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Sample records for salt deposits

  1. Resedimented salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaczka, A.; Kolasa, K. (Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland))

    1988-08-01

    Carparthian foredeep's Wieliczka salt mine, unique gravity deposits were lately distinguished. They are mainly built of salt particles and blocks with a small admixture of fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks, deposited on precipitated salt. The pattern of sediment distribution is similar to a submarine fan. Gravels are dominant in the upper part and sands in lower levels, creating a series of lobes. Coarse-grained deposits are represented by disorganized, self-supported conglomerates passing into matrix-supported ones, locally with gradation, and pebbly sandstones consisting of salt grains and scattered boulder-size clasts. The latter may show in the upper part of a single bed as indistinct cross-bedding and parallel lamination. These sediments are interpreted as debris-flow and high-density turbidity current deposits. Salt sandstones (saltstones) which build a lower part of the fan often show Bouma sequences and are interpreted as turbidity-current deposits. The fan deposits are covered by a thick series of debrites (olistostromes) which consist of clay matrix with salt grains and boulders. The latter as represented by huge (up to 100,000 m{sup 3}) salt blocks, fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks. These salt debrites represent slumps and debris-flow deposits. The material for resedimented deposits was derived from the southern part of the salt basin and from the adjacent, advancing Carpathian orogen. The authors believe the distinct coarsening-upward sequence of the series is the result of progressive intensification of tectonic movements with paroxysm during the sedimentation of salt debrites (about 15 Ma).

  2. Salt deposition at particle contact points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaodong; Evitts, Richard W.; Besant, Robert W.; Kennell, Glyn F.

    2015-09-01

    Caking may occur when granular potash fertilizer with a moisture content greater than 0.25 % (w/w) undergoes drying. Since cake strength is proportional to the mass of crystal deposited per unit volume near contact points (and other factors) the modelling of mass deposition near contact points is important. The Young-Laplace equation for the air-salt-solution interface is used to determine the geometry of a 2-D planar saline film between two cubic potash particles. A 2-D theoretical model is developed and applied for ion diffusion and deposition near the contact point during drying. The numerical predictions of ion diffusion in an initially saturated salt illustrate the transient spatial distribution of new KCl deposits along the solid surfaces near the contact line. These results indicate the average salt deposition commences at the air-liquid-solid intersection, where the liquid film is thinnest, and moves toward the particle contact point with increasing area averaged KCl deposits, causing the formation of crystal deposits and bridges near contact points. It is concluded that the average salt deposit height increases inversely with distance from the contact point and decreases with initial contact angle of the contact region, but the deposition is nearly independent of the evaporation or drying rate near each contact region. Caking strength depends on, among other parameters, the amount of salt deposition near contact points.

  3. Quantitative-qualitative characteristics of salt deposit in Tuzla basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susic, Amir; Barakovic, Amir; Smailhodzic, Hrustem

    2017-04-01

    In the northeastern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the southern slopes of the mountain Majevica, in Tuzla basin, within salt-bearing formation known as the "strip series," deposits of rock salt are present. Tuzla rock salt deposit is made of sodium salt halite (NaCl) and thenardite (Na2SO4) that were deposited in five series of salt each separated by dolomite, clay-marl sediments. The deposit has an irregular oval shape, with a short axis length of 600-900 m and longer, about 2500 m. It covers an area of approximately 2 km2. The main objective of this paper is to present for both deposits their morphological characteristics, mineralogical characteristics, litofacial characteristics of sediments and lithostratigraphic column, hydrogeological characteristics, tectonics and salt reserves through quality, classification, categorization and calculation.

  4. Determination of toxic metals in salt deposits in Bormanda, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lawal

    3,12,13,14,15,16 . Chromium and Arsenic were not detected in any salt sample. Generally, the results of this study revealed the occurrence of some toxic metals in association with the soil salt deposits. Therefore, it is important to undertake Hazard Analysis and Critical Control. Point (HACCP) studies to identify and integrate.

  5. Aqueous origins of bright salt deposits on Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, Mikhail Yu.

    2017-11-01

    Bright materials have been reported in association with impact craters on Ceres. The abundant Na2CO3 and some ammonium salts, NH4HCO3 and/or NH4Cl, were detected in bright deposits within Occator crater with Dawn near infrared spectroscopy. The composition and appearance of the salts suggest their aqueous mobilization and emplacement after formation of the crater. Here we consider origins of the bright deposits through calculation of speciation in the H-C-N-O-Na-Cl water-salt type system constrained by the mass balance of observed salts. Calculations of chemical equilibria show that initial solutions had the pH of ∼10. The temperature and salinity of solutions could have not exceeded ∼273 K and ∼100 g per kg H2O, respectively. Freezing models reveal an early precipitation of Na2CO3·10H2O followed by minor NaHCO3. Ammonium salts precipitate near eutectic from brines enriched in NH4+, Cl- and Na+. A late-stage precipitation of NaCl·2H2O is modeled for solution compositions with added NaCl. Calculated eutectics are above 247 K. The apparently unabundant ammonium and chloride salts in Occator's deposits imply a rapid emplacement without a compositional evolution of solution. Salty ice grains could have deposited from post-impact ballistic plumes formed through low-pressure boiling of subsurface solutions. Hydrated and ammonium salts are unstable at maximum temperatures of Ceres' surface and could decompose through space weathering. Occator's ice-free salt deposits formed through a post-depositional sublimation of ice followed by dehydration of Na2CO3·10H2O and NaHCO3 to Na2CO3. In other regions, excavated and exposed bright materials could be salts initially deposited from plumes and accumulated at depth via post-impact boiling. The lack of detection of sulfates and an elevated carbonate/chloride ratio in Ceres' materials suggest an involvement of compounds abundant in the outer solar system.

  6. Cotton fabrics with UV blocking properties through metal salts deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emam, Hossam E., E-mail: hossamelemam@yahoo.com [Textile Research Division, National Research Centre, El Buhouth St., Dokki, Cairo 12311 (Egypt); Research Institute of Textile Chemistry and Textile Physics, University of Innsbruck, Hoechsterstrasse 73, A-6850 Dornbirn (Austria); Bechtold, Thomas [Research Institute of Textile Chemistry and Textile Physics, University of Innsbruck, Hoechsterstrasse 73, A-6850 Dornbirn (Austria)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Introducing metal salt based UV-blocking properties into cotton fabric. • A quite simple technique used to produce wash resistant UV-absorbers using different Cu-, Zn- and Ti-salts. • Good UPF was obtained after treatment with Cu and Ti salts, and ranged between 11.6 and 14. • The efficiency of the deposited metal oxides is compared on molar basis. - Abstract: Exposure to sunlight is important for human health as this increases the resistance to diverse pathogens, but the higher doses cause skin problems and diseases. Hence, wearing of sunlight protective fabrics displays a good solution for people working in open atmosphere. The current study offered quite simple and technically feasible ways to prepare good UV protection fabrics based on cotton. Metal salts including Zn, Cu and Ti were immobilized into cotton and oxidized cotton fabrics by using pad-dry-cure technique. Metal contents on fabrics were determined by AAS; the highest metal content was recorded for Cu-fabric and it was 360.6 mmol/kg after treatment of oxidized cotton with 0.5 M of copper nitrate. Ti contents on fabrics were ranged between 168.0 and 200.8 mmol/kg and it showed the lowest release as only 38.1–46.4% leached out fabrics after five laundry washings. Metal containing deposits were specified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. UV-transmission radiation over treated fabrics was measured and ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) was calculated. UPF was enhanced after treatment with Cu and Ti salts to be 11.6 and 14, respectively. After five washings, the amount of metal (Cu or Ti) retained indicates acceptable laundering durability.

  7. Chemical analysis of the Assale (Ethiopia) rock salt deposit | Binega ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contaminants) elements found in the Assale (Ethiopia) rock salt. The results showed that the rock salt is found to be the best natural common salt. This was proved by comparison with the chemical requirement and trace elements in common ...

  8. Salt deposits and gas cavern storage in the UK with a case study of salt exploration from cheshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beutel, T. [KBB Underground Technologies GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Black, St. [ScottishPower, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-01

    As the UK moves to become a net importer of natural gas in the next few years the opportunities in developing more gas storage particularly in salt caverns has arisen. The United Kingdom has a number of salt deposits. Mining for salt production is one of the oldest industries in the country. The technology for solution mining of salt caverns has developed rapidly during the last century including the introduction and use of salt caverns for the storage of gas and wastes. Nevertheless, not all of the salt deposits in the UK are suitable for gas cavern construction. The first part of this paper gives a geological overview of the major salt deposits in the UK and an outline of the individual gas cavern storage projects from the geo-technical standpoint. The paper describes the distinctive features of the existing and planned gas cavern storage projects. The final part of the paper is a case study of a recent salt exploration for the ScottishPower gas cavern storage project in cheshire. The results of the fieldwork are based on a seismic survey and an exploration well. The interpretation of seismic data proved the depth and integrity of the proposed storage area. To calibrate the existing seismic data and allow pre-stack depth migration and final seismic interpretation, a Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) was recorded in the exploration well, drilled in 2003. Geological investigations, measurements and tests were carried out in the exploratory well. A geo-technical novelty for the Triassic salt beds used for gas storage in the UK, was the successful proof of gas integrity of the insoluble marl beds at the planned storage depth zone by packer tests. The permeability identified in the formation integrity tests is being regarded as tight. (orig.)

  9. Crystal Crosslinked Gels for the Deposition of Inorganic Salts with Polyhedral Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Mochizuki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomineralization has been given a great deal of attention by materials chemists because of its low environmental load and sustainability. With the goal of synthesizing such processes, various methods have been developed, especially for inorganic salts of calcium. In this report, we focused on the deposition of inorganic salts, such as calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate using crystal crosslinked gels (CCG, which are prepared by crystal crosslinking of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs. Due to the crystalline nature of MOFs, CCGs intrinsically possess polyhedral shapes derived from the original MOF crystals. As the result of deposition, the obtained inorganic salts also exhibited a polyhedral shape derived from the CCG. The deposition mainly occurred near the surface of the CCG, and the amorphous nature of the deposited inorganic salts was also confirmed.

  10. Distribution and Aggregate Thickness of Salt Deposits of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The map shows the distribution and aggregate thickness of salt deposits of the United States. This information is from contour map sheets, scanned and processed for...

  11. Distribution and Aggregate Thickness of Salt Deposits of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The map shows the distribution and aggregate thickness of salt deposits of the United States. This information is from contour map sheets, scanned and processed for use in a global mineral resource assessment, produced by the U.S. Geological Survey. It is used here to provide a geospatial context to the distribution of rock-salt deposits in the US. It is useful in illustrating sources of chlorides.

  12. Sea Salt in Coastal Air and its Deposition on Porcelain Insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, M. R.; Adiga, B. B.; Kapoor, R. K.; Shirvaikar, V. V.

    1982-03-01

    Measurements of concentration of salt in the air and its deposition on electrical insulators were made at Tarapur, a site on the west coast of India about 100 km north of Bombay. The aerosol coming from the sea during monsoon months was found to contain 74% NaCl. The salt concentration was found to increase exponentially with wind speed. The coefficients of the exponential fit are compared with measurements made elsewhere. Mass deposition velocity of the atmospheric salt on the inner corrugated surface of insulators which are not exposed to precipitation was also found to increase exponentially with wind speed.

  13. [Deposition and burial of organic carbon in coastal salt marsh: research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Song, Jin-Ming; Li, Xue-Gang; Yuan, Hua-Mao; Li, Ning; Duan, Li-Qin

    2013-07-01

    Coastal salt marsh has higher potential of carbon sequestration, playing an important role in mitigating global warming, while coastal saline soil is the largest organic carbon pool in the coastal salt marsh carbon budget. To study the carbon deposition and burial in this soil is of significance for clearly understanding the carbon budget of coastal salt marsh. This paper summarized the research progress on the deposition and burial of organic carbon in coastal salt marsh from the aspects of the sources of coastal salt marsh soil organic carbon, soil organic carbon storage and deposition rate, burial mechanisms of soil organic carbon, and the relationships between the carbon sequestration in coastal salt marsh and the global climate change. Some suggestions for the future related researches were put forward: 1) to further study the underlying factors that control the variability of carbon storage in coastal salt marsh, 2) to standardize the methods for measuring the carbon storage and the deposition and burial rates of organic carbon in coastal salt marsh, 3) to quantify the lateral exchange of carbon flux between coastal salt marsh and adjacent ecosystems under the effects of tide, and 4) to approach whether the effects of global warming and the increased productivity could compensate for the increase of the organic carbon decomposition rate resulted from sediment respiration. To make clear the driving factors determining the variability of carbon sequestration rate and how the organic carbon storage is affected by climate change and anthropogenic activities would be helpful to improve the carbon sequestration capacity of coastal salt marshes in China.

  14. Determination of toxic metals in salt deposits in Bormanda, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.001) were higher than the threshold levels recommended by World Health Organisation. However, the level of Nickel (0.140±0.003 mg/kg) was within the threshold limit. Chromium and Arsenic were not detected in any salt sample. The results ...

  15. Salt deposits in Los Medanos area, Eddy and Lea counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.L.; with sections on Ground water hydrology, Cooley; and Surficial Geology, Bachman

    1973-01-01

    The salt deposits of Los Medanos area, in Eddy and Lea Counties, southeastern New Mexico, are being considered for possible use as a receptacle for radioactive wastes in a pilot-plant repository. The salt deposits of the area. are in three evaporite formations: the Castile, Salado, and Rustler Formations, in ascending order. The three formations are dominantly anhydrite and rock salt, but some gypsum, potassium ores, carbonate rock, and fine-grained clastic rocks are present. They have combined thicknesses of slightly more than 4,000 feet, of which roughly one-half belongs to the Salado. Both the Castile and the Rustler are-richer in anhydrite-and poorer in rock salt-than the Salado, and they provide this salt-rich formation with considerable Protection from any fluids which might be present in underlying or overlying rocks. The Salado Formation contains many thick seams of rock salt at moderate depths below the surface. The rock salt has a substantial cover of well-consolidated rocks, and it is very little deformed structurally. Certain geological details essential for Waste-storage purposes are unknown or poorly known, and additional study involving drilling is required to identify seams of rock salt suitable for storage purposes and to establish critical details of their chemistry, stratigraphy, and structure.

  16. Quantification of vegetation-induced allochthonous sediment deposition on coastal salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerch, Mark; Reef, Ruth; Elizabeth, Christie; Iris, Möller; Tom, Spencer; Roberto, Mayerle

    2017-04-01

    Coastal salt marshes are highly valuable ecosystems at the boundary between land and sea and are governed by the quasi-continuous deposition of autochthonous and allochthonous sediment, depending upon prevailing hydrological and hydrodynamic conditions. Continuous sediment deposition is responsible for the ability of coastal salt marshes to adapt their elevation to increasing sea levels and thus their potential to attenuate hydrodynamic energy, which contributes to coastal protection during extreme storm events. Using two high-resolution suspended sediment profilers (Argus Surface Meters IV) in a field flume, we investigate the interactions between vegetation biomass/structure, hydrodynamics and deposition of allochthonous sediment on a UK east coast salt marsh. The measurements allow the estimation of sediment deposition within the field flume and give insights into the dependency of sediment deposition processes within a marsh on the prevailing hydrodynamics, seasonal influences and vegetation characteristics. Preliminary results indicate that sediment trapping efficiency of salt marshes under summer conditions is largely independent of biomass and vegetation structure, since suspended sediment is primarily found within the lower 10cm of the water column. Suspended sediment concentrations are largely controlled by the resuspension of sediment on the adjacent intertidal mudflat and the trapping efficiency appears to depend on the prevailing hydrodynamic conditions and the vertical distribution of the suspended sediments within the water column. The results of this study have important implications for the prediction of the future development of coastal salt marshes and the spatial distribution of sediment deposition, which until now has primarily been described as a function of the distance from a tidal channel or the marsh edge. Many previous field studies, however, found spatial patterns that could not be related to this distance, a knowledge gap to which our

  17. Salt Profile in Sedimentary Deposits: an archive of past climate and tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T.; Bao, H.; Reich, M.

    2013-12-01

    In hyper-arid environments, paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental studies typically evaluate paleosol-based proxies such as morphology, variation of remnant vegetations, and geochemical and isotopic signatures of minerals to reveal the plaeoclimatic changes. Limited works utilized geochemical/isotopic approaches in sedimentary deposits which barely experience pedogenic processes. The objectives of this work are to evaluate the isotopic systematics and total chemistry of salts as function of depth within unsolidated sediments in an effort to reconstruct paleoclimatic conditions of Atacama Desert. Results of this work will demonstrate techniques that can also be applied in other hyper-arid environments (e.g., Antarctica, Mars). We report a study on a ~75 meter thick core from alluvial sedimentary deposits (Atacama Gravels) in the eastern margin of the central depression of Atacama desert, North Chile. This work combines mineralogical/geochemical/isotopic approaches to decipher the depositional conditions and the climatic conditions during and between sedimentation events. Our main focus is on the soluble sulfate, nitrate, chloride profiles through the sediments. These salt deposits likely originated from seasalts, atmospherically produced salts and/or salts from nearby evaporite deposits. The sources of salts are likely affected by offshore oceanic currents that may vary the seasalt input, or by regional tectonic or orogenic changes that may vary the terrestrial sources and their ratio with seasalt input. The outflux of the salts in these deposits are mainly due to groundwater drainage, and microbial facilitated salt consumption (e.g. sulfate reduction, denitrification), both of which are indicative of paleoclimatic conditions. Thus, the salt profile within the sediments records regional paleo-climate, global oceanic current setting, and regional tectonic activity. Morphological and mineralogical studies show that the target "gravel" consists of two main suites of

  18. Effects of Buffer Salt Concentration on the Dominated Deposition Mechanism and Optical Characteristics of Chemically Deposited Cadmium Sulfide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakhaki, Z. Makhdoumi; Youzbashi, A.; Sangpour, P.; Kazemzadeh, A.; Naderi, N.; Bazargan, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    Effects of buffer salt concentration on the rate of deposition, dominated deposition mechanism and subsequently the structural, morphological, and optical properties of cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) on glass substrate were investigated. The precursors were chosen to be cadmium chloride (CdCl2) as the cadmium source, thiourea (CS(NH2)2) as the sulfur source, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) as the buffer salt and ammonia as the complexing agent and the pH controller. The influence of the NH4NO3 concentration on the structure, morphology, film uniformity, stoichiometry and optical properties of CdS thin films was also studied by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscope, uv-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopes. The XRD studies revealed that all the deposited films exhibited a (002)h/(111)c preferred orientation. The crystallite size was increased from 20nm to 30nm by the increase of concentration of NH4NO3 from 0.5M to 2.5M. The morphology of CdS thin films were agglomerated spherical particles consisted of smaller particles. The surface of thin films deposited at the NH4NO3 concentration of 0.5M was compact and smooth. The increase of the concentration of NH4NO3 decreased the packing density of the films. The optical band gap was in the range of 2.25-2.4eV, which was decreased by the decrement of packing density. The PL spectra showed two peaks centered at 400nm and 500nm which are attributed to violet and band-to-band emissions, respectively.

  19. ANNULUS CLOSURE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT INSPECTION/SALT DEPOSIT CLEANING MAGNETIC WALL CRAWLER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minichan, R; Russell Eibling, R; James Elder, J; Kevin Kane, K; Daniel Krementz, D; Rodney Vandekamp, R; Nicholas Vrettos, N

    2008-06-01

    The Liquid Waste Technology Development organization is investigating technologies to support closure of radioactive waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Tank closure includes removal of the wastes that have propagated to the tank annulus. Although amounts and types of residual waste materials in the annuli of SRS tanks vary, simple salt deposits are predominant on tanks with known leak sites. This task focused on developing and demonstrating a technology to inspect and spot clean salt deposits from the outer primary tank wall located in the annulus of an SRS Type I tank. The Robotics, Remote and Specialty Equipment (RRSE) and Materials Science and Technology (MS&T) Sections of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collaborated to modify and equip a Force Institute magnetic wall crawler with the tools necessary to demonstrate the inspection and spot cleaning in a mock-up of a Type I tank annulus. A remote control camera arm and cleaning head were developed, fabricated and mounted on the crawler. The crawler was then tested and demonstrated on a salt simulant also developed in this task. The demonstration showed that the camera is capable of being deployed in all specified locations and provided the views needed for the planned inspection. It also showed that the salt simulant readily dissolves with water. The crawler features two different techniques for delivering water to dissolve the salt deposits. Both water spay nozzles were able to dissolve the simulated salt, one is more controllable and the other delivers a larger water volume. The cleaning head also includes a rotary brush to mechanically remove the simulated salt nodules in the event insoluble material is encountered. The rotary brush proved to be effective in removing the salt nodules, although some fine tuning may be required to achieve the best results. This report describes the design process for developing technology to add features to a commercial wall crawler and the results of the

  20. Sedimentary characteristics and depositional model of a Paleocene-Eocene salt lake in the Jiangling Depression, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaocan; Wang, Chunlian; Liu, Chenglin; Zhang, Zhaochong; Xu, Haiming; Huang, Hua; Xie, Tengxiao; Li, Haonan; Liu, Jinlei

    2015-11-01

    We studied the sedimentary characteristics of a Paleocene-Eocene salt lake in the Jiangling Depression through field core observation, thin section identification, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. On the basis of sedimentary characteristics we have summarized the petrological and mineralogical characteristics of the salt lake and proposed 9 types of grade IV salt rhythms. The deposition shows a desalting to salting order of halite-argillaceous-mudstone-mud dolostonemud anhydrock-glauberite-halite. The relationship among grade IV rhythms, water salinity and climate fluctuations was analyzed. Based on the analysis of the relationship between boron content and mudstone color and by combining the mineralogy and sedimentary environment characteristics, we propose that the early and late Paleocene Shashi Formation in the Jiangling Depression was a paleolacustrine depositional environment with a high salt content, which is a representation of the shallow water salt lake depositional model. The middle Paleocene Shashi Formation and the early Eocene Xingouzui Formation were salt and brackish sedimentary environments with low salt content in a deep paleolake, which represents a deep salt lake depositional model.

  1. Effect of transition metal salts on the initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, Philip; Seidel, Scott; Gupta, Malancha, E-mail: malanchg@usc.edu [Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, 925 Bloom Walk, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    In this work, the effect of transition metal salts on the initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymer thin films was studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The polymerizations of 4-vinyl pyridine and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate were studied using copper(II) chloride (CuCl{sub 2}) and iron(III) chloride (FeCl{sub 3}) as the transition metal salts. It was found that the surface coverages of both poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (P4VP) and poly(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate) were decreased on CuCl{sub 2}, while the surface coverage of only P4VP was decreased on FeCl{sub 3}. The decreased polymer surface coverage was found to be due to quenching of the propagating radicals by the salt, which led to a reduction of the oxidation state of the metal. The identification of this reaction mechanism allowed for tuning of the effectiveness of the salts to decrease the polymer surface coverage through the adjustment of processing parameters such as the filament temperature. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the ability of transition metal salts to decrease the polymer surface coverage could be extended to the fabrication of patterned cross-linked coatings, which is important for many practical applications such as sensors and microelectronics.

  2. Sediment and carbon deposition vary among vegetation assemblages in a coastal salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleway, Jeffrey J.; Saintilan, Neil; Macreadie, Peter I.; Baldock, Jeffrey A.; Ralph, Peter J.

    2017-08-01

    Coastal salt marshes are dynamic, intertidal ecosystems that are increasingly being recognised for their contributions to ecosystem services, including carbon (C) accumulation and storage. The survival of salt marshes and their capacity to store C under rising sea levels, however, is partially reliant upon sedimentation rates and influenced by a combination of physical and biological factors. In this study, we use several complementary methods to assess short-term (days) deposition and medium-term (months) accretion dynamics within a single marsh that contains three salt marsh vegetation types common throughout southeastern (SE) Australia.We found that surface accretion varies among vegetation assemblages, with medium-term (19 months) bulk accretion rates in the upper marsh rush (Juncus) assemblage (1.74 ± 0.13 mm yr-1) consistently in excess of estimated local sea-level rise (1.15 mm yr-1). Accretion rates were lower and less consistent in both the succulent (Sarcocornia, 0.78 ± 0.18 mm yr-1) and grass (Sporobolus, 0.88 ± 0.22 mm yr-1) assemblages located lower in the tidal frame. Short-term (6 days) experiments showed deposition within Juncus plots to be dominated by autochthonous organic inputs with C deposition rates ranging from 1.14 ± 0.41 mg C cm-2 d-1 (neap tidal period) to 2.37 ± 0.44 mg C cm-2 d-1 (spring tidal period), while minerogenic inputs and lower C deposition dominated Sarcocornia (0.10 ± 0.02 to 0.62 ± 0.08 mg C cm-2 d-1) and Sporobolus (0.17 ± 0.04 to 0.40 ± 0.07 mg C cm-2 d-1) assemblages.Elemental (C : N), isotopic (δ13C), mid-infrared (MIR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses revealed little difference in either the source or character of materials being deposited among neap versus spring tidal periods. Instead, these analyses point to substantial redistribution of materials within the Sarcocornia and Sporobolus assemblages, compared to high retention and preservation of organic inputs in the Juncus assemblage. By

  3. Ash aggregation enhanced by deposition and redistribution of salt on the surface of volcanic ash in eruption plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sebastian B; Ayris, Paul M; Wadsworth, Fabian B; Kueppers, Ulrich; Casas, Ana S; Delmelle, Pierre; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Jacob, Michael; Dingwell, Donald B

    2017-03-31

    Interactions with volcanic gases in eruption plumes produce soluble salt deposits on the surface of volcanic ash. While it has been postulated that saturation-driven precipitation of salts following the dissolution of ash surfaces by condensed acidic liquids is a primary mechanism of salt formation during an eruption, it is only recently that this mechanism has been subjected to detailed study. Here we spray water and HCl droplets into a suspension of salt-doped synthetic glass or volcanic ash particles, and produce aggregates. Deposition of acidic liquid droplets on ash particles promotes dissolution of existing salts and leaches cations from the underlying material surface. The flow of liquid, due to capillary forces, will be directed to particle-particle contact points where subsequent precipitation of salts will cement the aggregate. Our data suggest that volcanically-relevant loads of surface salts can be produced by acid condensation in eruptive settings. Several minor and trace elements mobilised by surface dissolution are biologically relevant; geographic areas with aggregation-mediated ash fallout could be "hotspots" for the post-deposition release of these elements. The role of liquids in re-distributing surface salts and cementing ash aggregates also offers further insight into the mechanisms which preserve well-structured aggregates in some ash deposits.

  4. Secondary halite deposits in the Iranian salt karst: general description and origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippi Michal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper summaries 12 years of documentation of secondary halite deposits in the Iranian salt karst. A variety of secondary halitedeposits was distinguished and classified into several groups, on the basis of the site and mechanism of their origin. Deposits formed:i via crystallization in/on streams and pools, ii from dripping, splashing and aerosol water, iii from evaporation of seepage and capillarywater, and iv other types of deposits. The following examples of halite forms were distinguished in each of the above mentionedgroup: i euhedral crystals, floating rafts (raft cones, thin brine surface crusts and films; ii straw stalactites, macrocrystalline skeletaland hyaline deposits, aerosol deposits; iii microcrystalline forms (crusts, stalactites and stalagmites, helictites; iv macrocrystallinehelictites, halite bottom fibers and spiders, crystals in fluvial sediments, euhedral halite crystals in rock salt, combined or transientforms and biologically induced deposits. The occurrence of particular forms depends strongly on the environment, especially on thetype of brine occurrence (pool, drip, splashing brine, microscopic capillary brine, etc., flow rate and its variation, atmospheric humidity,evaporation rate and, in some cases, on the air flow direction. Combined or transitional secondary deposits can be observed if theconditions changed during the deposition. Euhedral halite crystals originate solely below the brine surface of supersaturated streamsand lakes. Macrocrystalline skeletal deposits occur at places with rich irregular dripping and splashing (i.e., waterfalls, places withstrong dripping from the cave ceilings, etc.. Microcrystalline (fine grained deposits are generated by evaporation of capillary brineat places where brine is not present in a macroscopically visible form. Straw stalactites form at places where dripping is concentratedin small spots and is frequent sufficient to assure that the tip of the stalactite will not be

  5. Micromodel observations of evaporative drying and salt deposition in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufai, Ayorinde; Crawshaw, John

    2017-12-01

    Most evaporation experiments using artificial porous media have focused on single capillaries or sand packs. We have carried out, for the first time, evaporation studies on a 2.5D micromodel based on a thin section of a sucrosic dolomite rock. This allowed direct visual observation of pore-scale processes in a network of pores. NaCl solutions from 0 wt. % (de-ionized water) to 36 wt. % (saturated brine) were evaporated by passing dry air through a channel in front of the micromodel matrix. For de-ionized water, we observed the three classical periods of evaporation: the constant rate period (CRP) in which liquid remains connected to the matrix surface, the falling rate period, and the receding front period, in which the capillary connection is broken and water transport becomes dominated by vapour diffusion. However, when brine was dried in the micromodel, we observed that the length of the CRP decreased with increasing brine concentration and became almost non-existent for the saturated brine. In the experiments with brine, the mass lost by evaporation became linear with the square root of time after the short CRP. However, this is unlikely to be due to capillary disconnection from the surface of the matrix, as salt crystals continued to be deposited in the channel above the matrix. We propose that this is due to salt deposition at the matrix surface progressively impeding hydraulic connectivity to the evaporating surface.

  6. Rapid releases of metal salts and nutrients following the deposition of volcanic ash into aqueous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Morgan T.; Gislason, Sigurður R.

    2008-08-01

    Deposition of volcanic ash into aqueous environments leads to dissolution of adsorbed metal salts and aerosols, increasing the bioavailability of key nutrients. Volcanogenic fertilization events could increase marine primary productivity, leading to a drawdown of atmospheric CO 2. Here we conduct flow-through experiments on unhydrated volcanic ash samples from a variety of locations and sources, measuring the concentrations and fluxes of elements into de-ionized water and two contrasting ocean surface waters. Comparisons of element fluxes show that dissolution of adsorbed surface salts and aerosols dominates over glass dissolution, even in sustained low pH conditions. These surface ash-leachates appear unstable, decaying in situ even if kept unhydrated. Volcanic ash from recent eruptions is shown to have a large fertilization potential in both fresh and saline water. Fluorine concentrations are integral to bulk dissolution rates and samples with high F concentrations display elevated fluxes of some nutrients, particularly Fe, Si, and P. Bio-limiting micronutrients are released in large quantities, suggesting that subsequent biological growth will be limited by macronutrient availability. Importantly, acidification of surface waters and high fluxes of toxic elements highlights the potential of volcanic ash-leachates to poison aqueous environments. In particular, large pH changes can cause undersaturation of CaCO 3 polymorphs, damaging populations of calcifying organisms. Deposition of volcanic ash can both fertilize and/or poison aqueous environments, causing significant changes to surface water chemistry and biogeochemical cycles.

  7. Recovery from episodic acidification delayed by drought and high sea salt deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Laudon

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available For the prediction of episodic acidification large uncertainties are connected to climatic variability and its effect on drought conditions and sea-salt episodes. In this study data on 342 hydrological episodes in 25 Swedish streams, sampled over 10 years, have been analyzed using a recently developed episode model. The results demonstrate that drought is the most important factor modulating the magnitude of the anthropogenic influence on pH and ANC during episodes. These modulating effects are especially pronounced in southern and central Sweden, where the historically high acid deposition has resulted in significant S pools in catchment soils. The results also suggest that the effects of episodic acidification are becoming less severe in many streams, but this amelioration is less clear in coastal streams subject to high levels of sea-salt deposition. Concurrently with the amelioration of the effects of episodic acidification, regional climate models predict that temperatures will increase in Sweden during the coming decades, accompanied by reductions in summer precipitation and more frequent storms during fall and winter in large areas of the country. If these predictions are realized delays in streams' recovery from episodic acidification events can be expected.

  8. Investigation of evaporate deposits in the “Great Ear” area of Lop Nor salt plain, Xinjiang Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L.; Li, B.; Jiang, P.; Lowenstein, T. K.; Zhong, J.; Sheng, J.; Wu, H.

    2009-12-01

    In arid regions of the world, salt pans are common features occupying the lowest areas of closed interior basin. The Lop Nor salt plain is located at the east end of the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Province, China. Widespread Holocene salt deposits were known to cover thousands of square kilometers and up to hundreds of meters thick. However, the salt pans in the central-eastern sector of the Lop Nor salt plain is unusually represented by successive concentric black-and-white rings that closely resembled a big human ear in satellite images. The total area of the “Great Ear” is approximately 5,500 km2, and the internal morphology is considered essentially flat with an elevation of 800 m. A series of detailed field investigations on the “Great Ear” salt pans involved describing evaporates and surface morphologies, measuring chemical compositions, and groundwater depths. The deposits show clear lateral variations in salt content, water content, evaporate mineralogy, as well as the microrelief of salt crust in the “Great Ear” area. Spatially, spectral imaging variation corresponds to color variation in the “Great Ear”, which suggests surface moist conditions of a salt pan: dark-toned areas are wet and the bright-toned areas are dry. In the wet zone, capillary fringing of groundwater brines control the precipitation of evaporites and microrelief genesis. The salt pans are marked by pressure-ridge and well-developed hexagonal honeycomb polygons structures, where the microrelief of salt crust ranges from 30 to 80 cm. In the dry salt pans zone, groundwater discharge was not observed on the surface and the salt crust is characterized by low relief, low salinity, a lack of efflorescences crusts, and significant amounts of detrital sediments. This zone shows bright-tone in the satellite images due to higher reflectance of dry salt-encrusted pans surface. Though, the sediment beneath the surface typically is saturated with concentrated brines and displacive

  9. Sediment and carbon deposition vary among vegetation assemblages in a coastal salt marsh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Kelleway

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coastal salt marshes are dynamic, intertidal ecosystems that are increasingly being recognised for their contributions to ecosystem services, including carbon (C accumulation and storage. The survival of salt marshes and their capacity to store C under rising sea levels, however, is partially reliant upon sedimentation rates and influenced by a combination of physical and biological factors. In this study, we use several complementary methods to assess short-term (days deposition and medium-term (months accretion dynamics within a single marsh that contains three salt marsh vegetation types common throughout southeastern (SE Australia.We found that surface accretion varies among vegetation assemblages, with medium-term (19 months bulk accretion rates in the upper marsh rush (Juncus assemblage (1.74 ± 0.13 mm yr−1 consistently in excess of estimated local sea-level rise (1.15 mm yr−1. Accretion rates were lower and less consistent in both the succulent (Sarcocornia, 0.78 ± 0.18 mm yr−1 and grass (Sporobolus, 0.88 ± 0.22 mm yr−1 assemblages located lower in the tidal frame. Short-term (6 days experiments showed deposition within Juncus plots to be dominated by autochthonous organic inputs with C deposition rates ranging from 1.14 ± 0.41 mg C cm−2 d−1 (neap tidal period to 2.37 ± 0.44 mg C cm−2 d−1 (spring tidal period, while minerogenic inputs and lower C deposition dominated Sarcocornia (0.10 ± 0.02 to 0.62 ± 0.08 mg C cm−2 d−1 and Sporobolus (0.17 ± 0.04 to 0.40 ± 0.07 mg C cm−2 d−1 assemblages.Elemental (C : N, isotopic (δ13C, mid-infrared (MIR and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analyses revealed little difference in either the source or character of materials being deposited among neap versus spring tidal periods. Instead, these analyses point to substantial redistribution of materials within the Sarcocornia and

  10. On a snow cover composition in the vicinity of the Verkhnekamsky Salt Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Blinov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The snow cover chemical composition was investigated on the territory of the Verkhnekamskiy potash-magnesium salt deposit in the zone of influence of atmospheric emissions of Berezniki Potash Mining Complex (Perm Region. The object of researches was the snow in this area. Features of specific pollutants contained in the emissions of these mine groups and their relationship with the air intake and following atmospheric deposition were examined. With regard for specific character of pollutants in the emissions, studies of melt water included determination of the following chemical components – SO42-, Cl-, NO3-, NO2-, НCO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, of the pH value as well as suspended solid substances, and total mineralization. An analysis of snow composition was performed on two sites from which one was the surrounding background territory, while another area was the urban territory of city Berezniki, i.e. area of operating mine group. To assess the results the indicator of specific stock macro component was used. Increased specific stock relative to the background snowpack is clearly indicative of components directly related to the extraction and processing of salts Cl-, Na+, K+. The revealed anomalies have a local character and, as a rule, do not extend beyond boundaries of sanitary protection zones of the enterprises. Maps of distribution of values of the specific reserves for the analyzed list of components in the melt water were constructed. Our results obtained for the Verkhnekamskiy Deposit area were compared with similar published data on the territories of cities in the zone influenced by motor roads, reserves, and coastal zones of the Russian Arctic seas.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Insulator Contaminations Revealed by Daily Observations of Equivalent Salt Deposit Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Ruan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate estimation of deposits adhering on insulators is of great significance to prevent pollution flashovers which cause huge costs worldwide. Researchers have developed sensors using different technologies to monitor insulator contamination on a fine time scale. However, there is lack of analysis of these data to reveal spatial and temporal characteristics of insulator contamination, and as a result the scheduling of periodical maintenance of power facilities is highly dependent on personal experience. Owing to the deployment of novel sensors, daily Equivalent Salt Deposit Density (ESDD observations of over two years were collected and analyzed for the first time. Results from 16 sites distributed in four regions of Hubei demonstrated that spatial heterogeneity can be seen at both the fine and coarse geographical scales, suggesting that current polluted area maps are necessary but are not sufficient conditions to guide the maintenance of power facilities. Both the local emission and the regional air pollution condition exert evident influences on deposit accumulation. A relationship between ESDD and PM10 was revealed by using regression analysis, proving that air pollution exerts influence on pollution accumulations on insulators. Moreover, the seasonality of ESDD was discovered for the first time by means of time series analysis, which could help engineers select appropriate times to clean the contamination. Besides, the trend component shows that the ESDD increases in a negative exponential fashion with the accumulation date (ESDD = a − b × exp(−time at a long time scale in real environments.

  12. Spatial and temporal characteristics of insulator contaminations revealed by daily observations of equivalent salt deposit density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Ling; Han, Ge; Zhu, Zhongmin; Zhang, Miao; Gong, Wei

    2015-01-29

    The accurate estimation of deposits adhering on insulators is of great significance to prevent pollution flashovers which cause huge costs worldwide. Researchers have developed sensors using different technologies to monitor insulator contamination on a fine time scale. However, there is lack of analysis of these data to reveal spatial and temporal characteristics of insulator contamination, and as a result the scheduling of periodical maintenance of power facilities is highly dependent on personal experience. Owing to the deployment of novel sensors, daily Equivalent Salt Deposit Density (ESDD) observations of over two years were collected and analyzed for the first time. Results from 16 sites distributed in four regions of Hubei demonstrated that spatial heterogeneity can be seen at both the fine and coarse geographical scales, suggesting that current polluted area maps are necessary but are not sufficient conditions to guide the maintenance of power facilities. Both the local emission and the regional air pollution condition exert evident influences on deposit accumulation. A relationship between ESDD and PM10 was revealed by using regression analysis, proving that air pollution exerts influence on pollution accumulations on insulators. Moreover, the seasonality of ESDD was discovered for the first time by means of time series analysis, which could help engineers select appropriate times to clean the contamination. Besides, the trend component shows that the ESDD increases in a negative exponential fashion with the accumulation date (ESDD = a - b × exp(-time)) at a long time scale in real environments.

  13. Re-evaluation of salt deposits. BGR investigates subhorizontally-bedded salt layers; Salzvorkommen neu bewertet. BGR untersucht flach lagernde salinare Schichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Joerg [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany). Fachbereich ' ' Geologisch-geotechnische Erkundung' ' ; Fahland, Sandra [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany). Fachberech ' ' Geotechnische Sicherheitsnachweise' '

    2016-05-15

    The search for a site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste was restarted in 2013. All of the potential host rocks existing in Germany must be re-evaluated and compared as a result. The list now also includes so-called ''subhorizontally-bedded evaporite formations''. BGR is analysing today's knowledge base on these salt deposits as part of the BASAL project.

  14. Air flow and dry deposition of non-sea salt sulfate in polar firn: Paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, J.; Waddington, E. D.

    Non-sea salt sulfate aerosol (NSS) is an important factor for the Earth's albedo because it backscatters solar radiation and is the major cloud condensation nucleus over oceans. At Vostok, Antarctica, NSS concentration shows an increase in glacial period ice of 20-46% that cannot be attributed to changes in accumulation rate. The additional NSS may be due to enhanced dry deposition of NSS by topographic windpumping during the windy glacial periods. We model the volume flux of air into snow due to barometric pressure changes and air flow over surface microrelief. The Gormley-Kennedy equation approximately describes how aerosols advected into the snow pack are removed from the air by diffusion to the snow matrix. Barometric pressure and wind speed data from several polar sites have been used to quantify the vertical volume flux of air and mass flux of NSS. Model results indicate that air flow over small sastrugi, wind carved snow dunes commonly found on ice caps, is the dominant dry deposition mechanism for NSS. Paleo wind speed and surface roughness can significantly influence the aerosol record in ice cores.

  15. Drilling the Messinian Salinity Crisis as a Model Analogue for Dolomite Deposition at the End of Massive Salt Deposition Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Judith A.; Aloisi, Giovanni; Anjos, Sylvia; Latgé, Ricardo; Matsuda, Nilo; Bontognali, Tomaso; Vasconcelos, Crisogono

    2015-04-01

    Sedimentologic and stratigraphic studies of the Lower Cretaceous sequence, deposited in the economically important Campos Basin, southeast Brazil, document the occurrence of ~20-m-thick dolomite intervals overlying the "massive salt" megasequences of the Lagoa Feia Formation. This stratigaphic succession marks the Aptian/Albian transition from extreme evaporitic conditions of the Lagoa Feia Formation to shallow marine conditions of the Macaé Formation, related to the early opening of the South Atlantic. The facies change from evaporites to dolomite is interpreted as a product of dolomitization resulting from the refuxing of hypersaline fluids from shallow embayments with intense evaporation (Latgé, 2001). Although the reflux model provides a mechanism to produce fluids with geochemical composition favorable for dolomite precipitation, it cannot account for all of the factors required to promote dolomite precipitation. In this study, we propose a different model to explain the post-evaporite deposition of massive dolomite based on the study of sequences deposited at the end Messinian Salinity Crisis, which were recovered from the deep basins of the Mediterranean Sea during DSDP/ODP drilling campaigns. At most of these deep-water sites, the cored interval contained unusual dolomite deposits overlying the uppermost evaporite sections. For example, the upper Messinian sedimentary sequence at DSDP Site 374 comprises non-fossiliferous dolomitic mudstone overlying dolomitic mudstone/gypsum cycles, which in turn overlie anhydrite and halite (Hsü, Montadert et al., 1978). We postulate that the end Messinian dolomite is a product of microbial activity under extreme hypersaline conditions. In the last 20 years, research into the factors controlling dolomite precipitation under Earth surface conditions has led to the development of new models involving the metabolism of microorganisms and associated biofilms to overcome the kinetic inhibitions associated with primary

  16. Mineral sources of water and their influence on the safe disposal of radioactive wastes in bedded salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallis, S.M.

    1973-12-01

    With the increased use of nuclear energy, there will be subsequent increases in high-level radioactive wastes such as Sr/sup 90/, Cs/sup 137/, and Pu/sup 239/. Several agencies have considered the safest possible means to store or dispose of wastes in geologic environments such as underground storage in salt deposits, shale beds, abandoned dry mines, and in clay and shale pits. Salt deposits have received the most favorable attention because they exist in dry environments and because of other desirable properties of halite (its plasticity, gamma-ray shielding, heat dissipation ability, low mining cost, and worldwide abundance). Much work has been done on bedded salt deposits, particularly the Hutchinson Salt Member of the Wellington Formation at Lyons, Kansas. Salt beds heated by the decay of the radioactive wastes may release water by dehydration of hydrous minerals commonly present in evaporite sequences or water present in other forms such as fluid inclusions. More than 80 hydrous minerals are known to occur in evaporite deposits. The occurrences, total water contents (up to 63%) and dehydration temperatures (often less that 150/sup 0/C) of these minerals are given. Since it is desirable to dispose of radioactive wastes in a dry environment, care must be taken that large quantities of water are not released through the heating of hydrous minerals. Seventy-four samples from four cores taken at Lyons, Kansas, were analyzed by x-ray diffraction. The minerals detected were halite, anhydrite, gypsum, polyhalite, dolomite, magnesite, quartz, feldspar, and the clay minerals illite, chlorite, kaolinite, vermiculite, smectite, mixed-layer clay, and corrensite (interstratified chlorite-vermiculite). Of these, gypsum, polyhalite and the clay minerals are all capable of releasing water when heated.

  17. Syn-depositional deformation of the late Zechstein evaporites on the Friesland Platform capturing the early life of a salt giant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raith, Alexander; Urai, Janos L.

    2017-04-01

    It is often thought that the deposition of the Zechstein of NE Netherlands took place in a tectonically quiet environment and experienced complex deformation later. While early deformation structures were mostly overprinted by later salt flow, we focused on the Friesland platform, which was only weakly affected by later salt tectonics. In this study, we analyzed the present structures and deformation history with the help of 3D seismic and well data. Results show that the ZIII AC stringer contains (i) a regional network of thicker zones (TZ), and (ii) a network of zones where the stringers are absent, interpreted as ruptures formed by salt flow. These ruptures in many cases mark a clear vertical shift of the sub-horizontal stringer. Mapping of the base salt and top salt reflectors shows that the ruptures often coincide with faults at base Zechstein level, and that the thickness of the post-stringer rock salt layers is thicker where the stringers are lower, while the total salt thickness is relatively constant. We interpret these structures as evidence for movement on the faults at base salt, during Zechstein times, suggesting that late Zechstein deposition was syn-tectonic. Spatial correlation of TZ and these syn-depositional depressions also indicate syn-depositional or very early development of thickening in the ZIII-AC stringer. They are interpreted to reflect the interaction of anhydrite dewatering pathways and dissolution of salt below fracture systems in the stringer localized by the active shear zones in the salt.

  18. Geologic investigation of the Virgin River Valley salt deposits, Clark County, southeastern Nevada, to investigate their suitability for possible storage of radioactive waste material as of September 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-12-31

    The results from a geologic investigation of the Virgin River Valley salt deposits, Clark County, southeastern Nevada, to examine their suitability for further study and consideration in connection with the possible storage of radioactive waste material are given. The results indicate that (1) approximately one-half of the salt body underlies the Overton Arm of Lake Mead and that the dry land portion of the salt body that has a thickness of 1,000 feet or more covers an area of about four and one-half square miles; (2) current tectonic activity in the area of the salt deposits is believed to be confined to seismic events associated with crustal adjustments following the filling of Lake Mead; (3) detailed information on the hydrology of the salt deposit area is not available at present but it is reported that a groundwater study by the U.S. Geological Survey is now in progress; (4) there is no evidence of exploitable minerals in the salt deposit area other than evaporites such as salt, gypsum, and possibly sand and gravel; (5) the salt deposit area is located inside the Lake Mead Recreation Area, outlined on the accompanying Location Plat, and several Federal, State, and Local agencies share regulatory responsibilities for the activities in the area; (6) other salt deposit areas of Arizona and Nevada, such as the Detrital Valley, Red Lake Dome, Luke Dome, and Mormon Mesa area, and several playa lake areas of central Nevada may merit further study; and (7) additional information, as outlined, is needed to more thoroughly evaluate the salt deposits of the Virgin River Valley and other areas referred to above.

  19. The use of sodium salt deposits in medical and medically associated industries in Ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sapsford, M

    2009-01-01

    The utilisation of minerals in Ancient Egyptian medicine from procurement through to use is examined here in a case study investigating the role of sodium salts. The sodium salts, salt and natron are two of the three most commonly used minerals in the Egyptian pharmacopeia. The results of the project are important to medical historians and archaeomineralogists alike in that they formulate a systematic understanding of the way in which minerals were used in medical and medica...

  20. Landslides Monitoring on Salt Deposits Using Geophysical Methods, Case study – Slanic Prahova, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovidiu, Avram; Rusu, Emil; Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Ulmeanu, Antonio; Scutelnicu, Ioan; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2017-12-01

    Electrometry is most frequently applied geophysical method to examine dynamical phenomena related to the massive salt presence due to resistivity contrasts between salt, salt breccia and geological covering formations. On the vertical resistivity sections obtained with VES devices these three compartments are clearly differentiates by high resistivity for the massive salt, very low for salt breccia and variable for geological covering formations. When the land surface is inclined, shallow formations are moving gravitationally on the salt back, producing a landslide. Landslide monitoring involves repeated periodically measurements of geoelectrical profiles into a grid covering the slippery surface, in the same conditions (climate, electrodes position, instrument and measurement parameters). The purpose of monitoring landslides in Slanic Prahova area, was to detect the changes in resistivity distribution profiles to superior part of subsoil measured in 2014 and 2015. Measurement grid include several representative cross sections in susceptibility to landslides point of view. The results are graphically represented by changing the distribution of topography and resistivity differences between the two sets of geophysical measurements.

  1. Effects of texture on salt precipitation dynamics and deposition patterns in drying porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi Rad, Mansoureh; Shokri, Nima

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the physics of water evaporation from saline porous media is important in many natural and engineering applications such as durability of building materials and preservation of monuments, CO2 sequestration and water quality. Also excess of salt accumulation in soil may result in soil salinization which is a global problem adversely affecting vegetation, plant growth and crop production. Thus it is important to understand the parameters affecting salt transport and precipitation in porous media. We applied X-ray micro-tomography to investigate the dynamics of salt precipitation during evaporation from porous media as influenced by the particle and pore sizes. The packed beds were saturated with NaCl solution of 3 Molal and the time-lapse X-ray imaging was continued for one day. The results show that the presence of preferential evaporation sites (associated with fine pores) on the surface of the sand columns influences significantly the patterns and dynamics of NaCl precipitation (Norouzi Rad et al., 2013; Norouzi Rad and Shokri, 2014). They confirm the formation of an increasingly thick and discrete salt crust with increasing grain size in the sand column due to the presence of fewer fine pores (preferential precipitation sites) at the surface compared to the sand packs with finer grains. Fewer fine pores on the surface also results in shorter stage-1 precipitation for the columns with larger grain sizes. A simple model for the evolution of salt crust thickness based on this principle shows a good agreement with our experiments. Our results provide new insights regarding the physics of salt precipitation and its complex dynamics in porous media during evaporation. References Norouzi Rad, M., Shokri, N., Sahimi, M. (2013), Pore-Scale Dynamics of Salt Precipitation in Drying Porous Media, Phys. Rev. E, 88, 032404. Norouzi Rad, M., Shokri, N. (2014), Effects of grain angularity on NaCl precipitation in porous media during evaporation, Water Resour. Res

  2. Interplay of salt dynamics, sea-level change and climate on the depositional evolution of a Paleogene economic coal bearing salt rim syncline, Schoeningen, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, A.; Pollok, L.; Brandes, C.; Winsemann, J. [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie

    2013-08-01

    The Paleogene basin fill (maximum 300 m thick) of the Schoeningen rim syncline in northern Germany is well known for its economic lignitic coal deposits. The fill provides an example of the interaction of basin subsidence, sea-level, and climate changes on depositional environment and gives insight into the development of the coal seams within a sequence stratigraphic context. The rim syncline records thirteen Lower to Middle Eocene coal seams with intervening clastic layers that were deposited during a long-lived transgression of the Central German Estuary, which lasted until the Late Oligocene (Standke, 2008). The previous analysis of the rim syncline fill has primarily focused on coal deposits, their lateral extent and paleo-botanical habitat. In this work, 357 lithologic logs were calibrated to outcrop profiles and integrated with previous studies to provide a facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy interpretation of the syncline fill. This improves understanding of the depositional environments of the lesser-studied clastics that intervene the coals (Osman et al., in review). Four 3{sup rd} order sequences are recorded in the Lower to Middle Eocene basin fill. Sequences 1 and 2 document the interplay of sands and coals within a transgressive estuarine phase. The sands show a regime change from tide- to more wave-dominated estuarine conditions before a turnaround to a regressive deltaic phase. This succession typifies an incised valley fill. However, the accommodation space generated for the initial estuary development is thought to have originated via continual salt withdrawal (Brandes et al. 2012) instead of by incision during relative sea-level fall. The observed tide to wave estuary regime change is linked to increased subsidence rates at 57 Ma that generated a higher tidal prism. As the subsidence rates slowed and the syncline broadened, the tidal prism decreased, leading to the development of more wave-dominated facies. The intervening coal seams

  3. Atmospheric salt deposition in a tropical mountain rainforest at the eastern Andean slopes of south Ecuador – Pacific or Atlantic origin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Makowski Giannoni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea salt (NaCl has recently been proven to be of the utmost importance for ecosystem functioning in Amazon lowland forests because of its impact on herbivory, litter decomposition and, thus, carbon cycling. Sea salt deposition should generally decline as distance from its marine source increases. For the Amazon, a negative east–west gradient of sea salt availability is assumed as a consequence of the barrier effect of the Andes Mountains for Pacific air masses. However, this generalized pattern may not hold for the tropical mountain rainforest in the Andes of southern Ecuador. To analyse sea salt availability, we investigated the deposition of sodium (Na+ and chloride (Cl−, which are good proxies of sea spray aerosol. Because of the complexity of the terrain and related cloud and rain formation processes, sea salt deposition was analysed from both, rain and occult precipitation (OP along an altitudinal gradient over a period between 2004 and 2009. To assess the influence of easterly and westerly air masses on the deposition of sodium and chloride over southern Ecuador, sea salt aerosol concentration data from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC reanalysis data set and back-trajectory statistical methods were combined. Our results, based on deposition time series, show a clear difference in the temporal variation of sodium and chloride concentration and Na+ ∕ Cl− ratio in relation to height and exposure to winds. At higher elevations, sodium and chloride present a higher seasonality and the Na+ ∕ Cl− ratio is closer to that of sea salt. Medium- to long-range sea salt transport exhibited a similar seasonality, which shows the link between our measurements at high elevations and the sea salt synoptic transport. Although the influence of the easterlies was predominant regarding the atmospheric circulation, the statistical analysis of trajectories and hybrid receptor models revealed a stronger impact of the

  4. Sensitivity of modeled atmospheric nitrogen species and nitrogen deposition to variations in sea salt emissions in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Neumann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coarse sea salt particles are emitted ubiquitously from the ocean surface by wave-breaking and bubble-bursting processes. These particles impact the atmospheric chemistry by affecting the condensation of gas-phase species and, thus, indirectly the nucleation of new fine particles, particularly in regions with significant air pollution. In this study, atmospheric particle concentrations are modeled for the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions in northwestern Europe using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system and are compared to European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP measurement data. The sea salt emission module is extended by a salinity-dependent scaling of the sea salt emissions because the salinity in large parts of the Baltic Sea is very low, which leads to considerably lower sea salt mass emissions compared to other oceanic regions. The resulting improvement in predicted sea salt concentrations is assessed. The contribution of surf zone emissions is considered separately. Additionally, the impacts of sea salt particles on atmospheric nitrate and ammonium concentrations and on nitrogen deposition are evaluated. The comparisons with observational data show that sea salt concentrations are commonly overestimated at coastal stations and partly underestimated farther inland. The introduced salinity scaling improves the predicted Baltic Sea sea salt concentrations considerably. The dates of measured peak concentrations are appropriately reproduced by the model. The impact of surf zone emissions is negligible in both seas. Nevertheless, they might be relevant because surf zone emissions were cut at an upper threshold in this study. Deactivating sea salt leads to minor increases in NH3 +  NH4+ and HNO3 +  NO3− and a decrease in NO3− concentrations. However, the overall effect on NH3 +  NH4+ and HNO3 +  NO3− concentrations is smaller than the deviation from the measurements. Nitrogen wet deposition is

  5. Deposition kinetics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on silica in monovalent and divalent salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pingting; Long, Guoyu; Ni, Jinren; Tong, Meiping

    2009-08-01

    The deposition kinetics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on silica surfaces were examined in both monovalent and divalent solutions under a variety of environmentally relevant ionic strength and pH conditions by employing a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (DCM-D). Soluble EPS (SEPS) and bound EPS (BEPS) were extracted from four bacterial strains with different characteristics. Maximum favorable deposition rates (k(fa)) were observed for all EPS at low ionic strengths in both NaCl and CaCl2 solutions. With the increase of ionic strength, k(fa) decreased due to the simultaneous occurrence of EPS aggregation in solutions. Deposition efficiency (alpha; the ratio of deposition rates obtained under unfavorable versus corresponding favorable conditions) for all EPS increased with increasing ionic strength in both NaCl and CaCl2 solutions, which agreed with the trends of zeta potentials and was consistent with the classic Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Comparison of alpha for SEPS and BEPS extracted from the same strain showed that the trends of alpha did not totally agree with trends of zeta potentials, indicating the deposition kinetics of EPS on silica surfaces were not only controlled by DLVO interactions, but also non-DLVO forces. Close comparison of alpha for EPS extracted from different sources showed alpha increased with increasing proteins to polysaccharides ratio. Subsequent experiments for EPS extracted from the same strain but with different proteins to polysaccharides ratios and from activated sludge also showed that alpha were largest for EPS with greatest proteins to polysaccharides ratio. Additional experiments for pure protein and solutions with different pure proteins to pure saccharides ratios further corroborated that larger proteins to polysaccharides ratio resulted in greater EPS deposition.

