WorldWideScience

Sample records for salt affected regions

  1. Phenotypic and genetic diversity in Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae from drought and salt affected regions of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udupa Sripada M

    2010-01-01

    . meliloti and S. medicae populations from marginal soils affected by salt and drought, in arid and semi-arid regions of Morocco. Some of the tolerant strains have a potential for exploitation in salt and drought affected areas for biological nitrogen fixation in alfalfa.

  2. Salt-affected soils of the Barguzin Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernousenko, G. I.; Pankova, E. I.; Kalinina, N. V.; Ubugunova, V. I.; Rukhovich, D. I.; Ubugunov, V. L.; Tsyrempilov, E. G.

    2017-06-01

    Factual materials on salt-affected soils in the Barguzin Depression (Buryat Republic) are generalized. A geomorphic map of the depression has been developed. The distribution of salt-affected soils and the specificity of salinization in different geomorphic regions are characterized. These soils tend to be developed within the low lacustrine-alluvial plain of the depression, on the floodplain of the Barguzin River and its tributaries. Smaller areas of salt-affected soils are found on the river terraces. They are virtually absent on ancient sandy ridged terraces (kuituns). The genesis and chemistry of soil salinization are mainly related to the discharge of slightly saline deep water along tectonic faults and fissures. An additional source of soil salinity is represented by surface water flows. The presence of permafrost preventing the leaching of salts and the cryoarid climate favoring the migration of salts toward the soil surface during the dry spring and early summer periods and during the soil freezing in the winter contribute to the soil salinization. Slightly saline hydromorphic solonchakous soils predominate among salt-affected soils of the depression; the portion of semihydromorphic saline soils is smaller. Automorphic saline soils rarely occur in the depression. Strongly saline soils— solonchaks—are widespread within lacustrine depressions around salt lakes. Soils of the soda and sulfate salinization predominate. The content of chlorides is small; their increased amounts, as well as the presence of sulfates, are indicative of the discharge of dee ground water onto the surface. The soda type of salinization is also related to the discharge of deep stratal water with further transformation of salt solutions during freeze-thaw cycles. Under anaerobic conditions, the formation of soda is favored the processes of sulfate reduction.

  3. Salt stress affects the redox status of Arabidopsis root meristems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keni eJiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the redox status (profiles for specific populations of cells that comprise the Arabidopsis root tip. For recently germinated, 3-5-day-old seedlings we show that the region of the root tip with the most reduced redox status includes the root cap initials, the quiescent center and the most distal portion of the proximal meristem, and coincides with (overlays the region of the auxin maximum. As one moves basally, further into the proximal meristem, and depending on the growth conditions, the redox status becomes more oxidized, with a 5-10 mV difference in redox potential between the two borders delimiting the proximal meristem. At the point on the root axis at which cells of the proximal meristem cease division and enter the transition zone, the redox potential levels off and remains more or less unchanged throughout the transition zone. As cells leave the transition zone and enter the zone of elongation the redox potentials become more oxidized. Treating roots with salt (50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl results in marked changes in root meristem structure and development, and is preceded by changes in the redox profile, which flattens, and initially becomes more oxidized, with pronounced changes in the redox potentials of the root cap, the root cap initials and the quiescent center. Roots exposed to relatively mild levels of salt (< 100 mM are able to re-establish a normal, pre-salt treatment redox profile 3-6 days after exposure to salt. Coincident with the salt-associated changes in redox profiles are changes in the distribution of auxin transporters (AUX1, PIN1/2, which become more diffuse in their localization. We conclude that salt stress affects root meristem maintenance, in part, through changes in redox and auxin transport.

  4. Salt Affected Soils Evaluation and Reclamative Approaches for Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, a field experiment was conducted on salt (saline) affected soils during the cropping seasons of 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 to evaluate the soil properties, determine their effects on two test crop performances, and its reclaim ability under three different approaches. Reclamative approaches were employed not ...

  5. Restoration of Degraded Salt Affected Lands to Productive Forest Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yash; Singh, Gurbachan; Singh, Bajrang; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soil system determines the fluxes of energy and matter in the Earth and is the source of goods, services and resources to the humankind (Keesstra et al., 2012; Brevik et al., 2015; Keesstra et al., 2016). To restore and rehabilitate the soil system is a key strategy to recover the services the soils offers (Celentano et al., 2016; Galati et al., 2016; Parras-Alcantara et al., 2016). Transformation of degraded sodic lands in biodiversity rich productive forest ecosystem is a challenging task before the researchers all over the world. The soils of the degraded sites remain almost unfavorable for the normal growth, development and multiplication of organisms; all our attempts tend to alleviate the soil constraints. Land degradation due to presence of salts in the soil is an alarming threat to agricultural productivity and sustainability, particularly in arid and semiarid regions of the world (Tanji, 1990; Qadir et al., 2006). According to the FAO Land and Nutrition Management Service (2008), over 6% of the world's lands are affected by salinity, which accounts for more than 800 million ha in 100 countries. This is due to natural causes, extensive utilization of land (Egamberdieva et al., 2008), poor drainage systems and limited availability of irrigation water which causes salinization in many irrigated soils (Town et al., 2008).In India, about 6.73 million ha are salt affected which spread in 194 districts out of 584 districts in India and represents 2.1% of the geographical area of the country (Mandal et al., 2009).Out of these, 2.8 million ha are sodic in nature and primarily occurring in the Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains. These lands are degraded in structural, chemical, nutritional, hydrological and microbiological characteristics. The reclamation of salt affected soils with chemical amendments like gypsum and phospho-gypsum are in practice for the cultivation field crops under agricultural production. Forest development on such lands although takes considerable

  6. High Salt Diet Affects Renal Sodium Excretion and ERRα Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Kidneys regulate the balance of water and sodium and therefore are related to blood pressure. It is unclear whether estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), an orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor highly expressed in kidneys, affects the reabsorption of water and sodium. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the expressions of ERRα, Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins affected the reabsorption of water and sodium in kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. SS.13BN rats, 98% homologous to the DS rats, were used as a normotensive control group. The 24 h urinary sodium excretion of the DS and SS.13BN rats increased after the 6-week high salt diet intervention, while sodium excretion was increased in DS rats with daidzein (agonist of ERRα) treatment. ERRα expression was decreased, while β- and γ-ENaC mRNA expressions were increased upon high sodium diet treatment in the DS rats. In the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay, positive PCR signals were obtained in samples treated with anti-ERRα antibody. The transcriptional activity of ERRα was decreased upon high salt diet intervention. ERRα reduced the expressions of β- and γ-ENaC by binding to the ENaC promoter, thereby increased Na+ reabsorption. Therefore, ERRα might be one of the factors causing salt-sensitive hypertension.

  7. Trifolium isthmocarpum Brot, a salt-tolerant wild leguminous forage crop in salt-affected soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawtar Bennani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant scientists are investigating the potential of previously unexploited legume species where environmental and biological stresses constrain the use of more conventional forage crops or where these species are better suited to the needs of sustainable agriculture. Trifolium isthmocarpum Brot., Moroccan clover, occurs as a weed in different habitats in Morocco. It grows in moderately saline areas, where traditional forage legumes cannot be cultivated; however, it has not been widely studied despite its good palatability. The salt tolerance was studied between natural field conditions and glasshouse. The extensive field studies have recorded the species in many different habitats ranging from healthy agricultural lands to abandoned saline areas. The plants maintained high nodulation capacity (ranging between 60% and 97% and nitrogenase activities (average 2.04 µmol C2H4 plant-1 h-1 in different habitats. Shoot systems of plants collected from salt-affected soils exhibited higher concentrations of Na+ and Cl- than those collected from healthy soils. Greenhouse experiments showed that germination percentage and vigor value of the studied species was not significantly (P > 0.05 affected at 160 mM NaCl, and that 25% of the germination ability was maintained when growing on substrats containing 240 mM NaCl. The growth rate of seedlings was not signicantly affected by 160 mM NaCl but was reduced by 38% under 240 mM NaCl. Leaf succulence and indices of leaf water status did not differ among the salt treatments, whereas relative water content was reduced by only 8% and water content at saturation increased by about 12% at high salt concentrations in the growing medium. This study suggest recommending the cultivation of T. isthmocarpum in salt-affected soils, which are widespread and pose a problem for the farmers of Morocco and other countries in the world’s arid belt.

  8. Effectiveness of Organic Wastes as Fertilizers and Amendments in Salt-Affected Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Diacono

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Excessive salt rate can adversely influence the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils, mainly in arid and semi-arid world regions. Therefore, salt-affected soils must be reclaimed to maintain satisfactory fertility levels for increasing food production. Different approaches have been suggested to solve these issues. This short review focuses on selected studies that have identified organic materials (e.g., farmyard manures, different agro-industrial by-products, and composts as effective tools to improve different soil properties (e.g., structural stability and permeability in salt-affected soils. Organic fertilization is highly sustainable when compared to other options to date when taken into consideration as a solution to the highlighted issues. However, further experimental investigations are needed to validate this approach in a wider range of both saline and sodic soils, also combining waste recycling with other sustainable agronomic practices (crop rotations, cover crops use, etc..

  9. Designing viable cropping options for salt-affected lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, Sergey; Meinke, Holger

    2017-04-01

    Salinity cost agricultural sector over 27Bln pa in lost opportunities and is an issue that crosses all spatial and temporal scales - from individual fields, farms, catchments, landscapes to national and global levels. Salinity manifests itself in many forms and often leads to further soil degradation such as erosion, nutrient and soil organic matter depletion, and a loss of (soil) biodiversity. Salinity may also cause major disturbance to ecosystems due to its impact on resources (e.g. pollution of aquifers). In extreme cases it can turn previously highly productive areas into wastelands. An increasing global population and unprecedented urban sprawls are now putting additional pressures on our soil and water resources, particularly in regions where urbanisation directly competes with agriculture for access to land and water. And although everyone agrees that avoiding soil salinity in the first instance would be the most effective way of combating it, reality is that the amount of saline land and water resources is rapidly increasing, and will continue to increase, especially in developing countries. Purposefully designing our cropping systems that can cope with various levels of salinity could be one answer to this increasing problem. In this work we review some of the key cropping options that can be deployed to either avoid, reduce or remediate salt-affected lands. We argue that for these measures to be most effective an ongoing science - policy - society dialogue is required to ensure that policy frameworks that govern land and water management are conducive to reducing salinity or even assist in restoring affected areas. We first consider several case studies highlighting the extent of the problem using ongoing salinity hotspots around the globe. We then look at halophytes as a possible biological tools to remediate already saline sols, and discuss prospects of mixed (halophytes and glycophytes) cropping solutions for various agricultural systems at different

  10. Response of broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L. genotypes from semiarid regions of China to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minxuan Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt tolerance of crops is becoming more and more important, owing to the constant increase of salinity in arid and semi-arid regions. Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L., generally considered tolerant to salinity, can be an alternative crop for salt affected areas. To assess genotypic variation for vegetative-stage salinity tolerance, 195 broomcorn millet accessions from a core collection were evaluated for germination percentage, shoot length, and root length during germination in 8 mL of deionized water (control or 8 mL of a 120 mmol L− 1 salt solution (treatment. Six genotypes with different levels of salt tolerance were selected based on the growth parameters and ion concentrations in plant at the seedling stage and used for confirmation of the initial salinity response. Substantial variation for salinity tolerance was found on the basis of salt damage index [(germination percentage under control − germination percentage under salinity / germination percentage under control × 100, SDI] and 39 accessions exhibited strong salt tolerance with SDI lower than 20%. The salt tolerance performance of the genotypes was generally consistent across experiments. In the seedling growth study, seedling number, root length and belowground biomass were adversely affected (showing more than 70%, 50%, and 32% reduction, respectively in sensitive genotypes compared to tolerant genotypes (35%, 31%, and 3% reduction, respectively under 160 mmol L− 1 NaCl treatment. In general, whole-plant salinity tolerance was associated with increased Na+ concentration and Na+/K+ ratio, and salt-tolerant genotypes often had higher root and lower shoot Na+ concentration than sensitive ones. Na+ concentration in root was closely related to salt tolerance and may be considered as a selection criterion for screening salt tolerance of broomcorn millet at the seedling or vegetative stages.

  11. Monitoring the Remediation of Salt-Affected Soils and Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, L. R.; Callaghan, M. V.; Cey, E. E.

    2008-12-01

    Salt-affected soil is one of the most common environmental issues facing the petroleum hydrocarbon industry. Large quantities of brines are often co-produced with gas and oil and have been introduced into the environment through, for example, flare pits, drilling operations and pipe line breaks. Salt must be flushed from the soil and tile drain systems can be used to collect salt water which is then be routed for disposal. A flushing experiment over a 2 m deep tile drain system is being monitored by arrays of tensiometers, repeated soil coring, direct push electrical conductivity profiles (PTC), electromagnetic surveys and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys. Water table elevation is monitored with pressure transducers. Thermocouple arrays provide temperature profiles that are used to adjust electrical conductivity data to standard temperature equivalents. A 20 m by 20 m plot was deep tilled and treated with soil amendments. Numerous infiltration tests were conducted inside and outside the plot area using both a tension infiltrometer and Guelph permeameter to establish changes in soil hydraulic properties and macroporosity as a result of deep tillage. The results show that till greatly diminished the shallow macroporosity and increased the matrix saturated hydraulic conductivity. A header system is used to evenly flood the plot with 10 m3 of water on each of three consecutive days for an approximate total of 7.5 cm of water. The flood event is being repeated four times over a period of 6 weeks. Baseline PTC and ERT surveys show that the salt is concentrated in the upper 2 to 3 m of soil. Tensiometer data show that the soil at 30 cm depth responds within 2 to 3 hours to flooding events once the soil is wetted and begins to dry again after one week. Soil suction at 1.5 m does not show immediate response to the daily flooding events, but is steadily decreasing in response to the flooding and rainfall events. An ERT survey in October will provide the first

  12. Salt loading affects cortisol metabolism in normotensive subjects : Relationships with salt sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, MN; van der Kleij, FGH; Boonstra, AH; Sluiter, WJ; Koerts, J; Navis, G; Dullaart, RPF

    We studied cortisol metabolism together with insulin sensitivity [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)] and renal hemodynamics in 19 salt-resistant (sr) and nine salt-sensitive ( ss) normotensive subjects after a low-and high-salt diet. Results are described as high- vs. low-salt diet. Sum of urinary

  13. The morphology of salt crystals affects the perception of saltiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilaqueo, Marcela; Duizer, Lisa; Aguilera, José Miguel

    2015-10-01

    High intake of salt (NaCl) has been associated with risk of non-communicable diseases, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Several strategies for reducing salt in foods are under study, including the relation of crystal morphology on dissolution properties of salt in the mouth. The aim of this paper was to study the dissolution of salt crystals with different morphologies in artificial saliva and to correlate the findings with the perception of saltiness over time. The morphology of five commercial salts was analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy and micro-CT studies. Shape parameters of crystals were determined using images from an optical microscope. Crystal dissolution in artificial saliva was evaluated using video-microscopy and the perception of saltiness was evaluated using sensorial test of time-intensity at standardized sodium content. Salt morphology was correlated well with dissolution rate and certain time-intensity parameters (time to maximum intensity, intensity at maximum and increase angle). Non-cubic and agglomerated crystals, such as Kosher and Maldon salts, were dissolved faster (dissolution rate up to 3.8 times higher) and experienced maximum saltiness (up to 17% more) at shorter times (up to 40% less). Crystal morphology may be a variable to consider to achieve sodium reduction while maintaining salt intensity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intra-arterial infusion of leptin does not affect blood pressure in salt-loaded rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Mukhallad A; Talafih, Khalid; Mohamad, Mohamad M J; Khabaz, Mohammad Nidal

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this research is to see the effect of intra-arterial infusion of leptin on blood pressure of salt loaded rabbits in vivo. Increased blood pressure was produced in rabbits by giving diets containing 8% sodium chloride for 5 weeks. Leptin in different concentrations was infused intra-arterially into rabbits fed on high salt diets and the response was compared in rabbits fed with low salt diets. High salt diets produced significant increase in blood pressure. In rabbits fed with low salt diet, leptin infused intra-arterially caused an increase in blood pressure while infusion of leptin into rabbits fed with high salt diets does not affect the blood pressure. In conclusion, salt loading to rabbits abolishes the effect ofleptin on cardiovascular system. This may indicate that leptin effect on sympathetic activity is altered by high salt diets in these animals.

  15. Microarray analysis of genes affected by salt stress in tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LANDA

    drop spectrometer (Nanodrop Technologies, USA). The DNA free. RNA samples were used for further analysis. Microarray hybridization, data acquisition and analysis .... General features of the salt regulated gene expres- ..... 2CVO Chain D, Crystal Structure Of Putative N-Acetyl-Gamma-Glutamyl- Phosphate Reductase.

  16. Salinity management in river basins : modelling and management of the salt-affected Jarreh Reservoir (Iran)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shiati, K.

    1991-01-01

    The sources and origin of salts in the basin of the two salt- affected Shapur and Dalaki rivers (Southern Iran) and the processes involved in salinization have been studied. The extent of water deterioration have been identified by examining spatial changes in the rivers water

  17. Irrigation management in Mediterranean salt affected agriculture: how leaching operates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Libutti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of a crop rotation currently applied in a farm of the Apulian Tavoliere (Southern Italy, this paper reports the effect of brackish water irrigation on soil, outlines the corresponding salinity balance, formulates quantitative relations to model salt outflow below the soil root-layer and defines operational criteria to optimize irrigation management at farm level in order to control soil salinity through leaching. The general aim is to contribute to a sustainable use of the available water resources and a proper soil fertility conservation. A three-year trial (2007-2010 was carried out on a farm located close to the coast of the Manfredonia gulf (Mediterranean - Adriatic sea, where irrigation with brackish water is frequently practiced due to seawater intrusion into the groundwater. An especially designed experimental field-unit was set-up: the bottom of three hydraulically insulated plots was covered with a plastic sheet to intercept the percolating water and collect it into tanks by means of drain tubes. Each year a double crop cycle was applied to the soil; a spring-summer crop (tomato, zucchini and pepper, respectively was followed by a fall-winter crop (spinach, broccoli and wheat. Short “fallow” periods (completely bare soil were inserted between two crop cycles. Irrigation or rain completely restored crop water consumptions (with the exception of wheat, considered a rainfed crop and leaching was performed both unintentionally (by rainfalls or intentionally (supplying higher irrigation volumes whenever the soil electrical conductivity exceeded a fixed threshold. The soil electrical conductivity was periodically measured together with volume and electrical conductivity of irrigation and drainage water. All these measures allowed to draw-up the salt-balance of the soil, respectively at the beginning and the end of each crop cycle. Absolute and relative variations in soil salt content were interpreted with respect to absolute

  18. Status of iodine content of salt in four regions of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhu B; Sharma, S K; Nair, Siri; Pandey, R M; Kapil, Umesh; Singh, Charan

    2011-06-01

    To study the Status of Iodine Content of Salt in four regions of India. At each of the four centers (Vadodara, Dibrugarh, Jodhpur, New Delhi), High Schools were selected randomly from list of schools obtained from district education office and more than 700 salt samples were selected from each center. A total of 3,010 salt samples were collected from students of High Schools (consumed at their households), selected randomly from four centers and iodine content of salt by Standard Iodometric Titration Method (IT) was estimated. Analysis revealed that majority of salt sample collected at 4 centers were of powdered variety of salt. Analysis of iodine content in salt by IT method revealed that high proportion of school children (51.6%) consumed salt having inadequate iodine content (salt samples with less than 15 ppm of iodine) in Jodhpur district followed by Vadodara (19.8%), New Delhi (8.5%) and least in Dibrugarh (1.2%). The percentage of consumption of adequately iodized salt was highest in Dibrugarh (98.8%) among the four regions of India. Status of iodine content is varying from state to state i.e. highest at Dibrugarh and lowest at Jodhpur. This indicates that consumption of iodized salt in Jodhpur is low and needs more attention. Government may adopt different strategies in different states. There is a strong need of iodization of salt in addition to creating awareness among rural inhabitants for consumption of iodized salt especially in Jodhpur District. More attention is required for monitoring quality of iodized salt available in the community.

  19. Agroforestry-based management of salt-affected croplands in irrigated agricultural landscape in Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamzina, Asia; Kumar, Navneet; Heng, Lee

    2017-04-01

    In the lower Amu Darya River Basin, the decades of intensive irrigation led to elevated groundwater tables, resulting in ubiquitous soil salinization and adverse impact on crop production. Field-scale afforestation trials and farm-scale economic analyses in the Khorezm region have determined that afforestation can be an environmentally and financially attractive land-use option for degraded croplands because it combines a diversified agricultural production, carbon sequestration, an improved soil health and minimizes the use of irrigation water. We examined prospects for upscaling afforestation activity for regional land-use planning considering prevailing constraints in irrigated agriculture landscape. Assessment of salinity-induced cropland productivity decline using satellite imagery of multiple spatial and temporal resolution revealed that 18-38% of the marginally productive or abandoned cropland might be considered for conversion to agroforestry. Furthermore, a regional-scale water balance suggests that most of these marginal croplands are characterized by sufficient surface water supplies for irrigating the newly planted saplings, before they are able to rely on the groundwater alone. However, the 10-year monitoring of soil salt dynamics in the afforestation trials reveals increasing salinity levels due to the salt exclusion from the root water uptake by the trees. Further study focuses on enhancing long-term sustainability of afforestation as a management option for highly saline lands by examining salt tolerance of candidate species using 13C isotopic signature as the indicator of water and salt stress, salt leaching needs and implications for regional scale planning.

  20. Zooming in and out: Scale dependence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors affecting salt marsh erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng; van der Wal, Daphne; Li, Xiangyu; van Belzen, Jim; Herman, Peter M. J.; Hu, Zhan; Ge, Zhenming; Zhang, Liquan; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

    2017-07-01

    Salt marshes are valuable ecosystems that provide important ecosystem services. Given the global scale of marsh loss due to climate change and coastal squeeze, there is a pressing need to identify the critical extrinsic (wind exposure and foreshore morphology) and intrinsic factors (soil and vegetation properties) affecting the erosion of salt marsh edges. In this study, we quantified rates of cliff lateral retreat (i.e., the eroding edge of a salt marsh plateau) using a time series of aerial photographs taken over four salt marsh sites in the Westerschelde estuary, the Netherlands. In addition, we experimentally quantified the erodibility of sediment cores collected from the marsh edge of these four marshes using wave tanks. Our results revealed the following: (i) at the large scale, wind exposure and the presence of pioneer vegetation in front of the cliff were the key factors governing cliff retreat rates; (ii) at the intermediate scale, foreshore morphology was partially related to cliff retreat; (iii) at the local scale, the erodibility of the sediment itself at the marsh edge played a large role in determining the cliff retreat rate; and (iv) at the mesocosm scale, cliff erodibility was determined by soil properties and belowground root biomass. Thus, both extrinsic and intrinsic factors determined the fate of the salt marsh but at different scales. Our study highlights the importance of understanding the scale dependence of the factors driving the evolution of salt marsh landscapes.

  1. The potential of remediation of soils affected by salt using halophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaygan, Mandana; Mulligan, David; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Evaporation ponds containing saline waters may cause soil salinization in the vicinity of these ponds through seeping and leaching of pond water through the embankment. Native set tolerant vegetation like halophytes may assist in the revegetation and rehabilitation of these salt affected soils. As native vegetation for this study of brine affected land native halophytes species were selected including Tecticornia pergranulata, Sclerolaena longicuspis and Frankenia serpyllifoli. Soil samples from adjacent bare and vegetated areas of brine affected land were analysed to assess the physico-chemical properties associated with the vegetation cover. Salt contents of the halophytes, plant bioaccumulation, bioconcentration and translocation factors were measured to evaluate the remediation capacity of the species. The hypothesis was tested whether the halophytes are able to reduce the salt concentrations and as a consequence the salinity (and sodicity) of the soil. The examined halophytes were associated with a reduction in salinity and sodality by an average of 38.5% and 33% in the top 10 cm of the soil, respectively. Tecticornia pergranulata had the highest shoot Na+ content (98 g kg-1 dry weight) and higher factors for bioaccumulation (factor of 14) and translocation (factor of 23) for Na+ and indicated the higher remediation potential of this species. Despite the potentially successful application of this species for remediation, halophytes are in general not able to reduce the salt content within the landscape to create a condition for the growth of glycophytes particularly on a short-term time scale. However, the salt affected land can be revegetated by halophytes, and halophytes probably provide a stable vegetation cover for the landscape in ecological succession. The results also showed that a greater salt leaching potential is likely linked to soil physical parameters and most likely achievable through higher soil hydraulic conductivity which is required for

  2. Salt tolerant plants increase nitrogen removal from biofiltration systems affected by saline stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szota, Christopher; Farrell, Claire; Livesley, Stephen J; Fletcher, Tim D

    2015-10-15

    Biofiltration systems are used in urban areas to reduce the concentration and load of nutrient pollutants and heavy metals entering waterways through stormwater runoff. Biofilters can, however be exposed to salt water, through intrusion of seawater in coastal areas which could decrease their ability to intercept and retain pollutants. We measured the effect of adding saline stormwater on pollutant removal by six monocotyledonous species with different levels of salt-tolerance. Carex appressa, Carex bichenoviana, Ficinia nodosa, Gahnia filum, Juncus kraussii and Juncus usitatus were exposed to six concentrations of saline stormwater, equivalent to electrical conductivity readings of: 0.09, 2.3, 5.5, 10.4, 20.0 and 37.6 mS cm(-1). Salt-sensitive species: C. appressa, C. bichenoviana and J. usitatus did not survive ≥10.4 mS cm(-1), removing their ability to take up nitrogen (N). Salt-tolerant species, such as F. nodosa and J. kraussii, maintained N-removal even at the highest salt concentration. However, their levels of water stress and stomatal conductance suggest that N-removal would not be sustained at concentrations ≥10.4 mS cm(-1). Increasing salt concentration indirectly increased phosphorus (P) removal, by converting dissolved forms of P to particulate forms which were retained by filter media. Salt concentrations ≥10 mS cm(-1) also reduced removal efficiency of zinc, manganese and cadmium, but increased removal of iron and lead, regardless of plant species. Our results suggest that biofiltration systems exposed to saline stormwater ≤10 mS cm(-1) can only maintain N-removal when planted with salt-tolerant species, while P removal and immobilisation of heavy metals is less affected by species selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microarray analysis of genes affected by salt stress in tomato | Zhou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, different isoforms of cytochrome P450, genes for polyamine biosynthesis (putrescine and proline) and detoxification compounds (glutathione and thioredoxin), several key enzyme genes in the metabolic pathways of carbohydrates, amino acids, and fatty acids, were also affected by salt treatment. This study has ...

  4. Effects of a community-based salt reduction program in a regional Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Mary-Anne; Wu, Jason H Y; Selwyn, Adriana; Crino, Michelle; Woodward, Mark; Chalmers, John; Webster, Jacqui; Nowson, Caryl; Jeffery, Paul; Smith, Wayne; Flood, Victoria; Neal, Bruce

    2016-05-11

    Salt reduction is a public health priority but there are few studies testing the efficacy of plausible salt reduction programs. A multi-faceted, community-based salt reduction program using the Communication for Behavioral Impact framework was implemented in Lithgow, Australia. Single 24-h urine samples were obtained from 419 individuals at baseline (2011) and from 572 at follow-up (2014). Information about knowledge and behaviors relating to salt was also collected. Survey participants were on average 56 years old and 58 % female. Mean salt intake estimated from 24-h urine samples fell from 8.8 g/day (SD = 3.6 g/day) in 2011 to 8.0 (3.6) g/day in 2014 (-0.80, 95 % confidence interval -1.2 to -0.3;p salt reduction (64 % vs. 78 %; p salt substitute at the end of the intervention period and 90 % had heard about the program. Findings were robust to multivariable adjustment. Implementation of this multi-faceted community-based program was associated with a ~10 % reduction in salt consumption in an Australian regional town. These findings highlight the potential of well-designed health promotion programs to compliment other population-based strategies to bring about much-needed reductions in salt consumption. NCT02105727 .

  5. How Do Changes to the Railroad Causeway in Utah's Great Salt Lake Affect Water and Salt Flow?: e0144111

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James S White; Sarah E Null; David G Tarboton

    2015-01-01

      Managing terminal lake elevation and salinity are emerging problems worldwide. We contribute to terminal lake management research by quantitatively assessing water and salt flow for Utah's Great Salt Lake...

  6. Potential sea salt aerosol sources from frost flowers in the pan-Arctic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Li [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Now at Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California USA; Russell, Lynn M. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Burrows, Susannah M. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2016-09-23

    In order to better represent observed wintertime aerosol concentrations at Barrow, Alaska, we implemented an observationally-based parameterization for estimating sea salt production from frost flowers in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). In this work, we evaluate the potential influence of this sea salt source on the pan-Arctic (60ºN-90ºN) climate. Results show that frost flower salt emissions substantially increase the modeled surface sea salt aerosol concentration in the winter months when new sea ice and frost flowers are present. The parameterization reproduces both the magnitude and seasonal variation of the observed submicron sea salt aerosol concentration at surface in Barrow during winter much better than the standard CESM simulation without a frost-flower salt particle source. Adding these frost flower salt particle emissions increases aerosol optical depth by 10% and results in a small cooling at surface. The increase in salt particle mass concentrations of a factor of 8 provides nearly two times the cloud condensation nuclei concentration, as well as 10% increases in cloud droplet number and 40% increases in liquid water content near coastal regions adjacent to continents. These cloud changes reduce longwave cloud forcing by 3% and cause a small surface warming, increasing the downward longwave flux at the surface by 2 W m-2 in the pan-Arctic under the present-day climate.

  7. A fractional derivative approach to full creep regions in salt rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H. W.; Wang, C. P.; Mishnaevsky, L.; Duan, Z. Q.; Ding, J. Y.

    2013-08-01

    Based on the definition of the constant-viscosity Abel dashpot, a new creep element, referred to as the variable-viscosity Abel dashpot, is proposed to characterize damage growth in salt rock samples during creep tests. Ultrasonic testing is employed to determine a formula of the variable viscosity coefficient, indicating that the change of the variable viscosity coefficient with the time meets a negative exponent law. In addition, by replacing the Newtonian dashpot in the classical Nishihara model with the variable-viscosity Abel dashpot, a damage-mechanism-based creep constitutive model is proposed on the basis of time-based fractional derivative. The analytic solution for the fractional-derivative creep constitutive model is presented. The parameters of the fractional derivative creep model are determined by the Levenberg-Marquardt method on the basis of the experimental results of creep tests on salt rock. Furthermore, a sensitivity study is carried out, showing the effects of stress level, fractional derivative order and viscosity coefficient exponent on creep strain of salt rock. It is indicated that the fractional derivative creep model proposed in the paper provides a precise description of full creep regions in salt rock, i.e., the transient creep region (the primary region), the steady-state creep region (the secondary region) and the accelerated creep region (the tertiary region).

  8. Sensitivity of modeled atmospheric nitrogen species and nitrogen deposition to variations in sea salt emissions in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Neumann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coarse sea salt particles are emitted ubiquitously from the ocean surface by wave-breaking and bubble-bursting processes. These particles impact the atmospheric chemistry by affecting the condensation of gas-phase species and, thus, indirectly the nucleation of new fine particles, particularly in regions with significant air pollution. In this study, atmospheric particle concentrations are modeled for the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions in northwestern Europe using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system and are compared to European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP measurement data. The sea salt emission module is extended by a salinity-dependent scaling of the sea salt emissions because the salinity in large parts of the Baltic Sea is very low, which leads to considerably lower sea salt mass emissions compared to other oceanic regions. The resulting improvement in predicted sea salt concentrations is assessed. The contribution of surf zone emissions is considered separately. Additionally, the impacts of sea salt particles on atmospheric nitrate and ammonium concentrations and on nitrogen deposition are evaluated. The comparisons with observational data show that sea salt concentrations are commonly overestimated at coastal stations and partly underestimated farther inland. The introduced salinity scaling improves the predicted Baltic Sea sea salt concentrations considerably. The dates of measured peak concentrations are appropriately reproduced by the model. The impact of surf zone emissions is negligible in both seas. Nevertheless, they might be relevant because surf zone emissions were cut at an upper threshold in this study. Deactivating sea salt leads to minor increases in NH3 +  NH4+ and HNO3 +  NO3− and a decrease in NO3− concentrations. However, the overall effect on NH3 +  NH4+ and HNO3 +  NO3− concentrations is smaller than the deviation from the measurements. Nitrogen wet deposition is

  9. Renal sodium handling and haemodynamics are equally affected by hyperinsulinaemia in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant hypertensives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC; Bakker, SJL; Serne, EH; Donker, AJM; Gans, ROB

    Objective It is well-known that insulin induces renal sodium retention. It is not yet known whether insulin's renal effects are involved in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. We assessed the effects of insulin on renal sodium handling and haemodynamics in 10 salt-sensitive (SS) and 10

  10. Gibberellins Producing Endophytic Fungus Porostereum spadiceum AGH786 Rescues Growth of Salt Affected Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hamayun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the pursuit of sustainable agriculture through environment and human health friendly practices, we evaluated the potential of a novel gibberellins (GAs producing basidiomycetous endophytic fungus Porostereum spadiceum AGH786, for alleviating salt stress and promoting health benefits of soybean. Soybean seedlings exposed to different levels of NaCl stress (70 and 140 mM under greenhouse conditions, were inoculated with the AGH786 strain. Levels of phytohormones including GAs, JA and ABA, and isoflavones were compared in control and the inoculated seedlings to understand the mechanism through which the stress is alleviated. Gibberellins producing endophytic fungi have been vital for promoting plant growth under normal and stress conditions. We report P. spadiceum AGH786 as the ever first GAs producing basidiomycetous fungus capable of producing six types of GAs. In comparison to the so for most efficient GAs producing Gibberella fujikuroi, AGH786 produced significantly higher amount of the bioactive GA3. Salt-stressed phenotype of soybean seedlings was characterized by low content of GAs and high amount of ABA and JA with reduced shoot length, biomass, leaf area, chlorophyll contents, and rate of photosynthesis. Mitigation of salt stress by AGH786 was always accompanied by high GAs, and low ABA and JA, suggesting that this endophytic fungus reduces the effect of salinity by modulating endogenous phytohormones of the seedlings. Additionally, this strain also enhanced the endogenous level of two isoflavones including daidzen and genistein in soybean seedlings under normal as well as salt stress conditions as compared to their respective controls. P. spadiceum AGH786 boosted the NaCl stress tolerance and growth in soybean, by modulating seedlings endogenous phytohormones and isoflavones suggesting a valuable contribution of this potent fungal biofertilizer in sustainable agriculture in salt affected soils.

  11. Does overhead irrigation with salt affect growth, yield, and phenolic content of lentil plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannakoula Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Overhead irrigation of lentil plants with salt (100 mM NaCl did not have any significant impact on plant growth, while chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm were affected. Under such poor irrigation water quality, the malondialdehyde content in leaves was increased due to the lipid peroxidation of membranes. In seeds, the total phenolic content (TPC was correlated to their total antioxidant capacity (TAC. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS detection showed that flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, rutin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid and resveratrol appear to be the compounds with the greatest influence on the TAC values. Catechin is the most abundant phenolic compound in lentil seeds. Overhead irrigation with salt reduced the concentration of almost all phenolic compounds analyzed from lentil seed extracts.

  12. High dietary salt does not significantly affect plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of Sprague Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayorh Mohamed A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dahl salt-sensitive rat, but not the Dahl salt-resistant rat, develops hypertension and hypovitaminosis D when fed a high salt diet. Since the salt-sensitive rat and salt-resistant rat were bred from the Sprague Dawley rat, the aim of this research was to test the hypothesis that salt-resistant and Sprague Dawley rats would be similar in their vitamin D endocrine system response to high salt intake. Findings Sprague Dawley, salt-sensitive, and salt-resistant rats were fed high (80 g/kg, 8% or low (3 g/kg, 3% salt diets for three weeks. The blood pressure of Sprague Dawley rats increased from baseline to week 3 during both high and low salt intake and the mean blood pressure at week 3 of high salt intake was higher than that at week 3 of low salt intake (P Conclusions These data indicate that the effect of high salt intake on the vitamin D endocrine system of Sprague Dawley rats at week 3 was similar to that of salt-resistant rats. The salt-sensitive rat, thus, appears to be a more appropriate model than the Sprague Dawley rat for assessing possible effects of salt-sensitivity on vitamin D status of humans.

  13. The Three Gorges Dam Affects Regional Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liguang; Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Zhihong

    2006-01-01

    Issues regarding building large-scale dams as a solution to power generation and flood control problems have been widely discussed by both natural and social scientists from various disciplines, as well as the policy-makers and public. Since the Chinese government officially approved the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) projects, this largest hydroelectric project in the world has drawn a lot of debates ranging from its social and economic to climatic impacts. The TGD has been partially in use since June 2003. The impact of the TGD is examined through analysis of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall rate and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature and high-resolution simulation using the Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU-NCAR) fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5). The independent satellite data sets and numerical simulation clearly indicate that the land use change associated with the TGD construction has increased the precipitation in the region between Daba and Qinling mountains and reduced the precipitation in the vicinity of the TGD after the TGD water level abruptly rose from 66 to 135 m in June 2003. This study suggests that the climatic effect of the TGD is on the regional scale (approx.100 km) rather than on the local scale (approx.10 km) as projected in previous studies.

  14. Fruit yield improvement of deteriorated guava plants in salt affected soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jamil, Muhammad Sadiq, Shahzada Munawar Mehdi and Syed Saqlain Hussian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil Salinity is a common problem throughout the world. However, it is seriously affecting the economy of Pakistan by limiting crop productivity on a large area of 6.68 m ha. Various salt tolerant crop / plant varieties are grown in salt affected soil. Guava (Psidium Guajava L. is a salt tolerant fruit plant and is one of the most popular fruits in Pakistan. Guava has attained commercial importance in tropics and sub-tropics because of its adaptability to varied soil and climatic conditions. Most of the plants grown in salt affected soils lose their bearing after some time. The present study was conducted to improve the fruit bearing of guava plants grown through modified rhizosphere technique. For this purpose five years old guava plants growing in saline sodic field [pHs, 8.8; ECe, 4.70 dS m-1; SAR, 32.30 (m mol L-1½ and GR, 7.56 t ha-1] were selected. The treatments applied were: T1 = control; T2 =gypsum @ 100% GR; T3 = gypsum @ 100% GR + FYM @ 40 kg plant-1; T4 = gypsum @ 100% GR + FYM @ 40 kg + urea @ 1.0 kg plant-1; T5 = gypsum @ 100% GR + FYM @ 40 kg + urea @ 1.5 kg plant-1 and T6 = gypsum @ 100% GR + FYM @ 40 kg + urea @ 2.0 kg plant-1. All the gypsum, phosphorus, potash and half of the urea were applied in the month of February, and the remaining half of urea was applied in the month of August. Maximum fruit yield (28.13 kg plant-1 was obtained with the application of treatment T6 (gypsum @ 100% GR + FYM @ 40 kg + urea @ 2.0 kg plant-1 followed by the treatment T5 (gypsum 100% GR + FYM @ 40 kg + 1.5 kg urea plant-1 giving fruit yield of 22.35 kg plant-1 and least in control (4.29 kg plant-1.

  15. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  16. Impact of soil types and management practices on soil microbiological properties - a case study in salt affected area of Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Ravi Kumar; Makádi, Marianna; Michéli, Erika; Weldmichael, Tsedekech G.; Szegi, Tamás

    2017-04-01

    The impact of different land use systems on soil microbiological properties in salt affected soils were investigated in the Nádudvar region of Hajdu-Bihar County, Hungary. The study area is characterized by associations of Solonetz and Chernozem soils. Soils were collected from both arable (cultivated) and pasture (non-cultivated) land from the upper 15 cm, in May, 2016. Besides soil physical and chemical properties (SOM, pH, CaCO3, EC, E4/E6, available macro, meso and micro nutrients and moisture content), soil microbiological properties were also investigated, phosphatase and dehydrogenase activities of the samples were measured, as well as soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and soil microbiological respiration. The results were statistically compared on the different soil types and land uses. It was concluded that land management has greater impact on soil microbiology than inherent properties or soil types.

  17. How Do Changes to the Railroad Causeway in Utah's Great Salt Lake Affect Water and Salt Flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S White

    Full Text Available Managing terminal lake elevation and salinity are emerging problems worldwide. We contribute to terminal lake management research by quantitatively assessing water and salt flow for Utah's Great Salt Lake. In 1959, Union Pacific Railroad constructed a rock-filled causeway across the Great Salt Lake, separating the lake into a north and south arm. Flow between the two arms was limited to two 4.6 meter wide rectangular culverts installed during construction, an 88 meter opening (referred to locally as a breach installed in 1984, and the semi porous material of the causeway. A salinity gradient developed between the two arms of the lake over time because the south arm receives approximately 95% of the incoming streamflow entering Great Salt Lake. The north arm is often at, or near, salinity saturation, averaging 317 g/L since 1966, while the south is considerably less saline, averaging 142 g/L since 1966. Ecological and industrial uses of the lake are dependent on long-term salinity remaining within physiological and economic thresholds, although optimal salinity varies for the ecosystem and between diverse stakeholders. In 2013, Union Pacific Railroad closed causeway culverts amid structural safety concerns and proposed to replace them with a bridge, offering four different bridge designs. As of summer 2015, no bridge design has been decided upon. We investigated the effect that each of the proposed bridge designs would have on north and south arm Great Salt Lake elevation and salinity by updating and applying US Geological Survey's Great Salt Lake Fortran Model. Overall, we found that salinity is sensitive to bridge size and depth, with larger designs increasing salinity in the south arm and decreasing salinity in the north arm. This research illustrates that flow modifications within terminal lakes cannot be separated from lake salinity, ecology, management, and economic uses.

  18. How Do Changes to the Railroad Causeway in Utah's Great Salt Lake Affect Water and Salt Flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James S; Null, Sarah E; Tarboton, David G

    2015-01-01

    Managing terminal lake elevation and salinity are emerging problems worldwide. We contribute to terminal lake management research by quantitatively assessing water and salt flow for Utah's Great Salt Lake. In 1959, Union Pacific Railroad constructed a rock-filled causeway across the Great Salt Lake, separating the lake into a north and south arm. Flow between the two arms was limited to two 4.6 meter wide rectangular culverts installed during construction, an 88 meter opening (referred to locally as a breach) installed in 1984, and the semi porous material of the causeway. A salinity gradient developed between the two arms of the lake over time because the south arm receives approximately 95% of the incoming streamflow entering Great Salt Lake. The north arm is often at, or near, salinity saturation, averaging 317 g/L since 1966, while the south is considerably less saline, averaging 142 g/L since 1966. Ecological and industrial uses of the lake are dependent on long-term salinity remaining within physiological and economic thresholds, although optimal salinity varies for the ecosystem and between diverse stakeholders. In 2013, Union Pacific Railroad closed causeway culverts amid structural safety concerns and proposed to replace them with a bridge, offering four different bridge designs. As of summer 2015, no bridge design has been decided upon. We investigated the effect that each of the proposed bridge designs would have on north and south arm Great Salt Lake elevation and salinity by updating and applying US Geological Survey's Great Salt Lake Fortran Model. Overall, we found that salinity is sensitive to bridge size and depth, with larger designs increasing salinity in the south arm and decreasing salinity in the north arm. This research illustrates that flow modifications within terminal lakes cannot be separated from lake salinity, ecology, management, and economic uses.

  19. Salt wedge determination using electrical sounding method in the region of Oued Nador (Tipaza, Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine Bechkit, Mohamed; Benaïssa, Zahia; Ouadfeul, Sid Ali; Deghmoum, Feriel

    2017-04-01

    The marine intrusion of freshwater aquifers by salt water results in soil degradation due to their salinization. The present survey aims to study the position of the fresh water - salt water interface using electric sounding method in the region of Oued Nador (Tipaza, Algeria). It is important to know the position of this interface for the continuation of the aquifer exploitation. For this, we conducted, in this zone, seven electric soundings oriented north-west south-east, with Schlumberger electrodes configuration. The inversion of the apparent resistivity data via the IP2Win software allowed us to recover the true values of electrical resistivity. The exploitation of obtained data requires the implementation of a geo-electric section, and for the interpretation, the results of a standard electrical sounding, acquired near the study area, are used. The results of this geophysical study allowed us to locate the freshwater - salt water contact with resistivity values that can reach 50 ohm m for freshwater formation, and less than 10 ohm m for saturated saltwater formation. The depth of the contact between fresh water and salt water increases gradually from 38 m to 40 m near the coast, and this over a distance of 0 m to 500 m, and then rises abruptly beyond a distance of 500 m at the borehole N°3 where it reaches the maximum depth of 97 m. Key words: Electrical survey - Salt wedge - Electrical resistivity - Aquifer - Intrusion.

  20. On aquifer thicknesses and geological complexity affecting fresh/salt groundwater distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamrsky, Daniel; Oude Essink, Gualbert; Bierkens, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Large coastal populations will face serious issues associated with global sea level rise in the near future. Among those are increased risk of coastal flooding and upconing of old saline groundwater caused by expected regional groundwater overexploitation initiated by growing urbanization. With predictions of rising sea level by 60-100cm by 2100 and a recent study suggesting even much larger changes than previously thought, it is essential to conduct a study to identify the most threatened coastal aquifers worldwide. Previous global studies dealing with salt water intrusion into coastal aquifers only considered homogenous geological conditions. However, literature and local data show a higher degree of heterogeneity. In our study, we consider possible geological scenarios and their impact on the fresh/salt groundwater distribution. The focus is on coastal aquifers that consist of unconsolidated sediments formed during the recent geological times and are underlain by a consolidated bedrock formation. Aquifer thickness and inland extent are the two most important parameters that determine the vulnerability of the coastal aquifer to salt water intrusion. To estimate these two parameters, a method using the latest global geological and elevation datasets is presented. By combining these inputs, we can estimate the slope of a bedrock formation that underlies a coastal aquifer consisting of unconsolidated sediments. Our estimated thicknesses are compared to a validation dataset of open source boreholes and literature information collected over numerous locations worldwide. While our results show that using our method to estimate coastal aquifer (made of unconsolidated sediments) thickness leads to satisfying results, it remains challenging to obtain information about the type of the sediments (gravel, sand, clay) themselves on such a scale. Therefore, we constructed a substantial set of 2D vertical variable-density groundwater flow models perpendicular to the shoreline

  1. Geological evaluation of Gulf Coast salt domes: overall assessment of the Gulf Interior Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    The three major phases in site characterization and selection are regional studies, area studies, and location studies. This report characterizes regional geologic aspects of the Gulf Coast salt dome basins. It includes general information from published sources on the regional geology; the tectonic, domal, and hydrologic stability; and a brief description the salt domes to be investigated. After a screening exercise, eight domes were chosen for further characterization: Keechi, Oakwood, and Palestine Domes in Texas; Vacherie and Rayburn's domes in North Louisiana; and Cypress Creek and Richton domes in Mississippi. A general description of each, maps of the location, property ownership, and surface geology, and a geologic cross section were presented for each dome.

  2. 5C.01: LITTLE DIFFERENCE IN SALT INTAKE CRUCIALLY AFFECTS FUTURE BLOOD PRESSURE LEVELS IN THE GENERAL POPULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, S; Takase, H; Sugiura, T; Yamashita, S; Ohte, N; Dohi, Y

    2015-06-01

    A causal relationship between salt and hypertension has been argued for a long time. Epidemiological cross-sectional studies demonstrated higher incidence of hypertension in populations with higher dietary salt than in those with lower dietary salt and interventional studies investigated the effects of drastic changes in dietary salt in individuals. However, there is not sufficient evidence proving that individuals with relatively high salt intakes show an accelerated increase in blood pressure compared to those with a relatively low salt intakes over a long period of observation. Thus, the present observational study was designed to investigate whether individual levels of dietary salt affect future increases in blood pressure in the general population. Individual salt intake was estimated by calculating 24-hour urinary salt excretion using a spot urine in normotensive 6,249 participants in our physical check-up program (53.3 ± 11.4 year-old). After baseline examination, they were followed up for the median of 1,089 days with the endpoint being the development of hypertension. During the follow-up period, hypertension developed in 1,027 participants (73.0 per 1,000 person-years) with the incidence being more frequent in male than female participants. After adjustment for possible risk factors, the hazard ratio of incident hypertension in participants with salt intake higher than the target recommended by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (male, <9.0 g/day; female, <7.5 g/day) was 1.25 (95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.50). In multivariate Cox hazards regression analysis, baseline salt intake and the yearly change in salt intake during the follow-up period (as continuous variables) correlated with the incidence of hypertension. Furthermore, both the yearly increase in salt intake and baseline salt intake showed significant correlations with the yearly increase in systolic blood pressure in multivariate regression analysis after

  3. FACTORS AFFECTING REGIONAL SHIFTS OF U.S PORK PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Bishwa B.; Harsh, Stephen B.; Cheney, Laura Martin

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. pork industry in the recent past has transferred into fewer, larger and specialized operations. Inputs availability, developments of transportation systems, technological changes, government regulations and the consumer preferences have been driving changes in the pork industry. Spatial inequalities affect the competitiveness of one region relative to other regions. This paper is focused on how these forces affect the regional competitiveness of the pork industry and movement towards...

  4. Environmental factors affecting larval fish community in the salt marsh area of Guadiana estuary (Algarve, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gonçalves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Salt marsh areas in the Guadiana estuary are important nursery sites for many fish species of commercial and recreational value. More effective protection measures should be adopted as the area is highly affected by anthropogenic and natural threats. Studying larval fish communities in these impacted nursery areas will be relevant to the management of local ecosystems and to larval fish ecology in general. Spatial and seasonal distribution and the effect of environmental factors on the larval fish community of this ecosystem were studied for one year (April 2010 to March 2011. Larvae were sampled monthly in parallel with phytoplankton and zooplankton. Hydrological data and physical parameters were monitored. A decision tree model was used to assess the influence of environmental factors on the larval fish community. A total of 130 larvae and 1171 eggs were caught. Diplodus sargus, Sardina pilchardus, and Pomatoschistus microps were the most abundant larval fish species. The peaks of fish larvae abundance occurred in March and April. The output of the model demonstrates that the abundance of larval fish is determined by the abundance of eggs, zooplanktonic food, and water flood and flow. This study shows the importance of the Guadiana salt marsh as an area for fish nursery and highlights the need for conservation of this area.

  5. Water management can reinforce plant competition in salt-affected semi-arid wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletti, Janaine Z.; Vogwill, Ryan; Hipsey, Matthew R.

    2017-09-01

    The diversity of vegetation in semi-arid, ephemeral wetlands is determined by niche availability and species competition, both of which are influenced by changes in water availability and salinity. Here, we hypothesise that ignoring physiological differences and competition between species when managing wetland hydrologic regimes can lead to a decrease in vegetation diversity, even when the overall wetland carrying capacity is improved. Using an ecohydrological model capable of resolving water-vegetation-salt feedbacks, we investigate why water surface and groundwater management interventions to combat vegetation decline have been more beneficial to Casuarina obesa than to Melaleuca strobophylla, the co-dominant tree species in Lake Toolibin, a salt-affected wetland in Western Australia. The simulations reveal that in trying to reduce the negative effect of salinity, the management interventions have created an environment favouring C. obesa by intensifying the climate-induced trend that the wetland has been experiencing of lower water availability and higher root-zone salinity. By testing alternative scenarios, we show that interventions that improve M. strobophylla biomass are possible by promoting hydrologic conditions that are less specific to the niche requirements of C. obesa. Modelling uncertainties were explored via a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. Overall, the study demonstrates the importance of including species differentiation and competition in ecohydrological models that form the basis for wetland management.

  6. Conceptual model for regional radionuclide transport from a salt dome repository: a technical memorandum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kier, R.S.; Showalter, P.A.; Dettinger, M.D.

    1980-05-30

    Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes is a major environmental problem influencing further development of nuclear energy in this country. Salt domes in the Gulf Coast Basin are being investigated as repository sites. A major concern is geologic and hydrologic stability of candidate domes and potential transport of radionuclides by groundwater to the biosphere prior to their degradation to harmless levels of activity. This report conceptualizes a regional geohydrologic model for transport of radionuclides from a salt dome repository. The model considers transport pathways and the physical and chemical changes that would occur through time prior to the radionuclides reaching the biosphere. Necessary, but unknown inputs to the regional model involve entry and movement of fluids through the repository dome and across the dome-country rock interface and the effect on the dome and surrounding strata of heat generated by the radioactive wastes.

  7. Seasonal dynamics of trace elements in tidal salt marsh soils as affected by the flow-sediment regulation regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Junhong; Xiao, Rong; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing; Reddy, K Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Soil profiles were collected in three salt marshes with different plant species (i.e. Phragmites australis, Tamarix chinensis and Suaeda salsa) in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) of China during three seasons (summer and fall of 2007 and the following spring of 2008) after the flow-sediment regulation regime. Total elemental contents of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry to investigate temporal variations in trace elements in soil profiles of the three salt marshes, assess the enrichment levels and ecological risks of these trace elements in three sampling seasons and identify their influencing factors. Trace elements did not change significantly along soil profiles at each site in each sampling season. The highest value for each sampling site was observed in summer and the lowest one in fall. Soils in both P. australis and S. salsa wetlands tended to have higher trace element levels than those in T. chinensis wetland. Compared to other elements, both Cd and As had higher enrichment factors exceeding moderate enrichment levels. However, the toxic unit (TU) values of these trace elements did not exceed probable effect levels. Correlation analysis showed that these trace elements were closely linked to soil properties such as moisture, sulfur, salinity, soil organic matter, soil texture and pH values. Principal component analysis showed that the sampling season affected by the flow-sediment regulation regime was the dominant factor influencing the distribution patterns of these trace elements in soils, and plant community type was another important factor. The findings of this study could contribute to wetland conservation and management in coastal regions affected by the hydrological engineering.

  8. Seasonal dynamics of trace elements in tidal salt marsh soils as affected by the flow-sediment regulation regime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Bai

    Full Text Available Soil profiles were collected in three salt marshes with different plant species (i.e. Phragmites australis, Tamarix chinensis and Suaeda salsa in the Yellow River Delta (YRD of China during three seasons (summer and fall of 2007 and the following spring of 2008 after the flow-sediment regulation regime. Total elemental contents of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry to investigate temporal variations in trace elements in soil profiles of the three salt marshes, assess the enrichment levels and ecological risks of these trace elements in three sampling seasons and identify their influencing factors. Trace elements did not change significantly along soil profiles at each site in each sampling season. The highest value for each sampling site was observed in summer and the lowest one in fall. Soils in both P. australis and S. salsa wetlands tended to have higher trace element levels than those in T. chinensis wetland. Compared to other elements, both Cd and As had higher enrichment factors exceeding moderate enrichment levels. However, the toxic unit (TU values of these trace elements did not exceed probable effect levels. Correlation analysis showed that these trace elements were closely linked to soil properties such as moisture, sulfur, salinity, soil organic matter, soil texture and pH values. Principal component analysis showed that the sampling season affected by the flow-sediment regulation regime was the dominant factor influencing the distribution patterns of these trace elements in soils, and plant community type was another important factor. The findings of this study could contribute to wetland conservation and management in coastal regions affected by the hydrological engineering.

