspective or another to explain the performance of critical thinking, both theoretically and in its predictive capacity. Thus, along with theoretically analyze the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches and it was compared measures of dispositions (CCTDI, motivation (EMPC and critical thinking (CCTST in a sample of Spanish university students. The results show that the variability in critical thinking performance is better explained by the motivation than by dispositional approach. Finally, the theoretical and practical convenience of motivational approach in this matter is discussed.

  10. Engineering Evaluation of Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiement for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlberg, Jon A.; Roberts, Kenneth T.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Little, Leslie E.; Brady, Sherman D.

    2009-09-30

    This evaluation was performed by Pro2Serve in accordance with the Technical Specification for an Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (BJC 2009b). The evaluators reviewed the Engineering Evaluation Work Plan for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Residual Salt Removal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2008). The Work Plan (DOE 2008) involves installing a salt transfer probe and new drain line into the Fuel Drain Tanks and Fuel Flush Tank and connecting them to the new salt transfer line at the drain tank cell shield. The probe is to be inserted through the tank ball valve and the molten salt to the bottom of the tank. The tank would then be pressurized through the Reactive Gas Removal System to force the salt into the salt canisters. The Evaluation Team reviewed the work plan, interviewed site personnel, reviewed numerous documents on the Molten Salt Reactor (Sects. 7 and 8), and inspected the probes planned to be used for the transfer. Based on several concerns identified during this review, the team recommends not proceeding with the salt transfer via the proposed alternate salt transfer method. The major concerns identified during this evaluation are: (1) Structural integrity of the tanks - The main concern is with the corrosion that occurred during the fluorination phase of the uranium removal process. This may also apply to the salt transfer line for the Fuel Flush Tank. Corrosion Associated with Fluorination in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fluoride Volatility Process (Litman 1961) shows that this problem is significant. (2) Continued generation of Fluorine - Although the generation of Fluorine will be at a lower rate than experienced before the uranium removal, it will continue to be generated. This needs to be taken into consideration regardless of what actions are taken with the salt. (3) More than one phase of material

  11. Mathematical Derivation of Switching Angles of Multilevel Voltage Source Inverter based on Alternative Phase Opposition Disposition (APOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Mohd Alif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modular structured multilevel inverter is very useful for electrical application especially in high voltage and high power applications. The main function of this multilevel inverter is to produce multilevel AC output voltage from several separate DC sources. This project is to derive a newmathematical formulation of multilevel voltage source inverter switching instants. The proposed method for this project is based on the sinusoidal natural sampling PWM (SPWM by comparing several modified modulation signal with a triangular carrier signal. This resulting intersection points between this modulation and carrier signal become the switching instants of the PWM pulses. Derivation also based on Alternative Phase opposition disposition (APOD. A cascaded multilevel inverter is selected as a topology for this project due to major advantages compare with other topology. The derived formula is analyzed by using MATLAB simulation software. It is found that the results that use the derived formula are almost identical to simulation result.

  12. Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY2010 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Matyas, Josef; McCloy, John S.; Sundaram, S. K.; Vienna, John D.

    2010-08-01

    In FY2009, PNNL performed scoping studies to qualify two waste form candidates, tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and halide minerals, for the electrochemical waste stream for further investigation. Both candidates showed promise with acceptable PCT release rates and effective incorporation of the 10% fission product waste stream. Both candidates received reprisal for FY2010 and were further investigated. At the beginning of FY2010, an in-depth literature review kicked off the tellurite glasses study. The review was aimed at ascertaining the state-of-the-art for chemical durability testing and mixed chloride incorporation for tellurite glasses. The literature review led the authors to 4 unique binary and 1 unique ternary systems for further investigation which include TeO2 plus the following: PbO, Al2O3-B2O3, WO3, P2O5, and ZnO. Each system was studied with and without a mixed chloride simulated electrochemical waste stream and the literature review provided the starting points for the baseline compositions as well as starting points for melting temperature, compatible crucible types, etc. The most promising glasses in each system were scaled up in production and were analyzed with the Product Consistency Test, a chemical durability test. Baseline and PCT glasses were analyzed to determine their state, i.e., amorphous, crystalline, phase separated, had undissolved material within the bulk, etc. Conclusions were made as well as the proposed direction for FY2011 plans. Sodalite was successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method. The vast majority of the dried sol-gel consisted of sodalite with small amounts of alumino-silicates and unreacted salt. Upon firing the powders made by sol-gel, the primary phase observed was sodalite with the addition of varying amounts of nepheline, carnegieite, lithium silicate, and lanthanide oxide. The amount of sodalite, nepheline, and carnegieite as well as the bulk density of the fired pellets varied with firing temperature, sol

  13. Dispositional logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadeh, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived. 7 references.

  14. Alternative natural seasoning to improve the microbial stability of low-salt beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lomillo, Javier; González-SanJosé, M A Luisa; Del Pino-García, Raquel; Rivero-Pérez, M A Dolores; Muñiz-Rodríguez, Pilar

    2017-07-15

    The meat industry is seeking new strategies to reduce the sodium content of meat products without shortening their shelf-life. Natural seasonings as salt alternatives are more appreciated than chemical preservatives and also enable the incorporation of interesting nutrients. The present work studies the potential of a new red wine pomace seasoning (RWPS), derived from wine pomace, to inhibit spoilage growth in beef patties with different salt levels (2%, 1.5% and 1%) held in storage at 4°C. The use of RWPS (2% w/w) improved the microbial stability of the patties, delaying total aerobic mesophilic, and lactic acid bacteria growth, especially in samples with low salt levels. Satisfactory results were obtained in modified-atmosphere and air-packaged patties. RWPS also enabled the incorporation of fiber and phenolic compounds, and increased potassium and calcium levels. In summary, RWPS presented an interesting potential as a seasoning in meat products, enabling salt reduction without compromising their microbial stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY11-FY12 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mccloy, John S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lepry, William C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rodriguez, Carmen P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Windisch, Charles F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matyas, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westman, Matthew P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rieck, Bennett T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lang, Jesse B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olszta, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pierce, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-17

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, is currently investigating alternative waste forms for wastes generated from nuclear fuel processing. One such waste results from an electrochemical separations process, called the “Echem” process. The Echem process utilizes a molten KCl-LiCl salt to dissolve the fuel. This process results in a spent salt containing alkali, alkaline earth, lanthanide halides and small quantities of actinide halides, where the primary halide is chloride with a minor iodide fraction. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is concurrently investigating two candidate waste forms for the Echem spent-salt: high-halide minerals (i.e., sodalite and cancrinite) and tellurite (TeO2)-based glasses. Both of these candidates showed promise in fiscal year (FY) 2009 and FY2010 with a simplified nonradioactive simulant of the Echem waste. Further testing was performed on these waste forms in FY2011 and FY2012 to assess the possibility of their use in a sustainable fuel cycle. This report summarizes the combined results from FY2011 and FY2012 efforts.

  16. BLENDING STUDY FOR SRR SALT DISPOSITION INTEGRATION: TANK 50H SCALE-MODELING AND COMPUTER-MODELING FOR BLENDING PUMP DESIGN, PHASE 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.

    2011-05-26

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where 300,000-800,000 gallons of salt solution will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. Blending requires the miscible salt solutions from potentially multiple source tanks per batch to be well mixed without disturbing settled sludge solids that may be present in a Blend Tank. Disturbing solids may be problematic both from a feed quality perspective as well as from a process safety perspective where hydrogen release from the sludge is a potential flammability concern. To develop the necessary technical basis for the design and operation of blending equipment, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) completed scaled blending and transfer pump tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. A 94 inch diameter pilot-scale blending tank, including tank internals such as the blending pump, transfer pump, removable cooling coils, and center column, were used in this research. The test tank represents a 1/10.85 scaled version of an 85 foot diameter, Type IIIA, nuclear waste tank that may be typical of Blend Tanks used in SDI. Specifically, Tank 50 was selected as the tank to be modeled per the SRR, Project Engineering Manager. SRNL blending tests investigated various fixed position, non-rotating, dual nozzle pump designs, including a blending pump model provided by the blend pump vendor, Curtiss Wright (CW). Primary research goals were to assess blending times and to evaluate incipient sludge disturbance for waste tanks. Incipient sludge disturbance was defined by SRR and SRNL as minor blending of settled sludge from the tank bottom into suspension due to blending pump operation, where

  17. Genome-wide analysis of alternative splicing of pre-mRNA under salt stress in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Feng

    2014-06-04

    Background: Alternative splicing (AS) of precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) is an important gene regulation process that potentially regulates many physiological processes in plants, including the response to abiotic stresses such as salt stress.Results: To analyze global changes in AS under salt stress, we obtained high-coverage (~200 times) RNA sequencing data from Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings that were treated with different concentrations of NaCl. We detected that ~49% of all intron-containing genes were alternatively spliced under salt stress, 10% of which experienced significant differential alternative splicing (DAS). Furthermore, AS increased significantly under salt stress compared with under unstressed conditions. We demonstrated that most DAS genes were not differentially regulated by salt stress, suggesting that AS may represent an independent layer of gene regulation in response to stress. Our analysis of functional categories suggested that DAS genes were associated with specific functional pathways, such as the pathways for the responses to stresses and RNA splicing. We revealed that serine/arginine-rich (SR) splicing factors were frequently and specifically regulated in AS under salt stresses, suggesting a complex loop in AS regulation for stress adaptation. We also showed that alternative splicing site selection (SS) occurred most frequently at 4 nucleotides upstream or downstream of the dominant sites and that exon skipping tended to link with alternative SS.Conclusions: Our study provided a comprehensive view of AS under salt stress and revealed novel insights into the potential roles of AS in plant response to salt stress. 2014 Ding et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  18. Representing dispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röhl Johannes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dispositions and tendencies feature significantly in the biomedical domain and therefore in representations of knowledge of that domain. They are not only important for specific applications like an infectious disease ontology, but also as part of a general strategy for modelling knowledge about molecular interactions. But the task of representing dispositions in some formal ontological systems is fraught with several problems, which are partly due to the fact that Description Logics can only deal well with binary relations. The paper will discuss some of the results of the philosophical debate about dispositions, in order to see whether the formal relations needed to represent dispositions can be broken down to binary relations. Finally, we will discuss problems arising from the possibility of the absence of realizations, of multi-track or multi-trigger dispositions and offer suggestions on how to deal with them.

  19. Foucaults Dispositive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe, Sverre; Gudmand-Høyer, Marius T.; Thaning, Morten Sørensen

    2016-01-01

    While Foucault’s work has had a crucial impact on organizational research, the analytical potential of the dispositive has not been sufficiently developed. The purpose of this article is to reconstruct the notion of the dispositive as a key conception in Foucault’s thought, particularly in his...... lectures at the Collège de France, and to develop dispositional analytics with specific reference to matters of organization. Foucault’s dispositional analysis articulates a history of interrelated social technologies that have been constructed to organize how we relate to each other. The article...... contribute to a more complex understanding of organizational dynamics, power, strategy, resistance, and critique. Dispositional analytics allows for a new interpretation and use of Foucault in relation to organization studies....

  20. Spliceosomal protein U1A is involved in alternative splicing and salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Jinbao

    2017-12-01

    Soil salinity is a significant threat to sustainable agricultural production worldwide. Plants must adjust their developmental and physiological processes to cope with salt stress. Although the capacity for adaptation ultimately depends on the genome, the exceptional versatility in gene regulation provided by the spliceosome-mediated alternative splicing (AS) is essential in these adaptive processes. However, the functions of the spliceosome in plant stress responses are poorly understood. Here, we report the in-depth characterization of a U1 spliceosomal protein, AtU1A, in controlling AS of pre-mRNAs under salt stress and salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. The atu1a mutant was hypersensitive to salt stress and accumulated more reactive oxygen species (ROS) than the wild-type under salt stress. RNA-seq analysis revealed that AtU1A regulates AS of many genes, presumably through modulating recognition of 5′ splice sites. We showed that AtU1A is associated with the pre-mRNA of the ROS detoxification-related gene ACO1 and is necessary for the regulation of ACO1 AS. ACO1 is important for salt tolerance because ectopic expression of ACO1 in the atu1a mutant can partially rescue its salt hypersensitive phenotype. Our findings highlight the critical role of AtU1A as a regulator of pre-mRNA processing and salt tolerance in plants.

  1. Manipulation of alternative oxidase can influence salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chevaun Anne; Melino, Vanessa Jane; Sweetman, Crystal; Soole, Kathleen Lydia

    2009-12-01

    The growth and development of plants can be limited by environmental stresses such as salinity. It has been suggested that the non-phosphorylating alternative respiratory pathway in plants, mediated by the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [NAD(P)H DH] and alternative oxidase (AOX), is important during environmental stresses. The involvement of this alternative pathway in a stress response may be linked to its capacity to uncouple carbon metabolism from adenylate control and/or the minimization of the formation of destructive reactive oxygen species (ROS). Salinity stress is a widespread, adverse environmental stress, which leads to an ionic imbalance, hyperosmotic stress and oxidative stress, the latter being the result of ROS formation. In this study, we show that salinity stress of Arabidopsis thaliana plants resulted in the formation of ROS, increased levels of Na+ in both the shoot and the root and an increase in transcription of Ataox1a, Atndb2 and Atndb4 genes, indicating the formation of an abridged non-phosphorylating electron transport chain in response to salinity stress. Furthermore, plants constitutively over-expressing Ataox1a, with increased AOX capacity, showed lower ROS formation, 30-40% improved growth rates and lower shoot Na+ content compared with controls, when grown under salinity stress conditions. Thus, more active AOX in roots and shoots can improve the salt tolerance of Arabidopsis as defined by its ability to grow more effectively in the presence of NaCl, and maintain lower shoot Na+ content. AOX does have an important role in stress adaptation in plants, and these results provide some validation of the hypothesis that AOX can play a critical role in cell re-programming under salinity stress.

  2. A Comparison of the Batterer Intervention and Prevention Program With Alternative Court Dispositions on 12-Month Recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Denise Paquette; Wareham, Jennifer; Bartula, Aaron; Canas, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Studies of batterer intervention and prevention programs (BIPPs) offer mixed results regarding their effect on recidivism. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of BIPP for cases assigned to a misdemeanor family court. This study focused on determining whether BIPP cases, compared with alternative sanctions, had significantly lower recidivism rates 12 months after program involvement. Findings indicated that BIPP was more effective than jail or regular dismissal in reducing the likelihood of future arrests, but not plea deferred adjudication and conditional dismissal. Results argue toward the efficacy of some form of treatment versus simply receiving jail time. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Alternative nitrate reduction pathways in experimentally fertilized New England salt marshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldahl, Anne; Banta, Gary Thomas; Boegh, Eva

    the ecosystem in the form of gaseous N2, while the last process transforms of NO3- to another biologically available form, NH4+, and thus merely recycles N. Salt marshes are important ecosystems for the cycling, retention and removal of biologically available N transported from land to the oceans. We used...... ongoing ecosystem level nutrient additions experiments in two New England salt marshes, Plum Island Sound (NO3- additions since 2003) and Great Sippewissett Marsh (fertilizer additions since the 1970's) to examine the relative importance of these NO3- reduction pathways in salt marshes. Sediments from...... in relation to N loading in Sippewissett. Clearly more work is needed to understand what determines the relative importance of removal versus recycling processes in salt marsh ecosystems....

  4. Summary report of the screening process to determine reasonable alternatives for long-term storage and disposition of weapons-usable fissile materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-29

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials (primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium) have become surplus to national defense needs both in the US and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety and health consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. As announced in the Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), the Department of Energy is currently conducting an evaluation process for disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials determined surplus to National Security needs, and long-term storage of national security and programmatic inventories, and surplus weapons-usable fissile materials that are not able to go directly from interim storage to disposition. An extensive set of long-term storage and disposition options was compiled. Five broad long-term storage options were identified; thirty-seven options were considered for plutonium disposition; nine options were considered for HEU disposition; and eight options were identified for Uranium-233 disposition. Section 2 discusses the criteria used in the screening process. Section 3 describes the options considered, and Section 4 provides a detailed summary discussions of the screening results.

  5. Alternative oxidase pathway is involved in the exogenous SNP-elevated tolerance of Medicago truncatula to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wei; Zhang, Da-wei; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Shuo-xun; Pu, Xiao-jun; Deng, Xing-guang; Luo, Shi-shuai; Lin, Hong-hui

    2016-04-01

    Exogenous application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) would enhance the tolerance of plants to stress conditions. Some evidences suggested that nitric oxide (NO) could induce the expression of alternative oxidase (AOX). In this study, Medicago truncatula (Medicago) was chosen to study the role of AOX in the SNP-elevated resistance to salt stress. Our results showed that the expression of AOX genes (especially AOX1 and AOX2b1) and cyanide-resistant respiration rate (Valt) could be significantly induced by salt stress. Exogenous application of SNP could further enhance the expression of AOX genes and Valt. Exogenous application of SNP could alleviate the oxidative damage and photosynthetic damage caused by salt stress. However, the stress resistance was significantly decreased in the plants which were pretreated with n-propyl gallate (nPG). More importantly, the damage in nPG-pretreated plants could not be alleviated by application of SNP. Further study showed that effects of nPG on the activities of antioxidant enzymes were minor. These results showed that AOX pathway played an important role in the SNP-elevated resistance of Medicago to salt stress. AOX could contribute to regulating the accumulation of reactive oxygen (ROS) and protect of photosystem, and we proposed that all these were depend on the ability of maintaining the homeostasis of redox state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY/CY2011 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Windisch, Charles F.; Lepry, William C.; Matyas, Josef; Westman, Matthew P.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Lang, Jesse B.; Pierce, David A.

    2011-12-01

    This report summarizes the 2011 fiscal+calendar year efforts for developing waste forms for a spent salt generated in reprocessing nuclear fuel with an electrochemical separations process. The two waste forms are tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and sol-gel-derived high-halide mineral analogs to stable minerals found in nature.

  7. Reviewing progress towards finding an acceptable natural flavour alternative to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, J.L.H.C.; Batenburg, M.; Velden, van der R.; Smit, G.

    2009-01-01

    The level of sodium in food products needs to be lowered in order to help reduce incidences of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases of the world population. Important functionalities of salt (NaCl) – salty taste and flavour enhancement – are to be delivered by replacer systems. One approach is

  8. Urate Oxidase Purification by Salting-in Crystallization: Towards an Alternative to Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffard, Marion; Ferté, Natalie; Ragot, François; El Hajji, Mohamed; Castro, Bertrand; Bonneté, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    Background Rasburicase (Fasturtec® or Elitek®, Sanofi-Aventis), the recombinant form of urate oxidase from Aspergillus flavus, is a therapeutic enzyme used to prevent or decrease the high levels of uric acid in blood that can occur as a result of chemotherapy. It is produced by Sanofi-Aventis and currently purified via several standard steps of chromatography. This work explores the feasibility of replacing one or more chromatography steps in the downstream process by a crystallization step. It compares the efficacy of two crystallization techniques that have proven successful on pure urate oxidase, testing them on impure urate oxidase solutions. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we investigate the possibility of purifying urate oxidase directly by crystallization from the fermentation broth. Based on attractive interaction potentials which are known to drive urate oxidase crystallization, two crystallization routes are compared: a) by increased polymer concentration, which induces a depletion attraction and b) by decreased salt concentration, which induces attractive interactions via a salting-in effect. We observe that adding polymer, a very efficient way to crystallize pure urate oxidase through the depletion effect, is not an efficient way to grow crystals from impure solution. On the other hand, we show that dialysis, which decreases salt concentration through its strong salting-in effect, makes purification of urate oxidase from the fermentation broth possible. Conclusions The aim of this study is to compare purification efficacy of two crystallization methods. Our findings show that crystallization of urate oxidase from the fermentation broth provides purity comparable to what can be achieved with one chromatography step. This suggests that, in the case of urate oxidase, crystallization could be implemented not only for polishing or concentration during the last steps of purification, but also as an initial capture step, with minimal changes to the

  9. Dispositional greed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuntjens, Terri G; Zeelenberg, Marcel; van de Ven, Niels; Breugelmans, Seger M

    2015-06-01

    Greed is an important motive: it is seen as both productive (a source of ambition; the motor of the economy) and destructive (undermining social relationships; the cause of the late 2000s financial crisis). However, relatively little is known about what greed is and does. This article reports on 5 studies that develop and test the 7-item Dispositional Greed Scale (DGS). Study 1 (including 4 separate samples from 2 different countries, total N = 6092) provides evidence for the construct and discriminant validity of the DGS in terms of positive correlations with maximization, self-interest, envy, materialism, and impulsiveness, and negative correlations with self-control and life satisfaction. Study 2 (N = 290) presents further evidence for discriminant validity, finding that the DGS predicts greedy behavioral tendencies over and above materialism. Furthermore, the DGS predicts economic behavior: greedy people allocate more money to themselves in dictator games (Study 3, N = 300) and ultimatum games (Study 4, N = 603), and take more in a resource dilemma (Study 5, N = 305). These findings shed light on what greed is and does, how people differ in greed, and how greed can be measured. In addition, they show the importance of greed in economic behavior and provide directions for future studies. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Four-Component Synthesis of Phosphonium Salts: Application Toward an Alternative Approach to Cross-Coupling for the Synthesis of Bis-Heteroarenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ru; Reddy, Ganapuram Madhusudhan; Hong, Shao-Hao; Wang, Ying-Zheng; Yu, Jhen-Kuei; Lin, Wenwei

    2017-04-24

    A series of stable phosphonium salts have been synthesized via a novel four-component reaction of an arene nucleophile, 2-heteroatom substituted aryl aldehyde, and phosphine in presence of an acid. The phosphonium salts thus obtained were utilized for the synthesis of a variety of bis-heteroarenes, providing an efficient alternative method to the classical cross-coupling strategies. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-11-30

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  12. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-05-15

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA)to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  13. Identification and characterization of a bile salt hydrolase from Lactobacillus salivarius for development of novel alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong; Zeng, Ximin; Mo, Yiming; Smith, Katie; Guo, Yuming; Lin, Jun

    2012-12-01

    Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) have been used as feed additives to improve average body weight gain and feed efficiency in food animals for more than 5 decades. However, there is a worldwide trend to limit AGP use to protect food safety and public health, which raises an urgent need to discover effective alternatives to AGPs. The growth-promoting effect of AGPs has been shown to be highly correlated with the decreased activity of intestinal bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an enzyme that is produced by various gut microflora and involved in host lipid metabolism. Thus, BSH inhibitors are likely promising feed additives to AGPs to improve animal growth performance. In this study, the genome of Lactobacillus salivarius NRRL B-30514, a BSH-producing strain isolated from chicken, was sequenced by a 454 GS FLX sequencer. A BSH gene identified by genome analysis was cloned and expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system for enzymatic analyses. The BSH displayed efficient hydrolysis activity for both glycoconjugated and tauroconjugated bile salts, with slightly higher catalytic efficiencies (k(cat)/K(m)) on glycoconjugated bile salts. The optimal pH and temperature for the BSH activity were 5.5 and 41°C, respectively. Examination of a panel of dietary compounds using the purified BSH identified some potent BSH inhibitors, in which copper and zinc have been recently demonstrated to promote feed digestion and body weight gain in different food animals. In sum, this study identified and characterized a BSH with broad substrate specificity from a chicken L. salivarius strain and established a solid platform for us to discover novel BSH inhibitors, the promising feed additives to replace AGPs for enhancing the productivity and sustainability of food animals.

  14. ESTIMATING IMPURITIES IN SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FOR DISPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allender, J.; Moore, E.

    2013-07-17

    The United States holds at least 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition of the National Nuclear Security Administration and the DOE Office of Environmental Management. Many of the items that require disposition are only partially characterized, and SRNL uses a variety of techniques to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that are important for processing through the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility and alternative disposition paths. Recent advances in laboratory tools, including Prompt Gamma Analysis and Peroxide Fusion treatment, provide data on the existing inventories that will enable disposition without additional, costly sampling and destructive analysis.

  15. Screening Evaluation of Alternate Sorbents and Methods for Strontium and Actinide Removal from Alkaline Salt Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    2001-04-17

    This report describes results from screening tests evaluating strontium and actinide removal characteristics of three different titanium-containing sorbents, crystalline silicotitanate (CST) manufactured by UPO, SrTreat(R) offered by Fortum Engineering, sodium nonatitanate developed by Clearfield and coworkers at Texas A and M University and offered commercially by Honeywell. We also report results from an alternate removal method, coprecipitation.

  16. An alternative hypothesis for sink development above salt cavities in the Detroit area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, Daniel; Nieto, A.S.; Ege, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Subsidence and sink formation resulting from brining operations in the Windsor-Detroit area include the 1954 sink at the Canadian Salt Company brine field near Windsor, Ontario, and the 1971 sinks at the BASF Wyandotte Corporation brine field at Grosse Ile, Mich. Earlier investigations into both occurrences concluded that the mechanism of sink development consisted of the gradual stoping of poorly supported brine-gallery roof rock to the near surface with subsequent surface collapse. A more recent study attempted to describe the mechanism of sink development in terms of the geometry of a cylindrical chimney formed by stoping of roof rock, the height of a cavity at depth, the depth of overlying rock, and the bulking ratio of the rubble formed during stoping. Persons with extensive experience in solution mining in the Windsor-Detroit area have expressed doubt that the stoping mechanism could fully explain the development of these sinks. Further, they have proposed that the relatively shallow (300-ft-deep) Sylvania Sandstone, in this case, may be responsible for the sinks by a secondary undermining mechanism to be examined in this paper. The mechanism involves downwarping of the beds overlying the salt cavity and development of a shallower cavity in the Sylvania Sandstone by downward migration of cohesionless sand grains from the Sylvania through openings in the disturbed rock to the lower cavity. This study indicates that under natural conditions the Sylvania will not migrate, even in the presence of large underground water flows because the sandstone possesses some cohesion throughout its depth. However, further investigation has formulated a mechanism that could allow the Sylvania Sandstone to loose its cohesion in response to high horizontal stresses. These stresses could be the result of deformation that accompanies general subsidence and (or) of past geologic processes. Included in this study were experimental and analytical investigations. As determined by

  17. PC based electrolytes with LiDFOB as an alternative salt for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Brandon M.

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been greatly sought after as a source of renewable energy storage. LIBs have a wide range of applications including but not limited portable electronic devices, electric vehicles, and power tools. As a direct result of their commercial viability an insatiable hunger for knowledge, advancement within the field of LIBs has been omnipresent for the last two decades. However, there are set backs evident within the LIB field; most notably the limitations of standard electrolyte formulations and LiPF6 lithium salt. The standard primary carbonate of ethylene carbonate (EC) has a very limited operating range due to its innate physical properties, and the LiPF6 salt is known to readily decompose to form HF which can further degrade LIB longevity. The goal of our research is to explore the use of a new primary salt LiDFOB in conjunction with a propylene carbonate based electrolyte to establish a more flexible electrolyte formulation by constructing coin cells and cycling them under various conditions to give a clear understanding of each formulation inherent performance capabilities. Our studies show that 1.2M LiDFOB in 3:7 PC/EMC + 1.5% VC is capable of performing comparably to the standard 1.2M LiPF6 in 3:7 EC/EMC at 25°C and the PC electrolyte also illustrates performance superior to the standard at 55°C. The degradation of lithium manganese spinel electrodes, including LiNi 0.5Mn1.5O4, is an area of great concern within the field of lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Manganese containing cathode materials frequently have problems associated with Mn dissolution which significantly reduces the cycle life of LIB. Thus the stability of the cathode material is paramount to the performance of Mn spinel cathode materials in LIBs. In an effort to gain a better understanding of the stability of LiNi0.5 Mn1.5O4 in common LiPF6/carbonate electrolytes, samples were stored at elevated temperature in the presence of electrolyte. Then after storage both

  18. V5 AND V10 CONTACTOR TESTING WITH THE NEXT GENERATION (CSSX) SOLVENT FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restivo, M.; Peters, T.; Pierce, R.; Fondeur, F.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Giddings, B.; Hickman, B.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-17

    A solvent extraction system for removal of cesium (Cs) from alkaline solutions was developed utilizing a novel solvent invented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This solvent consists of a calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant dissolved in an inert hydrocarbon matrix. A Modifier is added to the solvent to enhance the extraction power of the calixarene and to prevent the formation of a third phase. An additional additive, called a suppressor, is used to improve stripping performance. The process that deploys this solvent system is known as Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). The solvent system has been deployed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) since 2008. Subsequent development efforts by ORNL identified an improved solvent system that can raise the expected decontamination factor (DF) in MCU from {approx}200 to more than 40,000. The improved DF is attributed to an improved distribution ratio for cesium [D(Cs)] in extraction from {approx}15 to {approx}60, an increased solubility of the calixarene in the solvent from 0.007 M to >0.050 M, and use of boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) stripping that also yields improved D(Cs) values. Additionally, the changes incorporated into the Next Generation CSSX Solvent (NGS) are intended to reduce solvent entrainment by virtue of more favorable physical properties. The MCU and Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) facilities are actively pursuing the changeover from the current CSSX solvent to the NGS solvent. To support this integration of the NGS into the MCU and SWPF facilities, the Savannah River Remediation (SRR)/ARP/MCU Life Extension Project requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform testing of the new solvent for the removal of Cs from the liquid salt waste stream. Additionally, SRNL was tasked with characterizing both strip (20-in long, 10 micron pore size) and extraction (40-in long, 20 micron pore size) coalescers. SRNL designed a pilot-scale experimental

  19. Excess plutonium disposition using ALWR technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, A. (ed.); Buckner, M.R.; Radder, J.A.; Angelos, J.G.; Inhaber, H.

    1993-02-01

    The Office of Nuclear Energy of the Department of Energy chartered the Plutonium Disposition Task Force in August 1992. The Task Force was created to assess the range of practicable means of disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. Within the Task Force, working groups were formed to consider: (1) storage, (2) disposal,and(3) fission options for this disposition,and a separate group to evaluate nonproliferation concerns of each of the alternatives. As a member of the Fission Working Group, the Savannah River Technology Center acted as a sponsor for light water reactor (LWR) technology. The information contained in this report details the submittal that was made to the Fission Working Group of the technical assessment of LWR technology for plutonium disposition. The following aspects were considered: (1) proliferation issues, (2) technical feasibility, (3) technical availability, (4) economics, (5) regulatory issues, and (6) political acceptance.

  20. FAILED FUEL DISPOSITION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THIELGES, J.R.

    2004-12-20

    In May 2004 alpha contamination was found on the lid of the pre-filter housing in the Sodium Removal Ion Exchange System during routine filter change. Subsequent investigation determined that the alpha contamination likely came from a fuel pin(s) contained in an Ident-69 (ID-69) type pin storage container serial number 9 (ID-69-9) that was washed in the Sodium Removal System (SRS) in January 2004. Because all evidence indicated that the wash water interacted with the fuel, this ID49 is designated as containing a failed fuel pin with gross cladding defect and was set aside in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell until it could be determined how to proceed for long term dry storage of the fuel pin container. This ID49 contained fuel pins from the driver fuel assembly (DFA) 16392, which was identified as a Delayed Neutron Monitor (DNM) leaker assembly. However, this DFA was disassembled and the fuel pin that was thought to be the failed pin was encapsulated and was not located in this ID49 container. This failed fuel disposition study discusses two alternatives that could be used to address long term storage for the contents of ID-69-9. The first alternative evaluated utilizes the current method of identifying and storing DNM leaker fuel pin(s) in tubes and thus, verifying that the alpha contamination found in the SRS came from a failed pin in this pin container. This approach will require unloading selected fuel pins from the ID-69, visually examining and possibly weighing suspect fuel pins to identify the failed pin(s), inserting the failed pin(s) in storage tubes, and reloading the fuel pins into ID49 containers. Safety analysis must be performed to revise the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (Reference 1) for this fuel configuration. The second alternative considered is to store the failed fuel as-is in the ID-69. This was evaluated to determine if this approach would comply with storage requirements. This

  1. Organic Acid Salt from Complete Feed Silage Corn Based by Product as an Alternative to Substitute Antibiotic Function as a Growth Promotor for Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Negara

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of organic acid salt Zn from complete feed silage based on corn by product as an alternative to subtitute antibiotic function as a growth promotor for broiler. Ninety day old commercial Cobb broiler chickens were randomly distributed into six groups having three replicates of five birds in each group. Negative control (R0 birds were offered standard basal diet and no challenged, positive control (R1 birds were offered standard basal diet and challenged with 107 Salmonella typhimurium. Treatment R2, R3, R4 and R5 were challenged by 107 CFU of Salmonella typhimurium which added in feed with 0.1% flouroquinolone, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3% of organic acid salts. The result showed that dietary of organic acid salts affect consumption, weight gain, and final body weight (P<0.05. Meanwhile, feed conversion (FCR was not affected by antibiotics nor organic acids. Our conclusion, Dietary organic acid salt from complete feed silage corn based by product until dose 0.2% can improve the performance of broiler chickens infected Salmonella typhimurium. (Animal Production 11(3: 170-175 (2009 Key Words: broiler, organic acid, Salmonella typhimurium

  2. What is a Dispositive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe, Sverre; Gudmand-Høyer, Marius T.; Thaning, Morten Sørensen

    This article advances the ‘dispositive’ (le dispositif) as a key conception in Foucault’s work. As developed in his annual lectures in 1978 and 1979, the dispositive represents a crucial constituent of societal analysis on par with the familiar analytics of power/knowledge and the governmentality...... perspective – indeed it forms a lesser known intermediary between these. Foucault’s dispositional analysis articulates a history of connected social technologies that we have constructed to relate to each other. Expounding these points, the article distinguishes various dispositional prototypes and develops...... key ‘socio-ontological’ implications of the analy-sis. Reinstating the proper analytical status of the dispositive contributes to the reception of the important notion; the interpretation of Foucault’s entire oeuvre; and a resourceful approach to the study of contemporary societal problems....

  3. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 2 - CANDU heavy water reactor alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, S.R.; Spellman, D.J.; Bevard, B.B. [and others

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 2 of a four volume report, summarizes the results of these analyses for the CANDU reactor based plutonium disposition alternative.

  4. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 3 - partially complete LWR alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, S.R.; Fisher, S.E.; Bevard, B.B. [and others

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 3 of a four volume report summarizes the results of these analyses for the partially complete LWR (PCLWR) reactor based plutonium disposition alternative.

  5. Effect of 24-epibrassinolide on Brassica napus alternative respiratory pathway, guard cells movements and phospholipid signaling under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevyanchuk, Michael; Kretynin, Sergii; Iakovenko, Oksana; Litvinovskaya, Raisa; Zhabinskii, Vladimir; Martinec, Jan; Blume, Yaroslav; Khripach, Vladimir; Kravets, Volodymyr

    2017-01-01

    Using Brassica napus roots we observed statistically significant increase in alternative respiratory pathway in response to exogenous 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) under optimal conditions and salinity. Also we observed activation of phospholipid signaling under the same conditions in response to EBL by measuring levels of lipid second messengers - diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid (PA). We found that brassinosteroids cause closure of stomata in isolated leaf disks while inhibitors of alternative oxidase cancelled these effects. This study demonstrates that BRs activate total respiration rate, alternative respiratory pathway, production of PA and DAG, stimulate stomata closure and growth under optimal conditions and salinity. Also, specific inhibitor of brassinosteroids biosynthesis decreased alternative respiratory pathway and production of lipid messengers in rape plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Leadership: Dispositional and Situational. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    block number) For over four decades, leadership research has examined the issue of whether internal dispositions ( traits ), situational characteristics... leadership research has examined the issue of whether internal dispositions ( traits ), situational characteristics (contexts), or some combination of...Situational 3 Leadership : Dispositional and Situational The person-situation debate has been a key issue in several areas of psychology and management

  7. Five Dispositions for Personalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Kim

    2017-01-01

    The author reviews various ways personalized learning has come to be interpreted and asserts that rather than requiring we create individualized learning plans for each student, true personalization requires that teachers give learners the tools, knowledge, skills, and dispositions to manage themselves and their learning environment. Teachers…

  8. A novel steroid-coenzyme A ligase from Novosphingobium sp. strain Chol11 is essential for an alternative degradation pathway for bile salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Onur; Holert, Johannes; Ludwig, Kevin Christopher; Thierbach, Sven; Philipp, Bodo

    2017-10-20

    Bile salts such as cholate are steroid compounds with a C5 carboxylic side chain and occur ubiquitously in vertebrates. Upon their excretion into soils and waters bile salts can serve as growth substrates for diverse bacteria. Novosphingobium sp. strain Chol11 degrades 7-hydroxy bile salts via 3-keto-7-deoxy-Δ(4,6) metabolites by dehydration of the 7-hydroxyl group catalyzed by the 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydratase Hsh2. This reaction has not been observed in the well-studied 9-10-seco degradation pathway used by other steroid-degrading bacteria indicating that strain Chol11 uses an alternative pathway. A reciprocal BLASTp analysis showed that known side chain degradation genes from other cholate-degrading bacteria (Pseudomonas stutzeri Chol1, Comamonas testosteroni CNB-2 and Rhodococcus jostii RHA1) were not found in the genome of strain Chol11. Characterization of a transposon mutant of strain Chol11 showing altered growth with cholate identified a novel steroid-24-oyl-coenzyme A ligase named Scl1. Unmarked deletion of scl1 resulted in a strong growth rate decrease with cholate, while growth with steroids with a C3-side chain or without a side chain was not affected. Intermediates with a 7-deoxy-3-keto-Δ(4,6) structure such as 3,12-dioxo-4,6-choldienoic acid (DOCDA) were shown to be likely physiological substrates of Scl1. Furthermore, a novel CoA-dependent DOCDA degradation metabolite with an additional double bond in the side chain was identified. These results support that Novosphingobium sp. strain Chol11 harbors an alternative pathway for cholate degradation, in which side chain degradation is initiated by the CoA-ligase Scl1 and proceeds via reaction steps catalyzed by so-far unknown enzymes different from other steroid degrading bacteria.IMPORTANCE This study provides further evidence of the diversity of metabolic pathways for the degradation of steroid compounds in environmental bacteria. The knowledge about these pathways contributes to the understanding

  9. Update to the Fissile Materials Disposition program SST/SGT transportation estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Didlake

    1999-11-15

    This report is an update to ``Fissile Materials Disposition Program SST/SGT Transportation Estimation,'' SAND98-8244, June 1998. The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition requested this update as a basis for providing the public with an updated estimation of the number of transportation loads, load miles, and costs associated with the preferred alternative in the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

  10. Experiments and Modeling in Support of Generic Salt Repository Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourret, Suzanne Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Otto, Shawn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zyvoloski, George Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Johnson, Peter Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-19

    Salt is an attractive material for the disposition of heat generating nuclear waste (HGNW) because of its self-sealing, viscoplastic, and reconsolidation properties (Hansen and Leigh, 2012). The rate at which salt consolidates and the properties of the consolidated salt depend on the composition of the salt, including its content in accessory minerals and moisture, and the temperature under which consolidation occurs. Physicochemical processes, such as mineral hydration/dehydration salt dissolution and precipitation play a significant role in defining the rate of salt structure changes. Understanding the behavior of these complex processes is paramount when considering safe design for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) in salt formations, so experimentation and modeling is underway to characterize these processes. This report presents experiments and simulations in support of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for development of drift-scale, in-situ field testing of HGNW in salt formations.

  11. Here today, gone tomorrow…and back again? A review of herbal marijuana alternatives (K2, Spice), synthetic cathinones (bath salts), kratom, Salvia divinorum, methoxetamine, and piperazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Christopher D; Carreiro, Stephanie P; Babu, Kavita M

    2012-03-01

    Despite their widespread Internet availability and use, many of the new drugs of abuse remain unfamiliar to health care providers. The herbal marijuana alternatives, like K2 or Spice, are a group of herbal blends that contain a mixture of plant matter in addition to chemical grade synthetic cannabinoids. The synthetic cathinones, commonly called "bath salts," have resulted in nationwide emergency department visits for severe agitation, sympathomimetic toxicity, and death. Kratom, a plant product derived from Mitragyna speciosa Korth, has opioid-like effects, and has been used for the treatment of chronic pain and amelioration of opioid-withdrawal symptoms. Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogen with unique pharmacology that has therapeutic potential but has been banned in many states due to concerns regarding its psychiatric effects. Methoxetamine has recently become available via the Internet and is marked as "legal ketamine." Moreover, the piperazine derivatives, a class of amphetamine-like compounds that includes BZP and TMFPP, are making a resurgence as "legal Ecstasy." These psychoactives are available via the Internet, frequently legal, and often perceived as safe by the public. Unfortunately, these drugs often have adverse effects, which range from minimal to life-threatening. Health care providers must be familiar with these important new classes of drugs. This paper discusses the background, pharmacology, clinical effects, detection, and management of synthetic cannabinoid, synthetic cathinone, methoxetamine, and piperazine exposures.

  12. R&D plan for immobilization technologies: fissile materials disposition program. Revision 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, H.F.; Armantrout, G.A.

    1996-09-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US and Russia have agreed to large reductions in nuclear weapons. To aid in the selection of long- term fissile material management options, the Department of Energy`s Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) is conducting studies of options for the storage and disposition of surplus plutonium (Pu). One set of alternatives for disposition involve immobilization. The immobilization alternatives provide for fixing surplus fissile materials in a host matrix in order to create a solid disposal form that is nuclear criticality-safe, proliferation-resistant and environmentally acceptable for long-term storage or disposal.