  6. Impact of hydrotreaters ammonium chloride salt deposition of refinery operations; Formacao de depositos de sais de amonio em Unidades de Hidrotramento (HDT'S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Nelmo Furtado; Cunha, Fabiana A.; Alvise, Paulo Pio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Fouling and consequent under deposit corrosion caused by ammonium salts, especially ammonium chloride, have serious impact on the reliability of operation of various process units. In hydrotreating units salt deposition on heat exchanger tubes causes a decrease in heat transfer efficiency, decrease hydrotreating efficiency, increased pressure drops, and corrosion. This paper will discuss the causes of ammonium chloride fouling,methods to help prevent and/or mitigate the fouling, and provide a case history demonstrating the effects of ammonium chloride formations in one refinery operation. (author)

  7. Whole-catchment application of dolomite to mitigate episodic acidification of streams induced by sea-salt deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindar, Atle

    2005-05-01

    To counteract mobilisation of potentially toxic aluminium (Al) ions to tributaries of salmon rivers, two paired-catchment experiments with terrestrial liming at two sites on the Norwegian west coast were performed. Streams at both sites experienced episodically elevated and potentially toxic Al levels induced by high deposition of sea salts. After application of 2 metric tons ha-1 of 0.2-2 mm dolomite powder at the Brommeland area, stream pH increased above critical levels at about pH=6.0 and remained stable throughout the monitoring period of 3.5 years. Inorganic aluminium decreased to below 20 microg Al L-1, a water quality supposed to be nontoxic for salmon. This was evident also during extreme weather conditions with large relative increases in chloride (Cl) concentrations and negative calculated nonmarine sodium (Na*) concentrations in the streams, indicating potentially toxic sea-salt effects. Cl changed from being closely related to increases in inorganic Al, especially at the Brommeland stream (R2=0.75), to being not important (R2=0.12), but still significant for its variation. At the Hovland area, receiving 1 ton ha-1 of 0-2 mm dolomite powder, stream pH and Al effects were less clear-cut, probably due to the lower dolomite dose. Stream concentrations of both NO3- and SO4(2-) increased significantly due to liming.

  8. A salt diapir-related Mississippi Valley-type deposit: The Bou Jaber Pb-Zn-Ba-F deposit, Tunisia: Fluid inclusion and isotope study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Salah; Leach, David; Johnson, Craig A.; Marsh, Erin; Salmi-Laouar, Sihem; Banks, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The Bou Jaber Ba-F-Pb-Zn deposit is located at the edge of the Bou Jaber Triassic salt diapir in the Tunisia Salt Diapir Province. The ores are unconformity and fault-controlled and occur as subvertical column-shaped bodies developed in dissolution-collapse breccias and in cavities within the Late Aptian platform carbonate rocks, which are covered unconformably by impermeable shales and marls of the Fahdene Formation (Late Albian–Cenomanian age). The host rock is hydrothermally altered to ankerite proximal to and within the ore bodies. Quartz, as fine-grained bipyramidal crystals, formed during hydrothermal alteration of the host rocks. The ore mineral assemblage is composed of barite, fluorite, sphalerite, and galena in decreasing abundance. The ore zones outline distinct depositional events: sphalerite-galena, barite-ankerite, and fluorite. Fluid inclusions, commonly oil-rich, have distinct fluid salinities and homogenization temperatures for each of these events: sphalerite-galena (17 to 24 wt% NaCl eq., and Th from 112 to 136 °C); ankerite-barite (11 to 17 wt% NaCl eq., and Th from 100 to 130 °C); fluorite (19 to 21 wt% NaCl eq., Th from 140 to 165 °C). The mean temperature of the ore fluids decreased from sphalerite (125 °C) to barite (115 °C) and increased during fluorite deposition (152 °C); then decreased to ∼110 °C during late calcite precipitation. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses of fluid inclusions in fluorite are metal rich (hundreds to thousands ppm Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe) but the inclusions in barite are deficient in Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe. Inclusions in fluorite have Cl/Br and Na/Br ratios of several thousand, consistent with dissolution of halite while the inclusions analysed in barite have values lower than seawater which are indicative of a Br-enriched brine derived from evaporation plus a component of halite dissolution. The salinity of the barite-hosted fluid inclusions is less than obtained

  9. A salt diapir-related Mississippi Valley-type deposit: the Bou Jaber Pb-Zn-Ba-F deposit, Tunisia: fluid inclusion and isotope study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Salah; Leach, David L.; Johnson, Craig A.; Marsh, Erin; Salmi-Laouar, Sihem; Banks, David A.

    2016-08-01

    The Bou Jaber Ba-F-Pb-Zn deposit is located at the edge of the Bou Jaber Triassic salt diapir in the Tunisia Salt Diapir Province. The ores are unconformity and fault-controlled and occur as subvertical column-shaped bodies developed in dissolution-collapse breccias and in cavities within the Late Aptian platform carbonate rocks, which are covered unconformably by impermeable shales and marls of the Fahdene Formation (Late Albian-Cenomanian age). The host rock is hydrothermally altered to ankerite proximal to and within the ore bodies. Quartz, as fine-grained bipyramidal crystals, formed during hydrothermal alteration of the host rocks. The ore mineral assemblage is composed of barite, fluorite, sphalerite, and galena in decreasing abundance. The ore zones outline distinct depositional events: sphalerite-galena, barite-ankerite, and fluorite. Fluid inclusions, commonly oil-rich, have distinct fluid salinities and homogenization temperatures for each of these events: sphalerite-galena (17 to 24 wt% NaCl eq., and Th from 112 to 136 °C); ankerite-barite (11 to 17 wt% NaCl eq., and Th from 100 to 130 °C); fluorite (19 to 21 wt% NaCl eq., Th from 140 to 165 °C). The mean temperature of the ore fluids decreased from sphalerite (125 °C) to barite (115 °C) and increased during fluorite deposition (152 °C); then decreased to ˜110 °C during late calcite precipitation. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses of fluid inclusions in fluorite are metal rich (hundreds to thousands ppm Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe) but the inclusions in barite are deficient in Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe. Inclusions in fluorite have Cl/Br and Na/Br ratios of several thousand, consistent with dissolution of halite while the inclusions analysed in barite have values lower than seawater which are indicative of a Br-enriched brine derived from evaporation plus a component of halite dissolution. The salinity of the barite-hosted fluid inclusions is less than obtained simply by the

  10. Gorleben site description. Pt. 4. Geotechnical exploration of the salt deposit Gorleben; Standortbeschreibung Gorleben. T. 4. Geotechnische Erkundung des Salzstocks Gorleben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuer, Volkmar; Eickemeier, Ralf; Eisenburger, Dieter [and others

    2012-07-01

    The study on the geotechnical exploration of the salt deposit Gorleben covers the following topics: geotechnical investigations in Gorleben; description of the site; seismological assessment of the site Gorleben; temperature field in the exploration area; geomechanical in-situ measurements; investigations on the rock hydraulics; characterization of the mechanical properties; model calculations.

  11. The disastrous effects of salt dust deposition on cotton leaf photosynthesis and the cell physiological properties in the Ebinur Basin in Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilili Abuduwaili

    Full Text Available Salt dust in rump lake areas in arid regions has long been considered an extreme stressor for both native plants and crops. In recent years, research on the harmful effects of salt dust on native plants has been published by many scholars, but the effect on crops has been little studied. In this work, in order to determine the impact of salt dust storms on cotton, we simulated salt dust exposure of cotton leaves in Ebinur Basin in Northwest China, and measured the particle sizes and salt ions in the dust, and the photosynthesis, the structure and the cell physiological properties of the cotton leaves. (1 Analysis found that the salt ions and particle sizes in the salt dust used in the experiments were consistent with the natural salt dust and modeled the salt dust deposition on cotton leaves in this region. (2 The main salt cations on the surface and inside the cotton leaves were Na+, Ca2+, Cl- and SO42-, while the amounts of CO3- and HCO3- were low. From the analysis, we can order the quantity of the salt cations and anions ions present on the surface and inside the cotton leaves as Na+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+ and Cl->SO42->HCO3->CO3-, respectively. Furthermore, the five salt dust treatment groups in terms of the total salt ions on both the surface and inside the cotton leaves were A(500g.m-2>B(400g.m-2>C(300g.m-2>D(200g.m-2>E(100g.m-2>F(0g.m-2. (3The salt dust that landed on the surface of the cotton leaves can significantly influence the photosynthetic traits of Pn, PE, Ci, Ti, Gs, Tr, WUE, Ls, φ, Amax, k and Rady of the cotton leaves. (4Salt dust can significantly damage the physiological functions of the cotton leaves, resulting in a decrease in leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and increasing cytoplasmic membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA content by increasing the soluble sugar and proline to adjust for the loss of the cell cytosol. This increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes to eliminate harmful materials, such as the

  12. The disastrous effects of salt dust deposition on cotton leaf photosynthesis and the cell physiological properties in the Ebinur Basin in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuduwaili, Jilili; Zhaoyong, Zhang; Feng qing, Jiang; Dong wei, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Salt dust in rump lake areas in arid regions has long been considered an extreme stressor for both native plants and crops. In recent years, research on the harmful effects of salt dust on native plants has been published by many scholars, but the effect on crops has been little studied. In this work, in order to determine the impact of salt dust storms on cotton, we simulated salt dust exposure of cotton leaves in Ebinur Basin in Northwest China, and measured the particle sizes and salt ions in the dust, and the photosynthesis, the structure and the cell physiological properties of the cotton leaves. (1) Analysis found that the salt ions and particle sizes in the salt dust used in the experiments were consistent with the natural salt dust and modeled the salt dust deposition on cotton leaves in this region. (2) The main salt cations on the surface and inside the cotton leaves were Na+, Ca2+, Cl- and SO42-, while the amounts of CO3- and HCO3- were low. From the analysis, we can order the quantity of the salt cations and anions ions present on the surface and inside the cotton leaves as Na+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+ and Cl->SO42->HCO3->CO3-, respectively. Furthermore, the five salt dust treatment groups in terms of the total salt ions on both the surface and inside the cotton leaves were A(500g.m-2)>B(400g.m-2)>C(300g.m-2)>D(200g.m-2)>E(100g.m-2)>F(0g.m-2). (3)The salt dust that landed on the surface of the cotton leaves can significantly influence the photosynthetic traits of Pn, PE, Ci, Ti, Gs, Tr, WUE, Ls, φ, Amax, k and Rady of the cotton leaves. (4)Salt dust can significantly damage the physiological functions of the cotton leaves, resulting in a decrease in leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and increasing cytoplasmic membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) content by increasing the soluble sugar and proline to adjust for the loss of the cell cytosol. This increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes to eliminate harmful materials, such as the intracellular

  13. The Disastrous Effects of Salt Dust Deposition on Cotton Leaf Photosynthesis and the Cell Physiological Properties in the Ebinur Basin in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuduwaili, Jilili; Zhaoyong, Zhang; Feng qing, Jiang; Dong wei, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Salt dust in rump lake areas in arid regions has long been considered an extreme stressor for both native plants and crops. In recent years, research on the harmful effects of salt dust on native plants has been published by many scholars, but the effect on crops has been little studied. In this work, in order to determine the impact of salt dust storms on cotton, we simulated salt dust exposure of cotton leaves in Ebinur Basin in Northwest China, and measured the particle sizes and salt ions in the dust, and the photosynthesis, the structure and the cell physiological properties of the cotton leaves. (1) Analysis found that the salt ions and particle sizes in the salt dust used in the experiments were consistent with the natural salt dust and modeled the salt dust deposition on cotton leaves in this region. (2) The main salt cations on the surface and inside the cotton leaves were Na+, Ca2+, Cl- and SO42-, while the amounts of CO3- and HCO3- were low. From the analysis, we can order the quantity of the salt cations and anions ions present on the surface and inside the cotton leaves as Na+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+ and Cl->SO42->HCO3->CO3-, respectively. Furthermore, the five salt dust treatment groups in terms of the total salt ions on both the surface and inside the cotton leaves were A(500g.m-2)>B(400g.m-2)>C(300g.m-2)>D(200g.m-2)>E(100g.m-2)>F(0g.m-2). (3)The salt dust that landed on the surface of the cotton leaves can significantly influence the photosynthetic traits of Pn, PE, Ci, Ti, Gs, Tr, WUE, Ls, φ, Amax, k and Rady of the cotton leaves. (4)Salt dust can significantly damage the physiological functions of the cotton leaves, resulting in a decrease in leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and increasing cytoplasmic membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) content by increasing the soluble sugar and proline to adjust for the loss of the cell cytosol. This increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes to eliminate harmful materials, such as the intracellular

  14. Late Pennsylvanian depositional cycles and fusulinid zonations for the Salt Creek reef of the Horseshoe Atoll of west Texas - Implications for a sea level curve and regional correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J.M. (Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S. Inc., Midland, TX (United States))

    1992-04-01

    The Salt Creek reef is one of a number of carbonate reef-mound complexes that makes up the Horseshoe Atoll. At least eleven depositional cycles have been delineated from the Strawn Formation (Late Desmoinesian) through the Canyon Limestone (Missourian) to the Cisco Formation (Early Virgilian). A typical cycle consists of a basal unit of intraclastic and skeletal grainstone to dark-gray lime-mudstone with black shale laminations, chert nodules, and scattered crinoid fragments; an intermediary unit of crinoid wackestone and packstone grading up to interbedded skeletal packstone and algal baffle-boundstone; and a capping unit of skeletal and oolitic grainstone. The cycle is bounded by unconformities. These cycles were deposited in a starved basin as a fringing reef-mound complex on an isolated, drowned platform. Nine fusulinid biostratigraphy zones established for the Permian basin are recognized in Salt Creek: one Strawn zone; seven zones in the Canyon, and one in the Cisco. These zones coincide with the eleven major depositional cycles at Salt Creek. The authors have correlated these eleven lithostratigraphic-biostratigraphic units to a series of 14 major transgressive sequences in north Texas and 16 sequences in the mid-continent of North America. These correlations suggest that glacial eustasy is the basic control of these cycles. Differences in the correlation between the cycles may be due to the unique setting of the Salt Creek reef, variations in sea level fluctuations and basin subsidence, or variations in sedimentation rates between carbonate platforms and cratonic shelves with mixed lithologies.

  15. Three-dimensional ground-water modeling in depositional systems, Wilcox Group, Oakwood salt dome area, east Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogg, G.E.; Seni, S.J.; Kreitler, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    The data base includes not only measurements of hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity but also lithofacies maps constructed in a previous study of Wilcox depositional systems. The Carrizo aquifer is a fairly homogeneous sand sheet overlying the much thicker Wilcox Group, a multiple-aquifer system composed primarily of fluvial channel-fill sand bodies distributed among lower permeability interchannel sands and muds. The interconnectedness of the channel-fill sands, which have predictable values of hydraulic conductivity, strongly influences the rate and direction of ground-water flow. Lateral interconnectedness may depend largely on frequency distributions of channel-fill sands (that is, sand percent). Vertical interconnectedness is apparently poor owing to the horizontal stratification of sand and mud. Simulating observed pressure-depth trends by manipulating values of equivalent vertical hydraulic conductivity (K/sub v/') demonstrates that the ratio of vertical to horizontal conductivity (K/sub v/'/K/sub h/') is very low (about 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -4/). Locally high values of K/sub v/' could result in locally rapid vertical flow, which could in turn be detected using pressure-depth residence times of 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 4/ years in channel-fill facies and 10/sup 5/ to 10/sup 6/ years in interchannel facies. Because Oakwood Dome is apparently surrounded by interchannel facies as a result of syndepositional dome growth, the dome may be essentially isolated from circulating Wilcox ground water. A possible exception is where channel-fill facies appear to touch or come close to the northeast flank, coinciding with a brackish-water plume that apparently results from dissolution of salt of cap rock. The northeast orientation of the plume appears to be caused by sand-body distribution and interconnection. 38 references.

  16. Record of the accumulation of sediment and trace metals in a Connecticut, U. S. A. , salt marsh. [Dating deposition of trace metals from polluted air masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaffrey, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    The nonlinear rate of accretion of a Connecticut salt marsh during the past century was estimated from the /sup 210/Pb distribution with depth by assuming a constant flux of /sup 210/Pb to the surface. This rate was found to be in general agreement with the smoothed record of relative mean sea level rise measured independently by the New York City tide gage since 1893. The rate of deposition of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and total inorganic matter on the surface of the salt marsh may be calculated from the age and sediment properties measured at small depth increments. Changes in the inorganic matter content are attributed to variations in land use on the watershed since it was cleared for agriculture. Fe, Mn, and inorganic matter are principally derived from stream transport of eroding soil, while the observed increases in the fluxes of Cu, Zn, and Pb are largely explained as increased supply via the atmosphere during the period of industrialization since the Civil War. Salt marshes thus may supply a refined record of the deposition of trace metals from polluted air masses over long periods of time.

  17. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  18. A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vet, Robert; Artz, Richard S.; Carou, Silvina

    2014-08-01

    Investigating and assessing the chemical composition of precipitation and atmospheric deposition is essential to understanding how atmospheric pollutants contribute to contemporary environmental concerns including ecosystem acidification and eutrophication, loss of biodiversity, air pollution and global climate change. Evidence of the link between atmospheric deposition and these environmental issues is well established. The state of scientific understanding of this link is that present levels of atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen adversely affect terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, putting forest sustainability and aquatic biodiversity at risk. Nitrogen and phosphorus loadings are linked to impacts on the diversity of terrestrial and aquatic vegetation through biological cycling, and atmospheric deposition plays a major role in the emission-transport-conversion-loss cycle of chemicals in the atmosphere as well as the formation of particulate matter and ozone in the troposphere. Evidence also shows that atmospheric constituents are changing the earth's climate through direct and indirect atmospheric processes. This Special Issue, comprising a single article titled "A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus", presents a recent comprehensive review of precipitation chemistry and atmospheric deposition at global and regional scales. The information in the Special Issue, including all supporting data sets and maps, is anticipated to be of great value not only to the atmospheric deposition community but also to other science communities including those that study ecosystem impacts, human health effects, nutrient processing, climate change, global and hemispheric modeling and biogeochemical cycling. Understanding and quantifying pollutant loss from the atmosphere is, and will remain, an important component of each of these scientific fields as they

  19. Chapter D: With or Without Salt-a Comparison of Marine and Continental-Lacustrine Diatomite Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Phillip R.; Dolley, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    Diatoms in sedimentary deposits of marine and continental, especially lacustrine, origin have similar nutrient (for example, phosphate, nitrate, and silica) and light requirements; however, their geologic ranges and physiographic environments vary. Marine diatoms range in age from Early Cretaceous to Holocene, and continental diatoms range in age from Eocene to Holocene; however, most commercial diatomites, both marine and lacustrine, were deposited during the Miocene. Marine deposits of commercial value generally accumulated along continental margins with submerged coastal basins and shelves where wind-driven boundary currents provided the nutrient-rich upwelling conditions capable of supporting a productive diatom habitat. Commercial freshwater diatomite deposits occur in volcanic terrains associated with events that formed sediment-starved drainage basins, such as the Basin and Range Province, particularly in Nevada. Marine habitats generally are characterized by stable conditions of temperature, salinity, pH, nutrients, and water currents, in contrast to lacustrine habitats, which are characterized by wide variations in these conditions. Marine deposits generally are of higher quality and contain larger resources, owing to their greater areal extent and thickness, whereas most of the world's known diatomites are of lacustrine origin. Both types of deposit are commonly mined by open-pit methods and subjected to processing designed to remove organic matter, CO2, pore water, and inorganic contaminants in order to produce purified products. The highest quality diatomites, predominantly from marine sources, are used in filtration, although both types of deposit produce filter grades, and additional end uses include fillers, additives, absorbents, and abrasives.

  20. Factors controlling alkali salt deposition in recovery boilers - particle formation and deposition; Soodakattilan likaantuminen ja siihen vaikuttavien tekijoeiden hallinta - hiukkasten muodostuminen ja depositio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauppinen, E.I.; Mikkanen, P.; Ylaetalo, S. [VTT Chemistry, Espoo (Finland); Jokiniemi, J.K.; Lyyraenen, J.; Pyykoenen, J.; Saastamoinen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    In this project, the aim was to find out those critical factors that control the deposit formation in the recovery boilers. We focus on the particle formation, growth and deposition as well as the single black liquor particle combustion behaviour. The final goal is the development of the predictive model to be used to describe deposit growth and subsequent behaviour as well as the dependence of deposition on black liquor characteristics and boiler operation conditions. During year 1995 an experimental study on the aerosol particle formation within the recovery boiler furnace and a sensitivity study with the Aerosol Behaviour in Combustion (ABC) code were carried out. The experimental study confirmed the fact that the particles are already formed in the recovery boiler furnace. The particle formation is initiated in the boundary layer of the burning droplet or smelt bed, where metals are vaporised and oxidised to form tiny seed particles. Trace amounts of metals were measured in all particle sizes and the sensitivity study with the ABC model gave further evidence of the seed formation was necessary primary step in the particle formation. At the furnace outlet the sintration ratio and the sulfation ratio of the particles were dependent on the furnace temperature and the residence time in the furnace. At ESP inlet three types of particles were observed (1) fine particles with the major mass mode at about 1-2 {mu}m, (2) large agglomerates in sizes larger than 8 {mu}m, and (3) spherical particles about 2-4 {mu}m in size. The fine particles were formed from vapours and the large agglomerates were formed from fine particles agglomerated on heat exchanger surfaces and re-entrained back to flue gas flow. The large agglomerates also contain vapours that have directly condensed to surfaces. The large spherical particles contain silicon and pass the process almost unchanged. (Abstract Truncated)

  1. Modeling wet deposition of inorganics over Northeast Asia with MRI-PM/c and the effects of super large sea salt droplets at near-the-coast stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, M.; Deushi, M.; Maki, T.; Oshima, N.; Inomata, Y.; Sato, K.; Ohizumi, T.; Ueda, H.

    2012-06-01

    We conducted a regional-scale simulation (with grid spacing = 60 km) over Northeast Asia for the entire year of 2006 by using an aerosol chemical transport model, the lateral and upper boundary concentrations of which we predicted with a global stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry-climate model, with a horizontal resolution of T42 (grid spacing ~300 km) and a time resolution of 1 h. The present one-way nested global-through-regional-scale model is called the Meteorological Research Institute - Passive-tracers Model system for atmospheric Chemistry (MRI-PM/c). We evaluated the model performance with respect to the major inorganic components in rain and snow measured by stations of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). Through statistical analysis, we show that the model successfully reproduced the regional-scale processes of emission, transport, transformation, and wet deposition of major inorganic species derived from anthropogenic and natural sources, including SO42-, NH4+, NO3-, Na+ and Ca2+. Interestingly, the only exception was Na+ in precipitation at near-coastal stations (where the distance from the coast was from 150 to 700 m), concentrations of which were significantly underestimated by the model, by up to a factor of 30. This result suggested that the contribution of short-lived, super-large sea salt droplets (SLSD; D > 10-100 μm) was substantial in precipitation samples at stations near the coast of Japan; thus samples were horizontally representative only within the traveling distances of SLSD (from 1 to 10 km). Nevertheless, the calculated effect of SLSD on precipitation pH was very low, a change of about +0.014 on average, even if the ratio of SLSD to all sea salt in precipitation was assumed to be 90%.

  2. [Gold salt deposits in the conjunctiva in rheumatoid arthritis after gold therapy. A systematic study of 15 biopsies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancel, E; Janin, A; Duquesnoy, B; Noachovitch-Rigaut, B; Hatron, P Y; Constantinides, G

    1992-11-30

    Ocular abnormalities have long been recognized as a potential adverse effect of gold therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical symptoms and ocular tissue lesions possibly related to use of gold therapy were routinely evaluated in eleven patients. There were few clinical manifestations: only one patient had typical accumulation of gold in the anterior crystalloid. In contrast, routine ultrastructural and microprobe studies of conjunctival biopsy specimens disclosed accumulation of gold salts in every case. Gold was visible as aurosomes in the conjunctival macrophages. Aurosomes were seen in patients treated for as little as one month, occurred even with low doses (0.3 g), and were still visible after several years. Duration of accumulation can be roughly estimated on the basis of the morphologic appearance of aurosomes which are lamellar after a few weeks of gold therapy and rod-shaped beyond one month.

  3. Hot Corrosion Behavior of Arc-Sprayed Highly Dense NiCr-Based Coatings in Chloride Salt Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Enwei; Yin, Song; Ji, Hua; Huang, Qian; Liu, Zekun; Wu, Shuhui

    2017-04-01

    To make cities more environmentally friendly, combustible wastes tend to be incinerated in waste-to-energy power plant boilers. However, release of chlorine gas (Cl2) during incineration causes serious problems related to hot corrosion of boiler tubes and poses a safety threat for such plants. In this study, a pseudo-de Laval nozzle was employed in a twin-wire arc spray system to enhance the velocity of in-flight particles. Highly dense NiCr-based coatings were obtained using the modified nozzle gun. The coating morphology was characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and hot corrosion testing was carried out in a synthetic molten chloride salt environment. Results showed that the dense NiCr-based coatings exhibited high resistance against corrosion by chlorine, which can be related to the typical splat lamellar microstructure and chemical composition as well as minor alloying elements such as Ti and Mo.

  4. Impact of sea-salt emissions on the model performance and aerosol chemical composition and deposition in the East Mediterranean coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ulas

    2013-08-01

    East Mediterranean region is often exposed to significant levels of particulate matter (PM), partly due to the natural emission sources surrounding the area. The complex coastal geography together with the high water coverage of the area implies important contribution of sea-salt aerosols (SSA) to the PM levels and composition. WRF-CMAQ air quality modeling system has been employed to simulate and quantify the impacts of SSA emissions on the model performance in the region. The results show up to one order of magnitude higher SSA emissions when surf-zone emissions are added. 10-20% improvements are calculated in terms of model discrepancies of PM10 mass with regards to the observations. SSA related particles (sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-)) are more realistically represented. The total nitrate (NO3-) partitioning ratio increases substantially up to 0.5 on average when SSA emissions are inserted to the model, leading to nitric acid (HNO3) levels decrease by more than 40% and total NO3- aerosols increase by more than an order of magnitude over the source areas. Adding surf-zone emissions over those from open-ocean increase PM10 deposition by up to 11% and wet deposition by around 1%. The results suggest that coastal areas are important sources of SSA emissions and can significantly alter the PM levels and composition in their vicinities.

  5. Insights from the metagenome of an acid salt lake: the role of biology in an extreme depositional environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Stewart Johnson

    Full Text Available The extremely acidic brine lakes of the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia are home to some of the most biologically challenging waters on Earth. In this study, we employed metagenomic shotgun sequencing to generate a microbial profile of the depositional environment associated with the sulfur-rich sediments of one such lake. Of the 1.5 M high-quality reads generated, 0.25 M were mapped to protein features, which in turn provide new insights into the metabolic function of this community. In particular, 45 diverse genes associated with sulfur metabolism were identified, the majority of which were linked to either the conversion of sulfate to adenylylsulfate and the subsequent production of sulfide from sulfite or the oxidation of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate via the sulfur oxidation (Sox system. This is the first metagenomic study of an acidic, hypersaline depositional environment, and we present evidence for a surprisingly high level of microbial diversity. Our findings also illuminate the possibility that we may be meaningfully underestimating the effects of biology on the chemistry of these sulfur-rich sediments, thereby influencing our understanding of past geobiological conditions that may have been present on Earth as well as early Mars.

  6. Deposition, accumulation, and alteration of Cl−, NO3−, ClO4− and ClO3− salts in a hyper-arid polar environment: Mass balance and isotopic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F.; Böhlke, John Karl; Sturchio, Neil C.; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Estrada, Nubia; Brundrett, Maeghan; Lacelle, Denis; McKay, Christopher P.; Poghosyan, Armen; Pollard, Wayne; Zacny, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The salt fraction in permafrost soils/sediments of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica can be used as a proxy for cold desert geochemical processes and paleoclimate reconstruction. Previous analyses of the salt fraction in MDV permafrost soils have largely been conducted in coastal regions where permafrost soils are variably affected by aqueous processes and mixed inputs from marine and stratospheric sources. We expand upon this work by evaluating permafrost soil/sediments in University Valley, located in the ultraxerous zone where both liquid water transport and marine influences are minimal. We determined the abundances of Cl−, NO3−, ClO4− and ClO3− in dry and ice-cemented soil/sediments, snow and glacier ice, and also characterized Cl− and NO3−isotopically. The data are not consistent with salt deposition in a sublimation till, nor with nuclear weapon testing fall-out, and instead point to a dominantly stratospheric source and to varying degrees of post depositional transformation depending on the substrate, from minimal alteration in bare soils to significant alteration (photodegradation and/or volatilization) in snow and glacier ice. Ionic abundances in the dry permafrost layer indicate limited vertical transport under the current climate conditions, likely due to percolation of snowmelt. Subtle changes in ClO4−/NO3− ratios and NO3− isotopic composition with depth and location may reflect both transport related fractionation and depositional history. Low molar ratios of ClO3−/ClO4− in surface soils compared to deposition and other arid systems suggest significant post depositional loss of ClO3−, possibly due to reduction by iron minerals, which may have important implications for oxy-chlorine species on Mars. Salt accumulation varies with distance along the valley and apparent accumulation times based on multiple methods range from ∼10 to 30 kyr near the glacier to 70–200 kyr near the valley mouth. The relatively young age

  7. Deposition, Accumulation, and Alteration of Cl(-), NO3(-), ClO4(-) and ClO3(-) Salts in a Hyper-Arid Polar Environment: Mass Balance and Isotopic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F.; Boehlke, J. K.; Sturchio, Neil C.; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Estrada, Nubia; Brundrette, Megan; Lacell, Denis; McKay, Christopher P.; Poghosyan, Armen; hide

    2016-01-01

    The salt fraction in permafrost soils/sediments of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica can be used as a proxy for cold desert geochemical processes and paleoclimate reconstruction. Previous analyses of the salt fraction in MDV permafrost soils have largely been conducted in coastal regions where permafrost soils are variably affected by aqueous processes and mixed inputs from marine and stratospheric sources. We expand upon this work by evaluating permafrost soil/sediments in University Valley, located in the ultraxerous zone where both liquid water transport and marine influences are minimal. We determined the abundances of Cl(-), NO3(-, ClO4(-)and ClO3(-)in dry and ice-cemented soil/sediments, snow and glacier ice, and also characterized Cl(-) and NO3(-) isotopically. The data are not consistent with salt deposition in a sublimation till, nor with nuclear weapon testing fall-out, and instead point to a dominantly stratospheric source and to varying degrees of post depositional transformation depending on the substrate, from minimal alteration in bare soils to significant alteration (photodegradation and/or volatilization) in snow and glacier ice. Ionic abundances in the dry permafrost layer indicate limited vertical transport under the current climate conditions, likely due to percolation of snowmelt. Subtle changes in ClO4(-)/NO3(-) ratios and NO3(-) isotopic composition with depth and location may reflect both transport related fractionation and depositional history. Low molar ratios of ClO3(-)/ClO4(-) in surface soils compared to deposition and other arid systems suggest significant post depositional loss of ClO3(-), possibly due to reduction by iron minerals, which may have important implications for oxy-chlorine species on Mars. Salt accumulation varies with distance along the valley and apparent accumulation times based on multiple methods range from approximately 10 to 30 kyr near the glacier to 70-200 kyr near the valley mouth. The relatively

  8. Deposition, accumulation, and alteration of Cl-, NO3-, ClO4- and ClO3- salts in a hyper-arid polar environment: Mass balance and isotopic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F.; Böhlke, John Karl; Sturchio, Neil C.; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Estrada, Nubia; Brundrett, Maeghan; Lacelle, Denis; McKay, Christopher P.; Poghosyan, Armen; Pollard, Wayne; Zacny, Kris

    2016-06-01

    The salt fraction in permafrost soils/sediments of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica can be used as a proxy for cold desert geochemical processes and paleoclimate reconstruction. Previous analyses of the salt fraction in MDV permafrost soils have largely been conducted in coastal regions where permafrost soils are variably affected by aqueous processes and mixed inputs from marine and stratospheric sources. We expand upon this work by evaluating permafrost soil/sediments in University Valley, located in the ultraxerous zone where both liquid water transport and marine influences are minimal. We determined the abundances of Cl-, NO3-, ClO4- and ClO3- in dry and ice-cemented soil/sediments, snow and glacier ice, and also characterized Cl- and NO3- isotopically. The data are not consistent with salt deposition in a sublimation till, nor with nuclear weapon testing fall-out, and instead point to a dominantly stratospheric source and to varying degrees of post depositional transformation depending on the substrate, from minimal alteration in bare soils to significant alteration (photodegradation and/or volatilization) in snow and glacier ice. Ionic abundances in the dry permafrost layer indicate limited vertical transport under the current climate conditions, likely due to percolation of snowmelt. Subtle changes in ClO4-/NO3- ratios and NO3- isotopic composition with depth and location may reflect both transport related fractionation and depositional history. Low molar ratios of ClO3-/ClO4- in surface soils compared to deposition and other arid systems suggest significant post depositional loss of ClO3-, possibly due to reduction by iron minerals, which may have important implications for oxy-chlorine species on Mars. Salt accumulation varies with distance along the valley and apparent accumulation times based on multiple methods range from ∼10 to 30 kyr near the glacier to 70-200 kyr near the valley mouth. The relatively young age of the salts and

  9. Mixed salt crystallisation fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Helalizadeh, A

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the mechanisms of mixed salt crystallisation fouling on heat transfer surfaces during convective heat transfer and sub-cooled flow boiling conditions. To-date no investigations on the effects of operating parameters on the deposition of mixtures of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate, which are the most common constituents of scales formed on heat transfer surfaces, have been reported. As part of this research project, a substantial number of experiments were performed to determine the mechanisms controlling deposition. Fluid velocity, heat flux, surface and bulk temperatures, concentration of the solution, ionic strength, pressure and heat transfer surface material were varied systematically. After clarification of the effect of these parameters on the deposition process, the results of these experiments were used to develop a mechanistic model for prediction of fouling resistances, caused by crystallisation of mixed salts, under convective heat transfer...

  10. INNER SALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a...Products that have been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a mesomeric inner salt . (Author)...Novel phosphonium and phosphorane compounds ere prepared by a variety of m hods from triphenylphosphine and methylene bromide. Products that have

  11. Genesis of Tuzla salt basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušić, Amir; Baraković, Amir; Komatina, Snezana

    2017-04-01

    Salt is condition for the survival of the human race, and holds a special place in the exploitation of mineral resources. It is the only mineral raw material used in direct feeding, and therefore has its own specialty. Salt is a crystalline mineral that is found in seawater, as well as in underground areas where it is formed by deposition of salt sediments. Occurrences of salt water near Tuzla and Gornja Tuzla have been known since the time of the Romans as "ad salinas". The name itself connects Bosnia with its richness in salt, because the word barefoot, which is preserved in a north-Albanian dialect, means a place where boiling salted water are obtained. At the time of the Bosnian kings, these regions are named Soli, which is in connection with occurences of saline sources. Geological studies of rock salt in the area of Tuzla basin are practically began after the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in the period from 1878 to 1918. Geological field work was conducted K. Paul, H. Hefer, E. Tietze and F. Katzer. Monomineral deposit of rock salt Tetima is made of halite and anhydrite mixed with marl belt, while the bay of salt in Tuzla is polymineral and contains a considerable amount of thenardite (Na2SO4) and rare minerals: nortupit, nahkolit, bradleit, probertit, glauberite and others. Both salt deposits were created as a product of chemical sedimentation in the lower Miocene Badenian sediments. The main objective of this paper is to show the genesis of the deposits and the spatial and genetic connection. In addition, genesis of geological research in the areas of Tuzla basin will be presented.

  12. Preparation of coherent deposits of metallic titanium and zirconium by fused salts electrolysis. Preparacion de depositos coherentes de titanio y circonio metalicos por electrolisis de sales fundidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perillo, P.M.; Botbol, J. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Departamento de Desarrollo de Procesos, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1994-01-01

    The production of coherent deposits of metallic titanium and zirconium bath composition and operating conditions were studied. The cathode was a striated iron cylinder and a graphite crucible served as anode. K[sub 2]TiF[sub 6] and K[sub 2]ZrF[sub 6] dissolved in fused NaCl at 800 degree centigree may be electrolyzed under an insert gas atmosphere. It was found that the deposits depend on the electrolytic composition of the bath while other variables in the studied values do not influence significantly. (Author) 11 refs.

  13. Polarization (ellipsometric) measurements of liquid condensate deposition and evaporation rates and dew points in flowing salt/ash-containing combustion gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, K.; Rosner, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    An application of an optical polarization technique in a combustion environment is demonstrated by following, in real-time, growth rates of boric oxide condensate on heated platinum ribbons exposed to seeded propane-air combustion gases. The results obtained agree with the results of earlier interference measurements and also with theoretical chemical vapor deposition predictions. In comparison with the interference method, the polarization technique places less stringent requirements on surface quality, which may justify the added optical components needed for such measurements.

  14. Geochemical and environmental controls on the genesis of soluble efflorescent salts in Coastal Mine Tailings Deposits: A discussion based on reactive transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea, S. A.; Ayora, C.; Carrera, J.; Saaltink, M. W.; Dold, B.

    2010-01-01

    Water-soluble efflorescent salts often form on tailings in hyperarid climates. Their high solubility together with the high risk of human exposure to heavy metals such as Cu, Ni, Zn, etc., makes this occurrence a serious environmental problem. Understanding their formation (genesis) is therefore key to designing prevention and remediation strategies. A significant amount of these efflorescences has been described on the coastal area of Chañaral (Chile). There, highly soluble salts such as halite (NaCl) and eriochalcite (CuCl 2·2H 2O) form on 4 km 2 of marine shore tailings. Natural occurrence of eriochalcite is rare: its formation requires extreme environmental and geochemical conditions such as high evaporation rate and low relative air humidity, and continuous Cl and Cu supply from groundwater, etc. Its formation was examined by means of reactive transport modeling. A scenario is proposed involving sea water and subsequently a mixture of sea water/freshwater in the groundwater composition in the formation of these efflorescences. The strong competition from other halides (i.e. halite and silvite (KCl)) for the Cl may inhibit the precipitation of eriochalcite. Therefore, the Cl/Na ratio trend > 1 is a key parameter in its formation. Cation-exchange between Na + and other major ions such as K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+ and Cu 2+ in the clay fraction of tailings is proposed to account for realistic Cl/Na ratios. With regard to preventing the formation of eriochalcite, a capillary barrier on the tailings surface is proposed as a suitable alternative. Its efficiency as a barrier is also tested by means of reactive transport models.

  15. Geochemical and environmental controls on the genesis of soluble efflorescent salts in coastal mine tailings deposits: a discussion based on reactive transport modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea, S A; Ayora, C; Carrera, J; Saaltink, M W; Dold, B

    2010-01-15

    Water-soluble efflorescent salts often form on tailings in hyperarid climates. Their high solubility together with the high risk of human exposure to heavy metals such as Cu, Ni, Zn, etc., makes this occurrence a serious environmental problem. Understanding their formation (genesis) is therefore key to designing prevention and remediation strategies. A significant amount of these efflorescences has been described on the coastal area of Chañaral (Chile). There, highly soluble salts such as halite (NaCl) and eriochalcite (CuCl(2).2H(2)O) form on 4km(2) of marine shore tailings. Natural occurrence of eriochalcite is rare: its formation requires extreme environmental and geochemical conditions such as high evaporation rate and low relative air humidity, and continuous Cl and Cu supply from groundwater, etc. Its formation was examined by means of reactive transport modeling. A scenario is proposed involving sea water and subsequently a mixture of sea water/freshwater in the groundwater composition in the formation of these efflorescences. The strong competition from other halides (i.e. halite and silvite (KCl)) for the Cl may inhibit the precipitation of eriochalcite. Therefore, the Cl/Na ratio trend >1 is a key parameter in its formation. Cation-exchange between Na(+) and other major ions such as K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Cu(2+) in the clay fraction of tailings is proposed to account for realistic Cl/Na ratios. With regard to preventing the formation of eriochalcite, a capillary barrier on the tailings surface is proposed as a suitable alternative. Its efficiency as a barrier is also tested by means of reactive transport models.

  16. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  17. Early Holocene Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Miller, David; Thompson, Robert S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Shorelines and surficial deposits (including buried forest-floor mats and organic-rich wetland sediments) show that Great Salt Lake did not rise higher than modern lake levels during the earliest Holocene (11.5–10.2 cal ka BP; 10–9 14C ka BP). During that period, finely laminated, organic-rich muds (sapropel) containing brine-shrimp cysts and pellets and interbedded sodium-sulfate salts were deposited on the lake floor. Sapropel deposition was probably caused by stratification of the water column — a freshwater cap possibly was formed by groundwater, which had been stored in upland aquifers during the immediately preceding late-Pleistocene deep-lake cycle (Lake Bonneville), and was actively discharging on the basin floor. A climate characterized by low precipitation and runoff, combined with local areas of groundwater discharge in piedmont settings, could explain the apparent conflict between evidence for a shallow lake (a dry climate) and previously published interpretations for a moist climate in the Great Salt Lake basin of the eastern Great Basin.

  18. Electrophoretic Deposition of Gallium with High Deposition Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanfei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, electrophoretic deposition (EPD is reported to form gallium thin film with high deposition rate and low cost while avoiding the highly toxic chemicals typically used in electroplating. A maximum deposition rate of ~0.6 μm/min, almost one order of magnitude higher than the typical value reported for electroplating, is obtained when employing a set of proper deposition parameters. The thickness of the film is shown to increase with deposition time when sequential deposition is employed. The concentration of Mg(NO32, the charging salt, is also found to be a critical factor to control the deposition rate. Various gallium micropatterns are obtained by masking the substrate during the process, demonstrating process compatibility with microfabrication. The reported novel approach can potentially be employed in a broad range of applications with Ga as a raw material, including microelectronics, photovoltaic cells, and flexible liquid metal microelectrodes.

  19. Mechanical stratification of autochthonous salt: Implications from basin-scale numerical models of rifted margin salt tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ings, Steven; Albertz, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Deformation of salt and sediments owing to the flow of weak evaporites is a common phenomenon in sedimentary basins worldwide, and the resulting structures and thermal regimes have a significant impact on hydrocarbon exploration. Evaporite sequences ('salt') of significant thickness (e.g., >1km) are typically deposited in many cycles of seawater inundation and evaporation in restricted basins resulting in layered autochthonous evaporite packages. However, analogue and numerical models of salt tectonics typically treat salt as a homogeneous viscous material, often with properties of halite, the weakest evaporite. In this study, we present results of two-dimensional plane-strain numerical experiments designed to illustrate the effects of variable evaporite viscosity and embedded frictional-plastic ('brittle') sediment layers on the style of salt flow and associated deformation of the sedimentary overburden. Evaporite viscosity is a first-order control on salt flow rate and the style of overburden deformation. Near-complete evacuation of low-viscosity salt occurs beneath expulsion basins, whereas significant salt is trapped when viscosity is high. Embedded frictional-plastic sediment layers (with finite yield strength) partition salt flow and develop transient contractional structures (folds, thrust faults, and folded faults) in a seaward salt-squeeze flow regime. Multiple internal sediment layers reduce the overall seaward salt flow during sediment aggradation, leaving more salt behind to be re-mobilized during subsequent progradation. This produces more seaward extensive allochthonous salt sheets. If there is a density difference between the embedded layers and the surrounding salt, then the embedded layers 'fractionate' during deformation and either float to the surface or sink to the bottom (depending on density), creating a thick zone of pure halite. Such a process of 'buoyancy fractionation' may partially explain the apparent paradox of layered salt in

  20. Multiphase CFD modelling of water evaporation and salt precipitation in micro-pores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twerda, A.; O’Mahoney, T.S.D.; Velthuis, J.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    The precipitation of salt in porous reservoir rocks is an impairment to gas production, particularly in mature fields. Mitigation is typically achieved with regular water washes which dissolve the deposited salt and transport it in the water phase. However, since the process of salt precipitation is

  1. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A

  2. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivit...

  3. Salt marsh stability and patterns of sedimentation across a backbarrier platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Anders; Bartholdy, Jesper; Kroon, Aart

    2010-01-01

    Long term observations of clay thicknesses from 1949 to 2007 and measurements of the bulk dry density of salt marsh on the backbarrier of Skallingen (west Denmark) formed the basis of constructing a space distributed model of salt marsh deposition. The deposition potential (an empirical constant,...

  4. On autochtonous organic production and its implication for the consolidation of temperate salt marshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jesper; Bartholdy, Anders; Kim, Daehyun

    2014-01-01

    The organic production related to minerogene salt marsh deposits represents a challenge to all attempts to model the development of these areas, and evaluate their chances of survival under different sea level scenarios. Salt marsh deposits on a typical temperate backbarrier saltmarsh area at the...

  5. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  6. Origin of salt giants in abyssal serpentinite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Vittorio; Carbone, Serafina; Manuella, Fabio C.; Hovland, Martin; Rueslåtten, Håkon; Johnsen, Hans-K.

    2017-10-01

    Worldwide marine salt deposits ranging over the entire geological record are generally considered climate-related evaporites, derived from the precipitation of salts (mainly chlorides and sulfates) from saturated solutions driven by solar evaporation of seawater. This explanation may be realistic for a salt thickness ≤100 m, being therefore inadequate for thicker (>1 km) deposits. Moreover, sub-seafloor salt deposits in deep marine basins are difficult to reconcile with a surface evaporation model. Marine geology reports on abyssal serpentinite systems provide an alternative explanation for some salt deposits. Seawater-driven serpentinization consumes water and increases the salinity of the associated aqueous brines. Brines can be trapped in fractures and cavities in serpentinites and the surrounding `country' rocks. Successive thermal dehydration of buried serpentinites can mobilize and accumulate the brines, forming highly saline hydrothermal solutions. These can migrate upwards and erupt onto the seafloor as saline geysers, which may form salt-saturated water pools, as are currently observed in numerous deeps in the Red Sea and elsewhere. The drainage of deep-seated saline brines to seafloor may be a long-lasting, effective process, mainly occurring in areas characterized by strong tectonic stresses and/or igneous intrusions. Alternatively, brines could be slowly expelled from fractured serpentinites by buoyancy gradients and, hence, separated salts/brines could intrude vertically into surrounding rocks, forming salt diapirs. Serpentinization is an ubiquitous, exothermic, long-lasting process which can modify large volumes of oceanic lithosphere over geological times. Therefore, buried salt deposits in many areas of the world can be reasonably related to serpentinites.

  7. Sand in the salt marsh : Contribution of high-energy conditions to salt-marsh accretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Alma V.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Bakker, Jan P.

    2011-01-01

    The environmental dynamics at barrier-island salt marshes are reflected in lateral and vertical textural patterns of the marsh sediment. During normal conditions, fine-grained sediment is deposited, whereas during high-energy conditions also sand accretion can occur. This paper describes the

  8. Sand in the salt marsh: Contribution of high-energy conditions to salt-marsh accretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de A.V.; Veeneklaas, R.M.; Bakker, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The environmental dynamics at barrier-island salt marshes are reflected in lateral and vertical textural patterns of the marsh sediment. During normal conditions, fine-grained sediment is deposited, whereas during high-energy conditions also sand accretion can occur. This paper describes the

  9. Numerical simulation of ice-load induced salt movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Joerg; Al-Hseinat, Muayyad; Brandes, Christian; Hampel, Andrea; Hübscher, Christian; Winsemann, Jutta

    2015-04-01

    A correlation between salt structures, glacigenic features and faulting of Pleistocene deposits above salt structures has been recognised in many places of the formerly glaciated areas in northern central Europe and attributed to ice-sheet loading. Conceptual models predict that the load applied by an ice sheet will favour ice-marginal salt rise and obstruct salt rise beneath the ice sheet (e.g., Liszkowski, 1993). To test these models, we simulated the response of salt structures to ice-sheet loading using a 2D finite-element model (ABAQUS). The subsurface geometries used in our models are based on regional geological cross-sections and 2D seismic profiles of salt structures in the Central European Basin System. The model layers represent (i) sedimentary rocks of elastoplastic rheology, (ii) a viscoelastic salt structure and (iii) elastoplastic basement rocks. At the model surface a temporarily and spatially variable pressure simulates ice-sheet loading. All our simulations show a response of salt structures to ice-sheet loading, which strongly depends on the location of the ice margin relative to the salt structure. Salt structures rise in front of the ice margin (up to 4 m), if load is applied to the salt source layer. Beneath an ice sheet salt structures are pushed down (up to 36 m). Much of the subglacial downwards displacement is compensated by a reversal of the movement during ice retreat. The resulting surface displacements are therefore rather low and depend on the spatial and temporal configuration of the ice load (Lang et al., 2014). Permanent deformation is restricted to the model layers above the salt structure, which either have a low yield stress to represent the unconsolidated infill of secondary rim-synclines or are dissected by steeply dipping crestal graben faults. Ice-induced salt movements will reactivate faults above the crests of salt structures, although the resulting displacements will be low due to the repeated reversals of the sense of

  10. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  11. Early Holocene Great Salt Lake, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Miller, David M.; Thompson, Robert S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2015-07-01

    Shorelines and surficial deposits (including buried forest-floor mats and organic-rich wetland sediments) show that Great Salt Lake did not rise higher than modern lake levels during the earliest Holocene (11.5-10.2 cal ka BP; 10-9 14C ka BP). During that period, finely laminated, organic-rich muds (sapropel) containing brine-shrimp cysts and pellets and interbedded sodium-sulfate salts were deposited on the lake floor. Sapropel deposition was probably caused by stratification of the water column - a freshwater cap possibly was formed by groundwater, which had been stored in upland aquifers during the immediately preceding late-Pleistocene deep-lake cycle (Lake Bonneville), and was actively discharging on the basin floor. A climate characterized by low precipitation and runoff, combined with local areas of groundwater discharge in piedmont settings, could explain the apparent conflict between evidence for a shallow lake (a dry climate) and previously published interpretations for a moist climate in the Great Salt Lake basin of the eastern Great Basin.

  12. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  13. SALT for Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

  14. The effect of the salt viscosity on future evolution of the Gorleben salt diapir, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Schmeling, H.; Koyi, H.