  9. Seasonal Dynamics of Trace Elements in Tidal Salt Marsh Soils as Affected by the Flow-Sediment Regulation Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Junhong; Xiao, Rong; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing; Reddy, K. Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Soil profiles were collected in three salt marshes with different plant species (i.e. Phragmites australis, Tamarix chinensis and Suaeda salsa) in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) of China during three seasons (summer and fall of 2007 and the following spring of 2008) after the flow-sediment regulation regime. Total elemental contents of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry to investigate temporal variations in trace elements in soil profiles of the three salt marshes, assess the enrichment levels and ecological risks of these trace elements in three sampling seasons and identify their influencing factors. Trace elements did not change significantly along soil profiles at each site in each sampling season. The highest value for each sampling site was observed in summer and the lowest one in fall. Soils in both P. australis and S. salsa wetlands tended to have higher trace element levels than those in T. chinensis wetland. Compared to other elements, both Cd and As had higher enrichment factors exceeding moderate enrichment levels. However, the toxic unit (TU) values of these trace elements did not exceed probable effect levels. Correlation analysis showed that these trace elements were closely linked to soil properties such as moisture, sulfur, salinity, soil organic matter, soil texture and pH values. Principal component analysis showed that the sampling season affected by the flow-sediment regulation regime was the dominant factor influencing the distribution patterns of these trace elements in soils, and plant community type was another important factor. The findings of this study could contribute to wetland conservation and management in coastal regions affected by the hydrological engineering. PMID:25216278

  10. Diachronic analysis of salt-affected areas using remote sensing techniques: the case study of Biskra area, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrasinei, Gabriela M.; Melis, Maria T.; Buttau, Cristina; Bradd, John M.; Arras, Claudio; Ghiglieri, Giorgio

    2015-10-01

    In the Wadi Biskra arid and semi-arid area, sustainable development is limited by land degradation, such as secondary salinization of soils. As an important high quality date production region of Algeria, it needs continuous monitoring of desertification indicators, since the bio-physical setting defines it as highly exposed to climate-related risks. For this particular study, for which little ground truth data was possible to acquire, we set up an assessment of appropriate methods for the identification and change detection of salt-affected areas, involving image interpretation and processing techniques employing Landsat imagery. After a first phase consisting of a visual interpretation study of the land cover types, two automated classification approaches were proposed and applied for this specific study: decision tree classification and principal components analysis (PCA) of Knepper ratios. Five of the indices employed in the Decision Tree construction were set up within the current study, among which we propose a salinity index (SMI) for the extraction of highly saline areas. The results of the 1984 to 2014 diachronic analysis of salt - affected areas variation were supported by the interpreted land cover map for accuracy estimation. Connecting the outputs with auxiliary bio-physical and socio-economic data, comprehensive results are discussed, which were indispensable for the understanding of land degradation dynamics and vulnerability to desertification. One aspect that emerged was the fact that the expansion of agricultural land in the last three decades may have led and continue to contribute to a secondary salinization of soils. This study is part of the WADIS-MAR Demonstration Project, funded by the European Commission through the Sustainable Water Integrated Management (SWIM) Program (www.wadismar.eu).

  11. Phytoremediation of salt-affected soils: a review of processes, applicability, and the impact of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, João M; Danko, Anthony S; Fiúza, António; Borges, Maria-Teresa

    2015-05-01

    Soil salinization affects 1-10 billion ha worldwide, threatening the agricultural production needed to feed the ever increasing world population. Phytoremediation may be a cost-effective option for the remediation of these soils. This review analyzes the viability of using phytoremediation for salt-affected soils and explores the remedial mechanisms involved. In addition, it specifically addresses the debate over plant indirect (via soil cation exchange enhancement) or direct (via uptake) role in salt remediation. Analysis of experimental data for electrical conductivity (ECe) + sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) reduction and plant salt uptake showed a similar removal efficiency between salt phytoremediation and other treatment options, with the added potential for phytoextraction under non-leaching conditions. A focus is also given on recent studies that indicate potential pathways for increased salt phytoextraction, co-treatment with other contaminants, and phytoremediation applicability for salt flow control. Finally, this work also details the predicted effects of climate change on soil salinization and on treatment options. The synergetic effects of extreme climate events and salinization are a challenging obstacle for future phytoremediation applications, which will require additional and multi-disciplinary research efforts.

  12. Genomic Regions Affecting Cheese Making Properties Identified in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Bertelsen, Henriette Pasgaard; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard

    The cheese renneting process is affected by a number of factors associated to milk composition and a number of Danish Holsteins has previously been identified to have poor milk coagulation ability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genomic regions affecting the technological...

  13. Effect of biosolid waste compost on soil respiration in salt-affected soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya, Silvia; Gómez, Ignacio; García, Fuensanta; Navarro, José; Jordán, Manuel Miguel; Belén Almendro, María; Martín Soriano, José

    2013-04-01

    A great part of mediterranean soils are affected by salinization. This is an important problem in semiarid areas increased by the use of low quality waters, the induced salinization due to high phreatic levels and adverse climatology. Salinization affects 25% of irrigated agriculture, producing important losses on the crops. In this situation, the application of organic matter to the soil is one of the possible solutions to improve their quality. The main objective of this research was to asses the relation between the salinity level (electrical conductivity, EC) in the soil and the response of microbial activity (soil respiration rate) after compost addition. The study was conducted for a year. Soil samples were collected near to an agricultural area in Crevillente and Elche, "El Hondo" Natural Park (Comunidad de Regantes from San Felipe Neri). The experiment was developed to determine and quantify the soil respiration rate in 8 different soils differing in salinity. The assay was done in close pots -in greenhouse conditions- containing soil mixed with different doses of sewage sludge compost (2, 4 and 6%) besides the control. They were maintained at 60% of water holding capacity (WHC). Soil samples were analyzed every four months for a year. The equipment used to estimate the soil respiration was a Bac-Trac and CO2 emitted by the soil biota was measured and quantified by electrical impedance changes. It was observed that the respiration rate increases as the proportion of compost added to each sample increases as well. The EC was incremented in each sampling period from the beginning of the experiment, probably due to the fact that soils were in pots and lixiviation was prevented, so the salts couldńt be lost from soil. Over time the compost has been degraded and, it was more susceptible to be mineralized. Salts were accumulated in the soil. Also it was observed a decrease of microbial activity with the increase of salinity in the soil. Keywords: soil

  14. Geographic information science: Contribution to understanding salt and sodium affected soils in the Senegal River Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Ramatoulaye

    The Senegal River valley and delta (SRVD) are affected by long term climate variability. Indicators of these climatic shifts include a rainfall deficit, warmer temperatures, sea level rise, floods, and drought. These shifts have led to environmental degradation, water deficits, and profound effects on human life and activities in the area. Geographic Information Science (GIScience), including satellite-based remote sensing methods offer several advantages over conventional ground-based methods used to map and monitor salt-affected soil (SAS) features. This study was designed to assess the accuracy of information on soil salinization extracted from Landsat satellite imagery. Would available imagery and GIScience data analysis enable an ability to discriminate natural soil salinization from soil sodication and provide an ability to characterize the SAS trend and pattern over 30 years? A set of Landsat MSS (June 1973 and September 1979), Landsat TM (November 1987, April 1994 and November 1999) and ETM+ (May 2001 and March 2003) images have been used to map and monitor salt impacted soil distribution. Supervised classification, unsupervised classification and post-classification change detection methods were used. Supervised classifications of May 2001 and March 2003 images were made in conjunction field data characterizing soil surface chemical characteristics that included exchange sodium percentage (ESP), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the electrical conductivity (EC). With this supervised information extraction method, the distribution of three different types of SAS (saline, saline-sodic, and sodic) was mapped with an accuracy of 91.07% for 2001 image and 73.21% for 2003 image. Change detection results confirmed a decreasing trend in non-saline and saline soil and an increase in saline-sodic and sodic soil. All seven Landsat images were subjected to the unsupervised classification method which resulted in maps that separate SAS according to their degree of

  15. Assessment of Ammonia Volatilization Losses and Nitrogen Utilization during the Rice Growing Season in Alkaline Salt-Affected Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of different fertilizer types and application rates on ammonia volatilization loss and to explore nitrogen distribution and nitrogen use efficiency using the 15N isotope tracing technique in different alkaline salt-affected conditions in the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. The results showed a decreasing trend in ammonia volatilization loss from ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate, but not that from urea, as the electrical conductivity gradient increased, whereas the reverse trend was found as the pH gradient increased. Ammonia volatilization loss increased in moderately salt-affected soil compared with that in slightly salt-affected soil, particularly during the tillering stage, regardless of the N fertilizer rate. The percentage of N absorbed by rice plants increased from urea but decreased from the soil as the amount of nitrogen was increased. Interestingly, the N retention rate in soil decreased and rice grain yield and nitrogen agronomic efficiency increased as the amount of nitrogen increased in both salt-affected soil conditions. The nitrogen application amount of highest N physiological efficiency was 225 kg·N/ha. Considering high rice production and a minimal environmental threat, we should fully consider controlling ammonia volatilization losses by adjusting the fertilizer type and the crop stage when the fertilizer is applied.

  16. Natural polymeric 3-alkylpyridinium salt affects vertebrate skeletal muscle contractility by preferentially blocking neuromuscular transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žužek, Monika Cecilija; Grandič, Marjana; Benoit, Evelyne; Frangež, Robert

    2017-11-05

    The effects of natural polymeric alkylpyridinium salt (nPoly-3-APS), a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor isolated from the marine sponge Reniera sarai, were studied on isolated mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm muscle preparations using electrophysiological approaches. nPoly-3-APS inhibited nerve-evoked isometric muscle twitch and tetanic contraction in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50=29.4μM and 18.5μM, respectively) and produced a 30-44% decrease of directly muscle-elicited twitch and tetanus amplitudes at 54.4μM. Additionally, nPoly-3-APS (9.1-27.2μM) markedly decreased the amplitude of miniature endplate potentials, while their frequency was only affected at the highest concentration used. Endplate potentials were also inhibited by nPoly-3-APS in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50=20.1μM), without significant change in the resting membrane potential of muscle fibers (up to 54.4μM). In conclusion, our results show, for the first time, that nPoly-3-APS preferentially blocks the neuromuscular transmission, in vitro, by a non-depolarizing mechanism. This strongly suggests that the in vivo toxicity of nPoly-3-APS mainly occurs through an antagonist action of the compound on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of skeletal muscles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of remote sensing-based classification methods for change detection of salt-affected areas (Biskra area, Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrasinei, Gabriela M.; Melis, Maria T.; Buttau, Cristina; Bradd, John M.; Arras, Claudio; Ghiglieri, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    In the Wadi Biskra arid and semiarid areas, sustainable development is restricted by land degradation processes such as secondary salinization of soils. Being an important high-quality date production region of Algeria, this area needs continuous monitoring of desertification indicators, hence highly exposed to climate-related risks. Given the limited access to field data, appropriate methods were assessed for the identification and change detection of salt-affected areas, involving image interpretation and automated classifications employing Landsat imagery, ancillary and multisource ground truth data. First, a visual photointerpretation study of the land cover and land use classes was undergone according to acknowledged methodologies. Second, two automated classification approaches were developed: a customized decision tree classification (DTC) and an unsupervised one applied to the principal components of Knepper ratios composite. Five indices were employed in the DTC construction, among which also is a salinity index. The diachronic analysis was undergone for the 1984 to 2015 images (including seasonal approach), being supported by the interpreted land cover/land use map for error estimation. Considering also biophysical and socioeconomic data, comprehensive results are discussed. One of the most important aspects that emerged was that the accelerated expansion of agricultural land in the last three decades has led and continues to contribute to a secondary salinization of soils.

  18. Root adaptation and ion selectivity affects the nutritional value of salt-stressed hidroponically grown baby-leaf Nasturtium officinale and Lactuca sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Juan A.; Diana, Niñirola; Jesús, Ochoa; Francesco, Orsini; Giuseppina, Pennisi; Giorgio, Gianquinto; Catalina, Egea-gilabert

    2016-01-01

    The response of watercress (Nasturtium officinale L.) to salinity has been scarcely addressed in literature despite its growing importance in the baby-leaf market and its wide cultivation in salt-affected agricultural regions. This work evaluates the effect of salinity (2.5, 5 and 10 dS m-1) on productive and quality features of watercress compared with another crop widely cultivated for the baby-leaf sector (lettuce, Lactuca sativa). In watercress, a linear relationship (R2=0.75) was observe...

  19. The origin of sea salt in snow on Arctic sea ice and in coastal regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Domine

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow, through its trace constituents, can have a major impact on lower tropospheric chemistry, as evidenced by ozone depletion events (ODEs in oceanic polar areas. These ODEs are caused by the chemistry of bromine compounds that originate from sea salt bromide. Bromide may be supplied to the snow surface by upward migration from sea ice, by frost flowers being wind-blown to the snow surface, or by wind-transported aerosol generated by sea spray. We investigate here the relative importance of these processes by analyzing ions in snow near Alert and Ny-Ålesund (Canadian and European high Arctic in winter and spring. Vertical ionic profiles in the snowpack on sea ice are measured to test upward migration of sea salt ions and to seek evidence for ion fractionation processes. Time series of the ionic composition of surface snow layers are investigated to quantify wind-transported ions. Upward migration of unfractionated sea salt to heights of at least 17cm was observed in winter snow, leading to Cl- concentration of several hundred µM. Upward migration thus has the potential to supply ions to surface snow layers. Time series show that wind can deposit aerosols to the top few cm of the snow, leading also to Cl- concentrations of several hundred µM, so that both diffusion from sea ice and wind transport can significantly contribute ions to snow. At Ny-Ålesund, sea salt transported by wind was unfractionated, implying that it comes from sea spray rather than frost flowers. Estimations based on our results suggest that the marine snowpack contains about 10 times more Na+ than the frost flowers, so that both the marine snowpack and frost flowers need to be considered as sea salt sources. Our data suggest that ozone depletion chemistry can significantly enhance the Br- content of snow. We speculate that this can also take place in coastal regions and contribute to propagate ODEs inland. Finally, we stress the need to measure snow physical parameters

  20. Salt stress is an environmental signal affecting degradative enzyme synthesis in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, F; Rapoport, G

    1995-05-01

    Growth under conditions of salt stress has important effects on the synthesis of degradative enzymes in Bacillus subtilis. Salt stress strongly stimulates the expression of sacB, encoding levansucrase (about ninefold), and downregulates the expression of aprE, encoding alkaline protease (about sixfold). It is suggested that the DegS-DegU two-component system is involved in sensing salt stress. Moreover, it has been shown that the level of sacB expression strongly depends on the growth conditions; its expression level is about eightfold higher in cells grown on agar plates than in cells grown in liquid medium.

  1. Microbial Community Analysis of a Coastal Salt Marsh Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazley, Melanie J.; Martinez, Robert J.; Rajan, Suja; Powell, Jessica; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; Andersen, Gary L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Mortazavi, Behzad; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal salt marshes are highly sensitive wetland ecosystems that can sustain long-term impacts from anthropogenic events such as oil spills. In this study, we examined the microbial communities of a Gulf of Mexico coastal salt marsh during and after the influx of petroleum hydrocarbons following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Total hydrocarbon concentrations in salt marsh sediments were highest in June and July 2010 and decreased in September 2010. Coupled PhyloChip and GeoChip microarray analyses demonstrated that the microbial community structure and function of the extant salt marsh hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations changed significantly during the study. The relative richness and abundance of phyla containing previously described hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria) increased in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments and then decreased once hydrocarbons were below detection. Firmicutes, however, continued to increase in relative richness and abundance after hydrocarbon concentrations were below detection. Functional genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation were enriched in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments then declined significantly (pmarsh grass sediments compared to inlet sediments (lacking marsh grass) suggests that the marsh rhizosphere microbial communities could also be contributing to hydrocarbon degradation. The results of this study provide a comprehensive view of microbial community structural and functional dynamics within perturbed salt marsh ecosystems. PMID:22815990

  2. Microbial community analysis of a coastal salt marsh affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazley, Melanie J; Martinez, Robert J; Rajan, Suja; Powell, Jessica; Piceno, Yvette M; Tom, Lauren M; Andersen, Gary L; Hazen, Terry C; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; Mortazavi, Behzad; Sobecky, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    Coastal salt marshes are highly sensitive wetland ecosystems that can sustain long-term impacts from anthropogenic events such as oil spills. In this study, we examined the microbial communities of a Gulf of Mexico coastal salt marsh during and after the influx of petroleum hydrocarbons following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Total hydrocarbon concentrations in salt marsh sediments were highest in June and July 2010 and decreased in September 2010. Coupled PhyloChip and GeoChip microarray analyses demonstrated that the microbial community structure and function of the extant salt marsh hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations changed significantly during the study. The relative richness and abundance of phyla containing previously described hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria) increased in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments and then decreased once hydrocarbons were below detection. Firmicutes, however, continued to increase in relative richness and abundance after hydrocarbon concentrations were below detection. Functional genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation were enriched in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments then declined significantly (pmarsh grass sediments compared to inlet sediments (lacking marsh grass) suggests that the marsh rhizosphere microbial communities could also be contributing to hydrocarbon degradation. The results of this study provide a comprehensive view of microbial community structural and functional dynamics within perturbed salt marsh ecosystems.

  3. Microbial community analysis of a coastal salt marsh affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie J Beazley

    Full Text Available Coastal salt marshes are highly sensitive wetland ecosystems that can sustain long-term impacts from anthropogenic events such as oil spills. In this study, we examined the microbial communities of a Gulf of Mexico coastal salt marsh during and after the influx of petroleum hydrocarbons following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Total hydrocarbon concentrations in salt marsh sediments were highest in June and July 2010 and decreased in September 2010. Coupled PhyloChip and GeoChip microarray analyses demonstrated that the microbial community structure and function of the extant salt marsh hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations changed significantly during the study. The relative richness and abundance of phyla containing previously described hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria increased in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments and then decreased once hydrocarbons were below detection. Firmicutes, however, continued to increase in relative richness and abundance after hydrocarbon concentrations were below detection. Functional genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation were enriched in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments then declined significantly (p<0.05 once hydrocarbon concentrations decreased. A greater decrease in hydrocarbon concentrations among marsh grass sediments compared to inlet sediments (lacking marsh grass suggests that the marsh rhizosphere microbial communities could also be contributing to hydrocarbon degradation. The results of this study provide a comprehensive view of microbial community structural and functional dynamics within perturbed salt marsh ecosystems.

  4. Genes involved in vasoconstriction and vasodilation system affect salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Citterio

    Full Text Available The importance of excess salt intake in the pathogenesis of hypertension is widely recognized. Blood pressure is controlled primarily by salt and water balance because of the infinite gain property of the kidney to rapidly eliminate excess fluid and salt. Up to fifty percent of patients with essential hypertension are salt-sensitive, as manifested by a rise in blood pressure with salt loading. We conducted a two-stage genetic analysis in hypertensive patients very accurately phenotyped for their salt-sensitivity. All newly discovered never treated before, essential hypertensives underwent an acute salt load to monitor the simultaneous changes in blood pressure and renal sodium excretion. The first stage consisted in an association analysis of genotyping data derived from genome-wide array on 329 subjects. Principal Component Analysis demonstrated that this population was homogenous. Among the strongest results, we detected a cluster of SNPs located in the first introns of PRKG1 gene (rs7897633, p = 2.34E-05 associated with variation in diastolic blood pressure after acute salt load. We further focused on two genetic loci, SLC24A3 and SLC8A1 (plasma membrane sodium/calcium exchange proteins, NCKX3 and NCX1, respectively with a functional relationship with the previous gene and associated to variations in systolic blood pressure (the imputed rs3790261, p = 4.55E-06; and rs434082, p = 4.7E-03. In stage 2, we characterized 159 more patients for the SNPs in PRKG1, SLC24A3 and SLC8A1. Combined analysis showed an epistatic interaction of SNPs in SLC24A3 and SLC8A1 on the pressure-natriuresis (p interaction = 1.55E-04, p model = 3.35E-05, supporting their pathophysiological link in cellular calcium homeostasis. In conclusions, these findings point to a clear association between body sodium-blood pressure relations and molecules modulating the contractile state of vascular cells through an increase in cytoplasmic calcium concentration.

  5. Zooming in and out: scale dependence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors affecting salt marsh erosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; van der Wal, D.; Li, X.; van Belzen, J.; Herman, P.M.J.; Hu, Z.; Ge, Z.; Zhang, L.; Bouma, T.J.

    2017-01-01

    Salt marshes are valuable ecosystems that provide important ecosystem services. Given the global scale of marsh loss due to climate change and coastal squeeze, there is a pressing need to identify the critical extrinsic (wind exposure and foreshore morphology) and intrinsic factors (soil and

  6. Chloride salt mixtures affect Gordal cv. green Spanish-style table olive fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista Gallego, J; Arroyo López, F N; Romero Gil, V; Rodríguez Gómez, F; García García, P; Garrido Fernández, A

    2011-10-01

    This work studies the effects of different sodium (in the range of 4-10%), potassium (0-4%) and calcium (0-6%) chloride salt mixtures on the fermentation profile of Gordal olives processed according to the Spanish style. For this purpose, response surface methodology based on a simplex centroid mixture design with constrain (sum of salt percentages = 10%) was used. All treatments reached appropriate titratable acidity levels, but this parameter could not be related to the initial chloride salt concentration. The presence of CaCl(2) led to lower initial and after-fermentation pHs, delayed sugar diffusion into the brine, its maximum concentration and titratable acidity formation. CaCl(2) also delayed Enterobacteriaceae and yeast sprang, decreasing their overall growth. This chloride salt also showed a tendency to reduce overall lactic acid bacteria growth. KCl had a similar behaviour to NaCl but, in general, increased overall microbial growth. Thus, a partial substitution of NaCl in Spanish-style green olives with KCl and CaCl(2) does not substantially modify the fermentation profile but does produce some changes, which, when properly managed, could help to improve product processing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The use of potato and sweet potato starches affects white salted noodle quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Z.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Potato and sweet potato starches and derivatives thereof were used to substitute part of the wheat flour in white salted noodle (WSN) manufacture. The quality of the WSN obtained was compared with the quality of WSN made from wheat flour only. When up to 20% of wheat flour was replaced by acetylated

  8. Characteristics of chicken nuggets as affected by added fat and variable salt contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogesh, K; Ahmad, T; Manpreet, G; Mangesh, K; Das, P

    2013-02-01

    Several studies have been conducted in many countries on how to increase the per capita consumption of poultry meat. With the growing demand for poultry meat, the development of value added product, such as chicken nuggets has been identified as the best way to increase poultry meat consumption. Apart from this allowing for the flourishing growth of fast food industries; chicken nuggets needs to be produced in higher quantity and to reduce cost, there is increasing interest in using of various meat additives. Though, chicken fat are edible, it is important to evolve production processes for gainful utilization of this part. So the main objective of this work was to study the effect of the addition of chicken fat and various salt contents on the physicochemical, proximate composition and sensory characteristics of chicken nuggets. Based on the results it is concluded that, even up to 5% level of chicken fat with 1.5-2% added salt there is no adverse effect in terms of physico-chemical, proximate composition and sensory qualities of cooked chicken nuggets. Even, at this fat and salt level product was more preferred by panellist than no fat-no salt chicken nuggets.

  9. Root adaptation and ion selectivity affects the nutritional value of salt-stressed hydroponically grown baby-leaf Nasturtium officinale and Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Fernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The response of watercress (Nasturtium officinale L. to salinity has been scarcely addressed in literature despite its growing importance in the baby-leaf market and its wide cultivation in salt-affected agricultural regions. This work evaluates the effect of salinity (2.5, 5 and 10 dS m-1 on productive and quality features of watercress compared with another crop widely cultivated for the baby-leaf sector (lettuce, Lactuca sativa. In watercress, a linear relationship (R2=0.75 was observed between yield decrease and Cl– accumulation in leaves, whereas yield was not affected by salinity in lettuce. NaCl application increased Na+ accumulation at the expense of Ca2+ uptake in the leaf tissues of both crops, but also of K+ in watercress. Health-related features were improved by salinity (e.g. increased phenolics and reduced nitrates, especially in watercress, with limited sensorial quality evaluation effects.

  10. Structure of the Western Gulf of Mexico Salt Canopy Surface Imaged by Regional 2D Multichannel Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, W. W.; Robla, V.; Emmet, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    The morphology of the continental slope of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) shifts going from the smoother offshore Texas (TX) margin to the rugose central Louisiana (LA) offshore. This change is considered a reflection of the structure of mobile Jurassic salt residing within the margin sediment column. To test this hypothesis, the structure of the top of salt across the TX and western LA continental slopes has been imaged and compared to the bathymetry using a regional grid of 2D industry multichannel seismic data. The 2D data, provided by TGS, were analyzed using IHS Kingdom software. Prior studies, regional well data, and satellite gravity data were examined to support and constrain interpretations. Seafloor (SF) and top-of-salt (TOS) time picks from seismic profiles were gridded to make regional time-structure maps of these surfaces. Comparison of SF and TOS contours demonstrates the expected correlation. A closer inspection reveals that the preponderance of SF is coincident with the underlying highs and lows of the TOS and that the study area is characterized by a transition in salt morphology that corresponds to bathymetric expression. The western slope is dominated by large, shallow, circular, isolated salt bodies and the overlying seafloor is smooth with exception of large, circular high relief above nearly all of the interpreted salt structures. The TOS texture gradually changes going eastward where individual salt bodies increase in number and coalesce into large, shallow canopies of increasing rugosity. Again, the outline of the canopies, and many of the crests of the constitute salt bodies, are observable on the SF. Elongate salt structures dominate the north central and northeast study area, while a relatively continuous, highly rugged canopy spans the southern and outer margin of the slope. While some of the northern-most elongate bodies are less correlated with the SF, most are and the undulating relief of the canopy clearly translates to SF

  11. On harbour siltation in the fresh-salt water mixing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nijs, Michel A. J.; Winterwerp, Johan C.; Pietrzak, Julie D.

    2009-01-01

    survey data suggest that Botlek Harbour basin has a 100% trapping efficiency. Analysis of 5 months of data, from a measuring rig located within the harbour, show excursions of the limit of the salt wedge and ETM. These excursions are likely to affect siltation of upstream harbours. Salinity-induced density gradients control the transport and subsequent trapping of SPM in the estuary in close proximity to the harbour entrance, the exchange of SPM between the estuary and harbour, and the trapping of SPM in the harbour basin.

  12. Cross-regional cortical synchronization during affective image viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskovic, Vladimir; Schmidt, Louis A

    2010-11-29

    Affective perception has been suggested to involve the coordinated activation of widely distributed cortical networks, including those involved in sensory storage/analysis and higher-order structures, such as the prefrontal cortex that regulate these processes. We measured regional electroencephalogram (EEG) activity while young adult participants viewed images varying in arousal and valence (pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant). Viewing highly arousing images led to a significant enhancement of EEG coherence between prefrontal and posterior electrodes in both cerebral hemispheres. Long distance interhemispheric coherence also increased during affective image viewing, but only among females. Increases in coherent brain electrical activity were specific to oscillations in the beta (14 to 30Hz) bandwidth, while right hemispheric networks oscillating in the theta (4 to 7Hz) range tended to de-synchronize during viewing of affective images. Although directionality could not be inferred, analyses of lead-lag relations showed the prefrontal electrodes leading the posterior clusters, consistent with top-down modulation. Our results suggest large-scale synchronization of cortical cells during affective viewing and emphasize the role of beta oscillations in mediating such binding. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effect of shifting sand burial on evaporation reduction and salt restraint under saline water irrigation in extremely arid region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Xin-Wen; Lei, Jia-Qiang; Li, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Yong-Dong

    2014-05-01

    The Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt is drip-irrigated with high saline groundwater (2.58-29.70 g x L(-1)), and shifting sand burial and water-salt stress are most common and serious problems in this region. So it is of great importance to study the effect of shifting sand burial on soil moisture evaporation, salt accumulation and their distribution for water saving, salinity restraint, and suitable utilization of local land and water resources. In this study, Micro-Lysimeters (MLS) were used to investigate dynamics of soil moisture and salt under different thicknesses of sand burial (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm), and field control experiments of drip-irrigation were also carried out to investigate soil moisture and salt distribution under different thicknesses of shifting sand burial (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 cm). The soil daily and cumulative evaporation decreased with the increase of sand burial thickness in MLS, cumulative evaporation decreased by 2.5%-13.7% compared with control. And evaporative inhibiting efficiency increased with sand burial thickness, evaporative inhibiting efficiency of 1-5 cm sand burial was 16.7%-79.0%. Final soil moisture content beneath the interface of sand burial increased with sand burial thickness, and it increased by 2.5%-13.7% than control. The topsoil EC of shifting sand in MLS decreased by 1.19-6.00 mS x cm(-1) with the increasing sand burial thickness, whereas soil salt content beneath the interface in MLS increased and amplitude of the topsoil salt content was higher than that of the subsoil. Under drip-irrigation with saline groundwater, average soil moisture beneath the interface of shifting sand burial increased by 0.4% -2.0% compare with control, and the highest value of EC was 7.77 mS x cm(-1) when the sand burial thickness was 10 cm. The trend of salt accumulation content at shifting sand surface increased firstly, and then decreased with the increasing sand burial thickness. Soil salt contents beneath the

  14. Factors Affecting Tourist Expenditure Coming To Mugla Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehime Korkmaz Bingöl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing tourist expenditure is a means to increase tourism income, which is extremely important for local economies. The purpose of this study is to understand the expending pattern of tourists coming to Mugla Region and provide empirical background for the policies to increase per tourist expenditure. The survey conducted at Dalaman International Airport and the data has been analyzed using OLS method. Nationality, age, accommodation type, pension type, credit card usage, availability of shopping facilities, standard of night life and entertainment, quality of food and beverage, length of holiday and group size has been found as significant factors affecting tourist expenditure

  15. Regional geohydrology of the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin; Part I, conceptual model and data needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, G.N.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program, the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a regional study of the geohydrology of the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin and developing a regional multi-layered ground-water flow model to determine regional flow paths. In the salt-dome basin the Tokio Formation and Brownstown Marl (Austin aquifer in this report), and Nacatoch Sand of Late Cretaceous age and the Wilcox Group, Carrizo Sand, Sparta Sand, and Cockfield Formation of Tertiary age contain regional aquifers within the maximum potential repository depth of 3,000 feet. The Cretaceous units contain saltwater throughout the basin. The Tertiary units contain freshwater to varying distances downdip from outcrop areas in the basin. Natural flow directions and rates of movement of groundwater have been changed in the salt-dome basin by the withdrawl of freshwater and by the injection of wastes (principally oil-field brines) into saline aquifers. Except for the Sparta aquifer, ground-water flow directions are not well known because of a lack of potentiometric data. A regional test-drilling program, to collect the data needed to document concepts of the flow system and to quantify inputs to the planned ground-water flow model, has been proposed. The Sparta aquifer is being modeled because data are available for the unit. As regional test drilling provides data on other units, will be added to the model developed for the Sparta aquifer. (USGS)

  16. Model of the biotic cycle "plants germs - microorganisms" by affect heavy metal salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisman, Tamara

    The growth of wheat germ roots exposed to heavy metal salts (ZnSO4) was studied experimentally and theoretically. During the experiment the plant seeds were preliminarily treated with an experimental microbial association. As a result, data were obtained about the decrease of the inhibiting effect of zinc on the growth of wheat germ roots where the seeds had been treated with the microbial association. To understand such effect, calculations were made to reveal the specific growth rate of a germ root depending on the inhibitor concentration with and without microorganism association treatment. It was shown that in case with the wheat germ roots the seeds of which had been treated with the microorganisms the inhibition constant (kI = 45 MPC (Maximum Permissible Concentration) was higher than in the case with the roots growing out of the seeds that hadn't been treated with the microorganisms (kI = 32 MPC). One of possible reasons for the decrease of growth inhibition of wheat germ roots by zinc salt is the protective function of microorganism's treatment of the seeds. To verify and confirm the experimental results, a mathematical model was created imitating the interaction between wheat germ roots and microbial association exposed to an inhibitor. Investigation of the model proved that the microbial association has a positive effect on the growth of wheat germ roots exposed to an inhibitor. The experimental and theoretical results agreed quantitatively. It was found out that the increase of the inhibitor concentration led to the effect of maximum relief of zinc inhibiting impact. The work is supported by grants Yenissei 07-04-96806.

  17. Salinity affects production and salt tolerance of dimorphic seeds of Suaeda salsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengxia; Xu, Yan-Ge; Wang, Shuai; Shi, Weiwei; Liu, Ranran; Feng, Gu; Song, Jie

    2015-10-01

    The effect of salinity on brown seeds/black seeds ratio, seed weight, endogenous hormone concentrations, and germination of brown and black seeds in the euhalophyte Suaeda salsa was investigated. The brown seeds/black seeds ratio, seed weight of brown and black seeds and the content of protein increased at a concentration of 500 mM NaCl compared to low salt conditions (1 mM NaCl). The germination percentage and germination index of brown seeds from plants cultured in 500 mM NaCl were higher than those cultured in 1 mM NaCl, but it was not true for black seeds. The concentrations of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), ZR (free zeatin riboside) and ABA (abscisic acid) in brown seeds were much greater than those in black seeds, but there were no differences in the level of GAs (gibberellic acid including GA1 and GA3) regardless of the degree of salinity. Salinity during plant culture increased the concentration of GAs, but salinity had no effect on the concentrations of the other three endogenous hormones in brown seeds. Salinity had no effect on the concentration of IAA but increased the concentrations of the other three endogenous hormones in black seeds. Accumulation of endogenous hormones at different concentrations of NaCl during plant growth may be related to seed development and to salt tolerance of brown and black S. salsa seeds. These characteristics may help the species to ensure seedling establishment and population succession in variable saline environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Antioxidant enzyme and osmotic adjustment changes in bean seedlings as affected by biochar under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhangi-Abriz, Salar; Torabian, Shahram

    2017-03-01

    Salinity damaged cellular membranes through overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while osmolytes and antioxidant capacities play a vital role in protecting plants from salinity caused oxidative damages. Biochar also could alleviate the negative impacts of salt stress in crops. The pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of biochar on some antioxidant enzyme activities and osmolyte adjustments of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Derakhshan) under salinity stress. Bean plants were subjected to three salinity levels (non-saline, 6 and 12 dSm-1 of NaCl) and biochar treatments (non-biochar, 10% and 20% total pot mass). Shoot and root dry weights of bean were decreased at two salt stress treatments. Salinity increased the activity of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), oxygen radicals (O2•-), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in leaf and root compared to control. Additionally, increased magnitudes of proline, glycine betaine, soluble sugar and soluble protein contents were more pronounced under 12 dSm-1 NaCl than those under 6 dSm-1 NaCl. In contrast, biochar applied to soil enhanced the shoot and root dry weight in comparison with the non-biochar treatment. Furthermore, all of the antioxidant activities of seedlings in soil treated with biochar, particularly at 20% biochar, declined. With the addition of biochar, the contents of MDA, O2•- and H2O2 displayed remarkable decrease, and the osmotic substances accumulation in leaves and roots also reduced. The presented results supported the view that biochar can contribute to protect common bean seedlings against NaCl stress by alleviating the oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DWARF COCONUT PLANTS UNDER WATER DEFICIT IN SALT - AFFECTED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE REUBER ALMEIDA DA SILVA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the physiological acclimation responses of young plants of the dwarf coconut cultivar ̳Jiqui Green‘ associated with tolerance to conditions of multiple abiotic stresses (drought and soil salinity, acting either independently or in combination. The study was conducted under controlled conditions and evaluated the following parameters: leaf gas exchange, quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence, and relative contents of total chlorophyll (SPAD index. The experiment was conducted under a randomized block experimental design, in a split plot arrangement. In the plots, plants were exposed to different levels of water stress, by imposing potential crop evapotranspiration replacement levels equivalent to 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, and 20%, whereas in subplots, plants were exposed to different levels of soil salinity (1.72, 6.25, 25.80, and 40.70 dS m - 1 . Physiological mechanisms were effectively limited when water deficit and salinity acted separately and/or together. Compared with soil salinity, water stress was more effective in reducing the measured physiological parameters. The magnitudes of the responses of plants to water supply and salinity depended on the intensity of stress and evaluation period. The physiological acclimation responses of plants were mainly related to stomatal regulation. The coconut tree has a number of physiological adjustment mechanisms that give the species partial tolerance to drought stress and/or salt, thereby enabling it to revegetate salinated areas, provided that its water requirements are at least partially met.

  20. Soil amendments and cultivar selection can improve rice yield in salt-influenced (tsunami-affected) paddy fields in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenauer, Thomas G; Panamulla, Sunil; Subasinghe, Siripala; Wimmer, Bernhard

    2009-10-01

    The tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean in December 2004 caused devastation of agricultural soils by salt water over wide areas. Many rice fields located close to the coast were affected by the flood of seawater. Electric conductivity (EC) of soils in tsunami-affected rice fields was found to be higher compared to unaffected fields 2 years after the tsunami. Four soil amendments (gypsum, dolomite, cinnamon ash and rice-husk-charcoal) were tested for their influence on improving the yield parameters of rice grown in a tsunami-affected and a non-affected area. Yield parameters were compared with an untreated control of the same cultivar (AT362) and with a salt resistant rice variety (AT354). The salt resistant variety had the highest grain yield. The two amendments gypsum and rice-husk-charcoal led to an increase in grain yield compared to the untreated control, whereas dolomite and cinnamon ash had no significant effect on grain yield.

  1. BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF LIPID METABOLISM IN ANIMALS AFFECTED BY HEAVY METAL SALTS AND TREATED WITH CARNITINE CHLORIDE AND SODIUM ALGINATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Bekus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipid metabolism disorders in the organism affected by environmental pollutants, including poisoning with cadmium and lead salts are of topical matter nowadays. Objective. The study was aimed to examine biochemical features of lipid metabolism in rats subjected to toxic damage by lead and cadmium salts and treated with carnitine chloride and Algigel. Methods. Experiments were carried out on white mature outbred male rats weighing 180-200 g. To cause the toxic damage the animals were administered with aqueous solution of cadmium chloride and lead acetate daily for the period of 30 days using intra-gastric lavage. The indices of lipid metabolism were detected by biochemical methods. Results. In animals treated with cadmium chloride and lead acetate the following changes were observed: HDL-cholesterol concentrations significantly decreased, resulting in 87% of the levels in the intact animals on the third day, 84% on the fifth and 80% on the seventh day. Conversely, concentrations of HDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol significantly increased during the experiment. Respectively, the ratios for HDL-cholesterol are 240%, 352%, and 388%; and for VLDL-cholesterol 108%, 116%, and 132%. Conclusions. Lipids profile of the rats displayed changes in the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins of low, high and very low density.

  2. Microwave irradiation affects ion pairing in aqueous solutions of alkali halide salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohorič, Tomaž; Bren, Urban

    2017-01-01

    Using the molecular dynamics simulations with separate thermostats for translational and rotational degrees of freedom, we investigate the effects of water's rotational motion on the ion pairing of ionic solutes in aqueous solutions. The situation with rotational temperature higher than the translational one, Trot>Ttrs , is mimicking the non-equilibrium effects of microwaves on model solutions of alkali halide salts. The simulations reveal that an increase in the rotational temperature at constant translational temperature exerts significant changes in the structure of the solution. The latter are reflected in increased pairing of the oppositely charged ions, which can be explained by the weaker ability of rotationally excited water to screen and separate the opposite charges. It seems that Collins' law of matching water affinities retains its validity also in the non-equilibrium situation where the rotational temperature exceeds the translational one. On the other hand, the equilibrium effect (i.e., an increase in the solution's overall temperature T ≡Trot = Ttrs) favors the formation of small-small (NaCl), while it has a little effect on large-large (CsI) ion pairs. This is in accordance with water becoming less polar solvent upon a temperature increase. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of excited translational motion of water (and ions) on the ion pairing by increasing the translational temperature, while keeping the rotational one unchanged (i.e., Ttrs>Trot ). Interestingly, in certain cases the faster translational motion causes an increase in correlations. The temperature variations in the like-ion association constants, Kas++ and Kas-, are also examined. Here the situation is more complex but, in most cases, a decrease in the ion pairing is observed.

  3. A fractional derivative approach to full creep regions in salt rock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, H. W.; Wang, C. P.; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2013-01-01

    on the basis of time-based fractional derivative. The analytic solution for the fractional-derivative creep constitutive model is presented. The parameters of the fractional derivative creep model are determined by the Levenberg–Marquardt method on the basis of the experimental results of creep tests on salt...... rock. Furthermore, a sensitivity study is carried out, showing the effects of stress level, fractional derivative order and viscosity coefficient exponent on creep strain of salt rock. It is indicated that the fractional derivative creep model proposed in the paper provides a precise description...

  4. Minjingu phosphate rock availability in low-pH highly weathered soil as affected by added salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Savini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations and identity of ions in the soil solution may affect soil phosphorus (P reactions and P availability. In this study, the magnitude of these reactions was evaluated following the application of Minjingu phosphate rock (MPR combined with chloride and carbonate salts of Na and Ca within an incubation experiment. Twenty-one days later NaOH-P and HCl-P were determined. This investigation was undertaken with the aim of identifying the role of Ca-ion activity in the liquid phase on the solubilization of MPR and formation of insoluble Ca-P phases. The increase in pH was higher with Na2CO3 than with CaCO3, while both CaCl2 and NaCl resulted in slight decreases in pH. The dissolution of MPR was higher overall when MPR was applied singularly than for the combined application of the phosphate rock with salts of calcium or sodium after 60 days of incubation. Dissolution of MPR decreased as levels of CaCO3 or CaCl2 increased but the decrease was more pronounced in CaCO3-treated than in CaCl2-treated soils. Ca-ion activity in the liquid phase is the main factor responsible for the insolubilization of MPR and the formation of insoluble Ca-P phases (HCl P. The formation of Ca-P solid phases increased with the concentration of Ca-ions, and was governed by the pH and nature of the accompanying anion. For soils with low levels of exchangeable cations and where liming is a recommended intervention measure, Ca from lime will form insoluble P phases and reduce the dissolution of PR and P availability to plants.

  5. Marine ecoregion and Deepwater Horizon oil spill affect recruitment and population structure of a salt marsh snail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Steven C.; Zengel, Scott; Oehrig, Jacob; Alber, Merryl; Bishop, T. Dale; Deis, Donald R.; Devlin, Donna; Hughes, A. Randall; Hutchens, John J.; Kiehn, Whitney M.; McFarlin, Caroline R.; Montague, Clay L.; Powers, Sean P.; Proffitt, C. Edward; Rutherford, Nicolle; Stagg, Camille L.; Walters, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Marine species with planktonic larvae often have high spatial and temporal variation in recruitment that leads to subsequent variation in the ecology of benthic adults. Using a combination of published and unpublished data, we compared the population structure of the salt marsh snail, Littoraria irrorata, between the South Atlantic Bight and the Gulf Coast of the United States to infer geographic differences in recruitment and to test the hypothesis that the Deepwater Horizon oil spill led to widespread recruitment failure of L. irrorata in Louisiana in 2010. Size-frequency distributions in both ecoregions were bimodal, with troughs in the distributions consistent with a transition from sub-adults to adults at ~13 mm in shell length as reported in the literature; however, adult snails reached larger sizes in the Gulf Coast. The ratio of sub-adults to adults was 1.5–2 times greater in the South Atlantic Bight than the Gulf Coast, consistent with higher recruitment rates in the South Atlantic Bight. Higher recruitment rates in the South Atlantic Bight could contribute to higher snail densities and reduced adult growth in this region. The ratio of sub-adults to adults in Louisiana was lower in 2011 than in previous years, and began to recover in 2012–2014, consistent with widespread recruitment failure in 2010, when large expanses of spilled oil were present in coastal waters. Our results reveal an important difference in the ecology of a key salt marsh invertebrate between the two ecoregions, and also suggest that the Deepwater Horizon oil spill may have caused widespread recruitment failure in this species and perhaps others with similar planktonic larval stages.

  6. Environmental assessment of water-salt regime of irrigated soils in the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaeva, Liliia; Negrobova, Elena; Jablonskikh, Lidiia; Rumyantseva, Irina

    2016-04-01

    A large part of Central Chernozem Region is located in the zone of risky agriculture. This led to intensive use of soil in the irrigation system. Therefore, a detailed analysis of water-salt regime of irrigated soils required for ecological state assessment of soils for irrigation. In the investigated area the fone component of the soil cover on the levelled plateau are chernozems. On the slopes formed a meadow-chernozem soils. Parent material is a cover loess-like calcareous non-saline clay. In these soils, our studies found component-quantitative composition of the aqueous extract, the chemism of salinity, which allowed us to make conclusions about the direction of the salinisation process in soils when used in the system of irrigated agriculture. By quantity water extract chernozems are non-saline, the ratio of anions and cations are chloride-sulphate magnesium-calcium salinization. In the composition of easily soluble salts dominated by Ca(HCO3)2. On sum of toxic salts in the soils are non-saline. This type and chemism of salinity deep brackish groundwater (more than 5 m) can be actively used in the system of rational irrigation. The meadow-chernozem soils formed under conditions of increased surface and soil moisture in the shallow brackish water at a depth of 3-5 m. These soils by quantity water extract are non-saline, anionic-cationic ratio - chloride-sulphate magnesium-calcium salinization. Permanent components of salt associations are Ca(HCO3)2, MgCl2, Na2SO4. On sum of toxic salts in the soil is not saline throughout the profile. The chemism of salinity and the proximity of groundwater at irregular watering can lead to the rise of groundwater level, the development of gleyed and sodium alkalinization. Thus, the introduction of intensive irrigated agriculture on chernozems and hydromorphic analogues may lead to the development in them of negative consequences. The most dynamic indicator is the water-salt regime, the systematic monitoring and control which

  7. Assimilation and Translocation of Dry Matter and Phosphorus in Rice Genotypes Affected by Salt-Alkaline Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Salt-alkaline stress generally leads to soil compaction and fertility decline. It also restricts rice growth and phosphorus acquisition. In this pot experiment, two relatively salt-alkaline tolerant (Dongdao-4 and Changbai-9 and sensitive (Changbai-25 and Tongyu-315 rice genotypes were planted in sandy (control and salt-alkaline soil to evaluate the characteristics of dry matter and phosphorus assimilation and translocation in rice. The results showed that dry matter and phosphorus assimilation in rice greatly decreased under salt-alkaline stress as the plants grew. The translocation and contribution of dry matter and phosphorus to the grains also increased markedly; different performances were observed between genotypes under salt-alkaline stress. D4 and C9 showed higher dry matter translocation, translocation efficiency and contribution of dry matter assimilation to panicles than those of C25 and T315. These changes in D4 and C9 indexes occurred at low levels of salt-alkaline treatment. Higher phosphorus acquisition efficiency of D4 and C9 were also found under salt-alkaline conditions. Additionally, the phosphorus translocation significantly decreased in C25 and T315 in the stress treatment. In conclusion, the results indicated that salt-alkaline-tolerant rice genotypes may have stronger abilities to assimilate and transfer biomass and phosphorus than sensitive genotypes, especially in salt-alkaline conditions.

  8. Habitat management affects soil chemistry and allochthonous organic inputs mediating microbial structure and exo-enzyme activity in Wadden Sea salt-marsh soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Peter; Granse, Dirk; Thi Do, Hai; Weingartner, Magdalena; Nolte, Stefanie; Hoth, Stefan; Jensen, Kai

    2016-04-01

    The Wadden Sea (WS) region is Europe's largest wetland and home to approximately 20% of its salt marsh area. Mainland salt marshes of the WS are anthropogenically influenced systems and have traditionally been used for livestock grazing in wide parts. After foundation of WS National Parks in the late 1980s and early 1990s, artificial drainage has been abandoned; however, livestock grazing is still common in many areas of the National Parks and is under ongoing discussion as a habitat-management practice. While studies so far focused on effects of livestock grazing on biodiversity, little is known about how biogeochemical processes, element cycling, and particularly carbon sequestration are affected. Here, we present data from a recent field study focusing on grazing effects on soil properties, microbial exo-enzyme activity, microbial abundance and structure. Exo-enzyme activity was studied conducting digestive enzyme assays for various enzymes involved in C- and N cycling. Microbial abundance and structure was assessed measuring specific gene abundance of fungi and bacteria using quantitative PCR. Soil compaction induced by grazing led to higher bulk density and decreases in soil redox (Δ >100 mV). Soil pH was significantly lower in grazed parts. Further, the proportion of allochthonous organic matter (marine input) was significantly smaller in grazed vs. ungrazed sites, likely caused by a higher sediment trapping capacity of the taller vegetation in the ungrazed sites. Grazing induced changes in bulk density, pH and redox resulted in reduced activity of enzymes involved in microbial C acquisition; however, there was no grazing effect on enzymes involved in N acquisition. While changes in pH, bulk density or redox did not affect microbial abundance and structure, the relative amount of marine organic matter significantly reduced the relative abundance of fungi (F:B ratio). We conclude that livestock grazing directly affects microbial exo-enzyme activity, thus

  9. Release of alkali salts and coal volatiles affecting internal components in fluidized bed combustion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias del Campo, E.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the potential advantages of atmospheric fluidized bed systems, experience has proved that, under certain environments and operating conditions, a given material employed for internal components could lead to catastrophic events. In this study, an attempt is made to establish material selection and operational criteria that optimize performance and availability based on theoretical considerations of the bed hydrodynamics, thermodynamics and combustion process. The theoretical results may indicate that, for high-volatile coals with particle diameters (dc of 1-3 mm and sand particle size (ds of 0.674 mm, a considerable proportion of alkali chlorides may be transferred into the freeboard region of fluidized bed combustors as vapor phase, at bed temperatures (Tb < 840 °C, excess air (XSA ≤ 20 %, static bed height (Hs ≤ 0.2 m and fluidizing velocity (Uo < 1 m/s. Under these operating conditions, a high alkali deposition may be expected to occur in heat exchange tubes located above the bed. Conversely, when the combustors operate at Tb > 890 °C and XSA > 30 %, a high oxidation rate of the in-bed tubes may be present. Nevertheless, for these higher Tb values and XSA < 10 %, corrosion attack of metallic components, via sulfidation, would occur since the excessive gas-phase combustion within the bed induced a local oxygen depletion.

    A pesar de las ventajas potenciales de los sistemas atmosféricos de lecho fluidizado, la experiencia ha demostrado que, bajo ciertas atmósferas y condiciones de operación, un material que se emplea como componente interno podría experimentar una falla y conducir a eventos catastróficos. En este estudio, se intenta establecer un criterio tanto operativo como de selección del material que permita optimizar su disponibilidad y funcionalidad basados en consideraciones teóricas de la hidrodinámica del lecho, la termodin

  10. Biomass production in agroforestry and forestry systems on salt-affected soils in South Asia: Exploration of the GHG balance and economic performance of three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Razzaque, A.; Stille, L.; Singh, R.K.; Awan, A.R.; Mahmoodi, K.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the greenhouse gas balance and the economic performance (i.e. net present value (NPV) and production costs) of agroforestry and forestry systems on salt-affected soils (biosaline (agro) forestry) based on three case studies in South Asia. The economic impact of trading carbon

  11. Vegetation change in a man-made salt marsh affected by a reduction in both grazing and drainage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esselink, Peter; Fresco, LFM; Dijkema, KS

    In order to restore natural salt marsh in a 460-ha nature reserve established in man-made salt marsh in the Dollard estuary, The Netherlands, the artificial drainage system was neglected and cattle grazing reduced. Vegetation changes were traced through two vegetation surveys and monitoring of

  12. Detection of terrain indices related to soil salinity and mapping salt-affected soils using remote sensing and geostatistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triki Fourati, Hela; Bouaziz, Moncef; Benzina, Mourad; Bouaziz, Samir

    2017-04-01

    Traditional surveying methods of soil properties over landscapes are dramatically cost and time-consuming. Thus, remote sensing is a proper choice for monitoring environmental problem. This research aims to study the effect of environmental factors on soil salinity and to map the spatial distribution of this salinity over the southern east part of Tunisia by means of remote sensing and geostatistical techniques. For this purpose, we used Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data to depict geomorphological parameters: elevation, slope, plan curvature (PLC), profile curvature (PRC), and aspect. Pearson correlation between these parameters and soil electrical conductivity (EC soil ) showed that mainly slope and elevation affect the concentration of salt in soil. Moreover, spectral analysis illustrated the high potential of short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands to identify saline soils. To map soil salinity in southern Tunisia, ordinary kriging (OK), minimum distance (MD) classification, and simple regression (SR) were used. The findings showed that ordinary kriging technique provides the most reliable performances to identify and classify saline soils over the study area with a root mean square error of 1.83 and mean error of 0.018.

  13. Short-term exposure to bisphenol A affects water and salt intakes differently in male and ovariectomised female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Paula; Arguelles, Juan; Perillan, Carmen

    2018-01-01

    Thirst and sodium appetite are motivational states that lead to the search for and ingestion of water and sodium, thus contributing to maintenance of hydromineral balance. Oestrogens affect fluid intake and sodium preference. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine-disrupting substance with oestrogenic activity. Whether there are sex differences in the ingestive effects of BPA is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to determine the effect of short-term treatment of low doses of BPA on thirst and sodium appetite in adult male and ovariectomised Wistar rats. Rats were subcutaneously injected with either vehicle or 10, 50, 100, or 500 μg/kg/day BPA for a week. Two-bottle tests (water and 2.7% NaCl solution) were conducted in the animals' home cages with and without 24 h water deprivation. BPA reduced water and 2.7% NaCl intakes in a sex-dependent-manner. Fluid intakes displayed inverted U-shaped dose-response curves, with different dose dependencies in spontaneously drinker rats than after 24 h water deprivation dehydration. Future studies on the role of BPA in sex-dependent body fluid homeostasis should elucidate the effects of BPA on the neuroendocrine controls of thirst and salt appetite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ESTABLISHMENT OF YOUNG “DWARF GREEN” COCONUT PLANTS IN SOIL AFFECTED BY SALTS AND UNDER WATER DEFICIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE REUBER ALMEIDA DA SILVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim was to analyze the establishment of young “Green Dwarf” coconut plants in soils affected by salts and under water stress, by evaluating leaf area, biomass production and allocation. In the experiment, conducted in protected environment in Fortaleza, CE, in statistical design of randomized blocks in a split plot arrangement, the effects of different water deficit levels (plots were evaluated, by imposing different percentages of replacement of water losses by potential crop evapotranspiration - ETpc (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%, associated with subplots consisting of increasing soil salinity levels (1.72, 6.25, 25.80 and 40.70 dS m-1 provided by soil collected at different parts of the Morada Nova Irrigated Perimeter - PIMN. Leaf area and biomass production were sharply reduced by the conditions of water stress and high soil salinity, apparently being more critical to the crop under water restriction condition. The degree of water stress can increase the susceptibility to salinity and plants can be considered, in general terms, as moderately tolerant to the effects of salinity, when combined with water deficiency. Coconut seedlings show full capacity of establishment in PIMN saline soils, corresponding to the level of electrical conductivity of 6.50 dS m-1, but only when the water supply remains adequate. For higher salinity levels, plants survive, but their size is reduced by around 50%, even when fully irrigated.