  13. FS65 Disposition Option Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenz, Tracy R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-25

    This report outlines the options for dispositioning the MOX fuel stored in FS65 containers at LANL. Additional discussion regarding the support equipment for loading and unloading the FS65 transport containers is included at the end of the report.

  14. 39 CFR 954.3 - Informal dispositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.3 Informal dispositions. These rules do not preclude the informal dispositions of Periodicals mailing privilege matters before or after institution of...

  15. Happiness, Dispositions and the Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2016-01-01

    I argue that happiness is an exclusively categorical mental state. Daniel Haybron’s inclusion of dispositions into his emotional state theory rests of a confusion of constituents of happiness in the narrow psychological sense with objects of prudential concern, to which obviously belong “mood...... propensities” and other dispositional states. I further argue that while it is probably correct to require of a constituent of happiness that it must in some sense be “deep” and belong to, or directly impact on, a persons’ self, the importance of depth may be overrated by the emotional state theory, which also...

  16. Weapons material disposition: Section II - disposition`s dilemma; Section III - the MOX option: For love or for money?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    In the interests of global security, almost all the nuclear states are now working closely with each other to tackle safeguards and disposition issues that until recently have been caught in the thicklets of international rivalry. An excellent example in the Nuclear Safety and Security Summit held in Moscow in April, attended by government leaders from Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the U.K., the U.S. and the Russian Federation. The Summit Decleration addresses excess weapons materials in term, even outlining specific disposal alternatives, and called for a convention of technical experts to meet in France before year-end to formulate concrete recommendations. As the Summit Decleration also makes clear, however, primary responsibility for solutions lies with the nuclear weapons states themselves, not with other countries or international organizations, specifically the united States and Russia, that we now turn.

  17. Development of an alternative low salt bovine hide preservation using PEG and crude glycerol, part II: mechanical properties of leather products

    Science.gov (United States)

    To obtain good quality leather products, the hides from which they are derived should be preserved properly while in storage and transit to prevent putrefaction. Current practice for hide preservation is salt curing via concentrated NaCl solutions. The objective of the current study is to develop al...

  18. Social Justice and Dispositions for Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, John D.

    2010-01-01

    The article identifies dispositions from a thematic investigation of the pedagogical practice of Ernesto Che Guevara and various social movements in the United States. The article outlines and places these dispositions within the context of debates over social justice and dispositions for education program accreditation in the United States that…

  19. The role of dispositions in explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín VICENTE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to a model defended by some authors, dispositional concepts can be legitimately used in causal explanations, although such a use is not necessary. I argue, however, that there is a kind of use of dispositions in explanations that does not fall within this model: we will miss some explanations if we forsake dispositional concepts and explanations.

  20. INNER SALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a...Products that have been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a mesomeric inner salt . (Author)...Novel phosphonium and phosphorane compounds ere prepared by a variety of m hods from triphenylphosphine and methylene bromide. Products that have

  1. A disposition of interpolation techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knotters, M.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    A large collection of interpolation techniques is available for application in environmental research. To help environmental scientists in choosing an appropriate technique a disposition is made, based on 1) applicability in space, time and space-time, 2) quantification of accuracy of interpolated

  2. Signs, dispositions, and semiotic scaffolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Eliseo

    2015-12-01

    In theoretical work we distinguish living beings from inanimate objects on the basis of some paramount attributes, such as agency and autonomy. These abstract features are not directly accessible to our scrutiny, but we surmise their nature through observation of the purpose-oriented behavior of organisms. I intend to show that organismal purposefulness springs from the intrinsic, constitutive kind of finality that is the hallmark of all semiotic transactions. To this aim I develop a dispositionalist account of organismal causation based on a distinction between two kinds of causal dispositions: fixed (efficient) dispositions and traveling dispositions. Fixed dispositions are rigidly attached to physical structures and processes; these are the dispositions regularly invoked in current discussions of causal explanation. Traveling dispositions are able to move freely from one location to another by becoming embodied into suitable supporting media. I introduce these notions to articulate a view of semiosis I deem best suited to the life sciences, and contend that sign tokens are vehicles of traveling dispositions. This account places the origin of purposive behavior at the interaction of physical and semiotic causation. To properly motivate the discussion I briefly review some recent developments in the philosophy of science concerning various forms of causation invoked by scientists across disciplines to frame explanations and make predictions. The ensuing discussion gives particular prominence to mechanistic (as distinct from mechanicist) explanatory accounts of biological phenomena. This review is followed by a brief characterization of a "nomological machine," a comprehensive schema introduced and developed by Nancy Cartwright with the goal of explaining causal mechanisms in a general setting. By capitalizing on this model's heuristic virtues I seek to formulate a compelling view of the interactions between physical and semiotic causation at play in semiotic

  3. MPC&A for plutonium disposition in the Russian federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1995-08-08

    The issue of what to do with excess fissile materials from dismantled nuclear weapons has been discussed for a number of years. The options or alternatives commanding the most attention were identified by the American National Academy of Sciences. For plutonium these options are: (1) the fabrication and use of mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel followed by the disposal of the spent fuel, or (2) vitrification (immobilization) of plutonium combined with highly radioactive material followed by direct disposal. The Academy report also identified the alternative of disposal in a deep borehole as requiring further study before being eliminated or accepted. The report emphasized security of nuclear materials as a principal factor in considering management and disposition decisions. Security of materials is particularly important in the near term-now-long before ultimate disposition can be accomplished. The MOX option was the subject of a NATO workshop held at Obninsk, Russia in October 1994. Hence this paper does not deal with the MOX alternative in detail. It deals with the following: materials protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A) for immobilization and disposal; the immobilization vs MOX alternatives; the security of disposed plutonium; the need to demonstrate MTC&A for plutonium disposition; and, finally, a recommended investment to quickly and inexpensively improve the protection of fissile materials in Russia. It is the author`s view that near-term management is of overriding importance. That is, with respect to the ultimate disposition of excess nuclear materials, how we get there is more important than where we are going.

  4. National measures fostering alternative vehicles: electric, natural gas, liquefied oil gas vehicles; Dispositions nationales en faveur des vehicules alternatifs: vehicules electriques, au gaz naturel (GNv) et au gaz de petrole liquefie (GPLc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-07

    This document, issued by the French Ministry of Economy, Finances and Industry, presents national measures fostering alternative vehicles, i.e., electric, natural gas and liquefied oil gas vehicles. Financial supports for studies aiming at optimizing the fleet and choosing the alternative vehicles as well as for purchasing vehicles both by counter procedure and for demonstration programmes are provided. Amount of subsidies, conditions of obtaining and categories of addressees are indicated. The document contains also two relating studies. The first one is titled 'the policy of developing alternative vehicles'. The following four items are addressed: - the present frame favouring the alternative vehicles; - the electric vehicles; - natural gas fuelled vehicles (GNV); - liquefied oil gas fuelled vehicles (GPLc). Although non-polluting the electric vehicles are not tempting because of their rather limited range (80 Km at a battery charging). So far only around 3,000 vehicles were sold. Fifty GNV buses were ordered by RATP and the figure raised at 70 in 1998 and 1999. The GPLc fleet amounts up to 70,000 vehicles and by the end of 2000 it is foreseen to reach the level of 300,000 vehicles. The second study addresses to the issue of natural gas for vehicles. It presents: - its advantages; - its peculiarities; - the action of public authorities; -the current state and trends of GNV vehicles. In a joint effort public authorities and partners of this option are aiming at a fleet of 2500 light service vehicles and 300 bus for urban transport by the end of 1999.

  5. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ``Alternative Teams,`` chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S&S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT`s analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option.

  6. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, R.; Pak, D.

    2011-08-10

    Vacuum distillation of chloride salts from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) and simulant PuO{sub 2} has been previously demonstrated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites using kilogram quantities of chloride salt. The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated using a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attained, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile materials in the feed boat. The application of vacuum salt distillation (VSD) is of interest to the HB-Line Facility and the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Both facilities are involved in efforts to disposition excess fissile materials. Many of these materials contain chloride and fluoride salt concentrations which make them unsuitable for dissolution without prior removal of the chloride and fluoride salts. Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. Subsequent efforts are attempting to adapt the technology for the removal of fluoride. Fluoride salts of interest are less-volatile than the corresponding chloride salts. Consequently, an alternate approach is required for the removal of fluoride without significantly increasing the operating temperature. HB-Line Engineering requested SRNL to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of an alternate approach using both non-radioactive simulants and plutonium-bearing materials. Whereas the earlier developments targeted the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl), the current

  7. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  8. Linguistic variables, approximate reasoning and dispositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadeh, L.A.

    1983-07-01

    Test-score semantics is applied to the representation of meaning of dispositions, that is, propositions with suppressed fuzzy quantifiers, e.g. overeating causes obesity, icy roads are slippery, young men like young women, etc. The concept of a disposition plays an especially important role in the representation of commonsense knowledge. 45 references.

  9. Overview of surplus weapons plutonium disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy, G.

    1996-05-01

    The safe disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium is a very important and urgent task. While the functions of long term storage and disposition directly relate to the Department`s weapons program and the environmental management program, the focus of this effort is particularly national security and nonproliferation.

  10. Dispositions in Education: Nonentities Worth Talking about

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitter, Laurance J.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of dispositions has commanded considerable attention in both philosophy and education. In this essay, Laurance Splitter draws on philosophy to take a fresh look at dispositions in education, specifically teacher education. Bypassing the pitfalls of both subjectivity and crude behaviorism, he proposes a conceptual framework in which…

  11. 7 CFR 1000.3 - Route disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.3 Route disposition. Route disposition means a delivery to a retail or wholesale outlet...

  12. Critical Thinking Dispositions in Online Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lorraine Mary

    2008-01-01

    As part of a doctoral study, the critical thinking dispositions of post-RN (post-diploma) nurses continuing their education at a mid-sized university were measured before and after the intervention of a three-credit online course. The tool used to measure the changes in critical thinking disposition was the California Critical Thinking…

  13. Accuracy of rapid disposition by emergency clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backay, Andrew; Bystrzycki, Adam; Smit, De Villiers; Keogh, Martin; O'Reilly, Gerard; Mitra, Biswadev

    2017-05-01

    Objectives Rapid disposition protocols are increasingly being considered for implementation in emergency departments (EDs). Among patients presenting to an adult tertiary referral hospital, this study aimed to compare prediction accuracy of a rapid disposition decision at the conclusion of history and examination, compared with disposition following standard assessment. Methods Prospective observational data were collected for 1 month between October and November 2012. Emergency clinicians (including physicians, registrars, hospital medical officers, interns and nurse practitioners) filled out a questionnaire within 5min of obtaining a history and clinical examination for eligible patients. Predicted patient disposition (representing 'rapid disposition') was compared with final disposition (determined by 'standard assessment'). Results There were 301 patient episodes included in the study. Predicted disposition was correct in 249 (82.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 78.0-86.8) cases. Accuracy of predicting discharge to home appeared highest among emergency physicians at 95.8% (95% CI 78.9-99.9). Overall accuracy at predicting admission was 79.7% (95% CI 67.2-89.0). The remaining 20.3% (95% CI 11.0-32.8) were not admitted following standard assessment. Conclusion Rapid disposition by ED clinicians can predict patient destination accurately but was associated with a potential increase in admission rates. Any model of care using rapid disposition decision making should involve establishment of inpatient systems for further assessment, and a culture of timely inpatient team transfer of patients to the most appropriate treating team for ongoing patient management. What is known about the topic? In response to the National Emergency Access Targets, there has been widespread adoption of rapid-disposition-themed care models across Australia. Although there is emerging data that clinicians can predict disposition accurately, this data is currently limited. What does this

  14. Fissile material disposition program: Screening of alternate immobilization candidates for disposition of surplus fissile materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, L.W.

    1996-01-08

    With the end of the Cold War, the world faces for the first time the need to dismantle vast numbers of ``excess`` nuclear weapons and dispose of the fissile materials they contain, together with fissile residues in the weapons production complex left over from the production of these weapons. If recently agreed US and Russian reductions are fully implemented, tens of thousands of nuclear weapons, containing a hundred tons or more of plutonium and hundreds of tonnes* of highly enriched uranium (HEU), will no longer be needed worldwide for military purposes. These two materials are the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons, and limits on access to them are the primary technical barrier to prospective proliferants who might desire to acquire a nuclear weapons capability. Theoretically, several kilograms of plutonium, or several times that amount of HEU, is sufficient to make a nuclear explosive device. Therefore, these materials will continue to be a potential threat to humanity for as long as they exist.

  15. High-temperature vacuum distillation separation of plutonium waste salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In this task, high-temperature vacuum distillation separation is being developed for residue sodium chloride-potassium chloride salts resulting from past pyrochemical processing of plutonium. This process has the potential of providing clean separation of the salt and the actinides with minimal amounts of secondary waste generation. The process could produce chloride salt that could be discarded as low-level waste (LLW) or low actinide content transuranic (TRU) waste, and a concentrated actinide oxide powder that would meet long-term storage standards (DOE-DTD-3013-94) until a final disposition option for all surplus plutonium is chosen.

  16. Understanding How Service-Learning Impacts the Dispositions of Teach for America Candidates and Their Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Dymaneke; Karlin, Sy; Price, Todd

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on a study that assessed Teach for America (TFA) candidates' dispositions toward service-learning before and after they developed and implemented a service-learning project with their students. This article may be used to understand the significance of raising alternative certification teacher candidates' community awareness…

  17. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  18. Tissue disposition of bifenthrin in the rat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Tissue disposition of bifenthrin in the rat and oral and intravenous administration. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Hughes , M., D. Ross...

  19. Dispositional affectivity and work outcomes of expatriates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    How the two components of dispositional affectivity, positive affectivity, representing the predisposition to respond positively to environmental stimuli, and negative affectivity, depicting the opposite reaction, influence work has been the focus of much research. Although dispositional...... affectivity appears to be a promising construct to explain and predict many attitudinal and behavioral outcomes in the workplace, few studies have empirically investigated dispositional affectivity and the work of expatriates. Hence, data from a net-based survey including 350 expatriates in Denmark were used...... to examine the relationship between dispositional affectivity and their work outcomes. Results showed consistent positive associations between positive affectivity and all the studied work outcomes and the opposite relationships for negative affectivity. Implications and suggestions for future research...

  20. Demographic and dispositional characteristics as predictors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demographic and dispositional characteristics as predictors of organisational citizenship behaviour. ... as important predictors of OCB. The study identified some future directions for personality research in industrial, work, and organizational psychology and concludes with some caveats and directions for future research.

  1. KE Basin water dispositioning engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunacek, G.S.; Gahir, S.S.

    1994-09-23

    This engineering study is a feasibility study of KE Basin water treatment to an acceptable level and dispositioning the treated water to Columbia River, ground through ETF or to air through evaporation.

  2. Foundational skills and dispositions for learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caviglia, Francesco; Delfino, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    the development of more general learning dispositions and competences. After a period of training with IPS activities, the experimental group showed different dispositions towards learning from a text and engaging with open-ended questions. Despite serious limitations in the depth of analysis, most students were...... able to reach acceptable solutions; at the same time, they felt empowered and developed an embryonic critical attitude on which it might be possible to build further....

  3. Embryo disposition and the new death scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison, David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the IVF clinic - a place designed principally for the production and implantation of embryos - scientists and IVF recipients are faced with decisions regarding the disposition of frozen embryos. At this time there are hundred of thousands of cryopreserved embryos awaiting such determinations. They may be thawed for transfer to the woman herself, they may be donated for research or for use by other infertile couples, they may remain in frozen storage, or they may variously be discarded by being allowed to 'succumb', or 'perish'. Where the choice is discard, some IVF clients have chosen to formalise the process through ceremony. A new language is emerging in response to the desires of the would-be-parents who might wish to characterise the discard experience as a ‘good death’. This article examines the procedure known as ‘compassionate transfer’ where the embryo to be discarded is placed in the woman’s vagina where it is clear that it will not develop further. An alternate method has the embryo transferred in the usual manner but without the benefit of fertility-enhancing hormones at a point in the cycle unreceptive to implantation. The embryo destined for disposal is thus removed from the realm of technological possibility and ‘returned’ to the female body for a homely death. While debates continue about whether or not embryos constitute life, new practices are developing in response to the emotional experience of embryo discard. We argue that compassionate transfer is a death scene taking shape. In this article, we take the measure of this new death scene’s fabrication, and consider the form, significance, and legal complexity of its ceremonies.

  4. Supplement to the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-05-14

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the ''Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS)''. ''The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement'' (SPD Draft EIS) (DOWEIS-0283-D) was prepared in accordance with NEPA and issued in July 1998. It identified the potential environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives for the proposed siting, construction, and operation of three facilities for plutonium disposition. These three facilities would accomplish pit disassembly and conversion, immobilization, and MOX fuel fabrication. For the alternatives that included MOX fuel fabrication, the draft also described the potential environmental impacts of using from three to eight commercial nuclear reactors to irradiate MOX fuel. The potential impacts were based on a generic reactor analysis that used actual reactor data and a range of potential site conditions. In May 1998, DCE initiated a procurement process to obtain MOX fuel fabrication and reactor irradiation services. The request for proposals defined limited activities that may be performed prior to issuance of the SPD EIS Record of Decision (ROD) including non-site-specific work associated with the development of the initial design for the MOX fuel fabrication facility, and plans (paper studies) for outreach, long lead-time procurements, regulatory management, facility quality assurance, safeguards, security, fuel qualification, and deactivation. No construction on the proposed MOX facility would begin before an SPD EIS ROD is issued. In March 1999, DOE awarded a contract to Duke Engineering & Services; COGEMA, Inc.; and Stone & Webster (known as DCS) to provide the requested

  5. The return of dispositionalism: On the linguistic consequences of dispositional suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geeraert, N.; Yzerbyt, V.Y.; Corneille, O.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Yzerbyt, Corneille, Dumont, and Hahn (2001) showed that the correction of dispositional inferences does not only involve a close examination of situational constraints but also the suppression of those dispositional inferences. Building on the literature of mental control ( Wegner, 1994; Wenzlaff &

  6. Validity Issues in Assessing Dispositions: The Confirmatory Factor Analysis of a Teacher Dispositions Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chunling; Everson, Kimberlee; Dietrich, Sylvia; Zippay, Cassie

    2017-01-01

    Critics against the inclusion of dispositions as part of the teacher education accreditation focus on the dearth of empirical literature on reliably and validly accessing dispositions (Borko, Liston, & Whitcomb, 2007). In this study, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to test the factorial validity of a teacher dispositions…

  7. Dispositional optimism and loneliness in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius-Ottenheim, Nathaly; Kromhout, Daan; van der Mast, Roos C; Zitman, Frans G; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Giltay, Erik J

    2012-02-01

    Dispositional optimism, defined as a generalized tendency to positive outcome expectancies, is associated with well-being and successful aging. However, it remains unclear whether optimism is also correlated to less feelings of loneliness over time. We aimed to determine whether dispositional optimism is prospectively associated with less feelings of loneliness, independently of potential confounders inherent to the aging process. We observed 416 older men aged between 70 and 89 years (mean 74.9 years, standard deviation [SD] 4.7 years) within the population-based Zutphen Elderly Study during 10 years of follow-up. Baseline dispositional optimism was assessed using a four-item questionnaire. The presence of feelings of loneliness, the main outcome of our study, was assessed using the 11-item loneliness scale of De Jong Gierveld in the years 1990, 1993, 1995, and 2000. The association between baseline dispositional optimism and loneliness over time was tested by using multilevel regression analysis and by adjusting for potential confounders (i.e. age, living arrangement, social contacts, widowhood, memberships, self-rated health, and depressive symptoms). Feelings of loneliness significantly increased during 10 years of follow-up but showed temporal stability (reliability coefficient 0.78). Low baseline dispositional optimism was strongly associated with loneliness over time, also in the adjusted analysis. A 1 SD increase in baseline dispositional optimism was associated with a 0.14 SD (95% confidence interval 0.04-0.23) lower level of loneliness (F(1,320)  = 7.8; p = 0.006). Dispositional optimism is correlated to lower feelings of loneliness over time in older men, independently of depression or changes in social network. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Title 44 US Code, ``Public Printing and Documents,`` regulations issued by the General Service Administration (GSA) in 41 CFR Chapter 101, Subchapter B, ``Management and Use of Information and Records,`` and regulations issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter 12, Subchapter B, ``Records Management,`` require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA`s General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 3, contains ``NRC`s Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,`` and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 3 incorporates NARA approved changes and additions to the NRC schedules that have been implemented since the last revision dated March, 1992, reflects recent organizational changes implemented at the NRC, and includes the latest version of NARA`s General Records Schedule (dated August 1995).

  9. Dispositional optimism and coping with pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bargiel-Matusiewicz K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of this article is to analyze the relation between dispositional optimism and coping with chronic pain. The study seeks to define the relation between life orientation (optimism vs. pessimism and coping with pain (believes about pain control and the choice of coping strategy. Material and methods The following questionnaires were used: LOT-R - Life Orientation Test, BPCQ - The Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire and CSQ - The Pain Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Results The results show that dispositional optimism correlates positively with: internal locus of pain control r = 0.6, P Conclusions We conclude that dispositional optimism plays a key role in forming the mechanisms of coping with chronic pain and thereby in improving the psychophysical comfort of patients.

  10. From Dispositions to Behaviors: The Flip Side of Attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Glenn D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the implicational relations between dispositional levels and relevant categories of behavior. Findings were consistent with the idea that dispositional labels are used to represent a central tendency in a person's behavior. (Author)

  11. 78 FR 57547 - Guidance Regarding Dispositions of Tangible Depreciable Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... document contains proposed regulations regarding dispositions of property subject to depreciation under...) regarding the accounting for, and dispositions of, property subject to depreciation under section 168 (MACRS... provide rules for establishing general asset accounts, for computing depreciation for general asset...

  12. Fertility patients' views about frozen embryo disposition: Results of a multi-institutional U.S. survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Steinhauser, Karen; Voils, Corrine; Namey, Emily; Alexander, Carolyn; Bankowski, Brandon; Cook-Deegan, Robert; Dodson, William C.; Gates, Elena; Jungheim, Emily S.; McGovern, Peter G.; Myers, Evan R.; Osborn, Barbara; Schlaff, William; Sugarman, Jeremy; Tulsky, James A.; Walmer, David; Faden, Ruth R.; Wallach, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe fertility patients' preferences for disposition of cryopreserved embryos and determine factors important to these preferences Design Cross-sectional survey conducted between June 2006 and July 2007 Setting Nine geographically diverse U.S. fertility clinics Participants 1020 fertility patients with cryopreserved embryos Interventions Self-administered questionnaire Main Outcome Measures Likelihood of selecting each of five conventional embryo disposition options: store for reproduction, thaw and discard, donate to another couple, freeze indefinitely, and donate for research; likelihood of selecting each of two alternative options identified in previous research: placement of embryos in the woman's body at an infertile time, and a disposal ceremony; importance of each of 26 considerations to disposition decisions; and views on the embryo's moral status. Results 54% of respondents with cryopreserved embryos were very likely to use them for reproduction, 21% were very likely to donate for research, 7% or fewer were very likely to choose any other option. Respondents who ascribed high importance to concerns about the health or well-being of the embryo, fetus, or future child were more likely to thaw and discard embryos or freeze them indefinitely. Conclusions Fertility patients frequently prefer disposition options not available to them or find available options unacceptable. Restructuring and standardizing the informed consent process and ensuring availability of all disposition options may benefit patients, facilitate disposition decisions and address problems of long term storage. PMID:19061998

  13. 12 CFR 34.83 - Disposition of real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of real estate. 34.83 Section 34.83 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Other Real Estate Owned § 34.83 Disposition of real estate. (a) Disposition. A national bank may...

  14. 50 CFR 30.2 - Disposition of surplus range animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of surplus range animals. 30.2... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.2 Disposition of surplus range animals. Disposition shall be made only during regularly scheduled disposal...

  15. Revisiting Disposition Assessment in Teacher Education: Broadening the Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eunjoo; Rhodes, Dent M.

    2008-01-01

    Today's teacher education programmes across the world strive to equip future teachers with the high-quality knowledge, skills and dispositions necessary to teach students. The assessment of teacher dispositions has thus become essential to cultivate those qualities. However, the current approach to disposition assessment in the United States…

  16. 27 CFR 70.184 - Disposition of perishable goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of perishable goods. 70.184 Section 70.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Disposition of Property § 70.184 Disposition of...

  17. Dispositional optimism and loneliness in older men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rius-Ottenheim, N.; Kromhout, D.; Mast, van der R.C.; Zitman, F.G.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Giltay, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dispositional optimism, defined as a generalized tendency to positive outcome expectancies, is associated with well-being and successful aging. However, it remains unclear whether optimism is also correlated to less feelings of loneliness over time. We aimed to determine whether

  18. Dispositional Mindfulness, Meditation, and Conditional Goal Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Catherine; Jandric, Danka; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Williams, J Mark G

    2010-12-01

    Conditional goal setting (CGS, the tendency to regard high order goals such as happiness, as conditional upon the achievement of lower order goals) is observed in individuals with depression and recent research has suggested a link between levels of dispositional mindfulness and conditional goal setting in depressed patients. Since interventions which aim to increase mindfulness through training in meditation are used with patients suffering from depression it is of interest to examine whether such interventions might alter CGS. Study 1 examined the correlation between changes in dispositional mindfulness and changes in CGS over a 3-4 month period in patients participating in a pilot randomised controlled trial of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT). Results indicated that increases in dispositional mindfulness were significantly associated with decreases in CGS, although this effect could not be attributed specifically to the group who had received training in meditation. Study 2 explored the impact of brief periods of either breathing or loving kindness meditation on CGS in 55 healthy participants. Contrary to expectation, a brief period of meditation increased CGS. Further analyses indicated that this effect was restricted to participants low in goal re-engagement ability who were allocated to loving kindness meditation. Longer term changes in dispositional mindfulness are associated with reductions in CGS in patients with depressed mood. However initial reactions to meditation, and in particular loving kindness meditation, may be counterintuitive and further research is required in order to determine the relationship between initial reactions and longer-term benefits of meditation practice.

  19. 7 CFR 1033.3 - Route disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Route disposition. 1033.3 Section 1033.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating...

  20. The mind as skills and dispositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2012-01-01

    to broaden Harré’s hybrid psychology by including not just the brain, but also the body, social practices, and technological artifacts as mediators of the mind. The mind is understood not as a substance of any kind, but as a set of skills and dispositions to act, think, and feel. This implies a normative...

  1. Critical Dispositions: Evidence and Expertise in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Set against the current proliferation of global "difference" and economic realignment, "Critical Dispositions" explores the notions of "evidence" and "expertise" in times of material scarcity. Both have come to the forefront of national and international debate in education as "evidence" and "evidence-based" research and pedagogical practices…

  2. Women Faculty, Professional Identity, and Generational Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine, Susan B.; Martínez Alemán, Ana M.

    2018-01-01

    In an exploratory qualitative study, the generational dispositions of tenured women faculty from the Boomer Generation were examined. As pioneers and now senior members in the academic profession in the Golden Era of American higher education, they exist in a common historical location characterized by cultural forces and events that helped to…

  3. Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Björkström, Monica E; Nordström, Gun

    2010-01-01

    wangensteen s., johansson i.s., björkström m.e. & nordström g. (2010) Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(10), 2170–2181. Aim The aim of the study was to describe critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses in Norway, and to study whether background data had any impact on critical thinking dispositions. Background Competence in critical thinking is one of the expectations of nursing education. Critical thinkers are described as well-informed, inquisitive, open-minded and orderly in complex matters. Critical thinking competence has thus been designated as an outcome for judging the quality of nursing education programmes and for the development of clinical judgement. The ability to think critically is also described as reducing the research–practice gap and fostering evidence-based nursing. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. The data were collected between October 2006 and April 2007 using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. The response rate was 33% (n= 618). Pearson’s chi-square tests were used to analyse the data. Results Nearly 80% of the respondents reported a positive disposition towards critical thinking. The highest mean score was on the Inquisitiveness subscale and the lowest on the Truth-seeking subscale. A statistically significant higher proportion of nurses with high critical thinking scores were found among those older than 30 years, those with university education prior to nursing education, and those working in community health care. Conclusion Nurse leaders and nurse teachers should encourage and nurture critical thinking among newly graduated nurses and nursing students. The low Truth-seeking scores found may be a result of traditional teaching strategies in nursing education and might indicate a need for more student-active learning models. PMID:20384637

  4. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  5. Molten salt oxidation of organic hazardous waste with high salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chengqian; Chi, Yong; Jin, Yuqi; Jiang, Xuguang; Buekens, Alfons; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Jian

    2018-02-01

    Organic hazardous waste often contains some salt, owing to the widespread use of alkali salts during industrial manufacturing processes. These salts cause complications during the treatment of this type of waste. Molten salt oxidation is a flameless, robust thermal process, with inherent capability of destroying the organic constituents of wastes, while retaining the inorganic ingredients in the molten salt. In the present study, molten salt oxidation is employed for treating a typical organic hazardous waste with a high content of alkali salts. The hazardous waste derives from the production of thiotriazinone. Molten salt oxidation experiments have been conducted using a lab-scale molten salt oxidation reactor, and the emissions of CO, NO, SO2, HCl and dioxins are studied. Impacts are investigated from the composition of the molten salts, the types of feeding tube, the temperature of molten carbonates and the air factor. Results show that the waste can be oxidised effectively in a molten salt bath. Temperature of molten carbonates plays the most important role. With the temperature rising from 600 °C to 750 °C, the oxidation efficiency increases from 91.1% to 98.3%. Compared with the temperature, air factor has but a minor effect, as well as the composition of the molten salts and the type of feeding tube. The molten carbonates retain chlorine with an efficiency higher than 99.9% and the emissions of dioxins are below 8 pg TEQ g-1 sample. The present study shows that molten salt oxidation is a promising alternative for the disposal of organic hazardous wastes containing a high salt content.

  6. Dispositions and changing teacher practice in mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaney, Tamsin; Lange, Troels; Valero, Paola

    2009-01-01

    classrooms, little is known about how teachers perceive factors interacting together to affect student learning outcomes. What is known is that large-scale professional development programmes can lead to increases, rather than decreases, in differences in achievement between student groups based on ethnicity......). The complexity of factors that influence the actions of learners is described as a learning landscape (Alrø, Skovsmose & Valero, 2009). Different interrelated dimensions constitute this complex network of social practices (Valero, 2007). Kemmis and Grootenboer (2008), using a scheme from Aristotle and adopted...... (2008) provided more details about how dispositions are shaped by factors external to the individual. They described three extra-individual structures and processes - culturally-discursive, material-economic and social-political - that"shape dispositions and actions, both in the educator's general...

  7. Dispositional optimism and coping with pain

    OpenAIRE

    Bargiel-Matusiewicz, K; Krzyszkowska, A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this article is to analyze the relation between dispositional optimism and coping with chronic pain. The study seeks to define the relation between life orientation (optimism vs. pessimism) and coping with pain (believes about pain control and the choice of coping strategy). Material and methods The following questionnaires were used: LOT-R - Life Orientation Test, BPCQ - The Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire and CSQ - The Pain Coping Strategies Questionna...

  8. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemons, T.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  9. DISPOSITION EFFECT AMONG BRAZILIAN EQUITY FUND MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pozzi Lucchesi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposition effect predicts that investors tend to sell winning stocks too soon and ride losing stocks too long. Despite the wide range of research evidence about this issue, the reasons that lead investors to act this way are still subject to much controversy between rational and behavioral explanations. In this article, the main goal was to test two competing behavioral motivations to justify the disposition effect: prospect theory and mean reversion bias. To achieve it, an analysis of monthly transactions for a sample of 51 Brazilian equity funds from 2002 to 2008 was conducted and regression models with qualitative dependent variables were estimated in order to set the probability of a manager to realize a capital gain or loss as a function of the stock return. The results brought evidence that prospect theory seems to guide the decision-making process of the managers, but the hypothesis that the disposition effect is due to mean reversion bias could not be confirmed.

  10. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amount of solids, or unusual colors. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  11. Results Of Initial Analyses Of The Salt (Macro) Batch 9 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  12. The food safety impact of salt and sodium reduction initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Deborah; Wallace, Carol A

    2014-07-01

    Excessive or high salt or sodium intake is known to cause hypertension and other diseases. Within the United Kingdom voluntary targets for salt reduction have been set and laid out in the Secretary of State responsibility deal. This review considers the options available to food manufacturers to enable them to reduce salt and the potential food safety risks associated with those options. Gaps in research and knowledge within the areas of information supplied to food manufacturers, alternative solutions for salt replacement and the food safety impact of salt reduction are discussed.

  13. Characterization and environmental management of stormwater runoff from road-salt storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the quantity and quality of salt-contaminated water generated from stormwater runoff at VDOT's salt storage facilities and to evaluate management/treatment alternatives to reduce costs and better protect th...

  14. Situational coping and coping dispositions in a stressful transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, C S; Scheier, M F

    1994-01-01

    After reporting dispositional coping styles, students reported situational coping and 4 classes of affect (from threat, challenge, harm, and benefit appraisals) 2 days before an exam, after the exam but before grades were posted, and after posting of grades. Coping did not predict lower levels of future distress; indeed, some coping seemed to induce feelings of threat. Feelings of harm before the exam induced several kinds of coping after the exam, mostly dysfunctional. Confidence about one's grade was a better predictor of emotions throughout than was coping. Dispositional coping predicted comparable situational coping at low-moderate levels in most cases. Coping dispositions did not reliably predict emotions, however, with these exceptions: Dispositional denial was related to threat, as was dispositional use of social support; dispositional use of alcohol was related to both threat and harm.

  15. Dispositional Optimism and Therapeutic Expectations in Early Phase Oncology Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lynn A.; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Klein, William MP; Weinstein, Neil D.; Mori, Motomi; Daffé, Racky; Sulmasy, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prior research has identified unrealistic optimism as a bias that might impair informed consent among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials. Optimism, however, is not a unitary construct – it can also be defined as a general disposition, or what is called dispositional optimism. We assessed whether dispositional optimism would be related to high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit reported by patient-subjects in these trials but not to the therapeutic misconception. We also assessed how dispositional optimism related to unrealistic optimism. Methods Patient-subjects completed questionnaires designed to measure expectations for therapeutic benefit, dispositional optimism, unrealistic optimism, and the therapeutic misconception. Results Dispositional optimism was significantly associated with higher expectations for personal therapeutic benefit (Spearman r=0.333, poptimism was weakly associated with unrealistic optimism (Spearman r=0.215, p=0.005). In multivariate analysis, both dispositional optimism (p=0.02) and unrealistic optimism (poptimism (p=.0001), but not dispositional optimism, was independently associated with the therapeutic misconception. Conclusion High expectations for therapeutic benefit among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials should not be assumed to result from misunderstanding of specific information about the trials. Our data reveal that these expectations are associated with either a dispositionally positive outlook on life or biased expectations about specific aspects of trial participation. Not all manifestations of optimism are the same, and different types of optimism likely have different consequences for informed consent in early phase oncology research. PMID:26882017

  16. The Dual Effects of Critical Thinking Disposition on Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between disposition (people’s consistent motivation) toward critical thinking (CT) and worrying. In spite of its connection to psychopathology, worry is thought to represent an effort at problem-solving. Moreover, worry has been found to be underpinned by cognitive development, leading us to predict a positive relationship between worry and CT disposition. On the other hand, cognitive behavioral therapy, which involves techniques similar to CT, has been shown to be effective in reducing worrying, suggesting that increasing CT disposition decreases worrying. This study attempted to reconcile these seemingly contrasting predictions about the relationship between CT disposition and worrying by using multiple mediator analysis. A model was proposed wherein the mediators, responsibility to continue thinking and detached awareness of negative thinking, were related to two opposing predictions. The former is thought to lead to enhanced worrying and the latter to reduced worrying, with both positively related to CT disposition. A questionnaire study with university students (N = 760) revealed that CT disposition enhanced worrying by obliging people to continue thinking about a problem, but that it also reduced worrying by enhancing the detached and objective awareness of their negative thoughts. This study thus demonstrated the dual effects of CT disposition on worrying through different mediators. Thus, when enhancing CT disposition, it is important for educators to be aware of possible disadvantages apart from its worry-reducing effect. Future studies should therefore examine the underlying mechanisms of these two effects of CT disposition. PMID:24278160

  17. The dual effects of critical thinking disposition on worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between disposition (people's consistent motivation) toward critical thinking (CT) and worrying. In spite of its connection to psychopathology, worry is thought to represent an effort at problem-solving. Moreover, worry has been found to be underpinned by cognitive development, leading us to predict a positive relationship between worry and CT disposition. On the other hand, cognitive behavioral therapy, which involves techniques similar to CT, has been shown to be effective in reducing worrying, suggesting that increasing CT disposition decreases worrying. This study attempted to reconcile these seemingly contrasting predictions about the relationship between CT disposition and worrying by using multiple mediator analysis. A model was proposed wherein the mediators, responsibility to continue thinking and detached awareness of negative thinking, were related to two opposing predictions. The former is thought to lead to enhanced worrying and the latter to reduced worrying, with both positively related to CT disposition. A questionnaire study with university students (N = 760) revealed that CT disposition enhanced worrying by obliging people to continue thinking about a problem, but that it also reduced worrying by enhancing the detached and objective awareness of their negative thoughts. This study thus demonstrated the dual effects of CT disposition on worrying through different mediators. Thus, when enhancing CT disposition, it is important for educators to be aware of possible disadvantages apart from its worry-reducing effect. Future studies should therefore examine the underlying mechanisms of these two effects of CT disposition.

  18. The dual effects of critical thinking disposition on worry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Sugiura

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between disposition (people's consistent motivation toward critical thinking (CT and worrying. In spite of its connection to psychopathology, worry is thought to represent an effort at problem-solving. Moreover, worry has been found to be underpinned by cognitive development, leading us to predict a positive relationship between worry and CT disposition. On the other hand, cognitive behavioral therapy, which involves techniques similar to CT, has been shown to be effective in reducing worrying, suggesting that increasing CT disposition decreases worrying. This study attempted to reconcile these seemingly contrasting predictions about the relationship between CT disposition and worrying by using multiple mediator analysis. A model was proposed wherein the mediators, responsibility to continue thinking and detached awareness of negative thinking, were related to two opposing predictions. The former is thought to lead to enhanced worrying and the latter to reduced worrying, with both positively related to CT disposition. A questionnaire study with university students (N = 760 revealed that CT disposition enhanced worrying by obliging people to continue thinking about a problem, but that it also reduced worrying by enhancing the detached and objective awareness of their negative thoughts. This study thus demonstrated the dual effects of CT disposition on worrying through different mediators. Thus, when enhancing CT disposition, it is important for educators to be aware of possible disadvantages apart from its worry-reducing effect. Future studies should therefore examine the underlying mechanisms of these two effects of CT disposition.

  19. Used fuel disposition research and development roadmap - FY10 status.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nutt, W. M. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2010-10-01

    Since 1987 the U.S. has focused research and development activities relevant to the disposal of commercial used nuclear fuel and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owned spent nuclear fuel and high level waste on the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. At the same time, the U.S. successfully deployed a deep geologic disposal facility for defense-related transuranic waste in bedded salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. In 2009 the DOE established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) within the Office of Nuclear Energy. The Mission of the UFDC is to identify alternatives and conduct scientific research and technology development to enable storage, transportation and disposal of used nuclear fuel and wastes generated by existing and future nuclear fuel cycles. The U.S. national laboratories have participated on these programs and has conducted research and development related to these issues to a limited extent. However, a comprehensive research and development (R&D) program investigating a variety of geologic media has not been a part of the U.S. waste management program since the mid 1980s. Such a comprehensive R&D program is being developed in the UFDC with a goal of meeting the UFDC Grand Challenge to provide a sound technical basis for absolute confidence in the safety and security of long-term storage, transportation, and disposal of used nuclear fuel and wastes from the nuclear energy enterprise. The DOE has decided to no longer pursue the development of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Since a repository site will ultimately have to be selected, sited, characterized, designed, and licensed, other disposal options must now be considered. In addition to the unsaturated volcanic tuff evaluated at Yucca Mountain, several different geologic media are under investigation internationally and preliminary assessments indicate that disposal of used nuclear fuel and high level waste in these media is feasible. Considerable progress has been made in

  20. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A

  1. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivit...

  2. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  3. Used fuel disposition in crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jerden, James L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Copple, Jacqueline M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cruse, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ebert, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Buck, E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Eittman, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tinnacher, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tournassat, Christophe. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Viswanathan, H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Joseph, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Office of Fuel Cycle Technology established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) in fiscal year 2010 (FY10) to conduct the research and development (R&D) activities related to storage, transportation and disposal of used nuclear fuel and high level nuclear waste. The objective of the Crystalline Disposal R&D Work Package is to advance our understanding of long-term disposal of used fuel in crystalline rocks and to develop necessary experimental and computational capabilities to evaluate various disposal concepts in such media.

  4. Disposition Kinetics of Taxanes in Peritoneal Dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken'ichi Miyamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of cancers in the abdominal cavity, such as peritoneal dissemination, is difficult, but in principle intraperitoneal administration of anticancer drugs is expected to be preferable to systemic administration. Taxane anticancer drugs are used to treat gastric cancer patients with peritoneal dissemination. They are administered as micellar preparations, Taxol and Taxotere, which consist of paclitaxel in Cremophor EL (crEL and docetaxel in Polysorbate-80 (PS-80, respectively. In this paper we review the disposition kinetics of taxane anticancer drugs after intraperitoneal administration in peritoneal dissemination patients and animal models and also discuss the effect of the surfactant vehicle on the behavior of taxanes.