    2009-01-01

    The Gorleben diapir, which has been targeted for radioactive waste disposal, contains large blocks of anhydrite. Numerical models that depict the geometrical configuration of the Gorleben diapir are used to understand internal structure of diapir caused by movement of the anhydrite blocks....... Decreasing salt viscosity allows the previously “stationary” anhydrite blocks to sink. If the effective viscosity of salt in post-depositional stage of the Gorleben diapir falls below this threshold value, induced internal flow due to the present anhydrite layer might disturb any repository within the diapir....

  15. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  16. Base cation deposition in Europe - Part II. Acid neutralization capacity and contribution to forest nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draaijers, G.P.J.; Leeuwen, E.P. van; Jong, P.G.H. de; Erisman, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    An assessment was made of the capacity of base cations to neutralize acid deposition and of the contribution of base cation deposition to forest nutrition in Europe. In large parts of southern Europe more than 50% of the potential acid deposition was found counteracted by deposition of non-sea salt

  17. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  18. A universal salt model based on under-ground precipitation of solid salts due to supercritical water `out-salting'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueslåtten, H.; Hovland, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    One of the common characteristics of planets Earth and Mars is that both host water (H2O) and large accumulations of salt. Whereas Earth’s surface-environment can be regarded as ‘water-friendly’ and ‘salt hostile’, the reverse can be said for the surface of Mars. This is because liquid water is stable on Earth, and the atmosphere transports humidity around the globe, whereas on planet Mars, liquid water is unstable, rendering the atmosphere dry and, therefore, ‘salt-friendly’. The riddle as to how the salt accumulated in various locations on those two planets, is one of long-lasting and great debate. The salt accumulations on Earth are traditionally termed ‘evaporites’, meaning that they formed as a consequence of the evaporation of large masses of seawater. How the accumulations on Mars formed is much harder to explain, as an ocean only existed briefly. Although water molecules and OH-groups may exist in abundance in bound form (crystal water, adsorbed water, etc.), the only place where free water is expected to be stable on Mars is within underground faults, fractures, and crevices. Here it likely occurs as brine or in the form of ice. Based on these conditions, a key to understanding the accumulation of large deposits of salt on both planets is linked to how brines behave in the subsurface when pressurized and heated beyond their supercritical point. At depths greater than about 3 km (P>300 bars) water will no longer boil in a steam phase. Rather, it becomes supercritical and will attain the phase of supercritical water vapor (SCRIW) with a specific gravity of typically 0.3 g/cm3. An important characteristic of SCRIW is its inability to dissolve the common sea salts. The salt dissolved in the brines will therefore precipitate as solid particles when brines (seawater on the Earth) move into the supercritical P&T-domain (T>400°C, P>300 bars). Numerical modeling of a hydrothermal system in the Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea indicates that a

  19. The influence of salt aerosol on alpha radiation detection by WIPP continuous air monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, W.T.; Walker, B.A. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) performance was evaluated to determine if CAMs could detect accidental releases of transuranic radioactivity from the underground repository. Anomalous alpha spectra and poor background subtraction were observed and attributed to salt deposits on the CAM sampling filters. Microscopic examination of salt laden sampling filters revealed that aerosol particles were forming dendritic structures on the surface of the sampling filters. Alpha CAM detection efficiency decreased exponentially as salt deposits increased on the sampling filters, suggesting that sampling-filter salt was performing like a fibrous filter rather than a membrane filter. Aerosol particles appeared to penetrate the sampling-filter salt deposits and alpha particle energy was reduced. These findings indicate that alpha CAMs may not be able to detect acute releases of radioactivity, and consequently CAMs are not used as part of the WIPP dynamic confinement system. 12 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Amine salts of nitroazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1993-10-26

    Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

  1. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reports of people becoming psychotic (losing touch with reality) and violent. Although it is rare, there have ... in bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations ( ...

  2. Characterization of bedded salt for storage caverns -- A case study from the Midland Basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovorka, Susan D.; Nava, Robin

    2000-06-13

    The geometry of Permian bedding salt in the Midland Basin is a product of interaction between depositional facies and postdepositional modification by salt dissolution. Mapping high-frequency cycle patterns in cross section and map view using wireline logs documents the salt geometry. Geologically based interpretation of depositional and dissolution processes provides a powerful tool for mapping and geometry of salt to assess the suitability of sites for development of solution-mined storage caverns. In addition, this process-based description of salt geometry complements existing data about the evolution of one of the best-known sedimentary basins in the world, and can serve as a genetic model to assist in interpreting other salts.

  3. The origin of salt-encased sediment packages: Observations from the SE Precaspian Basin (Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Naiara; Duffy, Oliver B.; Hudec, Michael R.; Jackson, Martin P. A.; Burg, George; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Dooley, Tim P.

    2017-04-01

    Intrasalt sediment packages containing siliciclastic sediments, carbonate sediments, or non-halite evaporites such as gypsum or anhydrite are common within most salt sequences. Intrasalt sediment packages may have been deposited before, during, or after salt deposition and be incorporated into the salt by various processes. Understanding the origin and evolution of intrasalt sediment packages may yield important insights into the tectonic and geodynamic history of the basin, and also into the understanding of salt tectonics. Despite the importance of intrasalt sediment packages, currently there is no systematic description of their possible origins and their distinguishing criteria. This work is divided into three parts. The first part outlines the possible origins of intrasalt sediment packages, as well as criteria to determine if they originated as subsalt, suprasalt or intrasalt sequences. The second part examines how sediment packages that originated on top of salt, such as minibasins, can be encased within salt. Four key encasement processes are proposed: a) salt expulsion from beneath a minibasin experiencing density-driven subsidence; b) salt expulsion from beneath adjacent subsiding minibasins; c) salt expulsion associated with lateral shortening; d) override of minibasins by a salt sheet sourced from elsewhere. The third part of the paper presents a case study from the SE Precaspian Basin, Kazakhstan, where, using a borehole-constrained 3D seismic reflection dataset, the proposed criteria are applied to an area with abundant, newly discovered sediment packages within salt.

  4. Iodized Salt Use and Salt Iodine Content among Household Salts from Six Districts of Eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, S; Gelal, B; Tamang, M K; Kc, R; Singh, S; Lamsal, M; Baral, N

    2014-01-01

    Universal salt iodization is considered the best strategy for controlling iodine deficiency disorders in Nepal. This study was done to find iodized salt use among Nepalese population and the iodine content of household salts. Six districts (Siraha, Saptari, Jhapa, Udayapur, Ilam and Panchthar) were chosen randomly from 16 districts of eastern Nepal for the study. In each district, three schools (private and government) were chosen randomly for sample collection. A total of 1803 salt samples were collected from schools of those districts. For sample collection a clean air tight plastic pouch was provided to each school child and was asked to bring approximately 15 gm of their kitchen salt. The information about type of salt used; 'two child logo' iodized salt or crystal salt was obtained from each child and salt iodine content was estimated using iodometric titration. At the time of study, 85% (n=1533) of Nepalese households were found to use iodized salt whereas 15% (n=270) used crystal salt. The mean iodine content in iodized and crystal salt was 40.8±12.35 ppm and 18.43±11.49 ppm respectively. There was significant difference between iodized and crystal salts use and salt iodine content of iodized and crystal salt among different districts (p value <0.001 at confidence level of 95%). Of the total samples, only 169 samples (9.4% of samples) have iodine content<15 ppm. Most Nepalese households have access to iodized salt most salt samples have sufficient iodine content.

  5. Not salt taste perception but self-reported salt eating habit predicts actual salt intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a sodium chloride solution. Predicted 24-hr urinary salt excretions using Kawasaki's and Tanaka's equations estimated dietary salt intake. Participants' mean age was 35 yr, and 59.5% were male. Salt sense threshold did not show any relationship with actual salt intake and a salt-eating habit. However, those eating "salty" foods showed higher blood pressure (P for trend=0.048) and higher body mass index (BMI; P for trend=0.043). Moreover, a salty eating habit was a significant predictor for actual salt intake (regression coefficient [β] for Kawasaki's equation 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10-2.69, P=0.048; β for Tanaka's equation 0.66, 95% CI 0.01-1.31, P=0.047). In conclusion, a self-reported salt-eating habit, not salt taste threshold predicts actual salt intake.

  6. Self-Healing Characteristics of Damaged Rock Salt under Different Healing Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Li; Chunhe Yang; Deyi Jiang; Song Ren; Jie Chen

    2013-01-01

    Salt deposits are commonly regarded as ideal hosts for geologic energy reservoirs. Underground cavern construction-induced damage in salt is reduced by self-healing. Thus, studying the influencing factors on such healing processes is important. This research uses ultrasonic technology to monitor the longitudinal wave velocity variations of stress-damaged rock salts during self-recovery experiments under different recovery conditions. The influences of stress-induced initial damage, temperatur...

  7. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure >15mmHg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% Females, 16% Blacks, BMI 28.5±4.2 Kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mmHg) as compared to high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mmHg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dl, 10.8±7.3 mIU/L and 2.6±1.9) as compared to high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dl, 9.4±5.8 mIU/L and 2.1±1.4) (p salt sensitive (N=193) versus salt resistant (N=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in HOMA on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt resistant subjects (p=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in HOMA after including age, BMI, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. PMID:25185125

  8. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  9. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  10. Gas releases from salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  11. Salt marsh stability modelled in relation to sea level rise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jesper; Bartholdy, Anders; Kroon, Aart

    2010-01-01

    Accretion on a natural backbarrier salt marsh was modeled as a function of high tide level, initial salt marsh level and distance to the source. Calibration of the model was based on up to ca 80 year old marker horizons, supplemented by 210Pb/137Cs datings and subsequent measurements of clay...... thickness. Autocompaction was incorporated in the model, and shown to play a major role for the translation of accretion rates measured as length per unit time to accumulation rates measured as mass per area per unit time. This is important, even for shallow salt marsh deposits for which it is demonstrated...... marsh base. In general, deeper located markers will indicate successively smaller accretion rates with the same sediment input. Thus, stability analysis made on the basis of newly established marker horizons will be biased and indicate salt marsh stabilities far above the correct level. Running...

  12. A method for preventing salt sedimentation and corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalyy, G.A.; Bekstov, V.A.; Bogdan, V.N.; Korneyev, S.N.; Pernak, Yu.; Shagaydenko, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    A method is proposed for preventing salt sedimentation and corrosion through processing water with a surfacant (PAV) inhibitor. The method is distinguished by the fact that in order to increase the length of the effect of the inhibitor for preventing salt sedimentation and reducing the speed of the corrosion process in lift pipes of wells of gas condensate deposits, a mixture of a monotheanolamine salt ot alkylsulfate with a long C10 to C20 alkyl radical and a chloride of n-alyklthiomethylpyridine with a long C 6 to C12 alkyl radical is used as the inhibitor. The method is further distinguished by the fact that the processing is conducted at a weight relationship of components of the mixture in percent of: monoethanolamine salt of alkylsulfate, 95 to 97 and chloride of n-alkylthiomethylpyridine, 3 to 5.

  13. Salt creep and wicking counteract hydrophobic organic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Juergen

    2017-04-01

    The hydrophobic nature of many biological and edaphic surfaces prevents wetting and water movement. Already small amounts of salts and other hygroscopic material (e.g. by aerosol deposition to leaf surfaces) may change this situation. Salts attract minute amounts of liquid water to the surface and may dynamically expand on the original surface by creeping (evaporation-driven extension of crystals). Creeping is governed by fluctuations of relative humidity and increases with time. Under high, almost saturated concentrations of the salt solutions, ions from the chaotropic side of the Hofmeister series creep most efficiently. Once established, continuous salt connections may act to channel small water flows along the surface. They may act as wicks if water is removed from one side by evaporation. Stomata may in this way become 'leaky' by the leaf surface accumulation of hygroscopic aerosols.

  14. Geology of the north end of the Salt Valley Anticline, Grand County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Leonard Meade

    1976-01-01

    This report describes the geology and hydrology of a portion of the Salt Valley anticline lying north of Moab, Utah, that is being studied as a potential site for underground storage of nuclear waste in salt. Selection of this area was based on recommendations made in an earlier appraisal of the potential of Paradox basin salt deposits for such use. Part of sec. 5, T. 23 S., R. 20 E. has been selected as a site for subsurface investigation as a potential repository for radioactive waste. This site has easy access to transportation, is on public land, is isolated from human habitation, is not visible from Arches National Park, and the salt body lies within about 800 feet (244 m) of the surface. Further exploration should include investigation of possible ground water in the caprock and physical exploration of the salt body to identify a thick bed of salt for use as a storage zone that can be isolated from the shaly interbeds that possibly contain quantities of hydrocarbons. Salt Valley anticline, a northwest-trending diapiric structure, consists of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks arched over a thick core of salt of the Paradox Member of the Middle Pennsylvanian Hermosa Formation. Salt began to migrate to form and/or develop this structure shortly after it was deposited, probably in response to faulting. This migration caused upwelling of the salt creating a linear positive area. This positive area, in turn, caused increased deposition of sediments in adjacent areas which further enhanced salt migration. Not until late Jurassic time had flowage of the salt slowed sufficiently to allow sediments of the Morrison and younger formations to be deposited across the salt welt. A thick cap of insoluble residue was formed on top of the salt diapir as a result of salt dissolution through time. The crest of the anticline is breached; it collapsed in two stages during the Tertiary Period. The first stage was graben collapse during the early Tertiary; the second stage occurred after

  15. Origin and chemical composition of evaporite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, George William

    1960-01-01

    A comparative study of marine evaporite deposits forming at the present time along the pacific coast of central Mexico and evaporite formations of Permian age in West Texas Basin was made in order to determine if the modern sediments provide a basis for understanding environmental conditions that existed during deposition of the older deposits. The field work was supplemented by investigations of artificial evaporite minerals precipitated in the laboratory and by study of the chemical composition of halite rock of different geologic ages. The environment of deposition of contemporaneous marine salt deposits in Mexico is acidic, is strongly reducing a few centimeters below the surface, and teems with microscopic life. Deposition of salt, unlike that of many other sediments, is not wholly a constructional phenomenon. Permanent deposits result only if a favorable balance exists between deposition in the dry season and dissolution in the wet season. Evaporite formations chosen for special study in the West Texas Basin are, in ascending order, the Castile, Salado, and Rustler formations, which have a combined thickness of 1200 meters. The Castile formation is largely composed of gypsum rock, the Salado, halite rock, and the Rustler, quartz and carbonate sandstone. The lower part of the Castile formation is bituminous and contains limestone laminae. The Castile and Rustler formations thicken to the south at the expense of salt of the intervening Salado formation. The clastic rocks of the Rustler formation are interpreted as the deposits of a series of barrier islands north of which halite rock of the Salado was deposited. The salt is believed to have formed in shallow water of uniform density that was mixed by the wind. Where water depth exceeded the depth of the wind mixing, density stratification developed, and gypsum was deposited. Dense water of high salinity below the density discontinuity was overlain by less dense, more normally saline water which was derived from

  16. Kinematics and dynamics of salt movement driven by sub-salt normal faulting and supra-salt sediment accumulation - combined analogue experiments and analytical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsitzka, Michael; Kukowski, Nina; Kley, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    In extensional sedimentary basins, the movement of ductile salt is mainly controlled by the vertical displacement of the salt layer, differential loading due to syn-kinematic deposition, and tectonic shearing at the top and the base of the salt layer. During basement normal faulting, salt either tends to flow downward to the basin centre driven by its own weight or it is squeezed upward due to differential loading. In analogue experiments and analytical models, we address the interplay between normal faulting of the sub-salt basement, compaction and density inversion of the supra-salt cover and the kinematic response of the ductile salt layer. The analogue experiments consist of a ductile substratum (silicone putty) beneath a denser cover layer (sand mixture). Both layers are displaced by normal faults mimicked through a downward moving block within the rigid base of the experimental apparatus and the resulting flow patterns in the ductile layer are monitored and analysed. In the computational models using an analytical approximative solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, the steady-state flow velocity in an idealized natural salt layer is calculated in order to evaluate how flow patterns observed in the analogue experiments can be translated to nature. The analytical calculations provide estimations of the prevailing direction and velocity of salt flow above a sub-salt normal fault. The results of both modelling approaches show that under most geological conditions salt moves downwards to the hanging wall side as long as vertical offset and compaction of the cover layer are small. As soon as an effective average density of the cover is exceeded, the direction of the flow velocity reverses and the viscous material is squeezed towards the elevated footwall side. The analytical models reveal that upward flow occurs even if the average density of the overburden does not exceed the density of salt. By testing various scenarios with different layer thicknesses

  17. Mechanism for salt scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  18. Oxygen sparging of residue salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E.; Griego, W.J.; Owens, S.D.; Thorn, C.W.; Vigil, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    Oxygen sparge is a process for treating salt residues at Los Alamos National Laboratory by sparging oxygen through molten salts. Oxygen reacts with the plutonium trichloride in these salts to form plutonium dioxide. There is further reaction of the plutonium dioxide with plutonium metal and the molten salt to form plutonium oxychloride. Both of the oxide plutonium species are insoluble in the salt and collect atthe bottom of the crucible. This results in a decrease of a factor of 2--3 in the amount of salt that must be treated, and the amount of waste generated by aqueous treatment methods.

  19. Evaporite deposits of Bogota area, Cordillera Oriental, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Donald H.

    1972-01-01

    Four evaporite-bearing stratigraphic zones are known in Cretaceous strata of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia north and east of Bogota. The easternmost and oldest zone is probably of Berriasian to Valanginian age. The next oldest is probably late Barremian to early Aptian in age. The third appears to be Aptian. The westernmost and best known sequence in the Sabana de Bogota is Turonian to early Coniacian in age. This youngest sequence contains the thickest salt deposits known in Colombia and is probably the most widespread geographically.Most of the rock salt exposed in the three accessible mines (at Zipaquira, Nemocon, and Upin) has a characteristic lamination of alternating slightly argillaceous and highly argillaceous salt layers of varied but moderate thickness. Black, calcareous claystone, commonly very pyritic, is interbedded conformably with the laminated salt in many places throughout the deposits. Fragments of black claystone derived from the thinner interbeds are ubiquitous in all deposits, both as concordant breccia zones and as isolated clasts.Anhydrite is scarce at Zipaquira and apparently even rarer at Nemocon and Upin. Gypsum is produced at three small deposits in the oldest evaporite zone where it probably was concentrated by leaching of salt initially associated with it.The two intervening evaporite zones are not exposed, but their existence and distribution are indicated by brine springs and locally by "rute," a distinctive black, calcareous mud formed by the leaching of salt beds.Fossils show that the youngest salt-claystone zone, in the Sabana de Bogota, is contemporary with associated hematitic sandstone and siltstone, and with carbonaceous and locally coaly claystone. Although evidence is poor, this same facies relation probably exists within the other three evaporite zones.All salt deposits in this study probably are associated with anticlines, a relation best exemplified by the deposits on the Sabana de Bogota. Within these anticlines the

  20. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized...

  1. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  2. Factors controlling alkali salt deposition in recovery boilers. Release mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeough, P.; Kurkela, M.; Kylloenen, H.; Tapola, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Process Technology Group

    1997-10-01

    The research was part of an ongoing cooperative research effort aimed at developing a model to describe the behaviour of inorganic compounds in kraft recovery boilers. During 1996 experimental investigations of sulphur release were continued. Experiments at elevated pressures and employing larger particle sizes were performed in order to gain information about mass transfer effects. The first experiments yielding data on the rates of the sulphur-release reactions were performed. This data will be used as the basis of a drop model for sulphur release being developed in cooperation with another research group. The other part of the work during 1996 explored the possibility of using chemical equilibrium calculations to predict the release of sodium, potassium and chlorine in the recovery furnace. The approach is essentially different from that employed in earlier studies in that the effects of fume formation are taken into account. So far, the predictions of the chemical equilibrium release model have, in no way, conflicted with field measurements. (orig.)

  3. Investigation of the potentials of Nigerian salt deposit as fluxing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondary aluminium has been a major contributor to the total supply of aluminium to the national economy. To obtain high-grade secondary aluminum from scraps, melted scraps are subjected to such treatment as fluxing. Fluxing improves the quality of secondary aluminium products by eliminating the impurities and ...

  4. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... and can be used by individuals to replace salt in their diet. There are no known undesirable effects in healthy ...

  5. Carpinteria Salt Marsh Habitat Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland. We then drew polygons around each habitat...

  6. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  7. Microbial Diversity of Culinary Salts

    OpenAIRE

    Muske, Galen; Baxter, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Extremophiles are exceptional microorganisms that live on this planet in extraordinarily harsh environments. One such extremophiles are Halophiles, salt-loving microorganisms that can survive in extreme salinity levels, and have been found to survive inside salt crystals. We were curious is about the potential diversity of halophiles surviving in salts harvested from around the world. For this experiment various culinary salts were suspended in a 23 % NaCL growth media broth and allowed to gr...

  8. Elemental signature of terrigenous sediment runoff as recorded in coastal salt ponds: US Virgin Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larson, R.A.; Brooks, G.R.; Devine, B.; Schwing, P.T.; Holmes, C.W.; Jilbert, T.; Reichart, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    A high-resolution, multi-proxy approach is utilized on mm- to cm-scale laminated coastal salt pond sediments from St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, to determine: (1) the sedimentological signature of depositional events/processes, (2) link this sedimentological signature with known depositional

  9. Elemental signature of terrigenous sediment runoff as recorded in coastal salt ponds : US Virgin Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larson, Rebekka A.; Brooks, Gregg R.; Devine, Barry; Schwing, Patrick T.; Holmes, Charles W.; Jilbert, Tom; Reichart, Gert Jan

    2015-01-01

    A high-resolution, multi-proxy approach is utilized on mm- to cm-scale laminated coastal salt pond sediments from St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, to determine: (1) the sedimentological signature of depositional events/processes, (2) link this sedimentological signature with known depositional

  10. TYPES OF SALT MARSH EDGE AND EXPORT OF TROPHIC ENERGY FROM MARSHES TO DEEPER HABITATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We quantified nekton and estimated trophic export at salt marshes with both erosional and depositional edges at the Goodwin Islands (York River, Virginia, USA). At depositional-edge marshes, we examined trophic flows through quantitative sampling with 1.75 m2 drop rings, and thro...

  11. Brine migration in salt in a thermal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M.; Lerche, M.; Lesher, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Salt deposits have long been considered viable repositories for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. However, brine trapped in salt tends to migrate up thermal gradients, such as can develop around radioactive waste storage containers, potentially promoting corrosion of containment structures. Brine inclusions move up the temperature gradient through the three main steps: 1) the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the inclusion caused by increased salt solubility, 2) ordinary and thermal diffusion of dissolved salt ions within the inclusion, and 3) precipitation of salt at the cold side of the inclusion due to local supersaturation. This process of brine transport through salt under a thermal gradient is generally referred to as thermal migration. Here we investigated thermal migration of brine inclusion in salts for a wide range of mean temperatures (~ 50 °C to ~200 °C) and temperature gradients (~ 10 °C/cm to ~57 °C/cm). With time brine inclusions moving towards the heat source become elongated parallel to the thermal gradient. We quantified the rate of brine migration as a function of mean temperature and thermal gradient using time-lapse optical microscope. X -ray and neutron tomography were used to visualize and quantify 3D spatial distribution of brine inclusion in a salt crystal at different stages of thermal migration. Migration velocities are shown to increase with temperature, temperature gradient and size of inclusion. We find an abrupt increase in migration velocity at certain time steps of thermal migration. Migration velocities of brine inclusions ranged from 0.1 m/year to 30.7 m/year. Empirical equations at different velocity regions for brine inclusions were obtained by fitting exponential equations to the experimental data with high coefficient of determination values (R2> 0.94).The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical migration rates obtained using a previous analytical model.

  12. Hygroscopic salts and the potential for life on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Alfonso F; Duport, Luis Gago; Melchiorri, Riccardo; Jänchen, Jochen; Valea, Sergio; de Los Rios, Asunción; Fairén, Alberto G; Möhlmann, Diedrich; McKay, Christopher P; Ascaso, Carmen; Wierzchos, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Hygroscopic salts have been detected in soils in the northern latitudes of Mars, and widespread chloride-bearing evaporitic deposits have been detected in the southern highlands. The deliquescence of hygroscopic minerals such as chloride salts could provide a local and transient source of liquid water that would be available for microorganisms on the surface. This is known to occur in the Atacama Desert, where massive halite evaporites have become a habitat for photosynthetic and heterotrophic microorganisms that take advantage of the deliquescence of the salt at certain relative humidity (RH) levels. We modeled the climate conditions (RH and temperature) in a region on Mars with chloride-bearing evaporites, and modeled the evolution of the water activity (a(w)) of the deliquescence solutions of three possible chloride salts (sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride) as a function of temperature. We also studied the water absorption properties of the same salts as a function of RH. Our climate model results show that the RH in the region with chloride-bearing deposits on Mars often reaches the deliquescence points of all three salts, and the temperature reaches levels above their eutectic points seasonally, in the course of a martian year. The a(w) of the deliquescence solutions increases with decreasing temperature due mainly to the precipitation of unstable phases, which removes ions from the solution. The deliquescence of sodium chloride results in transient solutions with a(w) compatible with growth of terrestrial microorganisms down to 252 K, whereas for calcium chloride and magnesium chloride it results in solutions with a(w) below the known limits for growth at all temperatures. However, taking the limits of a(w) used to define special regions on Mars, the deliquescence of calcium chloride deposits would allow for the propagation of terrestrial microorganisms at temperatures between 265 and 253 K, and for metabolic activity (no growth) at

  13. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  14. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  15. Microemulsion of Molten Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    then to an oil-rich, upper phase as salinity increases in a system of brine/octane/ TRS surfactant/tertiary amyl alcohol . Borkovec et al. (1988) have...11 4. Partial Pseudotemary Phase Diagram .................................. 12 5. Micrograph of Molten Salts/SDS/Pentanol/Decane System...negligible interfacial tension between microdomains. Theoretical work in ternary and pseudotemary systems has shown that the middle phase is a

  16. The Younger Dryas phase of Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Miller, D.M.; McGeehin, J.P.; Zachary, C.; Mahan, S.

    2005-01-01

    Field investigations at the Public Shooting Grounds (a wildlife-management area on the northeastern shore of Great Salt Lake) and radiocarbon dating show that the Great Salt Lake rose to the Gilbert shoreline sometime between 12.9 and 11.2 cal ka. We interpret a ripple-laminated sand unit exposed at the Public Shooting Grounds, and dated to this time interval, as the nearshore sediments of Great Salt Lake deposited during the formation of the Gilbert shoreline. The ripple-laminated sand is overlain by channel-fill deposits that overlap in age (11.9-11.2 cal ka) with the sand, and by wetland deposits (11.1 to 10.5 cal ka). Consistent accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages were obtained from samples of plant fragments, including those of emergent aquatic plants, but mollusk shells from spring and marsh deposits yielded anomalously old ages, probably because of a variable radiocarbon reservoir effect. The Bonneville basin was effectively wet during at least part of the Younger Dryas global-cooling interval, however, conflicting results from some Great Basin locations and proxy records indicate that the regional effects of Younger Dryas cooling are still not well understood. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...... sediments, the diapir extruded an overhang. Using the asymmetric Klodawa Salt Structure (KSS) in central Poland as a prototype, a series of analogue models were carried out to investigate the evolution history and salt supply driven by asymmetric differential loading. During extension of the model, a daipir...

  18. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception

    OpenAIRE

    Tournier, Carole; Knoop, Janine E.; Kooyman, Gonnie; Smit, Gerrit

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various stimulation conditions involving relative changes in NaCl concentration of 20% and 38%. Changes in salt delivery profile had similar effect on saltiness perception when delivered either by a sipwise m...

  19. Study of the composition and gas-phase release characteristics of salt material extracted from MSW ash particles using STA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Frandsen, Flemming; Koukios, E.G.

    2007-01-01

    The ash material generated from the MSW incineration contains large amounts of alkali metals, heavy metals, chlorine and sulfur mainly deposited as inorganic salts and/or oxides on the surface of the Si-rich ash particles. In this work, the composition and gas-phase release characteristics of salt...

  20. Rheology of rock salt for salt tectonics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yuan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical modeling of salt tectonics is a rapidly evolving field; however, the constitutive equations to model long-term rock salt rheology in nature still remain controversial. Firstly, we built a database about the strain rate versus the differential stress through collecting the data from salt creep experiments at a range of temperatures (20–200 °C in laboratories. The aim is to collect data about salt deformation in nature, and the flow properties can be extracted from the data in laboratory experiments. Moreover, as an important preparation for salt tectonics modeling, a numerical model based on creep experiments of rock salt was developed in order to verify the specific model using the Abaqus package. Finally, under the condition of low differential stresses, the deformation mechanism would be extrapolated and discussed according to microstructure research. Since the studies of salt deformation in nature are the reliable extrapolation of laboratory data, we simplified the rock salt rheology to dislocation creep corresponding to power law creep (n = 5 with the appropriate material parameters in the salt tectonic modeling.

  1. Reactive halogen species above salt lakes and salt pans

    OpenAIRE

    Holla, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Salt lakes can be found on all continents and saline soils cover 2.5% of the land surface of the earth (FAO, 2012). This thesis investigates the presence of reactive halogen species (RHS) above salt lakes and saline soils to evaluate their relevance for tropospheric chemistry of the planetary boundary layer. Ground-based MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS measurements were conducted at salt lakes and two other sites with high halogen content. Prior to this work, RHS were found at three salt ...

  2. Proteomic Characterisation of the Salt Gland-Enriched Tissues of the Mangrove Tree Species Avicennia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wee-Kee; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    Plant salt glands are nature's desalination devices that harbour potentially useful information pertaining to salt and water transport during secretion. As part of the program toward deciphering secretion mechanisms in salt glands, we used shotgun proteomics to compare the protein profiles of salt gland-enriched (isolated epidermal peels) and salt gland-deprived (mesophyll) tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. The purpose of the work is to identify proteins that are present in the salt gland-enriched tissues. An average of 2189 and 977 proteins were identified from the epidermal peel and mesophyll tissues, respectively. Among these, 2188 proteins were identified in salt gland-enriched tissues and a total of 1032 selected proteins were categorized by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. This paper reports for the first time the proteomic analysis of salt gland-enriched tissues of a mangrove tree species. Candidate proteins that may play a role in the desalination process of the mangrove salt glands and their potential localization were identified. Information obtained from this study paves the way for future proteomic research aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying secretion in plant salt glands. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000771.

  3. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

    2012-10-09

    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  4. Experimental verification of corrosive vapor deposition rate theory in high velocity burner rigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Santoro, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    The ability to predict deposition rates is required to facilitate modelling of high temperature corrosion by fused salt condensates in turbine engines. A corrosive salt vapor deposition theory based on multicomponent chemically frozen boundary layers (CFBL) has been successfully verified by high velocity burner rig experiments. The experiments involved internally air-impingement cooled, both rotating full and stationary segmented cylindrical collectors located in the crossflow of sodium-seeded combustion gases. Excellent agreement is found between the CFBL theory an the experimental measurements for both the absolute amounts of Na2SO4 deposition rates and the behavior of deposition rate with respect to collector temperature, mass flowrate (velocity) and Na concentration.

  5. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Conclusions. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%. In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67% and Switzerland (85%. In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method.

  6. Influence of pre-salt topographic features on supra-salt deformation in Mediterranean basins: Geology vs. physical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Oriol; Vidal-Royo, Oskar; Gratacós, Oscar; Roca, Eduard; Muñoz, Josep Anton; Esestime, Paolo; Rodriguez, Karyna; Yazmin Piragauta, Mary; Feliu, Nil

    2017-04-01

    ) local seamounts during gravitational gliding (Western Mediterranean) and, 2) large regional reliefs during the emplacement of a thrust system (Eastern Mediterranean). The experimental results of the Western Mediterranean show that the geometry, continuity and orientation of these reliefs with respect to the margin slope are key factors during gravitational failure and influence supra-salt deformation. Experimental results in the Eastern Mediterranean indicate that different responses are obtained along-strike as a consequence of shortening when modeling the Eratosthenes seamount. These differences were basically controlled by the location of the seamount, that was a topographic high during the deposition of the Messinian evaporites. The presence of seamounts in the contractional domain, instead, initially enhanced salt inflation by buttressing and the subsequent development of salt sheets with the formation of an escarpment at the edge of the salt. The experimental results also provide geometrical constraints to bear in mind during interpretation of these structures and associated hydrocarbon plays, which are commonly poorly imaged in seismic data.

  7. Exceptional preservation of Miocene pollen: plasmolysis captured in salt?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durska, W.

    2016-07-01

    Exceptionally well-preserved Miocene pollen from the Bochnia salt mine of southern Poland is reported herein. The halite deposits within the salt mine belonging to Late Badenian (Miocene) marine evaporites originated in the Paratethys. Rounded and angular structures are present inside pollen grains. On the basis of the similarity with plasmolyzed pollen grains of modern plants, these structures are considered to represent cytoplasms plasmolyzed in the condensed brine prior to fossilization. Two forms of plasmolyzed cytoplasms (concave and convex) can be observed in modern pollen. Both are distinguished in the investigated fossil material. In porate and colporate grains the shape of the plasmolyzed cellular content is concave while in inaperturate it is convex. The plasmolysis form depends on the type of apertures and pollen shape. The percentage of pollen with fossilized cytoplasms within individual taxa is a valuable environmental indicator, as it depends on the proximity of the pollen-producing plant assemblages to the depositional setting. (Author)

  8. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  9. Deposit model for volcanogenic uranium deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, George N.; Hall, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanism is a major contributor to the formation of important uranium deposits both close to centers of eruption and more distal as a result of deposition of ash with leachable uranium. Hydrothermal fluids that are driven by magmatic heat proximal to some volcanic centers directly form some deposits. These fluids leach uranium from U-bearing silicic volcanic rocks and concentrate it at sites of deposition within veins, stockworks, breccias, volcaniclastic rocks, and lacustrine caldera sediments. The volcanogenic uranium deposit model presented here summarizes attributes of those deposits and follows the focus of the International Atomic Energy Agency caldera-hosted uranium deposit model. Although inferred by some to have a volcanic component to their origin, iron oxide-copper-gold deposits with economically recoverable uranium contents are not considered in this model.

  10. Hydrogeologic Framework of the Salt Basin, New Mexico and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, A. B.; Phillips, F. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Salt Basin is a closed drainage basin located in southeastern New Mexico (Otero, Chaves, and Eddy Counties), and northwestern Texas (Hudspeth, Culberson, Jeff Davis, and Presidio Counties), which can be divided into a northern and a southern system. Since the 1950s, extensive groundwater withdrawals have been associated with agricultural irrigation in the Dell City, Texas region, just south of the New Mexico-Texas border. Currently, there are three major applications over the appropriations of groundwater in the Salt Basin. Despite these factors, relatively little is known about the recharge rates and storage capacity of the basin, and the estimates that do exist are highly variable. The Salt Basin groundwater system was declared by the New Mexico State Engineer during 2002 in an attempt to regulate and control growing interest in the groundwater resources of the basin. In order to help guide long-term management strategies, a conceptual model of groundwater flow in the Salt Basin was developed by reconstructing the tectonic forcings that have affected the basin during its formation, and identifying the depositional environments that formed and the resultant distribution of facies. The tectonic history of the Salt Basin can be divided into four main periods: a) Pennsylvanian-to-Early Permian, b) Mid-to-Late Permian, c) Late Cretaceous, and d) Tertiary-to-Quaternary. Pennsylvanian-to-Permian structural features affected deposition throughout the Permian, resulting in three distinct hydrogeologic facies: basin, shelf-margin, and shelf. Permian shelf facies rocks form the primary aquifer within the northern Salt Basin, although minor aquifers occur in Cretaceous rocks and Tertiary-to-Quaternary alluvium. Subsequent tectonic activity during the Late Cretaceous resulted in the re-activation of many of the earlier structures. Tertiary-to-Quaternary Basin-and-Range extension produced the current physiographic form of the basin.

  11. Evolution of rheologically heterogeneous salt structures: a case study from the NE Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raith, A. F.; Strozyk, F.; Visser, J.; Urai, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    The growth of salt structures is controlled by the low flow strength of evaporites and by the tectonic boundary conditions. The potassium-magnesium salts (K-Mg salts) carnallite and bischofite are prime examples of layers with much lower effective viscosity than halite: their low viscosity presents serious drilling hazards but also allows squeeze solution mining. In contrast, intrasalt anhydrite and carbonate layers (stringers) are much stronger than halite. These rheological contrasts within an evaporite body have an important control on the evolution of the internal structure of salt, but how this mechanical layering affects salt deformation at different scales is not well known. In this study, we use high-resolution 3-D seismic and well data to study the evolution of the Veendam and Slochteren salt pillows at the southern boundary of the Groningen High, northern Netherlands. Here the rock salt layers contain both the mechanically stronger Zechstein III Anhydrite-Carbonate stringer and the weaker K-Mg salts, thus we are able to assess the role of extreme rheological heterogeneities on salt structure growth. The internal structure of the two salt pillows shows areas in which the K-Mg salt-rich ZIII 1b layer is much thicker than elsewhere, in combination with a complexly ruptured and folded ZIII Anhydrite-Carbonate stringer. Thickness maps of supra-salt sediments and well data are used to infer the initial depositional architecture of the K-Mg salts and their deformation history. Results suggest that faulting and the generation of depressions on the top Zechstein surface above a Rotliegend graben caused the local accumulation of bittern brines and precipitation of thick K-Mg salts. During the first phase of salt flow and withdrawal from the Veendam area, under the influence of differential loading by Buntsandstein sediments, the ZIII stringer was boudinaged while the lens of Mg salts remained relatively undeformed. This was followed by a convergence stage, when the

  12. Folding and fracturing of rock adjacent to salt diapirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Mark G.

    2017-04-01

    When John Ramsay wrote his groundbreaking book in 1967, deformation around salt diapirs was not something he covered. At the time, most geologists considered diapirs to form due to density inversion, rising through thick overlying strata due to buoyancy. In doing so, salt was thought to shove aside the younger rocks, shearing and fracturing them in drag folds and supposedly producing "salt gouge". Even after it was realized that the majority of diapirs spend most of their history growing at or just beneath the surface, the relative rise of salt and sinking of minibasins were (and are) still thought by many to be accommodated in part by shear and fracturing of rocks in a collar zone around the salt. There are two arguments against this model. The first is mechanical: whereas halite behaves as a viscous fluid, even young sediment deforms as a brittle material with layer anisotropy. Thus, the salt-sediment interface is the outer margin of an intrasalt shear zone caused by viscous drag against the diapir margin. The velocity of salt flow decreases dramatically toward the edge of the diapir, so that the outermost salt effectively doesn't move. Hence, no shear or fracturing is expected in surrounding strata. The second and more important argument is that empirical field data do not support the idea of drag folds and associated deformation. Certainly, strata are typically folded and thinned adjacent to diapirs. However, stratal upturn is generated by monoclinal drape folding of the diapir roof over the edge of the rising salt, and thinning is caused by deposition onto the bathymetric highs formed by the diapirs, often supplemented by roof erosion and slumping. Halokinetic sequences observed in numerous salt basins (e.g., Paradox Basin, La Popa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees, Sivas Basin, Zagros Mountains, Kuqa Basin) contain no diapir-parallel shear zones and minimal thinning and fracturing caused by diapir rise. Even megaflaps, in which strata extend for kilometers up the sides

  13. Relationship Between Salt Intake, Salt-Taste Threshold and Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many studies have found an association between sodium intake and blood pressure. Salt taste threshold is thought to be another marker of sodium intake. Objective: This study sought to assess two markers of sodium intake, 24-hour-urinary sodium and salt-taste threshold. We also determined the relationship ...

  14. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, J.L.H.C.; Tournier, C.; Knoop, J.E.; Kooyman, G.; Smit, G.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various

  15. Gravitational salt tectonics above a rising basement plateau offshore Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaullier, Virginie; Vendeville, Bruno C.; Besème, Grégoire; Legoux, Gaetan; Déverchère, Jacques; Lymer, Gaël

    2017-04-01

    Seismic data (survey "MARADJA 1", 2003) offshore the Algerian coast have imaged an unexpected deformation pattern of the Messinian salt (Mobile Unit; MU) and its sedimentary overburden (Messinian Upper Unit and Plio-Quaternary) above an actively rising plateau in the subsalt basement. From a geodynamic point of view, the region is undergoing crustal convergence, as attested by the Boumerdes earthquake (2003, magnitude 6.8). The rise of this plateau, forming a 3D promontory restricted to the area offshore Algiers, is associated with that geodynamic setting. The seismic profiles show several subsalt thrusts (Domzig et al. 2006). The data provided additional information on the deformation of the Messinian mobile evaporitic unit and its Plio-Quaternary overburden. Margin-perpendicular profiles show mostly compressional features (anticlines and synclines) that had little activity during Messinian times, then grew more during Plio-Quaternary times. A few normal faults are also present, but are not accompanied by salt rise. By contrast, margin-parallel profiles clearly show that extensional, reactive salt diapiric ridges (symptomatic with their triangular shape in cross section) formed early, as early as the time of deposition of the Messinian Upper Unit, as recorded by fan-shaped strata. These ridges have recorded E-W, thin-skinned gravity gliding above the Messinian salt, as a response to the rise of the basement plateau. We tested this hypothesis using two analogue models, one where we assumed that the rise of the plateau started after Messinian times (initially tabular salt across the entire region), the second model assumed that the plateau had already risen partially as the Messininan Mobile Unit was deposited (salt initially thinner above the plateau than in the adjacent regions). In both experiments, the rise of the plateau generated preferential E-W extension above the salt, combined with N-S shortening. Extension was caused by gravity gliding of the salt from

  16. Experiments in connection with Salt Domes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.G.; Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1928-01-01

    The different theories concerning the origin of Salt Domes in Roumania, Germany, Texas, Louisiana, Colorado and Utah are discussed. In Roumania the salt occurs in cores of “Diapir” anticlines. The existance of hills of salt indicates, that the salt is still pushing upwards. In Germany the salt

  17. Sodium: How to Tame Your Salt Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same amount of sodium as table salt. Use salt substitutes wisely. Some salt substitutes or light salts contain a mixture of table ... substitute — and get too much sodium. Also, many salt substitutes contain potassium chloride. Although potassium can lessen some ...

  18. COMPARISON OF GEO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WHITE ROCK SALT AND PINK ROCK SALT IN KŁODAWA SALT DIAPIR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malwina Kolano; Danuta Flisiak

    2013-01-01

    .... The present article introduces strength-strain properties of white rock salt, building the nucleus of northeastern edge anticline, and pink rock salt that belongs to the series of youngest rock salt...

  19. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  20. Bile salts secretion in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, J P; Areias, E; Meneses, L; Tiago, E

    1977-02-01

    The bile salts secretion was studied in ten normal subjects and sixteen patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, in a basal period and during 60 minutes after Secretin injection. Total bile salts were measured by a modification of the enzymatic method of Iwata and Yamasaki and the individual bile salts were separated by silica gel thin-layer chromatography. During the 60 minutes after Secretin the mean concentration was 2.88 +/- 2.58 muM/ml in normals and 1.96 +/- 1.25 muM/ml in cirrhotics. The difference is not significant. During the first 20 minutes however the concentration was higher than 3 muM/ml in 8 out of 10 normals and lower than 2 muM/ml in 10 out 16 cirrhotics. The ratios of tri-to dihydroxy bile salts was similar in both groups. The ratios between bile salts conjugated with glycine and with taurine was higher in normals, and the ratio between free to conjugated bile salts was higher in cirrhotics. The lower concentration of total bile salts immediatly after Secretin, the higher proportion of taurin conjugates and of free bile salts could be important factors in the difficulties of fact digestion and absorption frequently found in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.

  1. Compressibility of granulated rock salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinebaugh, R.E.

    1979-08-01

    Crushed rock salt will be used extensively at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as a material for backfilling underground openings. This document addresses one of the characteristics of crushed salt which must be known to assess the consequences of its usage, namely, compressibility.

  2. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  3. History Leaves Salts Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    These plots, or spectra, show that a rock dubbed 'McKittrick' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site at Meridiani Planum, Mars, has higher concentrations of sulfur and bromine than a nearby patch of soil nicknamed 'Tarmac.' These data were taken by Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, which uses curium-244 to assess the elemental composition of rocks and soil. Only portions of the targets' full spectra are shown to highlight the significant differences in elemental concentrations between 'McKittrick' and 'Tarmac.' Intensities are plotted on a logarithmic scale.A nearby rock named Guadalupe similarly has extremely high concentrations of sulfur, but very little bromine. This 'element fractionation' typically occurs when a watery brine slowly evaporates and various salt compounds are precipitated in sequence.

  4. Salt resistant crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Stuart J; Negrão, Sónia; Tester, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker-assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Molten Salt Promoting Effect in Double Salt CO2 Absorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong S.; Chen, Haobo; Singh, Prabhakar; King, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of molten salts as catalysts for CO2 absorption by MgO, and extend these observations to the MgO-containing double salt oxides. We will show that the phenomena involved with CO2 absorption by MgO and MgO-based double salts are similar and general, but with some important differences. This paper focuses on the following key concepts: i) identification of conditions that favor or disfavor participation of isolated MgO during double salt absorption, and investigation of methods to increase the absorption capacity of double salt systems by including MgO participation; ii) examination of the relationship between CO2 uptake and melting point of the promoter salt, leading to the recognition of the role of pre-melting (surface melting) in these systems; and iii) extension of the reaction pathway model developed for the MgO-NaNO3 system to the double salt systems. This information advances our understanding of MgO-based CO2 absorption systems for application with pre-combustion gas streams.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of a helicene-based imidazolium salt and its application in organic molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Jan; Zadny, Jaroslav; Strasak, Tomas; Kubala, Martin; Sykora, Jan; Dusek, Michal; Cirkva, Vladimir; Matejka, Pavel; Krbal, Milos; Vacek, Jan

    2015-02-02

    Herein we demonstrate the synthesis of a helicene-based imidazolium salt. The salt was prepared by starting from racemic 2-methyl[6]helicene, which undergoes radical bromination to yield 2-(bromomethyl)[6]helicene. Subsequent treatment with 1-butylimidazole leads to the corresponding salt 1-butyl-3-(2-methyl[6]helicenyl)-imidazolium bromide. The prepared salt was subsequently characterized by using NMR spectroscopy and X-ray analysis, various optical spectrometric techniques, and computational chemistry tools. Finally, the imidazolium salt was immobilized onto a SiO2 substrate as a crystalline or amorphous deposit. The deposited layers were used for the development of organic molecular semiconductor devices and the construction of a fully reversible humidity sensor. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Pencil lead scratches on steel surfaces as a substrate for LIBS analysis of dissolved salts in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jijon, D; Costa, C, E-mail: judijival@hotmail.com [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Politecnica Nacional, Ladron de Guevara E11-256, Apartado 17-12-866, Quito (Ecuador)

    2011-01-01

    A new substrate for the quantitative analysis of salts dissolved in liquids with Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is introduced for the first time. A steel surface scratched with HB pencil lead is introduced as a very efficient and sensitive substrate for quantitative analysis of dissolved salts in liquids. In this work we demonstrate the analytical quality of this system with the analysis of the crystalline deposits formed by the dried aqueous solutions of salts. We focused on analytical parameters such as sensitivity and linearity for the salt cations in each case. Four salts were studied (Sr(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, LiSO{sub 4}, RbCl and BaCl), at nine different concentrations each. To improve linearity and lower the overall error in the calibration curves, we introduce a novel outlier removal method that takes into account the homogeneity of the dry deposits on the analytical surface.

  8. Sulfomethylated lignite salt as a sacrifical agent in oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudchadker, M.V.; Weiss, W.J.

    1978-02-07

    A process is described for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs by secondary recovery methods. The process involves injecting via an injection well into the reservoir an aqueous solution of sulfomethylated lignite salt as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process is conducted by first injecting the lignite salt into the formation through the injection well and following it with either a polymer or a surfactant solution, which also may contain the lignite salt. The polymer or surfactant would then be followed by a drive fluid, such as water, to push the chemicals and oil to the production well. (18 claims)

  9. Iodized Salt Sales in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Maalouf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iodized salt has been an important source of dietary iodine, a trace element important for regulating human growth, development, and metabolic functions. This analysis identified iodized table salt sales as a percentage of retail salt sales using Nielsen ScanTrack. We identified 1117 salt products, including 701 salt blends and 416 other salt products, 57 of which were iodized. When weighted by sales volume in ounces or per item, 53% contained iodized salt. These findings may provide a baseline for future monitoring of sales of iodized salt.

  10. Does stress induce salt intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Susan J; Turner, Anne I; Nowson, Caryl A

    2010-06-01

    Psychological stress is a common feature of modern day societies, and contributes to the global burden of disease. It was proposed by Henry over 20 years ago that the salt intake of a society reflects the level of stress, and that stress, through its effect on increasing salt intake, is an important factor in the development of hypertension. This review evaluates the evidence from animal and human studies to determine if stress does induce a salt appetite and increase salt consumption in human subjects. Findings from animal studies suggest that stress may drive salt intake, with evidence for a potential mechanism via the sympatho-adrenal medullary system and/or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. In contrast, in the few laboratory studies conducted in human subjects, none has found that acute stress affects salt intake. However, one study demonstrated that life stress (chronic stress) was associated with increased consumption of snack foods, which included, but not specifically, highly salty snacks. Studies investigating the influence of chronic stress on eating behaviours are required, including consumption of salty foods. From the available evidence, we can conclude that in free-living, Na-replete individuals, consuming Na in excess of physiological requirements, stress is unlikely to be a major contributor to salt intake.

  11. Dietary Salt Exacerbates Experimental Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Alan L; Liu, Bo; Rogers, Troy D; Sartor, R Balfour; Miao, Edward A

    2017-08-01

    The Western diet is characterized by high protein, sugar, fat, and low fiber intake, and is widely believed to contribute to the incidence and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, high sodium chloride salt content, a defining feature of processed foods, has not been considered as a possible environmental factor that might drive IBD. We set out to bridge this gap. We examined murine models of colitis on either a high salt diet (HSD) or a low salt diet. We demonstrate that an HSD exacerbates inflammatory pathology in the IL-10-deficient murine model of colitis relative to mice fed a low salt diet. This was correlated with enhanced expression of numerous proinflammatory cytokines. Surprisingly, sodium accumulated in the colons of mice on an HSD, suggesting a direct effect of salt within the colon. Similar to the IL-10-deficient model, an HSD also enhanced cytokine expression during infection by Salmonella typhimurium This occurred in the first 3 d of infection, suggesting that an HSD potentiates an innate immune response. Indeed, in cultured dendritic cells we found that high salt media potentiates cytokine expression downstream of TLR4 activation via p38 MAPK and SGK1. A third common colitis model, administration of dextran sodium sulfate, was hopelessly confounded by the high sodium content of the dextran sodium sulfate. Our results raise the possibility that high dietary salt is an environmental factor that drives increased inflammation in IBD. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Mediterranean salt giants beyond the evaporite model: The Sicily perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmelo Manuella, Fabio; Scribano, Vittorio; Carbone, Serafina; Hovland, Martin; Johnsen, Hans-Konrad; Rueslåtten, Håkon

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean salt giants, occurring both in sub-seafloor and in onshore settings (the "Gessoso Solfifera Group"), are traditionally explained by repeated cycles of desiccation and replenishment of the entire basin. However, such hypotheses are strongly biased by mass balance calculations and geodynamic considerations. In addition, any hypothesis without full desiccation, still based on the evaporite model, should consider that seawater brines start to precipitate halite when 2/3 of the seawater has evaporated, and hence the level of the basin cannot be the same as the adjacent ocean. On the other hand, hydrothermal venting of hot saline brines onto the seafloor can precipitate salt in a deep marine basin if a layer of heavy brine exists along the seafloor. This process, likely related to sub-surface boiling or supercritical out-salting (Hovland et al., 2006), is consistent with geological evidence in the Red Sea "Deeps" (Hovland et al., 2015). Although supercritical out-salting and phase separation can sufficiently explain the formation of several marine salt deposits, even in deep marine settings, the Mediterranean salt giant formations can also be explained by the serpentinization model (Scribano et al., 2016). Serpentinization of abyssal peridotites does not involve seawater salts, and large quantities of saline brines accumulate in pores and fractures of the sub-seafloor serpentinites. If these rocks undergo thermal dehydration, for example, due to igneous intrusions, brines and salt slurries can migrate upwards as hydrothermal plumes, eventually venting at the seafloor, giving rise to giant salt deposits over time. These hydrothermal processes can take place in a temporal sequence, as it occurred in the "Caltanissetta Basin" (Sicily). There, salt accumulation associated with serpentinization started during Triassic times (and even earlier), and venting of heavy brines onto the seafloor eventually occurred in the Messinian via the hydrothermal plume mechanism

  13. Salt deformation mechanism and gas accumulation in the Transylvanian Basin, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pene, Constantin; Floroiu, Alina

    2017-04-01

    The Transylvanian Basin is the main producer of hydrocarbon gases in Romania. The first gas field (Sarmasel) has been discovered in 1909, untill now more than 129 gas structures being identified and exploited. The aim of this paper is to investigate the causes that created zones with different intensity of the diapirism in relation with the methane generation and accumulation. The Badenian salt movement had different intensities in the Transylvanian Basin. In the central part there are salt pillows, salt layers and piercement of salt. In this zone the salt is not outcropping and its flow produced only the doming of the overlying deposits. In the eastern and western parts of the basin salt flow determined an intensively deformation of the overlying rocks and the formation of the salt diapirs and salt wall growth. In these areas the salt even outcrops within a few sectors. The following mechanisms could be implied in the Badenian salt flow: salt buoyancy, differential sediment loading, flexural buckling of the overburden and drag by overburden. To evaluate which mechanism dominates in the Badenian salt flow in the Transylvanian Basin a simple model has been used considering an elastic plate overlying a viscous fluid. In this model the viscous fluid is the layer of Badenian salt and the elastic plate is represented by the overburden composed of Upper Miocene and Pliocene deposits. The vertical pressure gradient was calculated considering a constant density of overburden (2500 kg/m3) in correlation with the different sedimentary rates of the Upper Badenian (450 m/Ma), Sarmatian (150 m/Ma) and Pliocene (80 m/Ma). The initial salt thickness was variable, less than 300 m south of Mureş River and more than 500 m in the other zones of the basin. The amplitude and the wavelength of folding as well as the others parameters, like the thickness of the overburden and of the salt encountered in the apex of the structures as well as in the adjacent synclines have been measured on

  14. New data on the Geochemistry of Gases in the Potash Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Chaykovskiy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the gas phase of salt rocks from a number of potash deposits located in Europe (Verkhnekamskoe, Starobinskoe and Asia (Tubegatanskoe, Zhylyanskoe Satimolinskoe was studied. It allowed dividing them into two groups. In Asian deposits, only authigenic dry gases were formed by diagenetic decomposition of organic matter. Structural exposure of these deposits led to the oxidation of methane and hydrogen and enrichment by carbon dioxide. European deposits were not structurally exposed to the oxidation process, but were exposed during salt rock formation. They experienced influx of heavy hydrocarbons from the underlying strata. The history of the formation of gas regime at the Verkhnekamskoe potash deposit could be divided into three stages. First stage may be characterized by a syngenetic capture of deep gases and authigenic organic matter converted during diagenesis to methane, which percentage gradually increases with an increase of the thickness of impermeable salt strata. Then the deep gases invaded the salt formation during sedimentation of the upper carnallite layers and top salt rock. Third stage was associated with folding processes accompanied by a mobilization of fluids scattered in the gas-fluid inclusions, and with probable influx of heavy hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide resulted in formation of the secondary salt zones. Replacement of carnallite layers leads to the release of isomorphous ammonium ion and formation of a hydrogen.