  15. Comparison of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in plants from disturbed and adjacent undisturbed regions of a coastal salt marsh in Clinton, Connecticut, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, John C.; Lefor, Michael W.

    1990-01-01

    Roots of salt marsh plant species Spartina alterniflora, S. patens, Distichlis spicata, and others were examined for the presence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. Samples were taken from introduced planted material in a salt marsh restoration project and from native material in adjacent marsh areas along the Indian River, Clinton, Connecticut, USA. After ten years the replanted area still has sites devoid of vegetation. The salt marsh plants introduced there were devoid of VAM fungi, while high marsh species from the adjacent undisturbed region showed consistent infection, leading the authors to suggest that VAM fungal infection of planting stocks may be a factor in the success of marsh restoration.

  16. Effect of Protein-Lipid-Salt Interactions on Sodium Availability in the Mouth and Consequent Perception of Saltiness: As Affected by Hydration in Powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Umut; Peterson, Devin G

    2015-09-02

    There is a broad need to reformulate lower sodium food products without affecting their original taste. The present study focuses on characterizing the role of protein-salt interactions on the salt release in low-moisture systems and saltiness perception during hydration. Sodium release from freeze-dried protein powders and emulsion powders formulated at different protein/lipid ratios (5:0 to 1:4) were characterized using a chromatography column modified with a porcine tongue. Emulsion systems with protein structured at the interface were found to have faster initial sodium release rates and faster hydration and were perceived to have a higher initial salt intensity with a lower salty aftertaste. In summary, exposure of the hydrophilic segments of the interface-structured proteins in emulsions was suggested to facilitate hydration and release of sodium during dissolution of low-moisture powder samples.

  17. How do Elevated CO2 and Nitrogen Addition Affect Functional Microbial Community Involved in Greenhouse Gas Flux in Salt Marsh System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Megonigal, Patrick J; Kang, Hojeong

    2017-10-01

    Salt marshes are unique ecosystem of which a microbial community is expected to be affected by global climate change. In this study, by using T-RFLP analysis, quantitative PCR, and pyrosequencing, we comprehensively analyzed the microbial community structure responding to elevated CO2 (eCO2) and N addition in a salt marsh ecosystem subjected to CO2 manipulation and N addition for about 3 years. We focused on the genes of microbes relevant to N-cycling (denitrification and nitrification), CH4-flux (methanogens and methanotrophs), and S-cycling (sulfate reduction) considering that they are key functional groups involved in the nutrient cycle of salt marsh system. Overall, this study suggests that (1) eCO2 and N addition affect functional microbial community involved in greenhouse gas flux in salt marsh system. Specifically, the denitrification process may be facilitated, while the methanogenesis may be impeded due to the outcompeting of sulfate reduction by eCO2 and N. This implies that future global change may cause a probable change in GHGs flux and positive feedback to global climate change in salt marsh; (2) the effect of eCO2 and N on functional group seems specific and to contrast with each other, but the effect of single factor would not be compromised but complemented by combination of two factors. (3) The response of functional groups to eCO2 and/or N may be directly or indirectly related to the plant community and its response to eCO2 and/or N. This study provides new insights into our understanding of functional microbial community responses to eCO2 and/or N addition in a C3/C4 plant mixed salt marsh system.

  18. Insect prey characteristics affecting regional variation in chimpanzee tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Crickette M; Deblauwe, Isra; Tagg, Nikki; Morgan, David B

    2014-06-01

    It is an ongoing interdisciplinary pursuit to identify the factors shaping the emergence and maintenance of tool technology. Field studies of several primate taxa have shown that tool using behaviors vary within and between populations. While similarity in tools over spatial and temporal scales may be the product of socially learned skills, it may also reflect adoption of convergent strategies that are tailored to specific prey features. Much has been claimed about regional variation in chimpanzee tool use, with little attention to the ecological circumstances that may have shaped such differences. This study examines chimpanzee tool use in termite gathering to evaluate the extent to which the behavior of insect prey may dictate chimpanzee technology. More specifically, we conducted a systematic comparison of chimpanzee tool use and termite prey between the Goualougo Triangle in the Republic of Congo and the La Belgique research site in southeast Cameroon. Apes at both of these sites are known to use tool sets to gather several species of termites. We collected insect specimens and measured the characteristics of their nests. Associated chimpanzee tool assemblages were documented at both sites and video recordings were conducted in the Goualougo Triangle. Although Macrotermitinae assemblages were identical, we found differences in the tools used to gather these termites. Based on measurements of the chimpanzee tools and termite nests at each site, we concluded that some characteristics of chimpanzee tools were directly related to termite nest structure. While there is a certain degree of uniformity within approaches to particular tool tasks across the species range, some aspects of regional variation in hominoid technology are likely adaptations to subtle environmental differences between populations or groups. Such microecological differences between sites do not negate the possibility of cultural transmission, as social learning may be required to transmit

  19. Salt reduction in vegetable soup does not affect saltiness intensity and liking in the elderly and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carla; Monteiro, Sérgio; Padrão, Patrícia; Rocha, Ada; Abreu, Sandra; Pinho, Olívia; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of added salt levels in soups is recommended. We evaluated the impact of a 30% reduction of usual added salt in vegetable soups on elderly and children's saltiness and liking evaluation. Subjects were elderly and recruited from two public nursing homes (29 older adults, 79.7±8.9 years), and preschool children recruited from a public preschool (49 children, 4.5±1.3 years). This study took place in institutional lunchrooms. Through randomization and crossover, the subjects participated in two sensory evaluation sessions, on consecutive days, to assess perceived saltiness intensity (elderly sample) and liking (elderly and children samples) of a vegetable soup with baseline salt content and with a 30% salt reduction. Elderly rated perceived liking through a 10 cm visual analogue scale ['like extremely' (1) to 'dislike extremely' (10)] and children through a five-point facial scale ['dislike very much' (1) to 'like very much' (5)]. After 30% added salt reduction in vegetable soup, there were no significant differences in saltiness noted by the elderly (p=0.150), and in perceived liking by children (p=0.160) and elderly (p=0.860). A 30% salt reduction in vegetable soup may be achieved without compromising perceived saltiness and liking in children and the elderly.

  20. Salt composition of potable water from centralized sources of water supply in the rural tacsons of Dnepropetrovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hryhorenko L.V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the all rural tacsons of Dnepro­petrovsk region a common tendency – high salt composition of potable water from centralized water sources is observed: general rigidity, dry residue, chlorides, sulfates, calcium, magnesium, iron. The highest content of general rigidity was shown in the water of 1st tacson: from 143 to 21.2 of MAC for 2008 – 2014 years’ period (p<0.001. Thus, in water samples the of 1st tacson high dry residue content (from 1.38 to 1.04 of MAC, chlorides (from 1.64 to 1.14 of MAC, sulfates (1.06 of MAC (p<0.001 were determined.

  1. Gelation of barramundi (Lates calcarifer) minced muscle as affected by pressure and thermal treatments at low salt concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Binh Q; Buckow, Roman; Nguyen, Minh H; Furst, John

    2017-08-01

    Barramundi minced muscle with salt 10 g kg-1 and 20 g kg-1 added is gelled by different combinations of pressurisation (300, 400 and 500 MPa at 4 °C for 10 min), cooking (0.1 MPa, 90 °C for 30 min) and setting (0.1 MPa, 50 °C for 2 h) to improve mechanical properties of barramundi gels and reduce salt added to barramundi gels. At the low salt concentration of 10 g kg-1 , pressurisation prior to cooking (P-C) treatment induced barramundi gels with comparable mechanical properties and water-holding capacity to those of conventional heat induced (HI) gels with 20 g kg-1 added salt. At salt concentration of 20 g kg-1 , pressurisation prior to setting (P-S) and P-C gels exhibited higher mechanical properties and water-holding capacity as compared to HI gels. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a smooth and dense microstructure of P-C and P-S gels whereas the microstructure of HI gels is rough and less compact. P-C treatment can reduce salt concentration added to barramundi gels to 10 g kg-1 . P-S and P-C treatment can result in higher mechanical and functional properties of barramundi gels at conventional salt concentration (20 g kg-1 ) as compared to HI gels. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Phosphate buffer and salt medium concentrations affect the inactivation of T4 phage by platinum(II) complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik B.; Josephsen, Jens; Kerszman, Gustaw

    1985-01-01

    -Tris) buffer and HEPES buffer. The phosphate abolishes the antiphage activity of the platinum complexes probably by some sort of complex formation. This together with dimerization reactions qualitatively explains the tailing off of the phage inactivation rate. High concentrations of NaNO3 as the salt medium...

  3. Structurization of the Aral region soil by polycomplexes of humic acids salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tazhibaeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Structuring action of a sodium humate, polyethyleneimine and them complexes on the Aral region soil is investigated. It is shown that a sodium humate possess the big structuring action, rather than polyethyleneimine, however the effect of structurization increases at use of complexes a sodium humate – polyethyleneimine. Increase in structuring ability at introduction in soil of a mix the sodium-polymer humate is proved by occurrence of electrostatic contacts between amino groups of polyethyleneimine and carboxyl groups of a humate of sodium.

  4. Overexpression of an Arabidopsis heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein gene, AtRNP1, affects plant growth and reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhenyu, E-mail: wzy72609@163.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Zhao, Xiuyang, E-mail: xiuzh@psb.vib-ugent.be [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Wang, Bing, E-mail: wangbing@ibcas.ac.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Liu, Erlong, E-mail: liuel14@lzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Chen, Ni, E-mail: 63710156@qq.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Zhang, Wei, E-mail: wzhang1216@yahoo.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Bio-Energy Crops, School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Liu, Heng, E-mail: hengliu@lzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China)

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) participate in diverse regulations of plant growth and environmental stress responses. In this work, an Arabidopsis hnRNP of unknown function, AtRNP1, was investigated. We found that AtRNP1 gene is highly expressed in rosette and cauline leaves, and slightly induced under drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. We performed homologous overexpression of AtRNP1 and found that the transgenic plants showed shortened root length and plant height, and accelerated flowering. In addition, the transgenic plants also showed reduced tolerance to drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. Further studies revealed that under both normal and stress conditions, the proline contents in the transgenic plants are markedly decreased, associated with reduced expression levels of a proline synthase gene and several stress-responsive genes. These results suggested that the overexpression of AtRNP1 negatively affects plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. - Highlights: • AtRNP1 is a widely expressed gene and its expression is slightly induced under abiotic stresses. • AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 affects plant growth. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses. • AtRNP1 overexpression plants show decreased proline accumulation and stress-responsive gene expressions.

  5. Drought and salt stress in Chrysopogon zizanioides leads to common and specific transcriptomic responses and may affect essential oil composition and benzylisoquinoline alkaloids metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suja George

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses affect crop productivity worldwide. Understanding molecular mechanisms of plant abiotic stress tolerance is important for developing stress tolerant crop plants for sustaining crop productivity in future. Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver is a perennial C4 grass reported to be tolerant to water, salinity and submergence stress. Here, we subjected C. zizanioides seedlings to salt and drought stress and carried out whole transcriptome profiling of leaf and root tissues. Assessing the global transcriptome changes under drought and salt stress resulted in the identification of several genes contributing to stress response in this species. Overall, more transcriptomic changes were observed in leaf tissue compared to root tissue. The response to either stress manifested primarily as upregulation of gene expression in both leaf and root. The study identified stress responsive genes commonly and differently regulated under stress/tissue conditions. Several DEGs in our data were identified as enzymes involved in biosynthesis of essential oil components. The differential expression of these genes under drought and salt stress may affect the vetiver essential oil composition under these stresses. Similarly, several genes involved in the biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including morphin were found to be differentially expressing in our data. Our data may facilitate further molecular studies on stress tolerance of C. zizanioides. The DEGs from our results are potential candidates for understanding and engineering abiotic stress tolerance in plants.

  6. University, Knowledge and Regional Development: Factors Affecting Knowledge Transfer in a Developing Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongwa, Neba Samuel; Marais, Lochner

    2016-01-01

    The role of knowledge in the current knowledge economy cannot be overly emphasised. Successful regions are continuously being linked to excellence in the production, accumulation, and application of knowledge. Universities have increasingly been at the centre of such knowledge production, application and transfer. Yet, there is little research and…

  7. The mitochondrial phosphate transporters modulate plant responses to salt stress via affecting ATP and gibberellin metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhu

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial phosphate transporter (MPT plays crucial roles in ATP production in plant cells. Three MPT genes have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we report that the mRNA accumulations of AtMPTs were up-regulated by high salinity stress in A. thaliana seedlings. And the transgenic lines overexpressing AtMPTs displayed increased sensitivity to salt stress compared with the wild-type plants during seed germination and seedling establishment stages. ATP content and energy charge was higher in overexpressing plants than those in wild-type A. thaliana under salt stress. Accordingly, the salt-sensitive phenotype of overexpressing plants was recovered after the exogenous application of atractyloside due to the change of ATP content. Interestingly, Genevestigator survey and qRT-PCR analysis indicated a large number of genes, including those related to gibberellin synthesis could be regulated by the energy availability change under stress conditions in A. thaliana. Moreover, the exogenous application of uniconazole to overexpressing lines showed that gibberellin homeostasis was disturbed in the overexpressors. Our studies reveal a possible link between the ATP content mediated by AtMPTs and gibberellin metabolism in responses to high salinity stress in A. thaliana.

  8. The Mitochondrial Phosphate Transporters Modulate Plant Responses to Salt Stress via Affecting ATP and Gibberellin Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guodong; Wu, Changai; Huang, Jinguang; Zheng, Chengchao

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial phosphate transporter (MPT) plays crucial roles in ATP production in plant cells. Three MPT genes have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we report that the mRNA accumulations of AtMPTs were up-regulated by high salinity stress in A. thaliana seedlings. And the transgenic lines overexpressing AtMPTs displayed increased sensitivity to salt stress compared with the wild-type plants during seed germination and seedling establishment stages. ATP content and energy charge was higher in overexpressing plants than those in wild-type A. thaliana under salt stress. Accordingly, the salt-sensitive phenotype of overexpressing plants was recovered after the exogenous application of atractyloside due to the change of ATP content. Interestingly, Genevestigator survey and qRT-PCR analysis indicated a large number of genes, including those related to gibberellin synthesis could be regulated by the energy availability change under stress conditions in A. thaliana. Moreover, the exogenous application of uniconazole to overexpressing lines showed that gibberellin homeostasis was disturbed in the overexpressors. Our studies reveal a possible link between the ATP content mediated by AtMPTs and gibberellin metabolism in responses to high salinity stress in A. thaliana. PMID:22937061

  9. The factors affecting the development of the South-eastern Baltic tourism and recreation region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropinova Yelena

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The territories of Vistula and Curonian lagoons, centrally located in the cross-border region, have numerous remarkable nature sites as well as monuments of history and culture. The article analyses the internal and external factors affecting the development of the Russian segment of the transborder "Southeastern Baltic" tourism and recreation region.

  10. Geology, selected geophysics, and hydrogeology of the White River and parts of the Great Salt Lake Desert regional groundwater flow systems, Utah and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Peter D.; Dixon, Gary L.; Watrus , James M.; Burns, Andrews G.; Mankinen, Edward A.; McKee, Edwin H.; Pari, Keith T.; Ekren, E. Bartlett; Patrick , William G.; Comer, John B.; Inkenbrandt, Paul C.; Krahulec, K.A.; Pinnell, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The east-central Great Basin near the Utah-Nevada border contains two great groundwater flow systems. The first, the White River regional groundwater flow system, consists of a string of hydraulically connected hydrographic basins in Nevada spanning about 270 miles from north to south. The northernmost basin is Long Valley and the southernmost basin is the Black Mountain area, a valley bordering the Colorado River. The general regional groundwater flow direction is north to south. The second flow system, the Great Salt Lake Desert regional groundwater flow system, consists of hydrographic basins that straddle

  11. Universal salt iodization in the Central and Eastern Europe, Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE/CIS) Region during the decade 2000-09: experiences, achievements, and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Haar, Frits; Gerasimov, Gregory; Tyler, Vilma Qahoush; Timmer, Arnold

    2011-12-01

    By 2000, the global track record on universal salt iodization (USI) indicated 26% access to adequately iodized salt in the Central and Eastern Europe, Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE/ CIS) Region. Aimed at extracting lessons learned, this study examined experiences, achievements, and outcomes of USI strategies in CEE/CIS countries during the subsequent decade. Information from the design, timing, execution, outputs, multi-sector management and results of actions by national stakeholders yielded 20 country summaries. Analysis across countries used a LogFrame Analysis typical for public nutrition development. By 2009, USI strategies had reached the target and population iodine nutrition shown adequate levels in 9 countries, while in 6 others, USI was close and/or population iodine status showed only minor imperfection. True USI, i.e., iodization of salt destined both for the food industry and the household, had been made mandatory in 13 of these 15 countries. In the Balkan area, USI and iodine nutrition advanced more than in CIS. Of the 20 sample countries, 17 (85%) had exceeded the mark of 50% adequate access, while the overall regional score reached 55% by 2010. Experience from this region suggests that strong partnership collaboration, a new concept in post-Soviet societies, was a major success factor. Voluntary iodization or focusing on household salt alone was less likely conducive for success. Achieving optimum iodine nutrition required the setting of proper iodine standard Weak political leadership insistence in the Russian Federation and Ukraine to embrace USI is the main factor why the region remains behind in the global progress.

  12. Secular trends of salted fish consumption and nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multi-jurisdiction ecological study in 8 regions from 3 continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Hiu-Ying; Leung, Chit-Ming; Chan, Yap-Hang; Lee, Anne Wing-Mui; Kwong, Dora Lai-Wan; Lung, Maria Li; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2013-06-19

    Despite salted fish being a classical risk factor of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC), whether secular trends in salted fish consumption worldwide accounted for changes in NPC rates were unknown. The relationship between vegetable and cigarette consumption to NPC risk worldwide were also largely uncertain. We investigated the longitudinal trends in standardised NPC incidence/mortality rates across 8 regions and their associations with secular trends in salted fish, vegetable and tobacco consumptions. Age standardised mortality rate (ASMR) and age standardised incidence rate (ASIR) of NPC were obtained from the WHO cancer mortality database and Hong Kong Cancer Registry. Per capita consumption of salted fish, tobacco and vegetables in Hong Kong and 7 countries (China, Finland, Japan, Portugal, Singapore, United Kingdom and United States) were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (FAO) and Hong Kong Trade and Census Statistics. Pearson correlation and multivariate analysis were performed to examine both crude and adjusted associations. There were markedly decreasing trends of NPC ASIR and ASMR in Hong Kong over the past three decades, which were correlated with corresponding secular changes in salted fish consumption per capita (Pearson r for 10 cumulative years : ASIR = 0.729 (male), 0.674 (female); ASMR = 0.943 (male), 0.622 (female), all p ASMR). However such associations no longer correlated with adjustments for decreasing tobacco and increasing vegetable consumption per capita (Pearson r for 10 cumulative years: ASIR = 2.007 (male), 0.339 (female), ASMR = 0.289 (male), 1.992 (female), all p > 0.05). However, there were no clear or consistent patterns in relations between NPC ASIR and ASMR with salted fish consumption across 7 regions in 3 continents. Our results do not support the notion that changes in salted fish consumption had played an important role in explaining secular trends of NPC rates in Hong

  13. The street children of Manila are affected by early-in-life periodontal infection: description of a treatment modality: sea salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, J F; Michel, M G; Nadan, J; Nowzari, H

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of street children of Manila are affected by early-in-life oral infection. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a sea-salt mouthrinse solution in street children of Manila affected by mild to severe forms of periodontal disease. These children were all in need of special protection: abandoned, abused, exploited, neglected, orphaned, poor. During 3 oral-health missions in 2003, 2004 and 2005, 617 abandoned children (5 to 13 year-old), received oral examination at a non-sectarian child-caring institution in Metro Manila (Virlanie Foundation) by calibrated examiners. A treatment based on what could be done was proposed: 1. Teaching of a precise tooth brushing technique with sea-salt, controlled and reinforced every two days for one week by calibrated health educators, 2. The application of sea-salt water mouthrinse (2.5 gram in 20 ml). Periodontal measurements were repeated at the end of each mission. All children returned to child-caring institution for the followup examinations. In 2003, 10 male and 11 female (n=21) were diagnosed with aggressive periodontitis. In 2009 and 2010, none was affected by aggressive periodontitis. For all patients, the gingival index decreased from 1.08 at the first mission to 1.04 at the end of the second mission and 0.98 at the end of the third mission. The periodontal index decreased from 1.33 at the first mission to 0.98 at the second mission and 0.92 at the last mission. The present investigation confirms that prevention and early diagnosis can result in success with minimum cost. The provided oral health program empowered street children in the most desperate circumstances to be educated and become self-reliant, independent, and responsible. We propose here an antimicrobial approach which has a high degree of efficacy and tolerability, and can be implemented in virtually all parts of the world using low-cost resources.

  14. DOES ECONOMIC-GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION AFFECT INNOVATION PROCESSES IN RUSSIAN REGIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepan P. Zemtsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A favourable economic-geographical position (EGP of regions and cities is one of the factors of their socio-economic development. Economic agents can take advantages of their proximity to the major markets of goods and services, thereby reducing their transport costs and increasing their profitability. In the sphere of innovation, proximity to the innovation centres may also significantly affect the creation of new knowledge and technologies, due to the existence of tacit knowledge and knowledge spillovers. The authors propose the term ‘innovation-geographical position’ by analogy with EGP. It has been demonstrated that location matters to regional innovation output. If there is 1 % more new technologies in neighbouring regions, there are approximately 0.35–0.58 % more newly created technologies in the target region. Proximity to the world centres of new technologies has even greater impact.

  15. Biomass production in agroforestry and forestry systems on salt-affected soils in South Asia: exploration of the GHG balance and economic performance of three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, Birka; Smeets, Edward M W; Akanda, Razzaque; Stille, Leon; Singh, Ranjay K; Awan, Abdul Rasul; Mahmood, Khalid; Faaij, Andre P C

    2013-09-30

    This study explores the greenhouse gas balance and the economic performance (i.e. net present value (NPV) and production costs) of agroforestry and forestry systems on salt-affected soils (biosaline (agro)forestry) based on three case studies in South Asia. The economic impact of trading carbon credits generated by biosaline (agro)forestry is also assessed as a potential additional source of income. The greenhouse gas balance shows carbon sequestration over the plantation lifetime of 24 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in a rice-Eucalyptus camaldulensis agroforestry system on moderately saline soils in coastal Bangladesh (case study 1), 6 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in the rice-wheat- Eucalyptus tereticornis agroforestry system on sodic/saline-sodic soils in Haryana state, India (case study 2), and 96 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in the compact tree (Acacia nilotica) plantation on saline-sodic soils in Punjab province of Pakistan. The NPV at a discount rate of 10% is 1.1 k€ ha(-1) for case study 1, 4.8 k€ ha(-1) for case study 2, and 2.8 k€ ha(-1) for case study 3. Carbon sequestration translates into economic values that increase the NPV by 1-12% in case study 1, 0.1-1% in case study 2, and 2-24% in case study 3 depending on the carbon credit price (1-15 € Mg(-1) CO2-eq.). The analysis of the three cases indicates that the economic performance strongly depends on the type and severity of salt-affectedness (which affect the type and setup of the agroforestry system, the tree species and the biomass yield), markets for wood products, possibility of trading carbon credits, and discount rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure >15mmHg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% Females, 16% Blacks, BMI 28.5±4.2 Kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mmHg) as compared to high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mmHg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dl, 10.8±7.3 mIU/L and 2.6±1.9) as compared to high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dl, 9.4±5.8 mIU/L and 2.1±1.4) (p salt sensitive (N=193) versus salt resistant (N=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in HOMA on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt resistant subjects (p=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in HOMA after including age, BMI, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. PMID:25185125

  17. Regional comparison of syn- and post-rift sequences in salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The large South Atlantic basins offshore South America and Africa record a highly variable syn- to post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic development. The present-day diversity in the structural and sedimentary architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are i) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, ii) the post break-up geodynamic history including tectonics and magmatism, and iii) variations in the type, quantity and distribution of sediment input to the respective margin segment. Particularly the basins around the Rio Grande Rise - Walvis Ridge volcanic complex show a pronounced tectono-stratigraphic asymmetry both along the respective continental margin and across the Atlantic. Only a few attempts exist to establish a regional tectono-stratigraphic correlation framework across the South Atlantic Ocean, mainly because of the lack of data across entire margin segments and limited resolution of basin wide geophysics. Still unresolved issues particularly concern the explanation of the basin-specific geological evolution of respective margin segments along the same continental margin, as well as the correlation of conjugate basins and margin segments across the Atlantic Ocean. In our study we present interpretations and first-pass restorations of regional 2D seismic-reflectivity data from the large basins offshore Brazil (Pelotas Basin, Santos Basin, Campos Basin, Espirito Santo Basin), and offshore Namibia and Angola (Walvis Basin, Namibe Basin, Benguela Basin, Kwanza Basin), which represent four adjacent pairs of conjugate basins on both sides of the South Atlantic. Results are used to document and compare on a basin-scale the contrasting styles of rift and post-rift settings during and after the continental breakup.

  18. A natural saline soil as a model for understanding to what extent the concentration of salt affects the distribution of microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfora, Loredana; Pinzari, Flavia; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Vittori Antisari, Livia; Vendramin, Elisa; Salvati, Luca; Dazzi, Carmelo; Benedetti, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Soils preserve and sustain life. Their health and functioning are crucial for crop production and for the maintenance of major ecosystem services. Human induced salinity is one of the main soil threats that reduces soil fertility and affect crop yields. In recent times, great attention has been paid to the general shortage of arable land and to the increasing demand for ecological restoration of areas affected by salinization processes. Despite the diffuse interest on the effects of salinization on plants' growth, and all the derived socioeconomic issues, very few studies analyzed the ecology of the microbial species in naturally saline soils and the resilience of biological fertility in these extreme habitats. Microorganisms inhabiting such environments may share a strategy, may have developed multiple adaptations for maintaining their populations, and cope eventually to extreme conditions by altruistic or cooperative behaviors for maintaining their metabolism active. The understanding and the knowledge of the composition and distribution of microbial communities in natural hypersaline soils can be interesting for ecological reasons but also to develop new restoration strategy where soil fertility was compromised by natural accidents or human mismanagement. The aim of this research was to provide specific information on saline soils in Italy, stressing mainly their distribution, the socioeconomic issues and the understanding of the characterizing ecological processes. Moreover, natural saline soils were used as a model for understanding to what extent the concentration of salt can affect some basic microbial processes. In the present study, physical, chemical and microbiological soil properties were investigated in the shallower horizons of natural salt affected soils in Sicily (Italy), where some ecological contrasting variables acted as strong drivers in fungal and bacterial spatial distribution. Furthermore, the interface between biological and geochemical

  19. Diversity of Extremely Halophilic Archaeal and Bacterial Communities from Commercial Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashagrie Gibtan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Salting is one of the oldest food preservation techniques. However, salt is also the source of living halophilic microorganisms that may affect human health. In order to determine the microbial communities of commercial salts, an investigation were done using amplicon sequencing approach in four commercial salts: Ethiopian Afdera salt (EAS, Ethiopian rock salt (ERS, Korean Jangpan salt (KJS, and Korean Topan salt (KTS. Using domain-specific primers, a region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced using a Roche 454 instrument. The results indicated that these microbial communities contained 48.22–61.4% Bacteria, 37.72–51.26% Archaea, 0.51–0.86% Eukarya, and 0.005–0.009% unclassified reads. Among bacteria, the communities in these salts were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Of the archaea, 91.58% belonged to the class Halobacteria, whereas the remaining 7.58, 0.83, and 0.01% were Nanoarchaea, Methanobacteria, and Thermococci, respectively. This comparison of microbial diversity in salts from two countries showed the presence of many archaeal and bacterial genera that occurred in salt samples from one country but not the other. The bacterial genera Enterobacter and Halovibrio were found only in Korean and Ethiopian salts, respectively. This study indicated the occurrence and diversity of halophilic bacteria and archaea in commercial salts that could be important in the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion.

  20. Bovine chromosomal regions affecting rheological traits in rennet-induced skim milk gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Gustavsson, F; Glantz, M

    2015-01-01

    genomic regions affecting traits related to rennet-induced gelation, the aim of this study was to identify potential candidate genes affecting these traits. Hence, rennet-induced gelation, including rennet coagulation time, gel strength, and yield stress, was measured in skim milk samples collected from....... However, additional analysis is needed to confirm these results. To our knowledge, this is the first study identifying quantitative trait loci affecting rennet-induced gelation of skim milk through a high-density genome-wide association study......Optimizing cheese yield and quality is of central importance to cheese manufacturing. The yield is associated with the time it takes before the gel has an optimal consistency for further processing, and it is well known that gel formation differs between individual milk samples. By identifying...

  1. Top-down control of carbon sequestration: grazing affects microbial structure and function in salt marsh soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Peter; Granse, Dirk; Nolte, Stefanie; Do, Hai Thi; Weingartner, Magdalena; Hoth, Stefan; Jensen, Kai

    2017-07-01

    Tidal wetlands have been increasingly recognized as long-term carbon sinks in recent years. Work on carbon sequestration and decomposition processes in tidal wetlands focused so far mainly on effects of global-change factors such as sea-level rise and increasing temperatures. However, little is known about effects of land use, such as livestock grazing, on organic matter decomposition and ultimately carbon sequestration. The present work aims at understanding the mechanisms by which large herbivores can affect organic matter decomposition in tidal wetlands. This was achieved by studying both direct animal-microbe interactions and indirect animal-plant-microbe interactions in grazed and ungrazed areas of two long-term experimental field sites at the German North Sea coast. We assessed bacterial and fungal gene abundance using quantitative PCR, as well as the activity of microbial exo-enzymes by conducting fluorometric assays. We demonstrate that grazing can have a profound impact on the microbial community structure of tidal wetland soils, by consistently increasing the fungi-to-bacteria ratio by 38-42%, and therefore potentially exerts important control over carbon turnover and sequestration. The observed shift in the microbial community was primarily driven by organic matter source, with higher contributions of recalcitrant autochthonous (terrestrial) vs. easily degradable allochthonous (marine) sources in grazed areas favoring relative fungal abundance. We propose a novel and indirect form of animal-plant-microbe interaction: top-down control of aboveground vegetation structure determines the capacity of allochthonous organic matter trapping during flooding and thus the structure of the microbial community. Furthermore, our data provide the first evidence that grazing slows down microbial exo-enzyme activity and thus decomposition through changes in soil redox chemistry. Activities of enzymes involved in C cycling were reduced by 28-40%, while activities of

  2. Word properties of a fixated region affect outgoing saccade length in Chinese reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Li, Xingshan; Pollatsek, Alexander

    2013-03-22

    In two experiments, we investigated how forward saccades are targeted in Chinese reading. In Experiment 1, the critical region was a 4-character string which was either a word (one-word condition) or two 2-character word phrases (two-word condition). In Experiment 2, the critical region was either a high frequency word or a low frequency word. The outgoing saccade length from the last fixation on the critical region was longer in the one-word condition than the two-word condition in Experiment 1 and was longer in the high frequency condition than in the low frequency condition in Experiment 2. These results indicate that the properties of words in a fixated region affect the length of the outgoing saccade. We propose a processing-based strategy for saccade target selection in Chinese reading in which readers estimate how many characters they can process on each fixation, and then program their next saccade so that the eyes fixate somewhere beyond them. As a consequence, the easier the processing of the fixated region is, the longer the outgoing saccade is. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Survey of Viruses Affecting Legume Crops in the Amhara and Oromia Regions of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bekele

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys were undertaken to identify the viral diseases affecting lentil, faba bean, chickpea, pea, fenugreek and grass pea in two regions of Ethiopia. The surveys were conducted in the regions of Amhara (Gonder and Gojam administrative zones and Oromia (Bale administrative zone during the 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 growing seasons, respectively. The survey covered 138 randomly selected fields (48 faba bean, 10 pea, 38 grass pea, 34 chickpea, 8 lentil in the Amhara region, and 51 legume fields (29 faba bean, 12 pea, 3 lentil, 5 fenugreek, 2 chickpea in the Oromia region. Virus disease incidence was determined by laboratory testing of 100–200 randomly-collected samples from each field against the antisera of 12 legume viruses. Of the 189 fields surveyed, 121 and 7 had, at the time of the survey, a virus disease incidence of 1% or less and more than 6%, respectively, based on visual inspection in the field; later laboratory testing showed that the number of fields in these two categories was in fact 99 and 56, respectively. Serological tests indicated that the most important viruses in the Amhara region were Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV, Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV, Pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV and the luteoviruses [e.g. Beet western yellows virus (BWYV, Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV, Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV]. By contrast, only FBNYV and the luteoviruses were detected in the Oromia region. Other viruses, such as Broad bean mottle virus (BBMV and Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, were rarely detected in the Amhara region. This is the first report in Ethiopia of natural infection of faba bean, pea and fenugreek with SbDV, of fenugreek with BWYV, and of grass pea with BYMV, PSbMV and BWYV, and it is also the first recorded instance of BBMV infecting legume crops in Ethiopia.

  4. INNER SALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a...Products that have been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a mesomeric inner salt . (Author)...Novel phosphonium and phosphorane compounds ere prepared by a variety of m hods from triphenylphosphine and methylene bromide. Products that have

  5. Further analysis of previously implicated linkage regions for Alzheimer's disease in affected relative pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lannfelt Lars

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide linkage studies for Alzheimer's disease have implicated several chromosomal regions as potential loci for susceptibility genes. Methods In the present study, we have combined a selection of affected relative pairs (ARPs from the UK and the USA included in a previous linkage study by Myers et al. (Am J Med Genet, 2002, with ARPs from Sweden and Washington University. In this total sample collection of 397 ARPs, we have analyzed linkage to chromosomes 1, 9, 10, 12, 19 and 21, implicated in the previous scan. Results The analysis revealed that linkage to chromosome 19q13 close to the APOE locus increased considerably as compared to the earlier scan. However, linkage to chromosome 10q21, which provided the strongest linkage in the previous scan could not be detected. Conclusion The present investigation provides yet further evidence that 19q13 is the only chromosomal region consistently linked to Alzheimer's disease.

  6. How the distance between regional and human mobility behavior affect the epidemic spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minna; Han, She; Sun, Mei; Han, Dun

    2018-02-01

    The distance between different regions has a lot of impact on the individuals' mobility behavior. Meanwhile, the individuals' mobility could greatly affect the epidemic propagation way. By researching the individuals' mobility behavior, we establish the coupled dynamic model for individual mobility and transmission of infectious disease. The basic reproduction number is theoretically obtained according to the next-generation matrix method. Through this study, we may get that the stability state of the epidemic system will be prolonged under a higher commuting level. The infection density is almost the same in different regions over a sufficiently long time. The results show that, due to the individual movement, the origin of virus can only speed up or delay the outbreak of infectious diseases, however, it have little impact on the final infection size.

  7. Does education level affect the efficacy of a community based salt reduction program? - A post-hoc analysis of the China Rural Health Initiative Sodium Reduction Study (CRHI-SRS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Xian; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Neal, Bruce; Bots, Michiel L.; Hoes, Arno W.; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whether educational level influences the effects of health education is not clearly defined. This study examined whether the impact of a community-based dietary salt reduction program was affected by the level of education of participants. Methods: The China Rural Health Initiative

  8. Does education level affect the efficacy of a community based salt reduction program? - A post-hoc analysis of the China Rural Health Initiative Sodium Reduction Study (CRHI-SRS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Xian; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Neal, Bruce; Bots, Michiel L.; Hoes, Arno W.; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether educational level influences the effects of health education is not clearly defined. This study examined whether the impact of a community-based dietary salt reduction program was affected by the level of education of participants. METHODS: The China Rural Health Initiative

  9. Encouragers and discouragers affecting medical graduates' choice of regional and rural practice locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillop, Ann; Webster, Craig; Bennett, Win; O'Connor, Barbara; Bagg, Warwick

    2017-12-01

    Access to health care as near to where people live as possible is desirable. However, not enough medical graduates choose to work in rural and regional areas, especially in general practice. The career decisions of recent medical graduates are known to be affected by a variety of professional, societal and personal factors. Internationally, medical programmes have exposed students to regional and rural experiences partly to encourage them to seek employment in these areas after graduation. As such, the Pūkawakawa Programme is a year-long regional and rural experience for selected Year 5 students from the University of Auckland‘s Medical Programme in New Zealand in partnership with the Northland District Health Board and two Primary Health Organisations. A lack of clarity about the drivers of rural and regional career decisions underpinned this study, which aimed to explore the barriers and encouragers for students of the programme to return as resident medical officers to the regional hospital where they had gained clinical experience. A mixed-method, descriptive design was used, including a short survey, followed by participation in a focus-group discussion or a one-on-one interview. Survey data were summarised in tabular form and inductive, thematic analysis was applied to transcripts of focus groups and interviews. Nineteen doctors in their first or second year following graduation participated: 15 who had returned to the hospital where they had clinical experience in the programme and four who were employed elsewhere. 'A match of personal goals and intended career intentions' was the reason most frequently selected for junior doctors’ choice of early career employment. Other frequently selected reasons were lifestyle, friends and family close by, and the reputation and experience of the Pūkawakawa Programme. Qualitative data revealed that the learning experience, the unique design of the curriculum and associated support from clinicians were identified as

  10. Conductivity gradients as inferred by electromagnetic-induction meter (EM38) readings within a salt-affected wetland in Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirck, Jaconette; Schroeder, William

    2018-01-01

    The change from deep-rooted grass and shrub vegetation to annual-cropping dryland farming has contributed to serious soil salinization challenges on the semi-arid North American Great Plains. In some cases, cultivation of the Great Plains has increased the availability of water, causing dominant sulfate salts to travel from the uphill areas to depressions where it will surface when water evaporates at the soil surface. A potential solution could include the replanting of the native deep-rooted vegetation, which requires knowledge of the spatial distribution of soil salinity. This study tested the soil factors influencing electromagnetic-induction meter (EM38) readings of soil salinity distribution around wetlands. The objectives were to: (1) predict growth and survival of Salix dasyclados Wimm. (cv. `India') along a salinity gradient in a small wetland, and (2) investigate whether newly established willows affected water-table fluctuations, which would indicate their phreatophytic nature or their ability to obtain their water supply from the zone of saturation. Results indicated significantly lower salinity values for sampling points with EM38 readings above 175 and 250 mS m-1 for height and survival, respectively. In addition, diurnal fluxes of the water table in areas of good willow growth and lower salinity indicated that cultivar `India' was phreatophytic in these areas and therefore has great potential for being used to combat saline seeps.

  11. Mitochondrial membranes with mono- and divalent salt: changes induced by salt ions on structure and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pöyry, Sanja; Róg, Tomasz; Karttunen, Mikko

    2009-01-01

    We employ atomistic simulations to consider how mono- (NaCl) and divalent (CaCl(2)) salt affects properties of inner and outer membranes of mitochondria. We find that the influence of salt on structural properties is rather minute, only weakly affecting lipid packing, conformational ordering......, and membrane electrostatic potential. The changes induced by salt are more prominent in dynamical properties related to ion binding and formation of ion-lipid complexes and lipid aggregates, as rotational diffusion of lipids is slowed down by ions, especially in the case of CaCl(2). In the same spirit, lateral...... diffusion of lipids is slowed down rather considerably for increasing concentration of CaCl(2). Both findings for dynamic properties can be traced to the binding of ions with lipid head groups and the related changes in interaction patterns in the headgroup region, where the binding of Na(+) and Ca(2+) ions...

  12. Were Equatorial Regions Less Affected by the 2009 Influenza Pandemic? The Brazilian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck-Paim, Cynthia; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Miller, Mark A.; Moura, Fernanda E. A.; Fernandes, Roberto M.; Carvalho, Marcia L.; Alonso, Wladimir J.

    2012-01-01

    Although it is in the Tropics where nearly half of the world population lives and infectious disease burden is highest, little is known about the impact of influenza pandemics in this area. We investigated the mortality impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic relative to mortality rates from various outcomes in pre-pandemic years throughout a wide range of latitudes encompassing the entire tropical, and part of the subtropical, zone of the Southern Hemisphere (+5°N to −35°S) by focusing on a country with relatively uniform health care, disease surveillance, immunization and mitigation policies: Brazil. To this end, we analyzed laboratory-confirmed deaths and vital statistics mortality beyond pre-pandemic levels for each Brazilian state. Pneumonia, influenza and respiratory mortality were significantly higher during the pandemic, affecting predominantly adults aged 25 to 65 years. Overall, there were 2,273 and 2,787 additional P&I- and respiratory deaths during the pandemic, corresponding to a 5.2% and 2.7% increase, respectively, over average pre-pandemic annual mortality. However, there was a marked spatial structure in mortality that was independent of socio-demographic indicators and inversely related with income: mortality was progressively lower towards equatorial regions, where low or no difference from pre-pandemic mortality levels was identified. Additionally, the onset of pandemic-associated mortality was progressively delayed in equatorial states. Unexpectedly, there was no additional mortality from circulatory causes. Comparing disease burden reliably across regions is critical in those areas marked by competing health priorities and limited resources. Our results suggest, however, that tropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere may have been disproportionally less affected by the pandemic, and that climate may have played a key role in this regard. These findings have a direct bearing on global estimates of pandemic burden and the assessment of the

  13. Factors Affecting Visual Field Outcome Post-Surgery in Sellar Region Tumors: Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Prabu Rau; Sellamuthu, Puliventhan; Ghani, Abdul Rahman Izani

    2017-12-01

    Despite the broad category of differentials for sellar region, most of them present with similar clinical signs and symptoms. Headache and visual disturbance are among the frequently seen as presenting symptom. Visual field (VF) assessment is one of the crucial component of neuroophtalmologic assessment and mean deviation (MD) value from automated perimetry allows quantification of the visual field defect. We formulated a study to look into the factors that affect the visual field outcome after surgery. All patients with sellar region tumor who has underwent surgery in Queen Elizabeth Hospital from July 2010 to July 2016 were retrospectively analysed through hospital notes. VF assessment via Humphrey visual assessment for these patient pre and post-surgery were reviewed for MD value. Eighty four patients were recruited and out of them, 151 eyes were taken into analysis after excluding eyes with missing data. Mean age of patients were 45.4 years with 70.2% of them were male. Visual disturbance is the commonest presenting symptom with mean duration of symptom prior to surgery is 9.7 months. Majority of them were pituitary adenomas (75%) followed by sellar meningioma (19%), craniopharyngioma (4.8%), and rathke cleft cyst (1.2%). 70.9% of patients showed improvement in VF based on MD outcome. Mean MD for pre surgery and post-surgery were -14.0 dB and -12.4 dB, respectively. Univariate analysis reveals younger age, female sex, shorter duration of symptom, pituitary adenoma, transsphenoidal approach, and transcranial approach favours improvement in VF. Multivariate analysis shows only shorter symptom duration, transphenoidal approach, and transcranial approach are significant for favourable VF outcome when other factors adjusted. Symptom duration and surgical approach were independent factors that affects the visual field after surgery in patients with sellar region tumors.

  14. Were equatorial regions less affected by the 2009 influenza pandemic? The Brazilian experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Schuck-Paim

    Full Text Available Although it is in the Tropics where nearly half of the world population lives and infectious disease burden is highest, little is known about the impact of influenza pandemics in this area. We investigated the mortality impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic relative to mortality rates from various outcomes in pre-pandemic years throughout a wide range of latitudes encompassing the entire tropical, and part of the subtropical, zone of the Southern Hemisphere (+5(°N to -35(°S by focusing on a country with relatively uniform health care, disease surveillance, immunization and mitigation policies: Brazil. To this end, we analyzed laboratory-confirmed deaths and vital statistics mortality beyond pre-pandemic levels for each Brazilian state. Pneumonia, influenza and respiratory mortality were significantly higher during the pandemic, affecting predominantly adults aged 25 to 65 years. Overall, there were 2,273 and 2,787 additional P&I- and respiratory deaths during the pandemic, corresponding to a 5.2% and 2.7% increase, respectively, over average pre-pandemic annual mortality. However, there was a marked spatial structure in mortality that was independent of socio-demographic indicators and inversely related with income: mortality was progressively lower towards equatorial regions, where low or no difference from pre-pandemic mortality levels was identified. Additionally, the onset of pandemic-associated mortality was progressively delayed in equatorial states. Unexpectedly, there was no additional mortality from circulatory causes. Comparing disease burden reliably across regions is critical in those areas marked by competing health priorities and limited resources. Our results suggest, however, that tropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere may have been disproportionally less affected by the pandemic, and that climate may have played a key role in this regard. These findings have a direct bearing on global estimates of pandemic burden and the

  15. Subendocardial increase in reactive oxygen species production affects regional contractile function in ischemic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Lucas; Fauconnier, Jeremy; Reboul, Cyril; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Meschin, Pierre; Farah, Charlotte; Fouret, Gilles; Richard, Sylvain; Lacampagne, Alain; Cazorla, Olivier

    2013-03-20

    Heart failure (HF) is characterized by regionalized contractile alterations resulting in loss of the transmural contractile gradient across the left ventricular free wall. We tested whether a regional alteration in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism during HF could affect myofilament function through protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. Twelve weeks after permanent left coronary artery ligation that induced myocardial infarction (MI), subendocardial (Endo) cardiomyocytes had decreased activity of complex I and IV of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and produced twice more superoxide anions than sham Endo and subepicardial cells. This effect was associated with a reduced antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase and Catalase only in MI Endo cells. The myofilament contractile properties (Ca(2+) sensitivity and maximal tension), evaluated in skinned cardiomyocytes, were also reduced only in MI Endo myocytes. Conversely, in MI rats treated with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for 4 weeks, the generation of superoxide anions in Endo cardiomyocytes was normalized and the contractile properties of skinned cardiomyocytes restored. This effect was accompanied by improved in vivo contractility. The beneficial effects of NAC were mediated, at least, in part, through reduction of the PKA activity, which was higher in MI myofilaments, particularly, the PKA-mediated hyperphosphorylation of cardiac Troponin I. The Transmural gradient in the mitochondrial content/activity is lost during HF and mediates reactive oxygen species-dependent contractile dysfunction. Regionalized alterations in redox signaling affect the contractile machinery of sub-Endo myocytes through a PKA-dependent pathway that contributes to the loss of the transmural contractile gradient and impairs global contractility.

  16. Ageing and muscular dystrophy differentially affect murine pharyngeal muscles in a region-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Matthew E; Luo, Qingwei; Ho, Justin; Vest, Katherine E; Sokoloff, Alan J; Pavlath, Grace K

    2014-01-01

    The inability to swallow, or dysphagia, is a debilitating and life-threatening condition that arises with ageing or disease. Dysphagia results from neurological or muscular impairment of one or more pharyngeal muscles, which function together to ensure proper swallowing and prevent the aspiration of food or liquid into the lungs. Little is known about the effects of age or disease on pharyngeal muscles as a group. Here we show ageing affected pharyngeal muscle growth and atrophy in wild-type mice depending on the particular muscle analysed. Furthermore, wild-type mice also developed dysphagia with ageing. Additionally, we studied pharyngeal muscles in a mouse model for oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy, a dysphagic disease caused by a polyalanine expansion in the RNA binding protein, PABPN1. We examined pharyngeal muscles of mice overexpressing either wild-type A10 or mutant A17 PABPN1. Overexpression of mutant A17 PABPN1 differentially affected growth of the palatopharyngeus muscle dependent on its location within the pharynx. Interestingly, overexpression of wild-type A10 PABPN1 was protective against age-related muscle atrophy in the laryngopharynx and prevented the development of age-related dysphagia. These results demonstrate that pharyngeal muscles are differentially affected by both ageing and muscular dystrophy in a region-dependent manner. These studies lay important groundwork for understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate pharyngeal muscle growth and atrophy, which may lead to novel therapies for individuals with dysphagia. PMID:25326455

  17. Modeling the Dynamics of the Great Salt Lake as an Integrator of Regional Hydrologic and Climate Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, I. N.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2005-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, is the fourth largest, perennial, terminal lake in the world. The Great Salt Lake (GSL) level fluctuates due to the balance between inflows and outflows. These fluctuations are of interest whether they are high (flooding hazards) or low (economic impacts). Inflows are due to streamflow, primarily from the Bear River (54%), Weber River (18%) and Jordan/Provo River (28%) systems. Inflows also include precipitation directly on the lake and groundwater both from the East and West sides. The only outflow is evaporation that is controlled by the climate and area of the lake that changes with level. The GSL reached historic high levels above 1284 m in 1873 and 1986. A historic low at 1278 m occurred in 1963. These fluctuations represent the integrated effect of climate and hydrologic processes as well as the dynamic interaction between lake volume, area and salinity that impact evaporation from the lake. The topographic area-volume relationship in the GSL plays a role in the system dynamics because area is a control on the evaporation outflux. This paper examines the relationships between Basin climate (precipitation and temperature), Inflows to the lake (primarily streamflow) and outflows (evaporation). The role played by the topographic elevation-area-volume relationship on lake dynamics and the correspondence between modes in volume and area distributions and peaks in the area-volume derivative was examined. We derived, using a steady state approximation, the relationship between distributions of lake volume and lake area and the area-volume derivative from the topography/bathymetry. This analysis showed that both the topography/bathymetry and multimodality in the area distribution are required to explain the observed multimodality in the volume distribution. We also separated lake volume changes into increases in the spring (due to spring runoff) and declines in the fall (due to evaporation) and then related these volume changes to

  18. Fungi infection in honeybee hives in regions affected by Brazilian sac brood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Keller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Sac Brood is a disease that affects apiaries of Africanized bee hives in Brazil, thereby making them susceptible to high losses. This study investigated the pathogenicity of Africanized bee hives by the entomopathogenic fungi in a Brazilian Sac Brood endemic region. The degree of fungal contamination, presence of mycotoxins in beehive elements, and vulnerability of healthy beehives in environments subjected and not subjected to the disease were investigated. From the contaminating fungal load, species that are mycotoxin producers and pathogenic causing mortality in the bees have been isolated. The analysis of bee pollen and bee bread samples did not show the presence of the toxic pollen of Stryphnodendron (Fabaceae, which has been indicated as the causative agent of mortality in pre-pupal stage larvae. However, bee bread showed the highest correlation between substrate and fungal contamination.

  19. Characterization of Salt-Induced Epigenetic Segregation by Genome-Wide Loss of Heterozygosity and its Association with Salt Tolerance in Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In a breeding effort to develop salt tolerant (ST rice varieties by designed QTL pyramiding, large numbers of progenies derived from four crosses between salt- or drought- tolerant BC2F5 IR64 introgression lines, were subjected to severe salt stress, resulting in 422 ST plants. The progeny testing of the selected F3 lines under more severe salt stress resulted in identification of 16 promising homozygous lines with high levels of ST. Genetic characterization of the 422 ST F3 progeny and 318 random F2 plants from the same four crosses using 105 segregating SSR markers lead to three interesting discoveries: (1 salt stress can induce genome-wide epigenetic segregation (ES characterized by complete loss of heterozygosity (LOH and nearly complete loss of an allele (LOA in the F3 progenies of four rice populations in a single generation; (2 ∼25% of the stress-induced ES loci were transgenerational and inherited from their salt- and drought- selected parents; and (3 the salt-induced LOH and LOA loci (regions appeared to contain genes/alleles associated with ST and/or drought tolerance. 32 genomic regions that showed one or more types of salt-induced ES in the random and salt-selected progenies from these crosses. The same or different types of ES were detected with two large genomic regions on chromosomes 1 and 6 where more and the strongest ES were found across different populations. 14 genomic regions were found where the salt-induced ES regions were overlapping with QTL affecting ST related traits. The discovery of the three types of salt-induced ES showed several interesting characteristics and had important implications in evolution and future breeding for developing stress-resilient rice and crops.

  20. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I Affects Brain Structure in Prefrontal and Motor Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleger, Burkhard; Draganski, Bogdan; Schwenkreis, Peter; Lenz, Melanie; Nicolas, Volkmar; Maier, Christoph; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls) were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the “non-flipped” data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the “flipped” data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control. PMID:24416397

  1. Identification of a short region on chromosome 6 affecting direct calving ease in Piedmontese cattle breed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bongiorni

    Full Text Available Calving in cattle is affected by calf morphology and by dam characteristics. It is described by two different traits: maternal calving ease, which is the ability to generate dams with good physiological predisposition to calving, and direct calving ease, which is the ability to generate calves that are easily born. The aim of this study was to identify regions of cattle genome harboring genes possibly affecting direct calving ease in the Piedmontese cattle breed. A population of 323 bulls scored for direct calving ease (EBV was analyzed by a medium-density SNP marker panel (54,001 SNPs to perform a genome-wide scan. The strongest signal was detected on chromosome 6 between 37.8 and 38.7 Mb where 13 SNPs associated to direct calving ease were found. Three genes are located in this region: LAP3, encoding for a leucine aminopeptidase involved in the oxytocin hydrolysis; NCAPG, encoding for a non-SMC condensin I complex, which has been associated in cattle with fetal growth and carcass size; and LCORL, which has been associated to height in humans and cattle. To further confirm the results of the genome-wide scan we genotyped additional SNPs within these genes and analyzed their association with direct calving ease. The results of this additional analysis fully confirmed the findings of the GWAS and particularly indicated LAP3 as the most probable gene involved. Linkage Disequilibrium (LD analysis showed high correlation between SNPs located within LAP3 and LCORL indicating a possible selection signature due either to increased fitness or breeders' selection for the trait.

  2. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Pleger

    Full Text Available The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1 and motor cortex (M1 contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  3. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleger, Burkhard; Draganski, Bogdan; Schwenkreis, Peter; Lenz, Melanie; Nicolas, Volkmar; Maier, Christoph; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls) were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  4. Revision of the tsunami catalogue affecting Turkish coasts and surrounding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Altinok

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The coasts of Turkey have been hit by tsunamis in the past. The first national earthquake-tsunami catalogues were compiled in the early 1980s while the most up-to-date tsunami catalogues are mainly the products of recent European projects. The EU projects GITEC and GITEC-TWO (Genesis and Impact of Tsunamis on the European Coasts and TRANSFER (Tsunami Risk ANd Strategies For the European Region have added important contributions in establishing and developing unified criteria for tsunami parameterisation, standards for the quality of the data, the data format and the database general architecture. On the basis of these new aspects and based on recent marine geophysical data, tsunamigenic earthquakes, tsunami intensities and their reliability have been revised. The current version of the database contains 134 events, most of which have affected the Turkish coasts seriously during the last 3500 years. The reliability index of 76 events was "probable" and "definite", so that they could be used for assessment of the risk along the Turkish coastal region and for implementation of prevention policies.