  5. Memory processes in the development of reduced-salt foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Vanessa; Bertenshaw, Emma J; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2014-12-01

    Acceptance of a reduced-salt food is likely to be influenced by a mismatch between the sensory characteristics of a reformulated product and a memory for a previously-encountered formulation. In two initial pilot studies we established the reliability of a new measure of memory for saltiness, based on a method of constant stimuli. We then used this technique to explore the effects of different patterns of repeated exposure on memory for the taste of a reduced-salt soup. Participants (N = 135) were assigned to one of four exposure patterns: (1) reduced-salt, (2) no salt reduction, i.e. regular-salt, (3) reduced- and regular-salt, in an alternating pattern, and (4) gradually declining salt concentration. In the final session, all participants received an identical reduced-salt soup. Memory for the saltiness of this sample was assessed, together with its expected liking. Our results indicate that different interactions with the test soup had little effect on taste memory. Nevertheless, (1) participants remembered the final exposure soup as saltier than the reduced-salt formulation that they had received and (2) remembered salt concentrations correlated with individual ideal salt concentrations. These findings are consistent with contemporary models of reconstructive memory and they illustrate the importance of understanding 'memory for saltiness' in the acceptance of reduced-salt formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The disposition index: from individual to population approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denti, Paolo; Toffolo, Gianna Maria; Cobelli, Claudio

    2012-09-01

    To correctly evaluate the glucose control system, it is crucial to account for both insulin sensitivity and secretion. The disposition index (DI) is the most widely accepted method to do so. The original paradigm (hyperbolic law) consists of the multiplicative product of indices related to insulin sensitivity and secretion, but more recently, an alternative formula has been proposed with the exponent α (power function law). Traditionally, curve-fitting approaches have been used to evaluate the DI in a population: the algorithmic implementations often introduce some critical issues, such as the assumption that one of the two indices is error free or the effects of the log transformation on the measurement errors. In this work, we review the commonly used approaches and show that they provide biased estimates. Then we propose a novel nonlinear total least square (NLTLS) approach, which does not need to use the approximations built in the previously proposed alternatives, and show its superiority. All of the traditional fit procedures, including NLTLS, account only for uncertainty affecting insulin sensitivity and secretion indices when they are estimated from noisy data. Thus, they fail when part of the observed variability is due to inherent differences in DI values between individuals. To handle this inevitable source of variability, we propose a nonlinear mixed-effects approach that describes the DI using population hyperparameters such as the population typical values and covariance matrix. On simulated data, this novel technique is much more reliable than the curve-fitting approaches, and it proves robust even when no or small population variability is present in the DI values. Applying this new approach to the analysis of real IVGTT data suggests a value of α significantly smaller than 1, supporting the importance of testing the power function law as an alternative to the simpler hyperbolic law.

  7. Impact of Social Studies Curriculum on Empathy Dispositions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the impact of social studies curriculum on the affective dispositions of students of Colleges of Education in North-West Zone of Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to determine the level of NCE I and NCE III students' affective dispositions in the area of empathy. One research question and one ...

  8. 50 CFR 216.73 - Disposition of fur seal parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of fur seal parts. 216.73... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.73 Disposition of fur seal parts. Except... part of a fur seal taken for subsistence uses may be sold or otherwise transferred to any person unless...

  9. 50 CFR 30.12 - Disposition of feral animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of feral animals. 30.12... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Feral Animals § 30.12 Disposition of feral animals. Feral animals taken on wildlife refuge areas may be disposed of by sale on the...

  10. Inferring Social Disposition by Sound and Surface Appearance in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ashley B.; Cheries, Erik W.

    2017-01-01

    Adults automatically infer a person's social disposition and future behavior based on the many properties they observe about how they look and sound. The goal of the current study is to explore the developmental origins of this bias. We tested whether 12-month-old infants automatically infer a character's social disposition (e.g., whether they are…

  11. A Comparison of Preferred Urban Administrative Dispositions between Constituency Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregot, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This research study analyzes preferred leadership dispositions for teachers, parents, and school leaders. Respondents selected their most preferred dispositions from a list of 20 (Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium) leadership standards. Similarities and differences were discerned among the constituent groups. School leaders, teachers,…

  12. 19 CFR 133.52 - Disposition of forfeited merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of forfeited merchandise. 133.52... Assessment of Liquidated Damages § 133.52 Disposition of forfeited merchandise. (a) Trademark (other than counterfeit) or trade name violations. Articles forfeited for violation of the trademark laws, other than...

  13. Facilitating Critical and Creative Thinking Dispositions in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz-Tetrault, Alma M.

    The critical and creative thinking dispositions which are intrinsic to children's critical thought may reflect the standards of an adult culture which values verbalized thought over other kinds of human intelligence. Primary critical and creative thinking dispositions are those which help the child explore the world. These are biological processes…

  14. Attending to Ethical and Moral Dispositions in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osguthorpe, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify some issues related to ethical and moral dispositions in teacher education programs. My intent is to provide a starting point for gaining a professional consensus on the ways that teacher educators approach the definition, assessment, and development of dispositions in their teacher education programs. To…

  15. 42 CFR 35.47 - Disposition of Government checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of Government checks. 35.47 Section 35... Disposition of Government checks. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subpart, immediately upon... to the department, agency, or establishment of the Government of the United States issuing such...

  16. Critical Thinking Dispositions of Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakir, Selda

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the critical thinking dispositions of pre-service teachers in terms of various variables. The study included 1106 participants and used the survey model and the Turkish version (CCTDI-T) of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI). The reliability of the scale for this study was found to be 0.82. The…

  17. 19 CFR 141.16 - Disposition of documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of documents. 141.16 Section 141.16... Disposition of documents. (a) Bill of lading or air waybill. When the return of the bill of lading or air... been made for the merchandise. (b) Other documents. When any of the other documents specified in § 141...

  18. Gendered Personality Disposition and Gender Role Attitudes among Israeli Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relationship between gendered personality dispositions and two aspects of gender role attitudes (occupational sex typing and gender role stereotypes). Indicates that gendered personality disposition affects occupational sex typing, whereas gender has the strongest effect on stereotypes of gender roles in the family and society.…

  19. The Development and Validation of the Diversity Dispositions Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Laura; Edwards, Sarah; Edick, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act" signed into law in 2002 requires school districts to hire highly qualified teachers who possess the necessary dispositions to ensure that all children learn (Center on Education Policy, 2002). The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) (2002) defines dispositions as "the values, commitments,…

  20. Building a Conceptual Framework for Online Educator Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Jeral R.; Roumell, Elizabeth Anne

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that online instruction is distinctive from the conventional classroom. If an effective online practice is to emerge, the roles, characteristics and dispositions of the educators themselves should be studied more closely. The aim of this paper was to present an online educator dispositions model that addresses the underlying…

  1. Investigating Academic Achievements and Critical Thinking Dispositions of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöl, Ibrahim; Bekmezci, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between academic achievements and critical thinking dispositions of teacher candidates in Faculty of Education and to find out whether critical thinking dispositions and academic achievements scores of teacher candidates differ according to different variables. The population consists of the…

  2. 41 CFR 101-27.406 - Disposition of stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of stock. 101...-Elimination of Items From Inventory § 101-27.406 Disposition of stock. Stocks of slow-moving items which are... this section, shall be taken, as necessary, to remove stocks of inactive items from inventory. (a...

  3. 48 CFR 945.570-7 - Disposition of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of motor... Disposition of motor vehicles. (a) The contractor shall dispose of DOE-owned motor vehicles as directed by the contracting officer. (b) DOE-owned motor vehicles may be disposed of as exchange/sale items when directed by...

  4. Prediction of critical thinking disposition based on mentoring among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of study showed that there was a significantly positive correlation between Mentoring and Critical thinking disposition among faculty members. The findings showed that 67% of variance of critical thinking disposition was defined by predictive variables. The faculty members evaluated themselves in all mentoring ...

  5. Applying Gadamer's Concept of Disposition to Science and Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borda, Emily J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I recall previous arguments for a hermeneutic approach to science and claim that such an approach necessitates attention to the development of dispositions. I undertake an analysis of Hans-Georg Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics to identify and describe dispositions relevant to a hermeneutic approach to science. I then apply…

  6. Faculty Dispositions: Seeking Clarity while Looking at Muddy Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Jacalyn; Boyce, B. Ann; Oates, Richard; Fiorentino, Leah

    2010-01-01

    If one reads the paper or listens to the news, professional disposition are almost becoming critical job skills in the world of work. Similarly, faculty dispositions, defined in this article as "attitudes, values, and beliefs demonstrated through both verbal and non-verbal behaviors as educators interact with students, families, colleagues, and…

  7. Relationships among Bilingualism, Critical Thinking Ability, and Critical Thinking Disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Raymond T.; Albert, Rachel E.; Radsma, Jenny

    2002-01-01

    Nursing students (n=111) completed French and English Cloze Tests, the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test. There was insufficient evidence to support a relationship between bilingualism and critical thinking ability or between critical thinking disposition and ability. Bilingualism…

  8. Potential effect of salt reduction in processed foods on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Marieke A H; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; Hoekstra, Jeljer; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; van Raaij, Joop M A

    2014-03-01

    Excessive salt intake has been associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Reducing salt intake is considered an important public health strategy in the Netherlands. The objective was to evaluate the health benefits of salt-reduction strategies related to processed foods for the Dutch population. Three salt-reduction scenarios were developed: 1) substitution of high-salt foods with low-salt foods, 2) a reduction in the sodium content of processed foods, and 3) adherence to the recommended maximum salt intake of 6 g/d. Health outcomes were obtained in 2 steps: after salt intake was modeled into blood pressure levels, the Chronic Disease Model was used to translate modeled blood pressures into incidences of cardiovascular diseases, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and life expectancies. Health outcomes of the scenarios were compared with health outcomes obtained with current salt intake. In total, 4.8% of acute myocardial infarction cases, 1.7% of congestive heart failure cases, and 5.8% of stroke cases might be prevented if salt intake meets the recommended maximum intake. The burden of disease might be reduced by 56,400 DALYs, and life expectancy might increase by 0.15 y for a 40-y-old individual. Substitution of foods with comparable low-salt alternatives would lead to slightly higher salt intake reductions and thus to more health gain. The estimates for sodium reduction in processed foods would be slightly lower. Substantial health benefits might be achieved when added salt is removed from processed foods and when consumers choose more low-salt food alternatives.

  9. PROGRESS IN REDUCING THE NUCLEAR THREAT: UNITED STATES PLUTONIUM CONSOLIDATION AND DISPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allender, J.; Koenig, R.; Davies, S.

    2009-06-01

    Following the end of the Cold War, the United States identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium and larger quantities of enriched uranium that are permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs. The Department of Energy (DOE) also began shutting down, stabilizing, and removing inventories from production facilities that were no longer needed to support weapons programs and non-weapons activities. The storage of 'Category I' nuclear materials at Rocky Flats, Sandia National Laboratories, and several smaller sites has been terminated to reduce costs and safeguards risks. De-inventory continues at the Hanford site and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Consolidation of inventories works in concert with the permanent disposition of excess inventories, including several tonnes of plutonium that have already been disposed to waste repositories and the preparation for transfers to the planned Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (for the bulk of the excess plutonium) and alternative disposition methods for material that cannot be used readily in the MOX fuel cycle. This report describes status of plutonium consolidation and disposition activities and their impacts on continuing operations, particularly at the Savannah River Site.

  10. Design and development of a cross-cultural disposition inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Randall; Zaugg, Holt; Tateishi, Isaku

    2015-01-01

    Advances in technology have increased the likelihood that engineers will have to work in a global, culturally diverse setting. Many schools of engineering are currently revising their curricula to help students to develop cultural competence. However, our ability to measure cultural dispositions can be a challenge. The purpose of this project was to develop and test an instrument that measures the various aspects of cultural disposition. The results of the validation process verified that the hypothesised model adequately represented the data. The refined instrument produced a four-factor model for the overall construct. The validation process for the instrument verified the existence of specific subcomponents that form the overall cultural disposition construct. There also seems to be a hierarchical relationship within the subcomponents of cultural disposition. Additional research is needed to explore which aspects of cultural disposition affect an individual's ability to work effectively in a culturally diverse engineering team.

  11. Contribution of Emotional Intelligence towards Graduate Students’ Critical Thinking Disposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong-Luan Kang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Good critical thinkers possess a core set of cognitive thinking skills, and a disposition towards critical thinking. They are able to think critically to solve complex, real-world problems effectively. Although personal emotion is important in critical thinking, it is often a neglected issue. The emotional intelligence in this study concerns our sensitivity to and artful handling of our own and others’ emotions. Engaging students emotionally is the key to strengthening their dispositions toward critical thinking. Hence, a study involving 338 male and female graduate students from a public university was carried out. They rated the Emotional Intelligence Scale and Critical Thinking Disposition Scale. Findings suggested that emotional intelligence and critical thinking disposition were positively correlated (r=.609. Differences in terms of age, gender, and course of study also formed part of the analysis. Keywords: emotional intelligence, critical thinking disposition, graduate students

  12. Salt on roads and the environment (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessberg, Philipp von; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2000-01-01

    This report descripes the extent of use of salt on roads in Denmark and the environmental consequences of this. Alternative strategies for reducing the risk of greasy roads and different ways of alleviating the vegetation are also discussed.The different consequences for the environment that this...... that this report discusses are:- The ground water.- Lakes and streams.- Plants and trees along roads.The consequences for the economy through usage of salt on roads has not been carried out.......This report descripes the extent of use of salt on roads in Denmark and the environmental consequences of this. Alternative strategies for reducing the risk of greasy roads and different ways of alleviating the vegetation are also discussed.The different consequences for the environment...

  13. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, S.R.; Bevard, B.B. [and others

    1996-10-07

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives.

  14. Fractional kinetics in drug absorption and disposition processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokoumetzidis, Aristides; Macheras, Panos

    2009-04-01

    We explore the use of fractional order differential equations for the analysis of datasets of various drug processes that present anomalous kinetics, i.e. kinetics that are non-exponential and are typically described by power-laws. A fractional differential equation corresponds to a differential equation with a derivative of fractional order. The fractional equivalents of the "zero-" and "first-order" processes are derived. The fractional zero-order process is a power-law while the fractional first-order process is a Mittag-Leffler function. The latter behaves as a stretched exponential for early times and as a power-law for later times. Applications of these two basic results for drug dissolution/release and drug disposition are presented. The fractional model of dissolution is fitted successfully to datasets taken from literature of in vivo dissolution curves. Also, the proposed pharmacokinetic model is fitted to a dataset which exhibits power-law terminal phase. The Mittag-Leffler function describes well the data for small and large time scales and presents an advantage over empirical power-laws which go to infinity as time approaches zero. The proposed approach is compared conceptually with fractal kinetics, an alternative approach to describe datasets with non exponential kinetics. Fractional kinetics offers an elegant description of anomalous kinetics, with a valid scientific basis, since it has already been applied in problems of diffusion in other fields, and describes well the data.

  15. In Situ Production of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles in a Binary Molten Salt for Concentrated Solar Power Plant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lasfargues

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Seeding nanoparticles in molten salts has been shown recently as a promising way to improve their thermo-physical properties. The prospect of such technology is of interest to both academic and industrial sectors in order to enhance the specific heat capacity of molten salt. The latter is used in concentrated solar power plants as both heat transfer fluid and sensible storage. This work explores the feasibility of producing and dispersing nanoparticles with a novel one pot synthesis method. Using such a method, CuO nanoparticles were produced in situ via the decomposition of copper sulphate pentahydrate in a KNO3-NaNO3 binary salt. Analyses of the results suggested preferential disposition of atoms around produced nanoparticles in the molten salt. Thermal characterization of the produced nano-salt suspension indicated the dependence of the specific heat enhancement on particle morphology and distribution within the salts.

  16. In Situ Production of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles in a Binary Molten Salt for Concentrated Solar Power Plant Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasfargues, Mathieu; Stead, Graham; Amjad, Muhammad; Ding, Yulong; Wen, Dongsheng

    2017-05-19

    Seeding nanoparticles in molten salts has been shown recently as a promising way to improve their thermo-physical properties. The prospect of such technology is of interest to both academic and industrial sectors in order to enhance the specific heat capacity of molten salt. The latter is used in concentrated solar power plants as both heat transfer fluid and sensible storage. This work explores the feasibility of producing and dispersing nanoparticles with a novel one pot synthesis method. Using such a method, CuO nanoparticles were produced in situ via the decomposition of copper sulphate pentahydrate in a KNO₃-NaNO₃ binary salt. Analyses of the results suggested preferential disposition of atoms around produced nanoparticles in the molten salt. Thermal characterization of the produced nano-salt suspension indicated the dependence of the specific heat enhancement on particle morphology and distribution within the salts.

  17. An Ungrateful Disposition: Psychometric Properties of the Dispositional Envy Scale in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Diógenes de Medeiros

    Full Text Available Abstract Envy appears to be found among all cultures, and most individuals seem capable of experiencing it. The aim of this research was to gather evidence of the validity and reliability of the Brazilian version of the Dispositional Envy Scale. For that, we performed two studies, each with 246 university students. In the first study, the results indicated that the instrument is composed of a single component. The second study confirms this structure based on the good fit indices and presents adjustment indicators that comply or approach the recommended criteria in the literature. Both studies demonstrate that the single component instrument presents a good level of reliability, as indicated by levels of internal consistency and homogeneity that exceed those recommended for such studies. Accordingly, it was concluded that the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Dispositional Envy Scale presents acceptable psychometric characteristics and that it may, therefore, be used to assess the tendency or predisposition to feel envy.

  18. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S. [and others

    1993-06-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This report was prepared for the NAS to document the gathered information and results from the requested option evaluations. Evaluations were performed for 12 plutonium disposition options involving five reactor and one accelerator-based systems. Each option was evaluated in four technical areas: (1) fuel status, (2) reactor or accelerator-based system status, (3) waste-processing status, and (4) waste disposal status. Based on these evaluations, each concept was rated on its operational capability and time to deployment. A third rating category of option costs could not be performed because of the unavailability of adequate information from the concept sponsors. The four options achieving the highest rating, in alphabetical order, are the Advanced Light Water Reactor with plutonium-based ternary fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with plutonium-based fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with uranium-plutonium-based fuel, and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor with plutonium-based fuel. Of these four options, the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor do not propose reprocessing of their irradiated fuel. Time constraints and lack of detailed information did not allow for any further ratings among these four options. The INEL recommends these four options be investigated further to determine the optimum reactor design for plutonium disposition.

  19. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  20. The association between resting functional connectivity and dispositional optimism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ran

    Full Text Available Dispositional optimism is an individual characteristic that plays an important role in human experience. Optimists are people who tend to hold positive expectations for their future. Previous studies have focused on the neural basis of optimism, such as task response neural activity and brain structure volume. However, the functional connectivity between brain regions of the dispositional optimists are poorly understood. Previous study suggested that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC are associated with individual differences in dispositional optimism, but it is unclear whether there are other brain regions that combine with the vmPFC to contribute to dispositional optimism. Thus, the present study used the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC approach and set the vmPFC as the seed region to examine if differences in functional brain connectivity between the vmPFC and other brain regions would be associated with individual differences in dispositional optimism. The results found that dispositional optimism was significantly positively correlated with the strength of the RSFC between vmPFC and middle temporal gyrus (mTG and negativly correlated with RSFC between vmPFC and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG. These findings may be suggested that mTG and IFG which associated with emotion processes and emotion regulation also play an important role in the dispositional optimism.

  1. The Relationship between Critical Thinking Disposition and Self-Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Iranfar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Critical Thinking Disposition indicates individual’s inclination to Critical Thinking, which is one of the domains of personality. Individual characteristics are important and influential factors in the growth and development of students’ Critical Thinking. One of these influential characteristics might be self-esteem, thus this study was to determine the correlation between Critical Thinking Disposition and self-esteem in medical students. Methods: In an analytical cross-sectional study, 289 medical students were selected through stratified random sampling method in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2011. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire containing 3 parts: demographic data, California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and Cooper-Smith Self-Esteem Inventory. The results were analyzed by SPSS-16 using descriptive statistics, Pearson and Spearman Correlation Coefficient, ANOVA, Chi-Square and Fisher exact test. Results: Results showed that 98.6% (285 of students had deficiency, 1.4% (4 ambivalence and nobody had positive critical thinking disposition. There was a significantly negative correlation between Critical Thinking Disposition and self-esteem (r=-0.462, P<0.001. Also, there was no a significant relationship between two groups of low self-esteem , high self-esteem , negative and ambivalent Critical Thinking Disposition. Conclusion: It seems that Critical Thinking Disposition, like other psychological variables, is influenced by social factors and social environment plays a role in promoting or undermining it. So, similar studies are recommended to investigate the factors affecting Critical Thinking in medical students.

  2. SOCIAL NETWORKS AS DISPOSITIVES OF NEOLIBERAL GOVERNMENTALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Lemes de Castro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article of theoretical reflection investigates the social networks that emerge in the context of Web 2.0, such as Facebook, as dispositives of neoliberal governmentality in the sense proposed by Foucault. From the standpoint of government of self, the design of social networks establishes a competition for attention that tends to favor the neoliberal culture of performance. In terms of social organization, the way in which users intertwine their connections is paralleled by the neoliberal paradigm of spontaneous market order. Furthermore, the use of personal information on these users, encompassing all their activities within the networks, in order to set up databases to attract advertisers reflects the neoliberal tendency of colonization of the different realms of existence by economic forces. However, the tensions that accompany neoliberal governmentality in social networks reveal its limitations, opening the possibility for these networks to also act as instruments of resistance to neoliberalism.

  3. CRITICALITY SAFETY OF PROCESSING SALT SOLUTION AT SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, K; Davoud Eghbali, D; Michelle Abney, M

    2008-01-15

    High level radioactive liquid waste generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site has been stored as 36 million gallons in underground tanks. About ten percent of the waste volume is sludge, composed of insoluble metal hydroxides primarily hydroxides of Mn, Fe, Al, Hg, and most radionuclides including fission products. The remaining ninety percent of the waste volume is saltcake, composed of primarily sodium (nitrites, nitrates, and aluminates) and hydroxides. Saltcakes account for 30% of the radioactivity while the sludge accounts for 70% of the radioactivity. A pilot plant salt disposition processing system has been designed at the Savannah River Site for interim processing of salt solution and is composed of two facilities: the Actinide Removal Process Facility (ARPF) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Data from the pilot plant salt processing system will be used for future processing salt at a much higher rate in a new salt processing facility. Saltcake contains significant amounts of actinides, and other long-lived radioactive nuclides such as strontium and cesium that must be extracted prior to disposal as low level waste. The extracted radioactive nuclides will be mixed with the sludge from waste tanks and vitrified in another facility. Because of the presence of highly enriched uranium in the saltcake, there is a criticality concern associated with concentration and/or accumulation of fissionable material in the ARP and MCU.

  4. Gendered personality disposition and gender role attitudes among Israeli students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, L

    1999-12-01

    In a sample of 204 Israeli university students, the author examined the relationship between gendered personality dispositions and 2 aspects of gender role attitudes: occupational sex typing and gender role stereotypes. Evaluations of occupational gender attributes were the least sex typed among participants in the androgynous group. At the same time, contrary to expectations, the participants in the undifferentiated and sex-typed groups had relatively stereotyped perceptions of occupations. However, no relationship was found between gendered personality disposition and stereotyped perceptions of gender roles. Regardless of gendered personality disposition, the women, compared with the men, had more liberal attitudes toward gender roles.

  5. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  6. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  7. SALT for Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

  8. Americium/Curium Disposition Life Cycle Planning Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, W.N. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Krupa, J.; Stutts, P.; Nester, S.; Raimesch, R.

    1998-04-30

    At the request of the Department of Energy Savannah River Office (DOE- SR), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) evaluated concepts to complete disposition of Americium and Curium (Am/Cm) bearing materials currently located at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  9. SELECTION OF SURPLUS PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FOR DISPOSITION TO WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allender, J.; Mcclard, J.; Christopher, J.

    2012-06-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a Surplus Plutonium Disposition (SPD) Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS). Included in the evaluation are up to 6 metric tons (MT) of plutonium in the form of impure oxides and metals for which a disposition plan has not been decided, among options that include preparation as feed for the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility; disposing to high-level waste through the Savannah River Site (SRS) HB Line and H Canyon; can-in-canister disposal using the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility; and preparation for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE and SRS have identified at least 0.5 MT of plutonium that, because of high levels of chemical and isotopic impurities, is impractical for disposition by methods other than the WIPP pathway. Characteristics of these items and the disposition strategy are discussed.

  10. 27 CFR 28.107 - Disposition of forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.107 Disposition of forms. TTB Form 5100.11 and any... TTB Form 5100.11. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1512-0250...

  11. Hearing Office Dispositions Per ALJ Per Day Rate Ranking Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A ranking of ODAR hearing offices by the average number of hearings dispositions per ALJ per day. The average shown will be a combined average for all ALJs working...

  12. [Scientific statement] Report of the Salt Reduction Committee of the Japanese Society of Hypertension(2) Goal and strategies of dietary salt reduction in the management of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Katsuyuki; Ando, Katsuyuki; Tsuchihashi, Takuya; Yoshita, Katsushi; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Kawarazaki, Hiroo; Matsuura, Hideo; Kusaka, Miho; Kai, Hisashi; Kawamura, Minoru; Kawano, Yuhei

    2013-12-01

    In this section of the Report of the Salt Reduction Committee of the Japanese Society of Hypertension, the target level of dietary salt reduction and its scientific evidence, present status of salt consumption in Japan, salt-reducing measures/guidance methods in individuals and population strategies to reduce salt intake are introduced. In the Dietary Reference Intake for the general population in Japan (2010 version), the target levels of salt restriction in men and women were established as less than 9.0 per day and 7.5 g per day, respectively. The Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension 2009 recommended the target level of dietary salt restriction in patients with hypertension as less than 6 g per day. However, the National Health and Nutrition Survey of Japan in 2010 reported that the mean salt intake in adults was 10.6 g per day (men: 11.4 g per day and women: 9.8 g per day). To effectively decrease salt intake in Japan, it is necessary to reduce the consumption of high-salt foods (especially traditional foods) and replace high-salt seasonings (soy sauce and so on) with low-salt alternatives. Health-care professionals must effectively perform salt-reduction guidance for hypertensive patients in hospitals/administrative organizations. To promote population strategies for salt reduction in the whole society of Japan, social strategies, such as administrative policies, companies' cooperation and educational staff's cooperation, are necessary.

  13. The Relationship between Critical Thinking Disposition and Self-Esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Shirin Iranfar; Vida Sepahi; Ahmad Khoshay; Farahnaz Keshavarzi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Critical Thinking Disposition indicates individual’s inclination to Critical Thinking, which is one of the domains of personality. Individual characteristics are important and influential factors in the growth and development of students’ Critical Thinking. One of these influential characteristics might be self-esteem, thus this study was to determine the correlation between Critical Thinking Disposition and self-esteem in medical students. Methods: In an analytical cross-sec...

  14. Resedimented salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaczka, A.; Kolasa, K. (Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland))

    1988-08-01

    Carparthian foredeep's Wieliczka salt mine, unique gravity deposits were lately distinguished. They are mainly built of salt particles and blocks with a small admixture of fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks, deposited on precipitated salt. The pattern of sediment distribution is similar to a submarine fan. Gravels are dominant in the upper part and sands in lower levels, creating a series of lobes. Coarse-grained deposits are represented by disorganized, self-supported conglomerates passing into matrix-supported ones, locally with gradation, and pebbly sandstones consisting of salt grains and scattered boulder-size clasts. The latter may show in the upper part of a single bed as indistinct cross-bedding and parallel lamination. These sediments are interpreted as debris-flow and high-density turbidity current deposits. Salt sandstones (saltstones) which build a lower part of the fan often show Bouma sequences and are interpreted as turbidity-current deposits. The fan deposits are covered by a thick series of debrites (olistostromes) which consist of clay matrix with salt grains and boulders. The latter as represented by huge (up to 100,000 m{sup 3}) salt blocks, fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks. These salt debrites represent slumps and debris-flow deposits. The material for resedimented deposits was derived from the southern part of the salt basin and from the adjacent, advancing Carpathian orogen. The authors believe the distinct coarsening-upward sequence of the series is the result of progressive intensification of tectonic movements with paroxysm during the sedimentation of salt debrites (about 15 Ma).

  15. URGENSI STRATEGI DISPOSITION HABITS OF MIND MATEMATIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bety Miliyawati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kebiasaan berpikir (habits of mind memiliki peranan penting dalam proses pembelajaran dan perkembangan individu dalam membantu memecahkan masalah. Habits Of Mind (HOM adalah kebiasaan berpikir secara fleksibel, mengelola secara empulsif, mendengarkan dengan empati, membiasakan mengajukan pertanyaan, kebiasaan menyelesaikan masalah secara efektif, membiasakan menggunakan pengetahuan masa lalu untuk situasi baru, membiasakan berkomunikasi, berpikir jernih dengan tepat, menggunakan semua indera ketika mengumpulkan informasi, mencoba cara berbeda dan menghasilkan ide-ide yang baru, kebiasaan untuk merespon, kebiasaan untuk mengambil resiko, biasa bertanggung jawab, memiliki rasa humor, membiasakan berpikir interaktif dengan orang lain, bersikap terbuka dan mencoba terus-menerus. Hal ini sejalan dengan tujuan Kurikulum 2013, yaitu mempersiapkan generasi bangsa agar memiliki kemampuan hidup sebagai pribadi dan warga negara yang produktif, kreatif, inovatif, dan afektif. Artikel ini dikaji didasarkan atas analisis terhadap: (1 karakteristik matematika, (2 habits of mind matematis, dan (3 disposition contoh strategi HOM dalam pembelajaran matematika yang dikembangkan pada siswa. Kata Kunci    : Pembelajaran, Karakteristik Matematika, Habits of Mind Matematis   ABSTRACT Habits of mind have an important role in the learning process and the development of individuals in helping to solve the problem. Habits Of Mind (HOM is the habit of thinking flexibly, manage empulsif, listening with empathy, get used to ask questions, solve problems effectively habit, the habit of using past knowledge to new situations, to get used to communicate, think clearly, precisely, using all the senses when gathering information, trying different ways and generate new ideas, habits to respond, the habit to take risks, the usual charge, have a sense of humor, familiarize interactive thinking with others, be open and try constantly. This is in line with the curriculum

  16. Accessing and assessing young learner’s mathematical dispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mellony Graven

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is argued in this paper that there is an absence of literature relating to research on learner mathematical dispositions, particularly with young learners. Drawing on Kilpatrick, Swafford and Findell’s (2001 five interrelated strands of mathematical proficiency, which include: conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, strategic competence, adaptive reasoning and productive disposition, it is argued that there has been little engagement with productive disposition in the field of mathematics education and how we might access and assess this strand. Despite competence in all strands being essential for mathematical proficiency, literature and assessments that seek to establish learner levels of mathematical proficiency have tended to focus on the first four and have neglected the last; productive disposition. Finding ways in which to access student mathematical learning dispositions can be challenging, especially with young learners who struggle to articulate their views. An instrument is shared that the author has designed with doctoral fellow, Debbie Stott, in order to access and assess the productive disposition of learners participating in maths clubs run within the South African Numeracy Chair. The findings that emerge in one Grade 3 club with six learners is shared. These findings are related to the data collected through instruments that assess the other four strands of mathematical proficiency. This enables a holistic picture of learner’s mathematical proficiency as intended in the conceptualisation of the interrelated five strands of proficiency.

  17. [Critical thinking disposition and clinical competence in general hospital nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Ah; Kim, Bog-Ja

    2009-12-01

    This study was done to investigate the relationship between critical thinking disposition and clinical competence among nurses in general hospitals. This study was a descriptive-correlational study with a convenience sample of 560 nurses from 5 general hospitals. The data were collected by self-administered questionnaires. Critical thinking disposition was measured using the Critical Thinking Disposition Scale for Nursing Students. Clinical competence was measured using the Standardized Nurse Performance Appraisal Tool. The mean score for critical thinking disposition and clinical competence was 3.37 and 4.10 respectively on a 5 point scale. A statistically significant correlation was found between critical thinking disposition and clinical competence. A regression model explained 72.8% of clinical competence. Prudence is the most significant predictor of clinical competence (R(2)=.728). Study findings suggest that nurses with a higher level of critical thinking disposition would have a higher level of clinical competence. Furthermore, prudence might be the most important predictor of clinical competence. In order to strengthen clinical competence in nurses, the development and enhancement of critical thinking should be emphasized at the college level and nurses should be encouraged to make a clinical decision with greater prudence.

  18. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  19. Optimized Hepatocyte-Like Cells with Functional Drug Transporters Directly-Reprogrammed from Mouse Fibroblasts and their Potential in Drug Disposition and Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Tao Wu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To develop a suitable hepatocyte-like cell model that could be a substitute for primary hepatocytes with essential transporter expression and functions. Induced hepatocyte-like (iHep cells directly reprogrammed from mice fibroblast cells were fully characterized. Methods: Naïve iHep cells were transfected with nuclear hepatocyte factor 4 alpha (Hnf4α and treated with selected small molecules. Sandwich cultured configuration was applied. The mRNA and protein expression of transporters were determined by Real Time PCR and confocal. The functional transporters were estimated by drug biliary excretion measurement. The inhibition of bile acid efflux transporters by cholestatic drugs were assessed. Results: The expression and function of p-glycoprotein (P-gp, bile salt efflux pump (Bsep, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2, Na+-dependent taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp, and organic anion transporter polypedtides (Oatps in iHep cells were significantly improved after transfection of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (Hnf4α and treatment with selected inducers. In vitro intrinsic biliary clearances (CLb,int of optimized iHep cells for rosuvastatin, methotrexate, d8-TCA (deuterium-labeled sodium taurocholate acid and DPDPE ([D-Pen2,5] enkephalin hydrate correlated well with that of sandwich-cultured primary mouse hepatocytes (SCMHs (r2 = 0.984. Cholestatic drugs were evaluated and the results were compared well with primary mice hepatocytes. Conclusion: The optimized iHep cells expressed functional drug transporters and were comparable to primary mice hepatocytes. This study suggested direct reprogramming could provide a potential alternative to primary hepatocytes for drug candidate hepatobiliary disposition and hepatotoxicity screening.

  20. The disposition of suxibuzone in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbeke, F T; Vynckier, L; Debackere, M

    1993-09-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method is described to determine the anti-inflammatory drug suxibuzone (SXB) and its major metabolites phenylbutazone (PBZ) and oxyphenbutazone (OPBZ) in equine plasma and urine. When suxibuzone (6 mg/kg) was administered intravenously (i.v.) or orally (p.o.) no parent drug was detected in plasma or in urine. The disposition of the metabolite PBZ (i.v.) could be described by a 2 compartment model with a beta half-life varying from 7.40 to 8.35 h. Due to severe side effects the use of i.v. suxibuzone should not be encouraged in the horse. PBZ and OPBZ were detected in plasma and urine after p.o. SXB administration. Peak plasma PBZ concentrations (8.8 +/- 3.0 micrograms/ml) occurred 6 h after oral dosing and the terminal exponential constant was 0.11 +/- 0.01 h-1. Phenylbutazone and oxyphenbutazone were detectable in urine (> 1 microgram/ml) for at least 36 h, after p.o. administration. SXB was not hydrolyzed in vitro by horse plasma. Equine liver homogenates however appeared to have a very high capacity for hydrolysing SXB, indicating that first-pass effect could be responsible for the rapid disappearance of this NSAID in the horse.

  1. ISS Logistics Hardware Disposition and Metrics Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Toneka R.

    2010-01-01

    I was assigned to the Logistics Division of the International Space Station (ISS)/Spacecraft Processing Directorate. The Division consists of eight NASA engineers and specialists that oversee the logistics portion of the Checkout, Assembly, and Payload Processing Services (CAPPS) contract. Boeing, their sub-contractors and the Boeing Prime contract out of Johnson Space Center, provide the Integrated Logistics Support for the ISS activities at Kennedy Space Center. Essentially they ensure that spares are available to support flight hardware processing and the associated ground support equipment (GSE). Boeing maintains a Depot for electrical, mechanical and structural modifications and/or repair capability as required. My assigned task was to learn project management techniques utilized by NASA and its' contractors to provide an efficient and effective logistics support infrastructure to the ISS program. Within the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) I was exposed to Logistics support components, such as, the NASA Spacecraft Services Depot (NSSD) capabilities, Mission Processing tools, techniques and Warehouse support issues, required for integrating Space Station elements at the Kennedy Space Center. I also supported the identification of near-term ISS Hardware and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) candidates for excessing/disposition prior to October 2010; and the validation of several Logistics Metrics used by the contractor to measure logistics support effectiveness.

  2. TRACKING SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FROM WEAPONS TO DISPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allender, J.; Beams, J.; Sanders, K.; Myers, L.

    2013-07-16

    Supporting nuclear nonproliferation and global security principles, beginning in 1994 the United States has withdrawn more than 50 metric tons (MT) of government-controlled plutonium from potential use in nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, established protocols for the tracking of this "excess" and "surplus" plutonium, and for reconciling the current storage and utilization of the plutonium to show that its management is consistent with the withdrawal policies. Programs are underway to ensure the safe and secure disposition of the materials that formed a major part of the weapons stockpile during the Cold War, and growing quantities have been disposed as waste, after which they are not included in traditional nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A) data systems. A combination of resources is used to perform the reconciliations that form the basis for annual reporting to DOE, to U.S. Department of State, and to international partners including the International Atomic Energy Agency.

  3. Salt-restriction-spoon improved the salt intake among residents in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Chen

    health education could be considered as an alternative for salt reduction strategy in China and other countries where salt intake comes mainly from home cooking.

  4. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  5. Superconducting RF Linacs Driving Subcritical Reactors for Profitable Disposition of Surplus Weapons-grade Plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Mary Anne; Johnson, Rolland

    Acceptable capital and operating costs of high-power proton accelerators suitable for profitable commercial electric-power and process-heat applications have been demonstrated. However, studies have pointed out that even a few hundred trips of an accelerator lasting a few seconds would lead to unacceptable thermal stresses as each trip causes fission to be turned off in solid fuel structures found in conventional reactors. The newest designs based on the GEM*STAR concept take such trips in stride by using molten-salt fuel, where fuel pin fatigue is not an issue. Other aspects of the GEM*STAR concept which address all historical reactor failures include an internal spallation neutron target and high temperature molten salt fuel with continuous purging of volatile radioactive fission products such that the reactor contains less than a critical mass and almost a million times fewer volatile radioactive fission products than conventional reactors. GEM*STAR is a reactor that without redesign will burn spent nuclear fuel, natural uranium, thorium, or surplus weapons material. It will operate without the need for a critical core, fuel enrichment, or reprocessing making it an excellent candidate for export. As a first application, the design for a pilot plant is described for the profitable disposition of surplus weapons-grade plutonium by using process heat to produce green diesel fuel for the Department of Defense (DOD) from natural gas and renewable carbon.

  6. Applying the Triangle Taste Test to Assess Differences between Low Sodium Salts and Common Salt: Evidence from Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Garcia, Lorena; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H.; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Cárdenas, María Kathia; Sacksteder, Katherine A.; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Background In resourced-constrained settings, daily cooking practices are still the norm. Replacing sodium in regular salt to produce potassium-enriched salts are potential alternative routes to reduce sodium intake, paired with the benefit associated with potassium intake. This change would likely have effects on palatability and taste of prepared foods, yet a threshold to discriminate sensorial changes can be determined. The main goal of this study was to assess if the use of potassium-enriched salt substitutes lead to perceived differences in taste utilizing a sensory discrimination test. Methods and Results A triangle taste test was conducted and participants were offered samples of cooked rice prepared with different salts. The only ingredient that differed in the preparation was the salt used: 100%NaCl (regular salt) and salts where sodium was replaced by 50%, 33% or 25% KCl (potassium-enriched salt). Comparisons were carried out according to the minimum number of correct judgments. A total of 156 subjects, 49% males, mean age 41.0 years (SD±15.5) years, participated in the study. Samples using 25% potassium-enrichment were indistinguishable in terms of taste from regular salt, whereas samples with 33% and 50% potassium-enrichment were distinguishable. Results were consistent when stratified by sex and age. Less than 10% of participants attributed the differences to bitterness or metallic flavor. Conclusions The 25% potassium-enriched salt is indistinguishable from regular salt. These findings suggest a potential to achieve sodium intake reduction strategies in cooking practices by substituting regular salt with potassium-enriched salt without affecting palatability. PMID:26225848

  7. Sample Results from Routine Salt Batch 7 Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-05-13

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the “microbatches” of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 7B have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES), and Ion Chromatography Anions (IC-A). The results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from earlier samples from this and previous macrobatches. The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) continue to show more than adequate Pu and Sr removal, and there is a distinct positive trend in Cs removal, due to the use of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) notes that historically, most measured Concentration Factor (CF) values during salt processing have been in the 12-14 range. However, recent processing gives CF values closer to 11. This observation does not indicate that the solvent performance is suffering, as the Decontamination Factor (DF) has still maintained consistently high values. Nevertheless, SRNL will continue to monitor for indications of process upsets. The bulk chemistry of the DSSHT and SEHT samples do not show any signs of unusual behavior.