  15. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Johanneke L H C; Tournier, Carole; Knoop, Janine E; Kooyman, Gonnie; Smit, Gerrit

    2009-05-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various stimulation conditions involving relative changes in NaCl concentration of 20% and 38%. Changes in salt delivery profile had similar effect on saltiness perception when delivered either by a sipwise method or by a gustometer. The impact of concentration variations and frequency of concentration changes was further investigated with the gustometer method. Five second boosts and 2 s pulses were delivered during 3 sequential 10-s intervals, whereas the delivered total salt content was the same for all conditions. Two second pulses were found to increase saltiness perception, but only when the pulses were delivered during the first seconds of stimulation. Results suggest that the frequency, timing, and concentration differences of salt stimuli can affect saltiness. Specifically, a short and intense stimulus can increase salt perception, possibly through a reduction of adaptation.

  16. Salt intake, plasma sodium, and worldwide salt reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; Macgregor, Graham A

    2012-06-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that a reduction in salt intake from the current level of approximately 9-12 g/d in most countries of the world to the recommended level of 5-6 g/d lowers blood pressure (BP) in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals. A further reduction to 3-4 g/d has a greater effect. Prospective studies and outcome trials have demonstrated that a lower salt intake is related to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Cost-effectiveness analyses have documented that salt reduction is more or at the very least just as cost-effective as tobacco control in reducing cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The mechanisms whereby salt raises blood pressure and increases cardiovascular risk are not fully understood. The existing concepts focus on the tendency for an increase in extracellular fluid volume. Increasing evidence suggests that small increases in plasma sodium may have a direct effect on BP and the cardiovascular system, independent of extracellular volume. All countries should adopt a coherent and workable strategy to reduce salt intake in the whole population. Even a modest reduction in population salt intake will have major beneficial effects on health, along with major cost savings.

  17. Laboratory studies of binary salt CVD in combustion gas environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Baishen; Rosner, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    A flash-evaporation technique is used to obtain vapor deposition characteristics for the binary alkali sulfates K2SO4 + Na2SO4 at 1 atm above 1100 K. The experimental equipment and techniques are described, and preliminary results are reported which indicate that this experimental technique meets most of the research requirements for studying multicomponent systems of current interest. The various deposition rate effects of introducing additives and the relevant inferences of condensate composition are presented, and the theoretical implications are discussed. It is concluded that alkali sulfate deposition and vaporization in combustion environments are inevitably influenced by chemical reactions such as hydroxide formation, and that solution nonideality is important even for homologous alkali-salt mixtures.

  18. Salting-in and salting-out of water-soluble polymers in aqueous salt solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Jahani, Farahnaz

    2012-05-03

    To obtain further experimental evidence for the mechanisms of the salting effect produced by the addition of salting-out or sating-in inducing electrolytes to aqueous solutions of water-soluble polymers, systematic studies on the vapor-liquid equilibria and liquid-liquid equilibria of aqueous solutions of several polymers are performed in the presence of a large series of electrolytes. Polymers are polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 250 (PEGDME250), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 2000 (PEGDME2000), and polypropylene glycol 400 (PPG400), and the investigated electrolytes are KCl, NH(4)Cl, MgCl(2), (CH(3))(4)NCl, NaCl, NaNO(3), Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit (tri-sodium citrate). Aqueous solutions of PPG400 form aqueous two-phase systems with all the investigated salts; however, other investigated polymers form aqueous two-phase systems only with Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit. A relation was found between the salting-out or sating-in effects of electrolyte on the polymer aqueous solutions and the slopes of the constant water activity lines of ternary polymer-salt aqueous solutions, so that, in the case of the salting-out effect, the constant water activity lines had a concave slope, but in the case of the salting-in effects, the constant water activity lines had a convex slope. The effect of temperature, anion of electrolyte, cation of electrolyte, and type and molar mass of polymers were studied and the results interpreted in terms of the solute-water and solute-solute interactions. The salting-out effect results from the formation of ion (specially anion)-water hydration complexes, which, in turn, decreases hydration, and hence, the solubility of the polymer and the salting-in effect results from a direct binding of the cations to the ether oxygens of the polymers.

  19. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  20. Recycling of aluminum salt cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Karvelas, D.E.

    1991-12-01

    The secondary aluminum industry generates more than 110 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of salt-cake waste every year. This waste stream contains about 3--5% aluminum, 15--30% aluminum oxide, 30--40% sodium chloride, and 20--30% potassium chloride. As much as 50% of the content of this waste is combined salt (sodium and potassium chlorides). Salt-cake waste is currently disposed of in conventional landfills. In addition, over 50 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of black dross that is not economical to reprocess a rotary furnace for aluminum recovery ends up in landfills. The composition of the dross is similar to that of salt cake, except that it contains higher concentrations of aluminum (up to 20%) and correspondingly lower amounts of salts. Because of the high solubility of the salts in water, these residues, when put in landfills, represent a potential source of pollution to surface-water and groundwater supplies. The increasing number of environmental regulations on the generation and disposal of industrial wastes are likely to restrict the disposal of these salt-containing wastes in conventional landfills. Processes exist that employ the dissolution and recovery of the salts from the waste stream. These wet-processing methods are economical only when the aluminum concentration in that waste exceeds about 10%. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a study in which existing technologies were reviewed and new concepts that are potentially more cost-effective than existing processes were developed and evaluated. These include freeze crystallization, solvent/antisolvent extraction, common-ion effect, high-pressure/high-temperature process, and capillary-effect systems. This paper presents some of the technical and economic results of the aforementioned ANL study.

  1. Homolytic reduction of onium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensterbank, Louis; Goddard, Jean-Philippe; Malacria, Max; Ollivier, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    Onium salts have proved to be efficient sources of carbon-centered radicals. They can undergo homolytic reduction by single electron transfer (SET) and participate in subsequent synthetic transformations. This review aims to provide an overview on the behavior of onium salts including diazonium, sulfonium, selenonium, telluronium, phosphonium and iodonium cations toward various reductive methods such as radiolysis, electrolysis, photolysis or the use of SET reagents. Mechanistic and synthetic aspects are presented. Applications in polymers and materials science are not covered.

  2. Microplastics in Spanish Table Salt

    OpenAIRE

    I?iguez, Maria E.; Conesa, Juan A.; Fullana, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Marine debris is widely recognized as a global environmental problem. One of its main components, microplastics, has been found in several sea salt samples from different countries, indicating that sea products are irremediably contaminated by microplastics. Previous studies show very confusing results, reporting amounts of microparticles (MPs) in salt ranging from zero to 680 MPs/kg, with no mention of the possible causes of such differences. Several errors in the experimental procedures use...

  3. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A closer look at salt loaded microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, M.R. de

    2006-01-01

    Many walls of ancient buildings are covered with plaster layers. Amongst the most recurrent causes of damage of plasters and substrates are moisture and salt decay processes. To combat these salt problems, special salt resistant plasters have been developed for application on salt loaded substrates.

  5. Study of borehole plugging in bedded salt domes by earth melting technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.L.

    1975-06-01

    The intent of this program is to define the most viable Melted In situ Rock salt Plug (MIRP) System options, these options being addressed primarily from the downhole subsystem perspective, with a conventional drill rig as the basis for the surface part of the MIRP System. Preliminary experiments had indicated that it is possible to backfill the open penetrations in the domed salt deposits with a melted in situ rocksalt plug such that in time the melted rock salt plug effectively duplicates the parent virgin salt. The programmatic assumption for the requirement of duplicating the virgin salt with a MIRP provides the basis for this study. A system functional analysis was performed to establish the requirements for the performance of the overall MIRP System. A similar functional analysis was conducted for the salt plug that would be formed by the MIRP System. Based on the analyses of the material, thermal, and structural behavior of the salt plug, the requirements for the formation of an acceptable salt plug were determined. From the functional analysis a determination was made of the operation of the hardware for the downhole portion of the MIRP System. From that perspective several design concepts were formulated. For these design concepts a technology roadmap was developed. The pertinent aspects, results, conclusions and recommendations of the above are summarized in the sections that follow.

  6. Modeling internal deformation of salt structures targeted for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemia, Zurab

    2008-09-15

    This thesis uses results of systematic numerical models to argue that externally inactive salt structures, which are potential targets for radioactive waste disposal, might be internally active due to the presence of dense layers or blocks within a salt layer. The three papers that support this thesis use the Gorleben salt diapir (NW Germany), which was targeted as a future final repository for high-grade radioactive waste, as a general guideline. The first two papers present systematic studies of the parameters that control the development of a salt diapir and how it entrains a dense anhydrite layer. Results from these numerical models show that the entrainment of a dense anhydrite layer within a salt diapir depends on four parameters: sedimentation rate, viscosity of salt, perturbation width and the stratigraphic location of the dense layer. The combined effect of these four parameters, which has a direct impact on the rate of salt supply (volume/area of the salt that is supplied to the diapir with time), shape a diapir and the mode of entrainment. Salt diapirs down-built with sedimentary units of high viscosity can potentially grow with an embedded anhydrite layer and deplete their source layer (salt supply ceases). However, when salt supply decreases dramatically or ceases entirely, the entrained anhydrite layer/segments start to sink within the diapir. In inactive diapirs, sinking of the entrained anhydrite layer is inevitable and strongly depends on the rheology of the salt, which is in direct contact with the anhydrite layer. During the post-depositional stage, if the effective viscosity of salt falls below the threshold value of around 1018-1019 Pa s, the mobility of anhydrite blocks might influence any repository within the diapir. However, the internal deformation of the salt diapir by the descending blocks decreases with increase in effective viscosity of salt. The results presented in this thesis suggest that it is highly likely that salt structures

  7. Lead salt TE-cooled imaging sensor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kenton; Yoo, Sung-Shik; Kauffman, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Progress on development of lead-salt thermoelectrically-cooled (TE-cooled) imaging sensors will be presented. The imaging sensor architecture has been integrated into field-ruggedized hardware, and supports the use of lead-salt based detector material, including lead selenide and lead sulfide. Images and video are from a lead selenide focal plane array on silicon ROIC at temperatures approaching room temperature, and at high frame rates. Lead-salt imagers uniquely possess three traits: (1) Sensitive operation at high temperatures above the typical `cooled' sensor maximum (2) Photonic response which enables high frame rates faster than the bolometric, thermal response time (3) Capability to reliably fabricate 2D arrays from solution-deposition directly, i. e. monolithically, on silicon. These lead-salt imagers are less expensive to produce and operate compared to other IR imagers based on II-VI HgCdTe and III-V InGaAsSb, because they do not require UHV epitaxial growth nor hybrid assembly, and no cryo-engine is needed to maintain low thermal noise. Historically, there have been challenges with lead-salt detector-to-detector non-uniformities and detector noise. Staring arrays of lead-salt imagers are promising today because of advances in ROIC technology and fabrication improvements. Non-uniformities have been addressed by on-FPA non-uniformity correction and 1/f noise has been mitigated with adjustable noise filtering without mechanical chopping. Finally, improved deposition process and measurement controls have enabled reliable fabrication of high-performance, lead-salt, large format staring arrays on the surface of large silicon ROIC wafers. The imaging array performance has achieved a Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) of 30 mK at 2.5 millisecond integration time with an f/1 lens in the 3-5 μm wavelength band using a two-stage TE cooler to operate the FPA at 230 K. Operability of 99.6% is reproducible on 240 × 320 format arrays.

  8. Atmospheric Deposition Modeling Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on model results for dry and total deposition of sulfur, nitrogen and base cation species. Components include deposition velocities, dry...

  9. Electro-Deposition Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The electro-deposition laboratory can electro-deposit various coatings onto small test samples and bench level prototypes. This facility provides the foundation for...

  10. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  11. Toxicity of road salt to Nova Scotia amphibians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Sara J. [Department of Biology, Saint Mary' s University, 923 Robie Street, Halifax, NS, B3H 3C3 (Canada); Russell, Ronald W. [Department of Biology, Saint Mary' s University, 923 Robie Street, Halifax, NS, B3H 3C3 (Canada)], E-mail: ron.russell@smu.ca

    2009-01-15

    The deposition of chemical pollutants into roadside wetlands from runoff is a current environmental concern. In northern latitudes, a major pollutant in runoff water is salt (NaCl), used as de-icing agents. In this study, 26 roadside ponds were surveyed for amphibian species richness and chloride concentration. Acute toxicity tests (LC{sub 50}) were performed on five locally common amphibian species using a range of environmentally significant NaCl concentrations. Field surveys indicated that spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) did not occupy high chloride ponds. American toads (Bufo americanus) showed no pond preference based on chloride concentration. Acute toxicity tests showed spotted salamanders and wood frogs were most sensitive to chloride, and American toads were the least. Spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) and green frogs (Rana clamitans) showed intermediate sensitivities. We concluded that chloride concentrations in ponds due to application of de-icing salts, influenced community structure by excluding salt intolerant species. - Salt toxicity is presented as a mechanism affecting the distribution of amphibians and structure of amphibian communities in roadside wetlands.

  12. Elevation of Fasting Ghrelin in Healthy Human Subjects Consuming a High-Salt Diet: A Novel Mechanism of Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Fenxia; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Chu, Chao; Wang, Yang; Wang, Dan; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Wang, Jun-Kui; Guan, Gong-Chang; Ren, Ke-Yu; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-05-26

    Overweight/obesity is a chronic disease that carries an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premature death. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between salt intake and obesity, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin, which regulates appetite, food intake, and fat deposition, becomes elevated when one consumes a high-salt diet, contributing to the progression of obesity. We, therefore, investigated fasting ghrelin concentrations during a high-salt diet. Thirty-eight non-obese and normotensive subjects (aged 25 to 50 years) were selected from a rural community in Northern China. They were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for three days at baseline, a low-salt diet for seven days (3 g/day, NaCl), then a high-salt diet for seven days (18 g/day). The concentration of plasma ghrelin was measured using an immunoenzyme method (ELISA). High-salt intake significantly increased fasting ghrelin levels, which were higher during the high-salt diet (320.7 ± 30.6 pg/mL) than during the low-salt diet (172.9 ± 8.9 pg/mL). The comparison of ghrelin levels between the different salt diets was statistically-significantly different (p salt diet elevates fasting ghrelin in healthy human subjects, which may be a novel underlying mechanism of obesity.

  13. Deposit Games with Reinvestment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulick, G.; Borm, P.E.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.

    2007-01-01

    In a deposit game coalitions are formed by players combining their capital. The proceeds of their investments then have to be divided among those players. The current model extends earlier work on capital deposits by allowing reinvestment of returns. Two specific subclasses of deposit games are

  14. The effects of snow and salt on ice table stability in University Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kaj; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; McKay, Christopher P.; Mellon, Michael T.

    2018-01-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys represent a unique environment where it is possible to study dry permafrost overlaying an ice-rich permafrost. In this paper, two opposing mechanisms for ice table stability in University Valley are addressed: i) diffusive recharge via thin seasonal snow deposits and ii) desiccation via salt deposits in the upper soil column. A high-resolution time-marching soil and snow model was constructed and applied to University Valley, driven by meteorological station atmospheric measurements. It was found that periodic thin surficial snow deposits (observed in University Valley) are capable of drastically slowing (if not completely eliminating) the underlying ice table ablation. The effects of NaCl, CaCl2 and perchlorate deposits were then modelled. Unlike the snow cover, however, the presence of salt in the soil surface (but no periodic snow) results in a slight increase in the ice table recession rate, due to the hygroscopic effects of salt sequestering vapour from the ice table below. Near-surface pore ice frequently forms when large amounts of salt are present in the soil due to the suppression of the saturation vapour pressure. Implications for Mars high latitudes are discussed.

  15. The structure and behavior of salts in kraft recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, R.; Badoi, R.D.; Enestam, S. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    The melting behavior in the salt system (Na,K)(CO{sub 3},SO{sub 4},S,Cl,OH) is investigated by laboratory methods to enhance and further develop a chemical model for salt mixtures with compositions relevant for recovery boilers. The model, based on both literature data and experimental work can be used as (a) submodel in models for the over-all chemistry in recovery boilers and to estimate (b) deposit formation on heat transfer surfaces (fouling), (c) the melting properties of the fly ash, and (d) the smelt bed in recovery boilers. Experimental techniques used are thermal analysis, high temperature microscopy` and scanning electron microscopy. The model is implemented in a global calculation model which can handle both gas phases and condensed phases in the recovery boiler. The model gives a detailed description of the chemical reactions involved in the fume and dust formation in different locations of the flue gas channel in the boiler. (orig.)

  16. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  17. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...... improves the theoretical understanding of the extraction process, and can contribute to the future development and optimization of the technique....

  18. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a

  19. Salt tectonics in Santos Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, David G.; Nielsen, Malene; Raven, Madeleine [Maersk Oil and Gas, Copenhagen (Denmark); Menezes, Paulo [Maersk Oil and Gas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    From Albian to end Cretaceous times, the inboard part of the Santos Basin in Brazil was affected by extension as salt flowed basinwards under the effect of gravity. Salt rollers, flip-flop salt diapirs and the famous Albian Gap were all formed by this process. Outboard of these extensional structures, contraction was taken up in a wide zone of thickened salt where salt collected. The overburden was carried on top of the salt as it flowed down-dip, with up to 40 km of translation recorded in Albian strata. (author)

  20. Self-Healing Characteristics of Damaged Rock Salt under Different Healing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Ren, Song; Yang, Chunhe; Jiang, Deyi; Li, Lin

    2013-08-12

    Salt deposits are commonly regarded as ideal hosts for geologic energy reservoirs. Underground cavern construction-induced damage in salt is reduced by self-healing. Thus, studying the influencing factors on such healing processes is important. This research uses ultrasonic technology to monitor the longitudinal wave velocity variations of stress-damaged rock salts during self-recovery experiments under different recovery conditions. The influences of stress-induced initial damage, temperature, humidity, and oil on the self-recovery of damaged rock salts are analyzed. The wave velocity values of the damaged rock salts increase rapidly during the first 200 h of recovery, and the values gradually increase toward stabilization after 600 h. The recovery of damaged rock salts is subjected to higher initial damage stress. Water is important in damage recovery. The increase in temperature improves damage recovery when water is abundant, but hinders recovery when water evaporates. The presence of residual hydraulic oil blocks the inter-granular role of water and restrains the recovery under triaxial compression. The results indicate that rock salt damage recovery is related to the damage degree, pore pressure, temperature, humidity, and presence of oil due to the sealing integrity of the jacket material.

  1. Self-Healing Characteristics of Damaged Rock Salt under Different Healing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Salt deposits are commonly regarded as ideal hosts for geologic energy reservoirs. Underground cavern construction-induced damage in salt is reduced by self-healing. Thus, studying the influencing factors on such healing processes is important. This research uses ultrasonic technology to monitor the longitudinal wave velocity variations of stress-damaged rock salts during self-recovery experiments under different recovery conditions. The influences of stress-induced initial damage, temperature, humidity, and oil on the self-recovery of damaged rock salts are analyzed. The wave velocity values of the damaged rock salts increase rapidly during the first 200 h of recovery, and the values gradually increase toward stabilization after 600 h. The recovery of damaged rock salts is subjected to higher initial damage stress. Water is important in damage recovery. The increase in temperature improves damage recovery when water is abundant, but hinders recovery when water evaporates. The presence of residual hydraulic oil blocks the inter-granular role of water and restrains the recovery under triaxial compression. The results indicate that rock salt damage recovery is related to the damage degree, pore pressure, temperature, humidity, and presence of oil due to the sealing integrity of the jacket material.

  2. Self-Healing Characteristics of Damaged Rock Salt under Different Healing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Ren, Song; Yang, Chunhe; Jiang, Deyi; Li, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Salt deposits are commonly regarded as ideal hosts for geologic energy reservoirs. Underground cavern construction-induced damage in salt is reduced by self-healing. Thus, studying the influencing factors on such healing processes is important. This research uses ultrasonic technology to monitor the longitudinal wave velocity variations of stress-damaged rock salts during self-recovery experiments under different recovery conditions. The influences of stress-induced initial damage, temperature, humidity, and oil on the self-recovery of damaged rock salts are analyzed. The wave velocity values of the damaged rock salts increase rapidly during the first 200 h of recovery, and the values gradually increase toward stabilization after 600 h. The recovery of damaged rock salts is subjected to higher initial damage stress. Water is important in damage recovery. The increase in temperature improves damage recovery when water is abundant, but hinders recovery when water evaporates. The presence of residual hydraulic oil blocks the inter-granular role of water and restrains the recovery under triaxial compression. The results indicate that rock salt damage recovery is related to the damage degree, pore pressure, temperature, humidity, and presence of oil due to the sealing integrity of the jacket material. PMID:28811444

  3. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  4. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, J. V.; De Prados, M.; Pérez-Muelas, N.; Cárcel, J. A.; Benedito, J.

    2012-12-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (pmeat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  5. Salt decay of Morley limestone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Van Hees, R.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Salt weathering is one of the main causes of decay of natural stone, and by consequence a major problem to the conservation of cultural heritage. In the present case, the performance of Morley limestone from the Département Meuse, France, as a replacement stone under saltloaded conditions is

  6. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Ash deposits formed during fuel thermal conversion and located on furnace walls and on convective pass tubes, may seriously inhibit the transfer of heat to the working fluid and hence reduce the overall process efficiency. Combustion of biomass causes formation of large quantities of troublesome...... ash deposits which contain significant concentrations of alkali, and earth-alkali metals. The specific composition of biomass deposits give different characteristics as compared to coal ash deposits, i.e. different physical significance of the deposition mechanisms, lower melting temperatures, etc....... Low melting temperatures make straw ashes especially troublesome, since their stickiness is higher at lower temperatures, compared to coal ashes. Increased stickiness will eventually lead to a higher collection efficiency of incoming ash particles, meaning that the deposit may grow even faster...

  7. Genes and Salt Tolerance: Bringing Them Together

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rana Munns

    2005-01-01

    Salinity tolerance comes from genes that limit the rate of salt uptake from the soil and the transport of salt throughout the plant, adjust the ionic and osmotic balance of cells in roots and shoots...

  8. Plant salt tolerance: adaptations in halophytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flowers, Timothy J; Colmer, Timothy D

    2015-01-01

    ..., and to develop salt-tolerant crops. In this Preface to a Special Issue on halophytes and saline adaptations, the evolution of salt tolerance in halophytes, their life-history traits and progress in understanding...

  9. Dietary salt reduction for control of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In developed as well as developing countries, the four main factors affecting blood pressure are high salt intake, low potassium intake, overweight, and low physical activity level. This is also true for the increase in blood pressure with advancing age, occurring in all societies. It is now accepted that excess dietary salt raises blood pressure levels, whereas dietary salt reduction reduces blood pressure and prevents vascular complications.(1 The effect of salt on blood pressure is presumably due to the inability of the kidneys to excrete large amounts of salt, as humans are evolutionary adapted to ingest and excrete less than 1 gram of salt per day.(2 In this connection it should be noted that the more important element in common salt (sodium chloride is the sodium ion, and any restrictions applying to common salt also apply to all food items that contain sodium ions, such as sodium glutamate and baking soda.

  10. Dynamic interactions between coastal storms and salt marshes: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Nicoletta; Carnacina, Iacopo; Donatelli, Carmine; Ganju, Neil Kamal; Plater, Andrew James; Schuerch, Mark; Temmerman, Stijn

    2018-01-01

    This manuscript reviews the progresses made in the understanding of the dynamic interactions between coastal storms and salt marshes, including the dissipation of extreme water levels and wind waves across marsh surfaces, the geomorphic impact of storms on salt marshes, the preservation of hurricanes signals and deposits into the sedimentary records, and the importance of storms for the long term survival of salt marshes to sea level rise. A review of weaknesses, and strengths of coastal defences incorporating the use of salt marshes including natural, and hybrid infrastructures in comparison to standard built solutions is then presented. Salt marshes are effective in dissipating wave energy, and storm surges, especially when the marsh is highly elevated, and continuous. This buffering action reduces for storms lasting more than one day. Storm surge attenuation rates range from 1.7 to 25 cm/km depending on marsh and storms characteristics. In terms of vegetation properties, the more flexible stems tend to flatten during powerful storms, and to dissipate less energy but they are also more resilient to structural damage, and their flattening helps to protect the marsh surface from erosion, while stiff plants tend to break, and could increase the turbulence level and the scour. From a morphological point of view, salt marshes are generally able to withstand violent storms without collapsing, and violent storms are responsible for only a small portion of the long term marsh erosion. Our considerations highlight the necessity to focus on the indirect long term impact that large storms exerts on the whole marsh complex rather than on sole after-storm periods. The morphological consequences of storms, even if not dramatic, might in fact influence the response of the system to normal weather conditions during following inter-storm periods. For instance, storms can cause tidal flats deepening which in turn promotes wave energy propagation, and exerts a long term detrimental

  11. Precipitation of sparingly soluble salts in packed sandbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakou, Efstathia I.; Sygouni, Varvara; Paraskeva, Christakis A.

    2015-04-01

    One of the main problems encountered by the oil extraction industry, is the reduction of the local permeability of the rock formation near the extraction wells because of salt deposition in the pores of the rocks during the injection of brine water to displace the trapped oil ganglia within the oil formations. This phenomenon makes the oil recovery less efficient and under extreme cases the well is abandoned with a large amount of oil entrapped. Several detailed studies have been conducted in the past concerning sand bed consolidation using sparingly soluble salts for varying conditions (e.g. temperature, grain size, sand type, salt concentrations etc) and various salts [1]. Nevertheless, salt precipitation in the rock formation pores under the presence of other miscible or immiscible substances with water has not been investigated in details yet. In the present study, salt (CaCO3) precipitation experiments were performed in small beds packed with sea sand mixed with a low amount of CaCO3 seed grains. The experiments were performed using pure solutions (NaHCO3, CaCl2.2H2O) and solutions mixed with Ethylene Glycol in sand beds. Additionally, precipitation experiments were performed using pure solutions in sand beds saturated with oil phase (n-dodecane) for a wide range of solution supersaturation. During the experiments the ionic strength was kept constant. pH and concentration values of calcium ion of the effluent were measured and the precipitated salt crystals were identified using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) method. At the end of each experiment Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was conducted using a sample of the precipitated sand to identify the morphology of the precipitated crystals and their cohesion with sand grains. Acknowledgments This research was partially funded by the European Union (European Social Fund-ESF) and Greek National Funds through the Operational program "Education and Lifelong Learning" under the action Aristeia II (Code No 4420). References

  12. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gadbury, Casey [USDOE Carlsbad Field Office, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  13. A closer look at salt loaded microstructures

    OpenAIRE

    Rooij, M.R. de

    2006-01-01

    Many walls of ancient buildings are covered with plaster layers. Amongst the most recurrent causes of damage of plasters and substrates are moisture and salt decay processes. To combat these salt problems, special salt resistant plasters have been developed for application on salt loaded substrates. However, experience in the field has shown that failures regularly occur on these special mortars, making the situation little transparent for end-users. A European project called COMPASS has addr...

  14. Solution synthesis of mixed-metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and spray deposition of precursor films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Douglas L.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.

    2000-01-01

    A colloidal suspension comprising metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and a volatile capping agent. The colloidal suspension is made by reacting a metal salt with a chalcogenide salt in an organic solvent to precipitate a metal chalcogenide, recovering the metal chalcogenide, and admixing the metal chalcogenide with a volatile capping agent. The colloidal suspension is spray deposited onto a substrate to produce a semiconductor precursor film which is substantially free of impurities.

  15. Salts in the dry valleys of Antartica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Presley, B. J.; Hatfield, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Dry Valleys of Antarctica are examples of polar deserts which are rare geological features on the Earth. Such deserts typically have high salinities associated with their closed-basin waters and on many surficial materials throughout them. In order to examine the possible sources for the salts observed in association with the soils in the Dry Valleys. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the water leachates from 58 soils and core samples were measured. The Cl/Br ratio for seawater is 289 and ratios measured for most of the 58 soils studied (greater than 85% of the soils studied) was larger than the seawater ratio (ratios typically were greater than 1000 and ranged up to 50,000). The enrichment in Cl relative to Br is strong evidence that the alts present within the soils were derived from seawater during ordinary evaporation processes, and not from the deposition of Cl and Br from aerosols or from rock weathering as has often been suggested.

  16. Anthropocene Survival of Southern New England's Salt ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In southern New England, salt marshes are exceptionally vulnerable to the impacts of accelerated sea level rise. Regional rates of sea level rise have been as much as 50 % greater than the global average over past decades, a more than fourfold increase over late Holocene background values. In addition, coastal development blocks many potential marsh migration routes, and compensatory mechanisms relying on positive feedbacks between inundation and sediment deposition are insufficient to counter inundation increases in extreme low-turbidity tidal waters. Accordingly, multiple lines of evidence suggest that marsh submergence is occurring in southern New England. A combination of monitoring data, field re-surveys, radiometric dating, and analysis of peat composition have established that, beginning in the early and mid-twentieth century, the dominant low-marsh plant, Spartina alterniflora, has encroached upward in tidal marshes, and typical high-marsh plants, including Juncus gerardii and Spartina patens, have declined, providing strong evidence that vegetation changes are being driven, at least in part, by higher water levels. Additionally, aerial and satellite imagery show shoreline retreat, widening and headward extension of channels, and new and expanded interior depressions. Papers in this special section highlight changes in marsh-building processes, patterns of vegetation loss, and shifts in species composition. The final papers turn to strategies for minimiz

  17. Can COSMOTherm Predict a Salting in Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivola, Martta; Prisle, Nønne L; Elm, Jonas; Waxman, Eleanor M; Volkamer, Rainer; Kurtén, Theo

    2017-08-24

    We have used COSMO-RS, a method combining quantum chemistry with statistical thermodynamics, to compute Setschenow constants (K S ) for a large array of organic solutes and salts. These comprise both atmospherically relevant solute-salt combinations, as well as systems for which experimental data are available. In agreement with previous studies on single salts, the Setschenow constants predicted by COSMO-RS (as implemented in the COSMOTherm program) are generally too large compared to experiments. COSMOTherm overpredicts salting out (positive K S ), and/or underpredicts salting in (negative K S ). For ammonium and sodium salts, K S values are larger for oxalates and sulfates, and smaller for chlorides and bromides. For chloride and bromide salts, K S values usually increase with decreasing size of the cation, along the series Pr 4 N + salting in is predicted only for oxalic acid in sodium and ammonium oxalate, and sodium sulfate, solutions. COSMOTherm was thus unable to replicate the experimentally observed salting in of glyoxal in sulfate solutions, likely due to the overestimation of salting out effects. By contrast, COSMOTherm does qualitatively predict the experimentally observed salting in of multiple organic solutes in solutions of alkylaminium salts.

  18. Salt loading affects cortisol metabolism in normotensive subjects : Relationships with salt sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, MN; van der Kleij, FGH; Boonstra, AH; Sluiter, WJ; Koerts, J; Navis, G; Dullaart, RPF

    We studied cortisol metabolism together with insulin sensitivity [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)] and renal hemodynamics in 19 salt-resistant (sr) and nine salt-sensitive ( ss) normotensive subjects after a low-and high-salt diet. Results are described as high- vs. low-salt diet. Sum of urinary

  19. Effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt-sensitive versus salt-resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt-sensitive versus salt-resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after 1 week of high salt (200 mmol per day sodium) and 1 week of low salt (10 mmol per day sodium) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure>15 mm Hg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% women; 16% blacks; body mass index, 28.5±4.2 kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mm Hg) as compared with high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mm Hg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dL; 10.8±7.3 mIU/L; 2.6±1.9) as compared with high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dL; 9.4±5.8 mIU/L; 2.1±1.4; Psalt-sensitive (n=193) versus salt-resistant (n=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in homeostasis model assessment on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt-sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt-resistant subjects (P=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in homeostasis model assessment after including age, body mass index, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone, and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Reinterpretation of Halokinetic Features in the Ancestral Rocky Mountains Paradox Salt Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. A.; Giles, K. A.; Rowan, M. G.; Hearon, T. E., IV

    2016-12-01

    The Paradox Basin in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado is a foreland basin formed in response to flexural loading by the Pennsylvanian-aged Uncompaghre uplift during the Ancestral Rocky Mountain orogen. Thick sequences of evaporites (Paradox Formation) were deposited within the foreland basin, which interfinger with clastic sediments in the foredeep and carbonates around the basin margin. Differential loading of the Pennsylvanian-Jurassic sediments onto the evaporites drove synsedimentary halokinesis, creating a series of salt walls and adjacent minibasins within the larger foreland basin. The growing salt walls within the basin influenced patterns of sediment deposition from the Pennsylvanian through the Cretaceous. By integrating previously published mapping with recent field observations, mapping, and subsurface interpretations of well logs and 2D seismic lines, we present interpretations of the timing, geometry, and nature of halokinesis within the Paradox Basin, which record the complex salt tectonic history in the basin. Furthermore, we present recent work on the relationships between the local passive salt history and the formation of syndepositional counter-regional extensional fault systems within the foreland. These results will be integrated into a new regional salt-tectonic and stratigraphic framework of the Paradox Basin, and have broader implications for interpreting sedimentary records in other basins with a mobile substrate.

  1. Natural and historic heritage of the Bochnia Salt Mine (South Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Wiewiorka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bochnia Salt Mine, presented in this paper, is situated ca. 40 km E of Cracow, in the southern part of the Neogene Carpathian Foredeep, close to the Carpathian edge. In this region the rock-salt deposits formed as a result of the Late Miocene folding and local tectonic thickening of Badenian evaporites. The Bochnia deposit, situated in the almost vertical N limb of the Bochnia Anticline, stretches ca. 7 km WE, but only 15-200 m NS. Salt mining in Bochnia began in the thirteenth c. and continued until 1990. The historic part of the mine, since 1995 operated by a company supplying health and tourism services, is an officially listed monument of historic heritage. Legal protection also comprises 27 sites of key value for the geology of the deposit. These documentation sites record the whole profile of the evaporite series and the adjacent beds, main and minor tectonic structures, as well as mineralogical curiosities, such as fibrous halite and enterolithic anhydrite. For some years, efforts have been made to enter the Bochnia Salt Mine, in 2008 visited by over 140 000 tourists, on the UNESCO World List of Cultural and Natural Heritage.

  2. Microstructural characterization and chemical compatibility of pulsed laser deposited yttria coatings on high density graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sure, Jagadeesh [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam — 603 102 (India); Mishra, Maneesha [Physical Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603 102 (India); Tarini, M. [SRM University, Kattankulathur-603 203 (India); Shankar, A. Ravi; Krishna, Nanda Gopala [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam — 603 102 (India); Kuppusami, P. [Physical Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603 102 (India); Mallika, C. [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam — 603 102 (India); Mudali, U. Kamachi, E-mail: kamachi@igcar.gov.in [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam — 603 102 (India)

    2013-10-01

    Yttria coatings were deposited on high density (HD) graphite substrate by pulsed laser deposition method and subsequently annealing in vacuum at 1373 K was carried out to evaluate the thermal stability of the coatings. Yttria deposited on HD graphite samples were exposed to molten LiCl–KCl salt at 873 K for 3 h to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coating for the purpose of pyrochemical reprocessing applications. The microstructure and the corrosion behavior of the yttria coating deposited on HD graphite in molten LiCl–KCl salt were evaluated by several characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction and Laser Raman patterns confirmed the presence of cubic phase of yttria in the coating. The surface morphology of yttria coating on HD graphite examined by scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy revealed the agglomeration of oxide particles and formation of clusters. After annealing at 1373 K, no appreciable grain growth of yttria particles could be observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis was carried out for elemental analysis before and after chemical compatibility test of the coated samples in molten LiCl–KCl salt to identify the corrosive elements present on the yttria coatings. The chemical compatibility and thermal stability of the yttria coating on HD graphite in molten LiCl–KCl salt medium have been established. - Highlights: • Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating was deposited on graphite by pulsed laser deposition method. • Chemical compatibility of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating in LiCl–KCl salt at 873 K was studied. • Gibbs free energy change was positive for Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} reaction with Cl{sub 2}, U and UCl{sub 3}. • Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating exhibited better corrosion performance in molten LiCl–KCl salt.

  3. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.

    1995-09-01

    Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

  4. Stratiform chromite deposit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Ruth F.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    Stratiform chromite deposits are of great economic importance, yet their origin and evolution remain highly debated. Layered igneous intrusions such as the Bushveld, Great Dyke, Kemi, and Stillwater Complexes, provide opportunities for studying magmatic differentiation processes and assimilation within the crust, as well as related ore-deposit formation. Chromite-rich seams within layered intrusions host the majority of the world's chromium reserves and may contain significant platinum-group-element (PGE) mineralization. This model of stratiform chromite deposits is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. The model focuses on features that may be common to all stratiform chromite deposits as a way to gain insight into the processes that gave rise to their emplacement and to the significant economic resources contained in them.

  5. Numerical modeling of salt marsh morphological change induced by Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kelin; Chen, Qin; Wang, Hongqing; Hartig, Ellen K.; Orton, Philip M.

    2018-01-01

    The salt marshes of Jamaica Bay serve as a recreational outlet for New York City residents, mitigate wave impacts during coastal storms, and provide habitat for critical wildlife species. Hurricanes have been recognized as one of the critical drivers of coastal wetland morphology due to their effects on hydrodynamics and sediment transport, deposition, and erosion processes. In this study, the Delft3D modeling suite was utilized to examine the effects of Hurricane Sandy (2012) on salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay. Observed marsh elevation change and accretion from rod Surface Elevation Tables and feldspar Marker Horizons (SET-MH) and hydrodynamic measurements during Hurricane Sandy were used to calibrate and validate the wind-waves-surge-sediment transport-morphology coupled model. The model results agreed well with in situ field measurements. The validated model was then used to detect salt marsh morphological change due to Sandy across Jamaica Bay. Model results indicate that the island-wide morphological changes in the bay's salt marshes due to Sandy were in the range of −30 mm (erosion) to +15 mm (deposition), and spatially complex and heterogeneous. The storm generated paired deposition and erosion patches at local scales. Salt marshes inside the west section of the bay showed erosion overall while marshes inside the east section showed deposition from Sandy. The net sediment amount that Sandy brought into the bay is only about 1% of the total amount of reworked sediment within the bay during the storm. Numerical experiments show that waves and vegetation played a critical role in sediment transport and associated wetland morphological change in Jamaica Bay. Furthermore, without the protection of vegetation, the marsh islands of Jamaica Bay would experience both more erosion and less accretion in coastal storms.

  6. Model of the deposition of aerosol particles in the respiratory tract of the rat. II. Hygroscopic particle deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferron, George A; Upadhyay, Swapna; Zimmermann, Ralf; Karg, Erwin

    2013-04-01

    Rats are frequently used to study the pharmacological and toxicological effects of inhaled aerosol particles. The deposition behavior of aerosol particles in airways is affected by their hygroscopic properties, which accordingly influence the results of such studies. A recently published nonhygroscopic aerosol particle deposition model for rat airways was extended with equations for hygroscopic particle growth in humid air and with a model to mimic the temperature and relative humidity conditions in the rat airways transformed from the upper human airways. As there are no experimental data available for hygroscopic deposition in rat lungs, several model assumptions were made for the humidity distribution in the upper rat airways. The total and regional deposition probability of salt particles in the diameter range 0.02 to 5 μm in rat lung was significantly changed by the hygroscopic properties. The maximum ratios of the total deposition of inhaled initially dry sodium chloride, cobalt chloride, and zinc sulfate particles compared with nonhygroscopic particles were 3.28, 2.44, and 2.13, respectively, and the minimum ratios 0.57, 0.63, and 0.70, respectively. The corresponding maximum (and minimum) ratios for the hygroscopic drugs histamine dihydrochloride, carbenicillin disodium, and atropine sulfate were 1.86 (0.65), 1.53 (0.70), and 1.35 (0.76), respectively. Total deposition was about 20% higher in human airways than in rat airways. The flow regime in the rat upper airways influenced total and regional deposition much less than it did in human airways. The hygroscopicity of salt and drug aerosol particles is an important factor in rat lung deposition.

  7. Deposition and High-Temperature Corrosion in Biomass-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Hanne Philbert

    This thesis describes the fate of potassium, chlorine, and sulfur in regard to deposition and corrosion problems in straw-fired boilers. Full-scale deposition studies at Rudkøbing CHP, Kyndby Power Station and Masnedø CHP revealed that straw may form massive deposits in the convective pass...... has only been detected in insignificant amounts in mature deposits in straw-fired boilers formed over months of operation.The corrosion of superheater tubes is closely connected to the material which are deposited on the surface and deposits containing potassium chloride can cause severe high......-temperature corrosion at elevated metal temperatures. Lab-scale corrosion experiments, where metal test elements were covered with synthetic potassium salts and real deposits and exposed to a simulated flue gas containing HCl(g) and SO2(g), provided information about the corrosion rate and corrosion mechanisms...

  8. Deposit Probe Measurements in Danish Grate and Pulverized Fuel Biomass Power Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Several measuring campaigns with focus on deposition behavior have been conducted at full-scale power plants firing biomass in Denmark. These measuring campaigns have been reviewed in this work. The focus of the review is the obtained experiences on deposit formation, chemistry and shedding....... Corresponding samples of fuels, ash deposits and fly ash have provided information on the transformation of inorganics in the boiler. Generally, grate fired boilers provide a fly ash containing high contents of K, Cl and S compared to the fuel ash, while suspension fired boilers fly ash has a composition nearly...... similar to the fuel ash. Inner most biomass deposits are always salt-rich, while thicker deposit layers also contain some Si and Ca. Deposit probe formation rate measurements have been performed in different ways on several boilers. Grate and suspension fired boilers seems to cause similar deposit...

  9. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urquhart, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300°C, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  10. Dealing with uncertainty and limited data availability at Lake Tiberias, Israel: Imaging salt diapir using hydrogeological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Nimrod; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Flexer, Akiva; Möller, Peter; Siebert, Christian; Guttman, Joseph; Yellin-Dror, Annat; Magri, Fabien

    2016-04-01

    Direct data of the Tiberias Basin (TB) deep-seated stratigraphy is limited. Therefore, imaging of suspected underlying salt deposits and their structure is carried out based on salt tectonics theory and shallow seismic data interpretation. It is supported by the geochemistry of surrounding springs and numerical modeling of fluid transport processes within the basin. The Tiberias Basin (TB) is a narrow pull-apart basin located along the Dead Sea Transform. It encompasses Lake Tiberias, which is the largest fresh water lake in the Levant. Saline onshore and offshore springs and seepages are known to contribute considerable amount of salt to the lake endangering its water quality. Since the early 1980's, deep-seated salt deposits are known to exist in the Tiberias basin subsurface as a result of one deep exploration borehole. Interpretation of onshore seismic data at the southern part of the basin reveals its structure and distribution. However, offshore seismic interpretation is debatable and leads to uncertainty regarding the structure and distribution of salt deposits under the lake. The results of the current study suggest that a salt diapir rises under the lake, piercing through the basin-fill adjacent to the western boundary fault of the basin. Chemical analyses show that some springs at the western shore of the Lake contain indications of dissolved halite. In addition, numerical modeling of brine flow suggests that shallow salt domes can allow brine plumes to reach the surface and discharge along the western coast. These results allow imaging and support the hypothesis regarding the occurrences of shallow salt structures in the vicinity of the lake and contribute valuable information for sustainable management of its water.

  11. Deposition and Resuspension Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slinn, W. G.N.; Horst, T. W.; Sehmel, G. A.; Hodgson, W. H.; Lloyd, F. D.; Orgill, M. M.; Bander, T. J.; Thorp, J. M.; Schwendiman, L. C.; Young, J. A.; Tanner, T. M.; Thomas, C. W.; Wogman, N. A.; Petersen, M. R.; Hadlock, R. K.; Droppo, J. G.; Woodruff, R. K.

    1976-03-01

    Nineteen papers are covered in this section. Significant contributions were made in 1975 in both the theoretical and the more practical experimental measurements of particle deposition and resuspension. Solutions of theoretical deposition-resuspension equations were formulated and nondimensionalized air and ground concentrations were predicted as a function of distance. In other theoretical studies assumptions and analyses regarding surface boundary conditions were investigated and methods presented whereby they can be fitted together within a single theoretical framework. Deposition in vegetation canopies was considered; formulations were developed and conclusions drawn regarding canopy filtration efficiency. Dry deposition of gases was shown to be rate-limited by many processes, and experiments and equipment were designed to measure gradients of SO/sub 2/ and deposition fluxes. A computer model was improved and used to predict downwind concentrations for a generalized area source. A dimensional analysis correlation was formulated from experimental particle deposition velocity data, but was found to show insignificant improvement when compared statistically with an earlier derived correlation. Wind tunnel measurements of deposition velocities to gravel beds and scaled trees showed that particles will penetrate very significantly to underlying surfaces. Initial field experiments measured deposition velocity to sagebrush canopies. Other controlled field studies were initiated for measuring resuspension, including resuspension from truck traffic. Suspension of soil and the size distribution of particles airborne under various air regimes were studied. In the large METROMEX study done near St. Louis, several pollutants were sampled and analyzed as a function of distance. These studies gave insight into the relative inportance of dry deposition and atmospheric dispersion as mechanisms for reducing air concentrations. (auth)

  12. Impact of climate change on the production and transport of sea salt aerosol on European seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change on sea salt aerosol production, dispersion, and fate over Europe is studied using four offline regional chemistry transport models driven by the climate scenario SRES A1B over two periods: 1990–2009 and 2040–2059. This study is focused mainly on European seas: Baltic, Black, North, and Mediterranean. The differences and similarities between the individual models' predictions of the impact on sea salt emission, concentration, and deposition due to changes in wind gusts and seawater temperature are analysed. The results show that the major driver for the sea salt flux changes will be the seawater temperature, as wind speed is projected to stay nearly the same. There are, however, substantial differences between the model predictions and their sensitivity to changing seawater temperature, which demonstrates substantial lack of current understanding of the sea salt flux predictions. Although seawater salinity changes are not evaluated in this study, sensitivity of sea salt aerosol production to salinity is similarly analysed, showing once more the differences between the different models. An assessment of the impact of sea salt aerosol on the radiative balance is presented.

  13. Electroless atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, David Bruce; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Sheridan, Leah B.; Stickney, John L.; Benson, David M.

    2017-10-31

    A method of electroless atomic layer deposition is described. The method electrolessly generates a layer of sacrificial material on a surface of a first material. The method adds doses of a solution of a second material to the substrate. The method performs a galvanic exchange reaction to oxidize away the layer of the sacrificial material and deposit a layer of the second material on the surface of the first material. The method can be repeated for a plurality of iterations in order to deposit a desired thickness of the second material on the surface of the first material.

  14. Effect of Vegetation on Sediment Transport across Salt Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D. J.; Kirwan, M. L.; Guntenspergen, G. R.; Ganju, N. K.

    2016-12-01

    Salt marshes are a classic example of ecogeomorphology where interactions between plants and sediment transport govern the stability of a rapidly evolving ecosystem. In particular, plants slow water velocities which facilitates deposition of mineral sediment, and the resulting change in soil elevation influences the growth and species distribution of plants. The ability of a salt marsh to withstand sea level rise (SLR) is therefore dependent, among other factors, on the availability of mineral sediment. Here we measure suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) along a transect from tidal channel to marsh interior, exploring the role biomass plays in regulating the magnitude and spatial variability in vertical accretion. Our study was conducted in Spartina alterniflora dominated salt marshes along the Atlantic Coast from Massachusetts to Georgia. At each site, we deployed and calibrated optical back scatter turbidity probes to measure SSC in 15 minute intervals in a tidal channel, on the marsh edge, and in the marsh interior. We visited each site monthly to measure plant biomass via clip plots and vertical accretion via two types of sediment tiles. Preliminary results confirm classic observations that biomass is highest at the marsh edge, and that SSC and vertical accretion decrease across the marsh platform with distance from the channel. We expect that when biomass is higher, such as in southern sites like Georgia and months late in the growing season, SSC will decay more rapidly with distance into the marsh. Higher biomass will likely also correspond to increased vertical accretion, with the greatest effect at marsh edge locations. Our study will likely demonstrate how salt marsh plants interact with sediment transport dynamics to control marsh morphology and thus contribute to marsh resilience to SLR.

  15. INFLUENCE OF ELECTROPHORETIC DEPOSITION PARAMETERS ON PORE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF DOPED NANO ALUMINA PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Milani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Doped nano alumina powders were successfully deposited as a thick film by electrophoretic deposition (EPD. A mixture of ethanol, cation salts of alumina dopants and iodine was used for dispersion system. Mg- Y- La- and Ce- salts add to ethanol and deposited with alumina powders on to substrate. The effects of suspension power loading, deposition time, electrode distance and applied potential simultaneously on density, pore size distribution and cell current density of alumina nanoparticles were examined. The weight of deposition increased with time and voltage increased and electrode distance decreased. In all applied voltages in higher suspension concentration, weight of deposition are sufficiently high but the density of the film are clearly better in low and high voltages than medium voltage. In constant suspension concentration with increasing in applied voltage, deposition rate increased and current decreased faster than medium voltage, which limits the homogeneous deposition forming and decreased density. Low applied voltages provided better pore size distribution and narrow and steep slope in middle of pore size distribution plot. High density samples with best pore size distribution achieved in lower rate deposition and assisted to better densification at sintering step in doped alumina plates.

  16. In situ analysis of ash deposits from black liquor combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernath, P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sinquefield, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Oregon State Univ., Eugene, OR (United States); Baxter, L.L.; Sclippa, G.; Rohlfing, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Barfield, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Aerosols formed during combustion of black liquor cause a significant fire-side fouling problem in pulp mill recovery boilers. The ash deposits reduce heat transfer effectiveness, plug gas passages, and contribute to corrosion. Both vapors and condensation aerosols lead to the formation of such deposits. The high ash content of the fuel and the low dew point of the condensate salts lead to a high aerosol and vapor concentration in most boilers. In situ measurements of the chemical composition of these deposits is an important step in gaining a fundamental understanding of the deposition process. Infrared emission spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of thin film deposits resulting from the combustion of black liquor and the deposition of submicron aerosols and vapors. New reference spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pure component films were recorded and compared with the spectra of the black liquor deposit. All of the black liquor emission bands were identified using a combination of literature data and ab initio calculations. Ab initio calculations also predict the locations and intensities of bands for the alkali vapors of interest. 39 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Comparative physiology of salt and water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, R.

    2002-02-01

    Plant responses to salt and water stress have much in common. Salinity reduces the ability of plants to take up water, and this quickly causes reductions in growth rate, along with a suite of metabolic changes identical to those caused by water stress. The initial reduction in shoot growth is probably due to hormonal signals generated by the roots. There may be salt-specific effects that later have an impact on growth; if excessive amounts of salt enter the plant, salt will eventually rise to toxic levels in the older transpiring leaves, causing premature senescence, and reduce the photosynthetic leaf area of the plant to a level that cannot sustain growth. These effects take time to develop. Salt-tolerant plants differ from salt-sensitive ones in having a low rate of Na+ and Cl-- transport to leaves, and the ability to compartmentalize these ions in vacuoles to prevent their build-up in cytoplasm or cell walls and thus avoid salt toxicity. In order to understand the processes that give rise to tolerance of salt, as distinct from tolerance of osmotic stress, and to identify genes that control the transport of salt across membranes, it is important to avoid treatments that induce cell plasmolysis, and to design experiments that distinguish between tolerance of salt and tolerance of water stress.

  18. Alluvial Deposits in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage maps alluvial deposits throughout Iowa. This generally would include areas of alluvial soils associated with modern streams that are identified on...

  19. Speleothem (Cave Deposit) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate derived from mineral deposits found in caves. Parameter keywords describe what was measured...

  20. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  1. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  2. Podiform chromite deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Location and characteristics of 1,124 individual mineral deposits of this type, with grade and tonnage models for chromium as well as several related elements.