  5. Intended and unintended (sensory-)motor coupling between the affected and unaffected upper limb in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bank, P.J.M.; Peper, C.E.; Marinus, J.; Van Hilten, J.J.; Beek, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Motor dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) has been associated with bilateral malfunction of sensory and motor circuits, which hints at abnormal coupling between the affected and the contralateral unaffected limb. In addition, clinical observations suggest that motor

  6. Bottle gourd rootstock-grafting affects nitrogen metabolism in NaCl-stressed watermelon leaves and enhances short-term salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjuan; Lu, Xiaomin; Yan, Bei; Li, Bin; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2013-05-01

    The plant growth, nitrogen absorption, and assimilation in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf.) were investigated in self-grafted and grafted seedlings using the salt-tolerant bottle gourd rootstock Chaofeng Kangshengwang (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) exposed to 100mM NaCl for 3d. The biomass and NO3(-) uptake rate were significantly increased by rootstock while these values were remarkably decreased by salt stress. However, compared with self-grafted plants, rootstock-grafted plants showed higher salt tolerance with higher biomass and NO3(-) uptake rate under salt stress. Salinity induced strong accumulation of nitrate, ammonium and protein contents and a significant decrease of nitrogen content and the activities of nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in leaves of self-grafted seedlings. In contrast, salt stress caused a remarkable decrease in nitrate content and the activities of GS and GOGAT, and a significant increase of ammonium, protein, and nitrogen contents and NR activity, in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings. Compared with that of self-grafted seedlings, the ammonium content in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings was much lower under salt stress. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity was notably enhanced in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings, whereas it was significantly inhibited in leaves of self-grafted seedlings, under salinity stress. Three GDH isozymes were isolated by native gel electrophoresis and their expressions were greatly enhanced in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings than those of self-grafted seedlings under both normal and salt-stress conditions. These results indicated that the salt tolerance of rootstock-grafted seedlings might (be enhanced) owing to the higher nitrogen absorption and the higher activities of enzymes for nitrogen assimilation induced by the rootstock. Furthermore, the detoxification of ammonium by GDH when the GS/GOGAT pathway

  7. Engineering aspects of the salt diapirs; Aspectos de engenharia do diapirismo de sal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Ricardo Garske [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS/CENPES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento

    2012-07-01

    From the viewpoint of drilling and well bore integrity, salt presents new significant challenges of geomechanical nature. Saline rocks have a characteristic feature of deforming slowly over time, phenomenon known as creep. Salt bodies affect present geomechanical environment by change of the local stress state. This is due mainly by the fact that salt is not able to withstand deviatoric stresses. In particular, changes in stresses can happen in the vicinity of salt bodies which are of enough magnitude to affect the fracture gradient and well bore stability, the salt-sediment interface region being the one which concentrates the majority of drilling difficulties. During the drilling of an evaporitic section in an oil well, the accumulated strain over a time period can be enough to restrain the passing of the drilling column and even stuck it in an irretrievable way. After the well has been cased, the salt creep can manifest undesirably causing, in some situations, constraints to passing tools along the casing or even causing its rupture by collapse. In order to address this issue, this work seeks to assess how saline structures affect the present geomechanics environment through changes in the local state of stresses, in addition to the consequences to well bore drilling arising from this modified stress state inside and close to the salt. A historic summary is also presented concerning operational problems in well bore drilling in regions influenced by salt movement. (author)

  8. [Recovery of genomic regions affecting lawc/Trf2 expression during Drosophila melanogaster development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonova, O B; Modestova, E A; Vorontsova, Iu E; Cherezov, R O

    2012-01-01

    Leg-arista-wing complex (lawc) mutations affect the expression of D. melanogaster proteins homologous to a human basic transcription factor, TBP (TATA-box binding protein) Related Factor 2 (TRF2), specifically involved in development. The paper for the first time reports the application of genetic screens for various genomic regions to recover genetic interactions between the lawc/Trf2 gene and other genes and genetic loci by using Deficiency Kit lines with small deletions in total providing maximal coverage of the genome. The deletion mapping allowed us to recover 26 genomic regions that, when deleted, are lethal or modify the mutant phenotype due to a decreased TRF2 expression level. These deletions could be useful in identifying both novel TRF2 targets and its positive and negative regulators. There is evidence that TRF2 can be a component of high molecular DNA Replication-related Element Factor (DREF)- and Nucleosome Remodeling Factor (NURF)-containing complexes. The present study for the first time reports new genetic interactions of lawc/Trf2 with genes that encode basic and specific transcription factors. In most cases, if mutated, those genes caused developmental defects or death of progeny. However, in the case of the e(y) 1 gene, coding for the Taf9 transcription factor, only the male reproductive system is impaired when the lawc/Trf2 phenotype is associated with a e(y)l gene mutation. Mutant lawc(p1)e(y)1(u1) males become infertile due to primary spermatocyte maturation arrest and impaired premeiotic chromosome condensation in germ cells.

  9. Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Chemical Composition of size-resolved particles in a Brazilian megacity: Effect of NPF event, biomass burning and sea salt from remote regions on the CCN properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto-Oliveira, Carlos; de Fátima Andrade, Maria; Kumar, Prashant; Lopes, Fabio; Babinski, Marly; Landulfo, Eduado; Vara-Vela, Angel

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles are an important source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Their microphysics and chemical composition can directly affect development of clouds and precipitation process1,2. Only a few studies in Latin American have reported the impact of urban aerosol on the formation of CCN and their contribution to global climate change3. In this study, we simultaneously measured size distributed particle number concentration (PNC), CCN, black carbon (BC) and elemental concentrations (EC) in aerosol samples from São Paulo city. The PNC was measured by DMPS (model 3936) operated with a DMA (model 3080) and CPC (TSI, model 3010). The CCN was measuredby a single-column continuous-flow stream-wise thermal gradient CCN chamber (DMT CCNC-100). The BC and EC were determined in polycarbonate filter collected by Cascade Impactor (MOUDI-MSP), using a smoke stain reflectometer and an ED-XRF (EDX 700; Shimadzu), respectively. During the study period, which was August to September 2014, four events of new particle formation (NPF), characterizing secondary process of aerosol formation were noted. The total PNC varied between 1106 and 29168 cm-3, while CCN presented concentrations of 206 to 12761 cm-3for SS=1.0%. The PNC showed different concentrations during diurnal and nocturnal periods with average of 16392±7811 cm-3 and 6874±3444cm-3, respectively. The activated ratio (CCN/CN) presented diurnal and nocturnal values of 0.19±0.10 and 0.41±0.18, while apparent activation diameter (Dact,a) was estimated to be 110±29 and 71±28 nm (SS=0.6%), respectively. Combining EC and BC results with air mass trajectory analysis (Lidar aerosol profiles and Hysplit air trajectories), apportionment events were identified for sea salt and biomass burning from coastal and continental regions, respectively. The nocturnal AR and Dact,apresented values of 0.46±0.11 and 49±15 nm (SS=0.6%) for sea salt events as opposed to 0.33±0.14 and 64±30 nm (SS=0.6%) during biomass

  10. Impact of sea-salt emissions on the model performance and aerosol chemical composition and deposition in the East Mediterranean coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ulas

    2013-08-01

    East Mediterranean region is often exposed to significant levels of particulate matter (PM), partly due to the natural emission sources surrounding the area. The complex coastal geography together with the high water coverage of the area implies important contribution of sea-salt aerosols (SSA) to the PM levels and composition. WRF-CMAQ air quality modeling system has been employed to simulate and quantify the impacts of SSA emissions on the model performance in the region. The results show up to one order of magnitude higher SSA emissions when surf-zone emissions are added. 10-20% improvements are calculated in terms of model discrepancies of PM10 mass with regards to the observations. SSA related particles (sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-)) are more realistically represented. The total nitrate (NO3-) partitioning ratio increases substantially up to 0.5 on average when SSA emissions are inserted to the model, leading to nitric acid (HNO3) levels decrease by more than 40% and total NO3- aerosols increase by more than an order of magnitude over the source areas. Adding surf-zone emissions over those from open-ocean increase PM10 deposition by up to 11% and wet deposition by around 1%. The results suggest that coastal areas are important sources of SSA emissions and can significantly alter the PM levels and composition in their vicinities.

  11. Distribution and abundance of predators that affect duck production--prairie pothole region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.; Greenwood, R.J.; Sovada, M.A.; Shaffer, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    During 1983-88, the relative abundance of 18 species and species-groups of mammalian and avian predators affecting duck production in the prairie pothole region was determined in 33 widely scattered study areas ranging in size from 23-26 km2. Accounts of each studied species and species-group include habitat and history, population structure and reported densities, and information on distribution and abundance from the present study. Index values of undetected, scarce, uncommon, common, or numerous were used to rate abundance of nearly all species in each study area. Principal survey methods were livetrapping of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and Franklin's ground squirrels (Spermophilus franklinii), systematic searches for carnivore tracks in quarter sections (0.65 km2), daily records of sightings of individual predator species, and systematic searches for occupied nests of tree-nesting avian predators. Abundances of predators in individual areas were studied 1-3 years.The distribution and abundance of predator species throughout the prairie pothole region have undergone continual change since settlement of the region by Europeans in the late 1800's. Predator populations in areas we studied differed markedly from those of pristine times. The changes occurred from habitat alterations, human-inflicted mortality of predators, and interspecific relations among predator species. Indices from surveys of tracks revealed a decline in the abundance of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and an albeit less consistent decline in the abundance of raccoons (Procyon lotor) with an increase in the abundance of coyotes (Canis latrans). Records of locations of occupied nests revealed great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) tended to nest 0.5 km apart, and American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) tended to avoid nesting 0.5 km of nests of red-tailed hawks. Excluding large gulls, for which no measurements of abundance were obtained, the number of

  12. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  13. Factors affecting motivation and retention of primary health care workers in three disparate regions in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojakaa, David; Olango, Susan; Jarvis, Jordan

    2014-06-06

    The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Government of Kenya alike identify a well-performing health workforce as key to attaining better health. Nevertheless, the motivation and retention of health care workers (HCWs) persist as challenges. This study investigated factors influencing motivation and retention of HCWs at primary health care facilities in three different settings in Kenya - the remote area of Turkana, the relatively accessible region of Machakos, and the disadvantaged informal urban settlement of Kibera in Nairobi. A cross-sectional cluster sample design was used to select 59 health facilities that yielded interviews with 404 health care workers, grouped into 10 different types of service providers. Data were collected in November 2011 using structured questionnaires and a Focus Group Discussion guide. Findings were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate methods of the associations and determinants of health worker motivation and retention. The levels of education and gender factors were lowest in Turkana with female HCWs representing only 30% of the workers against a national average of 53%. A smaller proportion of HCWs in Turkana feel that they have adequate training for their jobs. Overall, 13% of the HCWs indicated that they had changed their job in the last 12 months and 20% indicated that they could leave their current job within the next two years. In terms of work environment, inadequate access to electricity, equipment, transport, housing, and the physical state of the health facility were cited as most critical, particularly in Turkana. The working environment is rated as better in private facilities. Adequate training, job security, salary, supervisor support, and manageable workload were identified as critical satisfaction factors. Family health care, salary, and terminal benefits were rated as important compensatory factors. There are distinct motivational and retention factors that affect HCWs in the three regions. Findings and

  14. MAOHUZI6/ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE2 Regulate Ethylene Response of Roots and Coleoptiles and Negatively Affect Salt Tolerance in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Ma, Biao; He, Si-Jie; Xiong, Qing; Duan, Kai-Xuan; Yin, Cui-Cui; Chen, Hui; Lu, Xiang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2015-09-01

    Ethylene plays important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. The ethylene signaling pathway has been studied extensively, mainly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, the molecular mechanism of ethylene signaling is largely unknown in rice (Oryza sativa). Previously, we have isolated a set of rice ethylene-response mutants. Here, we characterized the mutant maohuzi6 (mhz6). Through map-based cloning, we found that MHZ6 encodes ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 (OsEIL1), a rice homolog of ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3), which is the master transcriptional regulator of ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Disruption of MHZ6/OsEIL1 caused ethylene insensitivity mainly in roots, whereas silencing of the closely related OsEIL2 led to ethylene insensitivity mainly in coleoptiles of etiolated seedlings. This organ-specific functional divergence is different from the functional features of EIN3 and EIL1, both of which mediate the incomplete ethylene responses of Arabidopsis etiolated seedlings. In Arabidopsis, EIN3 and EIL1 play positive roles in plant salt tolerance. In rice, however, lack of MHZ6/OsEIL1 or OsEIL2 functions improves salt tolerance, whereas the overexpressing lines exhibit salt hypersensitivity at the seedling stage, indicating that MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 negatively regulate salt tolerance in rice. Furthermore, this negative regulation by MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 in salt tolerance is likely attributable in part to the direct regulation of HIGH-AFFINITY K(+) TRANSPORTER2;1 expression and Na(+) uptake in roots. Additionally, MHZ6/OsEIL1 overexpression promotes grain size and thousand-grain weight. Together, our study provides insights for the functional diversification of MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 in ethylene response and finds a novel mode of ethylene-regulated salt stress response that could be helpful for engineering salt-tolerant crops. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Submarine channel evolution linked to rising salt domes, Gulf of Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rachel C.; Gani, M. Royhan; Roesler, Toby; Sarwar, Abu K. M.

    2016-08-01

    An examination of halokinetics and channel evolution together in a deepwater system provides an opportunity to investigate how submarine channel morphology is locally affected by rising salt domes. The study area is located in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), directly off the Louisiana continental slope in a prominent salt dome region. The influence of salt growth on submarine channel evolution is relatively understudied, particularly in the GOM. Utilizing high-resolution 3D seismic and well data and seismic geomorphology techniques, a long-lived (~ 3 Myr) Plio-Pleistocene submarine channel system has been investigated to show a relationship between variable phases of salt motion and planform morphology of preserved submarine channels. Our data suggest that local salt motion acts as a driver for submarine channel evolution. During the late Pliocene, when salt moved upward at a relatively fast rate, channels show distinct entrenchment with narrow channel belts and overall less sinuosity. When salt motion slowed down at the beginning of the Pleistocene, channels aggraded rapidly with preserved levees, and moved toward an equilibrium state with the expansion of channel belt widths. As our results indicate, the rate of salt diapirism exerted a first-order control on channel location and morphology and distribution of reservoir-prone units. This study cautions against readily invoking allogenic factors (e.g., sea level and climate) in explaining changes in submarine channel behavior and associated fan sedimentation, particularly in regions with salt tectonics.

  16. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Plasma Mineral Chemistry as Affected by Dietary Chloride and Chloride Salts Fed to Broiler Chickens Reared under Phase Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. H. Mushtaq

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Requirements of dietary chloride (dCl and chloride salts were determined by using 4×2 factorial arrangement under four phase feeding program. Four levels (0.31, 0.45, 0.59 and 0.73% and two sources (NH4Cl and CaCl2 of the dCl were allocated to 1,472 chicks in eight dietary treatments in which each treatment was replicated four times with 46 birds per replicate. The four phase feeding program was comprised of four dietary phases: Prestarter (d 1 to 10, Starter (d 11 to 20, Grower (d 21 to 33 and Finisher (d 34 to 42; and diets were separately prepared for each phase. The cations, anions, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS and salinity were analyzed in drinking water and were not affected by dietary treatments. BW gain (BWG; p≤0.009 and feed:gain (FG; p≤0.03 were improved in CaCl2 supplemented diets during d 1 to 10. The maximum response of BWG and FG was observed at 0.38% and 0.42% dCl, respectively, for d 34 to 42. However, the level of dCl for BWG during d 21 to 33 (p≤0.04 and d 34 to 42 (p≤0.009 was optimized at 0.60% and 0.42%, respectively. The level of dCl for optimized feed intake (FI; p≤0.006, FG (p≤0.007 and litter moisture (LM; p≤0.001 was observed at 0.60%, 0.38% and 0.73%, respectively, for d 1 to 42. Water intake (DWI was not affected by increasing dCl supplementation (p>0.05; however, the ratio between DWI and FI (DWI:FI was found highest at 0.73% dCl during d 1 to 10 (p≤0.05 and d 21 to 33 (p≤0.009. Except for d 34 to 42 (p≤0.006, the increasing level of dCl did not result in a significant difference in mortality during any phase. Blood pH and glucose, and breast and thigh weights (percentage of dressed weight were improved while dressing percentage (DP and gastrointestinal health were exacerbated with NH4Cl as compared to CaCl2 supplemented diets (p≤0.001. Higher plasma Na+ and HCO3− and lower Cl− and Ca++ were observed in NH4Cl supplemented

  17. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions towards polio immunization among residents of two highly affected regions of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Aqeel, Talieha; Salman, Saad; Ibrahim, Qamer; Idrees, Jawaria; Khan, Muhammad Ubaid

    2015-11-05

    Despite the efforts of national and international organizations, polio has not been eradicated from Pakistan. The prevalence of polio in Pakistan is exceptional in global context. Quetta and Peshawar divisions are amongst the most affected regions hit by polio in Pakistan. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions towards polio immunization among residents of Quetta and Peshawar divisions in Pakistan. A descriptive, cross-sectional study involving 768 participants was conducted from August to December, 2014 in Quetta and Peshawar divisions in Pakistan. Multistage sampling technique was used to draw a sample of residents from each division. A pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data from eligible participants. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used to express the results. A total of 38.8 % participants exhibited good knowledge about polio. Mean knowledge score of the participants was 7.35 ± 2.54 (based on 15 knowledge questions). Older age (p attitudes towards polio immunization (84.8 %), with a mean score of 19.19 ± 2.39 (based on 8 attitude statements). Lack of education (p attitudes of participants towards polio immunization. False religious beliefs (39.06 %), lack of knowledge (33.7 %), fear of infertility by polio vaccines (32.16 %) and security issues (29.42 %) were reported by the participants as the main barriers towards polio immunization. The findings of this study showed poor knowledge and negative attitudes of participants towards polio immunizations. Religious beliefs and lack of knowledge about polio immunization were reported as the major barriers towards polio immunization.

  18. Salt tectonics in Santos Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, David G.; Nielsen, Malene; Raven, Madeleine [Maersk Oil and Gas, Copenhagen (Denmark); Menezes, Paulo [Maersk Oil and Gas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    From Albian to end Cretaceous times, the inboard part of the Santos Basin in Brazil was affected by extension as salt flowed basinwards under the effect of gravity. Salt rollers, flip-flop salt diapirs and the famous Albian Gap were all formed by this process. Outboard of these extensional structures, contraction was taken up in a wide zone of thickened salt where salt collected. The overburden was carried on top of the salt as it flowed down-dip, with up to 40 km of translation recorded in Albian strata. (author)

  19. Diet Composition of Mummichogs, Fundulus heteroclitus, from Restoring and Unrestricted Regions of a New England (U.S.A.) Salt Marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Pirri, M. J.; Raposa, K. B.; Catena, J. G.

    2001-08-01

    Diet composition of mummichogs, Fundulus heteroclitus, from three marsh habitats (creeks, pools, and marsh surface) within tidally restored and an adjacent unrestricted (reference) region of Sachuest Point salt marsh (Middletown, RI, U.S.A.) was examined. Major diet components were detritus, copepods, diatoms, insects (larvae and adults), ostracods, and chironomids. Total length, wet weight, and gut fullness of mummichogs were equivalent within habitats between the restoring and unrestricted marshes. Diet composition and percent abundance of diet items were also similar within habitats between the unrestricted and restoring marshes. However, differences in diet patterns were observed among habitats (creeks, pools, and marsh surface) within each marsh. Fish collected from creeks had fuller guts than those sampled from the marsh surface for both the restoring and unrestricted marsh. Diet composition also differed among marsh habitats, but only within the restoring marsh. In the restoring marsh, fish sampled from the creeks consumed primarily detritus, diatoms, and ostracods, whereas fish from the pools consumed mainly detritus, copepods, chironomids, and insects. Differences in diet composition among habitats were most likely a reflection of prey availability. This study provides evidence that tidally restored marshes can provide similar food resources as unrestricted marshes, in terms of consumption patterns of dominant marsh consumers, within the first year after restoration, before major shifts in dominant vegetation (i.e. from Phragmites australis to Spartina spp.) occur.

  20. Salt Marsh Zonal Migration and Ecosystem Service Change in Response to Global Sea Level Rise: A Case Study from an Urban Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusty A. Feagin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal wetland plants are expected to respond to global sea level rise by migrating toward higher elevations. Housing, infrastructure, and other anthropogenic modifications are expected to limit the space available for this potential migration. Here, we explore the ecological and economic effects of projected Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2007 report sea level changes at the plant community scale using the highest horizontal (1 m and vertical (0.01 m resolution data available, using a 6 x 6 km area as an example. Our findings show that salt marshes do not always lose land with increasing rates of sea level rise. We found that the lower bound of the IPCC 2007 potential rise (0.18 m by 2095 actually increased the total marsh area. This low rise scenario resulted in a net gain in ecosystem service values on public property, whereas market-based economic losses were predicted for private property. The upper rise scenario (0.59 m by 2095 resulted in both public and private economic losses for this same area. Our work highlights the trade-offs between public and privately held value under the various IPCC 2007 climate change scenarios. We conclude that as wetlands migrate inland into urbanized regions, their survival is likely to be dependent on the rate of return on property and housing investments.

  1. Precipitation variability on global pasturelands may affect food security in livestock-dependent regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, L.; Gerber, J. S.; Samberg, L. H.; Smith, W. K.; West, P. C.; Herrero, M.; Brendan, P.; Cecile, G.; Katharina, W.; Smith, W. K.

    2016-12-01

    this information to identify regions in which changes in the variability of precipitation may already be affecting the ability of grazing systems to support intensified livestock production, and assess the potential impacts of those changes on pasture productivity.

  2. Cooling Town - How landscape is affecting urban climates in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerle, Albin; Leitinger, Georg; Heinl, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Cities and urban areas are known to have a local climate different from that of surrounding rural landscapes. The so-called 'urban heat island' phenomenon results from the replacement of natural with impervious, non-evaporative surfaces such as concrete and asphalt. Urban areas usually have higher solar radiation absorption and a greater thermal conductivity and capacity that lead to greater heat storage during the day and heat release at night. This results in a modified climate that is warmer than the surrounding rural areas. Despite being often considered as 'heating islands', cities are not isolated from their environment and are affected by their thermal properties. Reports for the cities of Vienna (Austria) or Stuttgart (Germany) document the importance of the environmental setting for the climate in the cities. Especially large forest areas around the cities have shown to provide cooling and higher air quality. It is therefore not only the core urban area that needs to be considered for climatic effects but also the large-scale surrounding and environmental setting of the city. But only very few studies (e.g. for rice fields in Japan and Taiwan) specifically investigated this temperature effect of surrounding landscapes on urban areas. The research project "Cooling Town" (www.coolingtown.at) addresses this little knowledge on temperature regimes of urban areas and their thermal connectivity with surrounding landscapes, focusing on mountain environments. One major aspect in this research is to assess the summer temperature regime of the city of Bolzano in South Tyrol (northern Italy). The spatial distribution of air and surface temperatures is analyzed to derive rural and urban and regions with specific temperature regimes and climates and their connectivity. Twelve climate stations were placed in and around the city of Bolzano to measure air and surface temperatures together with wind parameters throughout summer 2012. Thermal infrared images were taken from

  3. Deletion of interleukin-6 prevents cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and dysfunction without affecting blood pressure in angiotensin II-high salt-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Germán E; Rhaleb, Nour-Eddine; D'Ambrosio, Martin A; Nakagawa, Pablo; Liu, Yunhe; Leung, Pablo; Dai, Xiangguo; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Peterson, Edward L; Carretero, Oscar A

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation has been proposed as a key component in the development of hypertension and cardiac remodeling associated with different cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in the chronic stage of hypertension is not well defined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that deletion of interleukin-6 protects against the development of hypertension, cardiac inflammation, fibrosis, remodeling and dysfunction induced by high salt diet and angiotensin II (Ang II). Male C57BL/6J and interleukin-6-knock out (KO) mice were implanted with telemetry devices for blood pressure (BP) measurements, fed a 4% NaCl diet, and infused with either vehicle or Ang II (90 ng/min per mouse subcutaneously) for 8 weeks. We studied BP and cardiac function by echocardiography at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. Myocyte cross-sectional area (MCSA), macrophage infiltration, and myocardial fibrosis were also assessed. BP increased similarly in both strains when treated with Ang II and high salt (Ang II-high salt); however, C57BL/6J mice developed a more severe decrease in left ventricle ejection fraction, fibrosis, and macrophage infiltration compared with interleukin-6-KO mice. No differences between strains were observed in MCSA, capillary density and MCSA to capillary density ratio. In conclusion, absence of interleukin -6 did not alter the development of Ang II-high salt-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy, but it prevented the development of cardiac dysfunction, myocardial inflammation, and fibrosis. This indicates that interleukin-6 plays an important role in hypertensive heart damage but not in the development of hypertension.

  4. Deletion of interleukin-6 prevents cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and dysfunction without affecting blood pressure in angiotensin II-high salt-induced hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Germán E.; Rhaleb, Nour-Eddine; D’ambrosio, Martin A.; Nakagawa, Pablo; Liu, Yunhe; Leung, Pablo; Dai, Xiangguo; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Peterson, Edward L.; Carretero, Oscar A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Inflammation has been proposed as a key component in the development of hypertension and cardiac remodeling associated with different cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in the chronic stage of hypertension is not well defined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that deletion of interleukin-6 protects against the development of hypertension, cardiac inflammation, fibrosis, remodeling and dysfunction induced by high salt diet and angiotensin II (Ang II). Methods Male C57BL/6J and interleukin-6-knock out (KO) mice were implanted with telemetry devices for blood pressure (BP) measurements, fed a 4% NaCl diet, and infused with either vehicle or Ang II (90 ng/min per mouse subcutaneously) for 8 weeks. We studied BP and cardiac function by echocardiography at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. Results Myocyte cross-sectional area (MCSA), macrophage infiltration, and myocardial fibrosis were also assessed. BP increased similarly in both strains when treated with Ang II and high salt (Ang II-high salt); however, C57BL/6J mice developed a more severe decrease in left ventricle ejection fraction, fibrosis, and macrophage infiltration compared with interleukin-6-KO mice. No differences between strains were observed in MCSA, capillary density and MCSA to capillary density ratio. Conclusion In conclusion, absence of interleukin -6 did not alter the development of Ang II-high salt-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy, but it prevented the development of cardiac dysfunction, myocardial inflammation, and fibrosis. This indicates that interleukin-6 plays an important role in hypertensive heart damage but not in the development of hypertension. PMID:25304471

  5. Evaluating ambivalence: social-cognitive and affective brain regions associated with ambivalent decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nohlen, H.U.; van Harreveld, F.; Rotteveel, M.; Lelieveld, G.-J.; Crone, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Ambivalence is a state of inconsistency that is often experienced as affectively aversive. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the role of cognitive and social-affective processes in the experience of ambivalence and coping with its negative consequences. We examined

  6. Learning, Adjustment and Stress Disorders: With Special Reference to Tsunami Affected Regions. Beitrage zur Padagogischen und Rehabilitationspsychologie. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witruk, Evelin, Ed.; Riha, David, Ed.; Teichert, Alexandra, Ed.; Haase, Norman, Ed.; Stueck, Marcus, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book contains selected contributions from the international workshop Learning, "Adjustment and Stress Disorders--with special reference to Tsunami affected Regions" organised by Evelin Witruk and the team of Educational and Rehabilitative Psychology at the University of Leipzig in January 2006. The book contains new results and the…

  7. Factors Affecting Stream Nutrient Loads: A Synthesis of Regional SPARROW Model Results for the Continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephen D; Alexander, Richard B; Schwarz, Gregory E; Crawford, Charles G

    2011-10-01

    We compared the results of 12 recently calibrated regional SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) models covering most of the continental United States to evaluate the consistency and regional differences in factors affecting stream nutrient loads. The models - 6 for total nitrogen and 6 for total phosphorus - all provide similar levels of prediction accuracy, but those for major river basins in the eastern half of the country were somewhat more accurate. The models simulate long-term mean annual stream nutrient loads as a function of a wide range of known sources and climatic (precipitation, temperature), landscape (e.g., soils, geology), and aquatic factors affecting nutrient fate and transport. The results confirm the dominant effects of urban and agricultural sources on stream nutrient loads nationally and regionally, but reveal considerable spatial variability in the specific types of sources that control water quality. These include regional differences in the relative importance of different types of urban (municipal and industrial point vs. diffuse urban runoff) and agriculture (crop cultivation vs. animal waste) sources, as well as the effects of atmospheric deposition, mining, and background (e.g., soil phosphorus) sources on stream nutrients. Overall, we found that the SPARROW model results provide a consistent set of information for identifying the major sources and environmental factors affecting nutrient fate and transport in United States watersheds at regional and subregional scales.

  8. Factors affecting stream nutrient loads: A synthesis of regional SPARROW model results for the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephen D.; Alexander, Richard B.; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2011-01-01

    We compared the results of 12 recently calibrated regional SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) models covering most of the continental United States to evaluate the consistency and regional differences in factors affecting stream nutrient loads. The models - 6 for total nitrogen and 6 for total phosphorus - all provide similar levels of prediction accuracy, but those for major river basins in the eastern half of the country were somewhat more accurate. The models simulate long-term mean annual stream nutrient loads as a function of a wide range of known sources and climatic (precipitation, temperature), landscape (e.g., soils, geology), and aquatic factors affecting nutrient fate and transport. The results confirm the dominant effects of urban and agricultural sources on stream nutrient loads nationally and regionally, but reveal considerable spatial variability in the specific types of sources that control water quality. These include regional differences in the relative importance of different types of urban (municipal and industrial point vs. diffuse urban runoff) and agriculture (crop cultivation vs. animal waste) sources, as well as the effects of atmospheric deposition, mining, and background (e.g., soil phosphorus) sources on stream nutrients. Overall, we found that the SPARROW model results provide a consistent set of information for identifying the major sources and environmental factors affecting nutrient fate and transport in United States watersheds at regional and subregional scales. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Demographic and social trends affecting intergenerational relations in the MENA region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Meskoub (Mahmood)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper focuses on poverty in the MENA region and whether it can be alleviated by intergenerational support within and across households. Intergenerational relations are mediated through several institutions. The most prominent of these are households, state,

  10. Does education level affect the efficacy of a community based salt reduction program? - A post-hoc analysis of the China Rural Health Initiative Sodium Reduction Study (CRHI-SRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Xian; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Neal, Bruce; Bots, Michiel L; Hoes, Arno W; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-08-11

    Whether educational level influences the effects of health education is not clearly defined. This study examined whether the impact of a community-based dietary salt reduction program was affected by the level of education of participants. The China Rural Health Initiative Sodium Reduction Study (CRHI-SRS) was a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in 120 villages from five Northern Chinese provinces. The intervention comprised a village-wide health education program and availability of salt substitute at village shops. 24-h urine samples were collected among 1903 participants for primary evaluation of the intervention effect. A post-hoc analysis was done to explore for heterogeneity of intervention effects by education level using generalized estimating equations. All models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and province. Daily salt intake was lower in intervention than in control at all educational levels with no evidence of a difference in the effect of the intervention across different levels of education. P value for the interaction term between education level and the intervention was 0.35. There was likewise no evidence of an interaction for effects of the intervention on potassium intake (p = 0.71), the sodium to potassium ratio (p = 0.07), or knowledge and behaviors related to salt (all p > 0.05). The study suggests that the effects of the intervention were achieved regardless of the level of education and that the intervention should therefore be broadly effective in rural Chinese populations. The trial was registered with clinicaltrial.gov ( NCT01259700 ).

  11. Grain Yield, Dry Weight and Phosphorus Accumulation and Translocation in Two Rice (Oryza sativa L. Varieties as Affected by Salt-Alkali and Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Tian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Salt-alkali is the main threat to global crop production. The functioning of phosphorus (P in alleviating damage to crops from saline-alkaline stress may be dependent on the variety of crop but there is little published research on the topic. This pot experiment was conducted to study if P has any effect on rice (Oryza sativa L. yield, dry matter and P accumulation and translocation in salt-alkaline soils. Plant dry weight and P content at heading and harvest stages of two contrasting saline-alkaline tolerant (Dongdao-4 and sensitive (Tongyu-315 rice varieties were examined under two saline-alkaline (light versus severe soils and five P supplements (P0, P50, P100, P150 and P200 kg ha−1. The results were: in light saline-alkaline soil, the optimal P levels were found for P150 for Dongdao-4 and for P100 for Tongyu-315 with the greatest grain dry weight and P content. Two rice varieties obtained relatively higher dry weight and P accumulation and translocation in P0. In severe saline-alkaline soil, however, dry weight and P accumulation and translocation, 1000-grain weight, seed-setting rate and grain yield significantly decreased, but effectively increased with P application for Dongdao-4. Tongyu-315 showed lower sensitivity to P nutrition. Thus, a more tolerant variety could have a stronger capacity to absorb and translocate P for grain filling, especially in severe salt-alkaline soils. This should be helpful for consideration in rice breeding and deciding a reasonable P application in saline-alkaline soil.

  12. CHANGES IN LAND COVER AND USE AFFECT THE LOCAL AND REGIONAL CLIMATE IN PIRACICABA, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Pereira-Coltri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use and changes in land cover play an important role in local and regional climatic conditions, especially in tropical regions. Piracicaba, a city in southeastern Brazil, has an economy that is based primarily on sugar cane cultivation. The seasonality of this crop means that there are marked annual fluctuations in land use and cover in this municipality. In this work, we investigated the seasonal variation in urban heat-islands and local climatic variations by using remote sensing data, geographic information system (GIS and atmospheric modeling. The urban heat-islands were analyzed by using Landsat 7 (Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ images for the sugar cane crop (January to March and non-crop (August to November periods, and these images were subsequently converted to land surface brightness temperature. The average temperature in the non-crop period was 3.5°C higher than in the crop period, which suggested that heat-island intensity may be linked to the seasonality of sugar cane cultivation. In order to examine the influence of urban areas on regional temperature changes and heat fluxes, numerical simulations were done with the Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS. Overall, the results obtained suggested that local and regional climatic dynamics were related to land use and changes in land cover.

  13. CHANGES IN LAND COVER AND USE AFFECT THE LOCAL AND REGIONAL CLIMATE IN PIRACICABA, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Pereira Coltri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Land use and changes in land cover play an important role in local and regional climatic conditions, especially in tropical regions. Piracicaba, a city in southeastern Brazil, has an economy that is based primarily on sugar cane cultivation. The seasonality of this crop means that there are marked annual fluctuations in land use and cover in this municipality. In this work, we investigated the seasonal variation in urban heat-islands and local climatic variations by using remote sensing data, geographic information system (GIS and atmospheric modeling. The urban heat-islands were analyzed by using Landsat 7 (Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ images for the sugar cane crop (January to March and non-crop (August to November periods, and these images were subsequently converted to land surface brightness temperature. The average temperature in the non-crop period was 3.5°C higher than in the crop period, which suggested that heat-island intensity may be linked to the seasonality of sugar cane cultivation. In order to examine the influence of urban areas on regional temperature changes and heat fluxes, numerical simulations were done with the Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS. Overall, the results obtained suggested that local and regional climatic dynamics were related to land use and changes in land cover.

  14. Alternative S2 Hinge Regions of the Myosin Rod Affect Myofibrillar Structure and Myosin Kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Mark S.; Dambacher, Corey M.; Knowles, Aileen F.; Braddock, Joan M.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Swank, Douglas M.; Bernstein, Sanford I.; Maughan, David W.; (RPI); (IIT); (SDSU); (Vermont)

    2009-07-01

    The subfragment 2/light meromyosin 'hinge' region has been proposed to significantly contribute to muscle contraction force and/or speed. Transgenic replacement of the endogenous fast muscle isovariant hinge A (exon 15a) in Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle with the slow muscle hinge B (exon 15b) allows examination of the structural and functional changes when only this region of the myosin molecule is different. Hinge B was previously shown to increase myosin rod length, increase A-band and sarcomere length, and decrease flight performance compared to hinge A. We applied additional measures to these transgenic lines to further evaluate the consequences of modifying this hinge region. Structurally, the longer A-band and sarcomere lengths found in the hinge B myofibrils appear to be due to the longitudinal addition of myosin heads. Functionally, hinge B, although a significant distance from the myosin catalytic domain, alters myosin kinetics in a manner consistent with this region increasing myosin rod length. These structural and functional changes combine to decrease whole fly wing-beat frequency and flight performance. Our results indicate that this hinge region plays an important role in determining myosin kinetics and in regulating thick and thin filament lengths as well as sarcomere length.

  15. Consumption of a Double-Fortified Salt Affects Perceptual, Attentional, and Mnemonic Functioning in Women in a Randomized Controlled Trial in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Michael J; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Nevins, Julie Eh; Venkatramanan, Sudha; Reinhart, Gregory A; Wesley, Annie; Haas, Jere D

    2017-12-01

    Background: Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia have been shown to have negative effects on aspects of perception, attention, and memory. Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to assess the extent to which increases in dietary iron consumption are related to improvements in behavioral measures of perceptual, attentional, and mnemonic function. Methods: Women were selected from a randomized, double-blind, controlled food-fortification trial involving ad libitum consumption of either a double-fortified salt (DFS) containing 47 mg potassium iodate/kg and 3.3 mg microencapsulated ferrous fumarate/g (1.1 mg elemental Fe/g) or a control iodized salt. Participants' blood iron status (primary outcomes) and cognitive functioning (secondary outcomes) were assessed at baseline and after 10 mo at endline. The study was performed on a tea plantation in the Darjeeling district of India. Participants ( n = 126; 66% iron deficient and 49% anemic at baseline) were otherwise healthy women of reproductive age, 18-55 y. Results: Significant improvements were documented for iron status and for perceptual, attentional, and mnemonic function in the DFS group (percentage of variance accounted for: 16.5%) compared with the control group. In addition, the amount of change in perceptual and cognitive performance was significantly ( P mnemonic performance of Indian female tea pickers of reproductive age. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01032005. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. QTL affecting body weight in a candidate region of cattle chromosome 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana B.B. Machado

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify QTLs for liveweight in a candidate region of bovine chromosome 5. Half-sib families from two lines, one traditional and the other new, of Canchim beef cattle (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu were genotyped for four microsatellite markers, including the microsatellite in the IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1 promoter region. Significant differences in allele distribution between the two lines were found for three markers. Interval mapping analyses in this region indicated the presence of a QTL controlling birth weight (p < 0.05 and of a QTL influencing breeding value for yearling weight (p < 0.01 in the newer line of the breed. The previously identified interaction between the IGF-1 genotype and genetic group strengthens the hypothesis of a linked QTL rather than an IGF-1 effect on growth traits in the Canchim cattle.

  17. Locking-in and locking-out business and economic reconciliation in the conflict-affected region of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danura Miriyagalla

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Using economic geography concepts, this paper compares four groups of investors to the conflictaffected region of Sri Lanka and critically analyses the key factors that are “locking-in” and “locking-out” investment, business development and employment creation. It argues that foreign/Diaspora investors were mostly being influenced by political and social factors, and thus far had not invested significantly in the region. Traders from the non-conflict-affected region of the country had benefitted the most due to opportunistic behaviour, their acceptance of the political realities and the short-term economic opportunities that had opened up. Large investors from outside the region, on the other hand, had either been disappointed with the economic situation or had invested due to a sense of social responsibility and long-term business prospects. Local SMEs within the conflict region were hit hard by the opening of the war-affected economy and have been unable to cope with the change. Political, economic, and social factors had all contributed to their unwillingness and inability to expand their businesses. The paper concludes that the climate for investment must be improved significantly by creating a strong “path-creating” environment and “de-locking” investment inhibiting factors. There must be better collaboration amongst different types of businesses, and coordination amongst different stakeholders. If done well, enhanced investment and employment creation could make a significant impact on reconciliation and long-term peace in the country.

  18. Factors Affecting School Participation in Turkey: An Analysis of Regional Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Sedat; Chudgar, Amita

    2016-01-01

    There are thousands of children who remain out of school at both primary and secondary levels in Turkey. The current disparities in access to education in Turkey are mostly driven by systematic regional differences and high gender inequalities. Although several existing studies have paid close attention to gender-based inequities in school access,…

  19. Modeling study on the factors affecting regional air quality during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Cheng, Y.; Tang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.; Pierce, R.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Flowers, B. A.; Dubey, M. K.; Krotkov, N. A.; Pickering, K. E.; Ramanathan, V.

    2009-12-01

    Chinese government took measures to control emissions of pollutants before and during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games in order to get better air quality for the event. A 3-dimensional regional chemical transport model, the University of Iowa’s Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM), is used to evaluate the effects of emission reductions on regional air quality by this event. The emission inventories with and without the consideration of emission reductions are used in case studies. Impacts of the emissions from different regions and sectors on Beijing and regional air quality are discussed in this study. Meteorological factor on the improvement of air quality during this event is also assessed by using the meteorological conditions from different years to drive the model. Model performance is evaluated by comparing the modeled trace gases and aerosols with the surface measurements from Beijing, the field observations from the Cheju ABC Plume-Asian Monsoon Experiment (CAPMEX) during this summer, and satellite data from NASA.

  20. Forces affecting employment dynamics in Drenthe; Case study in a leading rural region in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, I.J.; Post, J.H.; Wisselink, A.J.; Overbeek, M.M.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this report the focus is on employment dynamics in Drenthe since the beginning of the 1980s. This study is part of an EU wide research project on employment development in leading and lagging rural regions of the EU. Total employment in Drenthe increased by 24,500 jobs or with over 20% in the

  1. How Does Education Affect Environmental Knowledge: A Survey in Urban and Regional Planning Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergen, Baris; Ergen, Zeynep

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at measuring of environmental knowledge of students who select environmental science course in Urban and Regional Planning Department at Bozok University. This article includes a survey research, with this survey, we can get information about knowledge of environment of students and where they learn them. First briefly, it provides…

  2. Factors Affecting Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-min Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei is a typical developed region in China. The development of economy has brought lots of carbon emissions. To explore an effective way to reduce carbon emissions, we applied the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI model to find drivers behind carbon emission from 2003 to 2013. Results showed that, in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei, economic output was main contributor to carbon emissions. Then we utilized the decoupling model to comprehensively analyze the relationship between economic output and carbon emission. Based on the two-level model, results indicated the following: (1 Industry sector accounted for almost 80% of energy consumption in whole region. The reduced proportion of industrial GDP will directly reduce the carbon emissions. (2 The carbon factor for CO2/energy in whole region was higher than that of Beijing and Tianjin but lower than that of Hebei. The impact of energy structure on carbon emission depends largely on the proportion of coal in industry. (3 The energy intensity in whole region decreased from 0.79 in 2003 to 0.40 in 2013 (unit: tons of standard coal/ten thousand yuan, which was lower than national average. (4 The cumulative effects of industrial structure, energy structure, and energy intensity were negative, positive, and negative, respectively.

  3. Demographic and social trends affecting intergenerational relations in the MENA region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Messkoub (Mahmood)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on poverty in the MENA region and whether it can be alleviated by intergenerational support within and across households. Intergenerational relations are mediated through several institutions. The most prominent of these are households, state, civil society and market.

  4. How Do Professional Mutual Recognition Agreements Affect Higher Education? Examining Regional Policy in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Creso; Gaviria, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Professional mutual recognition agreements (MRAs) are one of the policy instruments employed in global and regional trade agreements to facilitate the mobility of skilled labour. While such agreements have been noted in the literature examining cross-border academic mobility, little is known about how they impact higher education. This paper…

  5. Dietary salt reduction for control of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In developed as well as developing countries, the four main factors affecting blood pressure are high salt intake, low potassium intake, overweight, and low physical activity level. This is also true for the increase in blood pressure with advancing age, occurring in all societies. It is now accepted that excess dietary salt raises blood pressure levels, whereas dietary salt reduction reduces blood pressure and prevents vascular complications.(1 The effect of salt on blood pressure is presumably due to the inability of the kidneys to excrete large amounts of salt, as humans are evolutionary adapted to ingest and excrete less than 1 gram of salt per day.(2 In this connection it should be noted that the more important element in common salt (sodium chloride is the sodium ion, and any restrictions applying to common salt also apply to all food items that contain sodium ions, such as sodium glutamate and baking soda.

  6. Molecular markers associated with salt tolerance in Egyptian wheats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinity affects plant growth by the osmotic stress of the salt around the roots, as well as by toxicity caused by excessive accumulation of salt in leaves. In the present study, seven common (Triticum aestivum) and two durum (T. turgidum ssp. Durum) wheat genotypes were subjected to salt stress for 2 weeks. Salt stress ...

  7. Institutional Factors Affecting the North Caucasus Region in Connection to its Russian Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullakh Abdulgamidovich Mallakurbanov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the general problems of development of the North Caucasus region and various aspects of its investigation. This theme was not easy for scientists and analysts at all times, and it cannot be understood in a one-dimensional measurement. In general the Caucasus has provided and continues to exert considerable influence on the formation and development of the Russian identity and this is both theoretical and practical importance for us. Therefore much attention is paid to the present situation in Russian society, its ability to meet the challenges of the times in a rapidly changing world and changes in domestic and foreign policy on its southern borders. The paper presents different approaches to analysis and different comments on them. But all Russian researchers are united in one thing - in the understanding and preservation of this unique region as an integral part of the Russian state and Russian identity.

  8. Industries, skills, and human capital: how does regional size affect uneven development?

    OpenAIRE

    Rikard H. Eriksson; Høgni Kalsø Hansen

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses how the composition of industry structures, skills, and human capital is related to regional development in peripheral and central locations. We do this by means of ordinary least squares models to analyse the relationship between growth in purchasing power and employment growth between 2001 and 2008 as well as a selection of variables constructed via register data of the total population in Sweden. The analysis demonstrates an evident spatial division of postindustrial d...

  9. HOW GRAVITY WAVES AFFECT FORMATION OF LOW TEMPERATURE REGION IN ANTARCTIC LOWER STRATOSPHERE

    OpenAIRE

    タナカ, ヒロシ; Hiroshi, Tanaka

    1987-01-01

    A mechanism is proposed for the formation of an "ozone hole" over Antarctica. Gravity waves emitted from the circum-continental mountain (or cliff) belt may be partly saturated in the lower stratosphere and suppress planetary wave activity there. This process results in shielding a poleward heat transport associated with planetary waves. A long-term trend of gravity wave activity and prevailing wind system for the past several years should be detected in the polar region.

  10. Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Serum Mineral Chemistry as Affected by Dietary Sodium and Sodium Salts Fed to Broiler Chickens Reared under Phase Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. H. Mushtaq

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A basal diet (0.8 g/kg dNa was formulated in which each of the two sources (NaHCO3 and Na2SO4 were supplemented in such a way to attain four levels (1.7, 2.6, 3.5, and 4.4 g/kg of total dNa, respectively, under 4×2 factorial arrangement. Eight dietary treatments were replicated four times, with 40 birds in each replicate (n = 1,280. The diets supplemented with Na2SO4 to attain higher levels of dNa showed highest BW gain and feed intake (FI during d 1 to 10 (interaction effects while 2.6 g/kg dNa exhibited improved BW gain and gain:feed (FG during d 11 to 20. Linear rise in daily water intake (DWI was associated with diets containing increasing dNa during d 1 to 42 (p≤0.036. During the first 10 d, DWI:FI was found highest in NaHCO3 diets while Na2SO4 diets showed highest DWI:FI during last 10 d of the experiment (p≤0.036. Increasing dNa and changing Na2SO4 with NaHCO3 salt increased pH and resulted in poor growth performance. Dressing weight (p≤0.001 and abdominal fat (p≤0.001; quadratic effect were reduced, whereas breast (p≤0.001 and thigh (p<0.001 weights were aggravated with increasing dNa (linear effects. Present findings suggested higher levels of dNa from Na2SO4 as the supplemental salt in broiler diets would produce better growth performance, especially in first ten days of life, and improve carcass and body organ characteristics.

  11. Survey of SSC12 regions affecting fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat using high density SNP data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María eMuñoz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition is a critical aspect of pork because it affects sensorial and technological aspects of meat quality and it is relevant for human health. Previous studies identified significant QTLs in porcine chromosome 12 for fatty acid profile of backfat and intramuscular fat. In the present study, 374 SNPs mapped in SSC12 from the 60K Porcine SNP Beadchip were used. We have combined linkage and association analyses with expression data analysis in order to identify regions of SSC12 that could affect fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat in longissimus muscle. The QTL scan showed a region around the 60 cM position that significantly affects palmitic fatty acid and two related fatty acid indexes. The Iberian QTL allele increased the palmitic content (+2.6% of mean trait. This QTL does not match any of those reported in the previous study on fatty acid composition of backfat, suggesting different genetic control acting at both tissues. The SNP association analyses showed significant associations with linolenic and palmitic acids besides several indexes. Among the polymorphisms that affect palmitic fatty acid and match the QTL region at 60 cM, there were three that mapped in the Phosphatidylcholine Transfer Protein (PCTP gene and one in the Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase  gene (ACACA. Interestingly one of the PCTP SNPs also affected significantly unsaturated and double bound indexes and the ratio between polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fatty acids. Differential expression was assessed on longissimus muscle conditional on the genotype of the QTL and on the most significant SNPs, according to the results obtained in the former analyses. Results from the microarray expression analyses, validated by RT-qPCR, showed that PCTP expression levels significantly vary depending on the QTL as well as on the own PCTP genotype. The results obtained with the different approaches point out the PCTP gene as a powerful candidate underlying the QTL for

  12. Geologic technical assessment of the Chacahoula Salt Dome, Louisiana, for potential expansion of the U.S. strategic petroleum reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, Anna C.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Looff, Karl M. (Geologic Consultant, Lovelady, TX)

    2006-03-01

    The Chacahoula salt dome, located in southern Louisiana, approximately 66 miles southwest of New Orleans, appears to be a suitable site for a 160-million-barrel-capacity expansion facility for the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, comprising sixteen 10-million barrel underground storage caverns. The overall salt dome appears to cover an area of some 1800 acres, or approximately 2.8 square miles, at a subsea elevation of 2000 ft, which is near the top of the salt stock. The shallowest known salt is present at 1116 ft, subsea. The crest of the salt dome is relatively flatlying, outward to an elevation of -4000 ft. Below this elevation, the flanks of the dome plunge steeply in all directions. The dome appears to comprise two separate spine complexes of quasi-independently moving salt. Two mapped areas of salt overhang, located on the eastern and southeastern flanks of the salt stock, are present below -8000 ft. These regions of overhang should present no particular design issues, as the conceptual design SPR caverns are located in the western portion of the dome. The proposed cavern field may be affected by a boundary shear zone, located between the two salt spines. However, the large size of the Chacahoula salt dome suggests that there is significant design flexibility to deal with such local geologic issues.

  13. Prevalence de la cecite et des affections oculaires dans la region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La taille de l'échantillon était estimée à 5 535 selon la formule de Schwartz. Sur 5 758 enquêtés, la prévalence de la cécité était de 1% environ et la cataracte représentait la première cause (58%). Les autres affections oculaires retrouvées étaient dominées par les conjonctivites (15,27%), ptérygions (4,15%) et amétropies ...

  14. Re-Emerging Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in War-Affected Peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean Region-An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raslan, Rasha; El Sayegh, Skye; Chams, Sana; Chams, Nour; Leone, Angelo; Hajj Hussein, Inaya

    2017-01-01

    For the past few decades, the Eastern Mediterranean Region has been one area of the world profoundly shaped by war and political instability. On-going conflict and destruction have left the region struggling with innumerable health concerns that have claimed the lives of many. Wars, and the chaos they leave behind, often provide the optimal conditions for the growth and re-emergence of communicable diseases. In this article, we highlight a few of the major re-emerging vaccine preventable diseases in four countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region that are currently affected by war leading to a migration crisis: Iraq, South Sudan, Syria, and Yemen. We will also describe the impact these infections have had on patients, societies, and national health care services. This article also describes the efforts, both local and international, which have been made to address these crises, as well as future endeavors that can be done to contain and control further devastation left by these diseases.

  15. Surgery on the affected upper extremity of patients with a history of complex regional pain syndrome: the use of intravenous regional anesthesia with clonidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Scott S; Rosenthal, Erik A; Steinberg, Robert B; Faruqi, Shameema; Kilaru, Prasad A

    2004-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) with clonidine in patients with a previous history of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) who are undergoing upper extremity hand surgery. Prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Operating suites and Pain Management Center of a large university-affiliated medical center. 84 patients with a previous history of upper extremity CRPS undergoing surgery on the affected extremity. All signs and symptoms of CRPS had resolved prior to the time of surgery. Patients were randomized to receive IVRA with 0.5 % lidocaine with either 1 mL normal saline (n=42) or clonidine 1 microg/kg (n=42) added to the lidocaine solution. Recurrence of CRPS symptoms at 1 year following surgery were recorded. The recurrence rate of CRPS was significantly lower (p history of CRPS can significantly reduce the recurrence rate of this disease process.