  8. Salt Sensitivity Determined From Capillary Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Oberleithner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: A significant rise of blood pressure in response to a given salt load is a weak indication of high salt sensitivity, supposed to foster the development of arterial hypertension and related diseases in later life. In search of an alternative method we recently developed the salt blood test (SBT, a new concept for quantifying salt sensitivity (SS. Based on this concept, namely that red blood cells (RBC report on salt sensitivity, the SBT-mini was developed. Methods: The SBT-mini utilizes a droplet of capillary blood mixed with a ‘smart' Na+ cocktail. Red blood cells (RBC of this mixture are allowed to sediment by gravity in a glass tube. SS is quantified by measuring RBC sedimentation rate. 90 healthy volunteers (39 males, 51 females; mean age: 23±0.5 years were evaluated and ‘standard values' for males and females were derived. Results: Sodium buffer capacity of female blood is about 20 % smaller as compared to male blood due to the lower hematocrit of females. SS of an individual is related to the mean standard value (set to 100 % of the respective male/female cohort. High SS (> 120 % has been found in 31 % of males and 28 % of females. Conclusions: SS can be estimated derived from the individual RBC sodium buffer capacity as measured by the SBT-mini. About one third of a healthy test cohort exhibits a high sensitivity to salt. Reduction of sodium consumption to at least two grams per day (equals five grams of NaCl per day as suggested by the WHO is recommended, particularly for individuals with high salt sensitivity.

  9. Alternating Hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as alternating hemiplegia, with the goals of learning more about these disorders and finding ways to prevent, treat and, ultimately cure them. Show More Show Less Search Disorders SEARCH SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Alternating ...

  10. Amine salts of nitroazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1993-10-26

    Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

  11. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reports of people becoming psychotic (losing touch with reality) and violent. Although it is rare, there have ... in bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations ( ...

  12. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  13. Salt Effect on Osmotic Pressure of Polyelectrolyte Solutions: Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Michael Y. Carrillo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We present results of the hybrid Monte Carlo/molecular dynamics simulations of the osmotic pressure of salt solutions of polyelectrolytes. In our simulations, we used a coarse-grained representation of polyelectrolyte chains, counterions and salt ions. During simulation runs, we alternate Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulation steps. Monte Carlo steps were used to perform small ion exchange between simulation box containing salt ions (salt reservoir and simulation box with polyelectrolyte chains, counterions and salt ions (polyelectrolyte solution. This allowed us to model Donnan equilibrium and partitioning of salt and counterions across membrane impermeable to polyelectrolyte chains. Our simulations have shown that the main contribution to the system osmotic pressure is due to salt ions and osmotically active counterions. The fraction of the condensed (osmotically inactive counterions first increases with decreases in the solution ionic strength then it saturates. The reduced value of the system osmotic coefficient is a universal function of the ratio of the concentration of osmotically active counterions and salt concentration in salt reservoir. Simulation results are in a very good agreement with osmotic pressure measurements in sodium polystyrene sulfonate, DNA, polyacrylic acid, sodium polyanetholesulfonic acid, polyvinylbenzoic acid, and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride solutions.

  14. SLIGHTLY IRRADIATED FUEL (SIF) INTERIM DISPOSITION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NORTON SH

    2010-02-23

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing high risk special nuclear materials. The scope of the six sub-projects included the design, construction, testing, and turnover of the facilities and equipment, which would provide safe, secure, and compliant Special Nuclear Material (SNM) storage capabilities for the SIF material. The project encompassed a broad range of activities, including the following: Five buildings/structures removed, relocated, or built; Two buildings renovated; Structural barriers, fencing, and heavy gates installed; New roadways and parking lots built; Multiple detection and assessment systems installed; New and expanded communication systems developed; Multimedia recording devices added; and A new control room to monitor all materials and systems built. Project challenges were numerous and included the following: An aggressive 17-month schedule to support the high-profile Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) decommissioning; Company/contractor changeovers that affected each and every project team member; Project requirements that continually evolved during design and construction due to the performance- and outcome-based nature ofthe security objectives; and Restrictions imposed on all communications due to the sensitive nature of the projects In spite of the significant challenges, the project was delivered on schedule and $2 million under budget, which became a special source of pride that bonded the team. For years, the SIF had been stored at the central Hanford PFP. Because of the weapons-grade piutonium produced and stored there, the PFP had some of the tightest security on the Hanford

  15. Adoption first? The disposition of human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-06-01

    Anja Karnein has suggested that because of the importance of respect for persons, law and policy should require some human embryos created in vitro to be available for adoption for a period of time. If no one comes forward to adopt the embryos during that time, they may be destroyed (in the case of embryos left over from fertility medicine) or used in research (in the case of embryos created for that purpose or left over from fertility medicine). This adoption option would increase the number of embryos available for couples looking for help in having children, but that effect is less important--Karnein argues--than the observance of respect for human persons. As possible persons, she holds that embryos ought to be treated, as if they will become children, if only for a while. If enacted as a matter of law and policy, an 'adoption option' would wrongly interfere with the dispositional rights women and men ought to have over embryos they create in the course of trying to have children. Karnein's proposal would also deprive researchers of certainty that the embryos they create for research would actually be available that way, leading to increased burdens of time and money and maybe even to more embryos than would otherwise be produced. Karnein's analysis does not show, moreover, that any duty of rescue applies to embryos. No woman is required to adopt any embryo, which significantly undercuts the justification for an obligatory adoption period. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Tryptophan metabolism, disposition and utilization in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Abdulla A.-B.

    2015-01-01

    Tryptophan (Trp) requirements in pregnancy are several-fold: (1) the need for increased protein synthesis by mother and for fetal growth and development; (2) serotonin (5-HT) for signalling pathways; (3) kynurenic acid (KA) for neuronal protection; (4) quinolinic acid (QA) for NAD+ synthesis (5) other kynurenines (Ks) for suppressing fetal rejection. These goals could not be achieved if maternal plasma [Trp] is depleted. Although plasma total (free + albumin-bound) Trp is decreased in pregnancy, free Trp is elevated. The above requirements are best expressed in terms of a Trp utilization concept. Briefly, Trp is utilized as follows: (1) In early and mid-pregnancy, emphasis is on increased maternal Trp availability to meet the demand for protein synthesis and fetal development, most probably mediated by maternal liver Trp 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) inhibition by progesterone and oestrogens. (2) In mid- and late pregnancy, Trp availability is maintained and enhanced by the release of albumin-bound Trp by albumin depletion and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) elevation, leading to increased flux of Trp down the K pathway to elevate immunosuppressive Ks. An excessive release of free Trp could undermine pregnancy by abolishing T-cell suppression by Ks. Detailed assessment of parameters of Trp metabolism and disposition and related measures (free and total Trp, albumin, NEFA, K and its metabolites and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in maternal blood and, where appropriate, placental and fetal material) in normal and abnormal pregnancies may establish missing gaps in our knowledge of the Trp status in pregnancy and help identify appropriate intervention strategies. PMID:26381576

  17. Validation of Yoon's Critical Thinking Disposition Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunsook; Park, Chang Gi; Kim, Hyojin

    2015-12-01

    The lack of reliable and valid evaluation tools targeting Korean nursing students' critical thinking (CT) abilities has been reported as one of the barriers to instructing and evaluating students in undergraduate programs. Yoon's Critical Thinking Disposition (YCTD) instrument was developed for Korean nursing students, but few studies have assessed its validity. This study aimed to validate the YCTD. Specifically, the YCTD was assessed to identify its cross-sectional and longitudinal measurement invariance. This was a validation study in which a cross-sectional and longitudinal (prenursing and postnursing practicum) survey was used to validate the YCTD using 345 nursing students at three universities in Seoul, Korea. The participants' CT abilities were assessed using the YCTD before and after completing an established pediatric nursing practicum. The validity of the YCTD was estimated and then group invariance test using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was performed to confirm the measurement compatibility of multigroups. A test of the seven-factor model showed that the YCTD demonstrated good construct validity. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis findings for the measurement invariance suggested that this model structure demonstrated strong invariance between groups (i.e., configural, factor loading, and intercept combined) but weak invariance within a group (i.e., configural and factor loading combined). In general, traditional methods for assessing instrument validity have been less than thorough. In this study, multigroup confirmatory factor analysis using cross-sectional and longitudinal measurement data allowed validation of the YCTD. This study concluded that the YCTD can be used for evaluating Korean nursing students' CT abilities. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Iodized Salt Use and Salt Iodine Content among Household Salts from Six Districts of Eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, S; Gelal, B; Tamang, M K; Kc, R; Singh, S; Lamsal, M; Baral, N

    2014-01-01

    Universal salt iodization is considered the best strategy for controlling iodine deficiency disorders in Nepal. This study was done to find iodized salt use among Nepalese population and the iodine content of household salts. Six districts (Siraha, Saptari, Jhapa, Udayapur, Ilam and Panchthar) were chosen randomly from 16 districts of eastern Nepal for the study. In each district, three schools (private and government) were chosen randomly for sample collection. A total of 1803 salt samples were collected from schools of those districts. For sample collection a clean air tight plastic pouch was provided to each school child and was asked to bring approximately 15 gm of their kitchen salt. The information about type of salt used; 'two child logo' iodized salt or crystal salt was obtained from each child and salt iodine content was estimated using iodometric titration. At the time of study, 85% (n=1533) of Nepalese households were found to use iodized salt whereas 15% (n=270) used crystal salt. The mean iodine content in iodized and crystal salt was 40.8±12.35 ppm and 18.43±11.49 ppm respectively. There was significant difference between iodized and crystal salts use and salt iodine content of iodized and crystal salt among different districts (p value <0.001 at confidence level of 95%). Of the total samples, only 169 samples (9.4% of samples) have iodine content<15 ppm. Most Nepalese households have access to iodized salt most salt samples have sufficient iodine content.

  19. Not salt taste perception but self-reported salt eating habit predicts actual salt intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a sodium chloride solution. Predicted 24-hr urinary salt excretions using Kawasaki's and Tanaka's equations estimated dietary salt intake. Participants' mean age was 35 yr, and 59.5% were male. Salt sense threshold did not show any relationship with actual salt intake and a salt-eating habit. However, those eating "salty" foods showed higher blood pressure (P for trend=0.048) and higher body mass index (BMI; P for trend=0.043). Moreover, a salty eating habit was a significant predictor for actual salt intake (regression coefficient [β] for Kawasaki's equation 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10-2.69, P=0.048; β for Tanaka's equation 0.66, 95% CI 0.01-1.31, P=0.047). In conclusion, a self-reported salt-eating habit, not salt taste threshold predicts actual salt intake.

  20. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure >15mmHg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% Females, 16% Blacks, BMI 28.5±4.2 Kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mmHg) as compared to high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mmHg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dl, 10.8±7.3 mIU/L and 2.6±1.9) as compared to high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dl, 9.4±5.8 mIU/L and 2.1±1.4) (p salt sensitive (N=193) versus salt resistant (N=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in HOMA on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt resistant subjects (p=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in HOMA after including age, BMI, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. PMID:25185125

  1. Hazards Associated with Legacy Nitrate Salt Waste Drums Managed under the Container Isolation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clark, David Lewis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-07

    At present, there are 29 drums of nitrate waste salts (oxidizers with potentially acidic liquid bearing RCRA characteristics D001 and D002) that are awaiting processing, specifically to eliminate these characteristics and to allow for ultimate disposition at WIPP. As a result of the Feb. 14th, 2014 drum breach at WIPP, and the subsequent identification of the breached drum as a product ofLANL TRU waste disposition on May 15th, 2014, these 29 containers were moved into the Perrnacon in Dome 231 at TA-54 Area G, as part of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) approved container isolation plan. The plan is designed to mitigate hazards associated with the nitrate salt bearing waste stream. The purpose of this document is to articulate the hazards associated with un-remediated nitrate salts while in storage at LANL. These hazards are distinctly different from the Swheat-remediated nitrate salt bearing drums, and this document is intended to support the request to remove the un-remediated drums from management under the container isolation plan. Plans to remediate and/or treat both of these waste types are being developed separately, and are beyond the scope of this document.

  2. PBL and critical thinking disposition in Chinese medical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Xiangyun; Emmersen, Jeppe; Toft, Egon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of problem-based learning (PBL) and the development of critical thinking disposition (CT) and academic achievement in Chinese medical students using a cross-sectional randomized design. Medical students from China Medical University (CMU) ...... of critical thinking, but not to improved academic skills.......The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of problem-based learning (PBL) and the development of critical thinking disposition (CT) and academic achievement in Chinese medical students using a cross-sectional randomized design. Medical students from China Medical University (CMU......) were randomized to PBL or non-PBL teaching at the commencement of the study. After five years of study, CT was scored by a Chinese version of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI-CV). The score achieved on a Computer Case Simulation (CCS) test evaluated academic performance...

  3. Dispositional anxiety blocks the psychological effects of power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maner, Jon K; Gailliot, Matthew T; Menzel, Andrew J; Kunstman, Jonathan W

    2012-11-01

    A growing body of research demonstrates that power promotes a fundamental orientation toward approach and agency. The current studies suggest that this tendency is moderated by dispositional anxiety. In two experiments, high levels of dispositional anxiety blocked the psychological effects of power. Although people low in anxiety responded to a power prime with greater willingness to take risks, those high in anxiety did not (Experiment 1). Similarly, whereas those low in social anxiety responded to power with increased sexual attraction toward a confederate, individuals high in social anxiety failed to show the same effect (Experiment 2). In both studies, the interaction between power and anxiety was statistically mediated by perceptions of reward. Although power enhanced people's perceptions of reward, this effect was eliminated by high levels of dispositional anxiety. This research provides insight into how, and in whom, power promotes approach and agentic behavior.

  4. Pediatric Disposition Classification (Reverse Triage) System to Create Surge Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelen, Gabor D; Sauer, Lauren; Clattenburg, Eben; Lewis-Newby, Mithya; Fackler, James

    2015-06-01

    Critically insufficient pediatric hospital capacity may develop during a disaster or surge event. Research is lacking on the creation of pediatric surge capacity. A system of "reverse triage," with early discharge of hospitalized patients, has been developed for adults and shows great potential but is unexplored in pediatrics. We conducted an evidence-based modified-Delphi consensus process with 25 expert panelists to derive a disposition classification system for pediatric inpatients on the basis of risk tolerance for a consequential medical event (CME). For potential validation, critical interventions (CIs) were derived and ranked by using a Likert scale to indicate CME risk should the CI be withdrawn or withheld for early disposition. Panelists unanimously agreed on a 5-category risk-based disposition classification system. The panelists established upper limit (mean) CME risk for each category as surge events.

  5. Measuring teacher dispositions using the DAATS battery: a multifaceted Rasch analysis of rater effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, W Steve; Wilkerson, Judy R; Rea, Dorothy C; Quinn, David; Batchelder, Heather L; Englehart, Dierdre S; Jennings, Kelly J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which raters' subjectivity impacts measures of teacher dispositions using the Dispositions Assessments Aligned with Teacher Standards (DAATS) battery. This is an important component of the collection of evidence of validity and reliability of inferences made using the scale. It also provides needed support for the use of subjective affective measures in teacher training and other professional preparation programs, since these measures are often feared to be unreliable because of rater effect. It demonstrates the advantages of using the Multi-Faceted Rasch Model as a better alternative to the typical methods used in preparation programs, such as Cohen's Kappa. DAATS instruments require subjective scoring using a six-point rating scale derived from the affective taxonomy as defined by Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia (1956). Rater effect is a serious challenge and can worsen or drift over time. Errors in rater judgment can impact the accuracy of ratings, and these effects are common, but can be lessened through training of raters and monitoring of their efforts. This effort uses the multifaceted Rasch measurement models (MFRM) to detect and understand the nature of these effects.

  6. Towards Sustainable Clothing Disposition: Exploring the Consumer Choice to Use Trash as a Disposal Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela S. Norum

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The textile and apparel supply chain plays an integral role in providing consumers with a continuous supply of apparel that must ultimately be discarded. Viewing the consumer as a player in the process between the supply chain and the post-consumer textile waste stream, this study was designed to explore the consumer apparel disposition process with an eye towards understanding how both supply chain members and post-consumer waste entities can interact with consumers to reduce the amount of apparel discarded in landfills. Hanson’s Consumer Product Disposition Process framework was used to help guide the research. Using a qualitative research approach, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with twenty-four female consumers in the United States to address three main research questions. The findings revealed several themes: use of both “compensatory” and “non-compensatory” choice heuristics in decision making; a “usable life” and the “personal nature” of garments as barriers to non-trash disposal options; and the need to “create awareness” and “provide assurance” to encourage alternative disposal modes. Implications for apparel producers and retailers, secondhand stores and textile recyclers are discussed.

  7. University Loaned Normal Uranium Slug Disposition Study: University survey responses. Predecisional draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G.W. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    During the 1950`s and 1960`s, the Atomic Energy Commission loaned rejected natural uranium slugs from the Savannah River Site to United States universities for use in subcritical assemblies. Currently, there are sixty-two universities holding 91,798 slugs, containing about 167 metric tons of natural uranium. It was originally planned that the universities would return the material to Fernald when they no longer required it. Fernald has not received slugs since it was shut down in 1988. The Department of Energy`s Office of Weapons and Materials Planning requested that the Planning Support Group develop information to assist them in facilitating the return of the unwanted slugs to one or more of their facilities and develop alternatives for the ultimate disposition of this material. This supplemental report to the University Loaned Normal Uranium Slug Disposition Study documents responses to and summarizes the results of a survey of fifty-eight universities. University contacts and survey responses covering loaned slug descriptions, historical information, radiological data, current status, and plans and schedules are documented.

  8. Pulmonary effects and disposition of luteolin and Artemisia afra extracts in isolated perfused lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel Mjiqiza, Sizwe; Abraham Syce, James; Chibuzo Obikeze, Kenechukwu

    2013-10-07

    Artemisia afra (Asteraceae) is a traditional medicinal plant frequently used in steam inhalation form to treat respiratory conditions. Quantify luteolin content in Artemisia afra dried crude and aqueous extract. Evaluate the pulmonary effects of Artemisia afra steam inhalation, nebulized Artemisia afra extract and luteolin in isolated perfused lungs (IPL). Evaluate the pulmonary disposition of intravenously administered luteolin. HPLC was used to quantify luteolin in Artemisia afra extracts. A modified version of the IPL was used to determine the effects of Artemisia afra steam inhalation, nebulized luteolin, and nebulized aqueous leaf extract on lung function, as well as the pulmonary disposition of IV luteolin. Artemisia afra extract contained significantly higher luteolin levels than the crude dried leaves. Inhaled Artemisia afra steam, and nebulized luteolin, and Artemisia afra extract and IV luteolin produced significant dose-dependent improvements in lung function, with nebulized Artemisia afra producing the greatest improvements. Nebulisation with Artemisia afra extract yielded higher quantities of luteolin than luteolin nebulisation. Results verify the traditional use of inhalation of Artemisia afra steam, although nebulized luteolin and aqueous extract are better alternatives. Luteolin significantly contributes to the bronchodilatory effects of Artemisia afra. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hospital Discharge Disposition of Stroke Patients in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin S; Hu, Zhen; Fell, Nancy; Heath, Gregory W; Qayyum, Rehan; Sartipi, Mina

    2017-09-01

    Early determination of hospital discharge disposition status at an acute admission is extremely important for stroke management and the eventual outcomes of patients with stroke. We investigated the hospital discharge disposition of patients with stroke residing in Tennessee and developed a predictive tool for clinical adoption. Our investigational aims were to evaluate the association of selected patient characteristics with hospital discharge disposition status and predict such status at the time of an acute stroke admission. We analyzed 127,581 records of patients with stroke hospitalized between 2010 and 2014. Logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals to examine the factor outcome association. An easy-to-use clinical predictive tool was built by using integer-based risk scores derived from coefficients of multivariable logistic regression. Among the 127,581 records of patients with stroke, 86,114 (67.5%) indicated home discharge and 41,467 (32.5%) corresponded to facility discharge. All considered patient characteristics had significant correlations with hospital discharge disposition status. Patients were at greater odds of being discharged to another facility if they were women; older; black; patients with a subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage; those with the comorbidities of diabetes mellitus, heart disease, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, arrhythmia, or depression; those transferred from another hospital; or patients with Medicare as the primary payer. A predictive tool had a discriminatory capability with area under the curve estimates of 0.737 and 0.724 for derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. Our investigation revealed that the hospital discharge disposition pattern of patients with stroke in Tennessee was associated with the key patient characteristics of selected demographics, clinical indicators, and insurance status. These analyses resulted in the development of an easy-to-use predictive

  10. Long-lasting effects of affective disorders and childhood trauma on dispositional optimism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhof, Rosalie; Rius-Ottenheim, Nathaly; Spinhoven, Philip; van der Mast, Roos C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.; Giltay, Erik J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dispositional optimism, a personality trait characterized by generalized positive expectations towards the future, is thought to remain rather stable over time. It is however largely unknown to what extent affective disorders and its risk factors affect dispositional optimism. Methods:

  11. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  12. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  13. Rethinking Students’ Dispositions towards Civic Duties in Urban Learning Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga Adedayo Ige

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the causative influence of thinking dispositions on secondary school students’ civic attitudes in school ecologies. 167 students from eight selected secondary schools in northern and southern Nigeria responded to the Senior Students’ Thinking Dispositions Questionnaire (SSTDQ, and Students’ Attitude to Civic Education Scale (SACES. Results of the stepwise linear regression model declared that absolutism, superstition, and dogmatism were the potent predictors that are strongly connected to students’ civic attitudes. The study has inferences for teachers’ development viz a viz teaching students’ civic attitudes from inside out (critical teaching that uses social tools as yardstick in school ecologies.

  14. Decision model for evaluating reactor disposition of excess plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmunds, T.

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering a range of technologies for disposition of excess weapon plutonium. Use of plutonium fuel in fission reactors to generate spent fuel is one class of technology options. This report describes the inputs and results of decision analyses conducted to evaluate four evolutionary/advanced and three existing fission reactor designs for plutonium disposition. The evaluation incorporates multiple objectives or decision criteria, and accounts for uncertainty. The purpose of the study is to identify important and discriminating decision criteria, and to identify combinations of value judgments and assumptions that tend to favor one reactor design over another.

  15. An Improved Phase Disposition SPWM Strategy for Cascaded Multilevel Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbang Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Carrier Phase Shifted (CPS strategy is conventional for cascaded multilevel inverter, because it can naturally ensure all cascaded cells to output balanced power. However, in point of spectra of the output line voltage, CPS is suboptimal to Phase Disposition (PD strategy, because the latter can not naturally ensure power balance. This paper presents an improved PD strategy, inspiration from the disposition of CPS strategy triangle carriers. Just reconstructing the triangle carriers of PD strategy, it can not only reserve the waveform quality of the line voltage to be optimal, but also naturally ensure the output power of each cascaded cells to be balanced.

  16. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  17. Gas releases from salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  18. 19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property. 12.150 Section 12.150 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS...; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property. (a) Generally. Merchandise from certain countries... the United States shall be detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition...

  19. Critical Thinking Dispositions of Undergraduate Nursing Students and Nursing Faculty in Southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, Foluso O.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to identify the critical thinking dispositions of undergraduate nursing students and nursing faculty in Southwestern Nigeria. Critical thinking dispositions are required for critical thinking skills. People who have critical thinking disposition exhibit seven traits: truth-seeking,…

  20. Contributions of Teachers' Thinking Styles to Critical Thinking Dispositions (Istanbul-Fatih Sample)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emir, Serap

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the research was to determine the contributions of the teachers' thinking styles to critical thinking dispositions. Hence, it is aimed to determine whether thinking styles are related to critical thinking dispositions and thinking styles measure critical thinking dispositions or not. The research was designed in relational…

  1. 36 CFR 1225.26 - How do agencies change a disposition authority?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do agencies change a... disposition authority? Agencies must submit an SF 115 to permanently change the approved disposition of records. Disposition authorities are automatically superseded by approval of a later SF 115 for the same...

  2. Down the Rabbit Hole: Challenges and Methodological Recommendations in Researching Writing-Related Student Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Dana Lynn; Gorzelsky, Gwen; Wells, Jennifer; Hayes, Carol; Jones, Ed; Salchak, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Researching writing-related dispositions is of critical concern for understanding writing transfer and writing development. However, as a field we need better tools and methods for identifying, tracking, and analyzing dispositions. This article describes a failed attempt to code for five key dispositions (attribution, self-efficacy, persistence,…

  3. 17 CFR 200.42 - Disposition of business by seriatim Commission consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of business by... EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Disposition of Commission Business § 200.42 Disposition of business by seriatim Commission consideration. (a) Whenever the...

  4. 17 CFR 200.40 - Joint disposition of business by Commission meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Joint disposition of business... EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Disposition of Commission Business § 200.40 Joint disposition of business by Commission meeting. Any meeting of the...

  5. 17 CFR 200.43 - Disposition of business by exercise of authority delegated to individual Commissioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of business by... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Disposition of Commission Business § 200.43 Disposition of business by exercise of authority delegated to...

  6. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 10 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 10 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 10 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amount of solids, or unusual colors. Further sample results will be reported in a future document. This memo satisfies part of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR).

  7. Analytical results from salt batch 9 routine DSSHT and SEHT monthly samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-01

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the “microbatches” of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 9 have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, cations (Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy - ICPES), and anions (Ion Chromatography Anions - IC-A). The analytical results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from previous macrobatch samples. The Cs removal continues to be acceptable, with decontamination factors (DF) averaging 25700 (107% RSD). The bulk chemistry of the DSSHT and SEHT samples do not show any signs of unusual behavior, other than lacking the anticipated degree of dilution that is calculated to occur during Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) processing.

  8. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 11 Tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-23

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 11 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 11 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amounts of solids, or unusual colors. Further sample results will be reported in a future document. This memo satisfies part of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR).

  9. Mechanism for salt scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  10. Oxygen sparging of residue salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E.; Griego, W.J.; Owens, S.D.; Thorn, C.W.; Vigil, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    Oxygen sparge is a process for treating salt residues at Los Alamos National Laboratory by sparging oxygen through molten salts. Oxygen reacts with the plutonium trichloride in these salts to form plutonium dioxide. There is further reaction of the plutonium dioxide with plutonium metal and the molten salt to form plutonium oxychloride. Both of the oxide plutonium species are insoluble in the salt and collect atthe bottom of the crucible. This results in a decrease of a factor of 2--3 in the amount of salt that must be treated, and the amount of waste generated by aqueous treatment methods.

  11. Evaluation of p-phenylenediamine, o-phenylphenol sodium salt, and 2,4-diaminotoluene in the rat comet assay as part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiated international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boeck, Marlies; van der Leede, Bas-jan; De Vlieger, Kathleen; Geys, Helena; Vynckier, An; Van Gompel, Jacky

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiated international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (PPD), o-phenylphenol sodium salt (OPP), and 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT), were analyzed in this laboratory as coded test chemicals. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (7-9 weeks of age) were given three oral doses of the test compounds, 24 and 21 h apart and liver and stomach were sampled 3h after the final dose administration. Under the conditions of the test, no increases in DNA damage were observed in liver and stomach with PPD and OPP up to 100 and 1000 mg/kg/day, respectively. 2,4-DAT, a known genotoxic carcinogen, induced a weak but reproducible, dose-related and statistically significant increase in DNA damage in liver cells while no increases were observed in stomach cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Salt Lake City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ICF Kaiser

    1999-05-20

    Since its designation as a national Clean City in 1994, Salt Lake Clean Cities has put more than 2,600 alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) on community streets. The 82 business, nonprofit, and government agencies that comprise the coalition are all dedicated to cleaning the air by reducing vehicle exhaust. Salt Lake Clean Cities has the third largest compressed natural gas and propane-refueling infrastructure in the country, with 98 locations available. They sponsor an annual ''Spring Soiree'' to increase public awareness about the program and educate the public about the benefits of alternative fuel and AFVs.

  13. Origin of salt giants in abyssal serpentinite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Vittorio; Carbone, Serafina; Manuella, Fabio C.; Hovland, Martin; Rueslåtten, Håkon; Johnsen, Hans-K.

    2017-10-01

    Worldwide marine salt deposits ranging over the entire geological record are generally considered climate-related evaporites, derived from the precipitation of salts (mainly chlorides and sulfates) from saturated solutions driven by solar evaporation of seawater. This explanation may be realistic for a salt thickness ≤100 m, being therefore inadequate for thicker (>1 km) deposits. Moreover, sub-seafloor salt deposits in deep marine basins are difficult to reconcile with a surface evaporation model. Marine geology reports on abyssal serpentinite systems provide an alternative explanation for some salt deposits. Seawater-driven serpentinization consumes water and increases the salinity of the associated aqueous brines. Brines can be trapped in fractures and cavities in serpentinites and the surrounding `country' rocks. Successive thermal dehydration of buried serpentinites can mobilize and accumulate the brines, forming highly saline hydrothermal solutions. These can migrate upwards and erupt onto the seafloor as saline geysers, which may form salt-saturated water pools, as are currently observed in numerous deeps in the Red Sea and elsewhere. The drainage of deep-seated saline brines to seafloor may be a long-lasting, effective process, mainly occurring in areas characterized by strong tectonic stresses and/or igneous intrusions. Alternatively, brines could be slowly expelled from fractured serpentinites by buoyancy gradients and, hence, separated salts/brines could intrude vertically into surrounding rocks, forming salt diapirs. Serpentinization is an ubiquitous, exothermic, long-lasting process which can modify large volumes of oceanic lithosphere over geological times. Therefore, buried salt deposits in many areas of the world can be reasonably related to serpentinites.

  14. The interaction between motivational disposition and participative budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to report the findings of a study of how dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality interact with participative budgeting to affect budget goal commitment. The results indicate that the effect of increased budgetary participation on budget goal commitmen...

  15. Oppressors or Emancipators: Critical Dispositions for Preparing Inclusive School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoharis, George; Causton-Theoharis, Julie N.

    2008-01-01

    Leadership from school administrators is essential in creating inclusive schools. The purpose of this article is to outline the dispositions necessary for school leaders in order to develop and maintain inclusive educational services for all students. This work comes from a qualitative study of university-based experts who teach courses in…

  16. Influence Of Sexuality Education On The Behavioural Disposition Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the influence of sexuality education on the behavioural disposition of Nigerian adolescents and its implications for counselling. The study employed a descriptive survey design. The participants included two hundred adolescents randomly selected from ten secondary schools in Lagos State.

  17. Dispositional Resistance to Change and Occupational Interests and Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreg, Shaul; Nevo, Ofra; Metzer, Hila; Leder, Naftali; Castro, Dotan

    2009-01-01

    Through two field studies, we examine the role that individuals' orientation toward change has in determining their occupational choices and interests. In Study 1, 139 job applicants' dispositional resistance to change (RTC) scores were associated with occupational choice, such that individuals applying for investigative and enterprising jobs…

  18. 19 CFR 123.25 - Certification and disposition of manifests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or... required when the merchandise is to be transshipped in Canada or Mexico under Customs supervision shall be... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification and disposition of manifests. 123.25...

  19. College Student Disposition and Academic Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Timothy W., II; Skidmore, Ronald L.; Aagaard, Lola

    2012-01-01

    Dispositional optimism is an adopted orientation in which one believes that goals will generally be attained and that tasks can generally be successfully completed, whereas pessimists orient toward less belief in successful task or goal completion. A related concept, individuals with high self-efficacy believe they will be successful at particular…

  20. Writing Pedagogies of Empathy: As Rhetoric and Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is attracting increased attention within and beyond the academy. In this essay I review relevant theories of empathy and their place within rhetoric and composition. I propose two approaches to teaching empathy: as rhetoric and as disposition. A rhetorical approach incorporates a necessary critical awareness of empathy's enticements and…

  1. Variables Impacting Dispositional Empathy in Doctoral Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Amelia C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore variables impacting dispositional empathy in doctoral psychology students. While there is a great deal of research regarding empathy in practicing psychologists and mental health professionals, little is known about empathy in psychology trainees. This is especially surprising given the importance of…

  2. Contribution of Emotional Intelligence towards Graduate Students' Critical Thinking Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Fong-Luan

    2015-01-01

    Good critical thinkers possess a core set of cognitive thinking skills, and a disposition towards critical thinking. They are able to think critically to solve complex, real-world problems effectively. Although personal emotion is important in critical thinking, it is often a neglected issue. The emotional intelligence in this study concerns our…

  3. RA – beskeden genetisk disposition - resultater fra nyt dansk tvillingstudie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    undersøgelse af RA hos danske tvillinger underbygger vores tidligere observationer, der indikerer, at den genetiske disposition til den gruppe af polyartritter, der samles under betegnelsen reumatoid arthrit, er beskeden. De senere års forskning tyder på, at sygdommen i klinisk, behandlingsmæssig, men også i...

  4. Connecting the dots: exploring dispositions in teacher education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to explore the dispositions that pre-service teachers require in order to be effective practitioners. Pre-service teachers study a curriculum that equips them with the content, as well as the pedagogical, psychological and philosophical knowledge, that are foundational to their tasks as both ...

  5. Preparing Students for a Diverse Workplace: Strategies to Improve Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Deana; Dail, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The curriculum for kinesiology students typically includes foundation courses focused on the scientific principles underlying human movement. Modifications for gender, age, and physical ability are also commonly included in these courses. Rarely addressed, however, are students' dispositions toward diverse groups. This article examines several…

  6. 22 CFR 128.10 - Disposition of proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....10 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 128.10 Disposition of proceedings. Where the evidence is not sufficient to support the charges... provided in § 127.7 of this subchapter, impose a civil penalty as provided in § 127.10 of this subchapter...

  7. Cultivating Critical-Thinking Dispositions throughout the Business Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Janel; Spataro, Sandra E.

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking is an essential component of managerial literacy, yet business school graduates struggle to apply critical-thinking skills at work to the level that employers desire. This article argues for a dispositional approach to teaching critical thinking, rooted in cultivating a critical-thinking culture. We suggest a two-pronged approach…

  8. Comprehensions on the dispositive: from information towards profanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson da Silva Medeiros

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The knowledge communication can be seen in epistemological and institutional conditions of informational cycle mediation, acting as an intervener in the social construction of knowledge, controlled by explicit or implicit rules that awaken or bar the flow of knowledge. Objective: Explore and reflect on dispositive based on the idea that truth is based on actions and practices contextually specific, aiming to discuss and contribute to a systematization of “document” and “information”, understanding and strategizing about power relations. Methodology: Readings and interpretations on dispositive, as presented by Michel Foucault and later interpreted and worked by other authors, undertaking its construction in the conceptual body of information and of document for scientific knowledge access. Results and Conclusions: Still partial, the results point in the direction that dispositives that use the information and the document operate in the control and in the strategies of regulation of the power in the communication of the scientific information. Knowing that scientific knowledge is a construction of a truth, being validated within a community, needing the look on dispositives that desecration the sacred.

  9. On the dimensionality of the Dispositional Hope Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Danny; Meijer, Rob R.; Weekers, Anke M.; Baneke, Joost J.

    The Dispositional Hope Scale (DHS; C. R. Snyder et al., 1991) consists of two subsets of items measuring Agency and Pathways. ne authors used bifactor analysis to evaluate the dimensionality structure of the scale. Data from 676 persons (295 psychiatric patients, 112 delinquents, and 269 students)

  10. 42 CFR 67.16 - Evaluation and disposition of application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation and disposition of application. 67.16 Section 67.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING AGENCY FOR HEALTH CARE POLICY AND RESEARCH GRANTS AND CONTRACTS Research Grants for...

  11. The Changed Role Of Reference Librarian By Cultural Disposition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A concept paper devoted to highlight the effects of cultural disposition of four distinct sets of cultural categories namely: hierarchical, individualistic, egalitarian and fatalistic users of library on reference librarian. The paper critically reviewed the information users' behavioural dimensions to reference services based on ...

  12. 7 CFR 984.56 - Disposition of reserve walnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Board may export or authorize the disposition in export to the destinations outside the United States... marketing year a handler may deliver reserve walnuts and any substandard walnuts meeting the minimum kernel...

  13. 7 CFR 51.44 - Disposition of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Schedule of Fees and Charges at Destination Markets § 51.44 Disposition of fees. (a) The fees collected for...

  14. Dispositional optimism, self-framing and medical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Huang, Chunlei; Li, Xuesong; Zhao, Xin; Peng, Jiaxi

    2015-03-01

    Self-framing is an important but underinvestigated area in risk communication and behavioural decision-making, especially in medical settings. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship among dispositional optimism, self-frame and decision-making. Participants (N = 500) responded to the Life Orientation Test-Revised and self-framing test of medical decision-making problem. The participants whose scores were higher than the middle value were regarded as highly optimistic individuals. The rest were regarded as low optimistic individuals. The results showed that compared to the high dispositional optimism group, participants from the low dispositional optimism group showed a greater tendency to use negative vocabulary to construct their self-frame, and tended to choose the radiation therapy with high treatment survival rate, but low 5-year survival rate. Based on the current findings, it can be concluded that self-framing effect still exists in medical situation and individual differences in dispositional optimism can influence the processing of information in a framed decision task, as well as risky decision-making. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Dispositional and Situational Autonomy as Moderators of Mood and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fengqiu; Wang, Ling; Chen, Yinghe; Zheng, Zhiwei; Chen, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research suggests that mood can influence creativity, the controversy about the effects of positive and negative moods has raged for years. This study investigated how the relationship between induced mood and creativity is moderated by dispositional and situational autonomy. It contrasted the different moderating effects of the…

  16. The Missing Link: Teaching the Dispositions to Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James G.; Wasicsko, M. Mark; Chirichello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this article the authors contend that the element that is typically missing or underdeveloped in the education and development of most leaders is the intentional integration of the research and practices for assessing and developing the deeply held core beliefs, attitudes, and values (what we will call leadership dispositions) that play a…

  17. 5 CFR 293.405 - Disposition of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RECORDS Employee Performance File System Records § 293.405 Disposition of records. (a) When the OPF of a... the National Personnel Records Center, the “losing” servicing office shall include in the OPF all... prescribed in part 430 of this chapter. Also, the “losing” office will purge from the OPF all performance...

  18. Gender-related differences in attitudinal disposition of university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two research hypotheses were posed and tested using t-test statistic. The results indicated that there were no significant gender differences in the participants‟ attitudinal disposition to using mediation process to resolving conflict (t-cal =2.76; t-cri =1.96; df =253, P>0.05) and in their preference to resolving only conflict ...

  19. Comparing Teacher Dispositions in China and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Kun; Tamashiro, Roy

    2013-01-01

    In studies conducted in the USA, teacher dispositional factors such as enthusiasm, professional esteem and learning motivation often emerge as the most significant variables affecting student learning and achievement from the primary grades through higher education. Do these factors play as significant a role in student learning and achievement in…

  20. Helping behavior, dispositional empathic concern, and the principle of care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, M.O.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the relative strength of two correlates of helping behavior: dispositional empathic concern and a moral principle to care about others. The empathy–helping and care–helping relationships are investigated using data from the General Social Survey, a nationally

  1. Consistency and Development of Prosocial Dispositions: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Guthrie, Ivanna K.; Murphy, Bridget C.; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Cumberland, Amanda; Carol, Gustavo

    1999-01-01

    Examined consistency in prosocial dispositions, using longitudinal data from preschool through early adulthood. Found that spontaneous prosocial behavior observed in preschools predicted actual prosocial behavior, other- and self-reported prosocial behavior, self-reported sympathy, and perspective taking in childhood to early adulthood. Prosocial…

  2. The disposition of distance learners towards success in their first ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicated that few days before the examination respondents had occasional memory loss and the phenomenon of forgetting easily (mean of 1.55). Also, the night before their first paper ... expected frequencies were very highly significant. KEY WORDS: Disposition, anxiety, stress, Winneba, examination, centre.

  3. Adding dispositions to create pedagogy-based Learning Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaar, Dirk; Rienties, Bart; Nguyen, Quan

    This empirical study aims to demonstrate how Dispositional Learning Analytics (DLA) can provide a strong connection between Learning Analytics (LA) and pedagogy. Where LA based models typically do well in predicting course performance or student drop-out, they lack actionable data in order to easily

  4. 78 FR 18234 - Demolition or Disposition of Public Housing Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 970 Demolition or Disposition of Public Housing Projects CFR Correction 0 In Title 24 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 700 to 1699, revised as of April 1, 2012, on page 490, in Sec. 970.27, redesignate paragraph ...

  5. Deconstructing Dispositions: Toward a Critical Ability Theory in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialka, Christa S.

    2015-01-01

    When attending to dispositions, or educators' assumptions and beliefs about teaching, learning, and students, teacher educators must develop a discourse that examines disability in terms of power and privilege. This article synthesizes literature related to critical race theory (CRT) and disability theory to elucidate the need for a critical…

  6. 30 CFR 879.15 - Disposition of reclaimed land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., OSM, State, or Indian tribe shall publish a notice of proposed land disposition, hold public hearings... for land acquired by OSM to any State or Indian tribe or to any agency or political subdivision of a... any State or political subdivision of a State, to an Indian tribe, or to any firm, association, or...