  3. Sulfate Salts in Gasoline and Ethanol Fuels -- Historical Perspective and Analysis of Available Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Alleman, Teresa [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yanowitz, Janet [Ecoengineering, Inc., Sharonville, OH (United States)

    2017-09-21

    This report reviews the chemistry of sulfate salts dissolved in ethanol and gasoline, potential sources of sulfate salts in ethanol and gasoline, the history of consumer vehicle issues with sulfate salt deposits in the early 2000s, and the corresponding changes to the denatured fuel ethanol specification. Recommendations for future research are provided. During a period of rapid market expansion in 2004-05, issues were reported with vehicles running on E10 provided by certain suppliers in some markets. It was commonly believed that these vehicle problems were caused by sulfate salts precipitating from the fuel. Investigators identified sodium sulfate, and in one case also ammonium sulfate, as the predominate salts found in the engines. Several stakeholders believed the issue was excess sulfate ions in the ethanol portion of the E10, and in 2005 the ASTM specification for ethanol (D4806) was modified to include a 4-part per million (ppm) limit on sulfate ions. While there have been no further reports of consumer vehicle issues, the recently approved increase of ethanol in gasoline from 10 to 15 volume percent has resulted in renewed interest in the sulfate ion concentration in fuel ethanol. This report reviews published data on the solubility of sulfate salts in ethanol. The possible sources of sulfate anions and charge balancing cations (such as sodium) in fuel ethanol and petroleum derived blendstocks are discussed. Examination of historical information on the consumer vehicle issues that occurred in 2004-2005 reveals that a source of sodium or ammonium ions, required for the formation of the observed insoluble salts, was never identified. Recommendations for research to better understand sulfate salt solubility issues in ethanol, hydrocarbon blendstocks, and ethanol-gasoline blends are presented.

  4. ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S-based buffer layer deposition for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N [Littleton, CO

    2009-11-03

    The invention provides CBD ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S and spray deposited ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S buffer layers prepared from a solution of zinc salt, thiourea and ammonium hydroxide dissolved in a non-aqueous/aqueous solvent mixture or in 100% non-aqueous solvent. Non-aqueous solvents useful in the invention include methanol, isopropanol and triethyl-amine. One-step deposition procedures are described for CIS, CIGS and other solar cell devices.

  5. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  6. Carpinteria salt marsh habitat polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dunham, Eleca J.; Mancini, Frank T.; Stewart, Tara E.; Hechinger, Ryan F.

    2017-01-01

    We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland.  We then drew polygons around each habitat type identified from a registered and orthorectified aerial photograph and created a GIS shapefile. Polygons were ground-truthed in the field. From these habitat polygons, one can use GIS applications to estimate the area of each habitat type in this estuary. These data support the following publications: Kuris, Armand M., et al. "Ecosystem energetic implications of parasite and free-living biomass in three estuaries." Nature 454.7203 (2008): 515-518.Hechinger, Ryan F., Kevin D. Lafferty, Andy P. Dobson, James H. Brown, and Armand M. Kuris. "A common scaling rule for abundance, energetics, and production of parasitic and free-living species." Science 333, no. 6041 (2011): 445-448.Hechinger, Ryan F., Kevin D. Lafferty, John P. McLaughlin, Brian L. Fredensborg, Todd C. Huspeni, Julio Lorda, Parwant K. Sandhu et al. "Food webs including parasites, biomass, body sizes, and life stages for three California/Baja California estuaries." Ecology 92, no. 3 (2011): 791-791.Buck, J.C., Hechinger, R.F., Wood, A.C., Stewart, T.E., Kuris, A.M., and Lafferty, K.D., "Host density increases parasite recruitment but decreases host risk in a snail-trematode system." Manuscript submitted for publication. Lafferty, K.D., Stewart, T.E., and Hechinger, R.F. (in press). Bird distribution surveys at Carpinteria Salt Marsh, California USA, January 2012 to March 2013: U.S. Geological Survey data release, http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7F47M95. 

  7. Principle of gas storage in salt caverns; Principe du stockage de gaz en cavites creusees dans le sel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durup, J.G. [Mining Research Institute, CA (United States)]|[Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-08-15

    The principle of the exploitation of a gas storage cavity is analogue to the one of a cylinder of compressed gas. Such a reservoir has remarkable dimensions with a volume of several thousands of m{sup 3}, a height of few hundred meters and a diameter of about 100 m. The mechanical resistance with respect to the gas pressure is ensured by the 'pre-stress' corresponding to the weight of the geologic strata. Salt (halite) is the ideal material for the digging out of such facilities because of its excellent tightness, its solubility in water (allowing the dissolution digging technique), and its good mechanical resistance. Natural gas storage is in general performed in natural porous and permeable environments, like depleted hydrocarbon fields or aquifers. The storage in salt caverns has the advantage of allowing important emission flow rates with respect to the quantities of immobilized gases. In some Northern Europe countries, like Germany, the salt deposits are well developed and abundant, in particular near the North Sea and its important natural gas fields. In France, there exists 3 gas storage sites in salt caverns, with about 40 cavities as a whole. This document briefly presents the main elements of the gas storage technique in salt caverns: characteristics and geology of salt deposits, geo-technique, wells, dissolution digging, gas injection and exploitation. (J.S.)

  8. Makgadikgadi Salt Pan, Botswana, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Makgadikgadi Salt Pan of Botswana, an ancient lake bed, (19.0S, 26.0E) is one of the largest features in Botswana visible from orbit. Any water that spills out of the Okavango Swamplands flows into the Makagadikgadi where it evaporates. An ancient beach line can be seen as a smooth line around the west side of the pan and to the south, the Orapa diamond mine is seen as a small rectangle. Far to the east, can be seen the Great Dike of Zimbabwe.

  9. A comparison of sea salt emission parameterizations in northwestern Europe using a chemistry transport model setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Neumann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric sea salt particles affect chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere. These particles provide surface area for condensation and reaction of nitrogen, sulfur, and organic species and are a vehicle for the transport of these species. Additionally, HCl is released from sea salt. Hence, sea salt has a relevant impact on air quality, particularly in coastal regions with high anthropogenic emissions, such as the North Sea region. Therefore, the integration of sea salt emissions in modeling studies in these regions is necessary. However, it was found that sea salt concentrations are not represented with the necessary accuracy in some situations.In this study, three sea salt emission parameterizations depending on different combinations of wind speed, salinity, sea surface temperature, and wave data were implemented and compared: GO03 (Gong, 2003, SP13 (Spada et al., 2013, and OV14 (Ovadnevaite et al., 2014. The aim was to identify the parameterization that most accurately predicts the sea salt mass concentrations at different distances to the source regions. For this purpose, modeled particle sodium concentrations, sodium wet deposition, and aerosol optical depth were evaluated against measurements of these parameters. Each 2-month period in winter and summer 2008 were considered for this purpose. The shortness of these periods limits generalizability of the conclusions on other years.While the GO03 emissions yielded overestimations in the PM10 concentrations at coastal stations and underestimations of those at inland stations, OV14 emissions conversely led to underestimations at coastal stations and overestimations at inland stations. Because of the differently shaped particle size distributions of the GO03 and OV14 emission cases, the deposition velocity of the coarse particles differed between both cases which yielded this distinct behavior at inland and coastal stations. The PM10 concentrations produced by the SP13 emissions

  10. Porous membrane electrochemical cell for uranium and transuranic recovery from molten salt electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willit, James L.

    2007-09-11

    An improved process and device for the recovery of the minor actinides and the transuranic elements (TRU's) from a molten salt electrolyte. The process involves placing the device, an electrically non-conducting barrier between an anode salt and a cathode salt. The porous barrier allows uranium to diffuse between the anode and cathode, yet slows the diffusion of uranium ions so as to cause depletion of uranium ions in the catholyte. This allows for the eventual preferential deposition of transuranics present in spent nuclear fuel such as Np, Pu, Am, Cm. The device also comprises an uranium oxidation anode. The oxidation anode is solid uranium metal in the form of spent nuclear fuel. The spent fuel is placed in a ferric metal anode basket which serves as the electrical lead or contact between the molten electrolyte and the anodic uranium metal.

  11. Possible salt mine sites for radioactive waste disposal in the northeastern states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landes, K.K.

    1972-06-30

    The motivation for this investigation is the necessity for finding the safest possible repository for solid atomic plant wastes. It is believed that rooms mined in thick beds of salt would afford the best sanctuary. This is due especially to the impermeability of massive rock salt. This rock has enough plasticity so that it tends to give rather than fracture when disturbed by movements of the earth's crust. In addition, due to water conditions at the time of deposition, the rocks most commonly associated with salt (anhydrite and shale) are likewise relatively impervious. A number of areas have been selected for detailed discussion because of the excellence of the geological and environmental factors. The optimum requirements for a viable waste disposal prospect are described in detail and nine prospects are considered further.

  12. Spatio-temporal analysis of remotely-sensed forest mortality associated with road de-icing salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuanchao; Weisberg, Peter J; Nowak, Robert S

    2014-02-15

    Forest mortality along highways has long been a concern in areas where de-icing compounds are applied during winter. This study combined the spatial advantage of high-resolution remote sensing imagery and the temporal advantage of long-term archival imagery to quantify forest mortality and to detect the subtle and chronic effects of road de-icing salts for a large mountain watershed in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, USA. IKONOS-derived mortality was used in a fine-scale spatial analysis to assess road proximity and roadside topography effects on forest mortality and to compare two potential mechanisms of de-icing salt damage, i.e. aerial deposition and soil uptake. These mechanisms were modeled using spatial proxy variables that were constructed from LiDAR topographical data. The analysis revealed a clear trend of increasing mortality with increasing potential for aerial deposition of de-icing salt onto tree crowns, mainly occurring within 10 m from roads. The effect of soil uptake of salt was weaker than that of aerial deposition but had a broader potential effect zone that extended to at least 100 m from roads. Landsat TM-derived mortality from 1989 to 2010 provided a long-term time series that indicated both immediate and lagged effects of salt application on forest mortality. Immediate effects of de-icing salt were only distinct in wet years when salt application and spray generation by passing traffic and snow plowing were likely high and other damaging factors, such as bark beetles or drought mortality, were likely weak. A strong and consistent one-year lag in the effect of salt application on incidence of mortality suggested that longer-term impacts of de-icing salt on forest health likely involved more complex pathways than simply aerial deposition. Our multi-scale remote sensing approach provided convincing evidence that de-icing salt was a significant factor for roadside forest mortality and allows for efficient future monitoring at the large

  13. Impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachshon, Uri

    2017-04-01

    Field measurements indicated on high variability in salt accumulation along natural and cultivated slopes, even for relatively homogeneous soil conditions. It was hypothesised that slope inclination has an impact on the location of salt accumulation along the slope. A set of laboratory experiments and numerical models were used to explore the impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation. It was shown, experimentally, that for conditions of saline water source at the lower boundary of the slope - salt accumulates in low concentrations and homogeneously along the entire slope, for moderate slopes. However, as inclination increases high salt concentrations were observed at the upper parts of the slope, leaving the lower parts of the slope relatively free of salt. The traditional flow and transport models did not predict the experimental observations as they indicated also for the moderate slopes on salt accumulation in the elevated parts of the slope, away of the saline water source. Consequently - a conceptual model was raised to explain the laboratory observations. It was suggested that the interactions between slope angle, evaporation rates, hydraulic conductivity of the medium and distribution of wetness along the slope affect the saline water flow path through the medium. This lead to preferential flow path close to the soil-atmosphere interface for the steep slopes, which leads to constant wash of the salts from the evaporation front upward towards the slope upper parts, whereas for the moderate slopes, flow path is below the soil-atmosphere interface, therefore salt that accumulates at the evaporation front is not being transported upward. Understanding of salt dynamics along slopes is important for agricultural and natural environments, as well as for civil engineering purposes. Better understanding of the salt transport processes along slopes will improve our ability to minimize and to cope with soil salinization processes. The laboratory experiments and

  14. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  15. Macroevolutionary patterns of salt tolerance in angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromham, Lindell

    2015-01-01

    Background Halophytes are rare, with only 0·25 % of angiosperm species able to complete their life cycle in saline conditions. This could be interpreted as evidence that salt tolerance is difficult to evolve. However, consideration of the phylogenetic distribution of halophytes paints a different picture: salt tolerance has evolved independently in many different lineages, and halophytes are widely distributed across angiosperm families. In this Viewpoint, I will consider what phylogenetic analysis of halophytes can tell us about the macroevolution of salt tolerance. Hypothesis Phylogenetic analyses of salt tolerance have shown contrasting patterns in different families. In some families, such as chenopods, salt tolerance evolved early in the lineage and has been retained in many lineages. But in other families, including grasses, there have been a surprisingly large number of independent origins of salt tolerance, most of which are relatively recent and result in only one or a few salt-tolerant species. This pattern of many recent origins implies either a high transition rate (salt tolerance is gained and lost often) or a high extinction rate (salt-tolerant lineages do not tend to persist over macroevolutionary timescales). While salt tolerance can evolve in a wide range of genetic backgrounds, some lineages are more likely to produce halophytes than others. This may be due to enabling traits that act as stepping stones to developing salt tolerance. The ability to tolerate environmental salt may increase tolerance of other stresses or vice versa. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses suggest that enabling traits and cross-tolerances may make some lineages more likely to adapt to increasing salinization, a finding that may prove useful in assessing the probable impact of rapid environmental change on vegetation communities, and in selecting taxa to develop for use in landscape rehabilitation and agriculture. PMID:25452251

  16. Salt stains from evaporating droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahidzadeh, N.; Schut, M.F.L.; Desarnaud, J.; Prat, M.; Bonn, D.

    2015-01-01

    The study of the behavior of sessile droplets on solid substrates is not only associated with common everyday phenomena, such as the coffee stain effect, limescale deposits on our bathroom walls, but also very important in many applications such as purification of pharmaceuticals, deicing of

  17. Investigating the possible effects of salt in the fault zones on rates of seismicity - insights from analogue and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urai, Janos; Kettermann, Michael; Abe, Steffen

    2017-04-01

    The presence of salt in dilatant normal faults may have a strong influence on fault mechanics and related seismicity. However, we lack a detailed understanding of these processes. This study is based on the geological setting of the Groningen area. During tectonic faulting in the Groningen area, rock salt may have flown downwards into dilatant faults, which thus may contain lenses of rock salt at present. Because of its viscous properties, the presence of salt lenses in a fault may introduce a strain-rate dependency to the faulting and affect the distribution of magnitudes of seismic events. We present a "proof of concept" showing that the above processes can be investigated using a combination of analogue and numerical modeling. Full scaling and discussion of the importance of these processes to induced seismicity in Groningen require further, more detailed study. The analogue experiments are based on a simplified stratigraphy of the Groningen area, where it is generally thought that most of the Rotliegend faulting has taken place in the Jurassic, after deposition of the Zechstein. This is interpreted to mean that at the time of faulting the sulphates were brittle anhydrite. If these layers were sufficiently brittle to fault in a dilatant fashion, rock salt could flow downwards into the dilatant fractures. To test this hypothesis, we use sandbox experiments where we combine cohesive powder as analog for brittle anhydrites and carbonates with viscous salt analogs to explore the developing fault geometry and the resulting distribution of salt in the faults. In the numerical models we investigate the stick-slip behavior of fault zones containing ductile material using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). Results show that the DEM approach is in principle suitable for the modeling of the seismicity of faults containing salt: the stick-slip motion of the fault becomes dependent on shear loading rate with a modification of the frequency magnitude distribution of the

  18. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  19. Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Frank; Popp, Till; Wieczorek, Klaus; Stuehrenberg, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

  20. Strategies for salt reduction in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toldrá, Fidel; Barat, José M

    2012-04-01

    The amounts of sodium chloride in the formulation of a variety of foods like bakery, meats and dairy foods, ready meals, sauces and snacks, are relatively large and thus, have a strong contribution on the salt dietary intake. There is a clear demand by the consumers and medical associations to reduce the salt content in foods. Different strategies have been proposed and most of them consist of the replacement of sodium chloride by other salts and the addition of other substances for an acceptable sensory quality. The recent patents for salt reduction and their applications in foods are reviewed in this manuscript.

  1. Salt reduction initiatives around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqueline L; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Hawkes, Corinna; Neal, Bruce C

    2011-06-01

    To provide an overview of national salt reduction initiatives around the world, describe core characteristics and develop a framework for future strategy development. National strategies were identified from existing reviews and from searches of the literature and relevant websites. Standardized information was extracted about governance and strategy development, baseline assessments and monitoring and implementation. Thirty-two country salt reduction initiatives were identified. The majority of activity was in Europe (19 countries). Most countries (27) had maximum population salt intake targets, ranging from 5 to 8 g/person per day. Twenty-six of the 32 strategies were led by government, five by nongovernment organizations and one by industry. Twenty-eight countries had some baseline data on salt consumption and 18 had data on sodium levels in foods. Twenty-eight countries were working with the food industry to reduce salt in foods, 10 had front-of-pack labelling schemes and 28 had consumer awareness or behaviour change programs. Five countries had demonstrated an impact, either on population salt consumption, salt levels in foods or consumer awareness. These strategies were led by government and were multifaceted including food reformulation, consumer awareness initiatives and labelling actions. This is the first review to concisely summarize the most important elements of the many existing salt reduction programmes and highlight the characteristics most likely to be important to programme efficacy. For most countries, implementing a national salt reduction programme is likely to be one of simplest and most cost-effective ways of improving public health.

  2. Uninephrectomy in young age or chronic salt loading causes salt-sensitive hypertension in adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlström, Mattias; Sällström, Johan; Skøtt, Ole

    2007-01-01

    The importance of nephron endowment and salt intake for the development of hypertension is under debate. The present study was designed to investigate whether reduced nephron number, after completion of nephrogenesis, or chronic salt loading causes renal injury and salt-sensitive hypertension...... in adulthood. Rats were operated at 3 weeks of age (after completed nephrogenesis) and then subjected to either normal or high-salt diets for 6 to 8 weeks. Four different experimental groups were used: sham-operated animals raised with normal-salt diet (controls) or high-salt diet (HS) and uninephrectomized...... animals raised with normal-salt diet (UNX) or high-salt diet (UNX+HS). In the adult animals, renal and cardiovascular functions were evaluated and blood pressure recorded telemetrically under different sodium conditions (normal, high, and low). Hypertension was present in UNX+HS (122+/-9 mm Hg), UNX (101...

  3. The "DREAM" IODP project to drill the Mediterranean Salt Giant on the Balearic Promontory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofi, Johanna; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Aloisi, Giovanni; Maillard, Agnès; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Huebscher, Christian; Kuroda, Junichiro

    2017-04-01

    Salt giants preserving kilometer-thick evaporite layers are the sedimentary expression of extreme environmental events of global relevance. Despite their global occurrence and general importance on Earth, there is currently no complete stratigraphic record through an un-deformed salt giant of marine origin. Similarly, there is a significant lack of knowledge about the factors controlling salt giants deposition, their early evolution, the impact they exert on the isostatic response of continental margins and on sub-salt formations, and the unprecedented deep biosphere they may harbor. The Mediterranean Messinian salt giant, which formed 5.5 Myrs ago, is one of the youngest salt giant on Earth and is currently lying below the Plio-Quaternary cover in a relatively un-deformed state close to its original depositional configuration. This salt giant is thus accessible by drilling and forms an ideal case study that could be used as a reference for older salt giants. However, since its discovery in 1970 during the DSDP Leg XIII, and despite 40 years or multi-disciplinary researches, this salt giant is still not fully understood and remains one of the longest-living controversies in Earth Science. In this context, the IODP DREAM project aims at exploring the Mediterranean salt giant by drilling with the JOIDES Resolution a transect of 4 sites on the southern margin of the Balearic promontory (Western Mediterranean). We identified this area as likely the only place in the Mediterranean where we could implement a shallow-to-deep transect of non-riser drilling sites. Due to the geological history and pre-structuration of the Promontory, MSC deposits are found preserved in a series of sedimentary basins lying at different water depths between the present-day coastline and the deep central salt basins. DREAM thus offers a unique opportunity to sample several hundred of meters of material forming the Mediterranean salt giant in varied water depths. This unique sedimentary record

  4. The promotion of geomorphosites on salt from Sovata - Praid and Turda using cultural and scientific tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, B.; Irimus, I.; Petrea, D.

    2012-04-01

    The paper highlights the role of geomorphosites on salt, in experts and specialists training, in geography of tourism and planning, namely, the involvement of educational factor in defining managerial and marketing skills of future specialists in training. Geographical area of investigation belongs to the Transylvanian tectonic basin, overlapped to saliferous tectonic area from eastern Transylvania, represented by Praid - Sovata - Corund anticline and Sic -Cojocna - Turda anticline, analysis is focused on the Praid - Sovata and Turda diapirs. Saliferous area Praid - Sovata - Corund is situated on the contact area of the Transylvanian Basin with neo-eruptiv mountain chain of Eastern Carpathians, Calimani - Gurghiu - Harghita, and at the contact of Târnavelor Plateau with the orogen alignment of Gurghiu - Harghita Mountains. The salt body, in the horizontal plane, has a quasi-circular shape, slightly ellipsoidal, with diameters of 1.2 and 1.4 km, and is estimated to have a burial depth of 2.6 to 2.8 km. The salt massif from Praid, pierce the Mio-Pliocene blanket around and appears at the surface as diapir, flanked by sedimentary rocks that are partially covered by extrusive post-Pliocene volcanic formations and Quaternary deposits. Evaporitic deposits presents a varied lithology represented by gypsum, anhydrite, salt rock, potassium salt and celestine. The salt massif from Turda develops on the anticline Sic -Cojocna - Turda, oriented NE - SW, 2 km NE of Turda's downtown. It has an elongated shape, about 4 km, with widths ranging from 700 m to 200 m and also with a thickness ranging from 750 m to over 1000 m. In terms of stratigraphy, the salt massif is surrounded by deposits belonging to Badenian, Sarmatian and Quaternary. Due to salt dissolution by meteoric waters, carsto-saline lakes were formed, and due to ceiling collapse, because of an intensive exploitation, and infiltrations of rainwater and rivers, antropo-salted lakes were formed. The water and mud of

  5. Effects of salting-in interactions on macromolecule diffusiophoresis and salt osmotic diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Michele S; Annunziata, Onofrio

    2015-02-03

    Macromolecule diffusiophoresis (i.e., macromolecule migration induced by a salt concentration gradient) in water and salt osmotic diffusion (i.e., salt migration induced by a macromolecule concentration gradient) are two cross-diffusion mechanisms caused by macromolecule-salt interactions. We investigated the effect of salting-in interactions on the behavior of these two cross-diffusion mechanisms. Our results are distinct from those previously obtained in the case of salting-out interactions. Cross-diffusion was experimentally characterized by Rayleigh interferometry at 25 °C. Specifically, multicomponent diffusion coefficients were measured for a neutral polymer, polyethylene glycol (molar mass, 20 kg/mol), in aqueous solutions of three thiocyanate salts (NaSCN, KSCN, and NH₄SCN) as a function of salt concentration at low polymer concentration (0.5% w/w). Our results on salt osmotic diffusion, which were qualitatively different from those previously obtained for salting-out salts, were used to quantitatively characterize the strength of salting-in interactions. The behavior of polymer diffusiophoresis as a function of salt concentration and cation type reveals that polymer chains have an extrinsic negative charge, consistent with anion binding being the cause of salting-in interactions. To quantitatively examine the effect of anion binding on salt osmotic diffusion and polymer diffusiophoresis, we developed a theoretical model based on the linear laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics for diffusion, the Scatchard binding model, and particle electrophoresis. This work contributes to the understanding of the multifaceted effects of molecular interactions on cross-diffusion mechanisms, salting-in interactions, and the Hofmeister series.

  6. Anaglyph, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This anaglyph image provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed

  7. Modelling the long-term vertical dynamics of salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccarato, Claudia; Teatini, Pietro

    2017-04-01

    Salt marshes are vulnerable environments hosting complex interactions between physical and biological processes with a strong influence on the dynamics of the marsh evolution. The estimation and prediction of the elevation of a salt-marsh platform is crucial to forecast the marsh growth or regression under different scenarios considering, for example, the potential climate changes. The long-term vertical dynamics of a salt marsh is predicted with the aid of an original finite-element (FE) numerical model accounting for the marsh accretion and compaction and for the variation rates of the relative sea level rise, i.e., land subsidence of the marsh basement and eustatic rise of the sea level. The accretion term considers the vertical sedimentation of organic and inorganic material over the marsh surface, whereas the compaction reflects the progressive consolidation of the porous medium under the increasing load of the overlying younger deposits. The modelling approach is based on a 2D groundwater flow simulator, which provides the pressure evolution within a compacting/accreting vertical cross-section of the marsh assuming that the groundwater flow obeys the relative Darcy's law, coupled to a 1D vertical geomechanical module following Terzaghi's principle of effective intergranular stress. Soil porosity, permeability, and compressibility may vary with the effective intergranular stress according to empirically based relationships. The model also takes into account the geometric non-linearity arising from the consideration of large solid grain movements by using a Lagrangian approach with an adaptive FE mesh. The element geometry changes in time to follow the deposit consolidation and the element number increases in time to follow the sedimentation of new material. The numerical model is tested on different realistic configurations considering the influence of (i) the spatial distribution of the sedimentation rate in relation to the distance from the marsh margin, (ii

  8. Swelling compositions based polycarboxylic acids and bentonite clays in solutions of salts of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarshesheva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the synthesis of chemical cross-linked composite materials made of natural inorganic polymer bentonite clay of Manrak deposit, and polyacrylic and polymethacrylic acids. The swelling ability of the composition in solutions of salts of heavy metals (Ni2+ and Pb2+, influence of solution of concentration, pH and temperature on the swelling ability is investigated.

  9. Archaeological Reconnaissance Survey and Salvage Excavation in the Salt Lick Recreation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    region, all of the geological strata are nearly horizontal and-.dip gently away from the Nashville Dome! Central Basin area ( Floyd 1965:7-8, Figure 1...is also known that minor deposits of halite (rock salt) have been located in Anderson, White, Van Buren, Warren, Overton, and Jackson counties ( Floyd ...Banded Fossiliferous Pink Pink Cherty Limestone Quartzite Chalcedony 524’ Non-cryptocrystalline Clay (burnt) Sandstone Ferrous Sandstone Greenstone Shale

  10. Effect of salting and drying conditions on quality of salted Dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regression analysis of the data yielded models with high coefficients of determination (³ 0.90) for the prediction of the moisture and salt content of solar and open sun-dried salted fish. The solar dried salted fish generally attained lower moisture levels than the open sun-dried samples. Analysis of sensory scores indicated ...

  11. Sea ice as a source of sea salt aerosol to Greenland ice cores: a model-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Rachael H.; Yang, Xin; Wolff, Eric W.; McConnell, Joseph R.; Frey, Markus M.

    2017-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the sea ice surface is an important source of sea salt aerosol and this has significant implications for polar climate and atmospheric chemistry. It also suggests the potential to use ice core sea salt records as proxies for past sea ice extent. To explore this possibility in the Arctic region, we use a chemical transport model to track the emission, transport, and deposition of sea salt from both the open ocean and the sea ice, allowing us to assess the relative importance of each. Our results confirm the importance of sea ice sea salt (SISS) to the winter Arctic aerosol burden. For the first time, we explicitly simulate the sea salt concentrations of Greenland snow, achieving values within a factor of two of Greenland ice core records. Our simulations suggest that SISS contributes to the winter maxima in sea salt characteristic of ice cores across Greenland. However, a north-south gradient in the contribution of SISS relative to open-ocean sea salt (OOSS) exists across Greenland, with 50 % of winter sea salt being SISS at northern sites such as NEEM (77° N), while only 10 % of winter sea salt is SISS at southern locations such as ACT10C (66° N). Our model shows some skill at reproducing the inter-annual variability in sea salt concentrations for 1991-1999, particularly at Summit where up to 62 % of the variability is explained. Future work will involve constraining what is driving this inter-annual variability and operating the model under different palaeoclimatic conditions.

  12. Sea ice as a source of sea salt aerosol to Greenland ice cores: a model-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Rhodes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that the sea ice surface is an important source of sea salt aerosol and this has significant implications for polar climate and atmospheric chemistry. It also suggests the potential to use ice core sea salt records as proxies for past sea ice extent. To explore this possibility in the Arctic region, we use a chemical transport model to track the emission, transport, and deposition of sea salt from both the open ocean and the sea ice, allowing us to assess the relative importance of each. Our results confirm the importance of sea ice sea salt (SISS to the winter Arctic aerosol burden. For the first time, we explicitly simulate the sea salt concentrations of Greenland snow, achieving values within a factor of two of Greenland ice core records. Our simulations suggest that SISS contributes to the winter maxima in sea salt characteristic of ice cores across Greenland. However, a north–south gradient in the contribution of SISS relative to open-ocean sea salt (OOSS exists across Greenland, with 50 % of winter sea salt being SISS at northern sites such as NEEM (77° N, while only 10 % of winter sea salt is SISS at southern locations such as ACT10C (66° N. Our model shows some skill at reproducing the inter-annual variability in sea salt concentrations for 1991–1999, particularly at Summit where up to 62 % of the variability is explained. Future work will involve constraining what is driving this inter-annual variability and operating the model under different palaeoclimatic conditions.

  13. Elevation of Fasting Ghrelin in Healthy Human Subjects Consuming a High-Salt Diet: A Novel Mechanism of Obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Overweight/obesity is a chronic disease that carries an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premature death. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between salt intake and obesity, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin, which regulates appetite, food intake, and fat deposition, becomes elevated when one consumes a high-salt diet, contributing to the progression of obesity. We, therefore, investigated fasting ghrelin concentrations during a high-salt diet. Thirty-eight non-obese and normotensive subjects (aged 25 to 50 years were selected from a rural community in Northern China. They were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for three days at baseline, a low-salt diet for seven days (3 g/day, NaCl, then a high-salt diet for seven days (18 g/day. The concentration of plasma ghrelin was measured using an immunoenzyme method (ELISA. High-salt intake significantly increased fasting ghrelin levels, which were higher during the high-salt diet (320.7 ± 30.6 pg/mL than during the low-salt diet (172.9 ± 8.9 pg/mL. The comparison of ghrelin levels between the different salt diets was statistically-significantly different (p < 0.01. A positive correlation between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and fasting ghrelin levels was demonstrated. Our data indicate that a high-salt diet elevates fasting ghrelin in healthy human subjects, which may be a novel underlying mechanism of obesity.

  14. A descriptive model of the molten salt reactor experiment after shutdown: Review of FY 1995 progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.F.; Del Cul, G.D.; Toth, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    During FY 1995 considerable progress was made toward gaining a better understanding of the chemistry and transport processes that continue to govern the behavior of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE). As measurements in the MSRE proceed, laboratory studies continue, and better analyses are available, our understanding of the state of the MSRE and the best path toward remediation improves. Because of the immediate concern about the deposit in the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB), laboratory studies in the past year focused on carbon-fluorine chemistry. Secondary efforts were directed toward investigation of gas generation from MSRE salts by both radiolytic and nonradiolytic pathways. In addition to the laboratory studies, field measurements at the MSRE provided the basis for estimating the inventory of uranium and fluorine in the ACB. Analysis of both temperature and radiation measurements provided independent and consistent estimates of about 2.6 kg of uranium deposited in the top of the ACB. Further analysis efforts included a refinement in the estimates of the fuel- salt source term, the deposited decay energy, and the projected rate of radiolytic gas generation. This report also provides the background material necessary to explain new developments and to review areas of particular interest. The detailed history of the MSRE is extensively documented and is cited where appropriate. This work is also intended to update and complement the more recent MSRE assessment reports.

  15. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  16. Public health impact of salt reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    The health and economic burden related to cardiovascular diseases is substantial and prevention of these diseases remains a challenge. There is convincing evidence that high salt intake affects blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. As salt intake is far above the recommended

  17. Sea salt concentrations across the European continent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, A.M.M.; Schaap, M.; Querol, X.; Albert, M.F.M.A.; Vercauteren, J.; Kuhlbusch, T.A.J.; Hoogerbrugge, R.

    2010-01-01

    The oceans are a major source for particles that play an important role in many atmospheric processes. In Europe sea salt may contribute significantly to particulate matter concentrations. We have compiled sodium concentration data as a tracer for sea salt for 89 sites in Europe to provide more

  18. Nonlinear Analysis of Cavities in Rock Salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, N. S.; Krenk, Steen

    1979-01-01

    The paper covers some material and computational aspects of the rock mechanics of leached cavities in salt. A material model is presented in which the instantaneous stiffness of the salt is obtained by interpolation between the unloaded state and a relevant failure state. The model enables...

  19. Morphology of colloidal metal pyrophosphate salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Y.M.; Velikov, K.; Kegel, W.K.

    2012-01-01

    We report the preparation and characterization of colloidal particles of several pyrophosphate metal salts, including, for the first time, salts containing multiple metals. These materials are compared in order to determine the influence of the composition and experimental conditions on particle

  20. Cadmium hampers salt tolerance of Sesuvium portulacastrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Mariem; Martos, Soledad; Pérez-Martín, Laura; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Gunsé, Benet

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that salinity reduces cadmium toxicity in halophytes. However, the possible interference of Cd with the mechanisms of salt tolerance is poorly explored. The aim of this study was to see whether Cd affects salt tolerance mechanisms in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum. S. portulacastrum plants obtained from cuttings were grown in hydroponics for 3 weeks and then exposed to low (0.09 mM) or moderate (200 mM) NaCl concentrations, alone or in combination with 25 μM CdCl 2 . Microscopy observation revealed two strategies of salt tolerance: euhalophytism and secretion of salt by bladder cells. Cadmium exposure hardly influenced the total leaf Na + concentrations. However, Cd supply delayed the salt-induced upregulation of AHA1 (plasma membrane H + -ATPase 1) and SOS1 (plasma membrane Na + transporter "Salt Overly Sensitive 1"), genes that are essential for salt tolerance. Moreover, Cd induced the activation of BADH, coding for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, indicating enhanced osmotic stress due to Cd. Sodium-green fluorescence in protoplasts from plants grown with low or high NaCl, alone or in combination with Cd, revealed higher Na + concentrations in the cytoplasm of Cd-exposed plants. Taken together the results indicate interference of Cd with salt tolerance mechanisms in S. portulacastrum. This may have consequences for the efficient use of halophytes in phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated saline soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Wave attenuation by salt marsh vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuik, V.; Jonkman, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    Salt marshes are a characteristic feature of estuaries and coastal seas. They are found in the upper coastal intertidal zones between land and water, which are regularly flooded by tides and surges. They are covered with salt-tolerant vegetation types, such as herbs and grasses. Sheltering from

  2. Metal Production by Molten Salt Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.; Qingfeng, Li

    Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed.......Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed....

  3. Salt Diapirs in the Gulf Coast [gcdiapirg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations and shapes of salt diapirs were modified after the New Orleans Geological Society map, Salt tectonism of the U.S. Gulf Coast Basin (compiled by J.A. Lopez,...

  4. Salt for the earthen oven revisited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-06-07

    Jun 7, 2011 ... ours, but in a roundabout (tortuous?) way. However, we already mentioned why seasoning and conservation are not plausible interpretations in the biblical context. Once again, following De Langhe's (1954) insight, this is how. Luke's logion can be understood: Salt (the catalyst) is good; but if salt has lost its ...

  5. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-13

    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  6. Enduring perceptions: Place naming and the perception of Louisiana’s salt dome islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Hayward

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Salt domes are geological features that occur when areas of salt deposits are pressured into layers above them, causing dome shaped distortions in horizontal strata. In some instances, the distortions protrude above flat areas of land or else appear underwater as seamounts. In the case of the five Louisiana salt dome hills considered in this article, their distinct elevation above the swampy bayous and flatlands surrounding them has led to their characterisation as islands by indigenous Atakapa-Ishak peoples and by subsequent Francophone and Anglophone settlers. The article considers the ways in which the five salt domes’ islandness has been perceived, enhanced and/or undermined by various local inhabitants and/or the commercial operations that have operated on them. Discussion of these aspects involves consideration of the manner in which the salt dome islands’ islandness is mutable and complex, particularly with regard to human impacts. This mutability is discussed with regard to both individual island placenames and the islands’ overall designations.

  7. Whitecaps, sea-salt aerosols, and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguelova, Magdalena Dimitrova

    Oceanic whitecaps are the major source of sea-salt aerosols. Because these aerosols are dominant in remote marine air, they control the radiative properties of the clean background atmosphere by scattering sunlight, changing cloud properties and lifetime, and providing media for chemical reactions. Including sea-salt effects in climate models improves predictions, but simulating their generation is first necessary. To make the sea-salt generation function currently used in climate models more relevant for aerosol investigations, this study proposes two modifications. First, the conventional relation between whitecap coverage, W, and the 10-meter wind speed, U10, used in typical generation functions is expanded to include additional factors that affect whitecaps and sea-salt aerosol formation. Second, the sea-salt generation function is extended to smaller sizes; sea-salt aerosol with initial radii from 0.4 to 20 mum can now be modeled. To achieve these goals, this thesis develops a new method for estimating whitecap coverage on a global scale using satellite measurements of the brightness temperature of the ocean surface. Whitecap coverage evaluated with this method incorporates the effects of atmospheric stability, sea-surface temperature, salinity, wind fetch, wind duration, and the amount of surface-active material. Assimilating satellite-derived values for whitecap coverage in the sea-salt generation function incorporates the effects of all environmental factors on sea-salt production and predicts realistic sea-salt aerosol loadings into the atmosphere. An extensive database of whitecap coverage and sea-salt aerosol fluxes has been compiled with the new method and is used to investigate their spatial and temporal characteristics. The composite effect of all environmental factors suggests a more uniform latitudinal distribution of whitecaps and sea-salt aerosols than that predicted from wind speed alone. The effect of sea-surface temperature, TS, is

  8. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed.

  9. Sedimentary processes and products in a mesotidal salt marsh environment: insights from Groves Creek, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. R.; Hodgson, J. Y. S.; Brandes, J. A.

    2017-08-01

    Southeastern salt marshes are important repositories of sediment and carbon, and their formation is heavily dependent on deposition and accumulation of inorganic sediment. This study examined Groves Creek marsh near Savannah, GA, a typical Spartina alterniflora salt marsh of the southeastern US. Analyses were focused on the character, deposition and accumulation of material within the marsh on daily, monthly, decadal and centennial timescales, to determine the dominant factors in material supply and redistribution, and on its stratigraphy to determine the 1,000-year history of Groves Creek salt marsh development. Modern processes create gradients in grain size, which shows little variation from the tidal channel flanks up to mean sea level, and which coarsens with distance into the marsh from mean sea level to mean high water. This unexpected result suggests that, although floc transport is an important mechanism of sediment supply near the channel margins, energetic events must supply coarser materials to the marsh platform, where they are not readily removed by typical energy regimes. Daily deposition can approach 3 g/cm2 year; however, centennial accumulation rates are orders of magnitude lower (0.11±0.05 g/cm2 year) and are similar to those present over the past 300 years (0.05-0.2 g/cm2 year), indicating that much of the daily deposition is remobilized. Stable isotopic δ13C (average -18.7‰) and δ15N (average 5.7‰) values most likely indicate a large contribution from S. alterniflora as a carbon source throughout the marsh, although heavier δ15N on the channel flanks suggest that benthic algae may be locally important. Geologic, geochemical and microfossil evidence suggests that depositional conditions in the Groves Creek marsh have changed significantly over the past 1,000 years, creating a distinct fining-upward sequence. This sequence preserves the signature (from bottom to top) of subtidal flats grading to intertidal sandflats, an erosional lag

  10. Experimental and theoretical studies of the laws governing condensate deposition from combustion gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, D. E.; Seshadri, K.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the results of a research program directed at an improved understanding of condensate deposition rate phenomena in combustion systems. The conducted experiments make use of real-time optical laser reflectance-interference-polarization techniques in flame environments. The obtained new data and the results of previous gravimetric experiments are employed as a basis for the development of a comprehensive convective diffusion deposition theory, taking into account the assumption of a multicomponent vapor or multisize class particles 'source-free' boundary layer. The theory makes it possible to provide self-consistent salt/ash/soot deposition rate predictions over a wide variety of environmental conditions.

  11. Higher salt preference in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Juli Thomaz; Matsubara, Luiz S; Menani, José Vanderlei; Matsubara, Beatriz B; Johnson, Alan Kim; De Gobbi, Juliana Irani Fratucci

    2012-02-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome that involves changes in behavioral, neural and endocrine regulatory systems. Dietary salt restriction along with pharmacotherapy is considered an essential component in the effective management of symptomatic HF patients. However, it is well recognized that HF patients typically have great difficulty in restricting sodium intake. We hypothesized that under HF altered activity in systems that normally function to regulate body fluid and cardiovascular homeostasis could produce an increased preference for the taste of salt. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the perceived palatability (defined as salt preference) of food with different concentrations of added salt in compensated chronically medicated HF patients and comparable control subjects. Healthy volunteers (n=25) and medicated, clinically stable HF patients (n=38, NYHA functional class II or III) were interviewed and given an evaluation to assess their preferences for different amounts of saltiness. Three salt concentrations (0.58, 0.82, and 1.16 g/100 g) of bean soup were presented to the subjects. Salt preference for each concentration was quantified using an adjective scale (unpleasant, fair or delicious). Healthy volunteers preferred the soup with medium salt concentration (p=0.042), HF patients disliked the low concentration (p<0.001) and preferred the high concentration of salted bean soup (p<0.001). When compared to healthy volunteers, HF patients demonstrated a significantly greater preference for the soup with a high salt concentration (p=0.038). It is concluded that medicated, compensated patients under chronic treatment for HF have an increased preference for salt. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Searching for the Source of Salt Marsh Buried Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, C. G.; Nelson, D. C.; Fleming, E. J.

    2016-12-01

    Salt marshes provide a barrier between upstream mercury contamination and coastal ecosystems. Mercury is sorbed, transported, and deposited in estuarine systems. Once the upstream mercury source has been remediated, the downstream mercury contaminated salt marsh sediments should become "capped" or buried by uncontaminated sediments preventing further ecosystem contamination. Downstream from a remediated mercury mine, an estuarine intertidal marsh in Tomales Bay, CA, USA, scavengers/predators (e.g. Pachygrapsus crassipes, Lined Shore Crab) have leg mercury concentrations as high as 5.5 ppm (dry wt./dry wt.), which increase significantly with crab size, a surrogate for trophic level. These elevated mercury concentrations suggests that "buried" mercury is rereleased into the environment. To locate possible sources of mercury release in Walker Marsh, we sampled a transect across the marsh that included diverse micro-environments (e.g. rhizoshere, stratified sediments, faunal burrows). From each location we determined the sediment structure, sediment color, total sediment mercury, total sediment iron, and microbial composition (n = 28). Where flora or fauna had perturbed the sediment, mercury concentrations were 10% less than undisturbed stratified sediments (1025 ppb vs. 1164 ppb, respectively). High-throughput SSU rRNA gene sequencing and subsequent co-occurrence network analysis genera indicated that in flora- or fauna- perturbed sediments there was an increased likelihood that microbial genera contained mercury mobilizing genes (94% vs 57%; in perturbed vs stratified sediments, respectively). Our observations are consistent with findings by others that in perturbed sites mercury mobility increased. We did however identify a microbial and geochemical profile with increased mercury mobility. For future work we plan to quantify the role these micro-environments have on mercury-efflux from salt marshes.

  13. [Arsenic (V) removal from drinking water by ferric salt and aluminum salt coagulation/microfiltration process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-bo; Wu, Shui-bo; Gu, Ping

    2007-10-01

    Two lab-scale coagulation/microfiltration membrane reactors were used to compare the arsenic removal from drinking water by ferric salt and aluminum salt coagulation/microfiltration process. FeCl3 and Al2(SO4)3 were appointed as the coagulants. The results show that the arsenic removal efficiency of the two processes are almost equal. Arsenic concentration can be lowered from about 100 microg/L to below 10 microg/L and the lowest is 1.68 microg x L(-1). All of the turbidity of the treated water is less than 0.1 NTU. The concentrations of ferric, aluminum and SO4(2-) of the treated water are entirely satisfied the standard of drinking water. After treated by ferric salt process, pH value of the treated water is increased about 0.5. However, aluminum salt process does not change pH of the drinking water. The concentration ratio of the ferric salt process is 1,791 which is about 2.54 times of the aluminum salt process. Arsenic concentration of the sludge of ferric salt process is also higher greatly than that of the aluminum salt process. Therefore, the volume of the sludge produced by the ferric salt process is smaller than that of the aluminum salt process when equal amount of drinking water was treated. Accordingly, ferric salt process should be used when only high concentration arsenic existed in drinking water. On the other hand, fluoride also can be removed simultaneously while arsenic was removed by aluminum salt process. The amount of coagulant needed is the amount of coagulant required to remove fluoride separately. Fluoride can not be removed from drinking water by the ferric salt process. It was concluded that aluminum salt process should be used to remove arsenic and fluoride simultaneously from high arsenic and high fluoride coexisted drinking water.

  14. Molten salt oxidation of organic hazardous waste with high salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chengqian; Chi, Yong; Jin, Yuqi; Jiang, Xuguang; Buekens, Alfons; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Jian

    2018-02-01

    Organic hazardous waste often contains some salt, owing to the widespread use of alkali salts during industrial manufacturing processes. These salts cause complications during the treatment of this type of waste. Molten salt oxidation is a flameless, robust thermal process, with inherent capability of destroying the organic constituents of wastes, while retaining the inorganic ingredients in the molten salt. In the present study, molten salt oxidation is employed for treating a typical organic hazardous waste with a high content of alkali salts. The hazardous waste derives from the production of thiotriazinone. Molten salt oxidation experiments have been conducted using a lab-scale molten salt oxidation reactor, and the emissions of CO, NO, SO2, HCl and dioxins are studied. Impacts are investigated from the composition of the molten salts, the types of feeding tube, the temperature of molten carbonates and the air factor. Results show that the waste can be oxidised effectively in a molten salt bath. Temperature of molten carbonates plays the most important role. With the temperature rising from 600 °C to 750 °C, the oxidation efficiency increases from 91.1% to 98.3%. Compared with the temperature, air factor has but a minor effect, as well as the composition of the molten salts and the type of feeding tube. The molten carbonates retain chlorine with an efficiency higher than 99.9% and the emissions of dioxins are below 8 pg TEQ g-1 sample. The present study shows that molten salt oxidation is a promising alternative for the disposal of organic hazardous wastes containing a high salt content.

  15. Origin and permeability of deep ocean salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, M.; Rueslåtten, H.

    2009-04-01

    Large, buried salt bodies occur in numerous offshore rift-related sedimentary basins, worldwide. For most practical purposes, the conventional evaporite (solar evaporation of seawater) theory is adequate for explaining these occurrences. However, a new model for their formation has now been published (Hovland et al., 2006; 2007, 2008). This model relies on the properties of supercritical water, a fluid which does not dissolve salt (within specific temperature and pressure ranges). The model predicts that some of the large volumes of salt occurring underground in the Red Sea and also in the Mediterranean Sea, formed by forced hydrothermal circulation of seawater down to depths where it became superctical (i.e., temperatures above 405°C, and pressures above 300 bars). Thus, salt precipitated under-ground and filled up cracks and crevices and also formed massive accumulations, which partly flowed upwards as dense, hot brines, precipitating more solid salts upon cooling. In addition, Holness and Lewis (1997) have shown experimentally that salt bodies subjected to high pressures and elevated temperatures, acquire a permeability comparable to sand. This is because the crystalline structure of salt (halite) attains dihedral angles between salt crystals less than 60° at higher temperatures and pressures, allowing water to form continuous strings around all salt crystals. This allows hot dense brines to migrate through the salt. Thus, the salt may act as conduits for flow of brines and salt slurries from previously accumulated salt in the subsurface. If these brines reach the sea floor, they can also form brine-pools and layered salt bodies on the sea floor. An IODP Pre-proposal (No. 741-pre) is now actively promoting drilling some targets in order of checking out this new theory against the conventional evaporite model. It is hoped that European scientists will take up this question and actively promote drilling into salt bodies, for example in the Red Sea (The

  16. Evaluation of dried salted pork ham and neck quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork ham and neck. Dry-cured meat is a traditional dry-cured product obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled environmental conditions.  Ham and neck was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1 week. Salted meat products were dried at 4 °C and relative humidity 85% 1 week after salting. The quality of dry-cured meat is influenced by the processing technology, for example length of drying and ripening period. The average moisture of dried salted pork ham was 63.77% and dried salted pork neck was 59.26%. The protein content was 24.87% in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower (20.51% in dried salted pork neck. The value of intramuscular fat in dried salted pork ham was 4.97% and 14.40% in dried salted pork neck. The salt content was 5.39% in dried salted pork ham and 4.83% in dried salted pork neck. The cholesterol content was 1.36 g.kg-1 in dried salted pork ham and significant lower in dried salted pork neck (0.60 g.kg-1. The value of lightness was 44.36 CIE L* in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower in dried salted pork neck (40.74 CIE L*. The pH value was 5.84 in dried salted pork ham and 5.80 in dried salted pork neck. The shear work was 9.99 kg.s-1 in dried salted pork ham and 6.34 in dried salted pork neck. The value of water activity (aw was 0.929 in dried salted pork ham and similar 0.921 in dried salted pork neck. 

  17. Compressional salt tectonics in the early stages of the South Pyrenean foreland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrel, Laura; Teixell, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Salt tectonics in the Pyrenees has been widely documented for the Cretaceous extensional episode, defining the existence of salt walls and minibasins along the northern and southern Pyrenean paleomargins. The original geometry of these salt structures was heavily overprinted by shortening during the Alpine orogeny, but restored models have been documented. Other features explored regarding salt tectonics are the big domic or equidimensional diapirs that evolved during the Late Tertiary and still retain their shape in the southern Pyrenees. In either case, the Triassic Keuper evaporite layer is the source layer for the diapiric structures, which is also traditionally recognized as the main detachment level for the external Pyrenean thrust belts. In this work we focus on the role played by salt during the early stages of Alpine compression, which has been comparatively much less investigated. The Late Cretaceous to Eocene early foreland basin of the Southern Pyrenees shows evidence of salt movement that is often overlooked due to the most evident imprint of thrusts and associated fault-related folds. In this preliminary study we report field examples that shed some light on the interplay between halokinesis and buckling in the low-strain compressional regime during the early stages of the Pyrenean orogeny. Also we discuss how the growing salt structures control the local subsidence and the sediment dispersal patterns within the basin. We describe cases of salt-related geometries in the Eocene basins of the southern Pyrenees in areas as the footwall of the Montsec thrust -the Ager basin-, the External Sierras south of the Jaca basin, and the Pobla de Segur and Senterada intramontane conglomerate deposits on the Boixols and Nogueres thrust sheets. The examples are separate, but they offer a wide range of geometries such as tight synclines, vertical and overturned fold limbs, growth strata, and fault boundaries that can be interpreted as thrust welds. These serve as a

  18. Initial salt screening procedures for manufacturing ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tu; Wang, Yeh Wen

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to design initial salt screening procedures for manufacturing ibuprofen. Salt forms of a pharmaceutical acid racemic (R,S)-(+/-)-ibuprofen and their "developable" synthetic routes were ferreted out simultaneously through the screening of seven bases of sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, L-arginine, L-histidine, L-lysine, diethanolamine, and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (THAM), and the match with the use of nine organic solvents of methanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethanol, N, N-dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, isopropyl alcohol, 1,4-dioxane, acetone, and tetrahydrofuran mainly in the presence of water in 20 mL scintillation vials. Racemic (R,S)-(+/-)-sodium ibuprofen dihydrate, a well-known ibuprofen salt and the newly discovered racemic (R,S)-(+/-)-THAM ibuprofen, appeared as white-squared powders with a molecular weight of 327.42 g/mol, a melting point of 160.17 degrees C, and the apparent solubility product, K'(sp), of 6.0 x 10(-4) M(2) at 25 degrees C were successfully synthesized by the initial salt screening methods. The new amine salt of ibuprofen was monoclinic and had a space group of P2(1)/c and lattice parameters of a = 17.578(8) degrees, b = 10.428(4) degrees, c = 9.991(4) A, alpha = 90.00 degrees , beta = 97.17(1) degrees, gamma = 90.00 degrees, and V = 1,817.05(244) A(3). The aspect ratio of the amine salt crystals of ibuprofen of approximately 1.0 implied that the crystals had a better flowability than the sodium salt counterparts. This amine salt of ibuprofen was more stable in moist or dried atmospheres and was more hydrophobic than the sodium salt of ibuprofen. Moreover, the slow dissolution of this amine salt of ibuprofen might have made it less bitter and more suitable as a sustained release drug than the sodium salt of ibuprofen. The future work is to search for the different polymorphs of this amine salt of ibuprofen and to extend the initial salt screening working logics to the formation of co-crystals.

  19. Offshore Stratigraphic Controls on Salt-Water Intrusion in Los Angeles Area Coastal Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. D.; Ponti, D. J.; Ehman, K. D.; Tinsley, J. C.; Reichard, E. G.