  16. Prefrontal Thinning Affects Functional Connectivity and Regional Homogeneity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Späti, Jakub; Hänggi, Jürgen; Doerig, Nadja; Ernst, Jutta; Sambataro, Fabio; Brakowski, Janis; Jäncke, Lutz; grosse Holtforth, Martin; Seifritz, Erich; Spinelli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with structural and functional alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Enhanced ACC activity at rest (measured using various imaging methodologies) is found in treatment-responsive patients and is hypothesized to bolster treatment response by fostering adaptive rumination. However, whether structural changes influence functional coupling between fronto-cingulate regions and ACC regional homogeneity (ReHo) and whether these functional changes are related to levels of adaptive rumination and treatment response is still unclear. Cortical thickness and ReHo maps were calculated in 21 unmedicated depressed patients and 35 healthy controls. Regions with reduced cortical thickness defined the seeds for the subsequent functional connectivity (FC) analyses. Patients completed the Response Style Questionnaire, which provided a measure of adaptive rumination associated with better response to psychotherapy. Compared with controls, depressed patients showed thinning of the right anterior PFC, increased prefrontal connectivity with the supragenual ACC (suACC), and higher ReHo in the suACC. The suACC clusters of increased ReHo and FC spatially overlapped. In depressed patients, suACC ReHo scores positively correlated with PFC thickness and with FC strength. Moreover, stronger fronto-cingulate connectivity was related to higher levels of adaptive rumination. Greater suACC ReHo and connectivity with the right anterior PFC seem to foster adaptive forms of self-referential processing associated with better response to psychotherapy, whereas prefrontal thinning impairs the ability of depressed patients to engage the suACC during a major depressive episode. Bolstering the function of the suACC may represent a potential target for treatment. PMID:25598428

  17. Strategies for flood hazard adaptation in drought affected regions of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleupner, Christine

    2010-05-01

    The development and management of water resources in Afghanistan are critically important for the economic development of the country. But Afghanistan presents a number of specific challenges in terms of water resource management and climate change impact assessment. Political instability and war has caused widespread devastation, insecurity, displacement, poverty and severe environmental degradation. Recent droughts have led to the collapse of many livelihoods, and poor national security restricts structured fieldwork. The recent restructuring and rebuilding of the state can be seen as opportunity to integrate climate change mitigation and adaptation measures into national, regional, and local planning. Governmental organizations are responsible to integrate climate change related issues and pro-active planning processes in water management and environmental considerations into relevant legislations, ministry and sector strategies. Integrated water resource management has been practically nonexistent during the last decades and consideration of climate change impacts are widely ignored in regional planning processes. However, flooding, landslides, drought, and extreme heat and freezing weather are already threatening the population. Climate models suggest that Afghanistan will be confronted by an increase of these events. Desertification and land degradation but also floods due to untimely rainfall are expected to broaden. Studies show that the impact of increasingly frequent flash floods may be amplified due to more rapid spring snow melt as a result of higher temperatures, combined with the downstream effects of land degradation, loss of vegetative cover and land mismanagement. It is further exacerbated by drought, which has the effect of hardening soils and reducing their permeability. In 2007 heavy floods already destroyed fields and harvests, killed livestock, damaged buildings, and claimed many lives. The intensified climatic conditions in Afghanistan will

  18. Phosphorus availability in a low pH highly weathered soil as affected by added salts Disponibilidade de fósforo num solo ácido afetada pela aplicação de sais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Ernani

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration and identity of cations and anions in the soil solution may affect soil P reactions and thus P availability. The magnitude of these reactions was evaluated in this research after application of various salts to a highly weathered low pH soil. Chloride, nitrate, and sulfate salts of Na, NH4, K, Ca, Mg, Sr, or Cu were added to the soil after addition of 360mg P/kg trying to simulate ion concentrations around granules of fertilizers in the soil. Thirty days later, P was determined in the soil solution (Pli and on the solid phase (Psi. The soil samples of some treatments were leached with water and three days later a new soil solution was displaced. Separate addition of all salts increased Pli, except NaCl at the lowest rate. The increase of Pli was highly associatcd with amount of native cations displaced to the soil solution by the applied salts. Salt solubility, concentration, and sometimes identity of cation and anion also influenced Pli. Some salts decreased Psi, but this was not correlated with any soil property measured. The effects caused by salts on Pli and Psi disappeared after leaching the soil samples.A concentração eletrolítica e o tipo de cations e anions da solução do solo podem afetar as reações do fósforo com possíveis reflexos na disponibilidade de P aos vegetais. Nessa pesquisa quantificou-se o efeito de vários sais nos valores das determinações analíticas que afetam a disponibilidade de fósforo. Sais de nitrato, cloreto e sulfato foram aplicados a amostras de um alfisol ácido após a aplicação de 360mg P/kg, simulando concentrações que ocorrem no solo ao redor de grânulos de fertilizantes. Fósforo lábil (Psi e P na solução do solo (Pli foram determinados após 30 dias de incubação, antes e depois de percolar água pelo solo. Todos os sais aumentaram a concentração de P na solução do solo, exceto a menor dose de NaCl. O aumento do Pli foi correlacionado com a quantidade de cations

  19. Arsenic in Surface Soils Affected by Mining and Metallurgical Processing in K. Mitrovica Region, Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sajn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study on the spatial distribution of arsenic in topsoil (0–5 cm over the K. Mitrovica region, Kosovo, are reported. The investigated region (300 km2 was covered by a sampling grid of 1.4 km × 1.4 km. In total, 159 soil samples were collected from 149 locations. Inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS was applied for the determination of arsenic levels. It was found that the average content of arsenic in the topsoil for the entire study area was 30 mg/kg (from 2.1 to 3,900 mg/kg which exceeds the estimated European arsenic average in topsoil by a factor of 4.3. Contents of arsenic in the topsoil exceeded the optimum value recommended by the new Dutchlist (29 mg/kg As in 124 km2. The action value (55 mg/kg As was exceeded in 64 km2, with the average content of 105 mg/kg (from 55 to 3,900 mg/kg As.

  20. Identification of histological patterns in clinically affected and unaffected palm regions in dupuytren's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo-Andrés Alfonso-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Dupuytren's disease is a fibro-proliferative disease characterized by a disorder of the extracellular matrix (ECM and high myofibroblast proliferation. However, studies failed to determine if the whole palm fascia is affected by the disease. The objective of this study was to analyze several components of the extracellular matrix of three types of tissues-Dupuytren's diseased contracture cords (DDC, palmar fascia clinically unaffected by Dupuytren's disease contracture (NPF, and normal forehand fascia (NFF. Histological analysis, quantification of cells recultured from each type of tissue, mRNA microarrays and immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle actin (SMA, fibrillar ECM components and non-fibrillar ECM components were carried out. The results showed that DDC samples had abundant fibrosis with reticular fibers and few elastic fibers, high cell proliferation and myofibroblasts, laminin and glycoproteins, whereas NFF did not show any of these findings. Interestingly, NPF tissues had more cells showing myofibroblasts differentiation and more collagen and reticular fibers, laminin and glycoproteins than NFF, although at lower level than DDC, with similar elastic fibers than DDC. Immunohistochemical expression of decorin was high in DDC, whereas versican was highly expressed NFF, with no differences for aggrecan. Cluster analysis revealed that the global expression profile of NPF was very similar to DDC, and reculturing methods showed that cells corresponding to DDC tissues proliferated more actively than NPF, and NPF more actively than NFF. All these results suggest that NPF tissues may be affected, and that a modification of the therapeutic approach used for the treatment of Dupuytren's disease should be considered.

  1. Does finance affect environmental degradation: evidence from One Belt and One Road Initiative region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Muhammad; Chunhui, Yuan; Strohmaier, David; Ahmed, Manzoor; Jie, Liu

    2018-01-22

    This paper explores the effects of finance on environmental degradation and investigates environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) of each country among 52 that participate in the One Belt and One Road Initiative (OBORI) using the latest long panel data span (1980-2016). We utilized panel long run econometric models (fully modified ordinary least square and dynamic ordinary least square) to explore the long-run estimates in full panel and country level. Moreover, the Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012) causality test is applied to examine the short-run causalities among our considered variables. The empirical findings validate the EKC hypothesis; the long-run estimates point out that finance significantly enhances the environmental degradation (negatively in few cases). The short-run heterogeneous causality confirms the bi-directional causality between finance and environmental degradation. The empirical outcomes suggest that policymakers should consider the environmental degradation issue caused by financial development in the One Belt and One Road region.

  2. Family history of alcoholism interacts with alcohol to affect brain regions involved in behavioral inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareken, David A; Dzemidzic, Mario; Wetherill, Leah; Eiler, William; Oberlin, Brandon G; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Wang, Yang; O'Connor, Sean J

    2013-07-01

    Impulsive behavior is associated with both alcohol use disorders and a family history of alcoholism (FHA). One operational definition of impulsive behavior is the stop-signal task (SST) which measures the time needed to stop a ballistic hand movement. Employ functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study right frontal responses to stop signals in heavy drinking subjects with and without FHA, and as a function of alcohol exposure. Twenty-two family history-positive (FHP; age = 22.7 years, SD = 1.9) and 18 family history-negative (FHN; age = 23.7, SD = 1.8) subjects performed the SST in fMRI in two randomized visits: once during intravenous infusion of alcohol, clamped at a steady-state breath alcohol (BrAC) concentration of 60 mg/dL, and once during infusion of placebo saline. An independent reference group (n = 13, age = 23.7, SD = 1.8) was used to identify a priori right prefrontal regions activated by successful inhibition (Inh) trials, relative to "Go" trials that carried no need for inhibition [Inh > Go]. FHA interacted with alcohol exposure in right prefrontal cortex, where alcohol reduced [Inh > Go] activation in FHN subjects but not in FHP subjects. Within this right frontal cortical region, stop-signal reaction time also correlated negatively with [Inh > Go] activation, suggesting that the [Inh > Go] activity was related to inhibitory behavior. The results are consistent with the low level of response theory (Schuckit, J Stud Alcohol 55:149-158, 1980; Quinn and Fromme, Alcohol Clin Exp Res 35:1759-1770, 2011), with FHP being less sensitive to alcohol's effects.

  3. Late Pennsylvanian depositional cycles and fusulinid zonations for the Salt Creek reef of the Horseshoe Atoll of west Texas - Implications for a sea level curve and regional correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J.M. (Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S. Inc., Midland, TX (United States))

    1992-04-01

    The Salt Creek reef is one of a number of carbonate reef-mound complexes that makes up the Horseshoe Atoll. At least eleven depositional cycles have been delineated from the Strawn Formation (Late Desmoinesian) through the Canyon Limestone (Missourian) to the Cisco Formation (Early Virgilian). A typical cycle consists of a basal unit of intraclastic and skeletal grainstone to dark-gray lime-mudstone with black shale laminations, chert nodules, and scattered crinoid fragments; an intermediary unit of crinoid wackestone and packstone grading up to interbedded skeletal packstone and algal baffle-boundstone; and a capping unit of skeletal and oolitic grainstone. The cycle is bounded by unconformities. These cycles were deposited in a starved basin as a fringing reef-mound complex on an isolated, drowned platform. Nine fusulinid biostratigraphy zones established for the Permian basin are recognized in Salt Creek: one Strawn zone; seven zones in the Canyon, and one in the Cisco. These zones coincide with the eleven major depositional cycles at Salt Creek. The authors have correlated these eleven lithostratigraphic-biostratigraphic units to a series of 14 major transgressive sequences in north Texas and 16 sequences in the mid-continent of North America. These correlations suggest that glacial eustasy is the basic control of these cycles. Differences in the correlation between the cycles may be due to the unique setting of the Salt Creek reef, variations in sea level fluctuations and basin subsidence, or variations in sedimentation rates between carbonate platforms and cratonic shelves with mixed lithologies.

  4. Genesis of Tuzla salt basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušić, Amir; Baraković, Amir; Komatina, Snezana

    2017-04-01

    Salt is condition for the survival of the human race, and holds a special place in the exploitation of mineral resources. It is the only mineral raw material used in direct feeding, and therefore has its own specialty. Salt is a crystalline mineral that is found in seawater, as well as in underground areas where it is formed by deposition of salt sediments. Occurrences of salt water near Tuzla and Gornja Tuzla have been known since the time of the Romans as "ad salinas". The name itself connects Bosnia with its richness in salt, because the word barefoot, which is preserved in a north-Albanian dialect, means a place where boiling salted water are obtained. At the time of the Bosnian kings, these regions are named Soli, which is in connection with occurences of saline sources. Geological studies of rock salt in the area of Tuzla basin are practically began after the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in the period from 1878 to 1918. Geological field work was conducted K. Paul, H. Hefer, E. Tietze and F. Katzer. Monomineral deposit of rock salt Tetima is made of halite and anhydrite mixed with marl belt, while the bay of salt in Tuzla is polymineral and contains a considerable amount of thenardite (Na2SO4) and rare minerals: nortupit, nahkolit, bradleit, probertit, glauberite and others. Both salt deposits were created as a product of chemical sedimentation in the lower Miocene Badenian sediments. The main objective of this paper is to show the genesis of the deposits and the spatial and genetic connection. In addition, genesis of geological research in the areas of Tuzla basin will be presented.

  5. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci and imprinted regions affecting reproduction in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, J W; Cassady, J P; Pomp, D; Johnson, R K

    2004-12-01

    Quantitative trait loci for reproductive traits in a three-generation resource population of a cross between low-indexing pigs from a control line and high-indexing pigs from a line selected 10 generations for increased index of ovulation rate and embryonic survival are reported. Phenotypic data were collected in F2 females for birth weight (BWT, n = 428), weaning weight (WWT, n = 405), age at puberty (AP, n = 295), ovulation rate (OR, n = 423), number of fully formed pigs (FF, n = 370), number of pigs born alive (NBA, n = 370), number of mummified pigs (MUM, n = 370), and number of stillborn pigs (NSB, n = 370). Grandparent, F1, and F2 animals were genotyped for 151 microsatellite markers. Sixteen putative QTL (P reproductive traits were identified in previous analyses of these data with single QTL line-cross models. Data were reanalyzed with multiple QTL models, including imprinting effects. Data also were analyzed with half-sib models. Permutation was used to establish genome-wide significance levels ( = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.10). Thirty-one putative QTL for reproductive traits and two QTL for birth weight were identified (P < 0.10). One Mendelian QTL for FF (P < 0.05), one for NBA (P < 0.05), three for NSB (P < 0.05), three for NN (P < 0.05), seven for AP (P < 0.10), five for MUM (P < 0.10), and one for BWT (P < 0.10) were found. Partial imprinting of QTL affecting OR (P < 0.01), BWT (P < 0.05), and MUM (P < 0.05) was detected. There were four paternally expressed QTL for NN (P < 0.10) and one each for AP (P < 0.05) and MUM (P < 0.10). Maternally expressed QTL affecting NSB (P < 0.10), NN (P < 0.10), and MUM (P < 0.10) were detected. No QTL were detected with half-sib analyses. Multiple QTL models with imprinting effects are more appropriate for analyzing F2 data than single Mendelian QTL line-cross models.

  6. Salt stress induces changes in the proteomic profile of micropropagated sugarcane shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ricardo S.; Heringer, Angelo S.; Rangel, Patricia L.; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Grativol, Clícia; Veiga, Carlos F. M.; Souza-Filho, Gonçalo A.

    2017-01-01

    Salt stress is one of the most common stresses in agricultural regions worldwide. In particular, sugarcane is affected by salt stress conditions, and no sugarcane cultivar presently show high productivity accompanied by a tolerance to salt stress. Proteomic analysis allows elucidation of the important pathways involved in responses to various abiotic stresses at the biochemical and molecular levels. Thus, this study aimed to analyse the proteomic effects of salt stress in micropropagated shoots of two sugarcane cultivars (CB38-22 and RB855536) using a label-free proteomic approach. The mass spectrometry proteomics data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006075. The RB855536 cultivar is more tolerant to salt stress than CB38-22. A quantitative label-free shotgun proteomic analysis identified 1172 non-redundant proteins, and 1160 of these were observed in both cultivars in the presence or absence of NaCl. Compared with CB38-22, the RB855536 cultivar showed a greater abundance of proteins involved in non-enzymatic antioxidant mechanisms, ion transport, and photosynthesis. Some proteins, such as calcium-dependent protein kinase, photosystem I, phospholipase D, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, were more abundant in the RB855536 cultivar under salt stress. Our results provide new insights into the response of sugarcane to salt stress, and the changes in the abundance of these proteins might be important for the acquisition of ionic and osmotic homeostasis during exposure to salt stress. PMID:28419154

  7. Vitamin D3 and androgen receptors in testis and epididymal region of roosters (Gallus domesticus) as affected by epididymal lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, André G; Dornas, Rubem A P; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Hess, Rex A; Mahecha, Germán A B; Oliveira, Cleida A

    2008-12-01

    Epididymal lithiasis is a dysfunction characterized by formation of calcium-rich stones in the epididymal region of roosters, associated with decreased serum testosterone and loss of fertility. The segment most affected by the lithiasis is the efferent ductules, which, in birds, are responsible for reabsorption of calcium and luminal fluid. Therefore, we postulated that epididymal lithiasis could result from local impairment of calcium or fluid homeostasis, culminating in initiation of stone formation. Transepithelial calcium transport depends on vitamin D3 and vitamin D3 receptor (VDR). Based on the fact that VDR are present in efferent ductules, possible changes in the pattern of VDR in roosters affected by the epididymal lithiasis was investigated, to start to gain an understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of calcium stones. To evaluate the potential impact of androgen reduction, changes in androgen receptor (AR) were also investigated. Both VDR and AR were increased in specific segments of the epididymal region, whereas no alterations were found in the testes of affected animals. The increase in VDR was most likely due to an increase in the number of VDR-positive mononuclear leukocyte infiltrates found in the connective tissue followed by an increase in epithelial receptors. The AR were increased, however, mainly in the epididymal duct epithelium. These results suggest that the vitamin D3 and androgen responsive system may be directly/indirectly involved in the development of the disease.

  8. Regional responsiveness of the tibia to intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone as affected by skeletal unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Tanner, S.; Curren, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether the acute inhibition of bone formation and deficit in bone mineral induced by skeletal unloading can be prevented, we studied the effects of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration (8 micrograms/100 g/day) on growing rats submitted to 8 days of skeletal unloading. Loss of weight bearing decreased periosteal bone formation by 34 and 51% at the tibiofibular junction and tibial midshaft, respectively, and reduced the normal gain in tibial mass by 35%. Treatment with PTH of normally loaded and unloaded animals increased mRNA for osteocalcin (+58 and +148%, respectively), cancellous bone volume in the proximal tibia (+41 and +42%, respectively), and bone formation at the tibiofibular junction (+27 and +27%, respectively). Formation was also stimulated at the midshaft in unloaded (+47%, p animals (-3%, NS). Although cancellous bone volume was preserved in PTH-treated, unloaded animals, PTH did not restore periosteal bone formation to normal nor prevent the deficit in overall tibial mass induced by unloading. We conclude that the effects of PTH on bone formation are region specific and load dependent. PTH can prevent the decrease in cancellous bone volume and reduce the decrement in cortical bone formation induced by loss of weight bearing.

  9. Horse impoundments under Control of Horses legislation in the Munster region of Ireland: factors affecting euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane, M; O'Sullivan, E; Collins, D M; Byrne, A W; More, S J

    2015-01-24

    Recently, considerable international attention has been paid to the problem of unwanted horses. In Ireland, stray horses, particularly in urban areas, are a further problem. The Control of Horses Act 1996 was enacted in response to an ongoing problem of uncontrolled horses in public places. As yet, no research work has been conducted focusing on stray horses in Ireland. This paper describes horses impounded under the Act in the Munster region of Ireland during 2005-2012 and the factors influencing decisions regarding their disposal. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate factors influencing the probability that a horse was euthanised during impoundment. In total, 3625 seizure events were recorded, most towards the end of the study period. Predictors for euthanasia during 2010-2012 included seizure location, sex, age, colour, body condition score and year. This study highlights the problem of stray horses in Ireland, particularly in urban areas. There is a need for rigorous enforcement of newly enacted horse identification legislation, allowing a fully integrated traceability system. More is required to manage the long-established societal problems of stray horses in urban settings, with a uniform approach by all Local Authorities being long overdue. British Veterinary Association.

  10. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. AL-Saleh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011–2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia.

  11. Methamphetamine differentially affects BDNF and cell death factors in anatomically defined regions of the hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinato, Melissa H.; Orio, Laura; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2014-01-01

    hippocampal subregions that may contribute to the altered synaptic activity in the hippocampus, which may underlie enhanced negative affective symptoms and perpetuation of the addiction cycle. PMID:25463524

  12. Does stress induce salt intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Susan J; Turner, Anne I; Nowson, Caryl A

    2010-06-01

    Psychological stress is a common feature of modern day societies, and contributes to the global burden of disease. It was proposed by Henry over 20 years ago that the salt intake of a society reflects the level of stress, and that stress, through its effect on increasing salt intake, is an important factor in the development of hypertension. This review evaluates the evidence from animal and human studies to determine if stress does induce a salt appetite and increase salt consumption in human subjects. Findings from animal studies suggest that stress may drive salt intake, with evidence for a potential mechanism via the sympatho-adrenal medullary system and/or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. In contrast, in the few laboratory studies conducted in human subjects, none has found that acute stress affects salt intake. However, one study demonstrated that life stress (chronic stress) was associated with increased consumption of snack foods, which included, but not specifically, highly salty snacks. Studies investigating the influence of chronic stress on eating behaviours are required, including consumption of salty foods. From the available evidence, we can conclude that in free-living, Na-replete individuals, consuming Na in excess of physiological requirements, stress is unlikely to be a major contributor to salt intake.

  13. Genetic variation of the RASGRF1 regulatory region affects human hippocampus-dependent memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eBarman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The guanine nucleotide exchange factor RASGRF1 is an important regulator of intracellular signaling and neural plasticity in the brain. RASGRF1-deficient mice exhibit a complex phenotype with learning deficits and ocular abnormalities. Also in humans, a genome-wide association study has identified the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs8027411 in the putative transcription regulatory region of RASGRF1 as a risk variant of myopia. Here we aimed to assess whether, in line with the RASGRF1 knockout mouse phenotype, rs8027411 might also be associated with human memory function. We performed computer-based neuropsychological learning experiments in two independent cohorts of young, healthy participants. Tests included the Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT and the logical memory section of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS. Two sub-cohorts additionally participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies of hippocampus function. 119 participants performed a novelty encoding task that had previously been shown to engage the hippocampus, and 63 subjects participated in a reward-related memory encoding study. RASGRF1 rs8027411 genotype was indeed associated with memory performance in an allele dosage-dependent manner, with carriers of the T allele (i.e. the myopia risk allele showing better memory performance in the early encoding phase of the VLMT and in the recall phase of the WMS logical memory section. In fMRI, T allele carriers exhibited increased hippocampal activation during presentation of novel images and during encoding of pictures associated with monetary reward. Taken together, our results provide evidence for a role of the RASGRF1 gene locus in hippocampus-dependent memory and, along with the previous association with myopia, point towards pleitropic effects of RASGRF1 genetic variations on complex neural function in humans.

  14. Genetic variation of the RASGRF1 regulatory region affects human hippocampus-dependent memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Adriana; Assmann, Anne; Richter, Sylvia; Soch, Joram; Schütze, Hartmut; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Deibele, Anna; Klein, Marieke; Richter, Anni; Behnisch, Gusalija; Düzel, Emrah; Zenker, Martin; Seidenbecher, Constanze I.; Schott, Björn H.

    2014-01-01

    The guanine nucleotide exchange factor RASGRF1 is an important regulator of intracellular signaling and neural plasticity in the brain. RASGRF1-deficient mice exhibit a complex phenotype with learning deficits and ocular abnormalities. Also in humans, a genome-wide association study has identified the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs8027411 in the putative transcription regulatory region of RASGRF1 as a risk variant of myopia. Here we aimed to assess whether, in line with the RASGRF1 knockout mouse phenotype, rs8027411 might also be associated with human memory function. We performed computer-based neuropsychological learning experiments in two independent cohorts of young, healthy participants. Tests included the Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) and the logical memory section of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS). Two sub-cohorts additionally participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of hippocampus function. 119 participants performed a novelty encoding task that had previously been shown to engage the hippocampus, and 63 subjects participated in a reward-related memory encoding study. RASGRF1 rs8027411 genotype was indeed associated with memory performance in an allele dosage-dependent manner, with carriers of the T allele (i.e., the myopia risk allele) showing better memory performance in the early encoding phase of the VLMT and in the recall phase of the WMS logical memory section. In fMRI, T allele carriers exhibited increased hippocampal activation during presentation of novel images and during encoding of pictures associated with monetary reward. Taken together, our results provide evidence for a role of the RASGRF1 gene locus in hippocampus-dependent memory and, along with the previous association with myopia, point toward pleitropic effects of RASGRF1 genetic variations on complex neural function in humans. PMID:24808846

  15. Factors affecting performance of hospital nurses in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahmadi, Hanan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify factors influencing performance of hospital nurses in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia. Specific objectives were to estimate self-reported performance, and determine whether differences in employee demographics, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment, influenced performance. In total, 15 hospitals were randomly selected. The questionnaire was sent to all nurses (1,834) in these facilities and 923 nurses responded. Statistical analysis included correlation, t-test, and regression analysis. The study finds that job performance is positively correlated with organizational commitment, job satisfaction and personal and professional variables. Both job satisfaction and organizational commitment are strong predictors of nurses' performance. Job performance is positively related to some personal factors, including years of experience, nationality, gender, and marital status. Level of education is negatively related to performance. The findings of this study have a limited generalisability due to the fact that all measures used are based on self-reports. Future research may be directed to other objective measures of performance. Emphasis should be placed on effective supervision, empowerment, and a better reward system. Cultural diversity is a reality for most health organizations in Saudi Arabia; therefore, they need to adopt effective human resources strategies that aim to improve commitment and retention of qualified workers, and build a high performance organizational culture based on empowerment, open communication, and appreciation of impact of national culture on work attitudes. This study fulfills a research gap in the area of nursing performance, and its relationship with work attitudes in Saudi Arabia. The paper also highlights the impact of national culture on job performance and work attitude among nurses in Saudi Arabia, and other countries facing the issue of multi-national work force.

  16. Hepatitis C seroconversions in HIV infection across Europe: which regions and patient groups are affected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesecke, Christoph; Grint, Daniel; Soriano, Vincent; Lundgren, Jens D; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Mitsura, Victor M; Chentsova, Nelly; Hadziosmanovic, Vesnadarjan; Kirk, Ole; Mocroft, Amanda; Peters, Lars; Rockstroh, Jürgen K

    2015-11-01

    In the last decade, several outbreaks of sexually acquired acute hepatitis C (HCV) infection have been described in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). The aims of this study were to determine whether there has been an increase in the number of acute HCV infections in different parts of Europe. HCV seroconversion was defined as an HCV-antibody test change from negative to positive within the observation period in EuroSIDA. Binomial regression was performed to determine factors associated with being tested for HCV and HCV seroconversion. A total of 223 HCV seroconversions were observed from 16,188 tests [1.38% (95%CI 1.20-1.56)] among 5736 patients between 2002 and 2013. Overall the odds of acquiring HCV infection increased by 4% per year (OR 1.04 [95%CI 0.99-1.09]; P = 0.10). Overall 63.2% (141/223) of all seroconversions were seen among MSM. Similar patterns were observed across all European regions (P = 0.69, test for interaction) and HIV transmission risks groups (P = 0.69, test for interaction). In multivariate analysis, North, South and East Europe had higher odds of HCV seroconversion compared with Western Europe [OR 1.90 (1.28-2.81), 1.55 (0.99-2.45) and 1.86 (1.21-2.84); P = 0.0014, P = 0.058 and P = 0.0044 respectively]. Within EuroSIDA a significant increase in HCV seroconversions can be observed after accounting for increased levels of testing for HCV in recent years. This highlights the need for increased HCV prevention efforts among HIV-positive persons in Europe. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A framework to improve hyper-resolution hydrological simulation in snow-affected regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinyi; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.

    2017-09-01

    Snow processes in mid- and north-latitude basins and their interaction with runoff generation at hyperresolution (models. These models run typically at macro to moderate scales (>5 km), representing land surface processes based on simplified couplings of snow thermal physics and the water cycle in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere (SVA) layers. This paper evaluates a new hydrological model capable of simulating river flows for a range of basin scales (100 km2 to >10,000 km2), and a particular focus on mid- and north-latitude regions. The new model combines the runoff generation and fully distributed routing framework of the Coupled Routing and Excess STorage (CREST) model with a new land surface process model that strictly couples water and energy balances at the SVA layer, imposing closed energy balance solutions. The model is vectorized and parallelized to achieve long-term (>30 years) high-resolution (30 m to 500 m and subhourly) simulations of large river basins utilizing high-performance computing. The model is tested in the Connecticut River basin (20,000 km2), where flooding is frequently associated with interactions of snowmelt triggered by rainfall events. Model simulations of distributed evapotranspiration (ET) and snow water equivalence (SWE) at daily time step are shown to match accurately ET estimates from MODIS (average NSCE and bias are 0.77 and 6.79%) and SWE estimates from SNODAS (average correlation and normalized root mean square error are 0.94 and of 19%); the modeled daily river flow simulations exhibit an NSCE of 0.58 against USGS streamflow observations.

  18. A Genetic Variant in the Distal Enhancer Region of the Human Renin Gene Affects Renin Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Yasukazu; Konoshita, Tadashi; Omori, Atsuhito; Maegawa, Nobuhiro; Nakaya, Takahiro; Ichikawa, Mai; Yamamoto, Katsushi; Wakahara, Shigeyuki; Ishizuka, Tamotsu; Onoe, Tamehito; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The high heritability of plasma renin activity was confirmed in recent investigations. A variation located near the strong enhancer of the human renin gene (REN), C-5312T, has been shown to have different transcription activity levels depending on its allele: the 5312T allele shows transcription levels that are 45% greater than those of the 5312C allele. The purpose of this study was to confirm the hypothesis that variations in the enhancer region of the REN gene are involved in regulating renal expression of renin. Sixty-four subjects with biopsy-proven renal diseases were included in this study (male/female: 35/29, age 41.9 ± 20.9 years, SBP/DBP 123.1 ± 23.7/73.4 ± 14.8 mmHg, s-Cr 0.93 ± 0.63 mg/dl). A genetic variant of REN, C-5312T, was assayed by PCR-RFLP and the TaqMan method. Total RNAs from a small part of the renal cortex were reverse-transcribed and amplified for REN and GAPDH with a real-time PCR system. Logarithmically transformed expression values of the relative ratio of REN to GAPDH (10-3) were as follows (mean ± SE): CC (26 cases), 0.016 ± 0.005; CT (33 cases), 0.047 ± 0.021 (p = 0.41 vs. CC); TT (5 cases), 0.198 ± 0.194 (p = 0.011 vs. CC, p renin gene have an effect on the expression levels of renin in renal tissue; this observation is in good accordance with the results of the transcriptional assay.

  19. Fewer adults add salt at the table after initiation of a national salt campaign in the UK: a repeated cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Jennifer; Edwards, Phil; Shankar, Bhavani; Dangour, Alan D

    2013-08-28

    In 2003, the UK Food Standards Agency and the Department of Health began attempts to reduce national salt intakes via reformulation of processed foods and a consumer awareness campaign on the negative impacts of salt on health. The present study uses large nationally representative samples of households in England to assess whether discretionary salt use was affected by the national salt reduction campaign. Large cross-sectional datasets from the Health Survey for England were used to analyse trends in adults adding salt at the table between 1997 and 2007. Since 1997, there has been a steady decline in salt use at the table. Ordinal logistic regression analysis controlling for age, sex, total household income, region, ethnicity and background trends revealed that the reduction in salt use was significantly greater after the campaign (OR 0·58; 95% CI 0·54, 0·63). Women (OR 0·71; 95% CI 0·68, 0·74), non-white ethnic groups (OR 0·69; 95% CI 0·62, 0·77), high-income households (OR 0·75; 95% CI 0·69, 0·82), middle-income households (OR 0·79; 95% CI 0·75, 0·84) and households in central (OR 0·90; 95% CI 0·84, 0·98) or the south of England (OR 0·82; 95% CI 0·77, 0·88) were less likely to add salt at the table. The results extend previous evidence of a beneficial response to the salt campaign by demonstrating the effect on salt use at the table. Future programmatic and research efforts may benefit from targeting specific population groups and improving the evidence base for evaluating the impact of the campaign.

  20. Regional, institutional and individual factors affecting selection of minimally invasive nephroureterectomy in Japan: a national database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Toru; Yasunaga, Hideo; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Tsuru, Nobuo; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kazuo, Suzuki; Ohe, Kazuhiko; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Homma, Yukio

    2013-07-01

    To reveal individual, institutional and regional factors affecting selection of minimally invasive nephroureterectomy in Japan. The Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database was queried to retrieve cases of nephroureterectomy for pelvic or ureter malignancies carried out between 2007 and 2010. A multivariate logistic regression analysis with variables including age, sex, pre-existing comorbidities, tumor location, tumor-nodes-metastasis classification, academic status of hospitals, hospital volume, geographic region and year of surgery was modeled to evaluate predictors of carrying out a minimally invasive (including laparoscopic and minimum incision endoscopic) nephroureterectomy. Overall, 3863 open (58.2%), 2635 laparoscopic (39.7%) and 139 minimum incision endoscopic nephroureterectomy (2.1%) cases from 713 hospitals were identified. The proportion of minimally invasive procedures increased from 35.7% to 48.6%. Minimally invasive nephroureterectomy was the most frequently carried out in the Kinki and Chugoku regions (50.9% and 50.4%, respectively) compared with the least in the Kanto region (31.3%). Multivariate analysis showed that lower Charlson Comorbidity Index, lower tumor-nodes-metastasis stage, academic hospitals, higher operative volume centers, western regions of Japan and later year were independently associated with the use of minimally invasive nephroureterectomy. Age, sex and tumor location were not significant factors. Despite regional and institutional variations, the proportion of minimally invasive nephroureterectomy has gradually increased in Japan. Minimally invasive nephroureterectomy is more likely to be carried out in patients with low tumor stage and low risk at higher volume academic hospitals. Our findings provide fundamental data for future health policies to foster nationwide healthcare uniformity. © 2012 The Japanese Urological Association.

  1. Integrated studies of a regional ozone pollution synthetically affected by subtropical high and typhoon system in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe high ozone (O3 episodes usually have close relations to synoptic systems. A regional continuous O3 pollution episode was detected over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region in China during 7–12 August 2013, in which the O3 concentrations in more than half of the cities exceeded the national air quality standard. The maximum hourly concentration of O3 reached 167.1 ppb. By means of the observational analysis and the numerical simulation, the characteristics and the essential impact factors of the typical regional O3 pollution are comprehensively investigated. The observational analysis shows that the atmospheric subsidence dominated by the western Pacific subtropical high plays a crucial role in the formation of high-level O3. The favorable weather conditions, such as extremely high temperature, low relative humidity and weak wind speed, caused by the abnormally strong subtropical high are responsible for the trapping and the chemical production of O3 in the boundary layer. In addition, when the YRD cities are at the front of Typhoon Utor, the periphery circulation of typhoon system can enhance the downward airflows and cause worse air quality. However, when the typhoon system weakens the subtropical high, the prevailing southeasterly surface wind leads to the mitigation of the O3 pollution. The integrated process rate (IPR analysis incorporated in the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ model is applied to further illustrate the combined influence of subtropical high and typhoon system in this O3 episode. The results show that the vertical diffusion (VDIF and the gas-phase chemistry (CHEM are two major contributors to O3 formation. During the episode, the contributions of VDIF and CHEM to O3 maintain the high values over the YRD region. On 10–12 August, the cities close to the sea are apparently affected by the typhoon system, with the contribution of VDIF increasing to 28.45 ppb h−1 in Shanghai and 19.76 ppb h−1 in

  2. Environmental Health assessment 200 Days after Earthquake-Affected Region in East Azerbaijan Earthquake, North-Western of Iran, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alihossein Zeinalzadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating of health status and explore the challenges of health problems that threaten human life following disasters and major earthquakes providing windows of opportunities for health care providers in future planning of disasters. The main purpose of this report was to survey the environmental sanitation statues after 200 days of the affected populations in earthquakes of East Azerbaijan, northwestern of Iran, 2012. The survey was carried out in earthquake zones 200 days after the occurrence of the earthquake. A single stage cluster sampling from among 95 villages damaged in the earthquake of 2012 East Azerbaijan of three towns Ahar, Varzeghan and Heris were selected. The data were collected with questionnaire, site visits and evaluation of water and sanitation. In a twin Earthquake, East Azerbaijan province that 399 villages of Ahar, Varzeghan, Heris, Tabriz and Kaleibar cities were affected and 356 (89.2 % villages were destroyed between 30-100%.  Evaluation of water and sanitation infrastructure after 200 days, shown that only half of these villages consumed healthy water with high coverage and adequate. Half of the villages in 200 days after the earthquake were covered safe drinking water (treated drinking water. The bacteriological quality of drinking-water supply of the affected area was assessed in randomly collected 146 samples from this region and ten (6.8% reported as unsuitable. Solid waste management facilities in residents have not been acceptable that affect public health. Solid waste disposal was done by district residents (cooperation rural residents 68.4%, 36.8% and 76.3% in Ahar, Varzeghan and Heris, respectively. Overall, the impact of infectious and communicable diseases after Earthquake was reported 42.1% (16 villages in the Varzeghan. The lack of geographical view with a focus in mountainous and rural areas, partial support and dispersion of earthquake-stricken people in affected villages and lack of participatory need

  3. Mapping gully-affected areas in the region of Taroudannt, Morocco based on Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Oleire-Oltmanns, Sebastian; Marzolff, Irene; Tiede, Dirk; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The need for area-wide landform mapping approaches, especially in terms of land degradation, can be ascribed to the fact that within area-wide landform mapping approaches, the (spatial) context of erosional landforms is considered by providing additional information on the physiography neighboring the distinct landform. This study presents an approach for the detection of gully-affected areas by applying object-based image analysis in the region of Taroudannt, Morocco, which is highly affected by gully erosion while simultaneously representing a major region of agro-industry with a high demand of arable land. Various sensors provide readily available high-resolution optical satellite data with a much better temporal resolution than 3D terrain data which lead to the development of an area-wide mapping approach to extract gully-affected areas using only optical satellite imagery. The classification rule-set was developed with a clear focus on virtual spatial independence within the software environment of eCognition Developer. This allows the incorporation of knowledge about the target objects under investigation. Only optical QuickBird-2 satellite data and freely-available OpenStreetMap (OSM) vector data were used as input data. The OSM vector data were incorporated in order to mask out plantations and residential areas. Optical input data are more readily available for a broad range of users compared to terrain data, which is considered to be a major advantage. The methodology additionally incorporates expert knowledge and freely-available vector data in a cyclic object-based image analysis approach. This connects the two fields of geomorphology and remote sensing. The classification results allow conclusions on the current distribution of gullies. The results of the classification were checked against manually delineated reference data incorporating expert knowledge based on several field campaigns in the area, resulting in an overall classification accuracy of 62

  4. Effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt-sensitive versus salt-resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt-sensitive versus salt-resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after 1 week of high salt (200 mmol per day sodium) and 1 week of low salt (10 mmol per day sodium) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure>15 mm Hg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% women; 16% blacks; body mass index, 28.5±4.2 kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mm Hg) as compared with high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mm Hg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dL; 10.8±7.3 mIU/L; 2.6±1.9) as compared with high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dL; 9.4±5.8 mIU/L; 2.1±1.4; Psalt-sensitive (n=193) versus salt-resistant (n=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in homeostasis model assessment on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt-sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt-resistant subjects (P=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in homeostasis model assessment after including age, body mass index, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone, and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. A disturbance in sensory processing on the affected side of the body increases limb pain in complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Peter D; Finch, Philip M

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a central disturbance in somatosensory processing contributes to limb pain in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). In 37 patients with CRPS, the effect of cooling the ipsilateral forehead on pain in the affected limb was compared with the effect of cooling the contralateral forehead. In addition, symptoms associated with cold-evoked limb pain were explored. Limb pain generally increased when the ipsilateral side of the forehead was cooled but did not change when the contralateral side of the forehead was cooled. Increases were greatest in patients with heightened sensitivity to cold, brushing, and pressure-pain in the ipsilateral forehead, in patients with heightened sensitivity to pressure-pain in the limbs, and in patients with chronic symptoms. In contrast, sensitivity to light touch was diminished in the CRPS-affected limb of patients whose limb pain remained unchanged or decreased during ipsilateral forehead cooling. These preliminary findings suggest that a central disturbance in sensory processing and pain modulation, which extends beyond the affected limb to the ipsilateral forehead, contributes to symptoms in a subgroup of patients with CRPS.

  6. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Johanneke L H C; Tournier, Carole; Knoop, Janine E; Kooyman, Gonnie; Smit, Gerrit

    2009-05-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various stimulation conditions involving relative changes in NaCl concentration of 20% and 38%. Changes in salt delivery profile had similar effect on saltiness perception when delivered either by a sipwise method or by a gustometer. The impact of concentration variations and frequency of concentration changes was further investigated with the gustometer method. Five second boosts and 2 s pulses were delivered during 3 sequential 10-s intervals, whereas the delivered total salt content was the same for all conditions. Two second pulses were found to increase saltiness perception, but only when the pulses were delivered during the first seconds of stimulation. Results suggest that the frequency, timing, and concentration differences of salt stimuli can affect saltiness. Specifically, a short and intense stimulus can increase salt perception, possibly through a reduction of adaptation.

  7. Hydrogeologic Framework of the Salt Basin, New Mexico and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, A. B.; Phillips, F. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Salt Basin is a closed drainage basin located in southeastern New Mexico (Otero, Chaves, and Eddy Counties), and northwestern Texas (Hudspeth, Culberson, Jeff Davis, and Presidio Counties), which can be divided into a northern and a southern system. Since the 1950s, extensive groundwater withdrawals have been associated with agricultural irrigation in the Dell City, Texas region, just south of the New Mexico-Texas border. Currently, there are three major applications over the appropriations of groundwater in the Salt Basin. Despite these factors, relatively little is known about the recharge rates and storage capacity of the basin, and the estimates that do exist are highly variable. The Salt Basin groundwater system was declared by the New Mexico State Engineer during 2002 in an attempt to regulate and control growing interest in the groundwater resources of the basin. In order to help guide long-term management strategies, a conceptual model of groundwater flow in the Salt Basin was developed by reconstructing the tectonic forcings that have affected the basin during its formation, and identifying the depositional environments that formed and the resultant distribution of facies. The tectonic history of the Salt Basin can be divided into four main periods: a) Pennsylvanian-to-Early Permian, b) Mid-to-Late Permian, c) Late Cretaceous, and d) Tertiary-to-Quaternary. Pennsylvanian-to-Permian structural features affected deposition throughout the Permian, resulting in three distinct hydrogeologic facies: basin, shelf-margin, and shelf. Permian shelf facies rocks form the primary aquifer within the northern Salt Basin, although minor aquifers occur in Cretaceous rocks and Tertiary-to-Quaternary alluvium. Subsequent tectonic activity during the Late Cretaceous resulted in the re-activation of many of the earlier structures. Tertiary-to-Quaternary Basin-and-Range extension produced the current physiographic form of the basin.

  8. Pregnancy affects FOS rhythms in brain regions regulating sleep/wake state and body temperature in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Jessica A; Smale, Laura; Nunez, Antonio A

    2012-10-22

    Circadian rhythms in behavior and physiology change substantially as female mammals undergo the transition from a non-pregnant to a pregnant state. Here, we examined the possibility that site-specific changes in brain regions known to regulate the sleep/wake cycle and body temperature might reflect altered rhythms in these overt functions. Specifically, we compared daily patterns of immunoreactive FOS in early pregnant and diestrous rats in the medial septum (MS), vertical and horizontal diagonal bands of Broca (VDB and HDB), perifornical lateral hypothalamus (LH), and ventrolateral, medial, and median preoptic areas (VLPO, MPA, and MnPO, respectively). In the pregnant animals, FOS expression was reduced and the daily rhythms of expression were lost or attenuated in the MS, VDB, and LH, areas known to support wakefulness, and in the MPA, a brain region that may coordinate sleep/wake patterns with temperature changes. However, despite the well-documented differences in sleep patterns between diestrous and pregnant rats, reproductive state did not affect FOS expression in the VLPO or MnPO, two brain regions in which FOS expression usually correlates with sleep. These data indicate that plasticity in sleep/wake patterns during early pregnancy may be driven by a reduction in wakefulness-promotion by the brain, rather than by an increase in sleep drive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A registry for exposure and population health in the Altai region affected by fallout from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoikhet, Ya.N.; Kiselev, V.I.; Zaitsev, E.V.; Kolyado, I.B.; Konovalov, B.Yu. [Institute of Regional Medico-Ecological Problems, P.O. Box 4664, Barnaul 656043 (Russian Federation); Bauer, S.; Grosche, B.; Burkart, W. [Federal Office of Radiation Protection, Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    A registry of the rural population in the Altai region exposed to fallout from nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) was established more than four decades after the first Soviet nuclear explosion on August 29, 1949. Information about individuals living in an exposed and a control area was collected using all available local sources, such as kolkhoz documentation, school registries, medical treatment records and interviews with residents. As a result, a database comprising an exposed group of 39 179 individuals from 53 Altai region villages, 6769 external and 3303 internal controls was compiled. For several settlements, effective dose estimates reached the level of 1.5 Sv, while the average effective dose estimate in the exposed group was 340 mSv. Dosimetric data, vital status information and health records gathered at rayon and village medical facilities are held in the registry. Cause-of-death information for deceased residents is obtained from death registration forms archived at the Altai region vital statistics office. At present, a follow-up of approximately 40% of the population exposed in 1949 has been done. More will be added by searching for migrants to the larger towns of the Altai region, i.e. Barnaul, Rubtsovsk and Biisk. In order to assess the influence of radiation exposure, analytical studies with a case-control design for stomach and lung cancer are currently being prepared. The number of known cases is sufficient to detect an odds ratio of 1.5 at the 95% confidence level. Epidemiological studies in populations affected by fallout from STS may be equally important to the atomic bomb survivors' study for the direct quantification of radiation effects. The range of exposure rates experienced will extend the acute high-dose-rate findings from Hiroshima/Nagasaki towards acute and protracted lower exposures, which are more relevant for radiation protection issues. (orig.)

  10. Public health impact of salt reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    The health and economic burden related to cardiovascular diseases is substantial and prevention of these diseases remains a challenge. There is convincing evidence that high salt intake affects blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. As salt intake is far above the recommended

  11. Polarimetric Retrievals of Surface and Cirrus Clouds Properties in the Region Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Matteo; Cairns, Brian; Chowdhary, Jacek; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Rich; Burton, Sharon; Hair, John; Obland, Michael D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) performed several aerial surveys over the region affected by the oil spill caused by the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon offshore platform. The instrument was deployed on the NASA Langley B200 aircraft together with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), which provides information on the distribution of the aerosol layers beneath the aircraft, including an accurate estimate of aerosol optical depth. This work illustrates the merits of polarization measurements in detecting variations of ocean surface properties linked to the presence of an oil slick. In particular, we make use of the degree of linear polarization in the glint region, which is severely affected by variations in the refractive index but insensitive to the waviness of the water surface. Alterations in the surface optical properties are therefore expected to directly affect the polarization response of the RSP channel at 2264 nm, where both molecular and aerosol scattering are negligible and virtually all of the observed signal is generated via Fresnel reflection at the surface. The glint profile at this wavelength is fitted with a model which can optimally estimate refractive index, wind speed and direction, together with aircraft attitude variations affecting the viewing geometry. The retrieved refractive index markedly increases over oil-contaminated waters, while the apparent wind speed is significantly lower than in adjacent uncontaminated areas, suggesting that the slick dampens high-frequency components of the ocean wave spectrum. The constraint on surface reflectance provided by the short-wave infrared channels is a cornerstone of established procedures to retrieve atmospheric aerosol microphysical parameters based on the inversion of the RSP multispectral measurements. This retrieval, which benefits from the ancillary information provided by the HSRL, was in this specific case hampered by

  12. Late quaternary geomorphology of the Great Salt Lake region, Utah, and other hydrographically closed basins in the western United States: A summary of observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currey, Donald R.

    1989-01-01

    Attributes of Quaternary lakes and lake basins which are often important in the environmental prehistory of semideserts are discussed. Basin-floor and basin-closure morphometry have set limits on paleolake sizes; lake morphometry and basin drainage patterns have influenced lacustrine processes; and water and sediment loads have influenced basin neotectonics. Information regarding inundated, runoff-producing, and extra-basin spatial domains is acquired directly from the paleolake record, including the littoral morphostratigraphic record, and indirectly by reconstruction. Increasingly detailed hypotheses regarding Lake Bonneville, the largest late Pleistocene paleolake in the Great Basin, are subjects for further testing and refinement. Oscillating transgression of Lake Bonneville began about 28,000 yr B.P.; the highest stage occurred about 15,000 yr B.P., and termination occurred abruptly about 13,000 yr B.P. A final resurgence of perennial lakes probably occurred in many subbasins of the Great Basin between 11,000 and 10,000 yr B.P., when the highest stage of Great Salt Lake (successor to Lake Bonneville) developed the Gilbert shoreline. The highest post-Gilbert stage of Great Salt Lake, which has been one of the few permanent lakes in the Great Basin during Holocene time, probably occurred between 3,000 and 2,000 yr B.P.

  13. Syn-depositional deformation of the late Zechstein evaporites on the Friesland Platform capturing the early life of a salt giant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raith, Alexander; Urai, Janos L.

    2017-04-01

    It is often thought that the deposition of the Zechstein of NE Netherlands took place in a tectonically quiet environment and experienced complex deformation later. While early deformation structures were mostly overprinted by later salt flow, we focused on the Friesland platform, which was only weakly affected by later salt tectonics. In this study, we analyzed the present structures and deformation history with the help of 3D seismic and well data. Results show that the ZIII AC stringer contains (i) a regional network of thicker zones (TZ), and (ii) a network of zones where the stringers are absent, interpreted as ruptures formed by salt flow. These ruptures in many cases mark a clear vertical shift of the sub-horizontal stringer. Mapping of the base salt and top salt reflectors shows that the ruptures often coincide with faults at base Zechstein level, and that the thickness of the post-stringer rock salt layers is thicker where the stringers are lower, while the total salt thickness is relatively constant. We interpret these structures as evidence for movement on the faults at base salt, during Zechstein times, suggesting that late Zechstein deposition was syn-tectonic. Spatial correlation of TZ and these syn-depositional depressions also indicate syn-depositional or very early development of thickening in the ZIII-AC stringer. They are interpreted to reflect the interaction of anhydrite dewatering pathways and dissolution of salt below fracture systems in the stringer localized by the active shear zones in the salt.

  14. Two distinct genomic regions, harbouring the period and fruitless genes, affect male courtship song in Drosophila montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagisz, M; Wen, S-Y; Routtu, J; Klappert, K; Mazzi, D; Morales-Hojas, R; Schäfer, M A; Vieira, J; Hoikkala, A; Ritchie, M G; Butlin, R K

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic signals often have a significant role in pair formation and in species recognition. Determining the genetic basis of signal divergence will help to understand signal evolution by sexual selection and its role in the speciation process. An earlier study investigated quantitative trait locus for male courtship song carrier frequency (FRE) in Drosophila montana using microsatellite markers. We refined this study by adding to the linkage map markers for 10 candidate genes known to affect song production in Drosophila melanogaster. We also extended the analyses to additional song characters (pulse train length (PTL), pulse number (PN), interpulse interval, pulse length (PL) and cycle number (CN)). Our results indicate that loci in two different regions of the genome control distinct features of the courtship song. Pulse train traits (PTL and PN) mapped to the X chromosome, showing significant linkage with the period gene. In contrast, characters related to song pulse properties (PL, CN and carrier FRE) mapped to the region of chromosome 2 near the candidate gene fruitless, identifying these genes as suitable loci for further investigations. In previous studies, the pulse train traits have been found to vary substantially between Drosophila species, and so are potential species recognition signals, while the pulse traits may be more important in intra-specific mate choice. PMID:22234247

  15. Random search for shared chromosomal regions in four affected individuals: the assignment of a new hereditary ataxia locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikali, K.; Suomalainen, A.; Koskinen, T.; Peltonen, L. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Terwilliger, J. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Weissenbach, J. [Genethon, Evry (France)

    1995-05-01

    Infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA) is an autosomal recessively inherited progressive neurological disorder of unknown etiology. This ataxia, identified so far only in the genetically isolated Finnish population, does not share gene locus with any of the previously identified hereditary ataxias, and a random mapping approach was adopted to assign the IOSCA locus. Based on the assumption of one founder mutation, a primary screening of the genome was performed using samples from just four affected individuals in two consanguineous pedigrees. The identification of a shared chromosomal region in these four patients provided the first evidence that the IOSCA gene locus is on chromosome 10q23.3-q24.1, which was confirmed by conventional linkage analysis in the complete family material. Strong linkage disequilibrium observed between IOSCA and the linked markers was utilized to define accurately the critical chromosomal region. The results showed the power of linkage disequilibrium in the locus assignment of diseases with very limited family materials. 30 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Assessment of left ventricular regional function in affected and carrier dogs with duchenne muscular dystrophy using speckle tracking echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugeta Naoko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (STE is a relatively new method to detect regional myocardial dysfunction. To assess left ventricular (LV regional myocardial dysfunction using STE in Duchenne muscular dystrophy model dogs (CXMDJ without overt clinical signs of heart failure. Methods Six affected dogs, 8 carrier dogs with CXMDJ, and 8 control dogs were used. Conventional echocardiography, systolic and diastolic function by Doppler echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI, and strain indices using STE, were assessed and compared among the 3 groups. Results Significant differences were seen in body weight, transmitral E wave and E' wave derived from TDI among the 3 groups. Although no significant difference was observed in any global strain indices, in segmental analysis, the peak radial strain rate during early diastole in posterior segment at chordae the tendineae level showed significant differences among the 3 groups. Conclusions The myocardial strain rate by STE served to detect the impaired cardiac diastolic function in CXMDJ without any obvious LV dilation or clinical signs. The radial strain rate may be a useful parameter to detect early myocardial impairment in CXMDJ.

  17. AN EXPLORATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT OF CITRUS INDUSTRY IN TANZANIA: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM MUHEZA DISTRICT, TANGA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Makorere

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper stresses on understanding factors affecting development of citrus industry in Tanzania particularly in Muheza District, in Tanga region. Citrus fruit is one of the most important crops in Muheza District of Tanga region in Tanzania particularly in improving rural farmers’ income. The study employed institutional framework methodology. The study disclosed that the government of Tanzania has been implementing various agricultural development programmes in improving citrus fruit production as well as to enhance farmers’ income. However, yet the results reveal that the citrus farming practices in the surveyed area are not well developed. And these are because citruses are still grown under rain fed regime without any form of irrigation, citrus seedlings are produced by individual farmers locally in their backyard nurseries. There is no professional company responsible for seedling production. Also, citrus farmers’ skills in citrus husbandry practices are limited. Lastly, all citrus varieties used contain many seeds in the citrus fruits whereas the market demands seedless citrus fruits. It is therefore, recommended that the policy maker should focus on development of citrus industry in Tanzania using proper institutional framework support, which could increase growth and development of citrus production through the provision of subsides for inputs to reduce cost of production and enlightenment campaigns to improve farmer’s knowledge and technical skills on how to reach lucrative markets.

  18. Land-use and soil depth affect resource and microbial stoichiometry in a tropical mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, Alexander; Potthast, Karin; Hamer, Ute

    2014-05-01

    Global change phenomena, such as forest disturbance and land-use change, significantly affect elemental balances as well as the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the importance of shifts in soil nutrient stoichiometry for the regulation of belowground biota and soil food webs have not been intensively studied for tropical ecosystems. In the present account, we examine the effects of land-use change and soil depth on soil and microbial stoichiometry along a land-use sequence (natural forest, pastures of different ages, secondary succession) in the tropical mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador. Furthermore, we analyzed (PLFA-method) whether shifts in the microbial community structure were related to alterations in soil and microbial stoichiometry. Soil and microbial stoichiometry were affected by both land-use change and soil depth. After forest disturbance, significant decreases of soil C:N:P ratios at the pastures were followed by increases during secondary succession. Microbial C:N ratios varied slightly in response to land-use change, whereas no fixed microbial C:P and N:P ratios were observed. Shifts in microbial community composition were associated with soil and microbial stoichiometry. Strong positive relationships between PLFA-markers 18:2n6,9c (saprotrophic fungi) and 20:4 (animals) and negative associations between 20:4 and microbial N:P point to land-use change affecting the structure of soil food webs. Significant deviations from global soil and microbial C:N:P ratios indicated a major force of land-use change to alter stoichiometric relationships and to structure biological systems. Our results support the idea that soil biotic communities are stoichiometrically flexible in order to adapt to alterations in resource stoichiometry.