  7. The Effect of Information Literacy on Teachers' Critical Thinking Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Aycan Çiçek; Çankaya, Ibrahim; Üçer, Hakan; Çetin, Muhammet

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of information literacy and critical thinking are two important concepts of today's information and technology age closely related to each other and sometimes used interchangeably. The purpose of the current study is to explore the relationship between the secondary school teachers' critical thinking disposition and information…

  8. Assessing personal disposition of individuals towards technology adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irbha Magotra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study has attempted to explore personal disposition of individuals towards technology adoption through the development of an index named as Technology Adoption Index. For developing the index, exploratory factor analysis approach has been employed on the sample of 1201 responses collected from the residents of 12 different cities in India. Accordingly, the results of the index have indicated significant role of seven personal traits, namely, optimism, innovativeness, self-efficacy, risk taking propensity, habit, social influence and psychological resilience while manifesting personal disposition of individuals towards technology adoption, i.e., the technology adoption propensity of the individuals. Further, an attempt has also been made to explore the socio-economic characteristics of the individuals possessing distinct level of personal disposition towards technology adoption. Accordingly, the results have unveiled that the personal disposition of the individuals towards technology adoption increases with enhancement in their income and qualification but decreases with enhancement in their age. As a measurement tool, Technology Adoption Index can be used as ready-recknor by practitioners for the identification of technology adoption propensity of the individuals. This will facilitate organizations in developing and designing new products and services which can be readily accepted by the individuals.

  9. 7 CFR 4285.69 - Evaluation and disposition of applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... potential conflict of interest with the applicants. (2) Prior to technical examination, a preliminary review will be made for responsiveness to the program solicitation (e.g., relationship of proposal to research...-State Research on Cooperatives Program § 4285.69 Evaluation and disposition of applications. (a...

  10. Disposition Choices Based on Energy Footprints instead of Recovery Quota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikke, H.R.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact of disposition choices on the energy use of closed-loop supply chains. In a life cycle perspective, energy used in the forward chain which is locked up in the product is recaptured in recovery. High quality recovery replaces virgin production and thereby saves energy.

  11. 7 CFR 993.150 - Disposition of prunes by handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... manifest or billing number; and (2) receive from the inspection service a DFA Form P-5 “Shipping Inspection...)(iii) of this section) the Committee's approval of his application to do so. (ii) Application for approval. The handler's application to ship or otherwise make final disposition of any such prunes shall be...

  12. Intelligent Dispositions: Dewey, Habits and Inquiry in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite much debate in the literature, accrediting agencies continue to require that teacher education programs demonstrate that candidates possess requisite sets of dispositions deemed necessary for licensure. At least three unresolved and important questions remain unanswered that directly affect programs' abilities to do so: Are…

  13. Sweet vs. Snap! Effective Dispositions in the Media Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standard, April

    2011-01-01

    In "What Defines an Exemplary School Librarian," Jami Jones and Gail Bush make a strong argument that professional disposition is the key to a successful library media program. The authors emphasize the relevance of INTASC standards which specify that teachers must promote "positive social interaction and (develop) healthy and helping…

  14. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized...

  15. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  16. Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride To Purify Molten Salt Reactor Coolant and Heat Transfer Fluoride Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; McNamara, Bruce K.

    2017-05-02

    Abstract: The molten salt cooled nuclear reactor is included as one of the Generation IV reactor types. One of the challenges with the implementation of this reactor is purifying and maintaining the purity of the various molten fluoride salts that will be used as coolants. The method used for Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s molten salt experimental test reactor was to treat the coolant with a mixture of H2 and HF at 600°C. In this article we evaluate thermal NF3 treatment for purifying molten fluoride salt coolant candidates based on NF3’s 1) past use to purify fluoride salts, 2) other industrial uses, 3) commercial availability, 4) operational, chemical, and health hazards, 5) environmental effects and environmental risk management methods, 6) corrosive properties, and 7) thermodynamic potential to eliminate impurities that could arise due to exposure to water and oxygen. Our evaluation indicates that nitrogen trifluoride is a viable and safer alternative to the previous method.

  17. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... and can be used by individuals to replace salt in their diet. There are no known undesirable effects in healthy ...

  18. Carpinteria Salt Marsh Habitat Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland. We then drew polygons around each habitat...

  19. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  20. Correlates of gratitude disposition in middle school students: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-hyun; Yu, Mi

    2014-01-01

    Gratitude disposition is positively associated with happiness. The purpose of this study was to identify influencing factors on gratitude disposition by gender differences in middle school students. Cross-sectional study using self-reported questionnaires were administered to participants (n=372) aged between 13 ∼ 15 years in Seoul and Chungnam Province in Korea. The collected data were analyzed with SPSS18.0 statistical program, and frequency analysis and logistic regression analysis were used in the research. The mean score of family abuse of boys was significantly higher than girls' score (t=3.016, p=0.003). In subscales of development assets, empowerment (t=2.264, p=0.024), boundaries and expectation (t=2.476, p=0.014), and commitment to learning (t=1.971, p=0.049) were significantly higher in boys. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR 0.334, CI 0.130∼0.862), peer relationship (OR 2.280, CI 1.124∼4.623), social support (OR 2.584, CI 1.176∼5.676), positive identity (OR 3.138, CI 1.256∼7.840) were significantly associated with gratitude disposition for boys, while school violence (OR 0.050, CI 0.003∼0.907) and positive identity (OR 2.937, CI 1.313∼6.567) were significantly associated with gratitude disposition for girls. This study suggests that it is important to protect adolescents from family abuse and school violence, furthermore, developmental assets should be developed to increase to gratitude disposition.

  1. The emergency department prediction of disposition (EPOD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghasiya, Milan R; Murphy, Margaret; O'Flynn, Daniel; Shetty, Amith

    2014-11-01

    Emergency departments (ED) continue to evolve models of care and streaming as interventions to tackle the effects of access block and overcrowding. Tertiary ED may be able to design patient-flow based on predicted dispositions in the department. Segregating discharge-stream patients may help develop patient-flows within the department, which is less affected by availability of beds in a hospital. We aim to determine if triage nurses and ED doctors can predict disposition outcomes early in the patient journey and thus lead to successful streaming of patients in the ED. During this study, triage nurses and ED doctors anonymously predicted disposition outcomes for patients presenting to triage after their brief assessments. Patient disposition at the 24-h post ED presentation was considered as the actual outcome and compared against predicted outcomes. Triage nurses were able to predict actual discharges of 445 patients out of 490 patients with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 90.8% (95% CI 87.8-93.2%). ED registrars were able to predict actual discharges of 85 patients out of 93 patients with PPV of 91.4% (95% CI 83.3-95.9%). ED consultants were able to predict actual discharges of 111 patients out of 118 patients with PPV 94.1% (95% CI 87.7-97.4%). PPVs for admission among ED consultants, ED registrars and Triage nurses were 59.7%, 54.4% and 48.5% respectively. Triage nurses, ED consultants and ED registrars are able to predict a patient's discharge disposition at triage with high levels of confidence. Triage nurses, ED consultants, and ED registrars can predict patients who are likely to be admitted with equal ability. This data may be used to develop specific admission and discharge streams based on early decision-making in EDs by triage nurses, ED registrars or ED consultants. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbial Diversity of Culinary Salts

    OpenAIRE

    Muske, Galen; Baxter, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Extremophiles are exceptional microorganisms that live on this planet in extraordinarily harsh environments. One such extremophiles are Halophiles, salt-loving microorganisms that can survive in extreme salinity levels, and have been found to survive inside salt crystals. We were curious is about the potential diversity of halophiles surviving in salts harvested from around the world. For this experiment various culinary salts were suspended in a 23 % NaCL growth media broth and allowed to gr...

  3. Measuring Dispositional Flow: Validity and reliability of the Dispositional Flow State Scale 2, Italian version.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora F M Riva

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2, for use with Italian adults, young adults and adolescents.In accordance with the guidelines for test adaptation, the scale has been translated with the method of back translation. The understanding of the item has been checked according to the latest standards on the culturally sensitive translation. The scale thus produced was administered to 843 individuals (of which 60.69% female, between the ages of 15 and 74. The sample is balanced between workers and students. The main activities defined by the subjects allow the sample to be divided into three categories: students, workers, athletes (professionals and semi-professionals.The confirmatory factor analysis, conducted using the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLM, showed acceptable fit indexes. Reliability and validity have been verified, and structural invariance has been verified on 6 categories of Flow experience and for 3 subsamples with different with different fields of action. Correlational analysis shows significant high values between the nine dimensions.Our data confirmed the validity and reliability of the Italian DFS-2 in measuring Flow experiences. The scale is reliable for use with Italian adults, young adults and adolescents. The Italian version of the scale is suitable for the evaluation of the subjective tendency to experience Flow trait characteristic in different contest, as sport, study and work.

  4. Transfer characteristics of a lithium chloride–potassium chloride molten salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Mullen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing is an alternative method of reprocessing spent fuel, usually involving the dissolving spent fuel in a molten salt media. The National Nuclear Laboratory designed, built, and commissioned a molten salt dynamics rig to investigate the transfer characteristics of molten lithium chloride–potassium chloride eutectic salt. The efficacy and flow characteristics of a high-temperature centrifugal pump and argon gas lift were obtained for pumping the molten salt at temperatures up to 500°C. The rig design proved suitable on an industrial scale and transfer methods appropriate for use in future molten salt systems. Corrosion within the rig was managed, and melting techniques were optimized to reduce stresses on the rig. The results obtained improve the understanding of molten salt transport dynamics, materials, and engineering design issues and support the industrialization of molten salts pyroprocessing.

  5. Salt Damage and Rising Damp Treatment in Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. P. Q. Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt damage can affect the service life of numerous building structures, both historical and contemporary, in a significant way. In this review, various damage mechanisms to porous building materials induced by salt action are analyzed. The importance of pretreatment investigations is discussed as well; in combination with the knowledge of salt and moisture transport mechanisms they can give useful indications regarding treatment options. The methods of salt damage treatment are assessed then, including both passive techniques based on environmental control, reduction of water transport, or conversion to less soluble salts and active procedures resulting in the removal of salts from deterioration zones. It is concluded that cellulose can still be considered as the favorite material presently used in desalination poultices but hydrophilic mineral wool can serve as its prospective alternative in future applications. Another important cause of building pathologies is the rising damp and, in this phenomenon, it is particularly severe considering the presence of salts in water. The treatment of rising damp in historic building walls is a very complex procedure and at Laboratory of Building Physics (LFC-FEUP a wall base hygroregulated ventilation system was developed and patented.

  6. Challenges of constructing salt cavern gas storage in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Yuan, Guangjie; Ban, Fansheng; Zhuang, Xiaoqian; Li, Jingcui

    2017-11-01

    After more than ten years of research and engineering practice in salt cavern gas storage, the engineering technology of geology, drilling, leaching, completion, operation and monitoring system has been established. With the rapid growth of domestic consumption of natural gas, the requirement of underground gas storage is increasing. Because high-quality rock salt resources about 1000m depth are relatively scarce, the salt cavern gas storages will be built in deep rock salt. According to the current domestic conventional construction technical scheme, construction in deep salt formations will face many problems such as circulating pressure increasing, tubing blockage, deformation failure, higher completion risk and so on, caused by depth and the complex geological conditions. Considering these difficulties, the differences between current technical scheme and the construction scheme of twin well and big hole are analyzed, and the results show that the technical scheme of twin well and big hole have obvious advantages in reducing the circulating pressure loss, tubing blockage and failure risk, and they can be the alternative schemes to solve the technical difficulties of constructing salt cavern gas storages in the deep rock salt.

  7. Mixed salt crystallisation fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Helalizadeh, A

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the mechanisms of mixed salt crystallisation fouling on heat transfer surfaces during convective heat transfer and sub-cooled flow boiling conditions. To-date no investigations on the effects of operating parameters on the deposition of mixtures of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate, which are the most common constituents of scales formed on heat transfer surfaces, have been reported. As part of this research project, a substantial number of experiments were performed to determine the mechanisms controlling deposition. Fluid velocity, heat flux, surface and bulk temperatures, concentration of the solution, ionic strength, pressure and heat transfer surface material were varied systematically. After clarification of the effect of these parameters on the deposition process, the results of these experiments were used to develop a mechanistic model for prediction of fouling resistances, caused by crystallisation of mixed salts, under convective heat transfer...

  8. Consumer acceptance of salt-reduced 'soy sauce' foods over rapidly repeated exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Shimojo, R.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Köster, E.P.; Mojet, J.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of the liking for salt reduced products was tested in a rapidly repeated exposure study using soup and bread (with ham). Salt was partially replaced by naturally brewed soy sauce. First, 44 consumers performed 5 two-alternative forced choice tests to establish the exchange rate (ER) at

  9. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  10. Microemulsion of Molten Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    then to an oil-rich, upper phase as salinity increases in a system of brine/octane/ TRS surfactant/tertiary amyl alcohol . Borkovec et al. (1988) have...11 4. Partial Pseudotemary Phase Diagram .................................. 12 5. Micrograph of Molten Salts/SDS/Pentanol/Decane System...negligible interfacial tension between microdomains. Theoretical work in ternary and pseudotemary systems has shown that the middle phase is a

  11. OFFGAS GENERATION FROM THE DISPOSITION OF SCRAP PLUTONIUM BY VITRIFICATION SIMULANT TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J; Patricia Toole, P; David Best, D; Timothy Jones, T; Donald02 Miller, D; Whitney Thomas, W; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-03-05

    -1475 C, many of the impurities present are extremely volatile. An alternative being considered is to pre-treat the impure PuO{sub 2} by water washing to remove the soluble salts, which would significantly reduce the melter emissions. The disadvantage of the washing alternative is the criticality concerns of using water with plutonium. In this paper, the testing that has been conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to demonstrate induction melting of impure plutonium simulants will be described. The work described concentrates on quantification of the gaseous and particulate emissions from the induction melter. The Pt-Rh melter vessel is a cylinder with a conical bottom and a tubular drain as shown in Figure 1. A 5-inch (12.7 cm) diameter CIM was used for all of the emissions tests. A 6-inch (15.24 cm) diameter CIM, which is the size of the full-scale melter, has since been constructed for further testing. The 5-inch CIM is heated by three induction coils: one for the 5 inch cylinder, one for the conical section, and one for the 1/4-inch (6.35 mm) drain tube. The 6-inch CIM is similar except the cylinder heater extends lower and also heats the cone. The induction heating system is manufactured by Ameritherm{trademark}. The heating system is controlled by a PC to maintain a specific heat up profile and then maintain a constant energy input that maintains a constant temperature. The CIM is operated in batch mode where the plutonium simulant and the glass-forming frit are first thoroughly mixed in an attrittor mill, then added to the melter. Hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) is used as a simulant for the radioactive PuO{sub 2}. The melter is heated until the mixture begins to melt at about 1100 C, then completely melts at about 1400-1450 C. This temperature is maintained for about three hours. While the temperature is maintained at {approx} 1400 C, an air bubbler is normally used to promote mixing of the glass-forming frit and the waste simulant.

  12. Evaluating the fisheries potential of solar salt works reservoirs at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artisanal fisheries are important livelihoods for coastal communities in many developing countries, where uncontrolled fishing can easily lead to depleted stocks in nearshore waters. Man-made reservoirs associated with solar salt works along the coast of Ungwana Bay provide alternative fishing grounds for local fishers ...

  13. The role of dispositional and situational factors in cognitive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, G R; Ptacek, J T; Taylor, B; Yee, P L; Henderson, C A; Lauventi, H J; Bourdeau, C M

    1998-10-01

    Two studies investigated the cross-temporal stability and cross-situational consistency of cognitive interference. In Study 1, 70 college students reported on the intrusive thoughts they experienced during 2 course examinations and a self-reflective task. In Study 2, 55 college athletes reported on intrusive thoughts following 2 course examinations and 2 regular season football games. Major findings were (a) cognitive interference showed both cross-temporal stability and cross-situational consistency, (b) it was predicted by a measure of dispositional intrusive thinking, (c) the link between cognitive interference and dispositional intrusive thinking was not accounted for by indices of depressive symptomatology and trait anxiety, and (d) the degree of cross-situational consistency of cognitive interference and the content of these intrusive thoughts were influenced by situational factors.

  14. Optimum Disposition of Metal Particles in the Propellant Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid L. Minkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the dispersed metal in solid propellants to increase the temperature of combustion products leads to such a problem as the specific impulse loss due to the incomplete combustion of metal particles in the exhaust products. A redistribution of metal loaded into the propellant grain is one of the methods to decrease the specific impulse loss. This paper reports on the ways to obtain the optimum metal particle disposition for the case-bounded propellant grain of tube cross-sectional type. Three different approaches to analyze the metal combustion efficiency are discussed. The influence of the dynamic nonequilibrium of two-phase flow on the optimum metal particles disposition in the propellant grain of tube cross-sectional type is investigated.

  15. Strengthening maths learning dispositions through ‘math clubs’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellony Graven

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I argue that the establishment of after-school mathematics clubs in early grades holds rich potential for supporting the development of increasingly participatory and sensemaking maths learning dispositions. Within the South African Numeracy Chair project, lead by the author, multiple after-school mathematics clubs have been set up for learners in Grades 3–6 across Eastern Cape schools. These clubs are a complementary initiative to teacher development, aimed at improving low levels of numeracy learning across the majority of schools in the province. Two sources of data, learner interviews and teacher questionnaires, from one case study club, are shared in this article to illuminate the potential such clubs hold in developing increasingly participatory mathematics learning dispositions.

  16. Music and Emotion: the Dispositional or Arousal theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Buccella

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the ways of analysing the relationship between music and emotions in through musical expressiveness.As the theory I discuss in this paper puts it, expressiveness in a particular kind of music's secondary quality or, to use the term which gives the theory its name, a disposition of music to arouse a certain emotional response in listeners.The most accurate version of the dispositional theory is provided by Derek Matravers in his book Art and Emotion and in other papers: what I will try to do, then, is to illustrate Matravers theory and claim that it is a good solution to many problems concerning music and its capacity to affect our inner states.

  17. First-year university students’ disposition and approaches to learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Pérez Villalobos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on self-regulated learning has recognized cognitive processes that students select and execute to achieve their goals. When performing a task, the student analyzes the task characteristics, context and his own capacities, employing resource planning and management, adopting either deep or superficial learning approaches. To describe the relationship between “disposition to learning strategies and” and “deep and superficial learning approaches”, the “Cuestionario de Formas de Estudio” questionnaire was applied to 344 1st year students from eight study programs of a Chilean university. The results show significant correlation (r greater than 0.30, p lower than 0.001 between disposition to learning strategies and usage ofdeep learning approaches, and between the aforementioned variables andthe amount of weekly study time.

  18. Plutonium disposition via immobilization in ceramic or glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.; Shaw, H.F.; Armantrout, A.

    1997-03-05

    The management of surplus weapons plutonium is an important and urgent task with profound environmental, national, and international security implications. In the aftermath of the Cold War, Presidential Policy Directive 13, and various analyses by renown scientific, technical, and international policy organizations have brought about a focused effort within the Department of Energy to identify and implement paths for the long term disposition of surplus weapons- usable plutonium. The central goal of this effort is to render surplus weapons plutonium as inaccessible and unattractive for reuse in nuclear weapons as the much larger and growing stock of plutonium contained in spent fuel from civilian reactors. One disposition option being considered for surplus plutonium is immobilization, in which the plutonium would be incorporated into a glass or ceramic material that would ultimately be entombed permanently in a geologic repository for high-level waste.

  19. Update of the used fuel disposition Campaign Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacKinnon, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McMahon, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saltzstein, Sylvia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorenson, Ken [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This Campaign Implementation Plan provides summary level detail describing how the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) supports achievement of the overarching mission and objectives of the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Fuel Cycle Technologies Program The implementation plan begins with the assumption of target dates that are set out in the January 2013 DOE Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (http://energy.gov/downloads/strategy-management-and-disposal-used-nuclear-fuel-and-high-level-radioactive-waste). These target dates and goals are summarized in section III. This implementation plan will be maintained as a living document and will be updated as needed in response to progress in the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign and the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program.

  20. Disposition and safety of inhaled biodegradable nanomedicines: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Shadabul; Whittaker, Michael R; McIntosh, Michelle P; Pouton, Colin W; Kaminskas, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    The inhaled delivery of nanomedicines can provide a novel, non-invasive therapeutic strategy for the more localised treatment of lung-resident diseases and potentially also enable the systemic delivery of therapeutics that are otherwise administered via injection alone. However, the clinical translation of inhalable nanomedicine is being hampered by our lack of understanding about their disposition and clearance from the lungs. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biodegradable nanomaterials that are currently being explored as inhalable drug delivery systems and our current understanding of their disposition within, and clearance from the lungs. The safety of biodegradable nanomaterials in the lungs is discussed and latest updates are provided on the impact of inflammation on the pulmonary pharmacokinetics of inhaled nanomaterials. Overall, the review provides an in-depth and critical assessment of the lung clearance mechanisms for inhaled biodegradable nanomedicines and highlights the opportunities and challenges for their translation into the clinic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fundamental(ist) attribution error: Protestants are dispositionally focused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yexin Jessica; Johnson, Kathryn A; Cohen, Adam B; Williams, Melissa J; Knowles, Eric D; Chen, Zhansheng

    2012-02-01

    Attribution theory has long enjoyed a prominent role in social psychological research, yet religious influences on attribution have not been well studied. We theorized and tested the hypothesis that Protestants would endorse internal attributions to a greater extent than would Catholics, because Protestantism focuses on the inward condition of the soul. In Study 1, Protestants made more internal, but not external, attributions than did Catholics. This effect survived controlling for Protestant work ethic, need for structure, and intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity. Study 2 showed that the Protestant-Catholic difference in internal attributions was significantly mediated by Protestants' greater belief in a soul. In Study 3, priming religion increased belief in a soul for Protestants but not for Catholics. Finally, Study 4 found that experimentally strengthening belief in a soul increased dispositional attributions among Protestants but did not change situational attributions. These studies expand the understanding of cultural differences in attributions by demonstrating a distinct effect of religion on dispositional attributions.

  2. Effect of Dispositional Traits on Pharmacy Students’ Attitude Toward Cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulsbury, Marilyn D.; Brown,, Ulysses J.; Heyliger, Simone O.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relation between dispositional traits and pharmacy students’ attitudes toward cheating in a university setting. Methods A questionnaire was administered primarily to pharmacy students at a comprehensive university in the southeastern United States to assess self-esteem, self-efficacy, idealism, relativism, student attitudes toward cheating, tolerance for peer cheating, detachment from the university, Machiavellian behavior, and demographic information. Results Gender, degree of idealism, relativism, and Machiavellian traits were found to influence student attitudes toward cheating, while age, grade-point average (GPA), race, income, and marital status did not. Conclusions Considered collectively, these data support the study model prediction that the major determinants of student attitudes toward cheating are based on the degree of idealism and relativism evident in the students’ dispositional trait. Idealism was found to be inversely related to the likelihood of a student engaging in cheating or tolerating peer cheating. PMID:21769145

  3. Effect of dispositional traits on pharmacy students' attitude toward cheating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulsbury, Marilyn D; Brown, Ulysses J; Heyliger, Simone O; Beale, Ruby L

    2011-05-10

    To explore the relation between dispositional traits and pharmacy students' attitudes toward cheating in a university setting. A questionnaire was administered primarily to pharmacy students at a comprehensive university in the southeastern United States to assess self-esteem, self-efficacy, idealism, relativism, student attitudes toward cheating, tolerance for peer cheating, detachment from the university, Machiavellian behavior, and demographic information. Gender, degree of idealism, relativism, and Machiavellian traits were found to influence student attitudes toward cheating, while age, grade-point average (GPA), race, income, and marital status did not. Considered collectively, these data support the study model prediction that the major determinants of student attitudes toward cheating are based on the degree of idealism and relativism evident in the students' dispositional trait. Idealism was found to be inversely related to the likelihood of a student engaging in cheating or tolerating peer cheating.

  4. Positive Disposition in the Prediction of Strategic Independence among Millennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Konopaske

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on the dispositional traits of Millennials (born in 1980–2000 finds that this generation, compared to earlier generations, tends to be more narcissistic, hold themselves in higher regard and feel more entitled to rewards. The purpose of this intragenerational study is to counter balance extant research by exploring how the positive dispositional traits of proactive personality, core self-evaluation, grit and self-control predict strategic independence in a sample of 311 young adults. Strategic independence is a composite variable measuring a person’s tendency to make plans and achieve long-term goals. A confirmatory factor analysis and hierarchical regression found evidence of discriminant validity across the scales and that three of the four independent variables were statistically significant and positive predictors of strategic independence in the study. The paper discusses research and practical implications, strengths and limitations and areas for future research.

  5. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  6. Age related differences in the disposition of acetanilide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playfer, J R; Baty, J D; Lamb, J; Powell, C; Price-Evans, D A

    1978-01-01

    1 The metabolism of fifteen elderly hospital in-patients and fifteen young people was studied, using a gas chromatography mass spectrometer method. 2 The results suggest that there is no significant change in hepatic oxidation of acetanilide with age. 3 The concentrations of metabolites were however, significantly elevated in the older group. 4 These results illustrate the importance of the decline in renal function with age in the disposition of drugs. PMID:728323

  7. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...... sediments, the diapir extruded an overhang. Using the asymmetric Klodawa Salt Structure (KSS) in central Poland as a prototype, a series of analogue models were carried out to investigate the evolution history and salt supply driven by asymmetric differential loading. During extension of the model, a daipir...

  8. Three contextual frameworks for siblingships: nonlinear thinking, disposition, and phallocentrism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lament, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    This discussion of Juliet Mitchell's paper "Siblings: Thinking Theory" places her work within the context of three frameworks: nonlinear thinking, disposition, and phallocentrism. The nonlinear dimension of the developmental process demonstrates how the sibling experience is not static, but rather is subject to a natural transmogrification toward new adaptive forms and meanings that occur over the sequential progress of organizational growth. Secondly, dispositional variables tend to be overlooked in their role in how brothers and sisters engage one another, titrate closeness and separateness, and creatively live out their love, admiration, hate, envy, and rivalry with each other. Sensitivities in dispositional leanings, such as special empathic qualities, may even serve to mitigate sibling turbulence. Lastly, the phallocentricity in Western societies privileges an implicitly male perspective that envisions sibling relationships in terms of threatening competitors, as the common linguistic phrase sibling rivalry suggests. This inflection in culture disregards more-expanding qualities in object relationships and aim-giving strategies that are exchanged in sibling play. These variables are not the sole contributors to the sibling experience, but a sampling of influences both from within and outside the child that affect that experience.

  9. Inventory planning for feed metal production and excess materials disposition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hench, K. W. (Karen W.); Owens, S. D. (Sammi D.); Yarbro, T. F. (Tresa F.); Sena, D. J. (Diana J.); Mills, C. J. (Cindy J.)

    2001-01-01

    Inventory planning and scheduling at the Los Alamos National Laboratory nuclear facility (TA-55) has become increasingly demanding given the limited supply of nuclear materials available for weapons production. This limitation comes from the shutdown of nuclear production reactors as well as the declaration of materials excess to national security within the DOE complex. The materials that have been declared excess to national security cannot be used in support of nuclear weapons activities and must be appropriately dispositioned. The matrices of the excess materials and the materials in the weapons; stream are often similar, if not identical, and must be processed and/or packaged utilizing the same personnel and facility resources. In order to segregate these materials and continue weapons production and dispositioning operations concurrently, careful tracking at the item level is required. Scheduling and campaigning of these materials must also be carefully monitored in order to meet both nuclear weapons production schedules as well as dispositioning milestones. All planning activities must consider the impact of processing operations on severely constrained resources including the special nuclear materials storage vault, the nondestructive assay laboratory, and the waste management and shipping operations. This paper details the methodologies and the use of simulation and other computerized tools by the Nuclear Materials Technology Division materials management organization at TA-55. These tools assist in predicting materials and resource availability and optimizing the inventory planning activities.

  10. A critical thinking disposition scale for nurses: short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shiow-Y; Yen, Miaofen; Lee, Bih-O; Huang, Mei-C; Tseng, Hung-F

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to test the Chinese version of the Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CTDI-CV) among nurses in Taiwan. Critical thinking is the use of purposeful self-regulatory judgments to identify patient's problems and provide patient care. Critical thinking influences nurses' decision making. To date, no inventory to understand nurse's critical thinking disposition has been developed. This was a survey design with a stratified random sampling to test the reliability and validity of the CTDI-CV. The participants comprised 864 registered nurses who were chosen by stratified random sampling from seven hospitals in Taiwan. Data were collected through self-administered structured questionnaires. A new scale, short form (SF) CTDI-CV, contains 18 items with three subscales: 'systematic analysis', 'thinking within the box' and 'thinking out of the box', was generated from the analysis with 44% explained variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficients and intra-class correlation coefficients for overall and subscale were above 0.8. Goodness-of-fit test for the final model of SF-CTDI-CV revealed an acceptable result in the overall fit (χ(2)/df = 4.04, p thinking disposition for nurses. A short and valid critical thinking instrument for nurses will facilitate critical thinking research in the clinical practice arena. When designing continuing education activities, clinical educators will be able to efficiently and effectively evaluate the quality of critical thinking among practicing nurses. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception

    OpenAIRE

    Tournier, Carole; Knoop, Janine E.; Kooyman, Gonnie; Smit, Gerrit

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various stimulation conditions involving relative changes in NaCl concentration of 20% and 38%. Changes in salt delivery profile had similar effect on saltiness perception when delivered either by a sipwise m...

  12. Can Triage Nurses Accurately Predict Patient Dispositions in the Emergency Department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Danette; Abbott, Lincoln; Zhou, Qiuping; Staff, Ilene

    2016-11-01

    Contemporary emergency departments experience crowded conditions with poor patient outcomes. If triage nurses could accurately predict admission, one theoretical intervention to reduce crowding is to place patients in the admission cue on arrival to the emergency department. The purpose of this study was to determine if triage nurses could accurately predict patient dispositions. This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary academic hospital's emergency department using a data collection tool embedded in the ED electronic information system. Study variables included the predicted and actual disposition, as well as level of care, gender, age, and Emergency Severity Index level. Data were collected for 28 consecutive days from September 17 through October 9, 2013. Sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of prediction, as well as the associations between patient characteristics and nurse prediction, were calculated. A total of 5,135 cases were included in the analysis. The triage nurses predicted admissions with a sensitivity of 71.5% and discharges with a specificity of 88.0%. Accuracy was significantly higher for younger patients and for patients at very low or very high severity levels. Although the ability to predict admissions at triage by nurses was not adequate to support a change in the bed procurement process, a specificity of 88.0% could have implications for rapid ED discharges or other low-acuity processes designed within the emergency department. Further studies in additional settings and on alternative interventions are needed. Copyright © 2016 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hanford MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. Six initial site combinations were proposed: (1) Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) with support from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), (2) Hanford, (3) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with support from Pantex, (4) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (5) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and (6) Savannah River Site (SRS). After further analysis by the sites and DOE-MD, five site combinations were established as possible candidates for producing MOX LAs: (1) ANL-W with support from INEEL, (2) Hanford, (3) LANL, (4) LLNL, and (5) SRS. Hanford has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. An alternate approach would allow fabrication of fuel pellets and assembly of fuel rods in an S and S Category 1 facility. In all, a total of three LA MOX fuel fabrication options were identified by Hanford that could accommodate the program. In every case, only minor modification would be required to ready any of the facilities to accept the equipment necessary to accomplish the LA program.

  14. Rheology of rock salt for salt tectonics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yuan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical modeling of salt tectonics is a rapidly evolving field; however, the constitutive equations to model long-term rock salt rheology in nature still remain controversial. Firstly, we built a database about the strain rate versus the differential stress through collecting the data from salt creep experiments at a range of temperatures (20–200 °C in laboratories. The aim is to collect data about salt deformation in nature, and the flow properties can be extracted from the data in laboratory experiments. Moreover, as an important preparation for salt tectonics modeling, a numerical model based on creep experiments of rock salt was developed in order to verify the specific model using the Abaqus package. Finally, under the condition of low differential stresses, the deformation mechanism would be extrapolated and discussed according to microstructure research. Since the studies of salt deformation in nature are the reliable extrapolation of laboratory data, we simplified the rock salt rheology to dislocation creep corresponding to power law creep (n = 5 with the appropriate material parameters in the salt tectonic modeling.

  15. Reactive halogen species above salt lakes and salt pans

    OpenAIRE

    Holla, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Salt lakes can be found on all continents and saline soils cover 2.5% of the land surface of the earth (FAO, 2012). This thesis investigates the presence of reactive halogen species (RHS) above salt lakes and saline soils to evaluate their relevance for tropospheric chemistry of the planetary boundary layer. Ground-based MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS measurements were conducted at salt lakes and two other sites with high halogen content. Prior to this work, RHS were found at three salt ...

  16. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

    2012-10-09

    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  17. Potentially Avoidable Surgical Intensive Care Unit Admissions and Disposition Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Navpreet K; Ko, Ara; Smith, Eric J T; Kharabi, Mayumi; Castongia, Joseph; Nurok, Michael; Gewertz, Bruce L; Ley, Eric J

    2017-11-01

    High health care costs encourage initiatives that avoid overuse of resources and identify opportunities to promote appropriate care. To investigate the causes of potentially avoidable surgical intensive care unit (SICU) admissions and disposition delays to determine whether targeted interventions could decrease these stays. This prospective, observational study focused on potentially avoidable SICU days, as determined by observers with input from the rounding intensivists at a 24-bed open SICU at an urban, academic hospital. The preintervention phase occurred from April 6 through June 21, 2015; after implementation of targeted interventions, the postintervention phase occurred from April 4 through June 28, 2016. Data collected included demographic characteristics, reason for admission, and length of stay. All patients admitted to the SICU during the preintervention and postintervention phases were included in the analysis. Based on results collected in the preintervention phase, targeted interventions were designed and implemented from July 1, 2015, through March 31, 2016, including (1) reducing SICU care for minor traumatic brain injury, (2) optimizing postoperative airway management, (3) enhancing communication between services regarding transfers to the SICU, (4) identifying and facilitating more timely end-of-life conversations and supportive care consultations, and (5) encouraging early disposition of patients to floor beds. Changes in the proportion of potentially avoidable SICU days owing to potentially avoidable admissions and/or disposition delays. A total of 459 patients (253 men [55.1%] and 206 women [44.9%]; median age, 62 years [interquartile range, 46-75 years]) were admitted during the preintervention and postintervention phases. Of 261 patients admitted during the preintervention period and 245 during the postintervention period, median SICU and hospital length of stay remained unchanged. A reduction was noted in the percentage of postintervention

  18. Analysis of Hanford Cast Stone Supplemental LAW using Composition Adjusted SRS Tank 50 Salt Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Ramsey, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-04-25

    Vitrification is the primary disposition path for Low Activity Waste (LAW) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. A cementitious waste form is one of the alternatives being considered for the supplemental immobilization of the LAW that will not be treated by the primary vitrification facility. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has been directed to generate and collect data on cementitious or pozzolanic waste forms such as Cast Stone.

  19. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Conclusions. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%. In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67% and Switzerland (85%. In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method.

  20. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  1. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÉSSICA F. RODRIGUES

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1 were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3 were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1. Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

  2. Relationship between critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy among special education integration program teachers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Tajularipin; a/l Kuppusamy, Suresh Kumar; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Rahim, Suzieleez Syrene Abdul

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to assess the level of critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy among the Special Education Integration Programme (SEIP) teachers in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The level of critical thinking dispositions and teaching efficacy in the SEIP were compared based on teaching experience and gender. The study also examined the relationship between critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy at SEIP. The research adopted a quantitative survey approach. A total of 190 primary school teachers from the SEIP in Negeri Sembilan were selected using proportional sampling method. The instrument used in this study comprised of three sections; demography, critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the analysis. Analysis shows that the respondents have a moderate level of critical thinking disposition (M = 2.99, S.D = 0.160) and teaching efficacy (M = 3.01 S.D. = 0.128) was at a high level. For teaching experience, the analysis showed that thinking disposition of novice teachers (mean = 2.52, SD = .503) are significantly higher than experienced teachers (mean = 2.35, SD = .481, t = 2.244, p <.05). There was no significant difference between male and female SEIP teachers in critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy. Findings also indicated that there is a significant positive moderate relationship (r = .477) between critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy among SEIP teachers. This study suggests that critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy play an important role to enhance the performance of SEIP teachers.

  3. Critical Thinking Dispositions of Nursing Students in Asian and Non-Asian Countries: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2013-01-01

    Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools. PMID:24171885

  4. Visual, Critical, and Scientific Thinking Dispositions in a 3rd Grade Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Stacy

    Many American students leave school without the required 21st century critical thinking skills. This qualitative case study, based on the theoretical concepts of Facione, Arheim, and Vygotsky, explored the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science on the development of scientific thinking skills when used as a conceptual thinking routine in a rural 3rd grade classroom. Research questions examined the disposition to think critically through the arts in science and focused on the perceptions and experiences of 25 students with the Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS) process. Data were collected from classroom observations (n = 10), student interviews (n = 25), teacher interviews ( n = 1), a focus group discussion (n = 3), and artifacts of student work (n = 25); these data included perceptions of VTS, school culture, and classroom characteristics. An inductive analysis of qualitative data resulted in several emergent themes regarding disposition development and students generating questions while increasing affective motivation. The most prevalent dispositions were open-mindedness, the truth-seeking disposition, the analytical disposition, and the systematicity disposition. The findings about the teachers indicated that VTS questions in science supported "gradual release of responsibility", the internalization of process skills and vocabulary, and argumentation. This case study offers descriptive research that links visual arts inquiry and the development of critical thinking dispositions in science at the elementary level. A science curriculum could be developed, that emphasizes the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science, which in turn, could impact the professional development of teachers and learning outcomes for students.

  5. Individual differences in dispositional mindfulness and brain activity involved in reappraisal of emotion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Modinos, Gemma; Ormel, Johan; Aleman, André

    2010-01-01

    .... Individual differences in dispositional mindfulness reflect differences in typical recognition, detachment and regulation of current experience, thought to also operate as top-down control mechanism...

  6. [The relationship study on the relationship between procrastination behaviors and bad personality disposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuan

    2006-01-01

    To explore the relationship between procrastinate behavior of college students and bad personality disposition. 566 college students were selected and followed through adopting the measurement on the procrastination scale of college students and Personality Disorders Questionnaire (PDQ-4). Results showed that male and female college students did not have remarkable difference in terms of procrastination. High level procrastinators had a higher level of scores on bad personality disposition. In addition, College students' procrastination had close relationship with bad personality disposition (r = 0.341, P procrastination had close relationship with bad personality disposition which did not match the findings from McCown's results on american college students.

  7. Critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2013-09-26

    Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools.

  8. Relationship Between Salt Intake, Salt-Taste Threshold and Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many studies have found an association between sodium intake and blood pressure. Salt taste threshold is thought to be another marker of sodium intake. Objective: This study sought to assess two markers of sodium intake, 24-hour-urinary sodium and salt-taste threshold. We also determined the relationship ...

  9. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, J.L.H.C.; Tournier, C.; Knoop, J.E.; Kooyman, G.; Smit, G.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various

  10. Experiments in connection with Salt Domes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.G.; Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1928-01-01

    The different theories concerning the origin of Salt Domes in Roumania, Germany, Texas, Louisiana, Colorado and Utah are discussed. In Roumania the salt occurs in cores of “Diapir” anticlines. The existance of hills of salt indicates, that the salt is still pushing upwards. In Germany the salt

  11. Sodium: How to Tame Your Salt Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same amount of sodium as table salt. Use salt substitutes wisely. Some salt substitutes or light salts contain a mixture of table ... substitute — and get too much sodium. Also, many salt substitutes contain potassium chloride. Although potassium can lessen some ...

  12. Productive performance of finishing lambs fed with faveleira fodder salt (Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vinícius Barbosa Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated food intake and productive performance of crossbred (½ Santa Inês x ½ dorper lambs supplemented with different levels of faveleira (Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl fodder salt. Thirty male sheep fed tifton grass hay, water, and faveleira fodder salt were randomly allocated into five treatments with six replicates each. The treatments consisted of diets with different inclusion levels of faveleira hay in the fodder salt composition: Treatment 1 (1% mineral salt + 99% faveleira hay, Treatment 2 (3% mineral salt + 97% faveleira hay, Treatment 3 (5% mineral salt + 95% faveleira hay, Treatment 4 (7% mineral salt + 93% faveleira hay, and Treatment 5 (Control - 100% mineral salt. Intake of dry matter, tifton hay and water, average daily gain, feed conversion, and feed efficiency were not affected by fodder salt supplementation (P > 0.05. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05 in fodder salt intake between Treatments 4 and 5, and daily intake was higher in animals submitted to Treatment 4 (61.0 g day-1. Mineral salt intake increased significantly with increasing mineral salt levels in the diet. However, no significant difference was observed in average daily gain across treatments, indicating that faveleira hay, even in small quantities, and tifton hay were able to meet the nutritional requirements of animals to support a good average daily gain. The inclusion of up to 99% faveleira hay in fodder salt formulations did not affect voluntary intake of forage, water and dry matter, average daily gain, feed conversion, and feed efficiency. Lambs supplemented with faveleira fodder salt had average daily gains within the optimal range for slaughter and high feed conversion and feed efficiency values. Faveleira was shown to be an effective supplementary feed alternative in sheep. 

  13. COMPARISON OF GEO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WHITE ROCK SALT AND PINK ROCK SALT IN KŁODAWA SALT DIAPIR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malwina Kolano; Danuta Flisiak

    2013-01-01

    .... The present article introduces strength-strain properties of white rock salt, building the nucleus of northeastern edge anticline, and pink rock salt that belongs to the series of youngest rock salt...