    2002-12-01

    Ground water is a major component of the water supply for the ~10 million residents of Los Angeles County. Ground water pumping, linked to population growth since the early 1900's, caused water levels to decline, reversed seaward hydraulic gradients in some coastal aquifers, and resulted in salt water intrusion. United States Geological Survey geologists and hydrologists are working cooperatively with local water agencies to (1) understand and model the process of salt-water intrusion in this siliciclastic, structurally complex basin, and (2) identify potential pathways for the salt-water intrusion. We collected over 2000 trackline-km of single- and multi-channel intermediate- and high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles (60 to 5000 Hz) from the Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor complex and the adjacent San Pedro shelf to develop a 3-dimensional stratigraphic model of the coastal aquifer system. These data define stratal geometries, paleo-channels, and fault traces in the offshore that are potential pathways of salt-water intrusion. The offshore seismic-reflection profiles correlate with onshore geophysical and borehole data collected from four nearby drill sites that were cored continuously to depths ranging to 400 meters. These core holes provide detailed 1-dimensional reference sections that furnish stratigraphic, age, and facies control for the seismic-reflection profiles. The coastal aquifer system is described using sequence stratigraphic concepts as units deposited during eustatic sea level fluctuations during the Pleistocene to Recent. Seismic-reflection profiles identify sequence boundaries, and hence aquifer and aquitard units, by the truncation and onlap of reflectors. If and where the sequences crop out on the sea floor provides a potential pathway for intrusion. The youngest unit, the Gaspur aquifer, is intruded with salt water and consists of at least two flat-lying sequences, each marked by basal gravelly sands deposited by the ancestral Los Angeles

  20. Permanent Disposal of Nuclear Waste in Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, F. D.

    2016-12-01

    Salt formations hold promise for eternal removal of nuclear waste from our biosphere. Germany and the United States have ample salt formations for this purpose, ranging from flat-bedded formations to geologically mature dome structures. Both nations are revisiting nuclear waste disposal options, accompanied by extensive collaboration on applied salt repository research, design, and operation. Salt formations provide isolation while geotechnical barriers reestablish impermeability after waste is placed in the geology. Between excavation and closure, physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, and hydrological processes ensue. Salt response over a range of stress and temperature has been characterized for decades. Research practices employ refined test techniques and controls, which improve parameter assessment for features of the constitutive models. Extraordinary computational capabilities require exacting understanding of laboratory measurements and objective interpretation of modeling results. A repository for heat-generative nuclear waste provides an engineering challenge beyond common experience. Long-term evolution of the underground setting is precluded from direct observation or measurement. Therefore, analogues and modeling predictions are necessary to establish enduring safety functions. A strong case for granular salt reconsolidation and a focused research agenda support salt repository concepts that include safety-by-design. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Author: F. D. Hansen, Sandia National Laboratories

  1. Spectroscopic Characterization of Omeprazole and Its Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Vrbanec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During drug development, it is important to have a suitable crystalline form of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API. Mostly, the basic options originate in the form of free base, acid, or salt. Substances that are stable only within a certain pH range are a challenge for the formulation. For the prazoles, which are known to be sensitive to degradation in an acid environment, the formulation is stabilized with alkaline additives or with the application of API formulated as basic salts. Therefore, preparation and characterization of basic salts are needed to monitor any possible salinization of free molecules. We synthesized salts of omeprazole from the group of alkali metals (Li, Na, and K and alkaline earth metals (Mg, Ca. The purpose of the presented work is to demonstrate the applicability of vibrational spectroscopy to discriminate between the OMP and OMP-salt molecules. For this reason, the physicochemical properties of 5 salts were probed using infrared and Raman spectroscopy, NMR, TG, DSC, and theoretical calculation of vibrational frequencies. We found out that vibrational spectroscopy serves as an applicable spectroscopic tool which enables an accurate, quick, and nondestructive way to determine the characteristic of OMP and its salts.

  2. Salt Tolerance of Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Ayanna U. [Purdue University; Talaty, Nari [Purdue University; Cooks, R G [Purdue University; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Suppression of ion intensity in the presence of high salt matrices is common in most mass spectrometry ionization techniques. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is an ionization method that exhibits salt tolerance, and this is investigated. DESI analysis was performed on three different drug mixtures in the presence of 0, 0.2, 2, 5, 10, and 20% NaCl:KCl weight by volume from seven different surfaces. At physiological concentrations individual drugs in each mixture were observed with each surface. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) was used to provide additional confirmation for select compounds. Multiple stage experiments, to MS5, were performed for select compounds. Even in the absence of added salt, the benzodiazepine containing mixture yielded sodium and potassium adducts of carbamazepine which masked the ions of interest. These adducts were eliminated by adding 0.1% 7M ammonium acetate to the standard methanol:water (1:1) spray solvent. Comparison of the salt tolerance of DESI with that of electrospray ionization (ESI) demonstrated much better signal/noise characteristics for DESI in this study. The salt tolerance of DESI was also studied by performing limit of detection and dynamic range experiments. Even at a salt concentration significantly above physiological concentrations, select surfaces were effective in providing spectra that allowed the ready identification of the compounds of interest. The already high salt tolerance of DESI can be optimized further by appropriate choices of surface and spray solution.

  3. Genetic Diversity of Salt Tolerance in Miscanthus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Lin; van der Schoot, Hanneke; Dehghan, Shiva; Alvim Kamei, Claire L.; Schwarz, Kai-Uwe; Meyer, Heike; Visser, Richard G. F.; van der Linden, C. Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Miscanthus is a woody rhizomatous C4 grass that can be used as a CO2 neutral biofuel resource. It has potential to grow in marginal areas such as saline soils, avoiding competition for arable lands with food crops. This study explored genetic diversity for salt tolerance in Miscanthus and discovered mechanisms and traits that can be used to improve the yield under salt stress. Seventy genotypes of Miscanthus (including 57 M. sinensis, 5 M. sacchariflorus, and 8 hybrids) were evaluated for salt tolerance under saline (150 mM NaCl) and normal growing conditions using a hydroponic system. Analyses of shoot growth traits and ion concentrations revealed the existence of large variation for salt tolerance in the genotypes. We identified genotypes with potential for high biomass production both under control and saline conditions that may be utilized for growth under marginal, saline conditions. Several relatively salt tolerant genotypes had clearly lower Na+ concentrations and showed relatively high K+/Na+ ratios in the shoots under salt stress, indicating that a Na+ exclusion mechanism was utilized to prevent Na+ accumulation in the leaves. Other genotypes showed limited reduction in leaf expansion and growth rate under saline conditions, which may be indicative of osmotic stress tolerance. The genotypes demonstrating potentially different salt tolerance mechanisms can serve as starting material for breeding programs aimed at improving salinity tolerance of Miscanthus. PMID:28261243

  4. Large Salt Dust Storms Follow a 30-Year Rainfall Cycle in the Mar Chiquita Lake (Córdoba, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Enrique H; Stein, Ariel F

    2016-01-01

    Starting in 2006, a new source of intense salt dust storms developed in Mar Chiquita (Córdoba, Argentina), the largest saline lake in South America. Storms originate from vast mudflats left by a 30-year expansion-retreat cycle of the lake due to changes in the regional rainfall regime. The annual frequency of salt dust storms correlated with the size of the salt mudflats. Events were restricted to the coldest months, and reached up to 800 km from the source. Occurrence of dust storms was associated with specific surface colors and textures easily identifiable in satellite images. High-emission surfaces were characterized by the presence of sodium sulfate hydrous/anhydrous crystals (mirabilite and thenardite), and a superficial and variable water table, which may result in the periodic development of a characteristic "fluffy" surface derived from salt precipitation-dissolution processes. HYSPLIT model simulation estimates a deposition maximum near the sources (of about 2.5 kg/ha/yr), and a decreasing trend from the emission area outwards, except for the relative secondary maximum modeled over the mountain ranges in southern Bolivia and northern Argentina due to an orographic effect. The 2009 total deposition of salt dust generated in Mar Chiquita was estimated at 6.5 million tons.

  5. Large Salt Dust Storms Follow a 30-Year Rainfall Cycle in the Mar Chiquita Lake (Córdoba, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique H Bucher

    Full Text Available Starting in 2006, a new source of intense salt dust storms developed in Mar Chiquita (Córdoba, Argentina, the largest saline lake in South America. Storms originate from vast mudflats left by a 30-year expansion-retreat cycle of the lake due to changes in the regional rainfall regime. The annual frequency of salt dust storms correlated with the size of the salt mudflats. Events were restricted to the coldest months, and reached up to 800 km from the source. Occurrence of dust storms was associated with specific surface colors and textures easily identifiable in satellite images. High-emission surfaces were characterized by the presence of sodium sulfate hydrous/anhydrous crystals (mirabilite and thenardite, and a superficial and variable water table, which may result in the periodic development of a characteristic "fluffy" surface derived from salt precipitation-dissolution processes. HYSPLIT model simulation estimates a deposition maximum near the sources (of about 2.5 kg/ha/yr, and a decreasing trend from the emission area outwards, except for the relative secondary maximum modeled over the mountain ranges in southern Bolivia and northern Argentina due to an orographic effect. The 2009 total deposition of salt dust generated in Mar Chiquita was estimated at 6.5 million tons.

  6. Slanic Tuff and associated Miocene evaporite deposits, Eastern Carpathians, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Halas, Stanislaw; Barbu, Victor; Bojar, Hans-Peter; Wojtowicz, Artur; Duliu, Octavian

    2017-04-01

    Miocene tuffs of calcalkaline composition are widespread in the Carpathians, Pannonian and Eastern Alpine realm. Their occurrences are described in outcrops as well as in the subsurface. The presence of such tuffs may offer important criteria for stratigraphic correlations and help to establish the absolute age of deposits and associated climatic and environmental changes. The Green Stone Hill (Muntele Piatra Verde) is situated to the north of Slanic-Prahova salt mine, in the bend region of the Eastern Carpathians, Romania. From bottom to top the section is composed of: marls with Globigerina followed by the so called Slanic tuff, gypsum and salt breccia and, on the top, radiolarian bearing shales. The stratigraphic age of the section is Middle to Upper Badenian (nannoplankton zones NN5 to NN6). XRD investigations of the green Slanic tuff show that the main mineralogical component is clinoptilolite (zeolite) followed by quartz and plagioclase. For this type of tuff there is no crystalline phase, which may be used for radiometric dating. In the middle part of the green tuff interval, we found discrete layers of a much coarser white tuff, with mineralogy consisting of quartz, plagioclase, biotite and clinoptilolite. The white tuff forming distinct layers within the green tuff, has an andesitic composition. 40Ar/39Ar dating of biotite concentrates from the white tuff gives an age of 13.6±0.2Ma, the dated layer being situated below the gypsum and salt breccia. We consider that the age is well constraining the time when the green tuffs were formed at the border of the basin. From this level upwards discrete gypsum layers occurs within the green tuffs, the age may be considered as indicating the base of the evaporitic sequence. To the south-east, from this level upwards evaporites, mainly salt formed. The age suggests that evaporitic deposits formed after the Mid Badenian climatic optimum, evaporitic formation being related to restricted circulation due the drop of sea

  7. The variability of reported salt levels in fast foods across six countries: opportunities for salt reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Elizabeth; Webster, Jacqueline; Woodward, Mark; Czernichow, Sebastien; Yuan, Wen Lun; Jenner, Katharine; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jacobson, Michael; Campbell, Norm; Neal, Bruce

    2012-06-12

    Several fast food companies have made commitments to reduce the levels of salt in the foods they serve, but technical issues are often cited as a barrier to achieving substantial reductions. Our objective was to examine the reported salt levels for products offered by leading multinational fast food chains. Data on salt content for products served by six fast food chains operating in Australia, Canada, France, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States were collected by survey in April 2010. Mean salt contents (and their ranges) were calculated and compared within and between countries and companies. We saw substantial variation in the mean salt content for different categories of products. For example, the salads we included in our survey contained 0.5 g of salt per 100 g, whereas the chicken products we included contained 1.6 g. We also saw variability between countries: chicken products from the UK contained 1.1 g of salt per 100 g, whereas chicken products from the US contained 1.8 g. Furthermore, the mean salt content of food categories varied between companies and between the same products in different countries (e.g., McDonald's Chicken McNuggets contain 0.6 g of salt per 100 g in the UK, but 1.6 g of salt per 100 g in the US). The salt content of fast foods varies substantially, not only by type of food, but by company and country in which the food is produced. Although the reasons for this variation are not clear, the marked differences in salt content of very similar products suggest that technical reasons are not a primary explanation. In the right regulatory environment, it is likely that fast food companies could substantially reduce the salt in their products, translating to large gains for population health.

  8. Bulk sulfur (S) deposition in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiuying; Wang, Shanqian; Zhang, Wuting; Lu, Xuehe

    2016-06-01

    A systematic dataset of an observation network on a national scale has been organized to investigate the spatial distribution of bulk sulfur (S) deposition (Sdep) throughout China during 2000-2013, representing by far the most detailed data set to track the bulk sulfur deposition throughout China since 2000. Such a dataset is needed for ecosystem studies and for developing emission control policies. Bulk Sdep values showed great variations, ranging from 2.17 to 70.55 kg ha-1 y-1, with an average of 22.99 kg ha-1 y-1. The average rate of bulk Sdep located in East Coastal region (35.97 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yangtze region (57.90 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yellow River region (23.42 kg ha-1 y-1), North Coastal region (42.19 kg ha-1 y-1), Northeast region (34.28 kg ha-1 y-1), South Coastal region (36.97 kg S ha-1 y-1), Southwest region (33.85 kg ha-1 y-1) was 4.50, 7.24, 2.93, 5.28, 4.29, 4.63 and 4.24 times than that in Northwest region (7.99 kg ha-1 y-1). Bulk Sdep over China was mainly from fossil fuel combustion (76.96%), biomass burning (7.64%), crust (6.22%), aged sea salt (5.48%) and agriculture (3.68%). A systematic observation network on a national scale should be established to conduct a long-term monitoring atmospheric Sdep (including wet and dry deposition), based on exiting ecological stations administrated by different departments in China.

  9. Salt-bridge energetics in halophilic proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Nayek

    Full Text Available Halophilic proteins have greater abundance of acidic over basic and very low bulky hydrophobic residues. Classical electrostatic stabilization was suggested as the key determinant for halophilic adaptation of protein. However, contribution of specific electrostatic interactions (i.e. salt-bridges to overall stability of halophilic proteins is yet to be understood. To understand this, we use Adaptive-Poison-Boltzmann-Solver Methods along with our home-built automation to workout net as well as associated component energy terms such as desolvation energy, bridge energy and background energy for 275 salt-bridges from 20 extremely halophilic proteins. We then perform extensive statistical analysis on general and energetic attributes on these salt-bridges. On average, 8 salt-bridges per 150 residues protein were observed which is almost twice than earlier report. Overall contributions of salt-bridges are -3.0 kcal mol-1. Majority (78% of salt-bridges in our dataset are stable and conserved in nature. Although, average contributions of component energy terms are equal, their individual details vary greatly from one another indicating their sensitivity to local micro-environment. Notably, 35% of salt-bridges in our database are buried and stable. Greater desolvation penalty of these buried salt-bridges are counteracted by stable network salt-bridges apart from favorable equal contributions of bridge and background terms. Recruitment of extensive network salt-bridges (46% with a net contribution of -5.0 kcal mol-1 per salt-bridge, seems to be a halophilic design wherein favorable average contribution of background term (-10 kcal mol-1 exceeds than that of bridge term (-7 kcal mol-1. Interiors of proteins from halophiles are seen to possess relatively higher abundance of charge and polar side chains than that of mesophiles which seems to be satisfied by cooperative network salt-bridges. Overall, our theoretical analyses provide insight into halophilic

  10. Evaluation of constitutive models for crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hurtado, L.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1996-05-01

    Three constitutive models are recommended as candidates for describing the deformation of crushed salt. These models are generalized to three-dimensional states of stress to include the effects of mean and deviatoric stress and modified to include effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt is used to determine material parameters for the models. To evaluate the capability of the models, parameter values obtained from fitting the complete database are used to predict the individual tests. Finite element calculations of a WIPP shaft with emplaced crushed salt demonstrate the model predictions.

  11. Electricity generation using molten salt technology

    OpenAIRE

    Osarinmwian, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The anodic release of carbon dioxide gas in the molten salt Hall-Heroult process can be used to power a turbine for electricity generation. The application of this new concept in molten salt reprocessing in the nuclear industry is considered because it could facilitate the suitability of carbon dioxide cycles to certain types of nuclear reactor. The theoretical power of 27.8 MW generated by a molten salt Hall-Heroult reactor is comparable with a next-generation biomass plant that sources low-...

  12. Modeling of Salt Solubilities in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiavone-Filho, O.; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubility product. It is shown that the proposed procedure can describe with good accuracy a series of salt......A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Huckel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Huckel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric...

  13. Comparison of the rift and post-rift architecture of conjugated salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter A.

    2017-10-01

    This study presents a regional comparison between selected 2D seismic transects from large, conjugated salt and salt-free basins offshore southern Brazil (Campos Basin, Santos Basin, Pelotas Basin) and southwest Africa (Kwanza Basin, northern and southern Namibe Basin, Walvis Basin). Tectonic-stratigraphic interpretation of the main rift and post-rift units, free-air gravity data and flexural isostatic backstripping were used for a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of key mechanisms controlling the present-day differences in conjugated and neighbouring South Atlantic basins. A significant variation in the tectonic-sedimentary architecture along-strike at each margin and between the conjugated basins across the South Atlantic reflects major differences in (1) the structural configuration of each margin segment at transitional phase between rifting and breakup, as emphasized in the highly asymmetric settings of the large Santos salt basin and the conjugated, salt-free southern Namibe Basin, (2) the post-breakup subsidence and uplift history of the respective margin segment, which caused major differences for example between the Campos and Espirito Santo basins and the conjugated northern Namibe and Kwanza basins, (3) variations in the quantity and distribution of post-breakup margin sediments, which led to major differences in the subsidence history and the related present-day basin architecture, for example in the initially rather symmetric, siliciclastic Pelotas and Walvis basins, and (4) the deposition of Aptian evaporites in the large rift and sag basin provinces north of the Rio Grande Rise and Walvis Ridge, highly contrasting the siliciclastic basins along the margin segments south of the ridges. The resulting present-day architecture of the basins can be generally classified as (i) moderately symmetric, salt-free, and magma-rich in the northern part of the southern segment, (i) highly asymmetric, salt-bearing and magma-poor vs. salt-free and magma

  14. Salt Marsh Response and Recovery to Coseismic Subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, A. N.; Carlin, J. A.; Rhodes, B. P.; Kirby, M.; Leeper, R. J.; Smith, R. W.

    2016-12-01

    Salt marshes worldwide are under increasing stress from eustatic sea level rise. Along the tectonically active west coast of North America, some salt marshes are also vulnerable to abrupt increases in relative sea level rise (RSLR) resulting from coseismic subsidence. Elevation zonation of sub-environments within a marsh provides the opportunity to interpret the sedimentary record in marshes to infer past earthquakes, which may improve understanding of regional seismic hazards and ecosystem response to increases in sea level. Our study area is the Seal Beach Wetlands (SBW), an 3 km2 salt marsh straddling the seismically active Newport-Inglewood fault zone in southern California. A previous study of the SBW identified sedimentary evidence of three coseismic subsidence events. Here, our goals were to identify coseismic subsidence events preserved in SBW stratigraphy and to quantify marsh recovery following an earthquake to assess marsh resiliency to rapid RSLR. To do this, we focused on one core collected near the fringe of the SBW and applied a suite of sedimentary and geochemical analyses. Our results indicated that the SBW may preserve sedimentary evidence of four potential coseismic subsidence events. Events were distinguished in the stratigraphy by a sharp upper contact interpreted as an abrupt shift in marsh depositional sub-environments, from a vegetated marsh, to an intertidal mudflat or a subtidal environment. This stratigraphy suggests that the marsh rapidly subsided, preserving the evidence of the vegetated marsh as a peat deposit overlain by a low-organic mud or muddy-sand layer. A typical marsh accretion facies succession occurred above each earthquake event in the core, suggesting full marsh recovery. From the core data, we also observed that the net average rate of marsh recovery, i.e., marsh accretion, was consistent. Estimated recovery rates between 0.6 and 1.1 mm/yr were comparable to the overall accretion rate and regional late Holocene RSLR rate

  15. Electrophoretic deposition of biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccini, A. R.; Keim, S.; Ma, R.; Li, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2010-01-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is attracting increasing attention as an effective technique for the processing of biomaterials, specifically bioactive coatings and biomedical nanostructures. The well-known advantages of EPD for the production of a wide range of microstructures and nanostructures as well as unique and complex material combinations are being exploited, starting from well-dispersed suspensions of biomaterials in particulate form (microsized and nanoscale particles, nanotubes, nanoplatelets). EPD of biological entities such as enzymes, bacteria and cells is also being investigated. The review presents a comprehensive summary and discussion of relevant recent work on EPD describing the specific application of the technique in the processing of several biomaterials, focusing on (i) conventional bioactive (inorganic) coatings, e.g. hydroxyapatite or bioactive glass coatings on orthopaedic implants, and (ii) biomedical nanostructures, including biopolymer–ceramic nanocomposites, carbon nanotube coatings, tissue engineering scaffolds, deposition of proteins and other biological entities for sensors and advanced functional coatings. It is the intention to inform the reader on how EPD has become an important tool in advanced biomaterials processing, as a convenient alternative to conventional methods, and to present the potential of the technique to manipulate and control the deposition of a range of nanomaterials of interest in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. PMID:20504802

  16. Identifying potential disaster zones around the Verkhnekamskoye potash deposit (Russia) using advanced information technology (IT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, J. J.; Filippov, L. O.

    2017-07-01

    This work aims at improving the exploitation of the K, Mg, salts ore of the Verkhnekamskoye deposit using advanced information technology (IT) such as 3D geostatistical modeling techniques together with high performance flotation. It is expected to provide a more profitable exploitation of the actual deposit avoiding the formation of dramatic sinkholes by a better knowledge of the deposit. The GeoChron modelling method for sedimentary formations (Mallet, 2014) was used to improve the knowledge of the Verkhnekamskoye potash deposit, Perm region, Russia. After a short introduction on the modern theory of mathematical modelling applied to mineral resources exploitation and geology, new results are presented on the sedimentary architecture of the ore deposit. They enlighten the structural geology and the fault orientations, a key point for avoiding catastrophic water inflows recharging zone during exploitation. These results are important for avoiding catastrophic sinkholes during exploitation.

  17. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth H. M. Temme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011–2016 and differences in estimated salt intake over a 10-year period (2006–2015. Methods. To assess the salt contents of foods; we obtained recent data from chemical analyses and from food labels. Salt content of these foods in 2016 was compared to salt contents in the 2011 version Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO, version 2011, and statistically tested with General Linear Models. To estimate the daily dietary salt intake in 2006, 2010, and 2015, men and women aged 19 to 70 years were recruited through random population sampling in Doetinchem, a small town located in a rural area in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The characteristics of the study population were in 2006: n = 317, mean age 49 years, 43% men, in 2010: n = 342, mean age 46 years, 45% men, and in 2015: n = 289, mean age 46 years, 47% men. Sodium and potassium excretion was measured in a single 24-h urine sample. All estimates were converted to a common metric: salt intake in grams per day by multiplication of sodium with a factor of 2.54. Results. In 2016 compared to 2011, the salt content in certain types of bread was on average 19 percent lower and certain types of sauce, soup, canned vegetables and legumes, and crisps had a 12 to 26 percent lower salt content. Salt content in other types of foods had not changed significantly. Between 2006, 2010 and 2015 the estimated salt intake among adults in Doetinchem remained unchanged. In 2015, the median estimated salt intake was 9.7 g per day for men and 7.4 g per day for women. As in 2006 and 2010, the estimated salt intake in 2015 exceeded the recommended maximum intake of 6 g per day set by the Dutch Health Council

  18. Aerosol deposition on plant leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Wedding; Roger W. Carlson; James J. Stukel; Fakhri A. Bazzaz

    1976-01-01

    An aerosol generator and wind tunnel system designed for use in aerosol deposition is described. Gross deposition on rough pubescent leaves was nearly 7 times greater than on smooth, waxy leaves. Results suggest that aerosol deposition, on a per unit area basis, for single horizontal streamlining leaves is similar to that for arrays of leaves under similar flow...

  19. A Micrometeorological Perspective on Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto

    1981-01-01

    An expression for the dry deposition velocity is given in terms of constant flux layer scaling. Numerical values of upper bounds on the deposition velocity is given for a typical situation. Some remarks are then offered on the relative merits of various ways in which the combined diffusion-deposition...

  20. Assessment of Jordanian salt using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, K.A.; Arafah, D.E.; Jabr, I.J.; Saleh, N.S.

    1987-09-01

    Elemental study and concentration determinations have been conducted on Jordanian crude salt using Rutherford Back-Scattering (RBS) and X-ray Fluorescence (SRF) spectrometry techniques. Analysis have also been carried out on different purified salt samples available in the local market. The concentration of some elements, in particular bromide, content and its significance on human health and nutrition is discussed. Results reveal relatively high traces of elemental concentrations in crude salt. For example, bromide concentration ranges from 178 to 384 ppm in comparison to a tolerance limit of 30 ppm set by the Unites States Food and Drug Administration (USDA) and other International Agencies like FAO/WHO. It is suggested that refining crude salt may result in a reduction of bromide concentration and other traces considerably, thus making it feasible for human consumption.

  1. SURFACE TENSION TECHNIQUES FOR MOLTEN SALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some 200 surface tension determinations were made on 107 single-salt melts using eight experimental techniques. From a consideration of the... surface tension range of applicability and temperature limitation for these techniques are briefly considered.

  2. Coordination chemistry in fused-salt solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, D. M.

    1969-01-01

    Spectrophotometric work on structural determinations with fused-salt solutions is reviewed. Constraints placed on the method, as well as interpretation of the spectra, are discussed with parallels drawn to aqueous spectrophotometric curves of the same materials.

  3. SALT Classification of DES Supernova Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, E.; Bassett, B.; Crawford, S.; Smith, M.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; D'Andrea, C.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.

    2015-02-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of a supernova candidates discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (400-850 nm) were obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT).

  4. Classification of 17 DES supernovae by SALT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, E.; Bassett, B.; Crawford, S.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.

    2016-02-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of 17 supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATel #4668). The spectra (380-820nm) were obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the South African Large Telescope (SALT).

  5. BAIA VERDE - SLANIC PRAHOVA SALTED LAKES COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica SAVA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Baia Verde – Slanic Prahova Lakes Complex have been formed by water accumulation resulted out of infiltrated salted water from bell shaped surface salt mines dated XVII century (1685. Such lakes, as per their method of formation, can be also found in other places from the SubCarpathians area (Telega – Prahova, Ocnele Mari – Valcea, Transilvanian Depression (Ocna Sibiului, Turda, Sovata, Ocna Dejului, etc.. Water contact with diapires, in the places where have always existed such mining explorations and exploitation, has determined the formation of salted lakes having balneary and therapeutically qualities and sometimes the development of a heliothermic / mezothermic bed. At Slanic – Prahova besides the three lakes known as Baia Verde 1, 2 and 3, there is also the lake Baia Baciului situated at the border of “Salt Mountain” which represented the first objective for capitalization of the balnear and therapeutically potential of the area.

  6. South Bay Salt Ponds : Initial stewardship plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will operate and maintain the South Bay Salt Ponds under this Initial Stewardship...

  7. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  8. Salt Tolerant and Sensitive Rice Varieties Display Differential Methylome Flexibility under Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Liliana J.; Azevedo, Vanessa; Maroco, João; Oliveira, M. Margarida; Santos, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation has been referred as an important player in plant genomic responses to environmental stresses but correlations between the methylome plasticity and specific traits of interest are still far from being understood. In this study, we inspected global DNA methylation levels in salt tolerant and sensitive rice varieties upon salt stress imposition. Global DNA methylation was quantified using the 5-methylcytosine (5mC) antibody and an ELISA-based technique, which is an affordable and quite pioneer assay in plants, and in situ imaging of methylation sites in interphase nuclei of tissue sections. Variations of global DNA methylation levels in response to salt stress were tissue- and genotype-dependent. We show a connection between a higher ability of DNA methylation adjustment levels and salt stress tolerance. The salt-tolerant rice variety Pokkali was remarkable in its ability to quickly relax DNA methylation in response to salt stress. In spite of the same tendency for reduction of global methylation under salinity, in the salt-sensitive rice variety IR29 such reduction was not statistically supported. In ‘Pokkali’, the salt stress-induced demethylation may be linked to active demethylation due to increased expression of DNA demethylases under salt stress. In ‘IR29’, the induction of both DNA demethylases and methyltransferases may explain the lower plasticity of DNA methylation. We further show that mutations for epigenetic regulators affected specific phenotypic parameters related to salinity tolerance, such as the root length and biomass. This work emphasizes the role of differential methylome flexibility between salt tolerant and salt sensitive rice varieties as an important player in salt stress tolerance, reinforcing the need to better understand the connection between epigenetic networks and plant responses to environmental stresses. PMID:25932633

  9. Salt Tolerant and Sensitive Rice Varieties Display Differential Methylome Flexibility under Salt Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana J Ferreira

    Full Text Available DNA methylation has been referred as an important player in plant genomic responses to environmental stresses but correlations between the methylome plasticity and specific traits of interest are still far from being understood. In this study, we inspected global DNA methylation levels in salt tolerant and sensitive rice varieties upon salt stress imposition. Global DNA methylation was quantified using the 5-methylcytosine (5mC antibody and an ELISA-based technique, which is an affordable and quite pioneer assay in plants, and in situ imaging of methylation sites in interphase nuclei of tissue sections. Variations of global DNA methylation levels in response to salt stress were tissue- and genotype-dependent. We show a connection between a higher ability of DNA methylation adjustment levels and salt stress tolerance. The salt-tolerant rice variety Pokkali was remarkable in its ability to quickly relax DNA methylation in response to salt stress. In spite of the same tendency for reduction of global methylation under salinity, in the salt-sensitive rice variety IR29 such reduction was not statistically supported. In 'Pokkali', the salt stress-induced demethylation may be linked to active demethylation due to increased expression of DNA demethylases under salt stress. In 'IR29', the induction of both DNA demethylases and methyltransferases may explain the lower plasticity of DNA methylation. We further show that mutations for epigenetic regulators affected specific phenotypic parameters related to salinity tolerance, such as the root length and biomass. This work emphasizes the role of differential methylome flexibility between salt tolerant and salt sensitive rice varieties as an important player in salt stress tolerance, reinforcing the need to better understand the connection between epigenetic networks and plant responses to environmental stresses.

  10. Limited Deposit Insurance Coverage and Bank Competition

    OpenAIRE

    SHY, Oz; Stenbacka, Rune; Yankov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Deposit insurance schemes in many countries place a limit on the coverage of deposits in each bank. However, no limits are placed on the number of accounts held with different banks. Therefore, under limited deposit insurance, some consumers open accounts with different banks to achieve higher or full deposit insurance coverage. We compare three regimes of deposit insurance: No deposit insurance, unlimited deposit insurance, and limited deposit insurance. We show that limited deposit insuranc...

  11. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  12. Electrochemical ion separation in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoerke, Erik David; Ihlefeld, Jon; Waldrip, Karen; Wheeler, Jill S.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Small, Leo J.; Wheeler, David R.

    2017-12-19

    A purification method that uses ion-selective ceramics to electrochemically filter waste products from a molten salt. The electrochemical method uses ion-conducting ceramics that are selective for the molten salt cations desired in the final purified melt, and selective against any contaminant ions. The method can be integrated into a slightly modified version of the electrochemical framework currently used in pyroprocessing of nuclear wastes.

  13. Results from the Salt Phase of SNO

    CERN Document Server

    Miknaitis, K; Ahmed, S N; Anthony, A E; Beier, E W; Bellerive, A; Bergevin, M; Biller, S D; Boger, J; Boulay, M G; Bowler, M G; Bullard, T V; Chan, Y D; Chen, M; Chen, X; Cleveland, B T; Cox, G A; Currat, C A; Dai, X; Dalnoki-Veress, F; Deng, H; Doe, P J; Dosanjh, R S; Doucas, G; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Dunmore, J A; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Fleurot, F; Formaggio, J A; Frame, K; Frati, W; Fulsom, B G; Gagnon, N; Graham, K; Grant, D R; Hahn, R L; Hall, J C; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Handler, W B; Hargrove, C K; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heelan, L; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Hemingway, R J; Hime, A; Howard, C; Howe, M A; Huang, M; Jagam, P; Jelley, N A; Klein, J R; Kormos, L L; Kos, M S; Krüger, A; Kraus, C V; Krauss, C B; Krumins, A V; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Labranche, H; Lange, R; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Levine, I; Loach, J C; Luoma, S; MacLellan, R; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Marino, A D; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McGee, S; McGregor, G; Miin, C; Moffat, B A; Nally, C W; Neubauer, M S; Nickel, B G; Noble, A J; Norman, E B; Oblath, N S; Okada, C E; Ollerhead, R W; Orrell, J L; Oser, S M; Ouellet, C V; Peeters, S J M; Poon, A W P; Rielage, K; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rollin, E; Rosendahl, S S E; Rusu, V L; Schwendener, M H; Seibert, S R; Simard, O; Simpson, J J; Sims, C J; Sinclair, D; Skensved, P; Smith, M W E; Starinsky, N; Stokstad, R G; Stonehill, L C; Tafirout, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tesic, G; Thomson, M; Thorman, M; Tsui, T; Van Berg, R; Van de Water, R G; Virtue, C J; Wall, B L; Waller, D; Waltham, C E; Wan Chan Tseung, H; Wark, D L; Wendland, J; West, N; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wittich, P; Wouters, J M; Wright, A; Yeh, M; Zuber, K

    2005-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has recently completed an analysis of data from the salt phase of the experiment, in which NaCl was added to the heavy-water neutrino target to enhance sensitivity to solar neutrinos. Results from the 391-day salt data set are summarized, including the measured solar neutrino fluxes, the electron energy spectrum from charged current interactions, and the day-night neutrino flux asymmetries. Constraints on neutrino mixing parameters including the new measurements are also given.

  14. Water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah, and simulation of water and salt movement through the causeway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, Steven R.; Thomas, Blakemore E.; Waddell, Kidd M.

    1997-01-01

    The water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake primarily depends on the amount of inflow from tributary streams and the conveyance properties of a causeway constructed during 1957-59 that divides the lake into the south and north parts. The conveyance properties of the causeway originally included two culverts, each 15 feet wide, and the permeable rock-fill material.During 1980-86, the salt balance changed as a result of record high inflow that averaged 4,627,000 acre-feet annually and modifications made to the conveyance properties of the causeway that included opening a 300-foot-wide breach. In this study, a model developed in 1973 by Waddell and Bolke to simulate the water and salt balance of the lake was revised to accommodate the high water-surface altitude and modifications made to the causeway. This study, done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of State Lands and Forestry, updates the model with monitoring data collected during 1980-86. This report describes the calibration of the model and presents the results of simulations for three hypothetical 10-year periods.During January 1, 1980, to July 31, 1984, a net load of 0.5 billion tons of dissolved salt flowed from the south to the north part of the lake primarily as a result of record inflows. From August 1, 1984, when the breach was opened, to December 31,1986, a net load of 0.3 billion tons of dissolved salt flowed from the north to the south part of the lake primarily as a result of the breach.For simulated inflow rates during a hypothetical 10-year period resulting in the water-surface altitude decreasing from about 4,200 to 4,192 feet, there was a net movement of about 1.0 billion tons of dissolved salt from the south to the north part, and about 1.7 billion tons of salt precipitated in the north part. For simulated inflow rates during a hypothetical 10-year period resulting in a rise in water-surface altitude from about 4,200 to 4

  15. Hydrated salt minerals on Europa's Surface from the Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, T.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Matson, D.L.; Johnson, T.V.; Crowley, J.K.; Fanale, F.P.; Carlson, R.W.; Smythe, W.D.; Martin, P.D.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Granahan, J.C.; Ocampo, A.

    1999-01-01

    We reported evidence of heavily hydrated salt minerals present over large areas of Europa's surface from analysis of reflectance spectra returned by the Galileo mission near infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) [McCord et al., 1997a, b, 1998a, b]. Here we elaborate on this earlier evidence, present spatial distributions of these minerals, examine alternate water-ice interpretations, expand on our hydrated-salts interpretation, consider salt mineral stability on Europa, and discuss the implications. Extensive well-defined areas on Europa show distinct, asymmetric water-related absorption bands in the 1 to 2.5-??m region. Radiative transfer modeling of water ice involving different particle sizes and layers at Europa temperatures does not reproduce the distinctive Europa water bands. However, ice near its melting temperature, such as in terrestrial environments, does have some characteristics of the Europa spectrum. Alternatively, some classes of heavily hydrated minerals do exhibit such water bands. Among plausible materials, heavily hydrated salt minerals, such as magnesium and sodium sulfates, sodium carbonate and their mixtures, are preferred. All Europa spectral features are present in some salt minerals and a very good match to the Europa spectrum can be achieved by mixing several salt spectra. However, no single or mix of salt mineral spectra from the limited library available has so far been found to perfectly match the Europa spectrum in every detail. The material is concentrated at the lineaments and in chaotic terrain, which are technically disrupted areas on the trailing side. Since the spectrum of the material on Europa is nearly the same everywhere so-far studied, the salt or salt-mixture composition may be nearly uniform. This suggests similar sources and processes over at least a near-hemispheric scale. This would suggest that an extensive subsurface ocean containing dissolved salts is the source, and several possible mechanisms for deposit

  16. Nitrite toxicity of Litopenaeus vannamei in water containing low concentrations of sea salt or mixed salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, A.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.; Browdy, C.L.; Tomasso, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.

  17. Compound ion salt, a novel low-sodium salt substitute: from animal study to community-based population trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Liu, Jun-Xiang; Shi, Rui; Yang, Ning; Song, Dong-Lin; Pang, Wei; Li, Yu-Ming

    2009-09-01

    Salt restriction, an important approach for primary and secondary prevention of hypertension, is undermined by unsatisfactory adherence. A salt-restriction study tested the efficacy and safety of a compound ion salt (CISalt) with low sodium content in an animal model and in a community-based population. In part 1, 8-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were fed 1% CISalt in the study group and 8% or 1% normal salt (NSalt) in controls (n = 10 each) for 12 weeks. Blood pressure (BP) and urinary electrolytes were measured every 3 weeks. After 12 weeks, collagen deposition in the heart and kidney and the levels of angiotensin II (Ang II) and nitric oxide (NO) in plasma and renal cortex were measured. In part 2, a single-blind, randomized, 6-month controlled trial with CISalt was conducted in 248 persons (age >or=65 years) in 10 rural communities. Plasma renin activity and Ang II were included in blood and urinary measures at baseline and 6 months. Reduced BP urinary protein excretion and reduced collagen in the heart and kidneys were significantly different in animals fed CISalt compared to controls. In human studies, at 6 months, mean systolic BP (SBP) was decreased by 9.6 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): 13.1 to 6.1, P < 0.001) and diastolic BP (DBP) by 5.3 mm Hg (95% CI: 7.9 to 2.6, P < 0.001), respectively, compared to controls; urinary sodium excretion also decreased by 67.4 mmol/24 h (95% CI: 84.8 to 50.0, P < 0.001), and plasma renin activity was slightly increased by 0.19 ng/ml/h (95% CI: 0.04-0.33, P = 0.013). No adverse cardiovascular events were reported. In these studies, CISalt lowered BP and showed end-organ protection in hypertensive animals and BP reduction in humans. CISalt appears to be a safe and acceptable strategy to reduce BP.

  18. Enhanced removal of sodium salts supported by in-situ catalyst synthesis in a supercritical water oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, F; Sun, Z R; Fukushi, K; Oshima, Y; Yamamoto, K

    2012-01-01

    For practical applications of supercritical water oxidation to wastewater treatment, the deposition of inorganic salts in supercritical phase must be controlled to prevent a reactor from clogging. This study investigated enhanced removal of sodium salts with titanium particles, serving as a salt trapper and a catalyst precursor, and sodium recovery by sub-critical water. When Na(2)CO(3) was tested as a model salt, sodium removal efficiency was higher than theoretically maximum efficiency defined by Na(2)CO(3) solubility. The enhanced sodium removal resulted from in-situ synthesis of sodium titanate, which could catalyse acetic acid oxidation. The kinetics of sodium removal was described well by a diffusion mass-transfer model combined with a power law-type rate model of sodium titanate synthesis. Titanium particles showed positive effect on sodium removal in the case of NaOH, Na(2)SO(4) and Na(3)PO(4). However, they had negligible effect for NaCl and negative effect for Na(2)CrO(4), respectively. More than 99% of trapped sodium was recovered by sub-critical water except for Na(2)CrO(4). In contrast, sodium recovery efficiency remained less than 50% in the case of Na(2)CrO(4). Reused titanium particles showed the same performance for enhanced sodium removal. Enhanced salt removal supported by in-situ catalyst synthesis has great potential to enable both salt removal control and catalytic oxidation.

  19. Extracting information from the molten salt database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzuric, Slobodan; Suh, Changwon; Gaune-Escard, Marcelle; Rajan, Krishna

    2006-12-01

    Molten salt technology is a catchall phrase that includes some very diverse technologies; electrochemistry, heat transfer, chemical oxidation/reduction baths, and nuclear reactors. All of these technologies are linked by the general characteristics of molten salts that can function as solvents, have good heat-transfer characteristics, function like a fluid, can attain very high temperatures, can conduct electricity, and also may have chemical catalytic properties. The Janz molten salt database is the most comprehensive compilation of property data about molten salts available today and is widely used for both fundamental and applied purposes. Databases are traditionally viewed as “static” documents that are used in a “search and retrieval” mode. These static data can be transformed by informatics and data mining tools into a dynamic dataset for analysis of the properties of the, materials and for making predictions. While this approch has been successful in the chemical and biochemical sciences in searching for and establishing structure-property relationships, it is not widely used in the materials science community. Because the design of the original molten salt database was not oriented toward this informatics goal, it was essential to evaluate this dataset in terms of data mining standards. Two techniques were used—a projection (principal components analysis (PCA)) and a predictive method (partial least squares (PLS))—in conjunction with fundamental knowledge acquired from the long-term practice of molten salt chemistry.

  20. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  1. Effect of magnesium cation on the interfacial properties of aqueous salt solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Karen M; Casillas-Ituarte, Nadia N; Xu, Man; Roeselová, Martina; Allen, Heather C; Tobias, Douglas J

    2010-08-19

    Sodium chloride solutions have been used extensively as a model of seawater in both theoretical and experimental studies of the chemistry of sea salt aerosol. Many groups have found that chloride anions are present at the air-solution interface. This observation has been important for the development of a mechanism for the heterogeneous production of molecular chlorine from chloride in sea salt aerosol. However, while sodium chloride is a major constituent of seawater, it is by no means the only salt present. Seawater contains one Mg(2+) for every eight Na(+). Mg(2+) is naturally occurring in ocean waters from mineral deposits in the Earth's crust and biological sources. Mg(2+) forms a hexahydrate structure, rather than contact ion pairs with chloride anion, and this impacts the ordering of water in solution. In this study, we use molecular dynamics simulations, ab initio calculations, and vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy to explore the effect of the Mg(2+) cation and its tightly bound solvation shell on the surface propensity of chloride, ion-ion interactions, and water structure of the air-solution interface of concentrated chloride salt solutions. In addition, we provide molecular level details that may be relevant to the heterogeneous reactions of chloride in deliquesced sea salt aerosols. In particular, we show that the presence of the divalent Mg(2+) cation does not modify the surface propensity of chloride compared to Na(+) and hence, its availability to interfacial reaction, although some differences in the behavior of chloride may occur due to specific ion interactions. In this work, we also discuss the SFG free OH band at the surface of salt solutions and conclude that it is often not straightforward to interpret.

  2. SALT, HISTORY AND CULTURE IN THE WESTERN GRASSLANDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    salt in addition to other economic activities like pottery and sugar- cane alcohol for the flourishing Congo River market. Rock and vegetable salt from Mbosi country ... producer of salt gave the Kanta as tax one gourd a year (Ochieng. 1992: 839; Webster et al 1992: 795; Laya 1992: 472).Salt production was also carried out in ...

  3. Detection of salt bridges to lysines in solution in barnase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Williamson, Michael P.; Hounslow, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    We show that salt bridges involving lysines can be detected by deuterium isotope effects on NMR chemical shifts of the sidechain amine. Lys27 in the ribonuclease barnase is salt bridged, and mutation of Arg69 to Lys retains a partially buried salt bridge. The salt bridges are functionally important....

  4. Molecular markers associated with salt tolerance in Egyptian wheats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinity affects plant growth by the osmotic stress of the salt around the roots, as well as by toxicity caused by excessive accumulation of salt in leaves. In the present study, seven common (Triticum aestivum) and two durum (T. turgidum ssp. Durum) wheat genotypes were subjected to salt stress for 2 weeks. Salt stress ...

  5. A Role of the Bile Salt Receptor FXR in Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, Jurre; Herrema, Hilde; Groen, Albert K.; Kuipers, Folkert

    This study reviews current insights into the role of bile salts and bile salt receptors on the progression and regression of atherosclerosis. Bile salts have emerged as important modifiers of lipid and energy metabolism. At the molecular level, bile salts regulate lipid and energy homeostasis mainly

  6. A Role of the Bile Salt Receptor FXR in Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, J.; Herrema, H.J.; Groen, A.K.; Kuipers, F.

    2010-01-01

    This study reviews current insights into the role of bile salts and bile salt receptors on the progression and regression of atherosclerosis. Bile salts have emerged as important modifiers of lipid and energy metabolism. At the molecular level, bile salts regulate lipid and energy homeostasis mainly

  7. Textural variation within Great Salt Lake algal mounds: Chapter 8.5 in Stromatolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    This chapter discusses textural variation within the Great Salt Lake algal mounds. Great Salt Lake algal mounds contain: (1) a framework of non-skeletal, algally induced aragonite precipitates; (2) internal sediment; and (3) inorganic cement. These three elements create a variety of laminated, poorly laminated, and unlaminated internal textures. Interior framework precipitates bear little resemblance to the present living film of the mound surface. Internal texture of the mounds is believed to be largely relict and to have resulted from precipitation by algae different than those presently living at the surface. The most probable cause of local extinction of the algal flora is change in brine salinity. Precipitated blue-green algal structures in ancient rocks may indicate other than normal marine salinity and near shore sedimentation. Extreme variation of internal texture reflects extreme environmental variability typical of closed basin lakes. Recognition of mounds similar to those in the Great Salt Lake can be a first step toward recognition of ancient hyper-saline lake deposits, if such an interpretation is substantiated by consideration of the entire depositional milieu of precipitated algal mounds.

  8. Structure of the Western Gulf of Mexico Salt Canopy Surface Imaged by Regional 2D Multichannel Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, W. W.; Robla, V.; Emmet, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    bathymetry. Basement structures, original evaporite deposition, and sediment depositional history are considered as potential controls on the varying salt structural styles at the edge of the GoM canopy.

  9. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-05-26

    The principal research effort for Phase 1 (Concept Development) of the project has been data compilation; determination of the tectonic, depositional, burial, and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin; basin modeling (geohistory, thermal maturation, hydrocarbon expulsion); petroleum system identification; comparative basin evaluation; and resource assessment. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, and regional cross sections have been prepared. Structure, isopach and formation lithology maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs include Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies; shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies; and carbonate shoal, shelf and reef facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary. Hydrocarbon

  10. Low molecular weight salts combined with fluorinated solvents for electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Lei, Norman; Guerrero-Zavala, Guillermo; Kwong, Kristie W.

    2015-11-10

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. An electrolyte includes at least one salt having a molecular weight less than about 250. Such salts allow forming electrolytes with higher salt concentrations and ensure high conductivity and ion transport in these electrolytes. The low molecular weight salt may have a concentration of at least about 0.5M and may be combined with one or more other salts, such as linear and cyclic imide salts and/or methide salts. The concentration of these additional salts may be less than that of the low molecular weight salt, in some embodiments, twice less. The additional salts may have a molecular weight greater than about 250. The electrolyte may also include one or more fluorinated solvents and may be capable of maintaining single phase solutions at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C.

  11. The Port Isabel Fold Belt: Salt enhanced Neogene Gravitational Spreading in the East Breaks, Western Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebit, Hermann; Clavaud, Marie; Whitehead, Sam; Opdyke, Scott; Luneburg, Catalina

    2017-04-01

    The Port Isabel fold belt is situated at the northwestern corner of the deep water Gulf of Mexico where the regional E-W trending Texas-Louisiana shelf bends into the NNE-SSW trend of the East Mexico Shelf. The fold belt forms an allochthonous wedge that ramps up from West to East with its front occupied by shallow salt complexes (local canopies). It is assumed that the belt predominantly comprises Oligocene siliciclastic sequences which reveal eastward facing folds and thrusts with a NE-SW regional trend. The structural architecture of the fold belt is very well imaged on recently processed 3D seismic volumes. Crystal III is a wide-azimuth survey acquired in 2011 and reprocessed in 2016 leveraging newly developed state-of-the-art technology. 3D deghosting, directional designature and multi-model 3D SRME resulted in broader frequency spectrum. The new image benefits from unique implementation of FWI, combined with classic tomographic updates. Seismically transparent zones indicating over-pressured shales are limited to the core of anticlines or to the footwall of internal thrust. Mobile shales associated with diapirs are absent in the study area. In contrast, salt is mobile and apparently forms the major decollement of the PIFB as indicated by remnant salt preferentially located in triangles along the major thrusts and fault intersections or at the core of anticlines. Shallow salt diapirs seam to root in the fold belt, while lacking evidence for salt feeders being connected to the deep salt underlying the Mesozoic to Paleogene substratum of the fold belt. Towards the WNW the fold belt is transient into a extensional regime, characterized by roll-over structures associated with deep reaching normal faults which form ultra-deep mini basins filled with Neogene deposits. Kinematic restorations confirm the simultaneous evolution of the deep mini basins and the outboard fold belt. This resembles a gravitational spreading system with the extensional tectonics of the deep

  12. Mercury in the Air, Water and Biota at the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C.; Gustin, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake, Utah (USA), is the fourth largest terminal lake on Earth and a stop-over location for 35 million birds on the Pacific Flyway. Recently, the Utah Department of Health and Utah Division of Wildlife Resources issued tissue mercury (Hg) consumption advisories for several species of birds that consume the lake's brine shrimp. Sources of Hg to the lake are the watershed and the atmosphere, and we hypothesized that the chemistry of the air above the Great Salt Lake would facilitate atmospheric deposition of Hg to the water. Because little information was available on Hg at the Great Salt Lake, and to begin to test this hypothesis, we measured atmospheric elemental (Hg0) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) concentrations as well as Hg concentrations in water and brine shrimp five times over a year. Surrogate surfaces and a dry deposition model were applied to estimate the amount of Hg that could be input to the lake surface. We found that atmospheric Hg0 and RGM concentrations were comparable to global ambient background values and those measured in rural areas (respectively). Both Hg0 and RGM exhibited regular diel variability, and no consistent seasonal periods of depleted or elevated values were observed. Based on these findings, local factors are thought to be important in generating elevated RGM concentrations that could be deposited to the lake. Model estimated deposition velocities for RGM to the lake ranged from 0.9 to 3.0 cm sec-1, with an estimated 19 kg of Hg deposited annually. Total Hg and methyl Hg concentrations in surface waters of the lake were consistent throughout the year (3.8 ± 0.8 ng L- 1 and 0.93 ± 0.59 ng L-1, respectively) and not significantly elevated relative to natural waters; however, the percent methyl Hg to total Hg was high (25 to 50%). Brine shrimp Hg concentrations were 384 ppb and had a statistically significant increase from early summer to fall. Based on modeled dry deposition and estimated wet deposition, the

  13. Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

    2005-11-04

    The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower

  14. Chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Cviková

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed and evaluated chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork neck and ham. Dried salted meat is one of the main meat products typically produced with a variety of flavors and textures. Neck (14 samples and ham (14 samples was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1week. The nitrite salt mixture for salting process (dry salting was used. This salt mixture contains: salt, dextrose, maltodextrin, flavourings, stabilizer E316, taste enhancer E621, nitrite mixture. The meat samples were dried at 4 °C and relative humudity 85% after 1 week salting. The weight of each sample was approximately 1 kg. After salting were vacuum-packed and analysed after 1 week. The traditional dry-cured meat such as dry-cured ham and neck obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled conditions. The average protein content was significantly (p <0.001 lower in dried pork neck in comparison with dried salted pork ham. The average intramuscular fat was significantly (p <0.001 lower in dried pork ham in comparison with dried salted pork neck. The average moisture was significantly lower (p ≤0.05 in dried salted ham in comparison with dried pork neck. The average pH value was 5.50 in dried salted pork ham and 5.75 in dried salted pork neck. The content of arginine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine and threonine in dried salted ham was significantly lower (p <0.001 in comparison with dried salted pork neck. The proportion of analysed amino acids from total proteins was 56.31% in pork salted dried ham and 56.50% in pork salted dried neck.  Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  15. Radioactive deposits in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, George W.; Lovering, Tom G.

    1954-01-01

    Reconnaissance examination by Government geologists of many areas, mine properties, and prospects in California during the period between 1948 and 1953 has confirmed the presence of radioactive materials in place at more than 40 localities. Abnormal radioactivity at these localities is due to concentrations of primary and secondary uranium minerals, to radon gas, radium (?), and to thorium minerals. Of the known occurrences only three were thought to contain uranium oxide (uranitite or pitchblende), 4 contained uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals, 12 contained secondary uranium minerals, such as autunite, carnotite, and torbernite, one contained radon gas, 7 contained thorium minerals, and, at the remaining 16 localities, the source of the anomalous radiation was not positively determined. The occurrences in which uranium oxide has been tentatively identified include the Rathgeb mine (Calaveras County), the Yerih group of claims (San Bernardino County), and the Rainbow claim (Madera County). Occurrences of secondary uranium minerals are largely confined to the arid desert regions of south-eastern California including deposits in San Bernardino, Kern, Inyo, and Imperial Counties. Uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals have been reported from pegmatite and granitic rock in southeastern and eastern California. Thorium minerals have been found in vein deposits in eastern San Bernardino County and from pegmatites and granitic rocks in various parts of southeastern California; placer concentrations of thorium minerals are known from nearly all areas in the State that are underlain, in part, by plutonic crystalline rocks. The primary uranium minerals occur principally as minute accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, or with base-metal sulfide minerals in veins. Thorium minerals also occur as accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, in placer deposits derived from such rock, and, at Mountain Pass, in veins

  16. Subsurface geology of a potential waste emplacement site, Salt Valley Anticline, Grand County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hite, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    The Salt Valley anticline, which is located about 32 km northeast of Moab, Utah, is perhaps one of the most favorable waste emplacement sites in the Paradox basin. The site, which includes about 7.8 km 2, is highly accessible and is adjacent to a railroad. The anticline is one of a series of northwest-trending salt anticlines lying along the northeast edge of the Paradox basin. These anticlines are cored by evaporites of the Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation of Middle Pennsylvanian age. The central core of the Salt Valley anticline forms a ridgelike mass of evaporites that has an estimated amplitude of 3,600 m. The evaporite core consists of about 87 percent halite rock, which includes some potash deposits; the remainder is black shale, silty dolomite, and anhydrite. The latter three lithologies are referred to as 'marker beds.' Using geophysical logs from drill holes on the anticline, it is possible to demonstrate that the marker beds are complexly folded and faulted. Available data concerning the geothermal gradient and heatflow at the site indicate that heat from emplaced wastes should be rapidly dissipated. Potentially exploitable resources of potash and petroleum are present at Salt Valley. Development of these resources may conflict with use of the site for waste emplacement.