  19. [Pediatric complex regional pain syndrome affecting an upper limb: 7 cases and a brief review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrián, J; Sánchez, P

    2009-03-01

    To review the clinical, psychiatric, and social characteristics of complex regional pain syndrome in children and adolescents treated in the last 4 years at our pediatric pain clinic. We analyzed the specialty of the initial treating physician, age, sex, initial diagnosis, pain intensity, degree of disability, fear of movement, clinical stage, history of trauma, time between onset and diagnosis, psychiatric illness, family support and behavior, chronic pain in near relatives, school grades and attendance, treatment given at the pediatric pain clinic, recurrences, and course of disease. The cases of 7 patients (4 female, 3 male) between the ages of 8 and 15 years were analyzed. Four had been referred by the child psychiatry department. The initial diagnosis was erroneous in all but 1 case. Pain intensity and associated disability were severe in 5 patients and 4 expressed intense fear of moving the limb. Five patients had initial stage I disease, 5 had a history of trauma, and 5 had been previously treated by immobilization of the limb and prescription of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The time between onset and diagnosis ranged from 2 to 18 months (mean [SD], 6.4 [3.5] months). In most cases psychiatric disease and concomitant social disability were present. Treatment prescribed at the pediatric pain clinic consisted of a combination of oral medication, psychologic and psychiatric counseling, and intensive physiotherapy for all but 2 children, who required regional nerve blocks. The clinical course was satisfactory for all but 1 patient, who developed severe disability. Complex regional pain syndrome affecting an upper limb is uncommon in children but not rare.

  20. Histone deacetylase inhibition modulates histone acetylation at gene promoter regions and affects genome-wide gene transcription in Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Anderson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease infecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Treatment depends on a single drug, praziquantel, which kills the Schistosoma spp. parasite only at the adult stage. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi such as Trichostatin A (TSA induce parasite mortality in vitro (schistosomula and adult worms, however the downstream effects of histone hyperacetylation on the parasite are not known.TSA treatment of adult worms in vitro increased histone acetylation at H3K9ac and H3K14ac, which are transcription activation marks, not affecting the unrelated transcription repression mark H3K27me3. We investigated the effect of TSA HDACi on schistosomula gene expression at three different time points, finding a marked genome-wide change in the transcriptome profile. Gene transcription activity was correlated with changes on the chromatin acetylation mark at gene promoter regions. Moreover, combining expression data with ChIP-Seq public data for schistosomula, we found that differentially expressed genes having the H3K4me3 mark at their promoter region in general showed transcription activation upon HDACi treatment, compared with those without the mark, which showed transcription down-regulation. Affected genes are enriched for DNA replication processes, most of them being up-regulated. Twenty out of 22 genes encoding proteins involved in reducing reactive oxygen species accumulation were down-regulated. Dozens of genes encoding proteins with histone reader motifs were changed, including SmEED from the PRC2 complex. We targeted SmEZH2 methyltransferase PRC2 component with a new EZH2 inhibitor (GSK343 and showed a synergistic effect with TSA, significantly increasing schistosomula mortality.Genome-wide gene expression analyses have identified important pathways and cellular functions that were affected and may explain the schistosomicidal effect of TSA HDACi. The change in expression of dozens of histone reader genes involved in

  1. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...... improves the theoretical understanding of the extraction process, and can contribute to the future development and optimization of the technique....

  2. Impacts of road deicing salts on the early-life growth and development of a stream salmonid: Salt type matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, William D; Relyea, Rick A

    2017-04-01

    The use of road deicing salts in regions that experience cold winters is increasing the salinity of freshwater ecosystems, which threatens freshwater resources. Yet, the impacts of environmentally relevant road salt concentrations on freshwater organisms are not well understood, particularly in stream ecosystems where salinization is most severe. We tested the impacts of deicing salts-sodium chloride (NaCl), magnesium chloride (MgCl2), and calcium chloride (CaCl2)-on the growth and development of newly hatched rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We exposed rainbow trout to a wide range of environmentally relevant chloride concentrations (25, 230, 860, 1500, and 3000 mg Cl- L-1) over an ecologically relevant time period (25 d). We found that the deicing salts studied had distinct effects. MgCl2 did not affect rainbow trout growth at any concentration. NaCl had no effects at the lowest three concentrations, but rainbow trout length was reduced by 9% and mass by 27% at 3000 mg Cl- L-1. CaCl2 affected rainbow trout growth at 860 mg Cl- L-1 (5% reduced length; 16% reduced mass) and these effects became larger at higher concentrations (11% reduced length; 31% reduced mass). None of the deicing salts affected rainbow trout development. At sub-lethal and environmentally relevant concentrations, our results do not support the paradigm that MgCl2 is the most toxic deicing salt to fish, perhaps due to hydration effects on the Mg2+ cation. Our results do suggest different pathways for lethal and sub-lethal effects of road salts. Scaled to the population level, the reduced growth caused by NaCl and CaCl2 at critical early-life stages has the potential to negatively affect salmonid recruitment and population dynamics. Our findings have implications for environmental policy and management strategies that aim to reduce the impacts of salinization on freshwater organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Archaeological and chemical evidence for early salt production in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flad, Rowan; Zhu, Jiping; Wang, Changsui; Chen, Pochan; von Falkenhausen, Lothar; Sun, Zhibin; Li, Shuicheng

    2005-01-01

    Salt production and trade is thought to be critical to the development of all states and emergent empires. Until now, however, scientific evidence of early salt production has rarely been presented, and no studies of early Chinese salt production have provided unequivocal proof. Here, we report x-ray fluorescence, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses that demonstrate that salt was the primary product during the first millennium before Christ (B.C.) at Zhongba in Central China. This work provides an early example of salt production discovered in China and presents a methodology for evaluating salt production sites in other regions. PMID:16116100

  4. Different photolysis kinetics at the surface of frozen freshwater vs. frozen salt solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Kahan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Reactions at air-ice interfaces can proceed at very different rates than those in aqueous solution, due to the unique disordered region at the ice surface known as the quasi-liquid layer (QLL . The physical and chemical nature of the surfacial region of ice is greatly affected by solutes such as sodium halide salts. In this work, we studied the effects of sodium chloride and sodium bromide on the photolysis kinetics of harmine, an aromatic organic compound, in aqueous solution and at the surface of frozen salt solutions above the eutectic temperature. In common with other aromatic organic compounds we have studied, harmine photolysis is much faster on ice surfaces than in aqueous solution, but the presence of NaCl or NaBr – which does not affect photolysis kinetics in solution – reduces the photolysis rate on ice. The rate decreases monotonically with increasing salt concentration; at the concentrations found in seawater, harmine photolysis at the surface of frozen salt solutions proceeds at the same rate as in aqueous solution. These results suggest that the brine excluded to the surfaces of frozen salt solutions is a true aqueous solution, and so it may be possible to use aqueous-phase kinetics to predict photolysis rates at sea ice surfaces. This is in marked contrast to the result at the surface of frozen freshwater samples, where reaction kinetics are often not well-described by aqueous-phase processes.

  5. Health Gain by Salt Reduction in Europe: A Modelling Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Breda, J.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive salt intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt intake exceeds the World Health Organization population nutrition goal of 5 grams per day in the European region. We assessed the health impact of salt reduction in nine European countries (Finland, France,

  6. Climatic and topographical factors affecting the vegetative carbon stock of rangelands in arid and semiarid regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhengchao, Ren; Huazhong, Zhu; Shi, Hua; Xiaoni, Liu

    2016-01-01

    Rangeland systems play an important role in ecological stabilization and the terrestrial carbon cycle in arid and semiarid regions. However, little is known about the vegetative carbon dynamics and climatic and topographical factors that affect vegetative carbon stock in these rangelands. Our goal was to assess vegetative carbon stock by examining meteorological data in conjunction with NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) time series datasets from 2001–2012. An improved CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model was then applied to simulate the spatiotemporal dynamic variation of vegetative carbon stock, and analyze its response to climatic and topographical factors. We estimated the vegetative carbon stock of rangeland in Gansu province, China to be 4.4× 1014 gC, increasing linearly at an annual rate of 9.8×1011 gC. The mean vegetative carbon density of the whole rangeland was 136.5 gC m-2. Vegetative carbon density and total carbon varied temporally and spatially and were highly associated with temperature, precipitation and solar radiation. Vegetative carbon density reached the maximal value on elevation at 2500–3500 m, a slope of >30°and easterly aspect. The effect of precipitation, temperature and solar radiation on the vegetative carbon density of five rangeland types (desert and salinized meadow, steppe, alpine meadow, shrub and tussock, and marginal grassland in the forest) depends on the acquired quantity of water and heat for rangeland plants at all spatial scales. The results of this study provide new evidence for explaining spatiotemporal heterogeneity in vegetative carbon dynamics and responses to global change for rangeland vegetative carbon stock, and offer a theoretical and practical basis for grassland agriculture management in arid and semiarid regions.

  7. High-Salt Diet Has a Certain Impact on Protein Digestion and Gut Microbiota: A Sequencing and Proteome Combined Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Zixin; Yu, Kequan; Ding, Ruiling; Ye, Keping; Dai, Chen; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong; Li, Chunbao

    2017-01-01

    High-salt diet has been considered to cause health problems, but it is still less known how high-salt diet affects gut microbiota, protein digestion, and passage in the digestive tract. In this study, C57BL/6J mice were fed low- or high-salt diets (0.25 vs. 3.15% NaCl) for 8 weeks, and then gut contents and feces were collected. Fecal microbiota was identified by sequencing the V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Proteins and digested products of duodenal, jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents were identified by LC-MS-MS. The results indicated that the high-salt diet increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, the abundances of genera Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcus (P diet, host, and gut microbiota alongside the digestive tract. For dietary proteins, high-salt diet seemed not influence its protein digestion and absorption. For host proteins, 20 proteins of lower abundance were identified in the high-salt diet group in duodenal contents, which were involved in digestive enzymes and pancreatic secretion. However, no significant differentially expressed proteins were detected in jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents. For bacterial proteins, proteins secreted by gut microbiota were involved in energy metabolism, sodium transport, and protein folding. Five proteins (cytidylate kinase, trigger factor, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, transporter, and undecaprenyl-diphosphatase) had a higher abundance in the high-salt diet group than those in the low-salt group, while two proteins (acetylglutamate kinase and PBSX phage manganese-containing catalase) were over-expressed in the low-salt diet group than in the high-salt group. Consequently, high-salt diet may alter the composition of gut microbiota and has a certain impact on protein digestion. PMID:29033907

  8. High-Salt Diet Has a Certain Impact on Protein Digestion and Gut Microbiota: A Sequencing and Proteome Combined Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High-salt diet has been considered to cause health problems, but it is still less known how high-salt diet affects gut microbiota, protein digestion, and passage in the digestive tract. In this study, C57BL/6J mice were fed low- or high-salt diets (0.25 vs. 3.15% NaCl for 8 weeks, and then gut contents and feces were collected. Fecal microbiota was identified by sequencing the V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Proteins and digested products of duodenal, jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents were identified by LC-MS-MS. The results indicated that the high-salt diet increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, the abundances of genera Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcus (P < 0.05, but decreased the abundance of Lactobacillus (P < 0.05. LC-MS-MS revealed a dynamic change of proteins from the diet, host, and gut microbiota alongside the digestive tract. For dietary proteins, high-salt diet seemed not influence its protein digestion and absorption. For host proteins, 20 proteins of lower abundance were identified in the high-salt diet group in duodenal contents, which were involved in digestive enzymes and pancreatic secretion. However, no significant differentially expressed proteins were detected in jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents. For bacterial proteins, proteins secreted by gut microbiota were involved in energy metabolism, sodium transport, and protein folding. Five proteins (cytidylate kinase, trigger factor, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, transporter, and undecaprenyl-diphosphatase had a higher abundance in the high-salt diet group than those in the low-salt group, while two proteins (acetylglutamate kinase and PBSX phage manganese-containing catalase were over-expressed in the low-salt diet group than in the high-salt group. Consequently, high-salt diet may alter the composition of gut microbiota and has a certain impact on protein digestion.

  9. High-Salt Diet Has a Certain Impact on Protein Digestion and Gut Microbiota: A Sequencing and Proteome Combined Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Zixin; Yu, Kequan; Ding, Ruiling; Ye, Keping; Dai, Chen; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong; Li, Chunbao

    2017-01-01

    High-salt diet has been considered to cause health problems, but it is still less known how high-salt diet affects gut microbiota, protein digestion, and passage in the digestive tract. In this study, C57BL/6J mice were fed low- or high-salt diets (0.25 vs. 3.15% NaCl) for 8 weeks, and then gut contents and feces were collected. Fecal microbiota was identified by sequencing the V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Proteins and digested products of duodenal, jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents were identified by LC-MS-MS. The results indicated that the high-salt diet increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, the abundances of genera Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcus (P high-salt diet seemed not influence its protein digestion and absorption. For host proteins, 20 proteins of lower abundance were identified in the high-salt diet group in duodenal contents, which were involved in digestive enzymes and pancreatic secretion. However, no significant differentially expressed proteins were detected in jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents. For bacterial proteins, proteins secreted by gut microbiota were involved in energy metabolism, sodium transport, and protein folding. Five proteins (cytidylate kinase, trigger factor, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, transporter, and undecaprenyl-diphosphatase) had a higher abundance in the high-salt diet group than those in the low-salt group, while two proteins (acetylglutamate kinase and PBSX phage manganese-containing catalase) were over-expressed in the low-salt diet group than in the high-salt group. Consequently, high-salt diet may alter the composition of gut microbiota and has a certain impact on protein digestion.

  10. Naphthalene Acetic Acid Potassium Salt (NAA-K+) Affects Conidial Germination, Sporulation, Mycelial Growth, Cell Surface Morphology, and Viability of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radici-lycopersici and F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo-Valencia, María Karina; Valdés-Santiago, Laura; Sánchez-Segura, Lino; Guzmán-de-Peña, Dora Linda

    2016-11-09

    The response to exogenous addition of naphthalene acetic acid potassium salt (NAA-K+) to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp radici-lycopersici ATCC 60095 and F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense isolated from Michoacan Mexico soil is reported. The in vitro study showed that NAA-K+ might be effective in the control of Fusarium oxysporum. Exogenous application of NAA-K+ affected both spores and mycelium stages of the fungi. Viability testing using acridine orange and propidium iodide showed that NAA-K+ possesses fungal killing properties, doing it effectively in the destruction of conidia of this phytopathogenic fungi. Analysis of treated spores by scanning electron microscopy showed changes in the shape factor and fractal dimension. Moreover, NAA-K+ repressed the expression of brlA and fluG genes. The results disclosed here give evidence of the use of this synthetic growth factor as a substance of biocontrol that presents advantages, and the methods of application in situ should be explored.

  11. Isolation of a Genomic Region Affecting Most Components of Metabolic Syndrome in a Chromosome-16 Congenic Rat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Šedová

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a highly prevalent human disease with substantial genomic and environmental components. Previous studies indicate the presence of significant genetic determinants of several features of metabolic syndrome on rat chromosome 16 (RNO16 and the syntenic regions of human genome. We derived the SHR.BN16 congenic strain by introgression of a limited RNO16 region from the Brown Norway congenic strain (BN-Lx into the genomic background of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR strain. We compared the morphometric, metabolic, and hemodynamic profiles of adult male SHR and SHR.BN16 rats. We also compared in silico the DNA sequences for the differential segment in the BN-Lx and SHR parental strains. SHR.BN16 congenic rats had significantly lower weight, decreased concentrations of total triglycerides and cholesterol, and improved glucose tolerance compared with SHR rats. The concentrations of insulin, free fatty acids, and adiponectin were comparable between the two strains. SHR.BN16 rats had significantly lower systolic (18-28 mmHg difference and diastolic (10-15 mmHg difference blood pressure throughout the experiment (repeated-measures ANOVA, P < 0.001. The differential segment spans approximately 22 Mb of the telomeric part of the short arm of RNO16. The in silico analyses revealed over 1200 DNA variants between the BN-Lx and SHR genomes in the SHR.BN16 differential segment, 44 of which lead to missense mutations, and only eight of which (in Asb14, Il17rd, Itih1, Syt15, Ercc6, RGD1564958, Tmem161a, and Gatad2a genes are predicted to be damaging to the protein product. Furthermore, a number of genes within the RNO16 differential segment associated with metabolic syndrome components in human studies showed polymorphisms between SHR and BN-Lx (including Lpl, Nrg3, Pbx4, Cilp2, and Stab1. Our novel congenic rat model demonstrates that a limited genomic region on RNO16 in the SHR significantly affects many of the features of metabolic

  12. Iron-Restricted Diet Affects Brain Ferritin Levels, Dopamine Metabolism and Cellular Prion Protein in a Region-Specific Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Jessica M. V.; da Luz, Marcio H. M.; Antunes, Hanna K. M.; Giampá, Sara Q. de Campos; Martins, Vilma R.; Lee, Kil S.

    2017-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for several physiological functions, including the regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. On the other hand, both iron, and dopamine can affect the folding and aggregation of proteins related with neurodegenerative diseases, such as cellular prion protein (PrPC) and α-synuclein, suggesting that deregulation of iron homeostasis and the consequential disturbance of dopamine metabolism can be a risk factor for conformational diseases. These proteins, in turn, are known to participate in the regulation of iron and dopamine metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary iron restriction on brain ferritin levels, dopamine metabolism, and the expression levels of PrPC and α-synuclein. To achieve this goal, C57BL/6 mice were fed with iron restricted diet (IR) or with normal diet (CTL) for 1 month. IR reduced iron and ferritin levels in liver. Ferritin reduction was also observed in the hippocampus. However, in the striatum of IR group, ferritin level was increased, suggesting that under iron-deficient condition, each brain area might acquire distinct capacity to store iron. Increased lipid peroxidation was observed only in hippocampus of IR group, where ferritin level was reduced. IR also generated discrete results regarding dopamine metabolism of distinct brain regions: in striatum, the level of dopamine metabolites (DOPAC and HVA) was reduced; in prefrontal cortex, only HVA was increased along with the enhanced MAO-A activity; in hippocampus, no alterations were observed. PrPC levels were increased only in the striatum of IR group, where ferritin level was also increased. PrPC is known to play roles in iron uptake. Thus, the increase of PrPC in striatum of IR group might be related to the increased ferritin level. α-synuclein was not altered in any regions. Abnormal accumulation of ferritin, increased MAO-A activity or lipid peroxidation are molecular features observed in several neurological disorders. Our

  13. Iron-Restricted Diet Affects Brain Ferritin Levels, Dopamine Metabolism and Cellular Prion Protein in a Region-Specific Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. V. Pino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential micronutrient for several physiological functions, including the regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. On the other hand, both iron, and dopamine can affect the folding and aggregation of proteins related with neurodegenerative diseases, such as cellular prion protein (PrPC and α-synuclein, suggesting that deregulation of iron homeostasis and the consequential disturbance of dopamine metabolism can be a risk factor for conformational diseases. These proteins, in turn, are known to participate in the regulation of iron and dopamine metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary iron restriction on brain ferritin levels, dopamine metabolism, and the expression levels of PrPC and α-synuclein. To achieve this goal, C57BL/6 mice were fed with iron restricted diet (IR or with normal diet (CTL for 1 month. IR reduced iron and ferritin levels in liver. Ferritin reduction was also observed in the hippocampus. However, in the striatum of IR group, ferritin level was increased, suggesting that under iron-deficient condition, each brain area might acquire distinct capacity to store iron. Increased lipid peroxidation was observed only in hippocampus of IR group, where ferritin level was reduced. IR also generated discrete results regarding dopamine metabolism of distinct brain regions: in striatum, the level of dopamine metabolites (DOPAC and HVA was reduced; in prefrontal cortex, only HVA was increased along with the enhanced MAO-A activity; in hippocampus, no alterations were observed. PrPC levels were increased only in the striatum of IR group, where ferritin level was also increased. PrPC is known to play roles in iron uptake. Thus, the increase of PrPC in striatum of IR group might be related to the increased ferritin level. α-synuclein was not altered in any regions. Abnormal accumulation of ferritin, increased MAO-A activity or lipid peroxidation are molecular features observed in several neurological

  14. Processes and parameters involved in modeling radionuclide transport from bedded salt repositories. Final report. Technical memorandum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evenson, D.E.; Prickett, T.A.; Showalter, P.A.

    1979-07-01

    The parameters necessary to model radionuclide transport in salt beds are identified and described. A proposed plan for disposal of the radioactive wastes generated by nuclear power plants is to store waste canisters in repository sites contained in stable salt formations approximately 600 meters below the ground surface. Among the principal radioactive wastes contained in these canisters will be radioactive isotopes of neptunium, americium, uranium, and plutonium along with many highly radioactive fission products. A concern with this form of waste disposal is the possibility of ground-water flow occurring in the salt beds and endangering water supplies and the public health. Specifically, the research investigated the processes involved in the movement of radioactive wastes from the repository site by groundwater flow. Since the radioactive waste canisters also generate heat, temperature is an important factor. Among the processes affecting movement of radioactive wastes from a repository site in a salt bed are thermal conduction, groundwater movement, ion exchange, radioactive decay, dissolution and precipitation of salt, dispersion and diffusion, adsorption, and thermomigration. In addition, structural changes in the salt beds as a result of temperature changes are important. Based upon the half-lives of the radioactive wastes, he period of concern is on the order of a million years. As a result, major geologic phenomena that could affect both the salt bed and groundwater flow in the salt beds was considered. These phenomena include items such as volcanism, faulting, erosion, glaciation, and the impact of meteorites. CDM reviewed all of the critical processes involved in regional groundwater movement of radioactive wastes and identified and described the parameters that must be included to mathematically model their behavior. In addition, CDM briefly reviewed available echniques to measure these parameters.

  15. Mutations in the C-terminal region affect subcellular localization of crucian carp herpesvirus (CaHV) GPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Gui, Lang; Chen, Zong-Yan; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2016-08-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are known as seven transmembrane domain receptors and consequently can mediate diverse biological functions via regulation of their subcellular localization. Crucian carp herpesvirus (CaHV) was recently isolated from infected fish with acute gill hemorrhage. CaHV GPCR of 349 amino acids (aa) was identified based on amino acid identity. A series of variants with truncation/deletion/substitution mutation in the C-terminal (aa 315-349) were constructed and expressed in fathead minnow (FHM) cells. The roles of three key C-terminal regions in subcellular localization of CaHV GPCR were determined. Lysine-315 (K-315) directed the aggregation of the protein preferentially at the nuclear side. Predicted N-myristoylation site (GGGWTR, aa 335-340) was responsible for punctate distribution in periplasm or throughout the cytoplasm. Predicted phosphorylation site (SSR, aa 327-329) and GGGWTR together determined the punctate distribution in cytoplasm. Detection of organelles localization by specific markers showed that the protein retaining K-315 colocalized with the Golgi apparatus. These experiments provided first evidence that different mutations of CaHV GPCR C-terminals have different affects on the subcellular localization of fish herpesvirus-encoded GPCRs. The study provided valuable information and new insights into the precise interactions between herpesvirus and fish cells, and could also provide useful targets for antiviral agents in aquaculture.

  16. The Smc5-Smc6 complex regulates recombination at centromeric regions and affects kinetochore protein sumoylation during normal growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Yong-Gonzales

    Full Text Available The Smc5-Smc6 complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is both essential for growth and important for coping with genotoxic stress. While it facilitates damage tolerance throughout the genome under genotoxin treatment, its function during unperturbed growth is mainly documented for repetitive DNA sequence maintenance. Here we provide physical and genetic evidence showing that the Smc5-Smc6 complex regulates recombination at non-repetitive loci such as centromeres in the absence of DNA damaging agents. Mutating Smc6 results in the accumulation of recombination intermediates at centromeres and other unique sequences as assayed by 2D gel analysis. In addition, smc6 mutant cells exhibit increased levels of Rad52 foci that co-localize with centromere markers. A rad52 mutation that decreases centromeric, but not overall, levels of Rad52 foci in smc6 mutants suppresses the nocodazole sensitivity of these cells, suggesting that the Smc6-mediated regulation of recombination at centromeric regions impacts centromere-related functions. In addition to influencing recombination, the SUMO ligase subunit of the Smc5-Smc6 complex promotes the sumoylation of two kinetochore proteins and affects mitotic spindles. These results suggest that the Smc5-Smc6 complex regulates both recombination and kinetochore sumoylation to facilitate chromosomal maintenance during growth.

  17. Factors Affecting Farmers’ Decision to Enter Agricultural Cooperatives Using Random Utility Model in the South Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Karlı

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ decision and perceptions to be a member of agricultural cooperatives in the South Eastern Anatolian Region were investigated. Factors affecting the probability of joining the agricultural cooperatives were determined using binary logit model. The model released that most of variables such as education, high communication, log of gross income, farm size, medium and high technology variables play important roles in determining the probability of entrance. Small farmers are likely expected to join the agricultural cooperatives than the wealthier farmers are. Small farmers may wish to benefit cash at hand, input subsidies, and services provided by the agricultural cooperatives since the risks associated with intensive high-returning crops are high. Some important factors playing pole role in abstention of farmers towards agricultural cooperatives are gross income and some social status variables. In addition, conservative or orthodox farmers are less likely to join agricultural cooperatives than moderate farmers are. We also found that the direct government farm credit programs mainly should be objected to providing farmers to better access to capital markets and creating the opportunity to use with allocation of capital inputs via using modern technology.

  18. [Vegetation above-ground biomass and its affecting factors in water/wind erosion crisscross region on Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-guo; Fan, Jun; Wang, Quan-jiu; Wang, Li

    2011-03-01

    Field investigations were conducted in Liudaogou small watershed in late September 2009 to study the differences of vegetation above-ground biomass, soil moisture content, and soil nutrient contents under different land use patterns, aimed to approach the vegetation above-ground biomass level and related affecting factors in typical small watershed in water/wind erosion crisscross region on Loess Plateau. The above-ground dry biomass of the main vegetations in Liudaogou was 177-2207 g x m(-2), and that in corn field, millet field, abandoned farmland, artificial grassland, natural grassland, and shrub land was 2097-2207, 518-775, 248-578, 280-545, 177-396, and 372-680 g x m(-2), respectively. The mean soil moisture content in 0-100 layer was the highest (14.2%) in farmlands and the lowest (10.9%) in shrub land. The coefficient of variation of soil moisture content was the greatest (26. 7% ) in abandoned farmland, indicating the strong spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture in this kind of farmland. The mean soil water storage was in the order of farmland > artificial grassland > natural grassland > shrub land. Soil dry layer was observed in alfalfa and caragana lands. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.639, P nutrient contents, but had no significant correlations with elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, and soil bulk density.

  19. Impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachshon, Uri

    2017-04-01

    Field measurements indicated on high variability in salt accumulation along natural and cultivated slopes, even for relatively homogeneous soil conditions. It was hypothesised that slope inclination has an impact on the location of salt accumulation along the slope. A set of laboratory experiments and numerical models were used to explore the impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation. It was shown, experimentally, that for conditions of saline water source at the lower boundary of the slope - salt accumulates in low concentrations and homogeneously along the entire slope, for moderate slopes. However, as inclination increases high salt concentrations were observed at the upper parts of the slope, leaving the lower parts of the slope relatively free of salt. The traditional flow and transport models did not predict the experimental observations as they indicated also for the moderate slopes on salt accumulation in the elevated parts of the slope, away of the saline water source. Consequently - a conceptual model was raised to explain the laboratory observations. It was suggested that the interactions between slope angle, evaporation rates, hydraulic conductivity of the medium and distribution of wetness along the slope affect the saline water flow path through the medium. This lead to preferential flow path close to the soil-atmosphere interface for the steep slopes, which leads to constant wash of the salts from the evaporation front upward towards the slope upper parts, whereas for the moderate slopes, flow path is below the soil-atmosphere interface, therefore salt that accumulates at the evaporation front is not being transported upward. Understanding of salt dynamics along slopes is important for agricultural and natural environments, as well as for civil engineering purposes. Better understanding of the salt transport processes along slopes will improve our ability to minimize and to cope with soil salinization processes. The laboratory experiments and

  20. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A

  1. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivit...

  2. Policy and legislation affecting settlement of the Pacific region: an historical comparison of the United States and the USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, D M

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a history of policy and legislation affecting settlement of the Far Eastern Economic Region of the USSR, a similar history for the Pacific Division of the US, and compares the major differences and similarities between the policies and legislation of these 2 nations with respect to settlement of what are now the Pacific territories of the 2 nations. By policy regarding settlement is meant legislation intentionally designed to acquire sovereignty and then populate a region with persons owing allegiance to the given nation. By legislation regarding settlement is meant simply those laws which have consequences for settlement regardless of intent. The history starts with the early 17th century for the USSR and with the early 19th century for the US. In the USSR and in the US, areas adjacent to the Pacific Ocean were annexed by means of direct governmental measures. During the 17th century the efforts on the part of the Tsarist government of Russia to annex territory resulted in armed conflict with the troops of the Chinese Empire. In the middle of the 19th century, following the substantial weakening of Chinese military prowess and in the face of territorial demands on China by the British and French, the Russians were able to impose treaties on the Chinese granting them substantial Pacific territories until then under Chinese rule. A war of conquest against Mexico in 1846-48 made possible for the US the acquisition of California. In addition, a treaty with England in 1846 gave international recognition to US sovereignty in Oregon and Washington. Alaska was purchased from Russia in 1867, and Hawaii was annexed to the US in 1898. In both nations the construction of railroads to link the Pacific coast with the rest of the nation was actively promoted by governmental legislation. In the US and in the USSR migration to the Pacific region has been promoted by direct financial subsidies to settlers -- in the US by the Homestead Act and irrigation

  3. Hydrogeologic factors that affect the flowpath of water in selected zones of the Edwards Aquifer, San Antonio region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groschen, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Edwards aquifer in the San Antonio region supplies drinking water for more than 1 million people. Proper development and protection of the aquifer is a high priority for local and State authorities. To better understand the flow of water in two major flowpaths in the Edwards aquifer, stratigraphic, structural, hydrologic, and geochemical data were analyzed. The western Medina flowpath is in parts of Uvalde, Medina, and Bexar Counties, and the eastern flowpath is in northern Bexar and central Comal Counties. A major hydrogeologic factor that affects the pattern of flow in the Edwards aquifer is the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. Other hydrogeologic factors that affect flowpaths include internal boundaries and the location and rate of spring discharge. The relative displacement of faults and the high permeability layers have substantial control on the discharge at springs and on the flowpaths in the Edwards aquifer. Analysis of the estimated recharge to the Edwards aquifer during 1982 89 indicated that during years of substantial precipitation, a large part of the net recharge probably is diffuse infiltration of precipitation over large parts of the recharge area. During years with below-normal precipitation, most recharge is leakage from rivers and streams that drain the catchment subbasins. In the western Medina flowpath, concentrations of major ions indicate saturation of calcite and undersaturation of dolomite the two minerals that constitute most of the Edwards aquifer matrix. Concentrations of dissolved calcium, alkalinity, and dissolved chloride in the eastern flowpath are greater than those in the western Medina flowpath. These upward trends in concentrations might result in part from: (1) increased development in the recharge area, (2) mineralized effluent from developed areas, or (3) increased dissolution of aquifer material. Tritium data from wells sampled in and near the western Medina flowpath indicate no vertical stratification of

  4. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  5. Nonadherence and factors affecting adherence of diabetic patients to anti-diabetic medication in Assela General Hospital, Oromia Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassahun, Ashebir; Gashe, Fanta; Mulisa, Eshetu; Rike, Wote Amelo

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem covering approximately 347 million persons worldwide. Glycemic control has a main role in its management which mainly depends upon patient adherence to the treatment plan. Accurate assessment of medication adherence is necessary for effective management of diabetes. To assess nonadherence and factors affecting adherence of diabetic patients to anti-diabetic medication in Assela General Hospital (AGH), Oromia Region, Ethiopia. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on patients seeking anti-diabetic drug treatment and follow-up at AGH using structured questionnaire and reviewing the patient record card using check list from January 24, 2014 to February 7, 2014. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the percentages and number of distributions of the variables in the study; and association was identified for categorical data. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Of all respondents, 149 (52.3%) and 136 (47.7%) were female and male, respectively. The majority of the study participants 189 (66.3%) were in the age group of 30-60 years. Two-hundred nineteen (76.8%) of respondents were married currently. The majority, 237 (83.2%) of respondents did not have blood glucose self-monitoring equipment (glucometer). A total of 196 (68.8%) respondents were adhered to anti-diabetic medication. There was a significant association between adherence to the medication and side effect, level of education, monthly income and presence of glucometer at home (P anti-diabetic medications with nonadherence rate of 31.2%. Different factors of medication nonadherence were identified such as side effect and complexity of regimen, failure to remember, and sociodemographic factors such as educational level and monthly income.

  6. Regional Algal Biofuel Production Potential in the Coterminous United States as Affected by Resource Availability Trade-offs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venteris, Erik R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skaggs, Richard [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wigmosta, Mark S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coleman, Andre M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-03-15

    The warm sunny climate and unoccupied arid lands in the American southwest are favorable factors for algae cultivation. However, additional resources affect the overall viability of specific sites and regions. We investigated the tradeoffs between growth rate, water, and CO2 availability and costs for two strains: N. salina and Chlorella sp. We conducted site selection exercises (~88,000 US sites) to produce 21 billion gallons yr-1 (BGY) of renewable diesel (RD). Experimental trials from the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bio-Products (NAABB) team informed the growth model of our Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT). We simulated RD production by both lipid extraction and hydrothermal liquefaction. Sites were prioritized by the net value of biofuel minus water and flue gas costs. Water cost models for N. salina were based on seawater and high salinity groundwater and for Chlorella, fresh and brackish groundwater. CO2 costs were based on a flue gas delivery model. Selections constrained by production and water were concentrated along the Gulf of Mexico and southeast Atlantic coasts due to high growth rates and low water costs. Adding flue gas constraints increased the spatial distribution, but the majority of sites remained in the southeast. The 21 BGY target required ~3.8 million hectares of mainly forest (41.3%) and pasture (35.7%). Exclusion in favor of barren and scrub lands forced most production to the southwestern US, but with increased water consumption (5.7 times) and decreased economic efficiency (-38%).

  7. How might climate changes and preference changes affect the competitiveness of the world׳s wine regions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kym Anderson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Winegrape production is generally considered riskier in cool-climate regions than in warmer ones, yet more producers are looking to invest in such regions. A commonly stated reason is to hedge against global warming, but is there more to it than that? This note reflects on some other supply-side drivers as well as some drivers from the demand side of global wine markets. It first defines what characterizes a cool-climate region; and it ends by drawing implications for the economic future of such cool regions as compared with the world׳s warmer wine regions.

  8. Formation and development of salt crusts on soil surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Sheng

    2015-12-14

    The salt concentration gradually increases at the soil free surface when the evaporation rate exceeds the diffusive counter transport. Eventually, salt precipitates and crystals form a porous sodium chloride crust with a porosity of 0.43 ± 0.14. After detaching from soils, the salt crust still experiences water condensation and salt deliquescence at the bottom, brine transport across the crust driven by the humidity gradient, and continued air-side precipitation. This transport mechanism allows salt crust migration away from the soil surface at a rate of 5 μm/h forming salt domes above soil surfaces. The surface characteristics of mineral substrates and the evaporation rate affect the morphology and the crystal size of precipitated salt. In particular, substrate hydrophobicity and low evaporation rate suppress salt spreading.

  9. Geospatial Estimates of Road Salt Usage Across a Gradient of Urbanizing Watersheds in Southern Ontario:Thesis for Masters in Spatial Analysis (MSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giberson, G. K.; Oswald, C.

    2015-12-01

    In areas affected by snow, chloride (Cl) salts are widely used as a de-icing agent to improve road conditions. While the improvement in road safety is indisputable, there are environmental consequences to local aquatic ecosystems. In many waterways, Cl concentrations have been increasing since the early 1990s, often exceeding national water quality guidelines. To determine the quantity of Cl that is accumulating in urban and urbanizing watersheds, accurate estimates of road salt usage at the watershed-scale are needed. The complex jurisdictional control over road salt application in southern Ontario lends itself to a geospatial approach for calculating Cl inputs to improve the accuracy of watershed-scale Cl mass balance estimates. This study will develop a geospatial protocol for combining information on road salt applications and road network areas to refine watershed-scale Cl inputs, as well as assess spatiotemporal patterns in road salt application across the southern Ontario study region. The overall objective of this project is to use geospatial methods (predominantly ArcGIS) to develop high-accuracy estimates of road salt usage in urbanizing watersheds in southern Ontario. Specifically, the aims will be to map and summarize the types and areas ("lane-lengths") of roadways in each watershed that have road salt applied to them, to determine the most appropriate source(s) of road salt usage data for each watershed, taking into consideration multiple levels of jurisdiction (e.g. municipal, regional, provincial), to calculate and summarize sub-watershed and watershed-scale road salt usage estimates for multiple years, and to analyze intra-watershed spatiotemporal patterns of road salt usage, especially focusing on impervious surfaces. These analyses will recommend areas of concern exacerbated by high-levels of road salt distribution; recommendations around modifying on-the-ground operations will be the next step in helping to correct these issues.

  10. Cadmium hampers salt tolerance of Sesuvium portulacastrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Mariem; Martos, Soledad; Pérez-Martín, Laura; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Gunsé, Benet

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that salinity reduces cadmium toxicity in halophytes. However, the possible interference of Cd with the mechanisms of salt tolerance is poorly explored. The aim of this study was to see whether Cd affects salt tolerance mechanisms in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum. S. portulacastrum plants obtained from cuttings were grown in hydroponics for 3 weeks and then exposed to low (0.09 mM) or moderate (200 mM) NaCl concentrations, alone or in combination with 25 μM CdCl 2 . Microscopy observation revealed two strategies of salt tolerance: euhalophytism and secretion of salt by bladder cells. Cadmium exposure hardly influenced the total leaf Na + concentrations. However, Cd supply delayed the salt-induced upregulation of AHA1 (plasma membrane H + -ATPase 1) and SOS1 (plasma membrane Na + transporter "Salt Overly Sensitive 1"), genes that are essential for salt tolerance. Moreover, Cd induced the activation of BADH, coding for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, indicating enhanced osmotic stress due to Cd. Sodium-green fluorescence in protoplasts from plants grown with low or high NaCl, alone or in combination with Cd, revealed higher Na + concentrations in the cytoplasm of Cd-exposed plants. Taken together the results indicate interference of Cd with salt tolerance mechanisms in S. portulacastrum. This may have consequences for the efficient use of halophytes in phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated saline soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. New Insights on plant salt tolerance mechanisms and their potential use for breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moez HANIN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinization is a major threat to agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions, where water scarcity and inadequate drainage of irrigated lands severely reduce crop yield. Salt accumulation inhibits plant growth and reduces the ability to uptake water and nutrients, leading to osmotic or water-deficit stress. Salt is also causing injury of the young photosynthetic leaves and acceleration of their senescence, as the Na+ cation is toxic when accumulating in cell cytosol resulting in ionic imbalance and toxicity of transpiring leaves. To cope with salt stress, plants have evolved mainly two types of tolerance mechanisms based on either limiting the entry of salt by the roots, or controlling its concentration and distribution. Understanding the overall control of Na+ accumulation and functional studies of genes involved in transport processes, will provide a new opportunity to improve the salinity tolerance of plants relevant to food security in arid regions. A better understanding of these tolerance mechanisms can be used to breed crops with improved yield performance under salinity stress. Moreover, associations of cultures with nitrogen-fixing bactéria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi could serve as an alternative and sustainable strategy to increase crop yields in salt affected fields.

  12. Re-sequencing data for refining candidate genes and polymorphisms in QTL regions affecting adiposity in chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-François Roux

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose an approach aiming at fine-mapping adiposity QTL in chicken, integrating whole genome re-sequencing data. First, two QTL regions for adiposity were identified by performing a classical linkage analysis on 1362 offspring in 11 sire families obtained by crossing two meat-type chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat weight. Those regions, located on chromosome 7 and 19, contained a total of 77 and 84 genes, respectively. Then, SNPs and indels in these regions were identified by re-sequencing sires. Considering issues related to polymorphism annotations for regulatory regions, we focused on the 120 and 104 polymorphisms having an impact on protein sequence, and located in coding regions of 35 and 42 genes situated in the two QTL regions. Subsequently, a filter was applied on SNPs considering their potential impact on the protein function based on conservation criteria. For the two regions, we identified 42 and 34 functional polymorphisms carried by 18 and 24 genes, and likely to deeply impact protein, including 3 coding indels and 4 nonsense SNPs. Finally, using gene functional annotation, a short list of 17 and 4 polymorphisms in 6 and 4 functional genes has been defined. Even if we cannot exclude that the causal polymorphisms may be located in regulatory regions, this strategy gives a complete overview of the candidate polymorphisms in coding regions and prioritize them on conservation- and functional-based arguments.

  13. Influence of salt concentration and topographical position on water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water resource quality (WRQ) is affected by salt concentration and topographical position. Indeed, an increase in salt concentration, which decreases water availability for animal and plant nutrition, and lower altitude, which diminishes the potential for production of hydropower, negatively affects WRQ. Therefore, it is useful ...

  14. MAOHUZI6/ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE2 Regulate Ethylene Response of Roots and Coleoptiles and Negatively Affect Salt Tolerance in Rice1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Ma, Biao; He, Si-Jie; Xiong, Qing; Duan, Kai-Xuan; Yin, Cui-Cui; Chen, Hui; Lu, Xiang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene plays important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. The ethylene signaling pathway has been studied extensively, mainly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, the molecular mechanism of ethylene signaling is largely unknown in rice (Oryza sativa). Previously, we have isolated a set of rice ethylene-response mutants. Here, we characterized the mutant maohuzi6 (mhz6). Through map-based cloning, we found that MHZ6 encodes ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 (OsEIL1), a rice homolog of ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3), which is the master transcriptional regulator of ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Disruption of MHZ6/OsEIL1 caused ethylene insensitivity mainly in roots, whereas silencing of the closely related OsEIL2 led to ethylene insensitivity mainly in coleoptiles of etiolated seedlings. This organ-specific functional divergence is different from the functional features of EIN3 and EIL1, both of which mediate the incomplete ethylene responses of Arabidopsis etiolated seedlings. In Arabidopsis, EIN3 and EIL1 play positive roles in plant salt tolerance. In rice, however, lack of MHZ6/OsEIL1 or OsEIL2 functions improves salt tolerance, whereas the overexpressing lines exhibit salt hypersensitivity at the seedling stage, indicating that MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 negatively regulate salt tolerance in rice. Furthermore, this negative regulation by MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 in salt tolerance is likely attributable in part to the direct regulation of HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER2;1 expression and Na+ uptake in roots. Additionally, MHZ6/OsEIL1 overexpression promotes grain size and thousand-grain weight. Together, our study provides insights for the functional diversification of MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 in ethylene response and finds a novel mode of ethylene-regulated salt stress response that could be helpful for engineering salt-tolerant crops. PMID:25995326

  15. Radioactive contamination of food, sampled in regions of the USSR affected by the Chernobyl accident, and of radioactive exposure in these regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruig, de W.G.; Struijs, van der T.D.B.

    1991-01-01

    From 21.10.1990 to 01.11.1990 a Netherlands humanitarian fact finding mission on aid to people affected by the Chernobyl disaster visited the USSR. The Netherlands Government reacted positively to a request from the USSR for such aid and the aim of the mission was to gather facts for a useful aid

  16. Mapping patterns of depression-related brain regions with cytochrome oxidase histochemistry: relevance of animal affective systems to human disorders, with a focus on resilience to adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harro, Jaanus; Kanarik, Margus; Matrov, Denis; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    The search for novel antidepressants may be facilitated by pre-clinical animal models that relay on specific neural circuit and related neurochemical endpoint measures, which are anchored in concrete neuro-anatomical and functional neural-network analyzes. One of the most important initial considerations must be which regions of the brain are candidates for the maladaptive response to depressogenic challenges. Consideration of persistent differences or changes in the activity of cerebral networks can be achieved by mapping oxidative metabolism in ethologically or pathogenetically relevant animal models. Cytochrome oxidase histochemistry is a technique suitable to detect regional long-term brain activity changes relative to control conditions and has been used in a variety of animal models. This work is summarized and indicates that major changes occur mainly in subcortical areas, highlighting specific brain regions where some alterations in regional oxidative metabolism may represent adaptive changes to depressogenic adverse life events, while others may reflect failures of adaptation. Many of these changes in oxidative metabolism may depend upon the integrity of serotonergic neurotransmission, and occur in several brain regions shown by other techniques to be involved in endogenous affective circuits that control emotional behaviors as well as related higher brain regions that integrate learning and cognitive information processing. These brain regions appear as primary targets for further identification of endophenotypes specific to affective disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Salt Tolerant and Sensitive Rice Varieties Display Differential Methylome Flexibility under Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Liliana J.; Azevedo, Vanessa; Maroco, João; Oliveira, M. Margarida; Santos, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation has been referred as an important player in plant genomic responses to environmental stresses but correlations between the methylome plasticity and specific traits of interest are still far from being understood. In this study, we inspected global DNA methylation levels in salt tolerant and sensitive rice varieties upon salt stress imposition. Global DNA methylation was quantified using the 5-methylcytosine (5mC) antibody and an ELISA-based technique, which is an affordable and quite pioneer assay in plants, and in situ imaging of methylation sites in interphase nuclei of tissue sections. Variations of global DNA methylation levels in response to salt stress were tissue- and genotype-dependent. We show a connection between a higher ability of DNA methylation adjustment levels and salt stress tolerance. The salt-tolerant rice variety Pokkali was remarkable in its ability to quickly relax DNA methylation in response to salt stress. In spite of the same tendency for reduction of global methylation under salinity, in the salt-sensitive rice variety IR29 such reduction was not statistically supported. In ‘Pokkali’, the salt stress-induced demethylation may be linked to active demethylation due to increased expression of DNA demethylases under salt stress. In ‘IR29’, the induction of both DNA demethylases and methyltransferases may explain the lower plasticity of DNA methylation. We further show that mutations for epigenetic regulators affected specific phenotypic parameters related to salinity tolerance, such as the root length and biomass. This work emphasizes the role of differential methylome flexibility between salt tolerant and salt sensitive rice varieties as an important player in salt stress tolerance, reinforcing the need to better understand the connection between epigenetic networks and plant responses to environmental stresses. PMID:25932633

  18. Salt Tolerant and Sensitive Rice Varieties Display Differential Methylome Flexibility under Salt Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana J Ferreira

    Full Text Available DNA methylation has been referred as an important player in plant genomic responses to environmental stresses but correlations between the methylome plasticity and specific traits of interest are still far from being understood. In this study, we inspected global DNA methylation levels in salt tolerant and sensitive rice varieties upon salt stress imposition. Global DNA methylation was quantified using the 5-methylcytosine (5mC antibody and an ELISA-based technique, which is an affordable and quite pioneer assay in plants, and in situ imaging of methylation sites in interphase nuclei of tissue sections. Variations of global DNA methylation levels in response to salt stress were tissue- and genotype-dependent. We show a connection between a higher ability of DNA methylation adjustment levels and salt stress tolerance. The salt-tolerant rice variety Pokkali was remarkable in its ability to quickly relax DNA methylation in response to salt stress. In spite of the same tendency for reduction of global methylation under salinity, in the salt-sensitive rice variety IR29 such reduction was not statistically supported. In 'Pokkali', the salt stress-induced demethylation may be linked to active demethylation due to increased expression of DNA demethylases under salt stress. In 'IR29', the induction of both DNA demethylases and methyltransferases may explain the lower plasticity of DNA methylation. We further show that mutations for epigenetic regulators affected specific phenotypic parameters related to salinity tolerance, such as the root length and biomass. This work emphasizes the role of differential methylome flexibility between salt tolerant and salt sensitive rice varieties as an important player in salt stress tolerance, reinforcing the need to better understand the connection between epigenetic networks and plant responses to environmental stresses.

  19. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  20. Whitecaps, sea-salt aerosols, and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguelova, Magdalena Dimitrova

    Oceanic whitecaps are the major source of sea-salt aerosols. Because these aerosols are dominant in remote marine air, they control the radiative properties of the clean background atmosphere by scattering sunlight, changing cloud properties and lifetime, and providing media for chemical reactions. Including sea-salt effects in climate models improves predictions, but simulating their generation is first necessary. To make the sea-salt generation function currently used in climate models more relevant for aerosol investigations, this study proposes two modifications. First, the conventional relation between whitecap coverage, W, and the 10-meter wind speed, U10, used in typical generation functions is expanded to include additional factors that affect whitecaps and sea-salt aerosol formation. Second, the sea-salt generation function is extended to smaller sizes; sea-salt aerosol with initial radii from 0.4 to 20 mum can now be modeled. To achieve these goals, this thesis develops a new method for estimating whitecap coverage on a global scale using satellite measurements of the brightness temperature of the ocean surface. Whitecap coverage evaluated with this method incorporates the effects of atmospheric stability, sea-surface temperature, salinity, wind fetch, wind duration, and the amount of surface-active material. Assimilating satellite-derived values for whitecap coverage in the sea-salt generation function incorporates the effects of all environmental factors on sea-salt production and predicts realistic sea-salt aerosol loadings into the atmosphere. An extensive database of whitecap coverage and sea-salt aerosol fluxes has been compiled with the new method and is used to investigate their spatial and temporal characteristics. The composite effect of all environmental factors suggests a more uniform latitudinal distribution of whitecaps and sea-salt aerosols than that predicted from wind speed alone. The effect of sea-surface temperature, TS, is

  1. Modeling and assessing the function and sustainability of natural patches in salt-affected agro-ecosystems: Application to tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis Lour.) in Hetao, upper Yellow River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongyang; Xu, Xu; Ramos, Tiago B.; Huang, Quanzhong; Huo, Zailin; Huang, Guanhua

    2017-09-01

    Relatively low-lying zones of natural vegetation within irrigated areas are not only carriers of biodiversity but also dry drainage areas of excess water and salts applied to nearby croplands. It is thus useful to have a correct understanding of the soil water-salt dynamics and plant water use for keeping the sustainability of those natural areas. The HYDRUS-dualKc model that couples the HYDRUS-1D model with the FAO-56 dualKc approach was extended to simulate the eco-hydrological processes in natural patches of Hetao Irrigation District (Hetao), upper Yellow River basin. Field experiments were conducted in a tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis Lour.) dominated area during the growing seasons of 2012 and 2013. The model was calibrated and validated using the two-year experimental data, and applied to analyze the water and salt dynamics and the tamarisk water consumption for the present situation. Then, various groundwater depth (i.e. the depth from groundwater surface to water table, GWD) scenarios were simulated while considering the fluctuating and constant regimes of GWD changes, as well as variations of the rooting depth. Results indicated that this natural land functioned efficiently as a drainage area for subsurface flow and excess salt from surrounding croplands. However, the present GWDs were too shallow leading to high soil evaporation and severe salt stress. The soil evaporation accounted for 50% of the total evapotranspiration (ETa) while root zone salt storage increased about 50% during growing seasons. On the basis of scenario analysis, an optimum groundwater depth of 140-200 cm with smaller fluctuation was suggested for the growing seasons of natural patches. In addition, tamarisk growth could be largely improved if the roots can grow deeper with water table decline in the future. We demonstrated that monitoring and modeling could be used to support the development of water management strategies in Hetao aimed at conserving water while sustaining local

  2. Task type affects location of language-positive cortical regions by repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Theresa; Tanigawa, Noriko; Probst, Monika; Wohlschlaeger, Afra; Ille, Sebastian; Sollmann, Nico; Maurer, Stefanie; Zimmer, Claus; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2015-01-01

    Recent repetitive TMS (rTMS) mapping protocols for language mapping revealed deficits of this method, mainly in posterior brain regions. Therefore this study analyzed the impact of different language tasks on the localization of language-positive brain regions and compared their effectiveness, especially with regard to posterior brain regions. Nineteen healthy, right-handed subjects performed object naming, pseudoword reading, verb generation, and action naming during rTMS language mapping of the left hemisphere. Synchronically, 5 Hz/10 pulses were applied with a 0 ms delay. The object naming task evoked the highest error rate (14%), followed by verb generation (13%) and action naming (11%). The latter revealed more errors in posterior than in anterior areas. Pseudoword reading barely generated errors, except for phonological paraphasias. In general, among the evaluated language tasks, object naming is the most discriminative task to detect language-positive regions via rTMS. However, other tasks might be used for more specific questions.

  3. Effect of hurricanes and violent storms on salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, N.; Ganju, N. K.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2016-12-01

    Salt marsh losses have been documented worldwide because of land use change, wave erosion, and sea-level rise. It is still unclear how resistant salt marshes are to extreme storms and whether they can survive multiple events without collapsing. Based on a large dataset of salt marsh lateral erosion rates collected around the world, here, we determine the general response of salt marsh boundaries to wave action under normal and extreme weather conditions. As wave energy increases, salt marsh response to wind waves remains linear, and there is not a critical threshold in wave energy above which salt marsh erosion drastically accelerates. We apply our general formulation for salt marsh erosion to historical wave climates at eight salt marsh locations affected by hurricanes in the United States. Based on the analysis of two decades of data, we find that violent storms and hurricanes contribute less than 1% to long-term salt marsh erosion rates. In contrast, moderate storms with a return period of 2.5 mo are those causing the most salt marsh deterioration. Therefore, salt marshes seem more susceptible to variations in mean wave energy rather than changes in the extremes. The intrinsic resistance of salt marshes to violent storms and their predictable erosion rates during moderate events should be taken into account by coastal managers in restoration projects and risk management plans.

  4. Iodized salt consumption in Sudan: present status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Bani, Ibrahim Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) Control Programme in Sudan adopted salt iodization as the long-term strategy in 1994. In 2000, it was found that less than 1% of households were using adequately-iodized salt. The objectives of this study were to: (i) study the coverage and variation of different geographical regions of Sudan regarding access to and use of iodized salt, (ii) explore the possible factors which influence the use of iodized salt, (iii) develop recommendations to help in the implementation of the Universal Salt Iodization (USI) strategy in Sudan. This paper is based on the Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS) dataset. A total sample of 24,507 households was surveyed, and 18,786 cooking salt samples were tested for iodine levels with rapid salt-testing kits. Nationally, the percentage of households using adequately-iodized salt increased from less than 1% in 2000 to 14.4%, with wide variations between states. Access to iodized salt ranged from 96.9% in Central Equatoria to 0.4% in Gezira state. Population coverage with iodized salt in Sudan remains very low. The awareness and political support for USI programme is very weak. National legislation banning the sale of non-iodized salt does not exist. Utilization of the already-existing laws, like the National Standardization and Metrology Law (2008), to develop a compulsory national salt specification, will accelerate the USI in Sudan.

  5. Effect of Salt Intake on Serum Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Levels in Normotensive Salt-Sensitive Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ling Zheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Excess dietary salt is a critical risk factor of salt-sensitive hypertension. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 , a gut incretin hormone, conferring benefits for blood pressure by natriuresis and diuresis. We implemented a randomized trial to verify the effect of altered salt intake on serum GLP-1 level in human beings. Methods: The 38 subjects were recruited from a rural community of Northern China. All subjects were sequentially maintained a baseline diet period for 3 days, a low-salt diet period for 7 days (3.0g/day of NaCl , and a high-salt diet period for additional 7 days (18.0g/day of NaCl. Results: Serum GLP-1 level increased significantly with the change from the baseline period to the low-salt diet period and decreased with the change from the low-salt to high-salt diet in normotensive salt-sensitive (SS but not salt-resistant (SR individuals. There was a significant inverse correlation between the serum GLP-1 level and the MAP in SS subjects. Inverse correlation between the serum GLP-1 level and 24-h urinary sodium excretion was also found among different dietary interventions in SS subjects. Conclusions: Our study indicates that variations in dietary salt intake affect the serum GLP-1 level in normotensive salt-sensitive Chinese adults.