  14. Use of structured decision making to identify monitoring variables and management priorities for salt marsh ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckles, Hilary A.; Lyons, James E.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Shriver, W. Gregory; Adamowicz, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Most salt marshes in the USA have been degraded by human activities, and coastal managers are faced with complex choices among possible actions to restore or enhance ecosystem integrity. We applied structured decision making (SDM) to guide selection of monitoring variables and management priorities for salt marshes within the National Wildlife Refuge System in the northeastern USA. In general, SDM is a systematic process for decomposing a decision into its essential elements. We first engaged stakeholders in clarifying regional salt marsh decision problems, defining objectives and attributes to evaluate whether objectives are achieved, and developing a pool of alternative management actions for achieving objectives. Through this process, we identified salt marsh attributes that were applicable to monitoring National Wildlife Refuges on a regional scale and that targeted management needs. We then analyzed management decisions within three salt marsh units at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, coastal Delaware, as a case example of prioritizing management alternatives. Values for salt marsh attributes were estimated from 2 years of baseline monitoring data and expert opinion. We used linear value modeling to aggregate multiple attributes into a single performance score for each alternative, constrained optimization to identify alternatives that maximized total management benefits subject to refuge-wide cost constraints, and used graphical analysis to identify the optimal set of alternatives for the refuge. SDM offers an efficient, transparent approach for integrating monitoring into management practice and improving the quality of management decisions.

  15. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  16. Bile salts secretion in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, J P; Areias, E; Meneses, L; Tiago, E

    1977-02-01

    The bile salts secretion was studied in ten normal subjects and sixteen patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, in a basal period and during 60 minutes after Secretin injection. Total bile salts were measured by a modification of the enzymatic method of Iwata and Yamasaki and the individual bile salts were separated by silica gel thin-layer chromatography. During the 60 minutes after Secretin the mean concentration was 2.88 +/- 2.58 muM/ml in normals and 1.96 +/- 1.25 muM/ml in cirrhotics. The difference is not significant. During the first 20 minutes however the concentration was higher than 3 muM/ml in 8 out of 10 normals and lower than 2 muM/ml in 10 out 16 cirrhotics. The ratios of tri-to dihydroxy bile salts was similar in both groups. The ratios between bile salts conjugated with glycine and with taurine was higher in normals, and the ratio between free to conjugated bile salts was higher in cirrhotics. The lower concentration of total bile salts immediatly after Secretin, the higher proportion of taurin conjugates and of free bile salts could be important factors in the difficulties of fact digestion and absorption frequently found in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.

  17. Compressibility of granulated rock salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinebaugh, R.E.

    1979-08-01

    Crushed rock salt will be used extensively at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as a material for backfilling underground openings. This document addresses one of the characteristics of crushed salt which must be known to assess the consequences of its usage, namely, compressibility.

  18. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  19. History Leaves Salts Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    These plots, or spectra, show that a rock dubbed 'McKittrick' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site at Meridiani Planum, Mars, has higher concentrations of sulfur and bromine than a nearby patch of soil nicknamed 'Tarmac.' These data were taken by Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, which uses curium-244 to assess the elemental composition of rocks and soil. Only portions of the targets' full spectra are shown to highlight the significant differences in elemental concentrations between 'McKittrick' and 'Tarmac.' Intensities are plotted on a logarithmic scale.A nearby rock named Guadalupe similarly has extremely high concentrations of sulfur, but very little bromine. This 'element fractionation' typically occurs when a watery brine slowly evaporates and various salt compounds are precipitated in sequence.

  20. Salt resistant crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Stuart J; Negrão, Sónia; Tester, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker-assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Institutional disposition and management of end-of-life electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Callie W; Williams, Eric; Kahhat, Ramzy

    2011-06-15

    Institutions both public and private face a challenge to develop policies to manage purchase, use, and disposal of electronics. Environmental considerations play an increasing role in addition to traditional factors of cost, performance and security. Characterizing current disposition practices for end-of-life electronics is a key step in developing policies that prevent negative environmental and health impacts while maximizing potential for positive social and economic benefits though reuse. To provide a baseline, we develop the first characterization of quantity, value, disposition, and flows of end-of-life electronics at a major U.S. educational institution. Results of the empirical study indicate that most end-of-first-life electronics were resold through public auction to individuals and small companies who refurbish working equipment for resale or sell unusable products for reclamation of scrap metal. Desktop and laptop computers sold for refurbishing and resale averaged U.S. $20-100 per unit, with computers sold directly to individuals for reuse reaching $250-350 per unit. This detailed assessment was coupled with a benchmarking survey of end-of-life electronics management practices at other U.S. universities. Survey results indicate that while auctions are still commonplace, an increasing number of institutions are responding to environmental concerns by creating partnerships with local recycling and resale entities and mandating domestic recycling. We use the analyses of current disposition practices as input to discuss institutional strategies for managing electronics. One key issue is the tension between benefits of used equipment sales, in terms of income for the institution and increased reuse for society, and the environmental risks because of unknown downstream practices.

  2. CAMRAD - COMPUTER AIDED MATERIAL REVIEW AUTOMATED DISPOSITION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    The basic function of a manufacturer's production support engineering unit is to identify, document, and dispose of hardware that does not conform to drawing requirements. CAMRAD, a program designed for rapid input and retrieval of all data used in engineering-to-manufacturing support operations, aids the engineer by automating the material review disposition process. Before CAMRAD, material review record searches were manual. The time spent searching through old documents precluded the timely disposition of new material reviews. CAMRAD facilitates the research of material review histories and provides for the efficient processing of material review documents. Three SmartWare project files control the operation of CAMRAD. The project file CAMRAD initializes variables for the other project files and specifies the pathing of the CAMRAD program, database files, and document files. The project file DATARAD controls all data management functions. The database consists of individual files containing all records of specific hardware discrepancies for a given part number. There are four basic avenues for records searches: part serial number, feature, Material Review (MR) number, and non-conformance. WORDRAD is the project file which controls the management of document files created when processing a material review disposition. Given a material review report identifying a defective hardware item, the production support engineer can use CAMRAD to quickly search the database for any history of the same problem, find out how well the problem has been documented, and create appropriate documentation for this latest occurrence. CAMRAD is written in the Smart Programming Language and is designed to run on IBM PC compatibles with the SmartWare v. 3.1 software package available from Informix Software. CAMRAD was developed in 1987. SmartWare is a registered trademark of Informix Software, Inc. IBM PC is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.

  3. Disposition of plutonium-239 via production of fission molybdenum-99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, A

    2011-04-01

    A heritage of physical consequences of the U.S.-Soviet arms race has accumulated, the weapons-grade plutonium (WPu), which will become excess as a result of the dismantlement of the nuclear weapons under the arms reduction agreements. Disposition of Pu has been proposed by mixing WPu with high-level radioactive waste with subsequent vitrification into large, highly radioactive glass logs or fabrication into mixed oxide fuel with subsequent irradiation in existing light water reactors. A potential option may be the production of medical isotope molybdenum-99 by using Pu-239 targets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Disposition of plutonium-239 via production of fission molybdenum-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaq, A., E-mail: muahtaq_a1953@hotmail.co [Isotope Production Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-04-15

    A heritage of physical consequences of the U.S.-Soviet arms race has accumulated, the weapons-grade plutonium (WPu), which will become excess as a result of the dismantlement of the nuclear weapons under the arms reduction agreements. Disposition of Pu has been proposed by mixing WPu with high-level radioactive waste with subsequent vitrification into large, highly radioactive glass logs or fabrication into mixed oxide fuel with subsequent irradiation in existing light water reactors. A potential option may be the production of medical isotope molybdenum-99 by using Pu-239 targets.

  5. Genesis of Tuzla salt basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušić, Amir; Baraković, Amir; Komatina, Snezana

    2017-04-01

    Salt is condition for the survival of the human race, and holds a special place in the exploitation of mineral resources. It is the only mineral raw material used in direct feeding, and therefore has its own specialty. Salt is a crystalline mineral that is found in seawater, as well as in underground areas where it is formed by deposition of salt sediments. Occurrences of salt water near Tuzla and Gornja Tuzla have been known since the time of the Romans as "ad salinas". The name itself connects Bosnia with its richness in salt, because the word barefoot, which is preserved in a north-Albanian dialect, means a place where boiling salted water are obtained. At the time of the Bosnian kings, these regions are named Soli, which is in connection with occurences of saline sources. Geological studies of rock salt in the area of Tuzla basin are practically began after the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in the period from 1878 to 1918. Geological field work was conducted K. Paul, H. Hefer, E. Tietze and F. Katzer. Monomineral deposit of rock salt Tetima is made of halite and anhydrite mixed with marl belt, while the bay of salt in Tuzla is polymineral and contains a considerable amount of thenardite (Na2SO4) and rare minerals: nortupit, nahkolit, bradleit, probertit, glauberite and others. Both salt deposits were created as a product of chemical sedimentation in the lower Miocene Badenian sediments. The main objective of this paper is to show the genesis of the deposits and the spatial and genetic connection. In addition, genesis of geological research in the areas of Tuzla basin will be presented.

  6. Molten Salt Promoting Effect in Double Salt CO2 Absorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong S.; Chen, Haobo; Singh, Prabhakar; King, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of molten salts as catalysts for CO2 absorption by MgO, and extend these observations to the MgO-containing double salt oxides. We will show that the phenomena involved with CO2 absorption by MgO and MgO-based double salts are similar and general, but with some important differences. This paper focuses on the following key concepts: i) identification of conditions that favor or disfavor participation of isolated MgO during double salt absorption, and investigation of methods to increase the absorption capacity of double salt systems by including MgO participation; ii) examination of the relationship between CO2 uptake and melting point of the promoter salt, leading to the recognition of the role of pre-melting (surface melting) in these systems; and iii) extension of the reaction pathway model developed for the MgO-NaNO3 system to the double salt systems. This information advances our understanding of MgO-based CO2 absorption systems for application with pre-combustion gas streams.

  7. Alternative Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planting, A.; De saint Jacob, Y.; Verwijs, H.; Belin, H.; Preesman, L.

    2009-03-15

    In two articles, one interview and one column attention is paid to alternative energies. The article 'A new light on saving energy' discusses the option to save energy by modernising lighting systems in urban areas. The column 'View from Paris' focuses on investment decisions in France with regard to renewable energy and energy savings. The article 'Europe turns a blind eye to big battery' discusses developments in batteries to store energy. The interview concerns fuel cell expert and formerly President of UTC Power Jan van Dokkum. The last article gives a brief overview of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) and the challenges this alliance will have to face with regard to climate change and energy security.

  8. Efficient belief tracking in adults: The role of task instruction, low-level associative processes and dispositional social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meert, Gaëlle; Wang, Jessica; Samson, Dana

    2017-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that adults can monitor other people's beliefs in an efficient way. However, the nature and the limits of efficient belief tracking are still being debated. The present study addressed these issues by testing (a) whether adults spontaneously process other people's beliefs when overt task instructions assign priority to participants' own belief, (b) whether this processing relies on low-level associative processes and (c) whether the propensity to track other people's beliefs is linked to empathic disposition. Adult participants were asked to alternately judge an agent's belief and their own belief. These beliefs were either consistent or inconsistent with each other. Furthermore, visual association between the agent and the object at which he was looking was either possible or impeded. Results showed interference from the agent's belief when participants judged their own belief, even when low-level associations were impeded. This indicates that adults still process other people's beliefs when priority is given to their own belief at the time of computation, and that this processing does not depend on low-level associative processes. Finally, performance on the belief task was associated with the Empathy Quotient and the Perspective Taking scale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, indicating that efficient belief processing is linked to a dispositional dimension of social functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Iodized Salt Sales in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Maalouf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iodized salt has been an important source of dietary iodine, a trace element important for regulating human growth, development, and metabolic functions. This analysis identified iodized table salt sales as a percentage of retail salt sales using Nielsen ScanTrack. We identified 1117 salt products, including 701 salt blends and 416 other salt products, 57 of which were iodized. When weighted by sales volume in ounces or per item, 53% contained iodized salt. These findings may provide a baseline for future monitoring of sales of iodized salt.

  10. The Effects of Reflective Training on the Disposition of Critical Thinking for Nursing Students in China: A Controlled Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caihong Zhang; Huiying Fan; Jieqiong Xia; Honghua Guo; Xinjun Jiang; Yane Yan

    2017-01-01

    ... diaries but without a formal training. Before and after the intervention, nursing students' critical thinking disposition was rated using the Chinese version of Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CTDI-CV...

  11. Polymeric membranes containing silver salts for propylene/propane separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Pollo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The separation of olefin/paraffin mixtures is one of the most important processes of the chemical industry. This separation is typically carried out by distillation, which is an energy and capital intensive process. One promising alternative is the use of facilitated transport membranes, which contain specific carrier agents in the polymer matrix that interact reversibly with the double bond in the olefin molecule, promoting the simultaneous increase of its permeability and selectivity. In this study, polyurethane (PU membranes were prepared using two different silver salts (triflate and hexafluorantimonate. The membranes were structurally characterized and their performance for the separation of propylene/propane mixtures was evaluated. The results of the characterization analyses indicated that the triflate salt was the most efficient carrier agent. The membranes containing this salt showed the best performance, reaching an ideal selectivity of 10 and propylene permeability of 188 Barrer.

  12. Effectiveness of gratitude disposition promotion program on depression and quality of life of chronic schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Miran; Han, Kuemsun

    2017-01-01

    Gratitude intervention is expectedly an effective intervention to reduce depression and improve the quality of life in schizophrenic patients, but there is a lack of literature on it. We attempted to develop and test the effectiveness of the gratitude disposition promotion program for chronic schizophrenic patients in Korea. Nonequivalent control group pre- and post-test design was used in two mental health centers located at Gyeonggi-do in South Korea. This paper was a quasi-experimental study and the participants who took part in the gratitude disposition promotion program were 17 of experimental group and 15 of control group. Gratitude disposition (the short gratitude, resentment, and appreciation test), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and quality of life (developed by Kook) of chronic schizophrenic patients were measured before and after an intervention, as compared to the control. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and t -test were performed for prehomogeneity testing for variables related to the general characteristics. Testing for the effectiveness of gratitude disposition promotion program and hypothesis testing for its effect on depression and quality of life were by ANCOVA and t -test, as verified to significance level of P gratitude disposition promotion program showed significant improvements in gratitude disposition ( F = 18.740, P gratitude disposition promotion program was an effective clinical intervention program for enhancing gratitude disposition and quality of life of chronic schizophrenic patients in community.

  13. 9 CFR 354.142 - Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition. 354.142 Section 354.142 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... disposition. (a) Upon the request of an interested party, any inspector is authorized to issue a food product...

  14. Defense Logistics Agency Disposition Services Needs to Improve Demilitarization Program Self-Assessment Evaluations - Redacted

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Defense Logistics Agency Disposition Services Needs to Improve Demilitarization Program Self ‑Assessment Evaluations Management Comments and Our...and control of the Compliance Assessment Management System (CAMS);9 • provide and coordinate protocols and instructions to the CDDs to complete self ...assessments; • notify DLA Disposition Services management of self -assessments results, repeat findings, suggested corrective actions, best practices

  15. Situational and Dispositional Factors as Antecedents of Ingratiatory Behaviors in Organizational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacmar, K. Michele; Carlson, Dawn S.; Bratton, Virginia K.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined both situational and dispositional antecedents of four ingratiatory behaviors: other-enhancing, opinion conformity, favor rendering, and self-promotion. The two situational variables (i.e., role ambiguity and leader-member exchange) and the four dispositional variables (i.e., self-esteem, need for power, job involvement, and…

  16. Facilitating a Student-Educator Conceptual Model of Dispositions towards Critical Thinking through Interactive Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Christopher P.; Hogan, Michael J.; Harney, Owen M.; Kavanagh, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Critical thinking (CT) is a metacognitive process, consisting of a number of sub-skills and dispositions that, when used appropriately, increases the chances of producing a logical conclusion to an argument or solution to a problem. Though the CT literature argues that dispositions are as important to CT as is the ability to perform CT skills, the…

  17. Dispositional Optimism and the Risk of Cardiovascular Death : The Zutphen Elderly Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Kamphuis, M.H.; Kalmijn, S.; Zitman, F.G.; Kromhout, D.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Dispositional optimism, defined in terms of life engagement and generalized positive outcome expectancies for one¿s future, may be related to lower cardiovascular mortality. We aimed to determine whether dispositional optimism is a stable trait over time and whether it is independently

  18. Long-lasting effects of affective disorders and childhood trauma on dispositional optimism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhof, R.; Rius-Ottenheim, N.; Spinhoven, P.; van der Mast, R.C.; Penninx, B.W.; Zitman, F. G.; Giltay, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dispositional optimism, a personality trait characterized by generalized positive expectations towards the future, is thought to remain rather stable over time. It is however largely unknown to what extent affective disorders and its risk factors affect dispositional optimism. Methods We

  19. Lifestyle and dietary correlates of dispositional optimism in men: The Zutphen Elderly Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Zitman, F.G.; Buijsse, B.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Dispositional optimism has been associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular mortality, but the underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. We therefore studied whether dispositional optimism was associated with healthy lifestyle and dietary habits. Methods: In 773 (87.1%) of 887

  20. 8 CFR 287.3 - Disposition of cases of aliens arrested without warrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of cases of aliens arrested without warrant. 287.3 Section 287.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS FIELD OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.3 Disposition of cases of aliens arrested without warrant...

  1. The Human Factor: Student Reactions to the Integration of Personal Dispositions into a Counseling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Melinda M.; Cochran, Jeff L.; Spurgeon, Shawn; Diambra, Joel F.

    2013-01-01

    The authors explored student reactions to the integration of personal dispositions, or characteristic attitudes, into a counseling program. Results suggested participants liked focusing on personal dispositions and were able to identify areas of personal growth related to these characteristics. Integrating humanistic principles by using…

  2. 39 CFR 946.4 - Disposition of property of unknown owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposition of property of unknown owners. 946.4 Section 946.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE RELATING TO THE... § 946.4 Disposition of property of unknown owners. (a) Where no apparent owner of property subject to...

  3. 39 CFR 946.2 - Disposition of property of apparent owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposition of property of apparent owners. 946.2... § 946.2 Disposition of property of apparent owners. Where an apparent owner of property subject to this... owner's last known address, written notice describing the property and the procedure for filing a claim...

  4. Critical Thinking Disposition: The Effects of Infusion Approach in Engineering Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Norazlinda Mohd; Rashid, Abdullah Mat

    2017-01-01

    Critical Thinking Disposition is known as an important factor that drives a student to use Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) in order to solve engineering drawing problems. Infusing them while teaching the subject may enhance students' disposition and higher order thinking skills. However, no research has been done in critical thinking…

  5. 32 CFR 552.104 - Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. All weapons, ammunition, explosives or other devices defined in... Investigation (FBI) for investigation, retention as evidence, or other lawful disposition. When retention for investigation or evidence is no longer required by military police, USACIDC, or other law enforcement or...

  6. Construct Validity Examination of Critical Thinking Dispositions for Undergraduate Students in University Putra Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadi, Ibrahim; Alwi, Nor Hayati; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Talib, Othman

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to evaluate the psychology properties of the construct validity for the Critical Thinking Disposition (CTD) instrument. The CTD instrument consists of 39 Likert-type items measuring seven dispositions, namely analyticity, open-mind, truth-seeking, systematicity, self-confidence inquisitiveness and maturity. The study involves…

  7. 27 CFR 40.478 - Disposition of cigarette papers and tubes and schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of cigarette... PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Claims by Manufacturers § 40.478 Disposition of cigarette papers and tubes and schedule. When so...

  8. Neural correlates of envy: Regional homogeneity of resting-state brain activity predicts dispositional envy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yanhui; Kong, Feng; Wen, Xue; Wu, Qihan; Mo, Lei

    2016-11-15

    Envy differs from common negative emotions across cultures. Although previous studies have explored the neural basis of episodic envy via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), little is known about the neural processes associated with dispositional envy. In the present study, we used regional homogeneity (ReHo) as an index in resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) to identify brain regions involved in individual differences in dispositional envy, as measured by the Dispositional Envy Scale (DES). Results showed that ReHo in the inferior/middle frontal gyrus (IFG/MFG) and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) positively predicted dispositional envy. Moreover, of all the personality traits measured by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), only neuroticism was significantly associated with dispositional envy. Furthermore, neuroticism mediated the underlying association between the ReHo of the IFG/MFG and dispositional envy. Hence, to the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that spontaneous brain activity in multiple regions related to self-evaluation, social perception, and social emotion contributes to dispositional envy. In addition, our findings reveal that neuroticism may play an important role in the cognitive processing of dispositional envy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Examining brain structures associated with dispositional envy and the mediation role of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yanhui; Zhao, Sasa; Wang, Hanlin; Wu, Qihan; Kong, Feng; Mo, Lei

    2017-02-08

    Dispositional envy is distinguished by definition and neurally from episodic envy. While the neural correlates of episodic envy have been evaluated by specific tasks in previous studies, little is known about the structural neural basis of dispositional envy. In this study, we investigated the structural neural basis of dispositional envy underlying individual differences across two independent samples comprising a total of 100 young healthy adults. Firstly, 73 subjects' data (sample 1) was analyzed, and we assessed the association between regional gray matter volume (rGMV) and dispositional envy using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Furthermore, we explored the role of emotional intelligence in the association between GMV and dispositional envy. VBM indicated that dispositional envy was positively correlated with GMV in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and superior temporal gyrus (STG). We also found that emotional intelligence partially mediated the association between DLPFC volume and dispositional envy. These results were replicated in another independent sample (Sample 2, n = 27). These results provide the first evidence that dispositional envy exhibits a structural neural correlation with the DLPFC and STG, and give a neutral explanation for why individuals with high emotional intelligence exhibit less envy.

  10. 27 CFR 70.183 - Administration and disposition of real estate acquired by the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disposition of real estate acquired by the United States. 70.183 Section 70.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... Property § 70.183 Administration and disposition of real estate acquired by the United States. (a) Persons charged with. The appropriate TTB officer shall have charge of all real estate which has been or shall be...

  11. Psychopathology and pain correlates of dispositional optimism in methadone-maintained patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitel, Mark; Savant, Jonathan D.; Cutter, Christopher J.; Peters, Skye; Belisle, Nicole; Barry, Declan T.

    2012-01-01

    While higher levels of dispositional optimism are associated with decreased levels of psychopathology and pain, and higher levels of mental health functioning—important outcomes in opioid treatment programs—a paucity of studies has examined dispositional optimism among individuals with opioid use disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical correlates (i.e., psychopathology, pain status) of dispositional optimism in opioid dependent patients enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). A survey targeting demographics, pain, psychopathology, and dispositional optimism was administered to 150 MMT patients. In multivariable analyses, higher levels of dispositional optimism were significantly associated with lower levels of depression, screened personality disorder criteria, screened symptoms of PTSD, and pain-related emotional strain. In comparison to those without a history of chronic pain (i.e., non-cancer related physical pain lasting at least 3 months), MMT patients who reported either lifetime or current chronic pain exhibited significantly lower levels of dispositional optimism. The associations among higher levels of dispositional optimism, lower levels of psychopathology, and lower pain-related emotional strain suggest that research focusing on the efficacy of specific interventions to promote dispositional optimism in MMT patients is warranted. PMID:23786512

  12. Metaphor as a Methodological Tool: Identifying Teachers' Social Justice Dispositions across Diverse Secondary School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Carmen; Molla, Tebeje; Gale, Trevor; Cross, Russell; Parker, Stephen; Smith, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the social justice dispositions of teachers and principals in secondary schools as inferred from their metaphoric expressions. Drawing on a Bourdieuian account of disposition, our focus is the use of metaphor as a methodological tool to identify and reveal these otherwise latent forces within our data. Our analysis shows…

  13. A Validation Study of the "School Leader Dispositions Inventory"[C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Teri Denlea; Tysinger, Dawn; Mallory, Barbara; Green, James

    2011-01-01

    Although university-based school administrator preparation programs are required by accreditation agencies to assess the dispositions of candidates, valid and reliable methods for doing so remain scarce. "The School Leaders Disposition Inventory"[C] (SDLI) is proposed as an instrument that has promise for identifying leadership…

  14. Preservice Teachers' Critical Thinking Dispositions and Web 2.0 Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendag, Serkan; Erol, Osman; Sezgin, Sezan; Dulkadir, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between preservice teachers' Web 2.0 competencies and their critical thinking disposition (CTD). The study employed an associational research design using California Critical Thinking Disposition-Inventory (CCTD-I) and a Web 2.0 competency questionnaire including items related to Web 2.0…

  15. Self-Perceived Dispositions that Predict Challenges during Student Teaching: A Data Mining Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Hiromi; Lewis, Trini

    2011-01-01

    In light of the issue related to consensus about the definition of dispositions and the larger issue pertaining to the absence of a model to predict the growth of pre-service teachers in their knowledge, skills, and dispositions that Teacher Performance Expectations (TPEs) specify, the purpose of this study is two-fold. First, the authors aim at…

  16. Does stress induce salt intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Susan J; Turner, Anne I; Nowson, Caryl A

    2010-06-01

    Psychological stress is a common feature of modern day societies, and contributes to the global burden of disease. It was proposed by Henry over 20 years ago that the salt intake of a society reflects the level of stress, and that stress, through its effect on increasing salt intake, is an important factor in the development of hypertension. This review evaluates the evidence from animal and human studies to determine if stress does induce a salt appetite and increase salt consumption in human subjects. Findings from animal studies suggest that stress may drive salt intake, with evidence for a potential mechanism via the sympatho-adrenal medullary system and/or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. In contrast, in the few laboratory studies conducted in human subjects, none has found that acute stress affects salt intake. However, one study demonstrated that life stress (chronic stress) was associated with increased consumption of snack foods, which included, but not specifically, highly salty snacks. Studies investigating the influence of chronic stress on eating behaviours are required, including consumption of salty foods. From the available evidence, we can conclude that in free-living, Na-replete individuals, consuming Na in excess of physiological requirements, stress is unlikely to be a major contributor to salt intake.

  17. Dietary Salt Exacerbates Experimental Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Alan L; Liu, Bo; Rogers, Troy D; Sartor, R Balfour; Miao, Edward A

    2017-08-01

    The Western diet is characterized by high protein, sugar, fat, and low fiber intake, and is widely believed to contribute to the incidence and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, high sodium chloride salt content, a defining feature of processed foods, has not been considered as a possible environmental factor that might drive IBD. We set out to bridge this gap. We examined murine models of colitis on either a high salt diet (HSD) or a low salt diet. We demonstrate that an HSD exacerbates inflammatory pathology in the IL-10-deficient murine model of colitis relative to mice fed a low salt diet. This was correlated with enhanced expression of numerous proinflammatory cytokines. Surprisingly, sodium accumulated in the colons of mice on an HSD, suggesting a direct effect of salt within the colon. Similar to the IL-10-deficient model, an HSD also enhanced cytokine expression during infection by Salmonella typhimurium This occurred in the first 3 d of infection, suggesting that an HSD potentiates an innate immune response. Indeed, in cultured dendritic cells we found that high salt media potentiates cytokine expression downstream of TLR4 activation via p38 MAPK and SGK1. A third common colitis model, administration of dextran sodium sulfate, was hopelessly confounded by the high sodium content of the dextran sodium sulfate. Our results raise the possibility that high dietary salt is an environmental factor that drives increased inflammation in IBD. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Dynamic and static factors associated with discharge dispositions: the national trajectory project of individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Anne G; Nicholls, Tonia L; Charette, Yanick; Seto, Michael C

    2014-09-01

    review boards were taking into account a combination of empirically validated static and dynamic risk factors, as represented by the items of the HCR-20 risk assessment scheme. Particular attention was being paid to the behavior of the patient between hearings (e.g., violent acts, compliance with conditions). Severity of index offense was associated with review board decisions; though index severity is not related to recidivism, it is an important consideration in terms of public perceptions of the justice system and can be related to better established risk factors (i.e., criminal history and prior violence). Historical factors had more influence on the decision to detain someone, while clinical factors were more influential on an AD decision. Disposition stability was the most common trajectory, meaning that a patient with a prior CD disposition was most likely to receive another CD disposition at the next hearing. Static and dynamic risk factors found in the HCR-20 influenced review board determinations, although presentation of a complete structured risk assessment is the exception, not the norm. Results suggest that clinicians recommending less restrictive dispositions are more likely to include a comprehensive risk assessment with their recommendation. An alternative explanation is that, when there is no comprehensive assessment of risk, the review board tends to be more cautious and apply more restrictive dispositions. The practice seems to be contrary to the legislation at the time of the study, given that there should be a presumption that the patient is not a significant threat. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory: further factor analytic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Catherine M; Seldomridge, Lisa A; Badros, Karen K

    2007-02-01

    The stability of the factor structure of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory was re-examined using a convenience sample of 800 undergraduate students from nursing (n=520 first bachelors' and n=185 second bachelors' students) and biology (n=95) enrolled in introductory courses in their majors at a 4-yr. mid-Atlantic public university. Ages ranged from 17 to 54 years (M = 23.0, SD = 5.9), with 92 men and 707 women (1 missing). 685 participants identified themselves as Euro-American, 65 as African American, 9 as Hispanic, 26 as Asian, and 11 as "Other" (4 missing). The inventory developed by Facione in 1994 is a 75-item, forced-choice, adjective checklist, yielding seven subscores and a total score assessing testees' disposition toward critical thinking. A principal components factor analysis did not replicate the original factor structure of seven factors but supported the stability of a four-factor structure which had emerged in previous work by Walsh and Hardy and by Kakai. When the 75 original items were reduced to 25, the explained variance for the inventory improved from 27% to 44.95%. Thus, further investigation and continued refinement is warranted.

  20. Neural correlates of dispositional mindfulness during affect labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David; Way, Baldwin M; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2007-01-01

    Mindfulness is a process whereby one is aware and receptive to present moment experiences. Although mindfulness-enhancing interventions reduce pathological mental and physical health symptoms across a wide variety of conditions and diseases, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. Converging evidence from the mindfulness and neuroscience literature suggests that labeling affect may be one mechanism for these effects. Participants (n = 27) indicated trait levels of mindfulness and then completed an affect labeling task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. The labeling task consisted of matching facial expressions to appropriate affect words (affect labeling) or to gender-appropriate names (gender labeling control task). After controlling for multiple individual difference measures, dispositional mindfulness was associated with greater widespread prefrontal cortical activation, and reduced bilateral amygdala activity during affect labeling, compared with the gender labeling control task. Further, strong negative associations were found between areas of prefrontal cortex and right amygdala responses in participants high in mindfulness but not in participants low in mindfulness. The present findings with a dispositional measure of mindfulness suggest one potential neurocognitive mechanism for understanding how mindfulness meditation interventions reduce negative affect and improve health outcomes, showing that mindfulness is associated with enhanced prefrontal cortical regulation of affect through labeling of negative affective stimuli.

  1. Thinking critically about critical thinking: ability, disposition or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupat, Edward; Sprague, Jared M; Wolpaw, Daniel; Haidet, Paul; Hatem, David; O'Brien, Bridget

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the extent to which clinician-educators agree on definitions of critical thinking and to determine whether their descriptions of critical thinking in clinical practice are consistent with these definitions. Ninety-seven medical educators at five medical schools were surveyed. Respondents were asked to define critical thinking, to describe a clinical scenario in which critical thinking would be important, and to state the actions of a clinician in that situation who was thinking critically and those of another who was not. Qualitative content analysis was conducted to identify patterns and themes. The definitions mostly described critical thinking as a process or an ability; a minority of respondents described it as a personal disposition. In the scenarios, however, the majority of the actions manifesting an absence of critical thinking resulted from heuristic thinking and a lack of cognitive effort, consistent with a dispositional approach, rather than a lack of ability to analyse or synthesise. If we are to foster critical thinking among medical students, we must reconcile the way it is defined with the manner in which clinician-educators describe critical thinking--and its absence--in action. Such a reconciliation would include consideration of clinicians' sensitivity to complexity and their inclination to exert cognitive effort, in addition to their ability to master material and process information. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  2. Stereoselective disposition and glucuronidation of propranolol in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, B; Holford, N H; Riegelman, S

    1982-06-01

    Following oral dosing to steady state, the disposition of S(-)- and R(+)-propranolol and their corresponding glucuronide conjugates was studied in 4 healthy adults using doses from 40 to 320 mg/day of the racemate. Steady -state plasma concentrations of S(-)-propranolol and its corresponding glucuronide conjugate were greater than that for R(+)-propranolol and its corresponding conjugate. The average steady-state concentration of both enantiomers increased disproportionately to dose. There was a 52+/- 7 (mean +/- SD) % decrease in the intrinsic clearance (clint) of S(-)-propranolol and a 65 +/- 22% decrease in the Clint of R(+)-propranolol over the dosing range studied. The terminal elimination half-lives of S(-)-propranolol and its glucuronide conjugate were longer than for the R(+)-enantiomer at all doses. The formation of glucuzonide conjugates of S(-)- and R(+)-propranolol was best described by a saturable process in all subjects. Within individuals, the ratio of Vmax/Km for the glucuronide conjugate of S(-)-propranolol was from 2.1-to 4.9-fold greater than for the conjugate of the R(+)-enantiomer. These studies demonstrate for the first time, that propranolol undergoes stereoselective disposition in humans.

  3. Child and adolescent conduct disorder substantially shares genetic influences with three socioemotional dispositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Irwin D; Tackett, Jennifer L; Van Hulle, Carol A; Applegate, Brooks; Pardini, Dustin; Frick, Paul J; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2011-02-01

    In a representative sample of twin children and adolescents, we tested the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of the genetic and environmental influences underlying conduct disorder (CD) are shared with three socioemotional dispositions: Prosociality, Negative Emotionality, and Daring. Caretaker ratings of each dispositional dimension were uniquely associated with a latent CD dimension that included both caretaker- and youth-reports of CD as indicators. Behavior genetic analyses indicated that moderate-to-high additive genetic and moderate nonshared environmental influences underlie all three dispositions and CD, with modest shared environmental influences on Prosociality. Forty percent of the additive genetic influences and all of the nonshared environmental influences on the latent CD dimension were shared in common with the three socioemotional dispositions. The finding that CD shares a substantial proportion of its genetic influences with three distinct socioemotional dispositions suggests new perspectives on the heterogeneous etiology of CD and new approaches to exploring its specific etiological mechanisms. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Critical thinking dispositions and learning styles of baccalaureate nursing students from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Lambert, Vickie

    2008-09-01

    Although considerable information exists regarding the learning styles and critical thinking dispositions of nursing students from Western countries, limited comparable information exists within China. The purposes of this study were to assess the learning styles and critical thinking dispositions of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students and to identify the relationships among the learning styles, critical thinking dispositions, and demographics. The sample consisted of 100 Chinese baccalaureate nursing students enrolled at two universities. The data were obtained through a Demographic Data Questionnaire, the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and the Index of Learning Styles. The primary learning style dimensions were found to be reflective, sensing, visual, and global, while the critically thinking abilities was found to be weak. A number of positive and negative correlations were found among the demographics, learning styles, and critical thinking dispositions. These findings suggest further examination on how to increase nursing students' critical thinking skills based upon their preferred learning styles.

  5. 26 CFR 1.468A-6T - Disposition of an interest in a nuclear power plant (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of an interest in a nuclear power... § 1.468A-6T Disposition of an interest in a nuclear power plant (temporary). (a) In general. This... disposition by a taxpayer (transferor) of all or a portion of its qualifying interest in a nuclear power plant...

  6. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Johanneke L H C; Tournier, Carole; Knoop, Janine E; Kooyman, Gonnie; Smit, Gerrit

    2009-05-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various stimulation conditions involving relative changes in NaCl concentration of 20% and 38%. Changes in salt delivery profile had similar effect on saltiness perception when delivered either by a sipwise method or by a gustometer. The impact of concentration variations and frequency of concentration changes was further investigated with the gustometer method. Five second boosts and 2 s pulses were delivered during 3 sequential 10-s intervals, whereas the delivered total salt content was the same for all conditions. Two second pulses were found to increase saltiness perception, but only when the pulses were delivered during the first seconds of stimulation. Results suggest that the frequency, timing, and concentration differences of salt stimuli can affect saltiness. Specifically, a short and intense stimulus can increase salt perception, possibly through a reduction of adaptation.

  7. Salt intake, plasma sodium, and worldwide salt reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; Macgregor, Graham A

    2012-06-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that a reduction in salt intake from the current level of approximately 9-12 g/d in most countries of the world to the recommended level of 5-6 g/d lowers blood pressure (BP) in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals. A further reduction to 3-4 g/d has a greater effect. Prospective studies and outcome trials have demonstrated that a lower salt intake is related to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Cost-effectiveness analyses have documented that salt reduction is more or at the very least just as cost-effective as tobacco control in reducing cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The mechanisms whereby salt raises blood pressure and increases cardiovascular risk are not fully understood. The existing concepts focus on the tendency for an increase in extracellular fluid volume. Increasing evidence suggests that small increases in plasma sodium may have a direct effect on BP and the cardiovascular system, independent of extracellular volume. All countries should adopt a coherent and workable strategy to reduce salt intake in the whole population. Even a modest reduction in population salt intake will have major beneficial effects on health, along with major cost savings.

  8. Hypertension: salt restriction, sodium homeostasis, and other ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neeru; Jani, Kishan Kumar; Gupta, Nivedita

    2011-03-01

    Salt is composed of Sodium Chloride (NaCl) which in body water becomes essential electrolytes, viz., Sodium (Na⁺) and Chloride (Cl⁻) ions, including in the blood and other extracellular fluids (ECF). Na⁺ ions are necessary cations in muscle contractions and their depletion will effect all the muscles in body including smooth muscle contraction of blood vessels, a fact which is utilized in lowering the blood pressure. Na⁺ ions also hold water with them in the ECF. Na⁺ homeostasis in body is maintained by thirst (water intake), kidneys (urinary excretion) and skin (sweating). In Na⁺ withdrawal, body tries to maintain homeostasis as far as possible. However, in certain conditions (e.g., during exercise, intake of drugs and in disorders causing Syndrome of Inappropriate Anti Diuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH), diuretics, diarrhea) coupled with moderate or severe dietary salt restriction (anorexia nervosa), hyponatremia can get precipitated. Hyponatremia is one end point in the spectrum of disorders caused by severe Na⁺ depletion whereas in moderate depletion it can cause hypohydration (or less total body water) and lower urinary volume (U v ). Moreover, salt sensitivity varies in various populations leading to different responses in relation to dietary Na⁺ intake. Diabetes and Hypertension often co-exist but Na⁺ withdrawal in salt sensitive subjects worsens diabetes though hypertension gets better and reverse occurs in salt loading. Therefore, Na⁺ or salt restriction may be non-physiological. In hypertensive subjects other alternatives to Na⁺ withdrawal could be Potassium (K⁺) and Calcium (Ca⁺²) supplementation. Further studies are required to monitor safety/side effects of salt restriction.

  9. Salt reduction in foods using naturally brewed soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Stefanie; Mojet, Jozina; Shimojo, Ryo

    2009-08-01

    In recent years, health concerns related to salt/sodium chloride consumption have caused an increased demand for salt-reduced foods. Consequently, sodium chloride (NaCl) reduction in foods has become an important challenge. The more so, since a decrease in NaCl content is often reported to be associated with a decrease in consumer acceptance. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether or not it would be possible to reduce the NaCl content in standard Western European foods by replacing it with naturally brewed soy sauce. Three types of foods were investigated: salad dressing (n = 56), soup (n = 52), and stir-fried pork (n = 57). In the 1st step, an exchange rate (ER) by which NaCl can be replaced with soy sauce without a significant change in the overall taste intensity was established per product type, by means of alternative forced choice tests. In the 2nd step, the same consumers evaluated 5 samples per product type with varying NaCl and/or soy sauce content on pleasantness and several sensory attributes. The results showed that it was possible to achieve a NaCl reduction in the tested foods of, respectively, 50%, 17%, and 29% without leading to significant losses in either overall taste intensity or product pleasantness. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with naturally brewed soy sauce without lowering the overall taste intensity and to reduce the total NaCl content in these foods without decreasing their consumer acceptance. Health concerns related to salt consumption cause an increased demand for salt-reduced foods. Consequently, the development of foods with reduced salt content without decreasing the consumer acceptance is an important challenge for the food industry. A new possible salt reduction approach is described in the present article: The replacement of salt with naturally brewed soy sauce.

  10. Alternative Technical Summary Report: Electrometallurgical Treatment Variant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, L.W.

    1995-11-30

    salt solution, sorbed on zeolites, and then immobilized in a glass-bonded zeolite (GBZ) waste form. The immobilization operations will be performed in facilities and equipment that are being prepared to treat Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent fuels in the ANL-W hot cells. Costs are also estimated for a secondary case for simultaneous plutonium disposition and spent fuel treatment. The fission products from these fuels may contribute some radiation to the immobilization forms, but the {sup 137}Cs from the Hanford capsules will provide most of the radiation field to create a radiation barrier.

  11. Final Environmental Assessment : Opening waterfowl hunting on 5,500 acres of former commercial salt ponds : Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Alviso and Ravenswood Salt Ponds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This EA for opening waterfowl hunting on salt ponds recently acquired by the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge proposes three alternatives....