  17. Surface functionalization of cyclic olefin copolymer with aryldiazonium salts: A covalent grafting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisset, Florian, E-mail: florian.brisset@etu.univ-rouen.fr [UMR CNRS 6014 COBRA, FR 3038, Université de Rouen, 55 rue Saint Germain, 27000 Evreux (France); Vieillard, Julien, E-mail: julien.vieillard@univ-rouen.fr [UMR CNRS 6014 COBRA, FR 3038, Université de Rouen, 55 rue Saint Germain, 27000 Evreux (France); Berton, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.berton@univ-rouen.fr [EA 3233 SMS, Université de Rouen, 1 rue du 7ème Chasseurs, BP281, 27002 Evreux Cedex (France); Morin-Grognet, Sandrine, E-mail: sandrine.morin@univ-rouen.fr [EA 3829 MERCI, Université de Rouen, 1 rue du 7ème Chasseurs, BP281, 27002 Evreux Cedex (France); Duclairoir-Poc, Cécile, E-mail: cecile.duclairoir@univ-rouen.fr [EA 4312 LMSM, Université de Rouen, 55 rue Saint Germain, 27000 Evreux (France); Le Derf, Franck, E-mail: franck.lederf@univ-rouen.fr [UMR CNRS 6014 COBRA, FR 3038, Université de Rouen, 55 rue Saint Germain, 27000 Evreux (France)

    2015-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An effective method to modify cyclic olefin copolymer surface. • The surface of COC was modified by covalent grafting of aryl diazonium salts. • The wettability of COC surface was modulated by diazonium salts. • Photoinitiation and chemical reduction have to be combined to graft diazonium salt on COC surface. - Abstract: Covalent immobilization of biomolecules on the surface of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is still a tough challenge. We developed a robust method for COC surface grafting through reaction with aryldiazonium. Chemical diazonium reduction generated an aryl radical and the formation of a grafted film layer on the organic surface. We also demonstrated that the chemical reduction of diazonium salt was not sufficient to form a film on the COC surface. UV illumination had to be combined with chemical reduction to graft an aryl layer onto the COC surface. We optimized organic film deposition by using different chemical reducers, different reaction times and reagent proportions. We characterized surface modifications by fluorescence microscopy and contact angle measurements, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, and assessed the topography of the aryl film by atomic force microscopy. This original strategy allowed us to evidence various organic functions to graft biomolecules onto COC surfaces with a fast and efficient technique.

  18. Improving the performance of fluorine-doped tin oxide by adding salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purwanto, Agus, E-mail: Aguspur@uns.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia); Widiyandari, Hendri [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Dr. Soedarto, Tembalang, Semarang 50275 (Indonesia); Suryana, Risa [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia); Jumari, Arif [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia)

    2015-07-01

    High-performance fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films were fabricated via a spray deposition technique with salt added to the precursor. The addition of NaCl in the precursor improved the conductivity of the FTO films. Increasing the NaCl concentration to its optimal concentration reduced the sheet resistance of the FTO film. The optimal values for the addition of a NaCl were 0.5, 0.5, 1.5, and 1.5 at.% for the FTO film prepared using NH{sub 4}F concentration of 4, 10, 16, and 22 at.%, respectively. The lowest sheet resistance of the salt-added FTO film was 4.8 Ω/□. The FTO film averaged a transmittance of more than 80% in the visible range region (λ = 400–800 nm). XRD diffractograms confirmed that the crystal structure of the as-grown FTO film was that of a tetragonal SnO{sub 2} and that the addition of salt improved its crystallinity. This film has the potential for use as an electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). - Highlights: • A method to improve FTO performance using the addition of salt • The FTO film exhibited high performance of conductivity and light transmittance. • This technique is low-cost, fast and scales-up easily using simple devices.

  19. Catalyst of a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on a non-metallic porous support and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Peden, Charles H. F. [West Richland, WA; Choi, Saemin [Richland, WA

    2002-10-29

    The present invention includes a catalyst having (a) a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores; (b) a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on the non-metallic support; wherein at least a portion of the metal heteropoly acid salt is dispersed within said plurality of pores. The present invention also includes a method of depositing a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent onto a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores. The method has the steps of: (a) obtaining a first solution containing a first precursor of a metal salt cation; (b) obtaining a second solution containing a second precursor of a heteropoly acid anion in a solvent having a limited dissolution potential for said first precursor; (c) impregnating the non-metallic support with the first precursor forming a first precursor deposit within the plurality of pores, forming a first precursor impregnated support; (d) heating said first precursor impregnated support forming a bonded first precursor impregnated support; (e) impregnating the second precursor that reacts with the precursor deposit and forms the metal heteropoly acid salt.

  20. Salt Sensitivity Determined From Capillary Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Oberleithner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: A significant rise of blood pressure in response to a given salt load is a weak indication of high salt sensitivity, supposed to foster the development of arterial hypertension and related diseases in later life. In search of an alternative method we recently developed the salt blood test (SBT, a new concept for quantifying salt sensitivity (SS. Based on this concept, namely that red blood cells (RBC report on salt sensitivity, the SBT-mini was developed. Methods: The SBT-mini utilizes a droplet of capillary blood mixed with a ‘smart' Na+ cocktail. Red blood cells (RBC of this mixture are allowed to sediment by gravity in a glass tube. SS is quantified by measuring RBC sedimentation rate. 90 healthy volunteers (39 males, 51 females; mean age: 23±0.5 years were evaluated and ‘standard values' for males and females were derived. Results: Sodium buffer capacity of female blood is about 20 % smaller as compared to male blood due to the lower hematocrit of females. SS of an individual is related to the mean standard value (set to 100 % of the respective male/female cohort. High SS (> 120 % has been found in 31 % of males and 28 % of females. Conclusions: SS can be estimated derived from the individual RBC sodium buffer capacity as measured by the SBT-mini. About one third of a healthy test cohort exhibits a high sensitivity to salt. Reduction of sodium consumption to at least two grams per day (equals five grams of NaCl per day as suggested by the WHO is recommended, particularly for individuals with high salt sensitivity.

  1. Functionalization of nanomaterials with aryldiazonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed A; Salmi, Zakaria; Dahoumane, Si Amar; Mekki, Ahmed; Carbonnier, Benjamin; Chehimi, Mohamed M

    2015-11-01

    This paper reviews the surface modification strategies of a wide range of nanomaterials using aryldiazonium salts. After a brief history of diazonium salts since their discovery by Peter Griess in 1858, we will tackle the surface chemistry using these compounds since the first trials in the 1950s. We will then focus on the modern surface chemistry of aryldiazonium salts for the modification of materials, particularly metallic, semiconductors, metal oxide nanoparticles, carbon-based nanostructures, diamond and clays. The successful modification of sp(2) carbon materials and metals by aryldiazonium salts paved the way to innovative strategies for the attachment of aryl layers to metal oxide nanoparticles and nanodiamonds, and intercalation of clays. Interestingly, diazotized surfaces can easily trap nanoparticles and nanotubes while diazotized nanoparticles can be (electro)chemically reduced on electrode/materials surfaces as molecular compounds. Both strategies provided organized 2D surface assembled nanoparticles. In this review, aryldiazonium salts are highlighted as efficient coupling agents for many types of molecular, macromolecular and nanoparticulate species, therefore ensuring stability to colloids on the one hand, and the construction of composite materials and hybrid systems with robust and durable interfaces/interphases, on the other hand. The last section is dedicated to a selection of patents and industrial products based on aryldiazonium-modified nanomaterials. After nearly 160 years of organic chemistry, diazonium salts have entered a new, long and thriving era for the benefit of materials, colloids, and surface scientists. This tempts us to introduce the terminology of "diazonics" we define as the science and technology of aryldiazonium salt-derived materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of smell loss (hyposmia) on salt usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Robert I

    2014-06-01

    Smell loss (hyposmia) inhibits flavor perception and influences food intake. To compensate for flavor loss, some patients with hyposmia appear to increase salt usage. The purpose of this study was to compare self-reported salt usage in patients with hyposmia with that in normal volunteers. Salt usage was compared in 56 patients with hyposmia but with normal taste function with that in 27 normal volunteers. Salt usage was formulated with respect to 1) a standard quantitative salt intake scale, 2) salt addition related to food intake, 3) intake of foods and beverages with high salt content, and 4) salt intake related to presence or absence of hypertension. Eighteen (32%) of the 56 patients self-reported increased salt usage; they were labeled "increased users." The other 38 hyposmic patients (68%) did not report increased salt usage; they were labeled "non-changers." Increased users estimated their salt usage rose an average 2.8 times that experienced before their hyposmia onset. They also reported adding salt to their food before tasting it and ate more highly salted foods than did the non-changers. Salt usage was not increased further among increased users with hypertension but was increased further among non-changers with hypertension. Salt usage is increased among some patients with hyposmia presumably to enhance flavor perception to compensate for diminished flavor perception related to loss of smell. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. FDIC Summary of Deposits (SOD) Download File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation — The FDIC's Summary of Deposits (SOD) download file contains deposit data for branches and offices of all FDIC-insured institutions. The Federal Deposit Insurance...

  4. Two planets: Earth and Mars - One salt model: The Hydrothermal SCRIW-Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, M. T.; Rueslaatten, H.; Johnsen, H. K.; Indreiten, T.

    2011-12-01

    One of the common characteristics of planets Earth and Mars is that both host water (H2O) and large accumulations of salt. Whereas Earth's surface-environment can be regarded as 'water-friendly' and 'salt hostile', the reverse can be said for the surface of Mars. This is because liquid water is stable on Earth, and the atmosphere transports humidity around the globe, whereas on planet Mars, liquid water is unstable, rendering the atmosphere dry and, therefore, 'salt-friendly'. The riddle as to how the salt accumulated in various locations on those two planets is one of long-lasting and great debate. The salt accumulations on Earth are traditionally termed 'evaporites', meaning that they formed by the evaporation of large masses of seawater. How the accumulations on Mars formed is much harder to explain, with a similar model, as surface water, representing a large ocean only existed briefly. Although water molecules and OH-groups may exist in abundance in bound form (crystal water, adsorbed water, etc.), the only place where free water is expected to be stable on Mars is within underground faults, fractures, and crevices. Here it likely occurs as brine or in the form of ice. Based on these conditions, a key to understanding the accumulation of large deposits of salt on both planets is linked to how brines behave in the subsurface when pressurized and heated beyond their supercritical point. At depths greater than about 3 km (i.e., a pressure, P>300 bars) water will no longer boil in a steam phase. Rather, it becomes supercritical and will form a supercritical water 'vapor' (SCRIW) with a specific gravity of typically 0.3 g/cm3. An important characteristic of SCRIW is its inability to dissolve the common sea salts. The salt dissolved in the brines will therefore precipitate as solid particles when brines (seawater on the Earth) move into the supercritical P&T-domain (above 400 C and 300 bars). Numerical modeling of a hydrothermal system in the Atlantis II Deep of the

  5. 4D modeling of salt-sediment interactions during diapir evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callot, J.P.; Rondon, D.; Letouzey, J. [IFP, Rueil Malmaison (France); Krajewski, P. [Gaz de France-PEG, Lingen (Germany); Rigollet, C. [Gaz de France, St. Denis la Plaine (France)

    2007-09-13

    salt in Oman produce oil, but constitute a major exploration risk due to large technical difficulties of structural and seismic imagery, complexity in deciphering their evolutionary steps, and possible unexpected overpressures and of hydrocarbons. 4D analogue modelling of cylindrical and salt-like diapirs is performed to reproduce the evolution of internal sand layer during diapir growth. The growth and geometry of the salt structure is entirely controlled and only driven by the overburden deposition. The 3D internal geometry is reconstructed for different steps to show the progressive rise, tearing apart, and fall of the stringers pieces. Complex geometries are observed and compare well to natural examples picked on seismic imagery. It appears that stringers observed in the German salt basin may originate from cap rock pieces detaching from the diapir roof and drowning in the salt. (orig.)

  6. High salt meals in staff canteens of salt policy makers: observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewster, L.M.; Berentzen, C.A.; van Montfrans, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the salt content of hot meals served at the institutions of salt policy makers in the Netherlands. Observational study. 18 canteens at the Department of Health, the Health Council, the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, university hospitals, and affiliated non-university

  7. “Use salt and foods high in salt sparingly”: a food-based dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-12

    Apr 12, 2013 ... including the legislation of food supply, clearer labelling and signposting of food packaging, and improved consumer education on behavioural change regarding salt usage practices. A comprehensive national strategy that focuses on salt reduction is needed to reduce national blood pressure levels in the ...

  8. Comparative effects of neutral salt and alkaline salt stress on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative effects of neutral salt and alkaline salt stress on seed germination, early seedling growth and physiological response of a halophyte species Chenopodium glaucum. ... No obvious increase of osmolytes (proline, soluble sugar, betaine) was detected under lower concentration of NaCl and NaHCO3 stress.

  9. Performance of concrete pavement in the presence of deicing salts and deicing salt cocktails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Deicing salts are widely used for anti-icing and de-icing operations in pavements. While historically sodium chloride may have been the : deicer most commonly used, a wide range of deicing salts have begun to be used to operate at lower temperatures,...

  10. Chemical characterization of pitch deposits produced in the manufacturing of high-quality paper pulps from hemp fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Ana; del Río, José C

    2005-09-01

    The composition of pitch deposits occurring in pulp sheets and mill circuits during soda/anthraquinone pulping and elemental chlorine-free pulp bleaching of bast fibers of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) was studied. Pitch deposits were extracted with acetone, and the extracts analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Acetone extracts (15-25% of pitch deposits) were constituted by the defoamers used at the mill and by lipophilic extractives from hemp fibers. Acetone-insoluble residues (75-85% of pitch deposits) were analyzed by pyrolysis-GC/MS in the presence and absence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide. These residues were constituted by salts of fatty acids (arising from hemp fibers) with calcium, magnesium, aluminum and other cations that were identified in the deposits. It was concluded that inappropriate use of defoamer together with the presence of multivalent ions seemed to be among the causes of hemp extractives deposition in the pitch problems reported here.

  11. Risk of high blood pressure in salt workers working near salt milling plants: A cross-sectional and interventional study

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdev Raman; Mathur Murli; Haldiya Kripa; Saiyed Habibulla N

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Workers working close to salt milling plants may inhale salt particles floating in the air, leading to a rise in plasma sodium, which, in turn, may increase the blood pressure and the risk of hypertension. Methods To test the above hypothesis, occupational health check-up camps were organized near salt manufacturing units and all workers were invited for a free health examination. The workers who worked with dry salt in the vicinity of salt milling plants were defined as "...

  12. Salt reduction in sheeted dough: A successful technological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diler, Guénaëlle; Le-Bail, Alain; Chevallier, Sylvie

    2016-10-01

    The challenge of reducing the salt content while maintaining shelf life, stability and acceptability of the products is major for the food industry. In the present study, we implemented processing adjustments to reduce salt content while maintaining the machinability and the saltiness perception of sheeted dough: the homogeneous distribution of a layer of encapsulated salt grains on the dough during the laminating process. During sheeting, for an imposed deformation of 0.67, the final strain remained unchanged around 0.50 for salt reduction below 50%, and then, increased significantly up to 0.53 for a dough without salt. This increase is, in fine, positive regarding the rolling process since the decrease of salt content induces less shrinkage of dough downstream, which is the main feature to be controlled in the process. Moreover, the final strain was negatively correlated to the resistance to extension measured with a texture analyzer, therefore providing a method to evaluate the machinability of the dough. From these results, a salt reduction of 25% was achieved by holding 50% of the salt in the dough recipe to maintain the dough properties and saving 25% as salt grains to create high-salted areas that would enhance the saltiness perception of the dough. The distributor mounted above the rollers of the mill proved to be able to distribute evenly salt grains at a calculated step of the rolling out process. An innovative method based on RX micro-tomography allowed to follow the salt dissolving and to demonstrate the capability of the coatings to delay the salt dissolving and consequently the diffusion of salt within the dough piece. Finally, a ranking test on the salted perception of different samples having either an even distribution of encapsulated salt grains, a single layer of salt grains or a homogeneous distribution of salt, demonstrated that increasing the saltiness perception in salt-reduced food product could be achieved by a technological approach

  13. Palynofacies analysis of the Permian-Triassic transition in the Amb section (Salt Range, Pakistan): implications for the anoxia on the South Tethyan Margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneebeli-Hermann, E.; Kürschner, W.M.; Hochuli, P.A.; Bucher, H.; Ware, D.; Goudemand, N.; Roohi, G.

    2012-01-01

    The uppermost Chhidru Formation and the lower part of the Mianwali Formation were sampled in the Amb Valley, Salt Range, Pakistan for the study of the particulate organic matter (POM) content in order to evaluate the depositional environment during the Permian–Triassic transition. The POM content

  14. Soiling deposition on solar mirrors exposed in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerguer, Mohamed; Karim, Mounia; Naamane, Sanae; Edfouf, Zineb; Raccurt, Olivier; Delord, Christine

    2017-06-01

    Surface soiling deposition is a very common phenomenon that alters the optical properties of solar mirrors during their operation in thermodynamic solar power plants CSP. This degradation can often be recovered through suitable cleaning process. Soiling deposition is function of several parameters related to the nature of the surface, deposits and environmental conditions in the installation sites. In order to study the variation of soiling rate based on these parameters, a study was conducted on mirrors samples exposed in two different sites in Morocco. The obtained results showed that soiling depositions on mirrors samples exposed in the seaside site contain salt and sand particles while those collected from samples of desert site contain only sand particles. The size of collected particles was also characterized during sampling period. It was shown that the variation of soiling rate is highly affected by environmental conditions while it is directly related to the exhibition season. In addition, rainfall has a natural cleaning parameter in case of high wind speed while the rate of soiling is higher in the case of low wind speeds.

  15. Salt-specific effects in lysozyme solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Janc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of additions of low-molecular-mass salts on the properties of aqueous lysozyme solutions are examined by using the cloud-point temperature, T_{cloud}, measurements. Mixtures of protein, buffer, and simple salt in water are studied at pH=6.8 (phosphate buffer and pH=4.6 (acetate buffer. We show that an addition of buffer in the amount above I_{buffer} = 0.6 mol dm^{-3} does not affect the T_{cloud} values. However, by replacing a certain amount of the buffer electrolyte by another salt, keeping the total ionic strength constant, we can significantly change the cloud-point temperature. All the salts de-stabilize the solution and the magnitude of the effect depends on the nature of the salt. Experimental results are analyzed within the framework of the one-component model, which treats the protein-protein interaction as highly directional and of short-range. We use this approach to predict the second virial coefficients, and liquid-liquid phase diagrams under conditions, where T_{cloud} is determined experimentally.

  16. Plant Responses to Salt Stress: Adaptive Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ramón Acosta-Motos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with the adaptive mechanisms that plants can implement to cope with the challenge of salt stress. Plants tolerant to NaCl implement a series of adaptations to acclimate to salinity, including morphological, physiological and biochemical changes. These changes include increases in the root/canopy ratio and in the chlorophyll content in addition to changes in the leaf anatomy that ultimately lead to preventing leaf ion toxicity, thus maintaining the water status in order to limit water loss and protect the photosynthesis process. Furthermore, we deal with the effect of salt stress on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence and some of the mechanisms thought to protect the photosynthetic machinery, including the xanthophyll cycle, photorespiration pathway, and water-water cycle. Finally, we also provide an updated discussion on salt-induced oxidative stress at the subcellular level and its effect on the antioxidant machinery in both salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive plants. The aim is to extend our understanding of how salinity may affect the physiological characteristics of plants.

  17. Ballistic Deposition of Nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrandt, Jeffrey; Li, Yang; Headrick, Randall

    Nanoporous thin-films are an important class of materials, possessing a large surface area to volume ratio, with applications ranging from thermoelectric and photovoltaic materials to supercapacitors. In-Situ X-ray Reflectivity and Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (GISAXS) were used to monitor thin-films grown from Tungsten Silicide (WSi2) and Copper (Cu) nanoclusters. The nanoclusters ranged in size from 2 nm to 6 nm diameter and were made by high-pressure magnetron sputtering via plasma gas condensation (PGC). X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) measurements of the films at various stages of growth reveal that the resulting films exhibit very low density, approaching 15% of bulk density. This is consistent with a simple off-lattice ballistic deposition model where particles stick at the point of first contact without further restructuring. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences under contract DE-FG02-07ER46380.

  18. Group 15 quaternary alkyl bistriflimides: Ionic liquids with potential application in electropositive metal deposition and as supporting electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt, Anand I.; May, Iain; Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Hetherington, Melissa E.; Lewin, Bob G.; Thied, Robert C.; Ertok, Nigar

    2002-01-01

    The eletrochemical properties of Group 15 quaternary alkyl bistriflimides salts were reported. The ionic liquids with potential application in electropositive metal deposition when used as supporting electrolytes in MeCN was also discussed. It was found that the three Group 15 based ionic liquids that were prepared have extremely large electrochemical windows.

  19. Multiphase flow wax deposition modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzain, A. [Petronas Research and Scientific Services, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Zhang, H.-Q.; Volk, M.; Redus, C.L.; Brill, J.P. [University of Tulsa (United States); Apte, M.S. [Shell Technology EP (United States); Creek, J.L. [Chevron Petroleum Technology (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Results are presented from two-phase flow wax deposition tests using a state-of-the-art, high pressure, multiphase flow test facility. Wax deposition was found to be flow pattern dependent and occurs only along the pipe wall in contact with the waxy crude oil. The deposition buildup trend at low mixture velocities is similar to that observed in laminar single-phase flow tests. The buildup trend at high mixture velocities is similar to that observed in turbulent single-phase flow tests. Thinner and harder deposits at the bottom than at the top of the pipe were observed in horizontal intermittent flow tests. Thicker and harder deposits were observed at low liquid superficial velocity than at high liquid superficial velocity annular flow tests. No wax deposition was observed along the upper portion of the pipe in stratified flow tests. A semi-empirical kinetic model tailored for the wax deposition tests predicted wax thickness with an acceptable accuracy, especially at high oil superficial velocity. Deposition rate reduction due to shear stripping and rate enhancement due to entrapment of oil and other mechanisms not accounted for by the classical Fick's mass diffusion theory were incorporated through the use of dimensionless variables and empirical constants derived from the wax deposition data. The kinetic model, although semi-empirical, provides an insight for future model development. (author)

  20. Liquefier Dynamics in Fused Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, Anna; Guceri, Selcuk; Bertoldi, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    Layered manufacturing (LM) is an evolution of rapid prototyping (RP) technology whereby a part is built in layers. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a particular LM technique in which each section is fabricated through vector style deposition of building blocks, called roads, which are then stac......Layered manufacturing (LM) is an evolution of rapid prototyping (RP) technology whereby a part is built in layers. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a particular LM technique in which each section is fabricated through vector style deposition of building blocks, called roads, which...

  1. (Acidic deposition and the environment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, C.T.; Lindberg, S.E.; Van Miegroet, H.

    1990-10-24

    The travelers presented several papers at the Fourth International Conference on Acidic Deposition. These covered the following topics: atmospheric chemistry and deposition of airborne nitrogen compounds, soil solution chemistry in high-elevation spruce forests, and forest throughfall measurements for estimating total sulfur deposition to ecosystems. In addition, S. E. Lindberg was invited to organize and chair a conference session on Throughfall and Stemflow Experiments, and to present an invited lecture on Atmospheric Deposition and Canopy Interactions of Metals and Nitrogen in Forest Ecosystems: The Influence of Global Change'' at the 110th Anniversary Celebration of the Free University of Amsterdam.

  2. Salt-restriction-spoon improved the salt intake among residents in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of an improved salt-restriction spoon on the attitude of salt-restriction, the using rate of salt-restriction-spoon, the actual salt intake, and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (24HUNa. DESIGN: A community intervention study. SETTING: Two villages in Beijing. PARTICIPANTS: 403 local adult residents being responsible for home cooking. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention group or the control group. Those in the intervention group were provided with an improved salt-restriction-spoon and health education, and were informed of their actual salt intake and 24HUNa. Not any intervention was given to those in the control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The scores on the variables of Health Belief Model, the using rate of salt-restriction-spoon, the actual salt intake, and 24HUNa. ANALYSIS: Covariance analyses, Chi-square tests, Student's t tests, and repeated measures analyses of variance. RESULTS: After 6 months of intervention, the intervention group felt significantly less objective barriers, and got access to significantly more cues to action as compared to the control group. The using rate and the correctly using rate of salt-restriction-spoon were significantly higher in the intervention group. The daily salt intake decreased by 1.42 g in the intervention group and by 0.28 g in the control group, and repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant change over time (F = 7.044, P<0.001 and significant difference between groups by time (F = 2.589, P = 0.041. The 24HUNa decreased by 34.84 mmol in the intervention group and by 33.65 mmol in the control group, and repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant change over time (F = 14.648, P<0.001 without significant difference between groups by time (F = 0.222, P = 0.870. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention effect was acceptable, therefore, the improved salt-restriction-spoon and corresponding

  3. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits High-Salt Diet-Induced Renal Oxidative Stress and Kidney Injury in Dahl Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study was designed to investigate if H2S could inhibit high-salt diet-induced renal excessive oxidative stress and kidney injury in Dahl rats. Methods. Male salt-sensitive Dahl and SD rats were used. Blood pressure (BP, serum creatinine, urea, creatinine clearance rate, and 24-hour urine protein were measured. Renal ultra- and microstructures were observed. Collagen-I and -III contents the oxidants and antioxidants levels in renal tissue were detected. Keap1/Nrf2 association and Keap1 s-sulfhydration were detected. Results. After 8 weeks of high-salt diet, BP was significantly increased, renal function and structure were impaired, and collagen deposition was abundant in renal tissues with increased renal MPO activity, H2O2, MDA, GSSG, and •OH contents, reduced renal T-AOC and GSH contents, CAT, GSH-PX and SOD activity, and SOD expressions in Dahl rats. Furthermore, endogenous H2S in renal tissues was decreased in Dahl rats. H2S donor, however, decreased BP, improved renal function and structure, and inhibited collagen excessive deposition in kidney, in association with increased antioxidative activity and reduced oxidative stress in renal tissues. H2S activated Nrf2 by inducing Keap1 s-sulfhydration and subsequent Keap1/Nrf2 disassociation. Conclusions. H2S protected against high-salt diet-induced renal injury associated with enhanced antioxidant capacity and inhibited renal oxidative stress.

  4. Lateral spread hazard mapping of the northern Salt Lake Valley, Utah, for a M7.0 scenario earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, M.J.; Bartlett, S.F.; Solomon, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology used to develop a lateral spread-displacement hazard map for northern Salt Lake Valley, Utah, using a scenario M7.0 earthquake occurring on the Salt Lake City segment of the Wasatch fault. The mapping effort is supported by a substantial amount of geotechnical, geologic, and topographic data compiled for the Salt Lake Valley, Utah. ArcGIS?? routines created for the mapping project then input this information to perform site-specific lateral spread analyses using methods developed by Bartlett and Youd (1992) and Youd et al. (2002) at individual borehole locations. The distributions of predicted lateral spread displacements from the boreholes located spatially within a geologic unit were subsequently used to map the hazard for that particular unit. The mapped displacement zones consist of low hazard (0-0.1 m), moderate hazard (0.1-0.3 m), high hazard (0.3-1.0 m), and very high hazard (> 1.0 m). As expected, the produced map shows the highest hazard in the alluvial deposits at the center of the valley and in sandy deposits close to the fault. This mapping effort is currently being applied to the southern part of the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, and probabilistic maps are being developed for the entire valley. ?? 2007, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  5. Salt tectonics on propagating passive roof detachments: The case of the Sivas Basin (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeay, Etienne; Kergaravat, Charlie; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Ribes, Charlotte; Pichat, Alexandre; Callot, Jean-Paul

    2015-04-01

    The Sivas Basin is located in a particular position at the junction of three crustal domains: the Pontides to the North, the Anatolide - Tauride platforms to the South, and the Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex to the West. This Tertiary basin is formed during the closure of the Northern branch of Neotethys. In regard to subsurface data, this basin developed over an ophiolitic basement obducted from the North during the Late Cretaceous, outcropping mainly to the North and South of the basin boundaries. Following the campanian obduction, the basin infill starts with the development of carbonate platforms directly on the topographic highs of ophiolitic basement, comparable to the present day Omanese ophiolite. Onset of Tauride compression results in a general deepening of the southern basin during Paleocene to Eocene, with the deposition of thick marine deposits. From the southern edge to the central part, we recognized proximal and coarse marine deposits passing to turbidites and volcanoclastic alternances. The late Eocene records a very quick shallowing due to the onset of the Taurus retro-arc development, marked by a thick evaporitic sequence over a wide area, followed by a continental clastic succession, grading northward into evaporites. The Oligocene and Miocene stages are characterized by the northwqrd migration of the foreland basin, associated to the emplacement of salt controlled mini-basins, on top of the evaporitic sequence north of the former foreland through, mostly with continental filling, except a transgression at Aquitanian. The facies evolution of the Sivas Basin is closely related to the tectonic setting. The southern part of the basin corresponds to the Taurus retro-arc during Eocene to Oligocene times, resulting into the development of the foreland through and northward directed thrusts. This process allows for the development of slices of Eocene turbidites, thus modifying deeply the Eocene to Oligocene paleogeography, and depositional

  6. Salt on roads and the environment (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessberg, Philipp von; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2000-01-01

    This report descripes the extent of use of salt on roads in Denmark and the environmental consequences of this. Alternative strategies for reducing the risk of greasy roads and different ways of alleviating the vegetation are also discussed.The different consequences for the environment that this...... that this report discusses are:- The ground water.- Lakes and streams.- Plants and trees along roads.The consequences for the economy through usage of salt on roads has not been carried out.......This report descripes the extent of use of salt on roads in Denmark and the environmental consequences of this. Alternative strategies for reducing the risk of greasy roads and different ways of alleviating the vegetation are also discussed.The different consequences for the environment...

  7. Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, A. R.; Gharabaghi, B.; McBean, E. A.

    2014-09-01

    De-icing agents such as road salts while used for winter road maintenance can cause negative effects on urban stream water quality and drinking water supplies. A new methodology using readily available spatial data to identify Salt Vulnerable Areas (SVAs) for urban streams is used to prioritize implementation of best management practices. The methodology calculates the probable chloride concentration statistics at specified points in the urban stream network and compares the results with known aquatic species exposure tolerance limits to characterize the vulnerability scores. The approach prioritizes implementation of best management practices to areas identified as vulnerable to road salt. The vulnerability assessment is performed on seven sites in four watersheds in the Greater Toronto Area and validated using the Hanlon Creek watershed in Guelph. The mean annual in-stream chloride concentration equation uses readily available spatial data - with province-wide coverage - that can be easily used in any urban watershed.

  8. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  9. 78 FR 11604 - Deposit Insurance Regulations; Definition of Insured Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ..., (202) 898-3670; F. Angus Tarpley III, Supervisory Counsel, Legal Division, (202) 898-6646; Catherine... required to repay a deposit in a foreign branch if it cannot do so because of ``war, insurrection, or civil... the world. The U.K. FSA currently has proposed that the rules governing deposit-taking by foreign...

  10. Thermodynamics of salt-doped polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Gang

    2013-03-01

    There is much current interest in salt-doped polymers as materials for energy applications. For example, a promising system for rechargeable battery applications consists of diblock copolymers of an ion-dissolving block, such as polyethylene oxide (PEO) and a nonconducting block such as polystyrene. Experimentally, it has been shown that the addition of lithium salts significantly alters the order-order and order-disorder transition (ODT) temperatures. In particular, the ODT temperature can increase substantially upon adding even a small amount of lithium salt, and the domain spacing in the ordered phases also increases significantly. Both changes are found to depend on the anion type. In this talk, I describe a simple theory for explaining these phenomena. A key effect is the solvation energy of the anions by the polymers, which we approximate using the Born solvation model. The difference in the Born energy between different polymers provides a driving force towards phase separation. By studying the shift in the mean-field spinodal of the disordered phase, we can identify an effective χ parameter, with a systematic dependence on the anion radius, in agreement with available experimental data. Furthermore, by studying the behavior of the domain spacing with salt concentration, we clarify the relationship between different definitions of the effective χ parameter. We propose that the effective χ parameter determined from the structure factor of the disordered phase is a more robust measure of the change in miscibility between the two blocks. Finally, we demonstrate that salt doping induces a strongly first-order transition from the disordered phase to the lamellar phase, with different salt concentrations in the two phases.

  11. Molten nitrate salt technology development status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carling, R.W.; Kramer, C.M.; Bradshaw, R.W.; Nissen, D.A.; Goods, S.H.; Mar, R.W.; Munford, J.W.; Karnowsky, M.M.; Biefeld, R.N.; Norem, N.J.

    1981-03-01

    Recognizing thermal energy storage as potentially critical to the successful commercialization of solar thermal power systems, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established a comprehensive and aggressive thermal energy storage technology development program. Of the fluids proposed for heat transfer and energy storage molten nitrate salts offer significant economic advantages. The nitrate salt of most interest is a binary mixture of NaNO/sub 3/ and KNO/sub 3/. Although nitrate/nitrite mixtures have been used for decades as heat transfer and heat treatment fluids the use has been at temperatures of about 450/sup 0/C and lower. In solar thermal power systems the salts will experience a temperature range of 350 to 600/sup 0/C. Because central receiver applications place more rigorous demands and higher temperatures on nitrate salts a comprehensive experimental program has been developed to examine what effects, if any, the new demands and temperatures have on the salts. The experiments include corrosion testing, environmental cracking of containment materials, and determinations of physical properties and decomposition mechanisms. This report details the work done at Sandia National Laboratories in each area listed. In addition, summaries of the experimental programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the University of New York, EIC Laboratories, Inc., and the Norwegian Institute of Technology on molten nitrate salts are given. Also discussed is how the experimental programs will influence the near-term central receiver programs such as utility repowering/industrial retrofit and cogeneration. The report is designed to provide easy access to the latest information and data on molten NaNO/sub 3//KNO/sub 3/ for the designers and engineers of future central receiver projects.

  12. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  13. Triassic salt sheets of Mezzouna, Central Tunisia: New comments on Late Cretaceous halokinesis and geodynamic evolution of the northern African margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhahri, Ferid; Boukadi, Noureddine

    2017-05-01

    Two discrete Triassic salt sheets have been discovered within the Coniacian-Santonian series near the salt wall of Mezzouna, central Tunisia. The structure and the lithology of these sheets suggest two halokinetic episodes giving respectively 1) Triassic evaporitic rocks flows over a sloped basin floor resulting in probable salt glacier, and 2) redeposition of erosional debris from the nearby salt wall of Mezzouna, transported and then deposited next to the wall. This finding is used to precise the halokinetic events and the geodynamic evolution of the northern African margin near the Pelagian block between southeastern Tunisia and Tripolitania during Late Cretaceous. A discussion of the halokinesis-related structures is also attempted with emphasize of their genetic mechanisms and temporal development as inferred from geological mapping and new field data.

  14. Potash: a global overview of evaporate-related potash resources, including spatial databases of deposits, occurrences, and permissive tracts: Chapter S in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris, Greta J.; Cocker, Mark D.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wynn, Jeff C.; Spanski, Gregory T.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Gass, Leila; Bliss, James D.; Bolm, Karen S.; Yang, Chao; Lipin, Bruce R.; Ludington, Stephen; Miller, Robert J.; Słowakiewicz, Mirosław

    2014-01-01

    Potash is mined worldwide to provide potassium, an essential nutrient for food crops. Evaporite-hosted potash deposits are the largest source of salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form, including potassium chloride, potassium-magnesium chloride, potassium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Thick sections of evaporitic salt that form laterally continuous strata in sedimentary evaporite basins are the most common host for stratabound and halokinetic potash-bearing salt deposits. Potash-bearing basins may host tens of millions to more than 100 billion metric tons of potassium oxide (K2O). Examples of these deposits include those in the Elk Point Basin in Canada, the Pripyat Basin in Belarus, the Solikamsk Basin in Russia, and the Zechstein Basin in Germany.

  15. The Agost Basin (Betic Cordillera, Alicante province, Spain): a pull-apart basin involving salt tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Martín, Manuel; Estévez, Antonio; Martín-Rojas, Ivan; Guerrera, Francesco; Alcalá, Francisco J.; Serrano, Francisco; Tramontana, Mario

    2017-08-01

    The Agost Basin is characterized by a Miocene-Quaternary shallow marine and continental infilling controlled by the evolution of several curvilinear faults involving salt tectonics derived from Triassic rocks. From the Serravallian on, the area experienced a horizontal maximum compression with a rotation of the maximum stress axis from E-W to N-S. The resulting deformation gave rise to a strike-slip fault whose evolution is characterized progressively by three stages: (1) stepover/releasing bend with a dextral motion of blocks; (2) very close to pure horizontal compression; and (3) restraining bend with a sinistral movement of blocks. In particular, after an incipient fracturing stage, faults generated a pull-apart basin with terraced sidewall fault and graben subzones developed in the context of a dextral stepover during the lower part of late Miocene p.p. The occurrence of Triassic shales and evaporites played a fundamental role in the tectonic evolution of the study area. The salty material flowed along faults during this stage generating salt walls in root zones and salt push-up structures at the surface. During the purely compressive stage (middle part of late Miocene p.p.) the salt walls were squeezed to form extrusive mushroom-like structures. The large amount of clayish and salty material that surfaced was rapidly eroded and deposited into the basin, generating prograding fan clinoforms. The occurrence of shales and evaporites (both in the margins of the basin and in the proper infilling) favored folding of basin deposits, faulting, and the formation of rising blocks. Later, in the last stage (upper part of late Miocene p.p.), the area was affected by sinistral restraining conditions and faults must have bent to their current shape. The progressive folding of the basin and deformation of margins changed the supply points and finally caused the end of deposition and the beginning of the current erosive systems. On the basis of the interdisciplinary results

  16. Reducing the Salt Added to Takeaway Food: Within-Subjects Comparison of Salt Delivered by Five and 17 Holed Salt Shakers in Controlled Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Goffe

    Full Text Available To determine if the amount of salt delivered by standard salt shakers commonly used in English independent takeaways varies between those with five and 17 holes; and to determine if any differences are robust to variations in: the amount of salt in the shaker, the length of time spent shaking, and the person serving.Four laboratory experiments comparing the amount of salt delivered by shakers. Independent variables considered were: type of shaker used (five or 17 holes, amount of salt in the shaker before shaking commences (shaker full, half full or nearly empty, time spent shaking (3s, 5s or 10s, and individual serving.Controlled, laboratory, conditions.A quota-based convenience sample of 10 participants (five women aged 18-59 years.Amount of salt delivered by salt shakers.Across all trials, the 17 holed shaker delivered a mean (SD of 7.86g (4.54 per trial, whilst the five holed shaker delivered 2.65g (1.22. The five holed shaker delivered a mean of 33.7% of the salt of the 17 holed shaker. There was a significant difference in salt delivered between the five and 17 holed salt shakers when time spent shaking, amount of salt in the shaker and participant were all kept constant (p<0.001. This difference was robust to variations in the starting weight of shakers, time spent shaking and participant shaking (pssalt shakers have the potential to reduce the salt content of takeaway food, and particularly food from Fish & Chip shops, where these shakers are particularly used. Further research will be required to determine the effects of this intervention on customers' salt intake with takeaway food and on total dietary salt intake.

  17. Electroless deposition of Ni Cu P alloy and study of the influences of some parameters on the properties of deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashassi-Sorkhabi, H.; Dolati, H.; Parvini-Ahmadi, N.; Manzoori, J.

    2002-01-01

    Cupronickel alloys are known for their excellent corrosion resistance, especially in marine atmosphere. The development of an appropriate electroless bath involves the use of a reducing agent, complexing and stabilizing compounds and metallic salts. In this work, autocatalytic deposition of Ni-Cu-P alloys (28-95 wt.% Ni, 66-0 wt.% Cu, 7.5-3 wt.% P) has been carried out on 302 b steel sheets from bath containing: NiCl 2·6H 2O, CuCl 2·2H 2O, NaH 2PO 2, Na citrate, sulphosalicilic acid and triethanolamine. The effects of pH, temperature, and bath composition on the hardness and the composition of deposits have been studied. In addition, the deposition rates of alloy, nickel, copper and phosphorus were investigated and optimum conditions were obtained. The average rate of alloy deposition was 9 mg cm -2 h -1 and the optimum pH and temperature were 8.5 and 80 °C, respectively. The chemical stability of bath was desirable, and no spontaneous decomposition occurred. The changes in the structure of deposit by heat treatment were studied by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The XRD patterns indicate that the copper content affects the structure changes. With increasing copper content, the phosphorus content decreased and the crystallinity of the deposits grew. After heat treatment of alloys with lower copper content at 400 °C for 1 h, the crystallization to Ni 3P was observed.

  18. COBALT SALTS PRODUCTION BY USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila V. Dyakova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cobalt solution for the production of pure cobalt salts has been developed and introduced at Severonikel combine.

  19. Electrokinetic removal of salt from brick masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2006-01-01

    A method to effectively remove salts from masonry is lacking. The present study aims at determining the removal efficiency of salts from bricks in an applied low current electric DC field. At first an investigation on removal of NaCl and Na(NO3)2 from spiked bricks in laboratory scale was conducted......, a cathode and an anode, that were placed on a masonry wall of an old stable. The masonry had a high concentration of nitrates and problems with hygroscopic moisture. The electrodes consisted of reinforcement steel in carbonate-rich clay. The clay was chosen mainly to improve electric contact between metal...

  20. Salt reduction strategy at population level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Bhargava

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available World is facing a huge burden of noncommunicable diseases such as hypertension, ischemic health diseases, and stroke. Moreover, the developing countries have had a relatively speedy rise of the problem, with noncommunicable diseases occurring at much lower age as compared to the developed world. The World Health Organization, therefore, recommends reduction in salt intake at population level to <5 g/day. Not all researchers and public health physicians agree to it, leading to conflicting information for a primary care physician. This evidence based summary documents this polarization of the recommendations regarding salt reduction and acknowledges the ongoing challenge primary care physicians face when following such evidence based guidelines.

  1. Salt crystallization tests: Focus on their objective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charola, A. Elena; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Chwast, Jacek

    Many factors influence the durability of a building material, such as its mechanical resistance, exposure conditions and the presence of soluble salts in it. Since the latter interact with each other, it is difficult to relate any of them to the specific damage observed. Lubelli et al. [1] have...... compatibility of restoration mortars, and another where the efflorescence of gypsum for brick masonry is evaluated. These methods have proven their reliability and lead to the conclusion that salt tests should be designed for specific objectives....

  2. Methods to Prepare Aluminum Salt-Adjuvanted Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Sachin G; Cui, Zhengrong

    2017-01-01

    Many human vaccines contain certain insoluble aluminum salts such as aluminum oxyhydroxide and aluminum hydroxyphosphate as vaccine adjuvants to boost the immunogenicity of the vaccines. Aluminum salts have been used as vaccine adjuvants for decades and have an established, favorable safety profile. However, preparing aluminum salts and aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccines in a consistent manner remains challenging. This chapter discusses methods to prepare aluminum salts and aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccines, factors to consider during preparation, and methods to characterize the vaccines after preparation.

  3. Archaeological and chemical evidence for early salt production in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flad, Rowan; Zhu, Jiping; Wang, Changsui; Chen, Pochan; von Falkenhausen, Lothar; Sun, Zhibin; Li, Shuicheng

    2005-01-01

    Salt production and trade is thought to be critical to the development of all states and emergent empires. Until now, however, scientific evidence of early salt production has rarely been presented, and no studies of early Chinese salt production have provided unequivocal proof. Here, we report x-ray fluorescence, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses that demonstrate that salt was the primary product during the first millennium before Christ (B.C.) at Zhongba in Central China. This work provides an early example of salt production discovered in China and presents a methodology for evaluating salt production sites in other regions. PMID:16116100

  4. Aerosol deposition in the human respiratory tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, John W.; Jones, Donald L.; Mu-tian, Bi

    1984-04-01

    Rising sulfur dioxide emissions from increased coal combustion present risks, not only of acid rain, but also to health by inhalation of the SO 2 and acid to the lung. We are investigating human inhalation of ppm SO 2 concentrations mixed with aerosol of submicrometer aqueous salt droplets to determine the effects on lung function and body chemistry. Unlike some investigators, we emphasize ammonium sulfate and trace element aerosol composition which simulates ambient air; aerosol pH, relative humidity, and temperature control to reveal gas-particle reaction mechanisms; and dose estimates from length of exposure, SO 2 concentration, and a direct measurement of respiratory deposition of aerosol as a function of particle size by cascade impactor sampling and elemental analysis by PIXE. Exposures, at rest or during exercise, are in a walk-in chamber at body temperature and high humidity to simulate Florida's summer climate. Lung function measurement by spirometry is carried out immediately after exposure. The results are significant in relating air quality to athletic performance and to public health in the southeastern United States.

  5. Assessment of a Salt Reduction Intervention on Adult Population Salt Intake in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Arti; Trieu, Kathy; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Sukhu, Arleen; Schultz, Jimaima; Wate, Jillian; Bell, Colin; Moodie, Marj; Snowdon, Wendy; Ma, Gary; Rogers, Kris; Webster, Jacqui

    2017-12-12

    Reducing population salt intake is a global public health priority due to the potential to save lives and reduce the burden on the healthcare system through decreased blood pressure. This implementation science research project set out to measure salt consumption patterns and to assess the impact of a complex, multi-faceted intervention to reduce population salt intake in Fiji between 2012 and 2016. The intervention combined initiatives to engage food businesses to reduce salt in foods and meals with targeted consumer behavior change programs. There were 169 participants at baseline (response rate 28.2%) and 272 at 20 months (response rate 22.4%). The mean salt intake from 24-h urine samples was estimated to be 11.7 grams per day (g/d) at baseline and 10.3 g/d after 20 months (difference: -1.4 g/day, 95% CI -3.1 to 0.3, p = 0.115). Sub-analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in female salt intake in the Central Division but no differential impact in relation to age or ethnicity. Whilst the low response rate means it is not possible to draw firm conclusions about these changes, the population salt intake in Fiji, at 10.3 g/day, is still twice the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommended maximum intake. This project also assessed iodine intake levels in women of child-bearing age and found that they were within recommended guidelines. Existing policies and programs to reduce salt intake and prevent iodine deficiency need to be maintained or strengthened. Monitoring to assess changes in salt intake and to ensure that iodine levels remain adequate should be built into future surveys.

  6. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cunningham, Richard Burns [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peretz, Fred J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels

  7. All-organic sulfonium salts acting as efficient solution processed electron injection layer for PLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadou, Dimitra G; Vasilopoulou, Maria; Palilis, Leonidas C; Petsalakis, Ioannis D; Theodorakopoulos, Giannoula; Constantoudis, Vassilios; Kennou, Stella; Karantonis, Antonis; Dimotikali, Dimitra; Argitis, Panagiotis

    2013-12-11

    Herein we introduce the all-organic triphenylsulfonium (TPS) salts cathode interfacial layers (CILs), deposited from their methanolic solution, as a new simple strategy for circumventing the use of unstable low work function metals and obtaining charge balance and high electroluminescence efficiency in polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs). In particular, we show that the incorporation of TPS-triflate or TPS-nonaflate at the polymer/Al interface improved substantially the luminous efficiency of the device (from 2.4 to 7.9 cd/A) and reduced the turn-on and operating voltage, whereas an up to 4-fold increase in brightness (∼11 250 cd/m(2) for TPS-triflate and ∼14 682 cd/m(2) for TPS-nonaflate compared to ∼3221 cd/m(2) for the reference device) was observed in poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(1,4-benzo-2,1',3-thiadiazole)] (F8BT)-based PLEDs. This was mainly attributed to the favorable decrease of the electron injection barrier, as derived from the open-circuit voltage (Voc) measurements, which was also assisted by the conduction of electrons through the triphenylsulfonium salt sites. Density functional theory calculations indicated that the total energy of the anionic (reduced) form of the salt, that is, upon placing an electron to its lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, is lower than its neutral state, rendering the TPS-salts stable upon electron transfer in the solid state. Finally, the morphology optimization of the TPS-salt interlayer through controlling the processing parameters was found to be critical for achieving efficient electron injection and transport at the respective interfaces.

  8. Amplification of salt-induced polymer diffusiophoresis by increasing salting-out strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Michele S; Zhang, Huixiang; Annunziata, Onofrio

    2014-10-21

    The role of salting-out strength on (1) polymer diffusiophoresis from high to low salt concentration, and (2) salt osmotic diffusion from high to low polymer concentration was investigated. These two cross-diffusion phenomena were experimentally characterized by Rayleigh interferometry at 25 °C. Specifically, we report ternary diffusion coefficients for polyethylene glycol (molecular weight, 20 kg·mol(-1)) in aqueous solutions of several salts (NaCl, KCl, NH4Cl, CaCl2, and Na2SO4) as a function of salt concentration at low polymer concentration (0.5% w/w). We also measured polymer diffusion coefficients by dynamic light scattering in order to discuss the interpretation of these transport coefficients in the presence of cross-diffusion effects. Our cross-diffusion results, primarily those on salt osmotic diffusion, were utilized to extract N(w), the number of water molecules in thermodynamic excess around a macromolecule. This preferential-hydration parameter characterizes the salting-out strength of the employed salt. For chloride salts, changing cation has a small effect on N(w). However, replacing NaCl with Na2SO4 (i.e., changing anion) leads to a 3-fold increase in N(w), in agreement with cation and anion Hofmeister series. Theoretical arguments show that polymer diffusiophoresis is directly proportional to the difference N(w) - n(w), where n(w) is the number of water molecules transported by the migrating macromolecule. Interestingly, the experimental ratio, n(w)/N(w), was found to be approximately the same for all investigated salts. Thus, the magnitude of polymer diffusiophoresis is also proportional to salting-out strength as described by N(w). A basic hydrodynamic model was examined in order to gain physical insight on the role of n(w) in particle diffusiophoresis and explain the observed invariance of n(w)/N(w). Finally, we consider a steady-state diffusion problem to show that concentration gradients of strong salting-out agents such as Na2SO4 can

  9. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  10. Deposition and Resuspension of Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, A.

    A new experimental set-up to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airBorne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust related problems in rooms...

  11. Geotechnical Description of Mineral Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasvári Tibor

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Performing various mineral deposits extraction methods requires thorough knowledge of the rock masses` geomechanical parameters. In the geotechnical description of mineral deposits there is proposed a methodical approarch at the collection, registration, and evaluation of rock masses` geological properties for geotechnics being applied within the mining industry.

  12. A remote coal deposit revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen-Kofoed, Jørgen A.; Kalkreuth, Wolfgang; Petersen, Henrik I.

    2012-01-01

    In 1908, members of the “Danmark Expedition” discovered a coal deposit in a very remote area in western Germania Land, close to the margin of the inland ice in northeast Greenland. The deposit was, however, neither sampled nor described, and was revisited in 2009 for the first time since its...

  13. Current Levels of Salt Knowledge: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Sarmugam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High salt intake increases the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Given the role of knowledge as a determinant of food intake, this paper aims to review the current levels of salt knowledge and the association between salt knowledge and dietary salt intake and salt-related dietary practices in the general population. Twenty two studies were included in the review. In general, the studies showed consumers were able to identify the health risks associated with high salt intake. However, knowledge of recommended daily intakes, understanding of the relationships between salt and sodium and foods that contribute most salt to the diet were poor. Four of the five studies which examined the relationships between salt knowledge and salt-related dietary practices reported significant associations. Two important gaps in the current literature were identified. First, there is a need for a robustly validated tool to examine salt knowledge and its impact on salt intake. Second, a comprehensive salt knowledge assessment should include assessment of procedural, as well as declarative, knowledge.

  14. Feasibility of salt reduction in processed foods in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Daniel; Apro, Nicolas; Ferreira, Veronica; Virgolini, Mario; Aguilar, Valentina; Sosa, Miriam; Perel, Pablo; Casas, Juan

    2011-02-01

    To assess an intervention to reduce salt intake based on an agreement with the food industry. Salt content was measured in bakery products through a national survey and biochemical analyses. Low-salt bread was evaluated by a panel of taste testers to determine whether a reduced salt bread could remain undetected. French bread accounts for 25% of the total salt intake in Argentina; hence, reducing its salt concentration from 2% to 1.4% was proposed and tested. A crossover trial was conducted to evaluate the reduction in urinary sodium and blood pressure in participants during consumption of the low-salt bread compared with ordinary bread. Average salt content in bread was 2%. This study evaluated low-salt bread containing 1.4% salt. This reduction remained mostly undetected by the panels of taste testers. In the crossover trial, which included 58 participants, a reduction of 25 milliequivalents in 24 hour urine sodium excretion, a reduction in systolic blood pressure of 1.66 mmHg, and a reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.76 mmHg were found during the low-salt bread intake. The study showed that dietary salt reduction was feasible and well accepted in the population studied through a reduction of salt content in bread. Although the effects on urinary sodium and blood pressure were moderate, a country wide intervention could have a greater public health impact.