  6. Changes in behavioural responses to infrastructure affect local and regional connectivity – a simulation study on pond breeding amphibians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maj-Britt; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2013-01-01

    An extensive and expanding infrastructural network destroys and fragments natural habitat and has detrimental effect on abundance and population viability of many amphibian species. Roads function as barriers in the landscape. They separate local populations from each other or prevent access...... to necessary resources. Therefore, road density and traffic intensity in a region may have severe impact on regional as well as local connectivity. Amphibians may be able to detect and avoid unsuitable habitat. Individuals’ ability to avoid roads can reduce road mortality but at the same time road...

  7. Aging and walnut-rich diet supplementation affects the expression of immediate-early genes in critical brain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging evidence indicates a direct link between age-associated changes in epigenetic mechanisms and onset of neurodegenerative diseases, and that these genomic modulations are directly affected by diet. Diets deficient in folate, choline and methionine, or the trace elements zinc and selenium, are...

  8. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas, Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak-Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces of the northern Gulf Coast region. Chapters 1-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces in the Gulf Coast Region (USGS Provinces 5048 and 5049). The Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are important because of their potential for natural gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and eight assessment units. Seven assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  9. Development of a management plan for coast live oak forests affected by sudden oak death in East Bay Regional Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice A. McPherson; Joshua O’Neill; Gregory Biging; Maggi Kelly; David L. Wood

    2015-01-01

    The East Bay Regional Park District maintains the largest urban park system in the United States, comprising over 45 000 ha, and more than 1900 km of trails, with extensive forests bordering residential areas. Sudden oak death (SOD), caused by the introduced oomycete Phytophthora ramorum, was first detected in a district park in 2001. Both...

  10. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... identification which includes a description of the horse, name, age, markings, if any, registration number, if any, and tattoo or eartag; the region of origin; the name and address of the exporter; the port of... all horses to be imported. (B) The permanent electronic identification of each horse to be imported...

  11. Song competition affects monoamine levels in sensory and motor forebrain regions of male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra B Sewall

    Full Text Available Male animals often change their behavior in response to the level of competition for mates. Male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii modulate their competitive singing over the period of a week as a function of the level of challenge associated with competitors' songs. Differences in song challenge and associated shifts in competitive state should be accompanied by neural changes, potentially in regions that regulate perception and song production. The monoamines mediate neural plasticity in response to environmental cues to achieve shifts in behavioral state. Therefore, using high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, we compared levels of monoamines and their metabolites from male Lincoln's sparrows exposed to songs categorized as more or less challenging. We compared levels of norepinephrine and its principal metabolite in two perceptual regions of the auditory telencephalon, the caudomedial nidopallium and the caudomedial mesopallium (CMM, because this chemical is implicated in modulating auditory sensitivity to song. We also measured the levels of dopamine and its principal metabolite in two song control nuclei, area X and the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA, because dopamine is implicated in regulating song output. We measured the levels of serotonin and its principal metabolite in all four brain regions because this monoamine is implicated in perception and behavioral output and is found throughout the avian forebrain. After controlling for recent singing, we found that males exposed to more challenging song had higher levels of norepinephrine metabolite in the CMM and lower levels of serotonin in the RA. Collectively, these findings are consistent with norepinephrine in perceptual brain regions and serotonin in song control regions contributing to neuroplasticity that underlies socially-induced changes in behavioral state.

  12. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  13. SALT for Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

  14. Issues Affecting the Loco-regional and Systemic Management of Patients with Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Carmel; Clemons, Mark; Addison, Christina; Robertson, Susan; Arnaout, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast is the second most common type of invasive breast carcinoma accounting for 8-14% of all breast cancers. Traditional management of ILC has followed similar paradigms as that for invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). However, ILC represents a pathologically, clinically and biologically unique variant of breast cancer with particular management challenges. These challenges are seen in both the loco-regional management of ILC; where ILC tumors tend to avoid detection and hence present as more clinically advanced and surgically challenging carcinomas, and the systemic management with a unique response pattern to standard systemic therapies. Because of these challenges, the outcome for patients with ILC has likely lagged behind the continued improvements seen in outcome for patients with IDC. Here, we discuss some of the unique challenges ILC presents and discuss possible management strategies to best overcome the difficulties in the loco-regional and systemic management of patients with ILC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Leptochloa Fusca Cultivation for Utilization of Saltaffected Soil and Water Resources in Cholistan Desert / Cultivo de Leptochloa Fusca para a utilização de solos afetados por sais e recursos hídricos no Deserto de Cholistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmad

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Cholistan Desert, 0.44 million hectares are saltaffected low lying and clayey in nature locally known as ‘dhars’, where rainwater as well as saline groundwater could be utilized for growing salt tolerant grasses like Leptochloa fusca as forage during summer. L. fusca is a promising candidate grass for economic utilization and better management of sodic, high pH, saline soil and saline water resources of the Cholistan desert. L. fusca is known to be a versatile, halophytic, primary colonizer, easily propagatable, perennial, nutritive and palatable forage plant species. The grass has the good biomass producing potential and can grow equally well both under upland and submerged saline soil environment

  16. Projected Salt Waste Production from a Commercial Pyroprocessing Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel inevitably produces salt waste from electrorefining and/or oxide reduction unit operations. Various process design characteristics can affect the actual mass of such waste produced. This paper examines both oxide and metal fuel treatment, estimates the amount of salt waste generated, and assesses potential benefit of process options to mitigate the generation of salt waste. For reference purposes, a facility is considered in which 100 MT/year of fuel is pro...

  17. HIGHER SERUM TOTAL CHOLESTEROL LEVELS IN LATE MIDDLE AGE ARE ASSOCIATED WITH GLUCOSE HYPOMETABOLISM IN BRAIN REGIONS AFFECTED BY ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE AND NORMAL AGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, Eric M.; Chen, Kewei; Langbaum, Jessica B.S.; Lee, Wendy; Reschke, Cole; Bandy, Daniel; Alexander, Gene E.; Caselli, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that higher midlife serum total cholesterol levels are associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) in the study of cognitively normal late-middle-aged people, we demonstrated an association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 gene dose, the major genetic risk factor for late-onset AD, and lower measurements of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgl) in AD-affected brain regions, we proposed using PET as a presymptomatic endophenotype to evaluate other putative AD risk modifiers, and we then used it to support an aggregate cholesterol-related genetic risk score in the risk of AD. In the present study, we used PET to investigate the association between serum total cholesterol levels and cerebral metabolic rate for glucose metabolism (CMRgl) in 117 cognitively normal late middle-aged APOE ε4 homozygotes, heterozygotes and noncarriers. Higher serum total cholesterol levels were associated with lower CMRgl bilaterally in precuneus, parietotemporal and prefrontal regions previously found to be preferentially affected by AD, and in additional frontal regions previously found to be preferentially affected by normal aging. The associations were greater in APOE ε4 carriers than non-carriers in some of the AD-affected brain regions. We postulate the higher midlife serum total cholesterol levels accelerate brain processes associated with normal aging and conspire with other risk factors in the predisposition to AD. We propose using PET in proof-of-concept randomized controlled trials to rapidly evaluate the effects of midlife cholesterol-lowering treatments on the brain changes associated with normal aging and AD. PMID:19631758

  18. The Chemical Composition of Surface Waters of Technogenically Affected Geo-Systems in the Eastern Donbas Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga S. Reshetnyak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on an analysis of literary data and the author’s own research findings, the paper assesses the factors in the formation of the chemical composition of surface and subterranean waters and the variability of the chemical composition and quality of river waters in the eastern Donbas region. The author illustrates that the major negative effect of the impact of technogenic waters on river waters is salinization. The paper points up a high level of pollution in river waters with a broad spectrum of metal compounds, among which the biggest threat comes from Fegen, Al, Mn, Cu, and Sr, which is of a steady nature. The quality of water in the majority of rivers in the eastern Donbas region is evaluated as Quality Class 4 – dirty and/or very dirty. The findings can be used in resolving a whole array of scientific and applied objectives related to assessing the migration of chemical substances and the level of pollution in surface and subterranean waters and forecasting the condition of water sites and the quality of water, as well as in carrying out water-protection activities in the region.

  19. Copy Number Variations in Candidate Genes and Intergenic Regions Affect Body Mass Index and Abdominal Obesity in Mexican Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lizzete Antúnez-Ortiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Increase in body weight is a gradual process that usually begins in childhood and in adolescence as a result of multiple interactions among environmental and genetic factors. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between copy number variants (CNVs in five genes and four intergenic regions with obesity in Mexican children. Methods. We studied 1423 children aged 6–12 years. Anthropometric measurements and blood levels of biochemical parameters were obtained. Identification of CNVs was performed by real-time PCR. The effect of CNVs on obesity or body composition was assessed using regression models adjusted for age, gender, and family history of obesity. Results. Gains in copy numbers of LEPR and NEGR1 were associated with decreased body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and risk of abdominal obesity, whereas gain in ARHGEF4 and CPXCR1 and the intergenic regions 12q15c, 15q21.1a, and 22q11.21d and losses in INS were associated with increased BMI and WC. Conclusion. Our results indicate a possible contribution of CNVs in LEPR, NEGR1, ARHGEF4, and CPXCR1 and the intergenic regions 12q15c, 15q21.1a, and 22q11.21d to the development of obesity, particularly abdominal obesity in Mexican children.

  20. Resedimented salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaczka, A.; Kolasa, K. (Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland))

    1988-08-01

    Carparthian foredeep's Wieliczka salt mine, unique gravity deposits were lately distinguished. They are mainly built of salt particles and blocks with a small admixture of fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks, deposited on precipitated salt. The pattern of sediment distribution is similar to a submarine fan. Gravels are dominant in the upper part and sands in lower levels, creating a series of lobes. Coarse-grained deposits are represented by disorganized, self-supported conglomerates passing into matrix-supported ones, locally with gradation, and pebbly sandstones consisting of salt grains and scattered boulder-size clasts. The latter may show in the upper part of a single bed as indistinct cross-bedding and parallel lamination. These sediments are interpreted as debris-flow and high-density turbidity current deposits. Salt sandstones (saltstones) which build a lower part of the fan often show Bouma sequences and are interpreted as turbidity-current deposits. The fan deposits are covered by a thick series of debrites (olistostromes) which consist of clay matrix with salt grains and boulders. The latter as represented by huge (up to 100,000 m{sup 3}) salt blocks, fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks. These salt debrites represent slumps and debris-flow deposits. The material for resedimented deposits was derived from the southern part of the salt basin and from the adjacent, advancing Carpathian orogen. The authors believe the distinct coarsening-upward sequence of the series is the result of progressive intensification of tectonic movements with paroxysm during the sedimentation of salt debrites (about 15 Ma).

  1. Surgery on the affected upper extremity of patients with a history of complex regional pain syndrome: a retrospective study of 100 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, S S; Rosenthal, E A; Steinberg, R B

    2000-11-01

    Surgery on the extremity affected with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is generally avoided because of the risk that the symptoms will recur or worsen. Perioperative sympathectomy or stellate ganglion block has previously been recommended for CRPS patients requiring surgery of the affected upper extremity. We evaluated 100 patients with a history of upper extremity CRPS undergoing surgery on the affected extremity. All signs and symptoms of CRPS had resolved before surgery. After completion of the surgical procedure half of the patients (n = 50) underwent a stellate ganglion block; the other half received no intervention. The recurrence rate of CRPS was significantly lower in those patients receiving a postoperative stellate ganglion block (n = 5; 10%) compared with those receiving no intervention (n = 36; 72%). We conclude that performing a perioperative stellate ganglion block in patients with a history of CRPS can significantly reduce the recurrence rate of this disease process.

  2. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  3. Phosphate-dependent root system architecture responses to salt stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kawa, Dorota

    2016-05-20

    Nutrient availability and salinity of the soil affect growth and development of plant roots. Here, we describe how phosphate availability affects root system architecture (RSA) of Arabidopsis and how phosphate levels modulate responses of the root to salt stress. Phosphate (Pi) starvation reduced main root length and increased the number of lateral roots of Arabidopsis Col-0 seedlings. In combination with salt, low Pi dampened the inhibiting effect of mild salt stress (75mM) on all measured RSA components. At higher NaCl concentrations, the Pi deprivation response prevailed over the salt stress only for lateral root elongation. The Pi deprivation response of lateral roots appeared to be oppositely affected by abscisic acid (ABA) signaling compared to the salt stress response. Natural variation in the response to the combination treatment of salt and Pi starvation within 330 Arabidopsis accessions could be grouped into four response patterns. When exposed to double stress, in general lateral roots prioritized responses to salt, while the effect on main root traits was additive. Interestingly, these patterns were not identical for all accessions studied and multiple strategies to integrate the signals from Pi deprivation and salinity were identified. By Genome Wide Association Mapping (GWAS) 13 genomic loci were identified as putative factors integrating responses to salt stress and Pi starvation. From our experiments, we conclude that Pi starvation interferes with salt responses mainly at the level of lateral roots and that large natural variation exists in the available genetic repertoire of accessions to handle the combination of stresses.

  4. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN GAB2 HAPLOTYPE AND HIGHER GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE-AFFECTED BRAIN REGIONS IN COGNITIVELY NORMAL APOEε4 CARRIERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Winnie S.; Chen, Kewei; Lee, Wendy; Sidhar, Kunal; Corneveaux, Jason J.; Allen, April N.; Myers, Amanda; Villa, Stephen; Meechoovet, Bessie; Pruzin, Jeremy; Bandy, Daniel; Fleisher, Adam S.; Langbaum, Jessica B.S.; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Jensen, Kendall; Dunckley, Travis; Caselli, Richard J.; Kaib, Susan; Reiman, Eric M.

    2010-01-01

    In a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), we found an association between common haplotypes of the GAB2 gene and AD risk in carriers of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele, the major late-onset AD susceptibility gene. We previously proposed the use of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) measurements as a quantitative presymptomatic endophenotype, more closely related to disease risk than the clinical syndrome itself, to help evaluate putative genetic and non-genetic modifiers of AD risk. In this study, we examined the relationship between the presence or absence of the relatively protective GAB2 haplotype and PET measurements of regional-to-whole brain FDG uptake in several AD-affected brain regions in 158 cognitively normal late-middle-aged APOEε4 homozygotes, heterozygotes, and non-carriers. GAB2 haplotypes were characterized using Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP 6.0 Array data from each of these subjects. As predicted, the possibly protective GAB2 haplotype was associated with higher regional-to-whole brain FDG uptake in AD-affected brain regions in APOEε4 carriers. While additional studies are needed, this study supports the association between the possibly protective GAB2 haplotype and the risk of late-onset AD in APOEε4 carriers. It also supports the use of brain-imaging endophenotypes to help assess possible modifiers of AD risk. PMID:20888920

  5. Increased susceptibility of skin from HERDA (Hereditary Equine Regional Dermal Asthenia)-affected horses to bacterial collagenase degradation: a potential contributing factor to the clinical signs of HERDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashmir-Raven, Ann; Lavagnino, Michael; Sedlak, Aleksa; Gardner, Keri; Arnoczky, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) is a genetic disorder of collagen resulting in fragile, hyper-extensible skin and ulcerative lesions. The predominance of skin lesions have been shown to occur on the dorsum of HERDA-affected horses. While this has been postulated to be due to increased exposure to sunlight of these areas, the precise pathological mechanism which causes this to occur is unclear. We hypothesized that an increase in collagenase activity, that has been associated with the exposure of dermal fibroblasts to sunlight, will significantly degrade the material properties of skin from HERDA-affected horses when compared to unaffected controls. Six unaffected and seven HERDA-affected horses, all euthanized for other reasons. Full-thickness skin samples from similar locations on each horse were collected and cut into uniform strips and their material properties (tensile modulus) determined by mechanical testing before (n = 12 samples/horse) or after (n = 12 samples/horse) incubation in bacterial collagenase at 37°C for 6 h. The change in modulus following treatment was then compared between HERDA-affected and unaffected horses using a Student's t-test. The modulus of skin from HERDA-affected horses decreased significantly more than that from unaffected horses following collagenase treatment (54 ± 7% versus 30 ± 16%, P = 0.004). The significant decrease in the modulus of skin from HERDA-affected horses following collagenase exposure suggests that their altered collagen microarchitecture is more susceptible to enzymatic degradation and may explain the localization of skin lesions in HERDA-affected horses to those areas of the body most exposed to sunlight. These findings appear to support the previously reported benefits of sunlight restriction in HERDA-affected horses. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  6. High Salt Intake Increases Copeptin but Salt Sensitivity Is Associated with Fluid Induced Reduction of Copeptin in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Tasevska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated if copeptin is affected by high salt intake and whether any salt-induced changes in copeptin are related to the degree of salt sensitivity. The study was performed on 20 men and 19 women. In addition to meals containing 50 mmol NaCl daily, capsules containing 100 mmol NaCl and corresponding placebo capsules were administered during 4 weeks each, in random order. Measurements of 24 h blood pressure, body weight, 24 h urinary volume, and fasting plasma copeptin were performed at high and low salt consumption. Copeptin increased after a high compared to low dietary salt consumption in all subjects 3,59 ± 2,28 versus 3,12 ± 1,95 (P = 0,02. Copeptin correlated inversely with urinary volume, at both low (r = −0,42; P = 0,001 and high (r = −0,60; P < 0,001 salt consumption, as well as with the change in body weight (r = −0,53; P < 0,001. Systolic salt sensitivity was inversely correlated with salt-induced changes of copeptin, only in females (r = −0,58; P = 0,017. As suppression of copeptin on high versus low salt intake was associated with systolic salt sensitivity in women, our data suggest that high fluid intake and fluid retention may contribute to salt sensitivity.

  7. Gambling for self, friends, and antagonists: differential contributions of affective and social brain regions on adolescent reward processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braams, Barbara R; Peters, Sabine; Peper, Jiska S; Güroğlu, Berna; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-10-15

    Adolescence is a time of increasing emotional arousal, sensation-seeking and risk-taking, especially in the context of peers. Recent neuroscientific studies have pinpointed to the role of the ventral striatum as a brain region which is particularly sensitive to reward, and to 'social brain' regions, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the precuneus, and the temporal parietal junction, as being particularly responsive to social contexts. However, no study to date has examined adolescents' sensitivity to reward across different social contexts. In this study we examined 249 participants between the ages 8 and 25, on a monetary reward-processing task. Participants could win or lose money for themselves, their best friend and a disliked peer. Winning for self resulted in a mid- to late adolescent specific peak in neural activation in the ventral striatum, whereas winning for a disliked peer resulted in a mid- to late adolescent specific peak in the mPFC. Our findings reveal that ventral striatum and mPFC hypersensitivity in adolescence is dependent on social context. Taken together, these results suggest that increased risk-taking and sensation seeking observed in adolescence might not be purely related to hyperactivity of the ventral striatum, but that these behaviors are probably strongly related to the social context in which they occur. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  9. Does the Incredible Years reduce child externalizing problems through improved parenting? The role of child negative affectivity and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeland, Joyce; Chhangur, Rabia R; Jaffee, Sara R; Van Der Giessen, Danielle; Matthys, Walter; Orobio De Castro, Bram; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2018-02-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, the Observational Randomized Controlled Trial of Childhood Differential Susceptibility (ORCHIDS study), we tested whether observed parental affect and observed and reported parenting behavior are mechanisms of change underlying the effects of the behavioral parent training program the Incredible Years (IY). Furthermore, we tested whether some children are more susceptible to these change mechanisms because of their temperamental negative affectivity and/or serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype. Participants were 387 Dutch children between 4 and 8 years of age (M age = 6.31, SD = 1.33; 55.3% boys) and their parents. Results showed that although IY was successful in improving parenting behavior and increasing parental positive affect, these effects did not explain the significant decreases in child externalizing problems. We therefore found no evidence for changes in parenting behavior or parental affect being the putative mechanisms of IY effectiveness. Furthermore, intervention effects on child externalizing behavior were not moderated by child negative affectivity or 5-HTTLPR genotype. However, child 5-HTTLPR genotype did moderate intervention effects on negative parenting behavior. This suggests that in research on behavioral parent training programs, "what works for which parents" might also be an important question.

  10. Variants within the GABA transaminase (ABAT) gene region are associated with somatosensory evoked EEG potentials in families at high risk for affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegerer, M; Adena, S; Pfennig, A; Czamara, D; Sailer, U; Bettecken, T; Müller-Myhsok, B; Modell, S; Ising, M

    2013-06-01

    Depression frequently co-occurs with somatization, and somatic complaints have been reported as a vulnerability marker for affective disorders observable before disease onset. Somatization is thought to result from an increased attention to somatic sensations, which should be reflected in long-latency somatosensory evoked electroencephalogram (EEG) potentials (SSEPs) at the physiological level. Previous studies revealed that SSEPs are altered in depressed patients and suggested late SSEP components as vulnerability markers for affective disorders. Neurotransmitters such as serotonin, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the neuropeptide substance P may play an important role for both affective disorders and somatosensory processing. Method We investigated the associations between SSEPs and polymorphisms within candidate genes of the serotonergic, GABAergic as well as the substance P system in subjects at high risk for affective disorders. The sample was composed of high-risk families participating in the Munich Vulnerability Study and genetic association analyses were calculated using qfam (family-based association tests for quantitative traits) implemented in PLINK 1.05. We observed significant associations (false discovery rate strength 170-370 ms after stimulation) and four single nucleotide polymorphisms within the GABA transaminase (ABAT) gene region coding for a protein responsible for GABA degradation. No effects were found with the classical disease trait approach, suggesting SSEP marker specificity of the observed associations. Our findings point to a possible role of ABAT gene-regulated GABA catabolism for an altered processing of somatosensory stimuli as a potential vulnerability marker for affective disorders.

  11. Evaluating the potential for catastrophic fault-rupture-related hazards affecting a key hydroelectric and irrigation region in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, D.; Korjenkov, A.; Tibaldi, A.; Usmanova, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Toktogul hydroelectric and irrigation scheme is the largest in central Asia, with a reservoir containing almost 20 km3 of water behind a 230 m-high dam. Annually, the scheme generates 1200 MW of electricity that is distributed over Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Russia. The scheme is vital for the economic, social and agricultural stability and development of the emerging central Asian republics it serves and, since it is no longer administered centrally as it was in Soviet times, is increasingly the focus of cross-border tensions involving competing needs for irrigation water and power supplies. Our work aims to identify and evaluate potential geo-environmental threats to this region for the benefit of stakeholders; with recommendations for measures to mitigate a range of threat scenarios, presented in a user-friendly GIS format. Most notably these scenarios involve the potential for very large magnitude earthquakes, with associated widespread slope instability, occurring on the little known Talas - Fergana fault. This structure, some 700 km long, bisects the Toktogul region within the actively (~20 mm a-1) contracting Tien Shan mountain range and exhibits geological characteristics similar to large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas. Historical records are limited in this inaccessible mountainous region that, until Soviet times, was occupied by mainly nomadic peoples, but do not indicate recent fault rupture. This highlights the role of geological investigations in assembling a record of past catastrophic events to serve as a guide for what may be expected in the future, as well as the inherent difficulties in attempting geological forecasts to a precision that is useful on human timescales. Such forecasts in this region must also include the presence of some 23 uranium mining waste dumps within the mountain valleys, a legacy from Soviet times, as well as arsenic-rich waste dumps remaining from an earlier era of gold mining. Many

  12. Wetlands serve as natural sources for improvement of stream ecosystem health in regions affected by acid deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Katrina L; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Passy, Sophia I.

    2013-01-01

    For over 40 years, acid deposition has been recognized as a serious international environmental problem, but efforts to restore acidified streams and biota have had limited success. The need to better understand the effects of different sources of acidity on streams has become more pressing with the recent increases in surface water organic acids, or 'brownification' associated with climate change and decreased inorganic acid deposition. Here, we carried out a large scale multi-seasonal investigation in the Adirondacks, one of the most acid-impacted regions in the United States, to assess how acid stream producers respond to local and watershed influences and whether these influences can be used in acidification remediation. We explored the pathways of wetland control on aluminum chemistry and diatom taxonomic and functional composition. We demonstrate that streams with larger watershed wetlands have higher organic content, lower concentrations of acidic anions, and lower ratios of inorganic to organic monomeric aluminum, all beneficial for diatom biodiversity and guilds producing high biomass. Although brownification has been viewed as a form of pollution, our results indicate that it may be a stimulating force for biofilm producers with potentially positive consequences for higher trophic levels. Our research also reveals that the mechanism of watershed control of local stream diatom biodiversity through wetland export of organic matter is universal in running waters, operating not only in hard streams, as previously reported, but also in acid streams. Our findings that the negative impacts of acid deposition on Adirondack stream chemistry and biota can be mitigated by wetlands have important implications for biodiversity conservation and stream ecosystem management. Future acidification research should focus on the potential for wetlands to improve stream ecosystem health in acid-impacted regions and their direct use in stream restoration, for example, through

  13. The evolution of sex ratio distorter suppression affects a 25 cM genomic region in the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Hornett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Symbionts that distort their host's sex ratio by favouring the production and survival of females are common in arthropods. Their presence produces intense Fisherian selection to return the sex ratio to parity, typified by the rapid spread of host 'suppressor' loci that restore male survival/development. In this study, we investigated the genomic impact of a selective event of this kind in the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina. Through linkage mapping, we first identified a genomic region that was necessary for males to survive Wolbachia-induced male-killing. We then investigated the genomic impact of the rapid spread of suppression, which converted the Samoan population of this butterfly from a 100:1 female-biased sex ratio in 2001 to a 1:1 sex ratio by 2006. Models of this process revealed the potential for a chromosome-wide effect. To measure the impact of this episode of selection directly, the pattern of genetic variation before and after the spread of suppression was compared. Changes in allele frequencies were observed over a 25 cM region surrounding the suppressor locus, with a reduction in overall diversity observed at loci that co-segregate with the suppressor. These changes exceeded those expected from drift and occurred alongside the generation of linkage disequilibrium. The presence of novel allelic variants in 2006 suggests that the suppressor was likely to have been introduced via immigration rather than through de novo mutation. In addition, further sampling in 2010 indicated that many of the introduced variants were lost or had declined in frequency since 2006. We hypothesize that this loss may have resulted from a period of purifying selection, removing deleterious material that introgressed during the initial sweep. Our observations of the impact of suppression of sex ratio distorting activity reveal a very wide genomic imprint, reflecting its status as one of the strongest selective forces in nature.

  14. The evolution of sex ratio distorter suppression affects a 25 cM genomic region in the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornett, Emily A; Moran, Bruce; Reynolds, Louise A; Charlat, Sylvain; Tazzyman, Samuel; Wedell, Nina; Jiggins, Chris D; Hurst, Greg D D

    2014-12-01

    Symbionts that distort their host's sex ratio by favouring the production and survival of females are common in arthropods. Their presence produces intense Fisherian selection to return the sex ratio to parity, typified by the rapid spread of host 'suppressor' loci that restore male survival/development. In this study, we investigated the genomic impact of a selective event of this kind in the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina. Through linkage mapping, we first identified a genomic region that was necessary for males to survive Wolbachia-induced male-killing. We then investigated the genomic impact of the rapid spread of suppression, which converted the Samoan population of this butterfly from a 100:1 female-biased sex ratio in 2001 to a 1:1 sex ratio by 2006. Models of this process revealed the potential for a chromosome-wide effect. To measure the impact of this episode of selection directly, the pattern of genetic variation before and after the spread of suppression was compared. Changes in allele frequencies were observed over a 25 cM region surrounding the suppressor locus, with a reduction in overall diversity observed at loci that co-segregate with the suppressor. These changes exceeded those expected from drift and occurred alongside the generation of linkage disequilibrium. The presence of novel allelic variants in 2006 suggests that the suppressor was likely to have been introduced via immigration rather than through de novo mutation. In addition, further sampling in 2010 indicated that many of the introduced variants were lost or had declined in frequency since 2006. We hypothesize that this loss may have resulted from a period of purifying selection, removing deleterious material that introgressed during the initial sweep. Our observations of the impact of suppression of sex ratio distorting activity reveal a very wide genomic imprint, reflecting its status as one of the strongest selective forces in nature.

  15. Arsenic, boron and salt resistant Bacillus safensis MS11 isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. safensis MS11 was also associated with resistance to multiple heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Hence, this bacterium could be useful in the remediation of salt affected soils and biogeochemical cycles of arsenic pollution. Key words: Desert soil, toxic metals, Bacillus, salt tolerant, bioremediation.

  16. Does vegetation in restored salt marshes equal naturally developed vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon-Steensma, van J.M.; Dobben, van H.F.; Slim, P.A.; Huiskes, H.P.J.; Dirkse, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Question: Do low stone dams built to prevent erosion and to restore salt marshes through increased sedimentation affect plant species composition? Location: Dutch Wadden Sea area (ca. 53°N 5°E). Methods: Relevés (N = 170) were made of the vegetation of two restored salt marsh sites on the barrier

  17. What molecular mechanism is adapted by plants during salt stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salt stress harmfully shocks agricultural yield throughout the world affecting production whether it is for subsistence or economic outcomes. The plant response to salinity consists of numerous processes that must function in coordination to alleviate both cellular hyper-osmolarity and ion disequilibrium. Salt tolerance and ...

  18. Influence of salt concentration and topographical position on water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-04-02

    Apr 2, 2005 ... 2 Departamento de Silvopascicultura, ETSI Montes, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Abstract. Water resource quality (WRQ) is affected by salt concentration and topographical position. Indeed, an increase in salt concen- tration, which decreases water ...

  19. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  20. Sex-specific effects on spatial learning and memory, and sex-independent effects on blood pressure of a rat chromosome 2 QTL region in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Victoria L; Pasion, Khristine A; Tan, Glaiza A; Moran, Ann Marie; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently found that hypertension is associated with poor cognitive performance. We hypothesize that a putative causal mechanism underlying this association is due to genetic loci affecting both blood pressure and cognition. Consistent with this notion, we reported several blood pressure (BP) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that co-localized with navigational performance (Nav)-QTLs influencing spatial learning and memory in Dahl rats. The present study investigates a chromosome 2 region harboring BP-f4 and Nav-8 QTLs. We developed two congenic strains, S.R2A and S.R2B introgressing Dahl R-chromosome 2 segments into Dahl S chromosome 2 region spanning BP-f4 and Nav-8 QTLs. Radiotelemetric blood pressure analysis identified only S.R2A congenic rats with lower systolic blood pressure (females: -26.0 mmHg, P = 0.003; males: -30.9 mmHg, Prat chromosome 2. The S.R2B congenic segment did not affect blood pressure. Testing of S.R2A, S.R2B, and Dahl S male rats in the Morris water maze (MWM) task revealed significantly decreased spatial navigation performance in S.R2A male congenic rats when compared with Dahl S male controls (Prats did not differ in spatial navigation when compared with Dahl S female controls, indicating that the Nav-8 effect on spatial navigation is male-specific. Our results suggest the existence of a single QTL on chromosome 2 176.6-179.9 Mbp region which affects blood pressure in both males and females and cognition solely in males.

  1. A structural variant in the 5'-flanking region of the TWIST2 gene affects melanocyte development in belted cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Awasthi Mishra

    Full Text Available Belted cattle have a circular belt of unpigmented hair and skin around their midsection. The belt is inherited as a monogenic autosomal dominant trait. We mapped the causative variant to a 37 kb segment on bovine chromosome 3. Whole genome sequence data of 2 belted and 130 control cattle yielded only one private genetic variant in the critical interval in the two belted animals. The belt-associated variant was a copy number variant (CNV involving the quadruplication of a 6 kb non-coding sequence located approximately 16 kb upstream of the TWIST2 gene. Increased copy numbers at this CNV were strongly associated with the belt phenotype in a cohort of 333 cases and 1322 controls. We hypothesized that the CNV causes aberrant expression of TWIST2 during neural crest development, which might negatively affect melanoblasts. Functional studies showed that ectopic expression of bovine TWIST2 in neural crest in transgenic zebrafish led to a decrease in melanocyte numbers. Our results thus implicate an unsuspected involvement of TWIST2 in regulating pigmentation and reveal a non-coding CNV underlying a captivating Mendelian character.

  2. Acute Malnutrition Among Children, Mortality, and Humanitarian Interventions in Conflict-Affected Regions - Nigeria, October 2016-March 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidman, Eva; Tromble, Erin; Yermina, Adamu; Johnston, Robert; Isokpunwu, Chris; Adeniran, Adeyemi; Bulti, Assaye

    2017-12-08

    A public health emergency was declared by the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health in northeastern Nigeria in June 2016 and escalated by the United Nations to a Level 3 Emergency in August 2016, after confirmation of wild poliovirus and measles outbreaks and evidence that prevalence of acute malnutrition exceeded emergency thresholds in areas newly liberated from Boko Haram control (1,2). To monitor rates of mortality, acute malnutrition among children, infectious disease morbidity, and humanitarian interventions after the emergency declaration, a series of cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in fall 2016 and winter 2017 in the northeastern states of Borno and Yobe using a cluster methodology. All-cause mortality among all age groups (crude mortality) and among children aged <5 years (under-five mortality) were above emergency thresholds in 2017 and significantly increased from 2016, despite evidence of increased preventive public health interventions, including measles vaccination. Access to treatment for common childhood illnesses remained very low, as evidenced by reports of fewer than one in six children in areas outside Borno's capital receiving any care for diarrhea. The data from these surveys provide evidence of excessively high mortality (particularly among children), highlight the impact of ongoing violence, and underscore the need for humanitarian efforts to scale up access to treatment services in conflict-affected areas.

  3. Amine salts of nitroazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1993-10-26

    Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

  4. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reports of people becoming psychotic (losing touch with reality) and violent. Although it is rare, there have ... in bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations ( ...

  5. Integrated RNA Sequencing and QTL Mapping to Identify Candidate Genes from Oryza rufipogon Associated with Salt Tolerance at the Seedling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a common abiotic stress affecting crop productivity. To identify favorable alleles from wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff. that enhance salinity tolerance of rice (O. sativa L., a set of introgression lines (ILs were developed. The ILs were derived from an O. rufipogon accession collected from Chaling (Hunan Province, China as the donor, and a widely grown O. sativa indica cultivar 93-11 as the recipient. Through evaluating the salt tolerance of 285 ILs at the seedling stage, a total of 10 quantitative trait loci (QTLs related to salt tolerance were identified on chromosomes 1, 5, 7 and 9–12, with individual QTLs explaining 2–8% of phenotypic variance. The O. rufipogon-derived alleles at four QTLs improved salt tolerance in the 93-11 background. At the same time, a salt-tolerant IL, 9L136, was identified and characterized. Compared with the recipient parent 93-11, a total of 1,391 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected specifically in 9L136 between salt stress and normal condition through genome-wide expression analysis. Of these, four DEGs located in the QTL regions carried by 9L136, suggesting that the four genes might be candidates associated with salt tolerance. Both the highly salt-tolerant ILs and the favorable O. rufipogon-derived QTLs identified in the present study will provide new genetic resources for improving the resistance of cultivated rice against salinity stress using molecular breeding strategies in the future.

  6. Integrated RNA Sequencing and QTL Mapping to Identify Candidate Genes from Oryza rufipogon Associated with Salt Tolerance at the Seedling Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Cao, Meng; Ma, Xin; Chen, Weikang; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Chuanqing; Tan, Lubin; Liu, Fengxia

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinity is a common abiotic stress affecting crop productivity. To identify favorable alleles from wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) that enhance salinity tolerance of rice (O. sativa L.), a set of introgression lines (ILs) were developed. The ILs were derived from an O. rufipogon accession collected from Chaling (Hunan Province, China) as the donor, and a widely grown O. sativa indica cultivar 93-11 as the recipient. Through evaluating the salt tolerance of 285 ILs at the seedling stage, a total of 10 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to salt tolerance were identified on chromosomes 1, 5, 7 and 9–12, with individual QTLs explaining 2–8% of phenotypic variance. The O. rufipogon-derived alleles at four QTLs improved salt tolerance in the 93-11 background. At the same time, a salt-tolerant IL, 9L136, was identified and characterized. Compared with the recipient parent 93-11, a total of 1,391 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected specifically in 9L136 between salt stress and normal condition through genome-wide expression analysis. Of these, four DEGs located in the QTL regions carried by 9L136, suggesting that the four genes might be candidates associated with salt tolerance. Both the highly salt-tolerant ILs and the favorable O. rufipogon-derived QTLs identified in the present study will provide new genetic resources for improving the resistance of cultivated rice against salinity stress using molecular breeding strategies in the future. PMID:28861103

  7. Maturity stages affect the postharvest quality and shelf-life of fruits of strawberry genotypes growing in subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moshiur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The postharvest changes of five promising strawberry genotypes viz. Sweet Charlie, Festival, Camarosa, FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 at ambient temperature were studied under sub tropical region during the winter season (December–April of 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 in Bangladesh. Irrespective of maturity stages percent fruit decay and weight of fruits were noted minimum in Camarosa and maximum in FA 008 up to day 4 of storage. The shelf life of fruits was maximum in Camarosa and minimum in FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 regardless of maturity stage throughout the storage period. The TSS, total sugar and ascorbic acid content of fruits were increased with the increase in maturity stage during the storage period. In 1/3rd and 2/3rd maturity stages, the TSS and total sugar content were found the highest in Festival but at full maturity stage those were recorded higher in Camarosa. The titratable acidity was noticed the highest in 1/3rd matured fruits and gradually decreased with the increase in maturity stage as well as storage duration in all the genotypes. Ascorbic acid content of strawberry gradually decreases during the storage period. Fully matured fresh fruits of Festival contained maximum ascorbic acid content while BARI Strawberry-1 contained minimum ascorbic acid that was reduced after 3 days of storage.

  8. Holocene lake stages and thermokarst dynamics in a discontinuous permafrost affected region, north-eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Stephan; Ramisch, Arne; Mischke, Steffen; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2013-10-01

    Sediments of a thermokarst system on the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau were studied to infer changes in the lacustrine depositional environment related to climatic changes since the early Holocene. The thermokarst pond with a length of 360 m is situated in a 14.5 × 6 km tectonically unaffected intermontane basin, which is underlain by discontinuous permafrost. A lake sediment core and bankside lacustrine onshore deposits were analysed. Additionally, fossil lake sediments were investigated, which document a former lake-level high stand. The sediments are mainly composed of marls with variable amounts of silt carbonate micrite, and organic matter. On the basis of sedimentological (grain size data), geochemical (XRF), mineralogical (XRD) and micropaleontological data (ostracods and chironomide assemblages) a reconstruction of a paleolake environment was achieved. Lacustrine sediments with endogenic carbonate precipitation suggest a lacustrine environment since at least 19.0 cal ka BP. However, because of relocation and reworking processes in the lake, the sediments did not provide distinct information about the ultimate formation of the lake. The high amount of endogenic carbonate suggests prolonged still-water conditions at about 9.3 cal ka BP. Ostracod shells and chironomid head capsules in fossil lake sediments indicate at least one former lake-level high stand, which were developed between the early and middle Holocene. From the late Holocene the area was possibly characterized by a lake-level decline, documented by a hiatus between lacustrine sediments and a reworked loess or loess-like horizon. After the lake-level decline and the following warming period, the area was affected by thermally-induced subsidence and a re-flooding of the basin because of thawing permafrost.

  9. Factors affecting choice of specialty among first-year medical students of four universities in different regions of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikici, Mustafa Fevzi; Yaris, Fusun; Topsever, Pinar; Tuncay Muge, Filiz; Gurel, Fazil Serdar; Cubukcu, Mahcube; Gorpelioglu, Suleyman

    2008-06-01

    To determine the factors affecting medical students' choice of the specialty of family medicine. The study was conducted in the period from 2004-2006 and comprised 770 first-year medical students from Ondokuz Mayis, Karadeniz Technical, Kocaeli, and Adnan Menderes Universities, Turkey. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data and 6 "yes/no" or open-ended questions on students' career aspirations and the specialty of family medicine. The response rate was 93.1% (n=717, 54.7% male). Nearly all students (n=714, 99.6%) showed an intention to specialize after receiving the medical doctor degree. A total of 187 students (26.2%) showed an intention to work in primary care without specialization "for a temporary period" to "gain some experience." Family medicine was the least preferred specialty (n=7, 0.9%). The most important reasons for the choice of specialty were "better financial opportunities" and "prestige" (n=219, 30.5%), followed by "personal development" (n=149, 20.8%), "more benefits for the patient" (n=128, 17.9%), and "wish to work in an urban area" (n=32, 4.5%). The most preferred specialties were cardiology (n=179, 25.0%), pediatrics (n=121, 16.9%), ophthalmology (n=47, 6.6%), physical therapy and rehabilitation (n=34, 4.7%), and obstetrics and gynecology (n=32, 4.5%). Prestige, money, and personal development are important factors in career decision-making among medical students in Turkey. This should be taken into consideration when conducting reforms at the primary level.

  10. Iodized Salt Use and Salt Iodine Content among Household Salts from Six Districts of Eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, S; Gelal, B; Tamang, M K; Kc, R; Singh, S; Lamsal, M; Baral, N

    2014-01-01

    Universal salt iodization is considered the best strategy for controlling iodine deficiency disorders in Nepal. This study was done to find iodized salt use among Nepalese population and the iodine content of household salts. Six districts (Siraha, Saptari, Jhapa, Udayapur, Ilam and Panchthar) were chosen randomly from 16 districts of eastern Nepal for the study. In each district, three schools (private and government) were chosen randomly for sample collection. A total of 1803 salt samples were collected from schools of those districts. For sample collection a clean air tight plastic pouch was provided to each school child and was asked to bring approximately 15 gm of their kitchen salt. The information about type of salt used; 'two child logo' iodized salt or crystal salt was obtained from each child and salt iodine content was estimated using iodometric titration. At the time of study, 85% (n=1533) of Nepalese households were found to use iodized salt whereas 15% (n=270) used crystal salt. The mean iodine content in iodized and crystal salt was 40.8±12.35 ppm and 18.43±11.49 ppm respectively. There was significant difference between iodized and crystal salts use and salt iodine content of iodized and crystal salt among different districts (p value <0.001 at confidence level of 95%). Of the total samples, only 169 samples (9.4% of samples) have iodine content<15 ppm. Most Nepalese households have access to iodized salt most salt samples have sufficient iodine content.

  11. Not salt taste perception but self-reported salt eating habit predicts actual salt intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a sodium chloride solution. Predicted 24-hr urinary salt excretions using Kawasaki's and Tanaka's equations estimated dietary salt intake. Participants' mean age was 35 yr, and 59.5% were male. Salt sense threshold did not show any relationship with actual salt intake and a salt-eating habit. However, those eating "salty" foods showed higher blood pressure (P for trend=0.048) and higher body mass index (BMI; P for trend=0.043). Moreover, a salty eating habit was a significant predictor for actual salt intake (regression coefficient [β] for Kawasaki's equation 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10-2.69, P=0.048; β for Tanaka's equation 0.66, 95% CI 0.01-1.31, P=0.047). In conclusion, a self-reported salt-eating habit, not salt taste threshold predicts actual salt intake.

  12. Physical chemistry and evolution of salt tolerance in halobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, J. K.

    1980-01-01

    The cellular constituents of extremely halophilic bacteria not only tolerate high salt concentration, but in many cases require it for optical functioning. The characteristics affected by salt include enzyme activity, stability, allosteric regulation, conformation and subunit association. The salt effects are of two major kinds: electrostatic shielding of negative charges by cations at low salt concentration, and hydrophobic stabilization by salting-out type salts at high salt concentration. The composition of halobacterial proteins shows an excess of acidic amino acids and a deficiency of nonpolar amino acids, which accounts for these effects. Since the cohesive forces are weaker and the repulsing forces are stronger in these proteins, preventing aggregation in salt, these structures are no longer suited for functioning in the absence of high salt concentrations. Unlike these nonspecific effects, ribosomes in halobacteria show marked preference for potassium over sodium ions. To ensure the proper intracellular ionic composition, powerful ion transport systems have evolved in the halobacteria, resulting in the extrusion of sodium ions and their replacement by potassium. It is likely that such membrane transport system for ionic movements is a necessary requisite for salt tolerance.

  13. Salt deposition at particle contact points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaodong; Evitts, Richard W.; Besant, Robert W.; Kennell, Glyn F.

    2015-09-01

    Caking may occur when granular potash fertilizer with a moisture content greater than 0.25 % (w/w) undergoes drying. Since cake strength is proportional to the mass of crystal deposited per unit volume near contact points (and other factors) the modelling of mass deposition near contact points is important. The Young-Laplace equation for the air-salt-solution interface is used to determine the geometry of a 2-D planar saline film between two cubic potash particles. A 2-D theoretical model is developed and applied for ion diffusion and deposition near the contact point during drying. The numerical predictions of ion diffusion in an initially saturated salt illustrate the transient spatial distribution of new KCl deposits along the solid surfaces near the contact line. These results indicate the average salt deposition commences at the air-liquid-solid intersection, where the liquid film is thinnest, and moves toward the particle contact point with increasing area averaged KCl deposits, causing the formation of crystal deposits and bridges near contact points. It is concluded that the average salt deposit height increases inversely with distance from the contact point and decreases with initial contact angle of the contact region, but the deposition is nearly independent of the evaporation or drying rate near each contact region. Caking strength depends on, among other parameters, the amount of salt deposition near contact points.

  14. Unraveling the hydrocarbon charge potential of the Nordkapp Basin, Barents Sea: An integrated approach to reduce exploration risk in complex salt basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Oliver; Shtukert, Olga; Bishop, Andrew; Kornpihl, Kristijan; Milne, Graham

    2014-05-01

    The Nordkapp Basin, Barents Sea, is an intra-continental syn-rift basin containing many complex salt structures. The salt is late-Carboniferous to Early Permian in age, with regional extension in the Triassic initiating the salt movement resulting in formation of sub- and mini-basins with significant subsidence (especially in the northeastern part of the basin). Subsequent tectonic phases allowed growth and distortion of salt diapirs that were later affected by uplift and erosion during Tertiary resulting in the formation of salt-related traps in Triassic and Lower Jurassic strata. During Plio-Pleistocene, glacial erosion removed additional Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata. This basin is regarded as a frontier salt province. A small hydrocarbon discovery (Pandora well) in the southwestern part of the basin points to the presence several functioning petroleum systems. The primary play type is related to salt traps below overhangs. Such structures are however, very difficult to image with conventional seismic techniques due to i) generation of multiples from sea floor and top of shallow salt bodies and ii) seismic shadow zones within the salt (possibly resulting from shale and carbonate stringers) which cause severe diffractions so that prospective areas adjacent to the salt remain elusive. Arctic exploration is expensive and the ability to focus on the highest potential targets is essential. A unique solution to this challenging subsurface Arctic environment was developed by integrating petroleum system modeling with full azimuth broadband seismic acquisition and processing. This integrated approach allows intelligent location of seismic surveys over structures which have the maximum chance of success of hydrocarbon charge. Petroleum system modeling was conducted for four seismic sections. Salt was reconstructed according to the diapiric evolution presented in Nilsen et al. (1995) and Koyi et al. (1995). Episodes of major erosion were assigned to Tertiary (tectonic) and

  15. Factors affecting Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus hunting bags in Tuscany region (central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Santilli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We carried out an exploratory analysis of hare Lepus europaeus hunting bags (number of brown hares shot in the nineteen Hunting Districts of Tuscany (central Italy from 2001 to 2004, in order to identify which variables (land use and characteristics, climate and management could affect hare harvest. Vineyards and grass in rotation with winter cereals were positively associated with the number of hares shot, whereas industrial crops (mainly sunflowers seemed to have a negative effect,as did the density of grazing sheep. Mean annual rainfall was negatively related to the harvest but with a borderline significance. We found a positive relationship between the number of hares harvested and the percentage of protected areas managed to conserve and produce small game species, whereas private hunting estates showed a negative association. Restocking both with wild hares captured in protected areas and with farm-reared animals did not show any effect on hunting bags of hares. Riassunto Fattori influenzanti il carniere di lepri (Lepus europaeus in Toscana (Italia centrale E’ stata condotta una ricerca preliminare sui carnieri di lepre (dal 2001 al 2004 dei diciannove Ambiti Territoriali di Caccia della Toscana, al fine di identificare quali variabili (di tipo ambientale, climatico e gestionale possano influire sulla resa venatoria di questa specie. Il numero di lepri abbattute dai cacciatori è risultato influenzato positivamente dalla percentuale di vigneti e di foraggiere in avvicendamento, mentre le colture industriali (principalmente rappresentate dal girasole e la densità del bestiame ovicaprino hanno evidenziato un effetto negativo. Anche le precipitazioni medie annuali sono risultate associate negativamente al numero di lepri abbattute, tuttavia in questo caso la variabile non ha raggiunto il livello di significatività statistica. L’abbondanza del carniere di

  16. HIV-1 prevalence and factors associated with infection in the conflict-affected region of North Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musinguzi Joshua

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1986, northern Uganda has been severely affected by civil strife with most of its population currently living internally displaced in protected camps. This study aims at estimating the HIV-1 prevalence among this population and the factors associated with infection. Methods In June-December 2005, a total of 3051 antenatal clinics attendees in Gulu, Kitgum and Pader districts were anonymously tested for HIV-1 infection as part of routine sentinel surveillance. Factors associated with the infection were evaluated using logistic regression models. Results The age-standardised HIV-1 prevalence was 10.3%, 9.1% and 4.3% in the Gulu, Kitgum and Pader district, respectively. The overall prevalence in the area comprised of these districts was 8.2% when data was weighted according to the districts' population size. Data from all sites combined show that, besides older women [20–24 years: adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.29–2.97; 25–29 years: AOR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.30–3.11; ≥ 30 years: AOR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.23–2.97], unmarried women (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.06–2.04, and those with a partner with a non-traditional occupation (AOR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.18–2.21, women living outside of protected camps for internally displaced persons have a higher risk of being HIV-1 infected than internally displaced women (AOR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.15–2.08. Conclusion Although published data from Gulu district show a declining HIV-1 prevalence trend that is consistent with that observed at the national level since 1993, the prevalence in North Uganda is still high. Internally displaced women have a lower risk of being infected probably because of their reduced mobility and accessibility, and increased access to health prevention services.

  17. Determination of the Factors Affecting The Use of the Support Program of the Enterprises Benefiting from the Rural Development Investments Program in the Western Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Taşcıoğlu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With industrialization, change has taken place in the world and development efforts have concentrated in urban areas. This has affected the rural area negatively and the increase in rural development studies has increased with the emergence of interregional economic imbalances. With the planned period, rural development studies in Turkey have increased and strategies, projects and programs have begun to be developed. One of these activities is the Rural Development Investment Support Program (RDISP, which entered into force in 2006. The aim of the program is to increase the level of rural area income, to ensure integration of agricultural production and agricultural industry, to strengthen food safety, to create alternative income sources in the rural area. In this study, it was aimed to determine the attitudes and behaviors of program beneficiaries in the Western Mediterranean Region within the framework of the RDISP applied in Turkey, and the factors affecting their utilization from the program. In the study, a total of 96 enterprises provided interviews based on face to face interviews. In this study, Factor Analysis was applied to determine the factors that affect the preferences of the enterprises and to determine the factors affecting the investments of the enterprises. In the study, 12 variables that were effective in factor analysis in the utilization of this support were combined into 3 factors. These factors have been found to be “support for local support and information about support”, “employment support for support” and “environmental sensitivity for support”.

  18. A comparison of sea salt emission parameterizations in northwestern Europe using a chemistry transport model setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Neumann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric sea salt particles affect chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere. These particles provide surface area for condensation and reaction of nitrogen, sulfur, and organic species and are a vehicle for the transport of these species. Additionally, HCl is released from sea salt. Hence, sea salt has a relevant impact on air quality, particularly in coastal regions with high anthropogenic emissions, such as the North Sea region. Therefore, the integration of sea salt emissions in modeling studies in these regions is necessary. However, it was found that sea salt concentrations are not represented with the necessary accuracy in some situations.In this study, three sea salt emission parameterizations depending on different combinations of wind speed, salinity, sea surface temperature, and wave data were implemented and compared: GO03 (Gong, 2003, SP13 (Spada et al., 2013, and OV14 (Ovadnevaite et al., 2014. The aim was to identify the parameterization that most accurately predicts the sea salt mass concentrations at different distances to the source regions. For this purpose, modeled particle sodium concentrations, sodium wet deposition, and aerosol optical depth were evaluated against measurements of these parameters. Each 2-month period in winter and summer 2008 were considered for this purpose. The shortness of these periods limits generalizability of the conclusions on other years.While the GO03 emissions yielded overestimations in the PM10 concentrations at coastal stations and underestimations of those at inland stations, OV14 emissions conversely led to underestimations at coastal stations and overestimations at inland stations. Because of the differently shaped particle size distributions of the GO03 and OV14 emission cases, the deposition velocity of the coarse particles differed between both cases which yielded this distinct behavior at inland and coastal stations. The PM10 concentrations produced by the SP13 emissions

  19. Sex-specific effects on spatial learning and memory, and sex-independent effects on blood pressure of a <3.3 Mbp rat chromosome 2 QTL region in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Herrera

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have consistently found that hypertension is associated with poor cognitive performance. We hypothesize that a putative causal mechanism underlying this association is due to genetic loci affecting both blood pressure and cognition. Consistent with this notion, we reported several blood pressure (BP quantitative trait loci (QTLs that co-localized with navigational performance (Nav-QTLs influencing spatial learning and memory in Dahl rats. The present study investigates a chromosome 2 region harboring BP-f4 and Nav-8 QTLs. We developed two congenic strains, S.R2A and S.R2B introgressing Dahl R-chromosome 2 segments into Dahl S chromosome 2 region spanning BP-f4 and Nav-8 QTLs. Radiotelemetric blood pressure analysis identified only S.R2A congenic rats with lower systolic blood pressure (females: -26.0 mmHg, P = 0.003; males: -30.9 mmHg, P<1×10(-5, diastolic blood pressure (females: -21.2 mmHg, P = 0.01; males: -25.7 mmHg, P<1×10(-5, and mean arterial pressure (females: -23.9 mmHg, P = 0.004; males: -28.0 mmHg, P<1×10(-5 compared with corresponding Dahl S controls, confirming the presence of BP-f4 QTL on rat chromosome 2. The S.R2B congenic segment did not affect blood pressure. Testing of S.R2A, S.R2B, and Dahl S male rats in the Morris water maze (MWM task revealed significantly decreased spatial navigation performance in S.R2A male congenic rats when compared with Dahl S male controls (P<0.05. The S.R2B congenic segment did not affect performance of the MWM task in males. The S.R2A female rats did not differ in spatial navigation when compared with Dahl S female controls, indicating that the Nav-8 effect on spatial navigation is male-specific. Our results suggest the existence of a single QTL on chromosome 2 176.6-179.9 Mbp region which affects blood pressure in both males and females and cognition solely in males.