  12. Salting-in and salting-out of water-soluble polymers in aqueous salt solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Jahani, Farahnaz

    2012-05-03

    To obtain further experimental evidence for the mechanisms of the salting effect produced by the addition of salting-out or sating-in inducing electrolytes to aqueous solutions of water-soluble polymers, systematic studies on the vapor-liquid equilibria and liquid-liquid equilibria of aqueous solutions of several polymers are performed in the presence of a large series of electrolytes. Polymers are polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 250 (PEGDME250), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 2000 (PEGDME2000), and polypropylene glycol 400 (PPG400), and the investigated electrolytes are KCl, NH(4)Cl, MgCl(2), (CH(3))(4)NCl, NaCl, NaNO(3), Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit (tri-sodium citrate). Aqueous solutions of PPG400 form aqueous two-phase systems with all the investigated salts; however, other investigated polymers form aqueous two-phase systems only with Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit. A relation was found between the salting-out or sating-in effects of electrolyte on the polymer aqueous solutions and the slopes of the constant water activity lines of ternary polymer-salt aqueous solutions, so that, in the case of the salting-out effect, the constant water activity lines had a concave slope, but in the case of the salting-in effects, the constant water activity lines had a convex slope. The effect of temperature, anion of electrolyte, cation of electrolyte, and type and molar mass of polymers were studied and the results interpreted in terms of the solute-water and solute-solute interactions. The salting-out effect results from the formation of ion (specially anion)-water hydration complexes, which, in turn, decreases hydration, and hence, the solubility of the polymer and the salting-in effect results from a direct binding of the cations to the ether oxygens of the polymers.

  13. Juror sensitivity to false confession risk factors: Dispositional vs. situational attributions for a confession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestehoff, Skye A; Meissner, Christian A

    2016-10-01

    Research on jurors' perceptions of confession evidence suggests that jurors may not be sensitive to factors that can influence the reliability of a confession. Jurors' decisions tend not to be influenced by situational pressures to confess, which suggests that jurors commit the correspondence bias when evaluating a confession. One method to potentially increase sensitivity and counteract the correspondence bias is by highlighting a motivation other than guilt for the defendant's confession. We conducted 3 experiments to evaluate jurors' sensitivity to false confession risk factors. Participants read a trial transcript that varied the presence of false confession risk factors within an interrogation. Some participants also read testimony that presented an alternative motivation for the confession (expert testimony, Experiments 1 and 3; defendant testimony, Experiment 2). Across 3 experiments, participants were generally able to distinguish between interrogation practices that can produce a false confession, regardless of the presence or absence of expert or defendant testimony. Experiment 3 explored whether participants' attributions for the confessor's motivation were affected by interrogative pressure and expert testimony, and whether these attributions affected verdicts. Participants' reluctance to convict when false confession risk factors were present was associated with situational, rather than dispositional, attributions regarding the defendant's motivation to confess. It is possible that increased knowledge is responsible for participants' improved sensitivity to false confession risk factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Investigation of molten salt fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kenichi; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Yoshihiko; Konomura, Mamoru; Ichimiya, Masakazu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2000-06-01

    Phase I of Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor System is being performed for two years from Japanese Fiscal Year 1999. In this report, results of the study on fluid fuel reactors (especially a molten salt fast breeder reactor concept) are described from the viewpoint of technical and economical concerns of the plant system design. In JFY1999, we have started to investigate the fluid fuel reactors as alternative concepts of sodium cooled FBR systems with MOX fuel, and selected the unique concept of a molten chloride fast breeder reactor, whose U-Pu fuel cycle can be related to both light water reactors and fast breeder reactors on the basis of present technical data and design experiences. We selected a preliminary composition of molten fuel and conceptual plant design through evaluation of technical and economical issues essential for the molten salt reactors and then compared them with reference design concepts of sodium cooled FBR systems under limited information on the molten chloride fast breeder reactors. The following results were obtained. (1) The molten chloride fast breeder reactors have inherent safety features in the core and plant performances, ad the fluid fuel is quite promising for cost reduction of the fuel fabrication and reprocessing. (2) On the other hand, the inventory of the molten chloride fuel becomes high and thermal conductivity of the coolant is inferior compared to those of sodium cooled FBR systems, then, the size of main components such as IHX's becomes larger and the amount of construction materials is seems to be increased. (3) Furthermore economical vessel and piping materials which contact with the molten chloride salts are required to be developed. From the results, it is concluded that further steps to investigate the molten chloride fast breeder reactor concepts are too early to be conducted. (author)

  15. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  16. Recycling of aluminum salt cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Karvelas, D.E.

    1991-12-01

    The secondary aluminum industry generates more than 110 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of salt-cake waste every year. This waste stream contains about 3--5% aluminum, 15--30% aluminum oxide, 30--40% sodium chloride, and 20--30% potassium chloride. As much as 50% of the content of this waste is combined salt (sodium and potassium chlorides). Salt-cake waste is currently disposed of in conventional landfills. In addition, over 50 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of black dross that is not economical to reprocess a rotary furnace for aluminum recovery ends up in landfills. The composition of the dross is similar to that of salt cake, except that it contains higher concentrations of aluminum (up to 20%) and correspondingly lower amounts of salts. Because of the high solubility of the salts in water, these residues, when put in landfills, represent a potential source of pollution to surface-water and groundwater supplies. The increasing number of environmental regulations on the generation and disposal of industrial wastes are likely to restrict the disposal of these salt-containing wastes in conventional landfills. Processes exist that employ the dissolution and recovery of the salts from the waste stream. These wet-processing methods are economical only when the aluminum concentration in that waste exceeds about 10%. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a study in which existing technologies were reviewed and new concepts that are potentially more cost-effective than existing processes were developed and evaluated. These include freeze crystallization, solvent/antisolvent extraction, common-ion effect, high-pressure/high-temperature process, and capillary-effect systems. This paper presents some of the technical and economic results of the aforementioned ANL study.

  17. Homolytic reduction of onium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensterbank, Louis; Goddard, Jean-Philippe; Malacria, Max; Ollivier, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    Onium salts have proved to be efficient sources of carbon-centered radicals. They can undergo homolytic reduction by single electron transfer (SET) and participate in subsequent synthetic transformations. This review aims to provide an overview on the behavior of onium salts including diazonium, sulfonium, selenonium, telluronium, phosphonium and iodonium cations toward various reductive methods such as radiolysis, electrolysis, photolysis or the use of SET reagents. Mechanistic and synthetic aspects are presented. Applications in polymers and materials science are not covered.

  18. Microplastics in Spanish Table Salt

    OpenAIRE

    I?iguez, Maria E.; Conesa, Juan A.; Fullana, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Marine debris is widely recognized as a global environmental problem. One of its main components, microplastics, has been found in several sea salt samples from different countries, indicating that sea products are irremediably contaminated by microplastics. Previous studies show very confusing results, reporting amounts of microparticles (MPs) in salt ranging from zero to 680 MPs/kg, with no mention of the possible causes of such differences. Several errors in the experimental procedures use...

  19. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Used Fuel Disposition in Clay-Bearing Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jove-Colon, Carlos F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weck, Philippe F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zheng, Liange [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kim, Kunhwi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Houseworth, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cheshire, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Palaich, Sarah [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norskog, Katherine E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wolery, Thomas J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jerden, James L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Copple, Jacqueline M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cruse, Terry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ebert, William L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-04

    Deep geological disposal of nuclear waste in clay/shale/argillaceous rock formations has received much consideration given its desirable attributes such as isolation properties (low permeability), geochemically reduced conditions, slow diffusion, sorbtive mineralogy, and geologically widespread (Jové Colón et al., 2014). There is a wealth of gained scientific expertise on the behavior of clay/shale/ argillaceous rock given its focus in international nuclear waste repository programs that includes underground research laboratories (URLs) in Switzerland, France, Belgium, and Japan. Jové Colón et al. (2014) have described some of these investigative efforts in clay rock ranging from site characterization to research on the engineered barrier system (EBS). Evaluations of disposal options that include nuclear waste disposition in clay/shale/argillaceous rock have determined that this host media can accommodate a wide range of waste types. R&D work within the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) assessing thermal effects and fluid-mineral interactions for the disposition of heat-generating waste have so far demonstrated the feasibility for the EBS and clay host rock to withstand high thermal loads. This report represents the continuation of disposal R&D efforts on the advancement and refinement of coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC), hydrothermal experiments on clay interactions, used fuel degradation (source term), and thermodynamic modeling and database development. The development and implementation of a clay/shale/argillite reference case described in Jové Colón et al. (2014) for FY15 will be documented in another report (Mariner et al. 2015) – only a brief description will be given here. This clay reference case implementation is the result of integration efforts between the GDSA PA and disposal in argillite work packages. The assessment of sacrificial zones in the EBS is being addressed through experimental work along with 1D reactive

  1. Engineering copolymeric artificial cornea with salt porogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellander, Amelia; Wardlow, Melissa; Djalilian, Ali; Zhao, Chenlin; Abiade, Jeremiah; Cho, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Artificial corneas or keratoprostheses (KPros) are designed to replace diseased or damaged cornea. Although many synthetic KPros have been developed, current products are often inappropriate or inadequate for long term use due to ineffective host integration. This study presents an alternative approach of engineering a KPro that comprises a combination of poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and sodium chloride (NaCl) as porogen. Based on the core-skirt model for KPro, the porous outer portion of artificial cornea (skirt) was engineered by combining NaCl with HEMA and MMA monomers to promote tissue ingrowth from the host. The central optic (core) was designed to provide >85% light transmission in the visible wavelength range and securely attached to the skirt. Mechanical tensile data indicated that our KPro (referred to as salt porogen KPro) is mechanically stable to maintain its structure in the ocular environment and during implantation. Using human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs), we demonstrate that the cells grew into the pores of the skirt and proliferated, suggesting biointegration is adequately achieved. This novel PHEMA-PMMA copolymeric salt porogen KPro may offer a cornea replacement option that leads to minimal risk of corneal melting by permitting sufficient tissue ingrowth and mass transport. Copyright © 2013 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  2. A closer look at salt loaded microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, M.R. de

    2006-01-01

    Many walls of ancient buildings are covered with plaster layers. Amongst the most recurrent causes of damage of plasters and substrates are moisture and salt decay processes. To combat these salt problems, special salt resistant plasters have been developed for application on salt loaded substrates.

  3. SRS MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. Six initial site combinations were proposed: (1) Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) with support from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), (2) Hanford, (3) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with support from Pantex, (4) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (5) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and (6) Savannah River Site(SRS). After further analysis by the sites and DOE-MD, five site combinations were established as possible candidates for producing MOX LAs: (1) ANL-W with support from INEEL, (2) Hanford, (3) LANL, (4) LLNL, and (5) SRS. SRS has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. An alternate approach would allow fabrication of fuel pellets and assembly of fuel rods in an S and S Category 2 or 3 facility with storage of bulk PuO{sub 2} and assembly, storage, and shipping of fuel bundles in an S and S Category 1 facility. The total Category 1 approach, which is the recommended option, would be done in the 221-H Canyon Building. A facility that was never in service will be removed from one area, and a hardened wall will be constructed in another area to accommodate execution of the LA fuel fabrication. The non-Category 1 approach would require removal of process equipment in the FB-Line metal production and packaging glove boxes, which requires work in a contamination area. The Immobilization Hot Demonstration Program

  4. Evaluation of Possible Surrogates for Validation of the Oxidation Furnace for the Plutonium Disposition Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, A.

    2007-12-31

    The Plutonium Disposition project (PuD) is considering an alternative furnace design for direct metal oxidation (DMO) of plutonium metal to use as a feed for potential disposition routes. The proposed design will use a retort to oxidize the feed at temperatures up to 500 C. The atmosphere will be controlled using a metered mixture of oxygen, helium and argon to control the oxidation at approximately 400 torr. Since plutonium melts at 664 C, and may potentially react with retort material to form a lower melting point eutectic, the oxidation process will be controlled by metering the flow of oxygen to ensure that the bulk temperature of the material does not exceed this temperature. A batch processing time of <24 hours is desirable to meet anticipated furnace throughput requirements. The design project includes demonstration of concept in a small-scale demonstration test (i.e., small scale) and validation of design in a full-scale test. These tests are recommended to be performed using Pu surrogates due to challenges in consideration of the nature of plutonium and operational constraints required when handling large quantities of accountable material. The potential for spreading contamination and exposing workers to harmful levels of cumulative radioactive dose are motivation to utilize non-radioactive surrogates. Once the design is demonstrated and optimized, implementation would take place in a facility designed to accommodate these constraints. Until then, the use of surrogates would be a safer, less expensive option for the validation phase of the project. This report examines the potential for use of surrogates in the demonstration and validation of the DMO furnace for PuD. This report provides a compilation of the technical information and process requirements for the conversion of plutonium metal to oxide by burning in dry environments. Several potential surrogates were evaluated by various criteria in order to select a suitable candidate for large scale

  5. So far away from one's partner, yet so close to romantic alternatives: avoidant attachment, interest in alternatives, and infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewall, C Nathan; Lambert, Nathaniel M; Slotter, Erica B; Pond, Richard S; Deckman, Timothy; Finkel, Eli J; Luchies, Laura B; Fincham, Frank D

    2011-12-01

    Temptation pervades modern social life, including the temptation to engage in infidelity. The present investigation examines one factor that may put individuals at a greater risk of being unfaithful to their partner: dispositional avoidant attachment style. The authors hypothesize that avoidantly attached people may be less resistant to temptations for infidelity due to lower levels of commitment in romantic relationships. This hypothesis was confirmed in 8 studies. People with high, vs. low, levels of dispositional avoidant attachment had more permissive attitudes toward infidelity (Study 1), showed attentional bias toward attractive alternative partners (Study 2), expressed greater daily interest in meeting alternatives to their current relationship partner (Study 5), perceived alternatives to their current relationship partner more positively (Study 6), and engaged in more infidelity over time (Studies 3, 4, 7, and 8). This effect was mediated by lower levels of commitment (Studies 5-8). Thus, avoidant attachment predicted a broad spectrum of responses indicative of interest in alternatives and propensity to engage in infidelity, which were mediated by low levels of commitment.

  6. Engineered Option Treatment of Remediated Nitrate Salts: Surrogate Batch-Blending Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    This report provides results from batch-blending test work for remediated nitrate salt (RNS) treatment. Batch blending was identified as a preferred option for blending RNS and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) material with zeolite to effectively safe the salt/Swheat material identified as ignitable (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency code D001). Blending with zeolite was the preferred remediation option identified in the Options Assessment Report and was originally proposed as the best option for remediation by Clark and Funk in their report, Chemical Reactivity and Recommended Remediation Strategy for Los Alamos Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) Wastes, and also found to be a preferred option in the Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing. This test work evaluated equipment and recipe alternatives to achieve effective blending of surrogate waste with zeolite.

  7. Long-lasting effects of affective disorders and childhood trauma on dispositional optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhof, Rosalie; Rius-Ottenheim, Nathaly; Spinhoven, Philip; van der Mast, Roos C; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Zitman, Frans G; Giltay, Erik J

    2015-04-01

    Dispositional optimism, a personality trait characterized by generalized positive expectations towards the future, is thought to remain rather stable over time. It is however largely unknown to what extent affective disorders and its risk factors affect dispositional optimism. We examined the association between (lifetime) affective disorders and childhood trauma with dispositional optimism in a sample of 2104 subjects (aged 18-65 years) from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Dispositional optimism was measured with the Life Orientation Test Revised (LOT-R). Diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders were based on the Composite Interview diagnostic Instrument (CIDI).Childhood trauma was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Interview (CTI) and life-events with the List of Threatening Events Questionnaire (LTQ). The 2104 participants were on average 46.0 (SD 13.1) years old and 65.8% were female. Multivariate analyses showed that dispositional optimism was inversely associated with current affective disorders (depression: B=-1.089 and anxiety: B=-1.066, both poptimism, whilst positive life-events were associated with higher levels of optimism (B=0.235, p>0.001). The cross-sectional design hampers inferences about causality. Lower levels of dispositional optimism are associated with stage of affective disorders, even after remission, and a history of childhood emotional maltreatment. Identification of the risk factors contributes to understand fluctuations in dispositional optimism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dispositional Mindfulness, Shame, and Compulsive Sexual Behaviors among Men in Residential Treatment for Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Meagan J; Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2017-12-01

    Approximately 31% of men in treatment for a substance use disorders (SUD) engage in compulsive sexual behavior (CSB). Shame, a well-documented consequence of CSB, increases the likelihood of relapse following treatment for SUDs. Despite the risk of relapse, prior research has not investigated factors that may attenuate the relation between CSB and shame. Dispositional mindfulness is one such factor known to mitigate shame. However, researchers have yet to examine dispositional mindfulness as a moderator of the relationship between CSB and shame among a sample of men in treatment for SUDs. In an effort to inform intervention efforts, the present study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that CSB would not relate to shame among men with high, as opposed to low, levels of dispositional mindfulness. The present study reviewed medical records of 184 men in residential treatment for SUDs who completed cross-sectional measures of shame, CSB, dispositional mindfulness, and substance use problems. Results demonstrated a significant interaction between CSB and dispositional mindfulness such that CSB positively related to shame at low, but not mean or high, levels of dispositional mindfulness. These results support and extend previous mindfulness and CSB treatment research. Findings suggested that intervention efforts for CSB may benefit from increasing dispositional mindfulness in an effort to reduce shame-related cognitions.

  9. Nursing students' critical thinking disposition according to academic level and satisfaction with nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hee; Moon, Seongmi; Kim, Eun Jung; Kim, Young-Ju; Lee, Sunhee

    2014-01-01

    The development of critical thinking dispositions has become an important issue in nursing education in Korea. Nursing colleges in Korea have developed teaching strategies and curricula that focus on developing critical thinking dispositions. It is an imperative step that evaluates the changing pattern and development of students' critical thinking dispositions. This study identified critical thinking dispositions of Korean nursing students according to academic level and satisfaction with nursing. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 1074 students in four colleges who completed the self-reported Critical Thinking Disposition Scale. Descriptive and univariate general linear model analyses were performed. The critical thinking disposition score increased according to academic level until junior year, after which it decreased in the senior year. Nursing students who were satisfied with nursing reported higher levels of critical thinking than those who were not satisfied or who responded neutrally. The critical thinking scores of nursing students not satisfied with nursing dropped greatly in the senior year. These results suggest the importance of targeting the development of curriculum and teaching methods for seniors and students who have a lower level of satisfaction with nursing to increase their critical thinking dispositions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Capital Sin: Dispositional Envy and its Relations to Wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciano L. Milfont

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Envy is a pancultural emotion felt by most individuals during their lifetime. The Dispositional Envy Scale (DES is a 8-item self-reported measure developed to assess people´s tendencies to feel envy. This study first examines the reliability and validity of the DES in measuring envy in a Brazilian sample, and then the relationship between envy and wellbeing. The DES had acceptable reliability (internal consistency and homogeneity as well as factorial and criterion-related validity. As expected, envy was negatively related to wellbeing measures (life satisfaction, vitality, and happiness, indicating that an envy-prone person is more likely to have low feelings of aliveness and energy, and to express unhappiness with their lives. The findings support the psychometric properties of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the DES, and also highlight the potential impact of envy on people¿s wellbeing.

  11. [Dispositional optimism, pessimism and realism in technological potential entrepreneurs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Puga, Jorge; García García, Juan

    2011-11-01

    Optimism has been classically considered a key trait in entrepreneurs' personality but it has been studied from a psychological point of view only in recent years. The main aim of this research is to study the relationship between dispositional optimism, pessimism and realism as a function of the tendency to create technology-based businesses. A sample of undergraduate students (n= 205) filled in an electronic questionnaire containing the Life Orientation Test-Revised after they were classified as potential technological entrepreneurs, potential general entrepreneurs and non-potential entrepreneurs. Our results show that technology-based entrepreneurs are more optimistic than non-potential entrepreneurs, whereas there were no statistical differences in pessimism and realism. The results are interpreted theoretically to define the potential entrepreneur and, from an applied perspective, to design training programmes to support future technological entrepreneurs.

  12. Adaptation and validation of the dispositional hope scale for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cerentini Pacico

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the psychometric features and the validation process of the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS for adolescents in the south of Brazil. This scale measures the Hope construct in terms of pathways and agency. The ADHS was translated to Portuguese and underwent a reverse translation. A sample of 450 students, from 14 to 18 years old (M=16.8 years, SD=3.4, 56% female, answered the ADHS, the Hope Index, the LOT-R and the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. A factorial analysis with varimax rotation showed that the scale is unidimensional and that its internal consistency was adequate (Cronbach's alpha = .80. No significant gender differences were found. Correlations of ADHS with the other constructs presented evidence of convergent validity in the present study.

  13. Cognitive and emotional predictors of episodic and dispositional forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mróz Justyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the importance of cognitive (positive orientation, basic hope and emotional (positive and negative affectivity, emotional control variables for state and trait forgiveness. One hundred and thirty nine participants completed six inventories in Polish version: HFS (Thompson et al., 2005, TRIM (McCullough et al., 1998, P-Scale (Caprara et al., 2012, BHI-12 (Trzebiński & Zięba, 2003a, SUPIN (Polish version of PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988, CECS (Watson & Greer, 1983. Results showed that dispositional forgiveness (general and positive was associated with cognitive and emotional predictors, whereas episodic forgiveness primarily with certain emotional variables. In addition, the results indicated that emotional predictors merely participate in the process of reducing unforgiveness, whereas cognitive and emotional variables were shown to be necessary for full forgiveness.

  14. Pantex staging study near-term alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, M.S.; Adickes, M.D.; Hostick, C.J.; Nealey, S.M.; Smith, B.W.

    1992-12-01

    As the result of bilateral treaties to reduce the number of weapons in the nuclear stockpile, the US Department of Energy must now address the requirements for additional storage of the plutonium components (pits) from the retired weapons at Pantex until the components' final disposition. Because of the critical need to take action, Pantex has initiated two related efforts: Project Stage Right and this Staging Study. While support of Project Stage Right is a key objective of this study, the scope covers a broader range of activities and aspects of the pit staging problem. This study provides estimates of worker radiation exposures under the current scenario as well as estimated radiation exposure for workers under four alternative staging scenarios. An important objective of this study also identifies and recommends for future study other activities related to staging where radiation safety and overall efficiency can be improved.

  15. Pantex staging study near-term alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, M.S.; Adickes, M.D.; Hostick, C.J.; Nealey, S.M.; Smith, B.W.

    1992-12-01

    As the result of bilateral treaties to reduce the number of weapons in the nuclear stockpile, the US Department of Energy must now address the requirements for additional storage of the plutonium components (pits) from the retired weapons at Pantex until the components` final disposition. Because of the critical need to take action, Pantex has initiated two related efforts: Project Stage Right and this Staging Study. While support of Project Stage Right is a key objective of this study, the scope covers a broader range of activities and aspects of the pit staging problem. This study provides estimates of worker radiation exposures under the current scenario as well as estimated radiation exposure for workers under four alternative staging scenarios. An important objective of this study also identifies and recommends for future study other activities related to staging where radiation safety and overall efficiency can be improved.

  16. Reactor-Based Plutonium Disposition: Opportunities, Options, and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, S.R.

    1999-07-17

    The end of the Cold War has created a legacy of surplus fissile materials (plutonium and highly enriched uranium) in the United States (U.S.) and the former Soviet Union. These materials pose a danger to national and international security. During the past few years, the U.S. and Russia have engaged in an ongoing dialog concerning the safe storage and disposition of surplus fissile material stockpiles. In January 1997, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced the U. S. would pursue a dual track approach to rendering approximately 50 metric tons of plutonium inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons. One track involves immobilizing the plutonium by combining it with high-level radioactive waste in glass or ceramic ''logs''. The other method, referred to as reactor-based disposition, converts plutonium into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for nuclear reactors. The U.S. and Russia are moving ahead rapidly to develop and demonstrate the technology required to implement the MOX option in their respective countries. U.S. MOX fuel research and development activities were started in the 1950s, with irradiation of MOX fuel rods in commercial light water reactors (LWR) from the 1960s--1980s. In all, a few thousand MOX fuel rods were successfully irradiated. Though much of this work was performed with weapons-grade or ''near'' weapons-grade plutonium--and favorable fuel performance was observed--the applicability of this data for licensing and use of weapons-grade MOX fuel manufactured with modern fuel fabrication processes is somewhat limited. The U.S. and Russia are currently engaged in an intensive research, development, and demonstration program to support implementation of the MOX option in our two countries. This paper focuses on work performed in the U.S. and provides a brief summary of joint U.S./Russian work currently underway.

  17. Disposition of eslicarbazepine acetate in the mouse after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gilberto; Figueiredo, Isabel; Castel-Branco, Margarida; Lourenço, Nulita; Falcão, Amílcar; Caramona, Margarida; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2008-10-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate is a promising antiepileptic drug structurally related to carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, which is in the final phase of clinical development. The metabolism of eslicarbazepine acetate is clearly species dependent and, in this case, among small laboratory animals, the mouse seems to be the most relevant species to humans. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the plasma, brain and liver disposition of eslicarbazepine acetate in mice to better understand its disposition in humans. Adult male CD-1 mice were treated orally with a single dose of eslicarbazepine acetate 350 mg/kg. Blood samples, brain and liver tissues were taken at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 16 and 24 h post-dose. Plasma and tissue levels of eslicarbazepine acetate and its metabolites (S-licarbazepine, R-licarbazepine and oxcarbazepine) were assessed by using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. Both eslicarbazepine acetate and R-licarbazepine concentrations were below the limit of quantification of the assay in all matrices. Eslicarbazepine acetate was rapidly and extensively metabolized to S-licarbazepine (major metabolite), which was oxidized to oxcarbazepine to a small extent. The brain/plasma ratios suggest that the brain exposure to S-licarbazepine and oxcarbazepine was approximately 30% of their total systemic exposure. However, S-licarbazepine crossed the blood-brain barrier (BBB) less efficiently than oxcarbazepine. On the other hand, the liver/plasma ratios support the notion that S-licarbazepine undergoes hepatic accumulation, whereas oxcarbazepine appears to leave this compartment twice as fast as S-licarbazepine. Thus, the diffusion through the BBB is favourable to oxcarbazepine and the liver acts like a deposit of the pharmacologically active metabolite of eslicarbazepine acetate (S-licarbazepine).

  18. Goal orientation, motivational climate, and dispositional flow of high school students engaged in extracurricular physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervelló, Eduardo M; Moreno, Juan A; Villodre, Nestor Alonso; Iglesias, Damián

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of goal orientation, motivational climate, and dispositional flow in physical education lessons on extracurricular involvement in physical activity. Questionnaires were administered to 1,103 (792 athletes; 311 nonathletes) secondary school students (M age = 14.3 yr., SD = 0.7). Analysis showed significant mean differences between groups on goal orientation and dispositional flow in physical education lessons, but none for perception of motivational climate. These findings suggest that dispositional variables are related to extracurricular involvement in physical activity.

  19. Roadmap for disposal of Electrorefiner Salt as Transuranic Waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, Robert P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Trone, Janis R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sanchez, Lawrence C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The experimental breeder reactor (EBR-II) used fuel with a layer of sodium surrounding the uranium-zirconium fuel to improve heat transfer. Disposing of EBR-II fuel in a geologic repository without treatment is not prudent because of the potentially energetic reaction of the sodium with water. In 2000, the US Department of Energy (DOE) decided to treat the sodium-bonded fuel with an electrorefiner (ER), which produces metallic uranium product, a metallic waste, mostly from the cladding, and the salt waste in the ER, which contains most of the actinides and fission products. Two waste forms were proposed for disposal in a mined repository; the metallic waste, which was to be cast into ingots, and the ER salt waste, which was to be further treated to produce a ceramic waste form. However, alternative disposal pathways for metallic and salt waste streams may reduce the complexity. For example, performance assessments show that geologic repositories can easily accommodate the ER salt waste without treating it to form a ceramic waste form. Because EBR-II was used for atomic energy defense activities, the treated waste likely meets the definition of transuranic waste. Hence, disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southern New Mexico, may be feasible. This report reviews the direct disposal pathway for ER salt waste and describes eleven tasks necessary for implementing disposal at WIPP, provided space is available, DOE decides to use this alternative disposal pathway in an updated environmental impact statement, and the State of New Mexico grants permission.

  20. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  1. Experimental research on molten salt thermofluid technology using a high-temperature molten salt loop applied for a fusion reactor Flibe blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, Saburo; Chiba, Shinya E-mail: schiba@karma.qse.tohoku.ac.jp; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Omae, Masahiro; Sagara, Akio

    2002-12-01

    Experimental research on molten salt thermofluid technology using a high-temperature molten salt loop (MSL) is described in this paper. The MSL was designed to be able to use Flibe as a coolant, however, a simulant, heat transfer salt (HTS) has to be used alternatively since Flibe is difficult to operate under avoiding a biohazard of Be. Experiment on heat-transfer enhancement, that is required for applying to cool the high heat flux components of fusion reactors, is ongoing. Preliminary experimental results showed that an internal structure of a mixing chamber in the MSL was important to obtain accurate bulk temperatures under severe thermal conditions. For operating the loop, careful handling are needed to proceed how to melt the salt and to circulate it in starting the operation of the MSL. It is concluded that several improvements proposed from the present experiences should be applied for the future Flibe operation.

  2. Impact of learning adaptability and time management disposition on study engagement among Chinese baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Ying; Liu, Yan-Hui; Yang, Ji-Peng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships among study engagement, learning adaptability, and time management disposition in a sample of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students. A convenient sample of 467 baccalaureate nursing students was surveyed in two universities in Tianjin, China. Students completed a questionnaire that included their demographic information, Chinese Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student Questionnaire, Learning Adaptability Scale, and Adolescence Time Management Disposition Scale. One-way analysis of variance tests were used to assess the relationship between certain characteristics of baccalaureate nursing students. Pearson correlation was performed to test the correlation among study engagement, learning adaptability, and time management disposition. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of time management disposition. The results revealed that study engagement (F = 7.20, P students but also focus on development, investment in adaptability, and time management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving critical thinking : Effects of dispositions and instructions oneconomics students' reasoning skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijltjes, Anita; van Gog, Tamara; Leppink, Jimmie; Paas, Fred

    2014-01-01

    This experiment investigated the impact of critical thinking dispositions and instructions on economics students' performance on reasoning skills. Participants (. N=. 183) were exposed to one of four conditions: critical thinking instruction, critical thinking instruction with self-explanation

  4. Dispositional mindfulness, spirituality, and substance use in predicting depressive symptoms in a treatment-seeking sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Gawrysiak, Michael J; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-04-01

    It is imperative that research identifies factors related to depression among individuals in substance use treatment, as depression is associated with substance use relapse. Dispositional mindfulness and spirituality may bear an important role in the relationship between depression and substance use. Using preexisting patient medical records (N = 105), the current study investigated dispositional mindfulness and spirituality in relation to depressive symptom clusters (affective, cognitive, and physiological) among men in residential substance use treatment. The mean age of the sample was 41.03 (standard deviation = 10.75). Findings demonstrated that dispositional mindfulness and spirituality were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. After controlling for age, alcohol use, and drug use, dispositional mindfulness remained negatively associated with all of the depression clusters. Spirituality only remained associated with the cognitive depression cluster. Mindfulness-based interventions may hold promise as an effective intervention for reducing substance use and concurrent depressive symptoms. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. 105-N basin sediment disposition phase-two sampling and analysis plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R. C.

    1997-03-14

    The sampling and analysis plan for Phase 2 of the 105-N Basin sediment disposition task defines the sampling and analytical activities that will be performed to support characterization of the sediment and selection of an appropriate sediment disposal option.

  6. 7 CFR 301.51-8 - Attachment and disposition of certificates and limited permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Asian Longhorned Beetle § 301.51-8 Attachment and disposition of certificates and limited permits. (a) A regulated...

  7. Individual differences in dispositional mindfulness and brain activity involved in reappraisal of emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modinos, Gemma; Ormel, Johan; Aleman, Andre

    2010-01-01

    The regulation of negative emotion through reappraisal has been shown to induce increased prefrontal activity and decreased amygdala activity. Individual differences in dispositional mindfulness reflect differences in typical recognition, detachment and regulation of current experience, thought to

  8. 7 CFR 301.55-8 - Attachment and disposition of certificates and limited permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-8 Attachment and disposition of certificates and limited permits. (a) A...

  9. Dispositions to school education and self concept in Slovenian and British high-school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Kobal

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the relationship between dispositions to school education and self-concept. What is meant by the expression "dispositions of school education" are phenomena like attitudes to school, achievement motivation, believes about personal control over learning, external constrains to learning etc. The definition of self-concept and its brief contemporary understanding is mentioned. The aim of the study is to find out the expression of certain areas of self-concept and dispositions to school education. A group of Slovenian and a group of British high school students participated in the study. The results of ANOVA and discriminant analysis showed significant differences as related to nationality. For example, British participants exceeded Slovenians in many areas of self-concept. They also expressed some significant differences in their dispositions to school. The results are interpreted in the light of personality and national differences.

  10. 14 CFR 43.9 - Content, form, and disposition of maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alteration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alteration records (except inspections performed in..., PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION § 43.9 Content, form, and disposition of maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alteration records (except inspections performed in accordance with...

  11. The effect of surgery (Ovariohysterectomy) on the plasma disposition of meloxicam following intravenous administration in dogs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karademir, Umit; Aksit, Dilek; Kum, Cavit; Erdogan, Hasan; Ucar, Eyup Hakan; Peker, Cevdet; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    .... This study was designed to investigate the effect of surgery on the plasma disposition of MLX in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy following a single intravenous injection at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg bodyweight...

  12. Does Body Mass Index Influence Behavioral Regulations, Dispositional Flow and Social Physique Anxiety in Exercise Setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Ersöz, Ersin Altiparmak, F. Hülya Aşçı

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow, social physique anxiety of exercisers in terms of body mass index (BMI. 782 university students participated in this study. Dispositional Flow State Scale-2, Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, Social Physique Anxiety Scale and Physical Activity Stages of Change Questionnaire were administered to participants. After controlling for gender, analysis indicated significant differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow and social physique anxiety of exercise participants with regards to BMI. In summary, the findings demonstrate that normal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons while underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation. Additionally, participants who are underweight had higher dispositional flow and lower social physique anxiety scores than other BMI classification.

  13. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...... improves the theoretical understanding of the extraction process, and can contribute to the future development and optimization of the technique....

  14. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, C. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop “advanced” glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl– in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease

  15. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a

  16. Salt tectonics in Santos Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, David G.; Nielsen, Malene; Raven, Madeleine [Maersk Oil and Gas, Copenhagen (Denmark); Menezes, Paulo [Maersk Oil and Gas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    From Albian to end Cretaceous times, the inboard part of the Santos Basin in Brazil was affected by extension as salt flowed basinwards under the effect of gravity. Salt rollers, flip-flop salt diapirs and the famous Albian Gap were all formed by this process. Outboard of these extensional structures, contraction was taken up in a wide zone of thickened salt where salt collected. The overburden was carried on top of the salt as it flowed down-dip, with up to 40 km of translation recorded in Albian strata. (author)

  17. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perella, V.F.

    1999-11-29

    A Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team (RRTT) was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Spent Fuel Management with the responsibility to recommend a course of action leading to a final technology selection for the interim management and ultimate disposition of the foreign and domestic aluminum-based research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under DOE''s jurisdiction. The RRTT evaluated eleven potential SNF management technologies and recommended that two technologies, direct co-disposal and an isotopic dilution alternative, either press and dilute or melt and dilute, be developed in parallel. Based upon that recommendation, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE for a preferred SNF alternative management technology. A technology risk assessment was conducted as a first step in this recommendation process to determine if either, or both, of the technologies posed significant risks that would make them unsuitable for further development. This report provides the results of that technology risk assessment.

  18. Chemical Disposition of Plutonium in Hanford Site Tank Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-07

    This report examines the chemical disposition of plutonium (Pu) in Hanford Site tank wastes, by itself and in its observed and potential interactions with the neutron absorbers aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and sodium (Na). Consideration also is given to the interactions of plutonium with uranium (U). No consideration of the disposition of uranium itself as an element with fissile isotopes is considered except tangentially with respect to its interaction as an absorber for plutonium. The report begins with a brief review of Hanford Site plutonium processes, examining the various means used to recover plutonium from irradiated fuel and from scrap, and also examines the intermediate processing of plutonium to prepare useful chemical forms. The paper provides an overview of Hanford tank defined-waste–type compositions and some calculations of the ratios of plutonium to absorber elements in these waste types and in individual waste analyses. These assessments are based on Hanford tank waste inventory data derived from separately published, expert assessments of tank disposal records, process flowsheets, and chemical/radiochemical analyses. This work also investigates the distribution and expected speciation of plutonium in tank waste solution and solid phases. For the solid phases, both pure plutonium compounds and plutonium interactions with absorber elements are considered. These assessments of plutonium chemistry are based largely on analyses of idealized or simulated tank waste or strongly alkaline systems. The very limited information available on plutonium behavior, disposition, and speciation in genuine tank waste also is discussed. The assessments show that plutonium coprecipitates strongly with chromium, iron, manganese and uranium absorbers. Plutonium’s chemical interactions with aluminum, nickel, and sodium are minimal to non-existent. Credit for neutronic interaction of plutonium with these absorbers

  19. Does Body Mass Index Influence Behavioral Regulations, Dispositional Flow and Social Physique Anxiety in Exercise Setting?

    OpenAIRE

    Gözde Ersöz, Ersin Altiparmak, F. Hülya Aşçı

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow, social physique anxiety of exercisers in terms of body mass index (BMI). 782 university students participated in this study. Dispositional Flow State Scale-2, Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, Social Physique Anxiety Scale and Physical Activity Stages of Change Questionnaire were administered to participants. After controlling for gender, analysis indicated significant differe...

  20. Critical Thinking Dispositions of Nursing Students in Asian and Non-Asian Countries: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2013-01-01

    Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite fo...

  1. Mathematical disposition of junior high school students viewed from learning styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Arief Karunia; Budiyono, Slamet, Isnandar

    2017-08-01

    The relevance of this study is the growth of character values for students in Indonesia. Mathematics is a subject that builds the character values for students. It can be seen from the students' confidence in answering mathematics problems, their persistent and resilience in mathematics task. In addition, students have a curiosity in mathematics and appreciate the usefulness of mathematics. In mathematics, it is called a mathematical disposition. One of the factors that can affect students' mathematical disposition is learning style. Each student has a dominant learning style. Three of the most popular ones are visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. The most important uses of learning styles is that it makes it easy for teachers to incorporate them into their teaching. The purpose of this study was to determine which one that gives better mathematical dispositions among students with learning styles of visual, auditory, or kinesthetic. The subjects were 150 students in Sleman regency. Data obtained through questionnaires. Based on data analysis that has been done with benchmark assessment method, it can be concluded that students with visual learning style has a mathematical disposition better than students with auditory and kinesthetic learning styles, while students with kinesthetic learning style has a mathematical disposition better than students with auditory learning style. These results can be used as a reference for students with individual learning styles to improve the mathematical positive disposition in the learning process of mathematics.

  2. Burning With Envy? Dispositional and Situational Influences on Envy in Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Darren C; Johnson, Edward A

    2016-10-01

    Research on narcissism and envy suggests a variable relationship that may reflect differences between how vulnerable and grandiose narcissism relate to precursors of envy. Accordingly, we proposed a model in which dispositional envy and relative deprivation differentially mediate envy's association with narcissistic vulnerability, grandiosity, and entitlement. To test the model, 330 young adults completed dispositional measures of narcissism, entitlement, and envy; one week later, participants reported on deprivation and envy feelings toward a peer who outperformed others on an intelligence test for a cash prize (Study 1) or earned higher monetary payouts in a betting game (Study 2). In both studies, structural equation modeling broadly supported the proposed model. Vulnerable narcissism robustly predicted episodic envy via dispositional envy. Entitlement-a narcissistic facet common to grandiosity and vulnerability-was a significant indirect predictor via relative deprivation. Study 2 also found that (a) the grandiose leadership/authority facet indirectly curbed envy feelings via dispositional envy, and (b) episodic envy contributed to schadenfreude feelings, which promoted efforts to sabotage a successful rival. Whereas vulnerable narcissists appear dispositionally envy-prone, grandiose narcissists may be dispositionally protected. Both, however, are susceptible to envy through entitlement when relative deprivation is encountered. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Dispositional pandemic worry and the health belief model: promoting vaccination during pandemic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Courtney L; Jensen, Jakob D; Christy, Katheryn

    2017-12-01

    Promoting vaccination during pandemics is paramount to public health, yet few studies examined theoretical motivations for vaccination during pandemics. Thus, the relationships between dispositional pandemic worry, constructs of the health belief model (HBM) and vaccination during the H1N1 pandemic were studied. Participants (N = 1377) completed surveys assessing dispositional pandemic worry, HBM variables and H1N1 vaccination. Principle axis factor analysis and point biserial correlations were conducted. Differences in worry and vaccination were assessed via independent samples t-tests. Relationships between vaccination, demographics and worry were investigated using hierarchical linear regression. PROCESS analysis was conducted to explicate the relationship between worry and vaccination intention. A two-factor structure of dispositional pandemic worry-worry frequency and worry severity-was confirmed. Dispositional worry was higher among those who intended to and received H1N1 vaccine. Worry frequency and worry severity were positively related to vaccination. Threat, benefits and barriers mediated the impact of worry severity and threat and barriers mediated the impact of worry frequency on vaccination intentions. Messages increasing dispositional worry and benefits while decreasing barriers may boost vaccination behavior during a pandemic event. Future study of relationships between dispositional worry and HBM variables is warranted.