  15. Mechanism of the anti-hypertensive property of the naturally occurring phenolic, malabaricone C in DOCA-salt rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathee, Jitesh S; Patro, Birija S; Brown, Lindsay; Chattopadhyay, Subrata

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we studied whether chronic oral administration of the natural antioxidant, malabaricone C (mal C) can reduce blood pressure (BP) and attenuate cardio-vascular remodeling in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. The dose of mal C for its anti-hypertensive action was optimized by measuring the systolic BP (SBP). DOCA-salt rats showed very high SBP, associated with organ hypertrophy, collagen depositions, and inflammatory infiltrations in cardiac and aortic sections, reduced plasma total antioxidant status and NO level, and increased levels of TBARS, PGI2 as well as vasoconstrictors (AVP, Big ET, and ET-1). DOCA-salt also reduced smooth muscle- and endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in rats. Mal C reversed all these changes of the DOCA-salt rats and improved their vascular reactivity. Mal C exerts anti-hypertensive property in DOCA-salt rats by reducing oxidative stress and organ hypertrophy, and improving endothelial and vascular functions. Given that mal C has appreciable natural abundance and is non-toxic to rodents, further studies would help in establishing its medicinal potential against hypertension.

  16. Suggestopedic/SALT research in English Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wilson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of research. carried out under the auspices of the Institute for Language Teaching, University of Stellenbosch,l at the Cape Town College of Education. The study tests and evaluates a Remedial Literature Course for English-speaking college students using Suggestopedia!SALT. The subjects in _the remedial and normative groups were English-speaking students in the senior primary class. A ten-week suggestopedic!SALT English Literature Course was developed for the remedial course. Two measuring instruments were used: an English Literary Concepts Test and an Opinionnaire on attitudes towards EnglishLiterature. The validation, treatment and analysis oft he data are discussed. Conclusions and recommendations follow. Die verslag handel oor navorsing aan die Kaapstadse Onderwyskollege onder die beskerming van dielnstituutvir Taalonderrig van die UniversiteitvanStellenbosch.Die ondersoek toets en evalueer 'n remedierende letterkunde kursus vir Engelssprekende kollegestudente waar Suggestopedagogiek!SALT gebruik is. Die studente in die remedierende ennormatiewe groepe was Engelssprekend en in die senior-primere klas. 'n Suggestopediese!SALT Engelsletterkunde- kursus wat 10 weke sou duur, is vir die remedierende kursus ontwerp. Twee meetinstrumente is gebruik: 'n toets van Engels-literere konsepte en' n vraelys oor houdings ten opsigte van Engels-letterkunde. Die geldigverklaring. behandeling en ontleding van data word bespreek. Gevolgtrekkings en aanbevelings volg.

  17. Department of Amplification: The Perpetual Salt Fountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arons, Arnold B.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the story of "The Perpetual Salt Fountain" to illustrate some fairly typical ramifications and vagaries in the workings of science. Outlines the discovery of double diffusive convection and uses the fact that it had been observed in the laboratory a century before its independent rediscovery to emphasize the vagaries of…

  18. Salt for the earthen oven revisited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-06-07

    Jun 7, 2011 ... translated: 'you are the salt of the earthen oven', whilst Luke. 12:49 is ... The Palestinian Arabic word for kiln oven, ̛arsִa, confirms this understanding (De ..... 2000, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other.

  19. Silicon alleviates salt stress, decreases malondialdehyde content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... Hernandez JA, Corpass FJ, Gomez M, del Río LA, Sevilla F (1993). Salt-induced oxidative stress mediated by active oxygen species in pen leaf mitochondria, Physiol. Plant. 89: 103-110. Hwang SJ, Hamayun M, Kim HY, Na CI, Kim KU, Shin DH, Kim SY, Lee. IJ (2008). Effect of nitrogen and silicon nutrition ...

  20. Bile salts in control of lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Groen, Albert K.

    Purpose of review The view on bile salts has evolved over the years from being regarded as simple detergents that aid intestinal absorption of fat-soluble nutrients to being important hormone-like integrators of metabolism. This review provides an update on the rapidly developing field of

  1. Genetic diversity of salt tolerance in Miscanthus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Charlie; Schoot, van der Hanneke; Dehghan, Shiva; Alvim Kamei, Claire L.; Schwarz, Kai Uwe; Meyer, Heike; Visser, Richard G.F.; Linden, van der Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Miscanthus is a woody rhizomatous C4 grass that can be used as a CO2 neutral biofuel resource. It has potential to grow in marginal areas such as saline soils, avoiding competition for arable lands with food crops. This study explored genetic diversity for salt tolerance in Miscanthus and discovered

  2. Fluid inclusions in salt: an annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, D.J.

    1979-01-26

    An annotated bibliography is presented which was compiled while searching the literature for information on fluid inclusions in salt for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's study on the deep-geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The migration of fluid inclusions in a thermal gradient is a potential hazard to the safe disposal of nuclear waste in a salt repository. At the present time, a prediction as to whether this hazard precludes the use of salt for waste disposal can not be made. Limited data from the Salt-Vault in situ heater experiments in the early 1960's (Bradshaw and McClain, 1971) leave little doubt that fluid inclusions can migrate towards a heat source. In addition to the bibliography, there is a brief summary of the physical and chemical characteristics that together with the temperature of the waste will determine the chemical composition of the brine in contact with the waste canister, the rate of fluid migration, and the brine-canister-waste interactions.

  3. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  4. Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  5. Specific Investigations Related to Salt Rock Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vons, L. H.; Zelikson, A.; Charo, L.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper results are given of work in various countries in rather unrelated areas of research. Nevertheless, since the studies have been undertaken to better understand salt behaviour, both from mechanical and chemical points of view, some connection between the studies can be found. Studies...

  6. Salt for the earthen oven revisited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-06-07

    Jun 7, 2011 ... for your reward is great in heaven, for so men persecuted the prophets who were before you' (Mt 5:12). Then follows the salt logion. Recall that this culture is agonistic, that is, prone to conflict. It loves arguments, admires insults and honours those who are adept at these indications of mastery of language.

  7. Salt stress signals shape the plant root

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvan-Ampudia, C.S.; Testerink, C.

    2011-01-01

    Plants use different strategies to deal with high soil salinity. One strategy is activation of pathways that allow the plant to export or compartmentalise salt. Relying on their phenotypic plasticity, plants can also adjust their root system architecture (RSA) and the direction of root growth to

  8. Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR) System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolley, Robert D [PPPL; Miller, Laurence F [PPPL

    2014-04-01

    Can the hybrid system combination of (1) a critical fission Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) having a thermal spectrum and a high Conversion Ratio (CR) with (2) an external source of high energy neutrons provide an attractive solution to the world's expanding demand for energy? The present study indicates the answer is an emphatic yes.

  9. Triethylammonium salt of dimethyl diphenyldithiophosphates: Single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 6. Triethylammonium salt of dimethyl diphenyldithiophosphates: Single crystal X-ray and DFT analysis. SANDEEP KUMAR RUCHI KHAJURIA MANDEEP KOUR RAKESH KUMAR LOVE KARAN RANA GEETA HUNDAL VIVEK K GUPTA RAJNI KANT SUSHIL K PANDEY.

  10. Synthesis, structure, and properties of azatriangulenium salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, B.W.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2001-01-01

    ), and triazatriangulenium (4), have been synthesized and their physicochemical properties have been investigated. Crystal structures for compounds 2 b-PF6: 2d-PF6, 4b-BF4, 4c-BF4, 6e-BF4, and 8 are reported. The different packing modes found for the triazatriagulenium salts are discussed in relation to the electrostatic...

  11. The Path to Nitrate Salt Disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-16

    The topic is presented in a series of slides arranged according to the following outline: LANL nitrate salt incident as thermal runaway (thermally sensitive surrogates, full-scale tests), temperature control for processing, treatment options and down selection, assessment of engineering options, anticipated control set for treatment, and summary of the overall steps for RNS.

  12. Compound list: imatinib, methanesulfonate salt [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available imatinib, methanesulfonate salt IMA 00186 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-t...ggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/imatinib%2C_methanesulfonate_salt.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ...

  13. Potential effect of salt reduction in processed foods on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Hoogenveen, R.T.; Hoekstra, J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Excessive salt intake has been associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Reducing salt intake is considered an important public health strategy in the Netherlands. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the health benefits of

  14. Identifying salt stress-responsive transcripts from Roselle ( Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Identifying the potentially novel transcripts responsible for salt stress tolerance in roselle will increase knowledge of the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress responses. In this study, differential display reverse ...

  15. Formation and development of salt crusts on soil surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Sheng

    2015-12-14

    The salt concentration gradually increases at the soil free surface when the evaporation rate exceeds the diffusive counter transport. Eventually, salt precipitates and crystals form a porous sodium chloride crust with a porosity of 0.43 ± 0.14. After detaching from soils, the salt crust still experiences water condensation and salt deliquescence at the bottom, brine transport across the crust driven by the humidity gradient, and continued air-side precipitation. This transport mechanism allows salt crust migration away from the soil surface at a rate of 5 μm/h forming salt domes above soil surfaces. The surface characteristics of mineral substrates and the evaporation rate affect the morphology and the crystal size of precipitated salt. In particular, substrate hydrophobicity and low evaporation rate suppress salt spreading.

  16. Experiments and Modeling in Support of Generic Salt Repository Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourret, Suzanne Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Otto, Shawn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zyvoloski, George Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Johnson, Peter Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-19

    Salt is an attractive material for the disposition of heat generating nuclear waste (HGNW) because of its self-sealing, viscoplastic, and reconsolidation properties (Hansen and Leigh, 2012). The rate at which salt consolidates and the properties of the consolidated salt depend on the composition of the salt, including its content in accessory minerals and moisture, and the temperature under which consolidation occurs. Physicochemical processes, such as mineral hydration/dehydration salt dissolution and precipitation play a significant role in defining the rate of salt structure changes. Understanding the behavior of these complex processes is paramount when considering safe design for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) in salt formations, so experimentation and modeling is underway to characterize these processes. This report presents experiments and simulations in support of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for development of drift-scale, in-situ field testing of HGNW in salt formations.

  17. Zooplankton community of Bhayandar and Thane salt pans around Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mustafa, S.; Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.

    The zooplankton community of the salt pans of Bhayandar and Thane was studied based on the contribution of microzooplankton and meso-macrozooplankton. Population of microzooplankton was about 4 times more in Bhayandar as compared to Thane salt pan...

  18. Seafloor character--Offshore of Salt Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Salt Point, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_SaltPoint.zip," which...

  19. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

  20. saltPAD: A New Analytical Tool for Monitoring Salt Iodization in Low Resource Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M. Myers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We created a paper test card that measures a common iodizing agent, iodate, in salt. To test the analytical metrics, usability, and robustness of the paper test card when it is used in low resource settings, the South African Medical Research Council and GroundWork performed independ‐ ent validation studies of the device. The accuracy and precision metrics from both studies were comparable. In the SAMRC study, more than 90% of the test results (n=1704 were correctly classified as corresponding to adequately or inadequately iodized salt. The cards are suitable for market and household surveys to determine whether salt is adequately iodized. Further development of the cards will improve their utility for monitoring salt iodization during production.

  1. Arginine increases the solubility of coumarin: comparison with salting-in and salting-out additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Atsushi; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2008-09-01

    Poor aqueous solubility of low molecular weight drug substances hampers their development as pharmacological agents. Here, we have examined the effects of arginine on the solubility of organic compounds, coumarin, caffeine and benzyl alcohol, in aqueous solution. Arginine increased the solubility of aromatic coumarin, but not non-aromatic caffeine, concentration dependently, suggesting the favourable interaction of arginine with the aromatic structure. Consistent with this, arginine also increased the solubility of aromatic benzyl alcohol. Guanidine hydrochloride, urea and salting-in salts increased both coumarin and caffeine solubilities, while salting-out salts decreased them. These results suggest the specific interaction of arginine with aromatic groups, leading to increased solubility of coumarin. However, the effect of 1 M arginine on coumarin solubility was at most approximately 2-fold, which may limit its applications as a solubility enhancing agent.

  2. TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk; Cem Sarica

    2003-10-01

    As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multiphase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines. The following deliverables are scheduled during the first three projects of the program: (1) Single-Phase Studies, with three different black oils, which will yield an enhanced computer code for predicting paraffin deposition in deepwater and surface pipelines. (2) Two

  3. Present and past microbial life in continental salt pan sediments in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genderjahn, Steffi; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Alawi, Mashal; Kallmeyer, Jens; Wagner, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    The southwestern African region is characterized by strong climate variability. To get a better understanding on the climate evolution and environmental condition in Namibia and South Africa, terrestrial climate archives are investigated. Since there are almost no lakes, continental salt pans represent the only terrestrial geoarchives with the potential to preserve climate signals during sediment deposition. Climate has a strong impact on the salt pan ecosystem, causing adaptation of salt pan microorganisms to varying temperature, precipitation and salinity conditions. To reconstruct climate variability during the Holocene, the composition, diversity and abundance of indigenous microbial communities with depth and related to different soil parameters are investigated. We are using a combined approach of microbiological and lipid biomarker analyses to demonstrate the response of the microbial communities due to environmental changes. For microbiological analyses outcrops were conducted or short cores (0-100 cm) were drilled at four different salt pans in Aminuis, Koes and Witpan region having rather different geochemical properties. The current work focused on changes within the microbial communities due to the impact of long-term climate variation and the associated environmental changes and is part of the project 'Signals of climate and landscape change preserved in southern African GeoArchives' in the scope of the SPACES program, which is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). For a quantitative characterization of microbial communities molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) based on the 16S rRNA genes are used. Moreover, 454 sequencing technique is utilized to describe the diversity and abundance of microorganisms in detail. Soil parameters are described by standard soil scientific methods. Furthermore, microbial lipid biomarker analyses were done to characterize living

  4. The effects of restricted circulation on the salt balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, K.M.; Bolke, E.L.

    1973-01-01

    During the 1970-1972 water years a net load of dissolved solids of 0.26 billion tons moved from the south to north part of Great Salt Lake, Utah, through the causeway of the Southern Pacific Transportation Co. The load loss from the south part during the 1972 water year was only 0.01 billion tons, thus indicating that the salt balance between the two parts of the lake was near equilibrium for inflow conditions such as those of 1972.

  5. Combinations of fluorinated solvents with imide salts or methide salts for electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Lei, Norman; Guerrero-Zavala, Guillermo; Kwong, Kristie W

    2015-11-10

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. The electrolytes include imide salts and/or methide salts as well as fluorinated solvents capable of maintaining single phase solutions at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C. The fluorinated solvents, such as fluorinated carbonates, fluorinated esters, and fluorinated esters, are less flammable than their non-fluorinated counterparts and improve safety characteristics of cells containing these solvents. The amount of fluorinated solvents in electrolytes may be between about 30% and 80% by weight not accounting weight of the salts. Linear and cyclic imide salts, such as LiN(SO.sub.2CF.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.2, and LiN(SO.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.2, as well as methide salts, such as LiC(SO.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.3 and LiC(SO.sub.2CF.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.3, may be used in these electrolytes. Fluorinated alkyl groups enhance solubility of these salts in the fluorinated solvents. In some embodiments, the electrolyte may also include a flame retardant, such as a phosphazene, and/or one or more ionic liquids.

  6. 76 FR 21265 - Interest on Deposits; Deposit Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ..., Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, 550 17th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20429. Hand Delivery: Guard... Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act, enacted as part of the Omnibus Consolidated and...

  7. 76 FR 41392 - Interest on Deposits; Deposit Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... volatility as depository institutions competed for an increased share of business deposits by offering... earnings credits. A third commenter urged that the Financial Stability Oversight Council (the FSOC) should...

  8. Iodized salt consumption in Sudan: present status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Bani, Ibrahim Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) Control Programme in Sudan adopted salt iodization as the long-term strategy in 1994. In 2000, it was found that less than 1% of households were using adequately-iodized salt. The objectives of this study were to: (i) study the coverage and variation of different geographical regions of Sudan regarding access to and use of iodized salt, (ii) explore the possible factors which influence the use of iodized salt, (iii) develop recommendations to help in the implementation of the Universal Salt Iodization (USI) strategy in Sudan. This paper is based on the Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS) dataset. A total sample of 24,507 households was surveyed, and 18,786 cooking salt samples were tested for iodine levels with rapid salt-testing kits. Nationally, the percentage of households using adequately-iodized salt increased from less than 1% in 2000 to 14.4%, with wide variations between states. Access to iodized salt ranged from 96.9% in Central Equatoria to 0.4% in Gezira state. Population coverage with iodized salt in Sudan remains very low. The awareness and political support for USI programme is very weak. National legislation banning the sale of non-iodized salt does not exist. Utilization of the already-existing laws, like the National Standardization and Metrology Law (2008), to develop a compulsory national salt specification, will accelerate the USI in Sudan.

  9. Health Gain by Salt Reduction in Europe: A Modelling Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Breda, J.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive salt intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt intake exceeds the World Health Organization population nutrition goal of 5 grams per day in the European region. We assessed the health impact of salt reduction in nine European countries (Finland, France,

  10. 21 CFR 864.2875 - Balanced salt solutions or formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Balanced salt solutions or formulations. 864.2875 Section 864.2875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Balanced salt solutions or formulations. (a) Identification. A balanced salt solution or formulation is a...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN P-94...

  12. Unconjugated bile salts shuttle through hepatocyte peroxisomes for taurine conjugation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rembacz, K.P.; Woudenberg, J.; Hoekstra, M.; Jonkers, E.Z.; Heuvel, F.A. van den; Buist-Homan, M.; Woudenberg-Vrenken, T.E.; Rohacova, J.; Marin, M.L.; Miranda, M.A.; Moshage, H.; Stellaard, F.; Faber, K.N.

    2010-01-01

    Bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAAT) conjugates bile salts to glycine or taurine, which is the final step in bile salt biosynthesis. In addition, BAAT is required for reconjugation of bile salts in the enterohepatic circulation. Recently, we showed that BAAT is a peroxisomal protein,

  13. SOLUTION MINING IN SALT DOMES OF THE GULF COAST EMBAYMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griswold, G. B.

    1981-02-01

    Following a description of salt resources in the salt domes of the gulf coast embayment, mining, particularly solution mining, is described. A scenario is constructed which could lead to release of radioactive waste stored in a salt dome via inadvertent solution mining and the consequences of this scenario are analyzed.

  14. Memory processes in the development of reduced-salt foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Vanessa; Bertenshaw, Emma J; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2014-12-01

    Acceptance of a reduced-salt food is likely to be influenced by a mismatch between the sensory characteristics of a reformulated product and a memory for a previously-encountered formulation. In two initial pilot studies we established the reliability of a new measure of memory for saltiness, based on a method of constant stimuli. We then used this technique to explore the effects of different patterns of repeated exposure on memory for the taste of a reduced-salt soup. Participants (N = 135) were assigned to one of four exposure patterns: (1) reduced-salt, (2) no salt reduction, i.e. regular-salt, (3) reduced- and regular-salt, in an alternating pattern, and (4) gradually declining salt concentration. In the final session, all participants received an identical reduced-salt soup. Memory for the saltiness of this sample was assessed, together with its expected liking. Our results indicate that different interactions with the test soup had little effect on taste memory. Nevertheless, (1) participants remembered the final exposure soup as saltier than the reduced-salt formulation that they had received and (2) remembered salt concentrations correlated with individual ideal salt concentrations. These findings are consistent with contemporary models of reconstructive memory and they illustrate the importance of understanding 'memory for saltiness' in the acceptance of reduced-salt formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Unconjugated Bile Salts Shuttle Through Hepatocyte Peroxisomes for Taurine Conjugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rembacz, Krzysztof P.; Woudenberg, Jannes; Hoekstra, Mark; Jonkers, Elles Z.; van den Heuvel, Fiona A. J.; Buist-Homan, Manon; Woudenberg-Vrenken, Titia E.; Rohacova, Jana; Luisa Marin, M.; Miranda, Miguel A.; Moshage, Han; Stellaard, Frans; Faber, Klaas Nico

    2010-01-01

    Bile acid-CoA.amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAAT) conjugates bile salts to glycine or taurine, which is the final step in bile salt biosynthesis In addition, BAAT is required for reconjugation of bile salts in the enterohepatic circulation Recently, we showed that BAAT is a peroxisomal protein,

  16. 75 FR 22892 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal... transportation improvement project in Salt Lake County, Utah. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Edward Woolford, Environmental Program Manager, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake City...

  17. 75 FR 9476 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal... transportation improvement project in Salt Lake County, Utah. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bryan Dillon, Area Engineer, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake City, UT 84118...

  18. Recent Trends in Bird Abundance on Rhode Island Salt Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt marsh habitat is under pressure from development on the landward side, and sea level rise from the seaward side. The resulting loss of habitat is potentially disastrous for salt marsh dependent species. To assess the population status of three species of salt marsh dependent...

  19. Cyanoplatinate (II) salts as luminescent materials for scintillation counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, P.; Hansen, P.Gregers; Jacobsen, C.F.

    1962-01-01

    Eleven cyanoplatinate (II) salts have been studied under excitation with fast, charged particles. The salts were prepared via the barium compound, and crystals were grown from aqueous solutions. The formulae were determined by standard analytical procedures. Four of the salts were not previously ...... for the detection of electromagnetic radiation, some data pertinent to γ-spectroscopy are given....

  20. Response of Tomato Genotypes to Induced Salt Stress | Agong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirteen tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) genotypes were subjected to salt treatment under hydroponics and their responses monitored in a set of two experiments with the objective of advancing them as potential salt tolerant tomato scion and/or rootstocks. Salt applications ranged from 0 to 2% NaCl, with the resultant ...

  1. Salt balance, fresh water residence time and budget for non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water and salt budgets suggest that in order to balance the inflow and outflow of water at Makoba bay, there is net flux of water from the bay to the open ocean during wet season. Residual salt fluxes between the bay and the open ocean indicate advective salt export. Exchange of water between the bay with the open ocean ...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151) is...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6080 - Phosphonium salt (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphonium salt (generic name). 721... Substances § 721.6080 Phosphonium salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance phosphonium salt (PMN Number P-84-820) is subject to...

  4. Transition at the deliquesce point in single salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2014-01-01

    the increasing numbers of thin film water till 20 mbar at 25˚C whereas the deliquescence point is at 24 mbar. These results suggest a stepwise change in the state of the salt. During preparation to salt calibration tests (in a Dynamic Vapour Sorption equipment (DVS)) the author noticed that some single salts...

  5. Identification of genes induced by salt stress from Medicago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to identify genes induced during the salt stress response in barrel medic (Medicago truncatula L) seedlings, a cDNA library by salt stress was constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Total RNA from 15-day-old seedlings was used as a 'driver', and total RNA from seedlings induced by salt was ...

  6. Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... Wheat cultivars capable of accumulating minerals under salt stress are of considerable interest for their potential to improve crop productivity and crop quality. This study addressed the role of antioxidative enzymes in the responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar Cang 6001 to high-salt stress compared to ...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2093 - Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2093 Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (PMN P-99-0848) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10028 - Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene metal salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10028 Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as disubstituted benzene metal salts (PMNs P-01-901 and P-01-902) are subject to reporting under this...

  9. Water and salt balances of two shallow groundwater cropping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salt tends to accumulate in poorly drained soils under irrigation if inadequate water and salt management practices are applied. Furthermore, over- irrigation may deteriorate the quality of water resources, because of salt pollution resulting from excessive drainage and leaching (United States Salinity Laboratory Staff, 1954; ...

  10. Nutrition in cardiovascular disease: salt in hypertension and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; Burnier, Michel; Macgregor, Graham A

    2011-12-01

    There is much evidence for a causal relationship between salt intake and blood pressure (BP). The current salt intake in many countries is between 9 and 12 g/day. A reduction in salt intake to the recommended level of 5-6 g/day lowers BP in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals. A further reduction to 3-4 g/day has a much greater effect. Prospective studies and outcome trials have demonstrated that a lower salt intake is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence also suggests that a high salt intake is directly related to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) independent of BP. Both raised BP and LVH are important risk factors for heart failure. It is therefore possible that a lower salt intake could prevent the development of heart failure. In patients who already have heart failure, a high salt intake aggravates the retention of salt and water, thereby exacerbating heart failure symptoms and progression of the disease. A lower salt intake plays an important role in the management of heart failure. Despite this, currently there is no clear evidence on how far salt intake should be reduced in heart failure. Our personal view is that these patients should reduce their salt intake to <5 g/day, i.e. the maximum intake recommended by the World Health Organisation for all adults. If salt intake is successfully reduced, there may well be a need for a reduction in diuretic dosage.

  11. Effect of hurricanes and violent storms on salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, N.; Ganju, N. K.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2016-12-01

    Salt marsh losses have been documented worldwide because of land use change, wave erosion, and sea-level rise. It is still unclear how resistant salt marshes are to extreme storms and whether they can survive multiple events without collapsing. Based on a large dataset of salt marsh lateral erosion rates collected around the world, here, we determine the general response of salt marsh boundaries to wave action under normal and extreme weather conditions. As wave energy increases, salt marsh response to wind waves remains linear, and there is not a critical threshold in wave energy above which salt marsh erosion drastically accelerates. We apply our general formulation for salt marsh erosion to historical wave climates at eight salt marsh locations affected by hurricanes in the United States. Based on the analysis of two decades of data, we find that violent storms and hurricanes contribute less than 1% to long-term salt marsh erosion rates. In contrast, moderate storms with a return period of 2.5 mo are those causing the most salt marsh deterioration. Therefore, salt marshes seem more susceptible to variations in mean wave energy rather than changes in the extremes. The intrinsic resistance of salt marshes to violent storms and their predictable erosion rates during moderate events should be taken into account by coastal managers in restoration projects and risk management plans.

  12. How Do Changes to the Railroad Causeway in Utah's Great Salt Lake Affect Water and Salt Flow?: e0144111

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James S White; Sarah E Null; David G Tarboton

    2015-01-01

      Managing terminal lake elevation and salinity are emerging problems worldwide. We contribute to terminal lake management research by quantitatively assessing water and salt flow for Utah's Great Salt Lake...

  13. Salt movements and faulting of the overburden - can numerical modeling predict the fault patterns above salt structures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Egholm, D.L.; Wesenberg, Rasmus

    the rheology of the deforming overburden, the mechanical coupling between the overburden and the underlying salt, as well as the kinematics of the moving salt structure. In this presentation, we demonstrate how the horizontal component on the salt motion influences the fracture patterns within the overburden....... The modeling shows that purely vertical movement of the salt introduces a mesh of concentric normal faults in the overburden, and that the frequency of radiating faults increases with the amount of lateral movements across the salt-overburden interface. The two end-member fault patterns (concentric vs....... radiating) can thus be linked to two different styles of salt movement: i) the vertical rising of a salt indenter and ii) the inflation of a ‘salt-balloon’ beneath the deformed strata. The results are in accordance with published analogue and theoretical models, as well as natural systems, and the model may...

  14. On the salt-induced activation of lyophilized enzymes in organic solvents: Effect of salt kosmotropicity on enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru, M.T.; Hirokane, S.Y.; Lo, A.S.; Dordick, J.S.; Reimer, J.A.; Clark, D.S.

    2000-03-01

    The dramatic activation of enzymes in nonaqueous media upon co-lyophilization with simple inorganic salts has been investigated as a function of the Jones-Dole B coefficient, a thermodynamic parameter for characterizing the salt's affinity for water and its chaotropic (water-structure breaking) or kosmotropic (water-structure making) character. In general, the water content, active-site content, and transesterification activity of freeze-dried subtilisin Carlsberg preparations containing >96% w/w salt increased with increasing kosmotropicity of the activating salt. Degrees of activation relative to the salt-free enzyme ranged from 33-fold for chaotropic sodium iodide to 2,480-fold for kosmotropic sodium acetate. Exceptions to the general trend can be explained by the mechanical properties and freezing characteristics of the salts undergoing lyophilization. The profound activating effect can thus be attributed in part to the stabilizing (salting-out) effect of kosmotropic salts and the phenomenon of preferential hydration.

  15. Atmospheric deposition 2000. NOVA 2003; Atmosfaerisk deposition 2000. NOVA 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellermann, T.; Hertel, O.; Hovmand, M.F.; Kemp, K.; Skjoeth, C.A.

    2001-11-01

    This report presents measurements and calculations from the atmospheric part of NOVA 2003 and covers results for 2000. It summarises the main results concerning concentrations and depositions of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur compounds related to eutrophication and acidification. Depositions of atmospheric compounds to Danish marine waters as well as land surface are presented. Measurements: In 2000 the monitoring program consisted of eight stations where wet deposition of ammonium, nitrate, phosphate (semi quantitatively) and sulphate were measured using bulk precipitation samplers. Six of the stations had in addition measurements of atmospheric content of A, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulphur compounds in gas and particulate phase carried out by use of filter pack samplers. Filters were analysed at the National Environmental Research Institute. Furthermore nitrogen dioxide were measured using nitrogen dioxide filter samplers and monitors. Model calculations: The measurements in the monitoring program were supplemented with model calculations of concentrations and depositions of nitrogen and sulphur compounds to Danish land surface, marine waters, fjords and bays using the ACDEP model (Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition). The model is a so-called trajectory model and simulates the physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere using meteorological and emission data as input. The advantage of combining measurements with model calculations is that the strengths of both methods is obtained. Conclusions concerning: 1) actual concentration levels at the monitoring stations, 2) deposition at the monitoring stations, 3) seasonal variations and 4) long term trends in concentrations and depositions are mainly based on the direct measurements. These are furthermore used to validate the results of the model calculations. Calculations and conclusions concerning: 1) depositions to land surface and to the individual marine water, 2) contributions from different emission

  16. DIMENSION STONE DEPOSITS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Crnković

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The geology, petrographycal composition and properties of dimension stone deposits in Croatia are described. Dimension stone deposits in the conception of mobilistic view of the genesis and structure of Dinarides, as well as after stratigraphic units, are considered. Valuation of the dimension stones of the active quarries is exposed. The marketable categories of dimension stone in Croatia are different varietes of limestones and calcareous clastites, primarly of Cretaceous age, and to lesser degree of Jurassic and Paleogene. The greatest part of deposits is concentrated in the Adriatic carbonate platform or Adriaticum.

  17. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark Raymond [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 μm were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the

  18. Molten-salt reactor program. Semiannual progress report for period ending February 29, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, L.E.

    1976-08-01

    Separate abstracts and indexing were prepared for sections dealing with MSBR design and development; chemistry of fuel-salt and coolant-salt systems and analytical methods; materials development; fuel processing for molten-salt reactors; and salt production. (DG)

  19. Characterization of white and black deposits on the surface of Korean stone cultural heritages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Chan Hee; Kim, Ran Hee; Shin, Eun Jeong

    2013-08-01

    White and black deposits have been frequently observed on the surface of Korean stone cultural heritages, and they are considered as damage factors in both conservation and esthetic points of view. In order to set up the appropriate conservation remedy, it is important to know their origins, characteristics, and compositions. In this study, optical and scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray diffractometer were employed to determine the white and black deposits. It was found that both deposits consisted mainly of calcium carbonate (calcite) and calcium sulfate (gypsum). The calcite and gypsum were characterized by bladed, rhombohedral, tabular, and amorphous morphologies under a SEM. The black deposit was not only composed of calcite or gypsum, but also accompanied amorphous and irregular matrix. SEM-EDS analysis revealed an abundance of silicon, aluminum, iron, phosphorus, and carbon on the matrix, which were major elements of soil, atmospheric deposits, and organisms. The white deposit, on the other hand, barely contained those coloring substances. These salts and deposited substances were caused by chemical reaction and physical adhesion between rock-forming minerals, lime mortar, sulfur in polluted air environment, soil dust, and microorganisms.

  20. Salt disposition alternatives filtration at SRTC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B. W.; Hobbs, D.

    2000-01-27

    Several of the prospective salt disposition alternative technologies require a monosodium titanate (MST) contact to remove strontium and actinides from inorganic salt solution feedstock. This feedstock also contains sludge solids from waste removal operations and may contain defoamers added in the evaporator systems. Filtration is required to remove the sludge and MST solids before sending the salt solution for further processing. This report describes testing performed using the Parallel Theological Experimental Filter (PREF). The PREF contains two single tube Mott sintered metal crossflow filters. For this test one filter was isolated so that the maximum velocities could be achieved. Previous studies showed slurries of MST and sludge in the presence of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) were filterable since the NaTPB slurry formed a filter cake which aided in removing the smaller MST and sludge particles. Some of the salt disposition alternative technologies do not use NaTPB raising the question of how effective crossflow filtration is with a feed stream containing only sludge and MST. Variables investigated included axial velocity, transmembrane pressure, defoamer effects, and solids concentration (MST and sludge). Details of the tests are outlined in the technical report WSRC-RP-98-O0691. Key conclusions from this study are: (1) Severe fouling of the Mott sintered metal filter did not occur with any of the solutions filtered. (2) The highest fluxes, in the range of .46 to 1.02 gpm/f{sup 2}, were obtained when salt solution decanted from settled solids was fed to the filter. These fluxes would achieve 92 to 204 gpm filtrate production for the current ITP filters. The filtrate fluxes were close to the flux of 0.42 gpm/f{sup 2} reported for In Tank Precipitation Salt Solution by Morrisey. (3) For the range of solids loading studied, the filter flux ranged from .04 to .17 gpm/f{sup 2} which would result in a filtrate production rate of 9 to 31 gpm for the current HP

  1. Effects of dietary salt restriction on puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chor Ho Jo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary salt restriction may reduce proteinuria although the mechanism is not clear. We investigated the effects of dietary salt restriction on rat kidneys in an animal model of glomerular proteinuria. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: vehicle-treated normal-salt controls, puromycin aminonucleoside (PA-treated normal-salt rats, and PA-treated low-salt rats. PA was given at a dose of 150 mg/kg BW at time 0, followed by 50 mg/kg BW on days 28, 35, and 42. Sodium-deficient rodent diet with and without additional NaCl (0.5% were provided for normal-salt rats and low-salt rats, respectively. On day 63, kidneys were harvested for histopathologic examination. PA treatment produced overt proteinuria and renal damage. Dietary salt restriction insignificantly reduced proteinuria in PA-treated rats, and PA-treated low-salt rats had lower urine output and smaller creatinine clearance than vehicle-treated normal-salt controls. The tubulointerstitial injury score positively correlated with proteinuria. It was significantly increased by PA treatment and relieved by low-salt diet. ED1-positive infiltrating cells and immunostaining for interstitial collagen III were significantly increased by PA treatment. These changes appeared less in PA-treated low-salt rats although the differences in PA-treated normal-salt versus low-salt rats did not reach the statistical significance. Our results suggest that renal histopathology in PA nephrosis may potentially be improved by dietary salt restriction. The decreasing tendency in glomerular filtration rate induced by low-sodium diet might be beneficial in retarding renal progression.

  2. Salt content impacts food preferences and intake among children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Bouhlal

    Full Text Available Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-subject crossover design, we recruited 75 children (8-11 years to participate in five lunches in their school cafeteria. The target foods were green beans and pasta. The added salt content was 0, 0.6 or 1.2 g/100 g. The children's intake (g of all lunch items was measured. The children provided their hedonic rating of the food, a preference ranking and a saltiness ranking in the laboratory. Children could rank the foods according to salt content, and they preferred the two saltier options. A food-specific effect of salt content on intake was observed. Compared to the intermediate level (0.6 g salt/100 g, not adding salt decreased green bean intake (-21%; p = 0.002, and increasing the salt content increased pasta intake (+24%; p<0.0001. Structural Equation Modeling was used to model the relative weights of the determinants of intake. It showed that the primary driver of food intake was the child's hunger; the second most important factor was the child's hedonic rating of the food, regardless of its salt content, and the last factor was the child's preference for the particular salt content of the food. In conclusion, salt content has a positive and food-specific effect on intake; it impacted food preferences and intake differently in children. Taking into account children's preferences for salt instead of their intake may lead to excessive added salt.

  3. Effect of Salt Intake on Serum Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Levels in Normotensive Salt-Sensitive Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ling Zheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Excess dietary salt is a critical risk factor of salt-sensitive hypertension. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 , a gut incretin hormone, conferring benefits for blood pressure by natriuresis and diuresis. We implemented a randomized trial to verify the effect of altered salt intake on serum GLP-1 level in human beings. Methods: The 38 subjects were recruited from a rural community of Northern China. All subjects were sequentially maintained a baseline diet period for 3 days, a low-salt diet period for 7 days (3.0g/day of NaCl , and a high-salt diet period for additional 7 days (18.0g/day of NaCl. Results: Serum GLP-1 level increased significantly with the change from the baseline period to the low-salt diet period and decreased with the change from the low-salt to high-salt diet in normotensive salt-sensitive (SS but not salt-resistant (SR individuals. There was a significant inverse correlation between the serum GLP-1 level and the MAP in SS subjects. Inverse correlation between the serum GLP-1 level and 24-h urinary sodium excretion was also found among different dietary interventions in SS subjects. Conclusions: Our study indicates that variations in dietary salt intake affect the serum GLP-1 level in normotensive salt-sensitive Chinese adults.

  4. Unique inhibition of bile salt-induced apoptosis by lecithins and cytoprotective bile salts in immortalized mouse cholangiocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komichi, Daisuke; Tazuma, Susumu; Nishioka, Tomoji; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Une, Mizuho; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2003-12-01

    Bile duct epithelium is physiologically exposed to high concentrations of bile salts, suggesting the presence of a cytoprotective mechanism(s). The aim of this study was to clarify whether bile salts cause bile duct cell damage and to elucidate the mechanism(s) providing protection against such an action of bile salts. Immortalized mouse cholangiocytes were incubated with taurocholate, taurochenodeoxycholate, glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC), taurodeoxycholate, and tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC), followed by flow-cytometric analysis and caspase activity assay to evaluate the induction of apoptosis. GCDC time-dependently induced caspase 3 (3.4-fold)- and caspase 9 (1.4-fold)-mediated apoptosis of cholangiocytes, but this was inhibited by lecithins and TUDC. Further, expression of cholangiocyte bile salt transporters (apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter [Asbt] and multidrug resistance protein 3 [Mrp3]) was examined by RT-PCR and western blotting, and cholangiocyte bile salt uptake was determined using radiolabeled bile salts. Expression of cholangiocyte Asbt and Mrp3 was increased by bile salts, whereas lecithins interestingly reduced bile salt uptake to inhibit cholangiocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, bile salts themselves cause cholangiocyte apoptosis when absorbed by and retained inside the cell, but this is inhibited by washing out cytotoxic bile salts according to Mrp3, a rescue exporting molecule. Biliary lecithin is seemingly another cytoprotective player against cytotoxic bile salts, reducing their uptake, and this is associated with a reduced expression of Mrp3.

  5. Atomic layer deposition for semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume discusses atomic layer deposition (ALD) for all modern semiconductor devices, moving from the basic chemistry of ALD and modeling of ALD processes to sections on ALD for memories, logic devices, and machines.

  6. Hereditary iron and copper deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Flaten, Trond Peder; Andersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary deposition of iron (primary haemochromatosis) or copper (Wilson's disease) are autosomal recessive metabolic disease characterized by progressive liver pathology and subsequent involvement of various other organs. The prevalence of primary haemochromatosis is approximately 0.5%, about...

  7. Salt split technique: A useful tool in the diagnosis of subepidermal bullous disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Abhishek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Direct immunofluorescence (DIF is the gold standard in the diagnosis of immunobullous diseases. However, it cannot reliably differentiate various subtypes of subepidermal immune- bullous diseases (SIBD. Salt split technique (SST could be used under such circumstances to differentiate them. There is paucity of reports in the Indian literature regarding the SST. Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the utility of direct SST in subepidermal blistering diseases. Materials and Methods: Fourteen clinically diagnosed cases of subepidermal blistering diseases were included in the study. Two perilesional punch biopsies were taken one each for DIF and salt split study. Results: Linear basement membrane zone band with IgG and/or C 3 was seen in 14 cases of patients BP. Salt split study showed epidermal or mixed pattern of deposits in 12 patients and exclusive floor pattern in two patients. The diagnosis was revised in these two patients to epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. Conclusion: SST is a simple, inexpensive procedure and should be routinely employed in the diagnosis of subepidermal bullous diseases.

  8. Assessment of the Neutronic and Fuel Cycle Performance of the Transatomic Power Molten Salt Reactor Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Sean [Transatomic Power Corp., Cambridge, MA (United States); Dewan, Leslie [Transatomic Power Corp., Cambridge, MA (United States); Massie, Mark [Transatomic Power Corp., Cambridge, MA (United States); Davidson, Eva E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report presents results from a collaboration between Transatomic Power Corporation (TAP) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide neutronic and fuel cycle analysis of the TAP core design through the Department of Energy Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear (GAIN) Nuclear Energy Voucher program. The TAP concept is a molten salt reactor using configurable zirconium hydride moderator rod assemblies to shift the neutron spectrum in the core from mostly epithermal at beginning of life to thermal at end of life. Additional developments in the ChemTriton modeling and simulation tool provide the critical moderator-to-fuel ratio searches and time-dependent parameters necessary to simulate the continuously changing physics in this complex system. The implementation of continuous-energy Monte Carlo transport and depletion tools in ChemTriton provide for full-core three-dimensional modeling and simulation. Results from simulations with these tools show agreement with TAP-calculated performance metrics for core lifetime, discharge burnup, and salt volume fraction, verifying the viability of reducing actinide waste production with this concept. Additional analyses of mass feed rates and enrichments, isotopic removals, tritium generation, core power distribution, core vessel helium generation, moderator rod heat deposition, and reactivity coeffcients provide additional information to make informed design decisions. This work demonstrates capabilities of ORNL modeling and simulation tools for neutronic and fuel cycle analysis of molten salt reactor concepts.

  9. Relative susceptibility of titanium alloys to hot-salt stress-corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, H. R.

    1971-01-01

    Susceptibility of titanium alloys to hot-salt stress-corrosion cracking increased as follows: Ti-2Al-11Sn-5Zr-0.2Si(679), Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo(6242), Ti-6Al-4V(64), Ti-6Al-4V-3Co(643), Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V(811), and Ti-13V-11Cr-3A1(13-11-3). The Ti-5Al-6Sn-2Zr-1Mo-0.25Si(5621S) alloy was both the least and most susceptible depending on heat treatment. Such rankings can be drastically altered by heat-to-heat and processing variations. Residual compressive stresses and cyclic exposures also reduce susceptibility to stress-corrosion. Simulated turbine-engine compressor environmental variables such as air velocity, pressure, dewpoint, salt concentration, and salt deposition temperature have only minor effects. Detection of substantial concentrations of hydrogen in all corroded alloys confirmed the existence of a hydrogen embrittlement mechanism.

  10. Analytical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Results for Debris Recovered from Nitrate Salt Waste Drum S855793

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Patrick Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chamberlin, Rebecca M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worley, Christopher Gordon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garduno, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lujan, Elmer J. W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Borrego, Andres Patricio [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Castro, Alonso [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Colletti, Lisa Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fulwyler, James Brent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Holland, Charlotte S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Keller, Russell C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Klundt, Dylan James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martin, Frances Louise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Montoya, Dennis Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Porterfield, Donivan R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schake, Ann Rene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schappert, Michael Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Soderberg, Constance B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Spencer, Khalil J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stanley, Floyd E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Thomas, Mariam R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Townsend, Lisa Ellen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Xu, Ning [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-16

    Solid debris was recovered from the previously-emptied nitrate salt waste drum S855793. The bulk sample was nondestructively assayed for radionuclides in its as-received condition. Three monoliths were selected for further characterization. Two of the monoliths, designated Specimen 1 and 3, consisted primarily of sodium nitrate and lead nitrate, with smaller amounts of lead nitrate oxalate and lead oxide by powder x-ray diffraction. The third monolith, Specimen 2, had a complex composition; lead carbonate was identified as the predominant component, and smaller amounts of nitrate, nitrite and carbonate salts of lead, magnesium and sodium were also identified. Microfocused x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) mapping showed that lead was ubiquitous throughout the cross-sections of Specimens 1 and 2, while heteroelements such as potassium, calcium, chromium, iron, and nickel were found in localized deposits. MXRF examination and destructive analysis of fragments of Specimen 3 showed elevated concentrations of iron, which were broadly distributed through the sample. With the exception of its high iron content and low carbon content, the chemical composition of Specimen 3 was within the ranges of values previously observed in four other nitrate salt samples recovered from emptied waste drums.

  11. Electrospark deposition for die repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tušek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrospark deposition is a process for surfacing of hard metal alloys, e.g. carbides and stellites, on the surfaces of new or old machine elements. In this process, a high current is conducted through an oscillating electrode and a substrate for a very short period of time. In the paper, the process is described and the thickness of deposited layer, chemical composition, dilution rate and the layer roughness are determined.

  12. The food safety impact of salt and sodium reduction initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Deborah; Wallace, Carol A

    2014-07-01

    Excessive or high salt or sodium intake is known to cause hypertension and other diseases. Within the United Kingdom voluntary targets for salt reduction have been set and laid out in the Secretary of State responsibility deal. This review considers the options available to food manufacturers to enable them to reduce salt and the potential food safety risks associated with those options. Gaps in research and knowledge within the areas of information supplied to food manufacturers, alternative solutions for salt replacement and the food safety impact of salt reduction are discussed.

  13. Impact of Light Salt Substitution for Regular Salt on Blood Pressure of Hypertensive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lôbo de Almeida Barros

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown sodium restriction to have a beneficial effect on blood pressure (BP of hypertensive patients. Objective: To evaluate the impact of light salt substitution for regular salt on BP of hypertensive patients. Methods: Uncontrolled hypertensive patients of both sexes, 20 to 65 years-old, on stable doses of antihypertensive drugs were randomized into Intervention Group (IG - receiving light salt and Control Group (CG - receiving regular salt. Systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP were analyzed by using casual BP measurements and Home Blood Pressure Monitoring (HBPM, and sodium and potassium excretion was assessed on 24-hour urine samples. The patients received 3 g of salt for daily consumption for 4 weeks. Results: The study evaluated 35 patients (65.7% women, 19 allocated to the IG and 16 to the CG. The mean age was 55.5 ± 7.4 years. Most participants had completed the Brazilian middle school (up to the 8th grade; n = 28; 80.0%, had a family income of up to US$ 600 (n = 17; 48.6% and practiced regular physical activity (n = 19; 54.3%. Two patients (5.7% were smokers and 40.0% consumed alcohol regularly (n = 14. The IG showed a significant reduction in both SBP and DBP on the casual measurements and HBPM (p < 0.05 and in sodium excretion (p = 0.016. The CG showed a significant reduction only in casual SBP (p = 0.032. Conclusions: The light salt substitution for regular salt significantly reduced BP of hypertensive patients.

  14. Legal Deposit of Electronic Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Umut Zan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important and basic role of the deposition studies, which are the greatest contributions to the knowledge sharing, is to gather the artistic and philosophical works of a country and provide them for the use of future researchers. However, since early deposition studies were limited with printed publications, they do not involve the electronic publication types appearing with the development of information technology. This stems from the fact that the electronic publications require procedures different from those of the printed publications in terms of deposition steps because of their structures. Today, in order to guarantee that all registered cultural products, which are mostly produced and used in the electronic environment could be fully collected, electronic publications should also be covered by and regulated under legal deposit. This study analyzes the deposition of electronic publications, within the framework of their storage and protection, being put in the use of the users as well as the common approaches to deposition practices in the world parallel to the developments in the information technology. The related situation in Turkey was also evaluated.

  15. A Radon Progeny Deposition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiseppe, V. E.; Elliott, S. R.; Hime, A.; Rielage, K.; Westerdale, S.

    2011-04-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly 222Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of 210Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

  16. Comparison of molten chloride and fluoride salts potentialities for An/Ln separation by electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplace, A.; Peron, F.; Marrot, F.; Lacquement, J. [DRCP/SCPS/LPP - CEA/CEN Valrho - BP 17171 - 30207 Bagnols/Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this paper is the comparison of molten fluoride and chloride salts potentialities for Am/Nd separation by electrodeposition on inert cathode, on a purely thermodynamic point of view. The molten LiF-CaF{sub 2} eutectic (77-23 mol.%, at 780 deg. C) was considered for this study. Cyclic voltammetry showed a one step Am(III)/Am reduction at a potential of {approx_equal}+0.5 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li. A potential difference of 290 mV between Am and Nd metallic deposition was estimated by square-wave voltammetry. This Am/Nd potential difference is more important than in molten chlorides (220 mV in the LiCl-KCl eutectic at 500 deg. C). Moreover in molten fluoride salt, the americium and neodymium (+II) oxidation state is not stable contrary to the molten chloride one where corrosion of deposited Am would be potential. However this larger potential difference in molten fluorides is quite balanced by the higher working temperature. (authors)

  17. Self-assembling of calcium salt of the new DNA base 5-carboxylcytosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrera, Simona [Department of Chemistry, SAPIENZA University of Rome, Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Grodon Street, WC1H0AJ London (United Kingdom); Ruiz-Hernandez, Sergio E. [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University Main Building, Park Place, CF103AT Cardiff (United Kingdom); Reggente, Melania [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering, SAPIENZA University of Rome, Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Rome (Italy); Passeri, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.passeri@uniroma1.it [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering, SAPIENZA University of Rome, Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Rome (Italy); Natali, Marco [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering, SAPIENZA University of Rome, Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Rome (Italy); Gala, Fabrizio [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering, SAPIENZA University of Rome, Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Rome (Italy); Department of Medical-Surgical, Techno-Biomedical Sciences and Translational Medicine of SAPIENZA University of Rome, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Zollo, Giuseppe [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering, SAPIENZA University of Rome, Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Rome (Italy); Rossi, Marco [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering, SAPIENZA University of Rome, Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Rome (Italy); Research Center for Nanotechnology applied to Engineering of SAPIENZA University of Rome (CNIS), Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Portalone, Gustavo, E-mail: gustavo.portalone@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, SAPIENZA University of Rome, Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Ca salt of 5-carboxylcytosine has been deposited on HOPG substrate. • Molecules self-assembled in monolayers and filaments. • Height of the features were measured by atomic force microscopy. • Ab-initio calculations confirmed the AFM results. - Abstract: Supramolecular architectures involving DNA bases can have a strong impact in several fields such as nanomedicine and nanodevice manufacturing. To date, in addition to the four canonical nucleobases (adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine), four other forms of cytosine modified at the 5 position have been identified in DNA. Among these four new cytosine derivatives, 5-carboxylcytosine has been recently discovered in mammalian stem cell DNA, and proposed as the final product of the oxidative epigenetic demethylation pathway on the 5 position of cytosine. In this work, a calcium salt of 5-carboxylcytosine has been synthesized and deposited on graphite surface, where it forms self-assembled features as long range monolayers and up to one micron long filaments. These structures have been analyzed in details combining different theoretical and experimental approaches: X-ray single-crystal diffraction data were used to simulate the molecule-graphite interaction, first using molecular dynamics and then refining the results using density functional theory (DFT); finally, data obtained with DFT were used to rationalize atomic force microscopy (AFM) results.

  18. Virus-host interactions in salt lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kate; Russ, Brendan E; Dyall-Smith, Michael L

    2007-08-01

    Natural hypersaline waters are widely distributed around the globe, as both continental surface waters and sea floor lakes, the latter being maintained by the large density difference between the hypersaline and overlying marine water. Owing to the extreme salt concentrations, close to or at saturation (approximately 35%, w/v), such waters might be expected to be devoid of life but, in fact, maintain dense populations of microbes. The majority of these microorganisms are halophilic prokaryotes belonging to the Domain Archaea, 'haloarchaea'. Viruses infecting haloarchaea are a vital part of hypersaline ecosystems, in many circumstances outnumbering cells by 10-100-fold. However, few of these 'haloviruses' have been isolated and even fewer have been characterised in molecular detail. In this review, we explore the methods used by haloviruses to replicate within their hosts and consider the implications of haloviral-haloarchaeal interactions for salt lake ecology.

  19. SALT in South Africa: needs and parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid H. van der Vyver

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights some of the most pressing educational and language communication needs in the Republic of South Africa and emphasizes the urgency for accelerated programmes for teaching and learning. It further outlines and explains specific initiatives that have been started with in response to the needs described and it suggests an approach for the possible wider application of SALT in South Africa. Hierdie artikel belig 'n aantal van die dringendste opvoedkundige en kommunikatiewe behoeftes in die Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Die noodsaaklikheid van versnellingsprogramme vir die onderwys word beklemtoon. Verder omlyn en verduidelik dit spesifieke inisiatiewe waarmee begin is as antwoord op die bestaande behoeftes. Ten slotte word gesuggereer dat SALT in Suid-Afrika nog veel verder uitgebrei kan word.

  20. Supramolecular assembly in the epiisopiloturine hydrochloride salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafud, Ana Carolina; Reinheimer, Eric W.; Lima, Filipe Camargo Dalmatti Alves; Batista, Larissa Fernandes; de Paula, Karina; Véras, Leiz Maria Costa; de Souza de Almeida Leite, José Roberto; Venancio, Tiago; Mascarenhas, Yvonne Primerano

    2017-05-01

    Epiisopiloturine hydrochloride (Epi-HCl) salt was synthetized from epiisopiloturine, an in vivo anthelmintic compound against Schistosoma mansoni worms. Despite there being no acute toxicity in mammalian cells, the compound's water insolubility makes its administration difficult. In this communication, we report the characterization of Epi-HCl its features by spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and PXRD. The single crystals suitable to X-ray diffraction were grown by slow evaporation technique. To better understand the nature of Epi-HCl' solid state, SS-NMR was also used. The salt's intramolecular structure was maintained via cation-pi intramolecular interactions, which in conjunction with hydrogen bonding, gives rise to an extended supramolecular assembly. The interatomic distances within the cations and environment around the chloride anion vary as function of temperature, suggesting a packing relaxation.