  4. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, J. V.; De Prados, M.; Pérez-Muelas, N.; Cárcel, J. A.; Benedito, J.

    2012-12-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (pmeat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  5. Salt decay of Morley limestone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Van Hees, R.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Salt weathering is one of the main causes of decay of natural stone, and by consequence a major problem to the conservation of cultural heritage. In the present case, the performance of Morley limestone from the Département Meuse, France, as a replacement stone under saltloaded conditions is

  6. Using mobile technology to support lower-salt food choices for people with cardiovascular disease: protocol for the SaltSwitch randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Helen; McLean, Rebecca; Neal, Bruce; Doughty, Robert N; Jiang, Yannan; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2014-09-12

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of early death worldwide, responsible for an estimated 29% of all global deaths. Reducing salt intake lowers blood pressure and risk of secondary cardiac events. However, identifying low salt foods can be challenging. SaltSwitch is a simple smartphone application (app) that enables shoppers to scan the barcode of packaged foods and receive an immediate, interpretive, traffic light nutrition label on the screen, along with suggestions for healthier lower-salt alternatives. A growing body of evidence suggests mobile technologies can support healthy behaviour change. However, robust evidence for the impact of smartphone interventions is lacking. This manuscript outlines the rationale and methods for a randomized controlled trial designed to determine the effectiveness of SaltSwitch in supporting people with CVD to make lower-salt food choices. A 6-week, two-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial is being undertaken in New Zealand (2 weeks baseline and 4 weeks intervention). Three hundred adults aged 40 years and older with CVD and their main household shoppers are recruited from research lists, cardiac rehabilitation clinics, and communities in Auckland. Participants are randomized to receive either the SaltSwitch smartphone app or no intervention (control). Randomisation is stratified by ethnicity and age. The primary outcome is the salt content of household food purchases. Secondary outcomes are the saturated fat and energy content of household food purchases, household food expenditure, use and acceptability of the SaltSwitch app by shoppers, and urinary sodium and blood pressure of participants with CVD. Ambulatory blood pressure and potential longer-term impact (12 weeks) of SaltSwitch will be assessed in sub-studies (n ~ 40 and n ~ 20, respectively). Household purchases of salt and other nutrients will be assessed using till receipt data electronically linked with branded food composition data

  7. Genes and Salt Tolerance: Bringing Them Together

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rana Munns

    2005-01-01

    Salinity tolerance comes from genes that limit the rate of salt uptake from the soil and the transport of salt throughout the plant, adjust the ionic and osmotic balance of cells in roots and shoots...

  8. Plant salt tolerance: adaptations in halophytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flowers, Timothy J; Colmer, Timothy D

    2015-01-01

    ..., and to develop salt-tolerant crops. In this Preface to a Special Issue on halophytes and saline adaptations, the evolution of salt tolerance in halophytes, their life-history traits and progress in understanding...

  9. Dietary salt reduction for control of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In developed as well as developing countries, the four main factors affecting blood pressure are high salt intake, low potassium intake, overweight, and low physical activity level. This is also true for the increase in blood pressure with advancing age, occurring in all societies. It is now accepted that excess dietary salt raises blood pressure levels, whereas dietary salt reduction reduces blood pressure and prevents vascular complications.(1 The effect of salt on blood pressure is presumably due to the inability of the kidneys to excrete large amounts of salt, as humans are evolutionary adapted to ingest and excrete less than 1 gram of salt per day.(2 In this connection it should be noted that the more important element in common salt (sodium chloride is the sodium ion, and any restrictions applying to common salt also apply to all food items that contain sodium ions, such as sodium glutamate and baking soda.

  10. Resting Brain Activity Related to Dispositional Mindfulness: a PET Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartenschläger, Martin; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Reiner, Iris; Beutel, Manfred E; Adler, Julia; Michal, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness denotes a state of consciousness characterized by receptive attention to and awareness of present events and experiences. As a personality trait, it constitutes the ability to become aware of mental activities such as sensations, images, feelings, and thoughts, and to disengage from judgment, conditioned emotions, and their cognitive processing or automatic inhibition. Default brain activity reflects the stream of consciousness and sense of self at rest. Analysis of brain activity at rest in persons with mindfulness propensity may help to elucidate the neurophysiological basis of this important mental trait. The sample consisted of 32 persons-23 with mental disorders and 9 healthy controls. Dispositional mindfulness (DM) was operationalized by Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Brain activity at rest with eyes closed was assessed by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18-FDG PET). After adjustment for depression, anxiety, age and years of education, resting glucose metabolism in superior parietal lobule and left precuneus/Brodmann area (BA) 7 was positively associated with DM. Activity of the left inferior frontal orbital gyrus (BA 47) and bilateral anterior thalamus were inversely associated with DM. DM appears to be associated with increased metabolic activity in some core area of the default mode network (DMN) and areas connected to the DMN, such as BA 7, hosting sense of self functions. Hypometabolism on the other hand was found in some nodes connected to the DMN, such as left inferior frontal orbital gyrus and bilateral thalamus, commonly related to functions of memory retrieval, decision making, or outward attention.

  11. Diagnostic approach to constipation impacts pediatric emergency department disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumpitazi, Corrie E; Rees, Chris A; Camp, Elizabeth A; Henkel, Erin B; Valdez, Karina L; Chumpitazi, Bruno P

    2017-10-01

    Constipation is a common cause of abdominal pain in children presenting to the emergency department (ED). The objectives of this study were to determine the diagnostic evaluation undertaken for constipation and to assess the association of the evaluation with final ED disposition. A retrospective chart review of children presenting to the pediatric ED of a quaternary care children's hospital with abdominal pain that received a soap suds enema therapy. A total of 512 children were included, 270 (52.7%) were female, and the median age was 8.0 (IQR: 4.0-11.0). One hundred and thirty eight patients (27%) had a digital rectal exam (DRE), 120 (22.8%) had bloodwork performed, 218 (43%) had urinalysis obtained, 397 (77.5%) had abdominal radiographs, 120 (23.4%) had abdominal ultrasounds, and 18 (3.5%) had computed tomography scans. Children who had a DRE had a younger median age (6.0, IQR: 3.0-9.25 vs. 8.0, IQR: 4.0-12.0; pchildren diagnosed with fecal impaction in the ED varied. Abdominal imaging may be avoided if children receive a DRE. When children presenting to the ED with abdominal pain had an abdominal radiograph, they were more likely to be admitted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. International collaboration on used fuel disposition crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gardner, Payton [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States); Kim, Geon-Young [Korean Atomic Energy Research Inst. Daejeon (Korea); Ji, Sung-Hoon [Korean Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea)

    2016-08-01

    Active participation in international R&D is crucial for achieving the UFD long-term goals of conducting “experiments to fill data needs and confirm advanced modeling approaches” (by 2015) and of having a “robust modeling and experimental basis for evaluation of multiple disposal system options” (by 2020). DOE’s Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) and its Office of Used Fuel Disposition Research and Development (UFD) have developed a strategic plan to advance cooperation with international partners. The international collaboration on the evaluation of crystalline disposal media at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in FY16 focused on the following four activities: (1) thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical modeling single fracture evolution; (2) simulations of flow and transport in Bedrichov Tunnel, Czech Republic, (3) completion of streaming potential testing at Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), and (4) technical data exchange with KAERI on thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) properties and specifications of bentonite buffer materials. The first two activities are part of the Development of Coupled Models and their Validation against Experiments (DECOVALEX-2015) project.

  13. Dispositional mindfulness and subjective time in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eWeiner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available How a human observer perceives duration depends on the amount of events taking place during the timed interval, but also on psychological dimensions, such as emotional-wellbeing, mindfulness, impulsivity, and rumination. Here we aimed at exploring these influences on duration estimation and passage of time judgments. 117 healthy individuals filled out mindfulness (FFMQ, impulsivity (BIS-11, rumination (RRS, and depression (BDI-sf questionnaires. Participants also conducted verbal estimation and production tasks in the multiple seconds range. During these timing tasks, subjects were asked to read digits aloud that were presented on a computer screen. Each condition of the timing tasks differed in terms of the interval between the presentation of the digits, i.e., either short (4-sec or long (16-sec. Our findings suggest that long empty intervals (16-sec are associated with a relative underestimation of duration, and to a feeling that the time passes slowly, a seemingly paradoxical result. Also, regarding more mindful individuals, such a dissociation between duration estimation and passage of time judgments was also found, but only when empty intervals were short (4-sec. Relatively speaking, more mindful subjects showed an increased overestimation of durations, but felt that time passed more quickly. These results provide further evidence for the dissociation between duration estimation and the feeling of the passage of time. We discuss these results in terms of an alerting effect when empty intervals are short and events are more numerous, which could mediate the effect of dispositional mindfulness.

  14. Metabolism and disposition of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and harmala alkaloids after oral administration of ayahuasca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, Jordi; McIlhenny, Ethan H; Valle, Marta; Bouso, José Carlos; Barker, Steven A

    2012-01-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychotropic plant tea obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi, which contains β-carboline alkaloids, chiefly harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine. The tea usually incorporates the leaves of Psychotria viridis or Diplopterys cabrerana, which are rich in N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a psychedelic 5-HT(2A/1A/2C) agonist. The β-carbolines reversibly inhibit monoamine-oxidase (MAO), effectively preventing oxidative deamination of the orally labile DMT and allowing its absorption and access to the central nervous system. Despite increased use of the tea worldwide, the metabolism and excretion of DMT and the β-carbolines has not been studied systematically in humans following ingestion of ayahuasca. In the present work, we used an analytical method involving high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/electrospray ionization (ESI)/selected reaction monitoring (SRM)/tandem mass spectrometry(MS/MS) to characterize the metabolism and disposition of ayahuasca alkaloids in humans. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were obtained from 10 healthy male volunteers following administration of an oral dose of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca (1.0 mg DMT/kg body weight). Results showed that less than 1% of the administered DMT dose was excreted unchanged. Around 50% was recovered as indole-3-acetic acid but also as DMT-N-oxide (10%) and other MAO-independent compounds. Recovery of DMT plus metabolites reached 68%. Harmol, harmalol, and tetrahydroharmol conjugates were abundant in urine. However, recoveries of each harmala alkaloid plus its O-demethylated metabolite varied greatly between 9 and 65%. The present results show the existence in humans of alternative metabolic routes for DMT other than biotransformation by MAO. Also that O-demethylation plus conjugation is an important but probably not the only metabolic route for the harmala alkaloids in humans. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gadbury, Casey [USDOE Carlsbad Field Office, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  16. A closer look at salt loaded microstructures

    OpenAIRE

    Rooij, M.R. de

    2006-01-01

    Many walls of ancient buildings are covered with plaster layers. Amongst the most recurrent causes of damage of plasters and substrates are moisture and salt decay processes. To combat these salt problems, special salt resistant plasters have been developed for application on salt loaded substrates. However, experience in the field has shown that failures regularly occur on these special mortars, making the situation little transparent for end-users. A European project called COMPASS has addr...

  17. Can COSMOTherm Predict a Salting in Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivola, Martta; Prisle, Nønne L; Elm, Jonas; Waxman, Eleanor M; Volkamer, Rainer; Kurtén, Theo

    2017-08-24

    We have used COSMO-RS, a method combining quantum chemistry with statistical thermodynamics, to compute Setschenow constants (K S ) for a large array of organic solutes and salts. These comprise both atmospherically relevant solute-salt combinations, as well as systems for which experimental data are available. In agreement with previous studies on single salts, the Setschenow constants predicted by COSMO-RS (as implemented in the COSMOTherm program) are generally too large compared to experiments. COSMOTherm overpredicts salting out (positive K S ), and/or underpredicts salting in (negative K S ). For ammonium and sodium salts, K S values are larger for oxalates and sulfates, and smaller for chlorides and bromides. For chloride and bromide salts, K S values usually increase with decreasing size of the cation, along the series Pr 4 N + salting in is predicted only for oxalic acid in sodium and ammonium oxalate, and sodium sulfate, solutions. COSMOTherm was thus unable to replicate the experimentally observed salting in of glyoxal in sulfate solutions, likely due to the overestimation of salting out effects. By contrast, COSMOTherm does qualitatively predict the experimentally observed salting in of multiple organic solutes in solutions of alkylaminium salts.

  18. Salt loading affects cortisol metabolism in normotensive subjects : Relationships with salt sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, MN; van der Kleij, FGH; Boonstra, AH; Sluiter, WJ; Koerts, J; Navis, G; Dullaart, RPF

    We studied cortisol metabolism together with insulin sensitivity [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)] and renal hemodynamics in 19 salt-resistant (sr) and nine salt-sensitive ( ss) normotensive subjects after a low-and high-salt diet. Results are described as high- vs. low-salt diet. Sum of urinary

  19. Effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt-sensitive versus salt-resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt-sensitive versus salt-resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after 1 week of high salt (200 mmol per day sodium) and 1 week of low salt (10 mmol per day sodium) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure>15 mm Hg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% women; 16% blacks; body mass index, 28.5±4.2 kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mm Hg) as compared with high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mm Hg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dL; 10.8±7.3 mIU/L; 2.6±1.9) as compared with high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dL; 9.4±5.8 mIU/L; 2.1±1.4; Psalt-sensitive (n=193) versus salt-resistant (n=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in homeostasis model assessment on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt-sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt-resistant subjects (P=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in homeostasis model assessment after including age, body mass index, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone, and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Acceptability of Salt Fluoridation in a Rural Latino Community in the United States: An Ethnographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Judith C; Guerra, Claudia; Gonzalez-Vargas, M Judy; Hoeft, Kristin S

    2016-01-01

    Compared to other population groups in the United States, caries (tooth decay) is a disproportionately prevalent disease among Latino populations, especially among low-income and rural sub-groups and children under five years of age. Fluoride is a primary preventive for caries. While water fluoridation is a major and effective public health means for delivering fluoride on a mass scale, it does not reach many rural areas or population groups such as Latinos who eschew drinking water from municipal sources. This study examines the acceptability to such groups of salt fluoridation, an alternate means of delivering fluoride long used on a global scale. An ethnographic study in California's rural Central Valley was performed. Thirty individual interviews and 5 focus groups (N = 61) were conducted in Spanish to investigate low-income Latino migrant caregivers' experiences, views and understandings of domestic salt, oral health, caries prevention and fluoride. Audio data were transcribed, translated, coded and thematically analyzed. Table salt was readily available and frequently consumed. Both adult and child daily sodium consumption was high. Despite a general feeling that it was good, and present in dentifrices or dietary supplements, most participants had little knowledge about fluoride. Concerns were raised about cardio-vascular and other possibly deleterious effects if an increase in salt consumption occurred because fluoridated salt was viewed as having 'extra' benefits. Once informed about fluoride's safety and role in caries prevention, most participants expressed willingness to use fluoridated salt, especially if it benefitted children. Reassurance about its safety and benefits, and demonstration of its taste, were important aspects of acceptance. Taste was paramount. Participants would not consume more fluoridated salt than their current salt as that would result in unpleasant changes in food flavor and taste. While salt fluoridation is acceptable, the

  1. Hydrogen production under salt stress conditions by a freshwater Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adessi, Alessandra; Concato, Margherita; Sanchini, Andrea; Rossi, Federico; De Philippis, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen represents a possible alternative energy carrier to face the growing request for energy and the shortage of fossil fuels. Photofermentation for the production of H2 constitutes a promising way for integrating the production of energy with waste treatments. Many wastes are characterized by high salinity, and polluted seawater can as well be considered as a substrate. Moreover, the application of seawater for bacterial culturing is considered cost-effective. The aims of this study were to assess the capability of the metabolically versatile freshwater Rhodopseudomonas palustris 42OL of producing hydrogen on salt-containing substrates and to investigate its salt stress response strategy, never described before. R. palustris 42OL was able to produce hydrogen in media containing up to 3 % added salt concentration and to grow in media containing up to 4.5 % salinity without the addition of exogenous osmoprotectants. While the hydrogen production performances in absence of sea salts were higher than in their presence, there was no significant difference in performances between 1 and 2 % of added sea salts. Nitrogenase expression levels indicated that the enzyme was not directly inhibited during salt stress, but a regulation of its expression may have occurred in response to salt concentration increase. During cell growth and hydrogen production in the presence of salts, trehalose was accumulated as a compatible solute; it protected the enzymatic functionality against salt stress, thus allowing hydrogen production. The possibility of producing hydrogen on salt-containing substrates widens the range of wastes that can be efficiently used in production processes.

  2. Response of broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L. genotypes from semiarid regions of China to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minxuan Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt tolerance of crops is becoming more and more important, owing to the constant increase of salinity in arid and semi-arid regions. Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L., generally considered tolerant to salinity, can be an alternative crop for salt affected areas. To assess genotypic variation for vegetative-stage salinity tolerance, 195 broomcorn millet accessions from a core collection were evaluated for germination percentage, shoot length, and root length during germination in 8 mL of deionized water (control or 8 mL of a 120 mmol L− 1 salt solution (treatment. Six genotypes with different levels of salt tolerance were selected based on the growth parameters and ion concentrations in plant at the seedling stage and used for confirmation of the initial salinity response. Substantial variation for salinity tolerance was found on the basis of salt damage index [(germination percentage under control − germination percentage under salinity / germination percentage under control × 100, SDI] and 39 accessions exhibited strong salt tolerance with SDI lower than 20%. The salt tolerance performance of the genotypes was generally consistent across experiments. In the seedling growth study, seedling number, root length and belowground biomass were adversely affected (showing more than 70%, 50%, and 32% reduction, respectively in sensitive genotypes compared to tolerant genotypes (35%, 31%, and 3% reduction, respectively under 160 mmol L− 1 NaCl treatment. In general, whole-plant salinity tolerance was associated with increased Na+ concentration and Na+/K+ ratio, and salt-tolerant genotypes often had higher root and lower shoot Na+ concentration than sensitive ones. Na+ concentration in root was closely related to salt tolerance and may be considered as a selection criterion for screening salt tolerance of broomcorn millet at the seedling or vegetative stages.

  3. Acceptability of Salt Fluoridation in a Rural Latino Community in the United States: An Ethnographic Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith C Barker

    Full Text Available Compared to other population groups in the United States, caries (tooth decay is a disproportionately prevalent disease among Latino populations, especially among low-income and rural sub-groups and children under five years of age. Fluoride is a primary preventive for caries. While water fluoridation is a major and effective public health means for delivering fluoride on a mass scale, it does not reach many rural areas or population groups such as Latinos who eschew drinking water from municipal sources. This study examines the acceptability to such groups of salt fluoridation, an alternate means of delivering fluoride long used on a global scale. An ethnographic study in California's rural Central Valley was performed. Thirty individual interviews and 5 focus groups (N = 61 were conducted in Spanish to investigate low-income Latino migrant caregivers' experiences, views and understandings of domestic salt, oral health, caries prevention and fluoride. Audio data were transcribed, translated, coded and thematically analyzed. Table salt was readily available and frequently consumed. Both adult and child daily sodium consumption was high. Despite a general feeling that it was good, and present in dentifrices or dietary supplements, most participants had little knowledge about fluoride. Concerns were raised about cardio-vascular and other possibly deleterious effects if an increase in salt consumption occurred because fluoridated salt was viewed as having 'extra' benefits. Once informed about fluoride's safety and role in caries prevention, most participants expressed willingness to use fluoridated salt, especially if it benefitted children. Reassurance about its safety and benefits, and demonstration of its taste, were important aspects of acceptance. Taste was paramount. Participants would not consume more fluoridated salt than their current salt as that would result in unpleasant changes in food flavor and taste. While salt fluoridation is

  4. Integrated processes for desalination and salt production: A mini-review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenten, I. Gede; Ariono, Danu; Purwasasmita, Mubiar; Khoirudin

    2017-03-01

    The scarcity of fresh water due to the rapid growth of population and industrial activities has increased attention on desalination process as an alternative freshwater supply. In desalination process, a large volume of saline water is treated to produce freshwater while a concentrated brine is discharged back into the environment. The concentrated brine contains a high concentration of salt and also chemicals used during desalination operations. Due to environmental impacts arising from improper treatment of the brine and more rigorous regulations of the pollution control, many efforts have been devoted to minimize, treat, or reuse the rejected brine. One of the most promising alternatives for brine handling is reusing the brine which can reduce pollution, minimize waste volume, and recover valuable salt. Integration of desalination and salt production can be implemented to reuse the brine by recovering water and the valuable salts. The integrated processes can achieve zero liquid discharge, increase water recovery, and produce the profitable salt which can reduce the overall desalination cost. This paper gives an overview of desalination processes and the brine impacts. The integrated processes, including their progress and advantages in dual-purpose desalination and salt production are discussed.

  5. [Dispositional optimism and acceptance of illness among a group of individuals with Graves-Basedow's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basińska, Małgorzata Anna; Zalewska-Rydzkowska, Danuta; Wolańska, Paulina; Junik, Roman

    2008-01-01

    Dispositional optimism is a general tendency to positively perceive the world and one's own future. We can consider what kind of connection with ability to cope with difficulties. One situation which is very stressful for an individual is an illness, particularly a chronic one. The aim of the paper was to define the connection between dispositional optimism and acceptance of illness among the group with Graves-Basedow disease. This is autoimmunizational illness and diseases of this kind are particularly sensitive to the influence of psychological factors, as there are many connections between the immune system and the human psyche. The study group consisted of 59 individuals with Graves-Basedow disease, 50 women and 9 men and 55 of healthy ones, 49 women and 6 men according to age, sex and a level of education. The patients filled out three psychological questionnaires: The Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R), The Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS) and The Personal Questionnaire. of the study in question indicate a lack of differences between individuals with Graves-Basedow disease and healthy ones concerning the level of dispositional optimism. There no differences in the level of dispositional optimism as regards of criterion of health: by the levels of hormones TSH, fT3 and fT4, complications and a time of duration of disease. Instead, if they suffer additionally from others diseases, they have a lower level of dispositional optimism. There exist a connection between intensification of level of dispositional optimism and acceptance of illness among testing group. The dispositional optimism as a supply of individual helps her or his in adaptation to difficulty situation, which is a chronic disease. It is a reason way it is worth to help of patients to grow it stronger.

  6. Exploring the association between parental rearing styles and medical students' critical thinking disposition in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Wang, Zhaoxin; Yao, Yuhong; Shan, Chang; Wang, Haojie; Zhu, Mengyi; Lu, Yuan; Sun, Pengfei; Zhao, Xudong

    2015-05-14

    Critical thinking is an essential ability for medical students. However, the relationship between parental rearing styles and medical students' critical thinking disposition has rarely been considered. The aim of this study was to investigate whether parental rearing styles were significant predictors of critical thinking disposition among Chinese medical students. 1,075 medical students from the first year to the fifth year attending one of three medical schools in China were recruited via multistage stratified cluster sampling. The Chinese Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory(CTDI-CV) and The Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU) questionnaire were applied to collect data and to conduct descriptive analysis. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to analyze the data. The critical thinking disposition average mean score was 287.44 with 632 participants (58.79%) demonstrating positive critical thinking disposition. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the rearing styles of fathers, including "overprotection", "emotional warmth and understanding", "rejection" and "over-interference" were significant predictors of medical students' critical thinking disposition that explained 79.0% of the variance in critical thinking ability. Rearing styles of mothers including "emotional warmth and understanding", "punishing" and "rejection" were also found to be significant predictors, and explained 77.0% of the variance. Meaningful association has been evidenced between parental rearing styles and Chinese medical students' critical thinking disposition. Parental rearing styles should be considered as one of the many potential determinant factors that contribute to the cultivation of medical students' critical thinking capability. Positive parental rearing styles should be encouraged in the cultivation of children's critical thinking skills.

  7. Prediction of pre-exam state anxiety from ruminative disposition: The mediating role of impaired attentional disengagement from negative information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vălenaş, Sergiu P; Szentágotai-Tătar, Aurora; Grafton, Ben; Notebaert, Lies; Miu, Andrei C; MacLeod, Colin

    2017-04-01

    Rumination is a maladaptive form of repetitive thinking that enhances stress responses, and heightened disposition to engage in rumination may contribute to the onset and persistence of stress-related symptoms. However, the cognitive mechanisms through which ruminative disposition influences stress reactivity are not yet fully understood. This study investigated the hypothesis that the impact of ruminative disposition on stress reactivity is carried by an attentional bias reflecting impaired attentional disengagement from negative information. We examined the capacity of a measure of ruminative disposition to predict both attentional biases to negative exam-related information, and state anxiety, in students approaching a mid-term exam. As expected, ruminative disposition predicted state anxiety, over and above the level predicted by trait anxiety. Ruminative disposition also predicted biased attentional disengagement from, but not biased attentional engagement with, negative information. Importantly, biased attentional disengagement from negative information mediated the relation between ruminative disposition and state anxiety. These findings confirm that dispositional rumination is associated with difficulty disengaging attention from negative information, and suggest that this attentional bias may be one of the mechanisms through which ruminative disposition influences stress reactivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. CO2 Capture from Flue gas using Amino acid salt solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai

    to storage. Typical solvents for the process are based on aqueous solutions of alkanolamines, such as mono-ethanolamine (MEA), but their use implies economic disadvantages and environmental complications. Amino acid salt solutions have emerged as an alternative to the alkanolamines, partlybecause...... to the concept of using amino acids salt solutions as solvents in CO2 capture, it includes a description of general amino acids chemistry and an outline of the chemical reactions involved in CO2 absorption into amino acids salt solutions. Chapter 4 deals with the description and validation of the new apparatus...... for measuring of CO2 solubility based on the semi-flow method. A validation study of CO2 solubility in aqueous solutions of MEA is presented. Chapter 5 focuses on the determination of the chemical compositions of the precipitations, which arise in the five amino acid salt solutions upon CO2 absorption...

  9. Fluid-loading solutions and plasma volume: Astro-ade and salt tablets with water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Seinmann, Laura; Young, Joan A.; Hoskin, Cherylynn N.; Barrows, Linda H.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid loading with salt and water is a countermeasure used after space flight to restore body fluids. However, gastrointestinal side effects have been frequently reported in persons taking similar quantities of salt and water in ground-based studies. The effectiveness of the Shuttle fluid-loading countermeasure (8 gms salt, 0.97 liters of water) was compared to Astro-ade (an isotonic electrolyte solution), to maintain plasma volume (PV) during 4.5 hrs of resting fluid restriction. Three groups of healthy men (n=6) were studied: a Control Group (no drinking), an Astro-ade Group, and a Salt Tablet Group. Changes in PV after drinking were calculated from hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Both the Salt Tablet and Astro-ade Groups maintained PV at 2-3 hours after ingestion compared to the Control Group, which had a 6 percent decline. Side effects (thirst, stomach cramping, and diarrhea) were noted in at least one subject in both the Astro-ade and Salt Tablet Groups. Nausea and vomiting were reported in one subject in the Salt Tablet Group. It was concluded that Astro-ade may be offered as an alternate fluid-loading countermeasure but further work is needed to develop a solution that is more palatable and has fewer side effects.

  10. Impact of Salt Intake on the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Petra; Ekmekcioglu, Cem

    2017-01-01

    morbidity rates. Potential risks of salt reduction, like suboptimal iodine supply, are limited and manageable. Concomitant to salt reduction, potassium intake by higher intake of fruits and vegetables should be optimised, since several studies have provided evidence that potassium rich diets or interventions with potassium can lower blood pressure, especially in hypertensives.In addition to dietary assessment the gold standard for measuring salt intake is the analysis of sodium excretion in the 24 h urine. Spot urine samples are appropriate alternatives for monitoring sodium intake. A weakness of dietary evaluations is that the salt content of many foods is not precisely known and information in nutrient databases are limited. A certain limitation of the urine assessment is that dietary sources contributing to salt intake cannot be identified.Salt reduction strategies include nutritional education, improving environmental conditions (by product reformulation and optimization of communal catering) up to mandatory nutrition labeling and regulated nutrition/health claims, as well as legislated changes in the form of taxation.Regarding dietary interventions for the reduction of blood pressure the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet can be recommended. In addition, body weight should be normalized in overweight and obese people (BMI less than 25 kg/m2), salt intake should not exceed 5 g/day according to WHO recommendations (<2 g sodium/day), no more than 1.5 g sodium/d in blacks, middle- and older-aged persons, and individuals with hypertension, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease, intake of potassium (~4.7 g/day) should be increased and alcohol consumption limited. In addition, regular physical activity (endurance, dynamic resistance, and isometric resistance training) is very important.

  11. Plasma and Ocular Prednisolone Disposition after Oral Treatment in Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Del Sole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the plasma and aqueous humor disposition of prednisolone after oral administration in cats. Methods. Six cats were administered with a single oral dose of prednisolone (10 mg. Blood and aqueous humor samples were serially collected after drug administration. Prednisolone concentrations in plasma and aqueous humor were measured at 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 h after administration by a high-performance liquid chromatographic analytical method developed and validated for this purpose. Results. Mean ± standard error (SE of maximum plasma prednisolone concentration (300.8 ± 67.3 ng/mL was reached at 1 h after administration. Prednisolone was distributed to the aqueous humor reaching a mean peak concentration of 100.9 ± 25.5 ng/mL at 1.25 h after administration. The mean ± SE systemic and aqueous humor exposure (AUC was 553.3 ± 120.0 ng*h/mL and 378.8 ± 64.9 ng*h/mL, respectively. A high AUCaqueous humor/AUCplasma ratio was observed (0.68 ± 0.13. The mean half-life time of elimination in plasma and aqueous humor was 0.87 ± 0.16 h and 2.25 ± 0.44 h, respectively. Clinical Significance. The observed high ratio between aqueous humor and plasma prednisolone concentrations indicates that extensive penetration of prednisolone to the anterior segment of the eye may occur. This is the first step that contributes to the optimization of the pharmacological therapeutics for the clinical treatment of uveitis.

  12. Assessing the association between thinking dispositions and clinical error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnear, John; Wilson, Nick

    2017-08-09

    Dual-process theory suggests that type 1 thinking results in a propensity to make 'intuitive' decisions based on limited information. Type 2 processes, on the other hand, are able to analyse these initial responses and replace them with rationalised decisions. Individuals may have a preference for different modes of rationalisation, on a continuum from careful to cursory. These 'dispositions' of thinking reside in type 2 processes and may result in error when the preference is for 'quick and casual' decision-making. We asked clinicians to answer a cognitive puzzle to which there was an obvious, but incorrect, answer, to measure their propensity for 'quick and casual' decision-making. The same clinicians were also asked to report the number of clinical errors they had committed in the previous two weeks. We hypothesised an association between committing error and settling for an incorrect answer, and that the cognitive puzzle would have predictive capability. 90 of 153 (59%) clinicians reported that they had committed error, while 103 (67%) gave the incorrect 'intuitive' answer to the cognitive puzzle. There was no statistically significant difference between clinicians who committed error and answered incorrectly, and those who did not and answered correctly (χ 2 (1, n=1153)=0.021, p=0.885). The prevalence of clinical error in our study was higher than previously reported in the literature, and the propensity for accepting intuitive solutions was high. Although the cognitive puzzle was unable to predict who was more likely to commit error, the study offers insights into developing other predictive models for error. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Assessment of DOE radioactive scrap metal disposition options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, C.R.; Kasper, K.M. [Waste Policy Institute, Morgantown, WV (United States); Bossart, S.J. [Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The DOE has amassed a large amount of radioactively-contaminated scrap metal (RSM) as a result of past operations and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The volume of RSM will continue to increase as a result of the D&D of more than 6,000 surplus facilities and many of the 14,000 operating facilities in the DOE complex. RSM can be either surface contaminated or volumetrically contaminated, or both, with varying amounts of radioactivity. Several options exist for the disposition of this RSM, including disposal as radioactive waste, recycling by decontamination and free-release for unrestricted use, or recycling for restricted reuse inside a DOE controlled area. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) has been actively investing in technology and strategy development in support of restricted-reuse RSM recycling for the past several years. This paper will assess the nature of the RSM recycling issue, review past investment by DOE to develop technologies and strategies to recycle RSM, and then discuss some recommendations concerning future investments in support of RSM management. Available information on the supply of RSM will be presented in Section II. The regulatory and policy framework concerning recycling RSM will be presented in Section III. A review of DOE investment in RSM recycling technology and current programs will be presented in Section IV. The current and projected industrial capacity will be described in Section V. And, finally, a discussion of issues and recommendations regarding DOE technology development interests in RSM recycling will be presented in Section VI and VII, respectively.

  14. Evaluation of used fuel disposition in clay-bearing rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jove-Colon, Carlos F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zheng, Liange [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kim, Kunhwi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Hao. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norskog, Katherine E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maner, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Palaich, Sarah [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cheshire, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wolery, Thomas J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Atkins-Duffin, Cindy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jerden, James L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Copple, Jacqueline M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cruse, Terry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ebert, William L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The R&D program from the DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) has documented key advances in coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) modeling of clay to simulate its complex dynamic behavior in response to thermal and hydrochemical feedbacks. These efforts have been harnessed to assess the isolation performance of heat-generating nuclear waste in a deep geological repository in clay/shale/argillaceous rock formations. This report describes the ongoing disposal R&D efforts on the advancement and refinement of coupled THMC process models, hydrothermal experiments on barrier clay interactions, used fuel and canister material degradation, thermodynamic database development, and reactive transport modeling of the near-field under non-isothermal conditions. These play an important role to the evaluation of sacrificial zones as part of the EBS exposure to thermally-driven chemical and transport processes. Thermal inducement of chemical interactions at EBS domains enhances mineral dissolution/precipitation but also generates mineralogical changes that result in mineral H2O uptake/removal (hydration/dehydration reactions). These processes can result in volume changes that can affect the interface / bulk phase porosities and the mechanical (stress) state of the bentonite barrier. Characterization studies on bentonite barrier samples from the FEBEX-DP international activity have provided important insight on clay barrier microstructures (e.g., microcracks) and interactions at EBS interfaces. Enhancements to the used fuel degradation model outlines the need to include the effects of canister corrosion due the strong influence of H2 generation on the source term.

  15. Methamphetamine disposition in oral fluid, plasma, and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A; Cone, Edward J

    2007-03-01

    This review of the disposition of methamphetamine in oral fluid, plasma, and urine is based on a comprehensive controlled dosing study involving five healthy, drug-free research volunteers who resided on a closed clinical ward for 12 weeks. Subjects were administered four low (10 mg) and high (20 mg) daily oral doses of methamphetamine in two separate sessions. Near-simultaneous collections of oral fluid and plasma were performed on the first day of each low- and high-dose session. Thereafter, oral fluid was provided on each day of dosing by different oral fluid collection methods. All urine specimens were collected on an ad libitum basis throughout the study. Specimens were analyzed by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry for methamphetamine and the metabolite, amphetamine, with a limit of quantification of 2.5 ng/mL for each analyte. Methamphetamine and metabolite concentrations in oral fluid appeared to follow a similar time course in oral fluid as in plasma and were dose-proportional, but oral fluid concentrations exceeded plasma concentrations. Urine drug concentrations were substantially higher than those in oral fluid. Some drug accumulation was noted with daily dosing, but generally did not markedly influence detection times or detection rates of oral fluid tests. Detection times and detection rates for oral fluid and urine were determined at cessation of 4 days of dosing. Generally, detection times and rates for urine were longer than those observed for oral fluid at conventional cutoff concentrations. When contemplating selection of oral fluid as a test matrix, the advantages of oral fluid collection should be weighed against its shorter time of detection compared to that of urine.

  16. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urquhart, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300°C, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  17. Supporting Technology for Chain of Custody of Nuclear Weapons and Materials throughout the Dismantlement and Disposition Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, Kyle J.; Jones, Anthony M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Benz, Jacob M.; Denlinger, Laura S.

    2014-05-04

    The ratification and ongoing implementation of the New START Treaty have been widely regarded as noteworthy global security achievements for both the Obama Administration and the Putin (formerly Medvedev) regime. But deeper cuts that move beyond the United States and Russia to engage the P-5 and other nuclear weapons possessor states are envisioned under future arms control regimes, and are indeed required for the P-5 in accordance with their Article VI disarmament obligations in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Future verification needs will include monitoring the cessation of production of new fissile material for weapons, monitoring storage of warhead components and fissile materials and verifying dismantlement of warheads, pits, secondary stages, and other materials. A fundamental challenge to implementing a nuclear disarmament regime is the ability to thwart unauthorized material diversion throughout the dismantlement and disposition process through strong chain of custody implementation. Verifying the declared presence, or absence, of nuclear materials and weapons components throughout the dismantlement and disposition lifecycle is a critical aspect of the disarmament process. From both the diplomatic and technical perspectives, verification under these future arms control regimes will require new solutions. Since any acceptable verification technology must protect sensitive design information and attributes to prevent the release of classified or other proliferation-sensitive information, non-nuclear non-sensitive modalities may provide significant new verification tools which do not require the use of additional information barriers. Alternative verification technologies based upon electromagnetic and acoustics could potentially play an important role in fulfilling the challenging requirements of future verification regimes. For example, researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have demonstrated that low frequency electromagnetic

  18. Early Holocene Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Miller, David; Thompson, Robert S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Shorelines and surficial deposits (including buried forest-floor mats and organic-rich wetland sediments) show that Great Salt Lake did not rise higher than modern lake levels during the earliest Holocene (11.5–10.2 cal ka BP; 10–9 14C ka BP). During that period, finely laminated, organic-rich muds (sapropel) containing brine-shrimp cysts and pellets and interbedded sodium-sulfate salts were deposited on the lake floor. Sapropel deposition was probably caused by stratification of the water column — a freshwater cap possibly was formed by groundwater, which had been stored in upland aquifers during the immediately preceding late-Pleistocene deep-lake cycle (Lake Bonneville), and was actively discharging on the basin floor. A climate characterized by low precipitation and runoff, combined with local areas of groundwater discharge in piedmont settings, could explain the apparent conflict between evidence for a shallow lake (a dry climate) and previously published interpretations for a moist climate in the Great Salt Lake basin of the eastern Great Basin.

  19. Development of an automated multiple-target mask CD disposition system to enable new sampling strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Farnsworth, Jeff; Bassist, Larry; Cui, Ying; Mammen, Bobby; Padmanaban, Ramaswamy; Nadamuni, Venkatesh; Kamath, Muralidhar; Buckmann, Ken; Neff, Julie; Freiberger, Phil

    2006-03-01

    Traditional mask critical dimension (CD) disposition systems with only one or two targets is being challenged by the new requirements from mask-users as the wafer process control becomes more complicated in the newer generation of technologies. Historically, the mask shop does not necessarily measure and disposition off the same kind of CD structures that wafer fabs do. Mask disposition specifications and structures come from the frame-design and the tapeout, while wafer-level CD dispositions are mainly based on the historical process window established per CD-skew experiments and EOL (end of line) yield. In the current high volume manufacturing environment, the mask CDs are mainly dispositioned off their mean-to-target (MTT) and uniformity (6sigma) on one or two types of pre-determined structures. The disposition specification is set to ensure the printed mask will meet the design requirements and to ensure minimum deviation from them. The CD data are also used to adjust the dose of the mask exposure tools to control CD MTT. As a result, the mask CD disposition automation system was built to allow only one or two kinds of targets at most. In contrast, wafer-fabs measure a fairly wide range of different structures to ensure their process is on target and in control. The number of such structures that are considered critical is increasing due the growing complexity of the technology. To fully comprehend the wafer-level requirements, it is highly desirable to align the mask CD sample site and disposition to be the same as that of the wafer-fabs, to measure the OPC (optical proximity correction) structures or equivalent whenever possible, and to establish the true correlation between mask CD measurements vs. wafer CD measurement. In this paper, the development of an automated multiple-target mask CD disposition system with the goal of enabling new sampling strategy is presented. The pros and cons of its implementation are discussed. The new system has been inserted in

  20. Potentials and problems of sustainable irrigation with water high in salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Gal, Alon

    2015-04-01

    Water scarcity and need to expand agricultural productivity have led to ever growing utilization of poor quality water for irrigation of crops. Almost in all cases, marginal or alternative water sources for irrigation contain relatively high concentrations of dissolved salts. When salts are present, irrigation water management, especially in the dry regions where water requirements are highest, must consider leaching in addition to crop evapotranspiration requirements. Leaching requirements for agronomic success are calculable and functions of climate, soil, and very critically, of crop sensitivity and the actual salinity of the irrigation water. The more sensitive the crop and more saline the water, the higher the agronomic cost and the greater the quantitative need for leaching. Israel is a forerunner in large-scale utilization of poor quality water for irrigation and can be used as a case study looking at long term repercussions of policy alternatively encouraging irrigation with recycled water or brackish groundwater. In cases studied in desert conditions of Israel, as much of half of the water applied to crops including bell peppers in greenhouses and date palms is actually used to leach salts from the root zone. The excess water used to leach salts and maintain agronomic and economic success when irrigating with water containing salts can become an environmental hazard, especially in dry areas where natural drainage is non-existent. The leachate often contains not only salts but also agrochemicals including nutrients, and natural contaminants can be picked up and transported as well. This leachate passes beyond the root zone and eventually reaches ground or surface water resources. This, together with evidence of ongoing increases in sodium content of fresh produce and increased SAR levels of soils, suggest that the current policy and practice in Israel of utilization of high amounts of low quality irrigation water is inherently non- sustainable. Current