  20. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from

  1. Salt-responsive gut commensal modulates TH17 axis and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilck, Nicola; Matus, Mariana G; Kearney, Sean M; Olesen, Scott W; Forslund, Kristoffer; Bartolomaeus, Hendrik; Haase, Stefanie; Mähler, Anja; Balogh, András; Markó, Lajos; Vvedenskaya, Olga; Kleiner, Friedrich H; Tsvetkov, Dmitry; Klug, Lars; Costea, Paul I; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Maier, Lisa; Rakova, Natalia; Schatz, Valentin; Neubert, Patrick; Frätzer, Christian; Krannich, Alexander; Gollasch, Maik; Grohme, Diana A; Côrte-Real, Beatriz F; Gerlach, Roman G; Basic, Marijana; Typas, Athanasios; Wu, Chuan; Titze, Jens M; Jantsch, Jonathan; Boschmann, Michael; Dechend, Ralf; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Kempa, Stefan; Bork, Peer; Linker, Ralf A; Alm, Eric J; Müller, Dominik N

    2017-11-30

    A Western lifestyle with high salt consumption can lead to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. High salt may additionally drive autoimmunity by inducing T helper 17 (TH17) cells, which can also contribute to hypertension. Induction of TH17 cells depends on gut microbiota; however, the effect of salt on the gut microbiome is unknown. Here we show that high salt intake affects the gut microbiome in mice, particularly by depleting Lactobacillus murinus. Consequently, treatment of mice with L. murinus prevented salt-induced aggravation of actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and salt-sensitive hypertension by modulating TH17 cells. In line with these findings, a moderate high-salt challenge in a pilot study in humans reduced intestinal survival of Lactobacillus spp., increased TH17 cells and increased blood pressure. Our results connect high salt intake to the gut-immune axis and highlight the gut microbiome as a potential therapeutic target to counteract salt-sensitive conditions.

  2. Numerical simulation of ice-load induced salt movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Joerg; Al-Hseinat, Muayyad; Brandes, Christian; Hampel, Andrea; Hübscher, Christian; Winsemann, Jutta

    2015-04-01

    A correlation between salt structures, glacigenic features and faulting of Pleistocene deposits above salt structures has been recognised in many places of the formerly glaciated areas in northern central Europe and attributed to ice-sheet loading. Conceptual models predict that the load applied by an ice sheet will favour ice-marginal salt rise and obstruct salt rise beneath the ice sheet (e.g., Liszkowski, 1993). To test these models, we simulated the response of salt structures to ice-sheet loading using a 2D finite-element model (ABAQUS). The subsurface geometries used in our models are based on regional geological cross-sections and 2D seismic profiles of salt structures in the Central European Basin System. The model layers represent (i) sedimentary rocks of elastoplastic rheology, (ii) a viscoelastic salt structure and (iii) elastoplastic basement rocks. At the model surface a temporarily and spatially variable pressure simulates ice-sheet loading. All our simulations show a response of salt structures to ice-sheet loading, which strongly depends on the location of the ice margin relative to the salt structure. Salt structures rise in front of the ice margin (up to 4 m), if load is applied to the salt source layer. Beneath an ice sheet salt structures are pushed down (up to 36 m). Much of the subglacial downwards displacement is compensated by a reversal of the movement during ice retreat. The resulting surface displacements are therefore rather low and depend on the spatial and temporal configuration of the ice load (Lang et al., 2014). Permanent deformation is restricted to the model layers above the salt structure, which either have a low yield stress to represent the unconsolidated infill of secondary rim-synclines or are dissected by steeply dipping crestal graben faults. Ice-induced salt movements will reactivate faults above the crests of salt structures, although the resulting displacements will be low due to the repeated reversals of the sense of

  3. Applying the Triangle Taste Test to Assess Differences between Low Sodium Salts and Common Salt: Evidence from Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Garcia, Lorena; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H.; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Cárdenas, María Kathia; Sacksteder, Katherine A.; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Background In resourced-constrained settings, daily cooking practices are still the norm. Replacing sodium in regular salt to produce potassium-enriched salts are potential alternative routes to reduce sodium intake, paired with the benefit associated with potassium intake. This change would likely have effects on palatability and taste of prepared foods, yet a threshold to discriminate sensorial changes can be determined. The main goal of this study was to assess if the use of potassium-enriched salt substitutes lead to perceived differences in taste utilizing a sensory discrimination test. Methods and Results A triangle taste test was conducted and participants were offered samples of cooked rice prepared with different salts. The only ingredient that differed in the preparation was the salt used: 100%NaCl (regular salt) and salts where sodium was replaced by 50%, 33% or 25% KCl (potassium-enriched salt). Comparisons were carried out according to the minimum number of correct judgments. A total of 156 subjects, 49% males, mean age 41.0 years (SD±15.5) years, participated in the study. Samples using 25% potassium-enrichment were indistinguishable in terms of taste from regular salt, whereas samples with 33% and 50% potassium-enrichment were distinguishable. Results were consistent when stratified by sex and age. Less than 10% of participants attributed the differences to bitterness or metallic flavor. Conclusions The 25% potassium-enriched salt is indistinguishable from regular salt. These findings suggest a potential to achieve sodium intake reduction strategies in cooking practices by substituting regular salt with potassium-enriched salt without affecting palatability. PMID:26225848

  4. Isopachs--Salt Point to Drakes Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the sediment-thickness map of the Salt Point to Drakes Bay, California, region. The raster data file is included in...

  5. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  6. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  7. Salt minerals and waters from soils in Konya [Turkey] and Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergouwen, L.

    1981-01-01

    This study deals with the relation between the mineralogical composition of salt assemblages and the composition of groundwaters from which these salts precipitated. A comparison was made between salts and waters sampled in the Konya Basin in Turkey and waters sampled in three different regions in

  8. Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

    2005-11-04

    The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower

  9. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  10. A High Salt Diet Inhibits Obesity and Delays Puberty in the Female Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitynski-Miller, Dori; Ross, Micah; Schmill, Margaret; Schambow, Rachel; Fuller, Teresa; Flynn, Francis W.; Skinner, Donal C.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives Processed foods are considered major contributors to the worldwide obesity epidemic. In addition to high sugar and fat contents, processed foods contain large amounts of salt. Due to correlations with rising adiposity, salt has recently been proposed to be obesogenic. This study investigated three hypotheses: i) high salt contributes to weight gain and adiposity in juvenile female rats, ii) puberty onset would be altered because salt is known to affect neuronal systems involved in activating the reproductive system, and iii) enhanced adiposity will act synergistically with salt to drive early puberty onset. Design Female weanling rats (post-natal day 21, n=105) were fed a low fat/low salt diet, low fat/high salt diet, high fat/low salt diet, or a high salt/high fat diet for 24 days. Metabolic measures, including weight gain, food intake, fecal output, activity, and temperature were recorded in subsets of animals. Results Body weight, retroperitoneal and perirenal fat pad weight, and adipocyte size were all lower in animals fed high fat/high salt compared to animals fed high fat alone. Leptin levels were reduced in high fat/high salt fed animals compared to high fat/low salt fed animals. Daily calorie intake was higher initially but declined with adjusted food intake and was not different among groups after 5 days. Osmolality and corticosterone were not different among groups. Fecal analysis showed excess fat excretion and a decreased digestive efficiency in animals fed high fat/low salt but not in animals fed high fat/high salt. Although respiratory exchange ratio was reduced by high dietary fat or salt, aerobic resting metabolic rate was not affected by diet. High salt delayed puberty onset, regardless of dietary fat content. Conclusions Salt delays puberty and prevents the obesogenic effect of a high fat diet. The reduced weight gain evident in high salt fed animals is not due to differences in food intake or digestive efficiency. PMID

  11. A high salt diet inhibits obesity and delays puberty in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitynski-Miller, D; Ross, M; Schmill, M; Schambow, R; Fuller, T; Flynn, F W; Skinner, D C

    2017-11-01

    Processed foods are considered major contributors to the worldwide obesity epidemic. In addition to high sugar and fat contents, processed foods contain large amounts of salt. Owing to the correlations with rising adiposity, salt has recently been proposed to be obesogenic. This study investigated three hypotheses: (i) high salt contributes to weight gain and adiposity in juvenile female rats, (ii) puberty onset would be altered because salt is known to affect neuronal systems involved in activating the reproductive system, and (iii) enhanced adiposity will act synergistically with salt to drive early puberty onset. Female weanling rats (post-natal day 21, n=105) were fed a low fat/low salt diet, low fat/high salt diet, high fat/low salt diet or a high salt/high fat diet for 24 days. Metabolic measures, including weight gain, food intake, fecal output, activity and temperature were recorded in subsets of animals. Body weight, retroperitoneal and perirenal fat pad weight, and adipocyte size were all lower in animals fed high fat/high salt compared with animals fed high fat alone. Leptin levels were reduced in high fat/high salt fed animals compared with high fat/low salt-fed animals. Daily calorie intake was higher initially but declined with adjusted food intake and was not different among groups after 5 days. Osmolality and corticosterone were not different among groups. Fecal analysis showed excess fat excretion and a decreased digestive efficiency in animals fed high fat/low salt but not in animals fed high fat/high salt. Although respiratory exchange ratio was reduced by high dietary fat or salt, aerobic-resting metabolic rate was not affected by the diet. High salt delayed puberty onset, regardless of dietary fat content. Salt delays puberty and prevents the obesogenic effect of a high fat diet. The reduced weight gain evident in high salt-fed animals is not due to differences in food intake or digestive efficiency.

  12. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  13. Salt-specific effects in lysozyme solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Janc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of additions of low-molecular-mass salts on the properties of aqueous lysozyme solutions are examined by using the cloud-point temperature, T_{cloud}, measurements. Mixtures of protein, buffer, and simple salt in water are studied at pH=6.8 (phosphate buffer and pH=4.6 (acetate buffer. We show that an addition of buffer in the amount above I_{buffer} = 0.6 mol dm^{-3} does not affect the T_{cloud} values. However, by replacing a certain amount of the buffer electrolyte by another salt, keeping the total ionic strength constant, we can significantly change the cloud-point temperature. All the salts de-stabilize the solution and the magnitude of the effect depends on the nature of the salt. Experimental results are analyzed within the framework of the one-component model, which treats the protein-protein interaction as highly directional and of short-range. We use this approach to predict the second virial coefficients, and liquid-liquid phase diagrams under conditions, where T_{cloud} is determined experimentally.

  14. Plant Responses to Salt Stress: Adaptive Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ramón Acosta-Motos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with the adaptive mechanisms that plants can implement to cope with the challenge of salt stress. Plants tolerant to NaCl implement a series of adaptations to acclimate to salinity, including morphological, physiological and biochemical changes. These changes include increases in the root/canopy ratio and in the chlorophyll content in addition to changes in the leaf anatomy that ultimately lead to preventing leaf ion toxicity, thus maintaining the water status in order to limit water loss and protect the photosynthesis process. Furthermore, we deal with the effect of salt stress on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence and some of the mechanisms thought to protect the photosynthetic machinery, including the xanthophyll cycle, photorespiration pathway, and water-water cycle. Finally, we also provide an updated discussion on salt-induced oxidative stress at the subcellular level and its effect on the antioxidant machinery in both salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive plants. The aim is to extend our understanding of how salinity may affect the physiological characteristics of plants.

  15. Gas releases from salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  16. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Loci for Salt Tolerance during Germination in Autotetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long-Xi; Liu, Xinchun; Boge, William; Liu, Xiang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is one of major abiotic stresses limiting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) production in the arid and semi-arid regions in US and other counties. In this study, we used a diverse panel of alfalfa accessions previously described by Zhang et al. (2015) to identify molecular markers associated with salt tolerance during germination using genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). Phenotyping was done by germinating alfalfa seeds under different levels of salt stress. Phenotypic data of adjusted germination rates and SNP markers generated by GBS were used for marker-trait association. Thirty six markers were significantly associated with salt tolerance in at least one level of salt treatments. Alignment of sequence tags to the Medicago truncatula genome revealed genetic locations of the markers on all chromosomes except chromosome 3. Most significant markers were found on chromosomes 1, 2, and 4. BLAST search using the flanking sequences of significant markers identified 14 putative candidate genes linked to 23 significant markers. Most of them were repeatedly identified in two or three salt treatments. Several loci identified in the present study had similar genetic locations to the reported QTL associated with salt tolerance in M. truncatula. A locus identified on chromosome 6 by this study overlapped with that by drought in our previous study. To our knowledge, this is the first report on mapping loci associated with salt tolerance during germination in autotetraploid alfalfa. Further investigation on these loci and their linked genes would provide insight into understanding molecular mechanisms by which salt and drought stresses affect alfalfa growth. Functional markers closely linked to the resistance loci would be useful for MAS to improve alfalfa cultivars with enhanced resistance to drought and salt stresses.

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Loci for Salt Tolerance during Germination in Autotetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long-Xi; Liu, Xinchun; Boge, William; Liu, Xiang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is one of major abiotic stresses limiting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) production in the arid and semi-arid regions in US and other counties. In this study, we used a diverse panel of alfalfa accessions previously described by Zhang et al. (2015) to identify molecular markers associated with salt tolerance during germination using genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). Phenotyping was done by germinating alfalfa seeds under different levels of salt stress. Phenotypic data of adjusted germination rates and SNP markers generated by GBS were used for marker-trait association. Thirty six markers were significantly associated with salt tolerance in at least one level of salt treatments. Alignment of sequence tags to the Medicago truncatula genome revealed genetic locations of the markers on all chromosomes except chromosome 3. Most significant markers were found on chromosomes 1, 2, and 4. BLAST search using the flanking sequences of significant markers identified 14 putative candidate genes linked to 23 significant markers. Most of them were repeatedly identified in two or three salt treatments. Several loci identified in the present study had similar genetic locations to the reported QTL associated with salt tolerance in M. truncatula. A locus identified on chromosome 6 by this study overlapped with that by drought in our previous study. To our knowledge, this is the first report on mapping loci associated with salt tolerance during germination in autotetraploid alfalfa. Further investigation on these loci and their linked genes would provide insight into understanding molecular mechanisms by which salt and drought stresses affect alfalfa growth. Functional markers closely linked to the resistance loci would be useful for MAS to improve alfalfa cultivars with enhanced resistance to drought and salt stresses. PMID:27446182

  18. A universal salt model based on under-ground precipitation of solid salts due to supercritical water `out-salting'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueslåtten, H.; Hovland, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    shallow magma-chamber causes a sufficiently high heat-flow to drive a convection cell of seawater. The model shows that salt precipitates along the flow lines within the supercritical region (Hovland et al., 2006). During the various stages of planet Mars’ development, it must be inferred that zones with very high heat-flow also existed there. This meant that water (brine) confined in the crust of Mars was mobilized in a convective manner and would pass into the supercritical water zone during the down-going leg (the recharge leg) of the convective cell. The zones with supercritical out-salting would require accommodation space for large masses of solid salt, as modeled in the Red Sea analogy. However, as the accommodation space for the solid salt fills up, it will pile up and force its way upwards to form large, perhaps layered anticlines, as seen in the Hebes Mensa area of Mars and at numerous locations on Earth, including the Red Sea. Thus, we offer a universal ‘hydrothermal salt model’, which would be viable on all planets with free water in their interiors or on their surfaces, including Mars and Earth. Hovland, et al., 2006. Salt formation by supercritical seawater and submerged boiling. Marine and Petrol. Geol. 23, 855-69

  19. Mechanism for salt scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  20. Influence of Modern Stormwater Management Practices on Transport of Road Salt to Surface Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Joel W; Moore, Joel; Lev, Steven M; Casey, Ryan E; Ownby, David R; Flora, Robert F; Izzo, Grant

    2017-04-18

    Application of road salts in regions with colder climates is leading to ground and surface water contamination. However, we know little about how modern stormwater management practices affect the movement of road salt through urban watersheds. We investigated groundwater contamination and transport of road salts at two stormwater ponds in Baltimore County, Maryland. In association with the ponds, we documented a plume of contaminated groundwater that resulted in Cl - loadings to the adjacent stream of 6574 to 40 008 kg Cl - per winter, depending on winter snowfall. We also monitored Na + and Cl - ion concentrations and the temporal dynamics of conductivity at a range of stream sites in watersheds with and without stormwater management ponds. Streams draining watersheds with stormwater ponds had consistently higher conductivities and Cl - concentrations during base flow conditions and often exhibited greater peaks in Cl - and conductivity associated with winter storms and subsequent melting events, despite the degree of watershed development. Our results indicate that modern stormwater management practices are not protecting surface waters from road salt contamination and suggest they create contaminated plumes of groundwater that deliver Cl - and Na + to streams throughout the year.

  1. Jasmonate mediates salt-induced nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jasmonate (JA, as an important signal, plays a key role in multiple processes of plant growth, development and stress response. Nicotine and related pyridine alkaloids in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. are essential secondary metabolites. Whether environmental factors control nicotine biosynthesis and the underlying mechanism remains previously unreported. Here, we applied physiological and biochemical approaches to investigate how salt stress affects nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco. We found that salt stress induced the biosynthesis of JA, which subsequently triggered the activation of JA-responsive gene expression and, ultimately, nicotine synthesis. Bioinformatics analysis revealed the existence of many NtMYC2a-recognized G-box motifs in the promoter regions of NtLOX, NtAOS, NtAOC and NtOPR genes. Applying exogenous JA increased nicotine content, while suppressing JA biosynthesis reduced nicotine biosynthesis. Salt treatment could not efficiently induce nicotine biosynthesis in transgenic anti-COI1 tobacco plants. These results demonstrate that JA acts as the essential signal which triggers nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco after salt stress.

  2. Salt marsh sediment bacteria: their distribution and response to external nutrient inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Jennifer L; Crump, Byron C; Deegan, Linda A; Hobbie, John E

    2009-08-01

    A primary focus among microbial ecologists in recent years has been to understand controls on the distribution of microorganisms in various habitats. Much less attention has been paid to the way that environmental disturbance interacts with processes that regulate bacterial community composition. We determined how human disturbance affected the distribution and community structure of salt marsh sediment bacteria by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA in five different habitats in each of four salt marshes located in northeastern Massachusetts, USA. Two of the four marsh creeks were experimentally enriched 15 x above background by the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers for two or more growing seasons. Our results indicate that extrinsic factors acting at broad scales do not influence the distribution of salt marsh sediment bacteria. Intrinsic factors, controlled by local-scale environmental heterogeneity, do play a role in structuring these sediment microbial communities, although nutrient enrichment did not have a consequential effect on the microbial community in most marsh habitats. Only in one habitat, a region of the marsh creek wall that is heavily colonized by filamentous algae, did we see any effect of fertilization on the microbial community structure. When similar habitats were compared among marshes, there was considerable convergence in the microbial community composition during the growing season. Environmental factors that correlated best with microbial community composition varied with habitat, suggesting that habitat-specific intrinsic forces are primarily responsible for maintaining microbial diversity in salt marsh sediments.

  3. Oxygen sparging of residue salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E.; Griego, W.J.; Owens, S.D.; Thorn, C.W.; Vigil, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    Oxygen sparge is a process for treating salt residues at Los Alamos National Laboratory by sparging oxygen through molten salts. Oxygen reacts with the plutonium trichloride in these salts to form plutonium dioxide. There is further reaction of the plutonium dioxide with plutonium metal and the molten salt to form plutonium oxychloride. Both of the oxide plutonium species are insoluble in the salt and collect atthe bottom of the crucible. This results in a decrease of a factor of 2--3 in the amount of salt that must be treated, and the amount of waste generated by aqueous treatment methods.

  4. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized...

  5. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  6. The Arabidopsis thaliana mutant air1 implicates SOS3 in the regulation of anthocyanins under salt stress

    KAUST Repository

    Van Oosten, Michael James

    2013-08-08

    The accumulation of anthocyanins in plants exposed to salt stress has been largely documented. However, the functional link and regulatory components underlying the biosynthesis of these molecules during exposure to stress are largely unknown. In a screen of second site suppressors of the salt overly sensitive3-1 (sos3-1) mutant, we isolated the anthocyanin-impaired-response-1 (air1) mutant. air1 is unable to accumulate anthocyanins under salt stress, a key phenotype of sos3-1 under high NaCl levels (120 mM). The air1 mutant showed a defect in anthocyanin production in response to salt stress but not to other stresses such as high light, low phosphorous, high temperature or drought stress. This specificity indicated that air1 mutation did not affect anthocyanin biosynthesis but rather its regulation in response to salt stress. Analysis of this mutant revealed a T-DNA insertion at the first exon of an Arabidopsis thaliana gene encoding for a basic region-leucine zipper transcription factor. air1 mutants displayed higher survival rates compared to wild-type in oxidative stress conditions, and presented an altered expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes such as F3H, F3′H and LDOX in salt stress conditions. The results presented here indicate that AIR1 is involved in the regulation of various steps of the flavonoid and anthocyanin accumulation pathways and is itself regulated by the salt-stress response signalling machinery. The discovery and characterization of AIR1 opens avenues to dissect the connections between abiotic stress and accumulation of antioxidants in the form of flavonoids and anthocyanins. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  7. Salt Profile in Sedimentary Deposits: an archive of past climate and tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T.; Bao, H.; Reich, M.

    2013-12-01

    In hyper-arid environments, paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental studies typically evaluate paleosol-based proxies such as morphology, variation of remnant vegetations, and geochemical and isotopic signatures of minerals to reveal the plaeoclimatic changes. Limited works utilized geochemical/isotopic approaches in sedimentary deposits which barely experience pedogenic processes. The objectives of this work are to evaluate the isotopic systematics and total chemistry of salts as function of depth within unsolidated sediments in an effort to reconstruct paleoclimatic conditions of Atacama Desert. Results of this work will demonstrate techniques that can also be applied in other hyper-arid environments (e.g., Antarctica, Mars). We report a study on a ~75 meter thick core from alluvial sedimentary deposits (Atacama Gravels) in the eastern margin of the central depression of Atacama desert, North Chile. This work combines mineralogical/geochemical/isotopic approaches to decipher the depositional conditions and the climatic conditions during and between sedimentation events. Our main focus is on the soluble sulfate, nitrate, chloride profiles through the sediments. These salt deposits likely originated from seasalts, atmospherically produced salts and/or salts from nearby evaporite deposits. The sources of salts are likely affected by offshore oceanic currents that may vary the seasalt input, or by regional tectonic or orogenic changes that may vary the terrestrial sources and their ratio with seasalt input. The outflux of the salts in these deposits are mainly due to groundwater drainage, and microbial facilitated salt consumption (e.g. sulfate reduction, denitrification), both of which are indicative of paleoclimatic conditions. Thus, the salt profile within the sediments records regional paleo-climate, global oceanic current setting, and regional tectonic activity. Morphological and mineralogical studies show that the target "gravel" consists of two main suites of

  8. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... and can be used by individuals to replace salt in their diet. There are no known undesirable effects in healthy ...

  9. Carpinteria Salt Marsh Habitat Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland. We then drew polygons around each habitat...

  10. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  11. Microbial Diversity of Culinary Salts

    OpenAIRE

    Muske, Galen; Baxter, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Extremophiles are exceptional microorganisms that live on this planet in extraordinarily harsh environments. One such extremophiles are Halophiles, salt-loving microorganisms that can survive in extreme salinity levels, and have been found to survive inside salt crystals. We were curious is about the potential diversity of halophiles surviving in salts harvested from around the world. For this experiment various culinary salts were suspended in a 23 % NaCL growth media broth and allowed to gr...

  12. Efeito da concentração de sais e fitorreguladores na indução de calos em carqueja Callus induction in "carqueja" as affected by salt concentrations and growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Guimarães Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de estudar condições nutricionais e hormonais para maximizar a produção de calos friáveis de carqueja [Baccharis trimera (Less. DC]. Foi verificado que a iniciação de calo é dependente de fitorreguladores e da concentração do meio. A melhor indução de calo ocorreu em meio MS contendo 50% da concentração de sais, inositol e vitaminas, suplementado com 15,0 mM ANA. Proliferação de brotos foi obtida pelo uso de TDZ.The influence of various growth regulators and medium concentrations, in different quantities, on the in vitro callus induction of carqueja [Baccharis trimera (Less. DC.] was evaluated. It was found that the callus initiation was dependent on both, the growth regulator and medium concentration. The highest callus induction and development were obtained by using 15.0 mM 1-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA as growth regulators and half strength of salts, vitamins, and myo-inositol of Murashige and Skoog medium. In vitro shoot proliferation was obtained by using thidiazuron.

  13. The 5' untranslated mRNA region base content can greatly affect translation initiation in the absence of secondary structures in Prevotella bryantii TC1-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seničar, Lenart; Accetto, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    It has become clear lately that many bacteria and even whole bacterial phyla do not use the classical Shine-Dalgarno sequence mediated pathway of protein translation initiation. The prominent phylum Bacteroidetes is one of them, and this was shown not only using bioinformatic but also functional reporter gene studies in its representative Prevotella bryantii. The latter studies revealed much higher sensitivity toward secondary structures in 5(') untranslated mRNA regions (5(') UTRs) during translation initiation compared to Escherichia coli. It was proposed that in the absence of Shine-Dalgarno sequence interaction the key elements enabling translation initiation are local absence of secondary structures in 5(') UTRs, and the ribosomal protein S1 which binds to mRNA. Here, we evaluate the 5(') UTRs devoid of secondary structures but containing divergent nucleotide compositions in P. bryantii reporter assay. We show that base composition profoundly affects the amount of the reporter synthesized, and further that these amounts were in agreement with S1 protein binding affinity for adenine/uracil bases in mRNA. This is the first, though indirect, clue that S1 is actually involved in translation initiation in Bacteroidetes and adds the second layer of control beside mRNA secondary structure affecting translation initiation in this phylum. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Salt Tolerance in Rice: Focus on Mechanisms and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inja Naga Bheema Lingeswara Reddy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Salt tolerance is an important constrain for rice, which is generally categorized as a typical glycophyte. Soil salinity is one of the major constraints affecting rice production worldwide, especially in the coastal areas. Susceptibility or tolerance of rice plants to high salinity is a coordinated action of multiple stress responsive genes, which also interacts with other components of stress signal transduction pathways. Salt tolerant varieties can be produced by marker-assisted selection or genetic engineering by introducing salt-tolerance genes. In this review, we have updated on mechanisms and genes which can help in transferring of the salt tolerance into high-yielding rice varieties. We have focused on the need for integrating phenotyping, genomics, metabolic profiling and phenomics into transgenic and breeding approaches to develop high-yielding as well as salt tolerant rice varieties.

  15. A partial MECP2 duplication in a mildly affected adult male: a putative role for the 3' untranslated region in the MECP2 duplication phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanchard Neil A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duplications of the X-linked MECP2 gene are associated with moderate to severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, and neuropsychiatric illness in males, while triplications are associated with a more severe phenotype. Most carrier females show complete skewing of X-inactivation in peripheral blood and an apparent susceptibility to specific personality traits or neuropsychiatric symptoms. Methods We describe the clinical phenotype of a pedigree segregating a duplication of MECP2 found on clinical array comparative genomic hybridization. The position, size, and extent of the duplication were delineated in peripheral blood samples from affected individuals using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and fluorescence in situ hybridization, as well as targeted high-resolution oligonucleotide microarray analysis and long-range PCR. The molecular consequences of the rearrangement were studied in lymphoblast cell lines using quantitative real-time PCR, reverse transcriptase PCR, and western blot analysis. Results We observed a partial MECP2 duplication in an adult male with epilepsy and mild neurocognitive impairment who was able to function independently; this phenotype has not previously been reported among males harboring gains in MECP2 copy number. The same duplication was inherited by this individual’s daughter who was also affected with neurocognitive impairment and epilepsy and carried an additional copy-number variant. The duplicated segment involved all four exons of MECP2, but excluded almost the entire 3' untranslated region (UTR, and the genomic rearrangement resulted in a MECP2-TEX28 fusion gene mRNA transcript. Increased expression of MECP2 and the resulting fusion gene were both confirmed; however, western blot analysis of lysates from lymphoblast cells demonstrated increased MeCP2 protein without evidence of a stable fusion gene protein product. Conclusion The observations of a mildly affected adult male

  16. Actividad biológica y enzimática en suelos afectados por sales del Alto Valle de Río Negro y Neuquén Biological and enzymatic activities in salts affected soils from Alto Valle de Río Negro and Neuquén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gili

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudiaron los cambios que provocó el lavado de cinco suelos afectados por sales sobre la actividad biológica (número de bacterias g-1y producción de CO2 y enzimática (catalasa, deshidrogenasa, ureasa y fosfotriesterasa de los mismos. El lavado disminuyó la conductividad eléctrica (CE y modificó el tipo de sales dominantes en los suelos. La producción de CO2 y la actividad de la fosfotriesterasa fue significativamente mayor (pChanges in the biological activity (number of bacteria g-1and CO2 production and in the enzymatic activity (catalase, deshidrogenase, urease and phosphotriesterase caused by the leaching of five soils affected by salts have been studied. The leaching decreased the electric conductivity (CE and modified the type of dominant salts in the soils. Production of CO2and the activity of the phosphotriesterase was significantly higher (p<0,05 in a leached soil (Torrifluventes Typical Centennial; the increment were 88% and 71%, respectively. The results showed that the decrease of the salinity by leaching did not produce significantly different results in most of the biotic parameters analised.

  17. Salt-dependent properties of proteins from extremely halophilic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    Based on information concerning the interaction of salts and macromolecules the literature of the enzymes of halophilic bacteria and their constituents is examined. Although in halophilic systems the salt requirement of enzyme activity is variable the enzymes investigated show a time-dependent inactivation at lower salt concentrations especially in the absence of salt. The studies described show that in some halophilic systems the effect of salt may be restricted to a small region on the protein molecule. The concept of the hydrophobic bond to consider certain solvent-dependent phenomena is introduced. It is shown that some halophilic enzymes are unable to maintain their structure without the involvement of hydrophobic interactions that are usually not supported by water. A table lists indices of hydrophobicity and polarity for various halophilic and nonhalophilic proteins.

  18. Coupling Landscape Evolution with Active Salt Deformation in the Needles District, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, K.; Upton, P.; Tucker, G. E.; Mueller, K. J.; Roy, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    Active salt systems are commonly driven by variations in thickness of overlying units that drive salt from areas of high to low pressure. This often takes the form of differential loading from sedimentation, such as along passive margins, but some systems are driven primarily by differential unloading from erosion, a driving force that changes spatially and temporally on a scale of tens of meters. The Grabens within the Needles District, Canyonlands National Park is an active salt system driven by incision of the Colorado River and its tributaries into an evaporite sequence. We used numerical models to 1) investigate the scale and patterns of salt flow in relation to current topography in the region, and 2) explore feedbacks between salt deformation and erosion. Models exploring feedbacks between salt flow and current topography indicate that the rate of salt flow into the River canyon depends strongly on canyon width. Experiments with a three-dimensional geomechanical model demonstrate the rate of salt flow into the Colorado River canyon is dependent on canyon width, and predict areas of diapirism associated with tributary junctions. Salt also responds to variations in topography on a scale of tens of meters when the overburden is weak, influencing salt flow toward tributaries beneath individual grabens. Fully coupled models, in which erosion patterns both drive and are influenced by flow in a simple 2D viscous salt horizon, suggest that landscape evolution can be strongly influenced by shallow salt tectonics. Models testing salt deformation and erosion use the pressure gradient induced by an eroding landscape to calculate salt flux. Initially, headward erosion in side tributaries is faster above salt, but over time, salt flow into the canyon and side tributaries slows headward erosion, and the rate of canyon widening increases. As seen from the topographic models, canyon widening induces higher rates of salt flow into the canyon, creating a strong feedback

  19. An approach to better understanding of salt weathering on stone monuments - the "petraSalt" research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, K.; Azzam, R.

    2012-04-01

    sensor network (WSN), facilitating improved steps of evaluation. The 3D models, images and cross-sections of the monuments derived from laser scanning contributed, for example, to the assessment of the monumentś original geometry, thus providing the basis for precise quantification of apparent weathering damage on the monuments, in particular loss of stone material. An autonomously operating wireless sensor network was developed for continuous temporal and spatial high-resolution monitoring of environmental conditions affecting stone surface and stone interior of the monuments and acting as driving forces for the salt weathering processes. The extraordinary data output is to provide the basis for a differentiated numerical analysis of partial or complete salt crystallization / salt dissolution cycles, considering diurnal and seasonal variation. Methodological approach and results of the 'petraSalt' research project are presented.

  20. Microstructure and Salt Fog Corrosion Behavior of AA2219 Friction-Stir-Welded Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Rao, G.; Subba Rao, V. V.; Rao, S. R. K.

    2017-07-01

    Plates (8.1-mm-thick) from aluminum alloy AA2219-T87 are studied after friction stir welding. The plates are subjected to salt fog corrosion tests according to ASTM B117 at different pH values and different spraying times. The regions affected by corrosion are studied in different zones of welded joints by the methods of optical and transmission electron microscopy. The corrosion resistance is determined in acid, basic and neutral solutions. The resistances of the base metal and of the zones of welded joints are compared.

  1. Influence of salicylic acid on seed germination of Vicia faba L. under salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima Anaya; Rachid Fghire; Said Wahbi; Kenza Loutfi

    2018-01-01

    Seed germination is the critical stage for species survival. Salinity affects germination and seedling growth and yield of several crop species, such as broad bean. That is why this study was carried to evaluate the effects of NaCl on seed germination and influence of salicylic acid on seed in order to improving salt tolerant on broad bean. Vicia faba L. is an important pulse crop in the Mediterranean region. In many cases broad bean is grown on saline soils where growth and yield are limited...

  2. The effects of salt on rheological properties of asphalt after long-term aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Wang, Ying; Luo, Yilin; Yin, Long

    2013-01-01

    Limited studies in recent years have shown that asphalt pavement subject to seawater in coastal regions or deicing salt in cold regions may be seriously damaged after being soaked in saline water for a long time. However, there is limited research into the influence of salt on rheological properties of asphalt after long-term aging. In this study, rheological properties of unmodified and polymer-modified asphalt after long-term aging were tested after being soaked in different concentrations of salt (0.3%~5%) for different durations (1 day~30 days). Orthogonal array based on the Taguchi method was used for experimental design. The frequency sweep tests were performed on the specimens of aged asphalt after being soaked for complex modulus and phase angle master curves and ultimate fatigue temperature. BBR tests were performed for stiffness. The test results indicate that saline water appears to reduce low temperature properties and fatigue resistance properties and improved high temperature properties of aged asphalt, and it also affects the sensitivity of complex modulus and phase angles at low frequencies.

  3. Influence of lowland forests on subsurface salt accumulation in shallow groundwater areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Tibor; Balog, Kitti; Szabó, András; Pásztor, László; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Nosetto, Marcelo D; Gribovszki, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    In flat sedimentary plains in areas with a sub-humid climate, tree planting on grasslands and arable lands creates strong hydrological shifts. As a result of deep rooting and high water uptake of trees, groundwater levels drop and subsurface salt accumulation increases. Tree planting has expanded globally and in Hungary it reached rates of 15 000 ha year(-1), being focused mainly in the Great Hungarian Plain where forests replace grasslands and crops in a region with widespread shallow groundwater. We performed soil and groundwater observations in 31 pairs of forest and control plots in the region, including gradients of initial water table depth and salinity, soil layering, and tree species and age. Accumulated tree biomass was positively correlated with soil salinization rates following tree planting, being also affected by species (poplar > common oak > black locust) and stand age. Differences among tree species effects appeared to be related to their growth rates. Due to downward deep percolation and salt leaching episodes during the Hungarian winters, the observed salt accumulation rates were lower than those described under similar settings in the warmer Argentine Pampas. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  4. The Effects of Salt on Rheological Properties of Asphalt after Long-Term Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited studies in recent years have shown that asphalt pavement subject to seawater in coastal regions or deicing salt in cold regions may be seriously damaged after being soaked in saline water for a long time. However, there is limited research into the influence of salt on rheological properties of asphalt after long-term aging. In this study, rheological properties of unmodified and polymer-modified asphalt after long-term aging were tested after being soaked in different concentrations of salt (0.3%~5% for different durations (1 day~30 days. Orthogonal array based on the Taguchi method was used for experimental design. The frequency sweep tests were performed on the specimens of aged asphalt after being soaked for complex modulus and phase angle master curves and ultimate fatigue temperature. BBR tests were performed for stiffness. The test results indicate that saline water appears to reduce low temperature properties and fatigue resistance properties and improved high temperature properties of aged asphalt, and it also affects the sensitivity of complex modulus and phase angles at low frequencies.

  5. Diversity and Evolution of Salt Tolerance in the Genus Vigna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohtaro Iseki

    Full Text Available Breeding salt tolerant plants is difficult without utilizing a diversity of wild crop relatives. Since the genus Vigna (family Fabaceae is comprised of many wild relatives adapted to various environmental conditions, we evaluated the salt tolerance of 69 accessions of this genus, including that of wild and domesticated accessions originating from Asia, Africa, Oceania, and South America. We grew plants under 50 mM and 200 mM NaCl for two weeks and then measured the biomass, relative quantum yield of photosystem II, leaf Na+ concentrations, and leaf K+ concentrations. The accessions were clustered into four groups: the most tolerant, tolerant, moderately susceptible, and susceptible. From the most tolerant group, we selected six accessions, all of which were wild accessions adapted to coastal environments, as promising sources of salt tolerance because of their consistently high relative shoot biomass and relative quantum yield. Interestingly, variations in leaf Na+ concentration were observed between the accessions in the most tolerant group, suggesting different mechanisms were responsible for their salt tolerance. Phylogenetic analysis with nuclear DNA sequences revealed that salt tolerance had evolved independently at least four times in the genus Vigna, within a relatively short period. The findings suggested that simple genetic changes in a few genes might have greatly affected salt tolerances. The elucidation of genetic mechanisms of salt tolerances in the selected accessions may contribute to improving the poor salt tolerance in legume crops.

  6. Mixed salt crystallisation fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Helalizadeh, A

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the mechanisms of mixed salt crystallisation fouling on heat transfer surfaces during convective heat transfer and sub-cooled flow boiling conditions. To-date no investigations on the effects of operating parameters on the deposition of mixtures of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate, which are the most common constituents of scales formed on heat transfer surfaces, have been reported. As part of this research project, a substantial number of experiments were performed to determine the mechanisms controlling deposition. Fluid velocity, heat flux, surface and bulk temperatures, concentration of the solution, ionic strength, pressure and heat transfer surface material were varied systematically. After clarification of the effect of these parameters on the deposition process, the results of these experiments were used to develop a mechanistic model for prediction of fouling resistances, caused by crystallisation of mixed salts, under convective heat transfer...

  7. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  8. Microemulsion of Molten Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    then to an oil-rich, upper phase as salinity increases in a system of brine/octane/ TRS surfactant/tertiary amyl alcohol . Borkovec et al. (1988) have...11 4. Partial Pseudotemary Phase Diagram .................................. 12 5. Micrograph of Molten Salts/SDS/Pentanol/Decane System...negligible interfacial tension between microdomains. Theoretical work in ternary and pseudotemary systems has shown that the middle phase is a

  9. Initiation of diapirism by regional extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, M.P.A.; Vendeville, B.C. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Initiation of diapirism is one of the least understood aspects of salt tectonics. Sedimentary differential loading is a favorite explanation, but special conditions such as focused sedimentation are needed to trigger diapirism by differential loading. Compilation of published data from 18 of the world's salt-diapir provinces shows that salt upwelling is consistently linked in time with regional extension, whether thin-skinned or thick-skinned. Extended salt basins typically develop salt structures, whereas nonextended basins typically do not. In some basins containing thick salt (SW Iran), diapirism was delayed as long as 400 Ma until the basin was regionally extended. In other salt provinces (Maritime Alps), episodic growth of salt diapirs correlates with episodic regional extension during opening of the Neo-Tethys and Atlantic Oceans. Once initiated, salt diapirism can continue after regional extension is succeeded by contraction or quiescence. Thus even in salt basins overprinted by inversion or orogenic contraction (Morocco, Lusitania, Basque-Cantabrian, North Sea), the diapirs were initiated during extension on divergent continental margins or in intracontinental rifts. This observed temporal link between extension and diapirism is consistent with physical and numerical modeling, which demonstrates that extensional faulting of the overburden directly causes diapirism whether the salt was deposited before, during, or after rifting. Where the overburden is thinned by extension, pressurized salt wells up in response to the shifting positions of fault blocks.

  10. Health gain by salt reduction in europe: a modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke A H Hendriksen

    Full Text Available Excessive salt intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt intake exceeds the World Health Organization population nutrition goal of 5 grams per day in the European region. We assessed the health impact of salt reduction in nine European countries (Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom. Through literature research we obtained current salt intake and systolic blood pressure levels of the nine countries. The population health modeling tool DYNAMO-HIA including country-specific disease data was used to predict the changes in prevalence of ischemic heart disease and stroke for each country estimating the effect of salt reduction through its effect on blood pressure levels. A 30% salt reduction would reduce the prevalence of stroke by 6.4% in Finland to 13.5% in Poland. Ischemic heart disease would be decreased by 4.1% in Finland to 8.9% in Poland. When salt intake is reduced to the WHO population nutrient goal, it would reduce the prevalence of stroke from 10.1% in Finland to 23.1% in Poland. Ischemic heart disease would decrease by 6.6% in Finland to 15.5% in Poland. The number of postponed deaths would be 102,100 (0.9% in France, and 191,300 (2.3% in Poland. A reduction of salt intake to 5 grams per day is expected to substantially reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease and mortality in several European countries.

  11. Health gain by salt reduction in europe: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Marieke A H; van Raaij, Joop M A; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Breda, Joao; Boshuizen, Hendriek C

    2015-01-01

    Excessive salt intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt intake exceeds the World Health Organization population nutrition goal of 5 grams per day in the European region. We assessed the health impact of salt reduction in nine European countries (Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom). Through literature research we obtained current salt intake and systolic blood pressure levels of the nine countries. The population health modeling tool DYNAMO-HIA including country-specific disease data was used to predict the changes in prevalence of ischemic heart disease and stroke for each country estimating the effect of salt reduction through its effect on blood pressure levels. A 30% salt reduction would reduce the prevalence of stroke by 6.4% in Finland to 13.5% in Poland. Ischemic heart disease would be decreased by 4.1% in Finland to 8.9% in Poland. When salt intake is reduced to the WHO population nutrient goal, it would reduce the prevalence of stroke from 10.1% in Finland to 23.1% in Poland. Ischemic heart disease would decrease by 6.6% in Finland to 15.5% in Poland. The number of postponed deaths would be 102,100 (0.9%) in France, and 191,300 (2.3%) in Poland. A reduction of salt intake to 5 grams per day is expected to substantially reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease and mortality in several European countries.

  12. Salt movements within the Central European basin system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maystrenko, Yuriy; Bayer, Ulf; Scheck-Wenderoth [GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), Potsdam (Germany); Littke, Ralf [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle

    2010-04-15

    Evolution of salt structures in relation to tectonic events within central part of the Central European Basin System is described by summarizing results which have been obtained and published in frame of the research project DFG-SPP 1135. These results illustrate main phases of salt tectonics within the basin system from the Triassic to present day. During the Buntsandstein and Muschelkalk, extension triggered raft tectonics and salt movements within the Ems Trough, the Glueckstadt and the Horn Grabens. The next phase of salt movements occurred in response to a Middle-Late Keuper regional extensional event which was strongest within the Triassic depocenters of the Central European Basin System, such as the Horn Graben, the Glueckstadt Graben, the Ems and the Rheinsberg Troughs. Regional erosion truncated the study area during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous time. The magnitude of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous erosion is declining towards southern margin of the basin system where a dextral transtensional regime was established in the Lower Saxony Basin and neighboring areas during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. The late Early Cretaceous-early Late Cretaceous is characterized by a relative tectonic quiescence without strong salt movements. The Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic inversion provocated renewed salt movements, causing the thick-skinned salt tectonics along the Elbe Fault System and the thin-skinned character of salt movements towards the north from the area of strain localisation. Post-inversion Cenozoic subsidence was accompanied by salt movements, related either to diapiric rise due to regional shortening and/or to local almost E-W directed extension. (orig.)

  13. Anaglyph, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This anaglyph image provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed

  14. Trend Analysis of Soil Salinity in Different Land Cover Types Using Landsat Time Series Data (case Study Bakhtegan Salt Lake)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghadosi, M. M.; Hasanlou, M.

    2017-09-01

    Soil salinity is one of the main causes of desertification and land degradation which has negative impacts on soil fertility and crop productivity. Monitoring salt affected areas and assessing land cover changes, which caused by salinization, can be an effective approach to rehabilitate saline soils and prevent further salinization of agricultural fields. Using potential of satellite imagery taken over time along with remote sensing techniques, makes it possible to determine salinity changes at regional scales. This study deals with monitoring salinity changes and trend of the expansion in different land cover types of Bakhtegan Salt Lake district during the last two decades using multi-temporal Landsat images. For this purpose, per-pixel trend analysis of soil salinity during years 2000 to 2016 was performed and slope index maps of the best salinity indicators were generated for each pixel in the scene. The results of this study revealed that vegetation indices (GDVI and EVI) and also salinity indices (SI-1 and SI-3) have great potential to assess soil salinity trends in vegetation and bare soil lands respectively due to more sensitivity to salt features over years of study. In addition, images of May had the best performance to highlight changes in pixels among different months of the year. A comparative analysis of different slope index maps shows that more than 76% of vegetated areas have experienced negative trends during 17 years, of which about 34% are moderately and highly saline. This percent is increased to 92% for bare soil lands and 29% of salt affected soils had severe salinization. It can be concluded that the areas, which are close to the lake, are more affected by salinity and salts from the lake were brought into the soil which will lead to loss of soil productivity ultimately.

  15. Identification and Target Prediction of MicroRNAs in Ulmus pumila L. Seedling Roots under Salt Stress by High-Throughput Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of endogenous small RNAs with important roles in plant growth, development, and environmental stress responses. Ulmus pumila L., a deciduous broadleaved tree species of northern temperate regions, is widely distributed in central and northern Asia and has important economic and ecological value. With the spread and aggravation of soil salinization, salt stress has become a major abiotic stress affecting the normal growth and development of U. pumila. However, the influence of salt stress on U. pumila miRNA expression has not been investigated. To identify miRNAs and predict their target mRNA genes under salt stress, three small RNA libraries were generated and sequenced from roots of U. pumila seedlings treated with various concentrations of NaCl corresponding to no salt stress, light short-term salt stress, and medium-heavy long-term salt stress. Integrative analysis identified 254 conserved miRNAs representing 29 families and 49 novel miRNAs; 232 potential targets of the miRNAs were also predicted. Expression profiling of miRNAs between libraries was performed, and the expression of six miRNAs was validated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Our findings provide an overview of potential miRNAs and corresponding targets involved in regulating U. pumila salt defense responses. These results lay the foundation for further research into molecular mechanisms involved in salt stress resistance in U. pumila and other Ulmaceae species.

  16. Cropping systems affect paddy soil organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks (in rice-garlic and rice-fava systems) in temperate region of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Anqiang; Liu, Jian; Liu, Hongbin; Lei, Baokun; Zhai, Limei; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Hongyuan

    2017-12-31

    The accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural soils is critical to food security and climate change. However, there is still limited information on the dynamic trend of SOC sequestration following changes in cropping systems. Paddy soils, typical of temperate region of southern China, have a large potential for carbon (C) sequestration and nitrogen (N) fixation. It is of great importance to study the impacts of changes in cropping systems on stocks of SOC and total nitrogen (TN) in paddy soils. A six-year field experiment was conducted to clarify the dynamics of SOC and TN stocks in the paddy topsoil (0-20cm) when crop rotation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) -garlic (Allium sativum) (RG) was changed to rice-fava (Vicia faba L.) (RF), and to examine how the dynamics were affected by two N management strategies. The results showed that SOC stocks increased by 24.9% in the no N (control) treatment and by 18.9% in the treatment applied with conventional rate of N (CON), when RG was changed to RF. Correspondingly, TN stocks increased by 8.5% in the control but decreased by 2.6% in the CON. Compared with RG, RF was more conducive to increase the contents of soil microbial biomass C and N. Moreover, changing the cropping system from RG to RF increased the year-round N use efficiency from 21.6% to 34.4% and reduced soil N surplus in the CON treatment from 547kg/ha to 93kg/ha. In conclusion, changes in the cropping system from RG to RF could markedly increase SOC stocks, improve N utilization, reduce soil N surplus, and thus reduce the risk of N loss in the paddy soil. Overall, this study showed the potential of paddy agro-ecological systems to store C and maintain N stocks in the temperate regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Génesis de suelos en un sector del piedemonte aluvial del Chaco salteño Soil genesis in an alluvial piedmont in the Chaco region of Salta Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Martín Moretti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la relación suelo-paisaje, las propiedades físico-químicas y la composición mineralógica de diferentes suelos dentro del cono aluvial del río Del Valle, en el borde occidental del Chaco salteño, en la provincia de Salta, Argentina. Se identificaron seis grupos de suelos con características bien definidas. Los Ustipsamentes y Haplustoles de textura gruesa a media se encuentran principalmente en cordones arenosos, vías de drenaje y planicies del sector proximal del cono; los Argiustoles y Haplustalfes de texturas medias se desarrollan mayormente en las planicies estabilizadas del sector intermedio; mientras que los Haplustertes de textura fina son característicos de los ambientes de bañados del sector intermedio y distal. Los análisis mineralógicos se llevaron a cabo mediante difracción de rayos X (DRX y medición de la Susceptibilidad Magnética (SM. La DRX del suelo total mostró variaciones en la proporción de cuarzo, feldespatos, muscovita y minerales accesorios entre los perfiles, reflejando la heterogeneidad de sus materiales parentales. La composición mineralógica de la fracción arcilla permitió diferenciar dos tipos de materiales originarios, posiblemente relacionados con distintas áreas de aporte: I uno rico en esmectitas e illitas donde se desarrollan el Ustipsament, los Haplustoles y el Haplustert; y II otro con menor proporción de minerales expansibles y dominancia de illita, correspondiente a los horizontes C del Argiustol y el Haplustalf. Por otra parte, las curvas de Susceptibilidad Magnética muestran tendencias opuestas del Vertisol respecto al Argiustol, el Haplustalf y el Haplustol típico, reflejando condiciones físico-químicas diferentes entre estos suelos, mientras que en el Entisol y los Haplustoles énticos, las curvas varían irregularmente de acuerdo con la heterogeneidad de las capas sedimentarias que los conforman. El presente trabajo resume nuevos resultados e interpretaciones acerca

  18. Factors Affecting Cement Paste When Used As A Binding Agent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study revealed that cement is affected by calcium chloride, chloride suphate, magnesium and sodium salt. These chemicals attack and destroy the binding power of cement. “If a salt looses its savour, how shall it be salted? It is therefore good for nothing but to be cast out and to be trodden under foot of men” – Mathew ...

  19. Challenges and Opportunities of Social Care Services for seniors in the Czech Republic (based on an example of the town of Havířov (located in structurally affected Moravian-Silesian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Šárka Prudká

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the issue of people over 65 years of age - seniors - who live in the town of Havířov in the Czech Republic. This town is located in the structurally affected region which nowadays faces both problems of aging population and high unemployment resulting in leaving of young people to more perspective regions. Great emphasis is, therefore, placed on social care services provided to seniors. The authors analyze the social service system with particular attention to the current challenges and opportunities and to the problems of this structurally affected region.

  20. Trying to Learn Lessons for Response to Extreme Events: Paradigm Shifts Affecting Civil Defense in the Trinational Region of Southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, G. L. P.

    2015-12-01

    The last ten years have seen several extreme climate events in southwestern Amazonia with historic impacts. The City of Rio Branco, Capital of Acre, Brazil´s westernmost State, suffered its seventh consecutive annual flooding and its worst in March 2015. The city of Tarauacá, also in Acre, registered 12 flooding events between November 2014 and April 2015. The most recent flood of the trinational Acre River in 2015 set historic records for flood stage and number of displaced persons in Cobija, the Capital of Pando, Bolivia. From February to April 2014, floods of the Madeira River disrupted the one highway between Acre and southern Brazil. Puerto Maldonado, the capital in Madre de Dios Region of Peru had its worst flood in 50 years during 2014. In 2005 and 2010, prolonged droughts combined with ignition sources resulted in tens to hundreds of thousands of hectares of fire-damaged rainforests in the Madre de Dios, Acre and Pando (MAP) Region. The Civil Defenses in these three contiguous political units faced several abrupt paradigm shifts that affected their responses: 1) The drought of 2005 showed dramatically that regional rainforests do burn; 2) The recent flooding history, particularly in 2012 and 2015, demolished the cultural icon of a nine-year recurrence interval; 3) What happens outside your territory can be devastating. The Madeira River flood impeded an estimated 200 million dollars from circulating in Acre; 4) The past can be a terrible guide. For Cobija and Rio Branco, the 2015 flood was on the order of a meter higher than any other. Many home dwellers did not evacuate in time because they used past floods as a guide; 5) A collapse in communication - cell phones, land lines, and Internet - can get worse. In 2012, such a collapse occurred in two border towns for 5 days, yet in 2015 it lasted more than 11 days. Research is needed to address how institutions linked to Civil Defense can shift paradigms in time to be more effective.

  1. Salt tectonics and shallow subseafloor fluid convection: Models of coupled fluid-heat-salt transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.; Ruppel, C.

    2007-01-01

    Thermohaline convection associated with salt domes has the potential to drive significant fluid flow and mass and heat transport in continental margins, but previous studies of fluid flow associated with salt structures have focused on continental settings or deep flow systems of importance to petroleum exploration. Motivated by recent geophysical and geochemical observations that suggest a convective pattern to near-seafloor pore fluid flow in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoMex), we devise numerical models that fully couple thermal and chemical processes to quantify the effects of salt geometry and seafloor relief on fluid flow beneath the seafloor. Steady-state models that ignore halite dissolution demonstrate that seafloor relief plays an important role in the evolution of shallow geothermal convection cells and that salt at depth can contribute a thermal component to this convection. The inclusion of faults causes significant, but highly localized, increases in flow rates at seafloor discharge zones. Transient models that include halite dissolution show the evolution of flow during brine formation from early salt-driven convection to later geothermal convection, characteristics of which are controlled by the interplay of seafloor relief and salt geometry. Predicted flow rates are on the order of a few millimeters per year or less for homogeneous sediments with a permeability of 10−15 m2, comparable to compaction-driven flow rates. Sediment permeabilities likely fall below 10−15 m2 at depth in the GoMex basin, but such thermohaline convection can drive pervasive mass transport across the seafloor, affecting sediment diagenesis in shallow sediments. In more permeable settings, such flow could affect methane hydrate stability, seafloor chemosynthetic communities, and the longevity of fluid seeps.

  2. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...... sediments, the diapir extruded an overhang. Using the asymmetric Klodawa Salt Structure (KSS) in central Poland as a prototype, a series of analogue models were carried out to investigate the evolution history and salt supply driven by asymmetric differential loading. During extension of the model, a daipir...

  3. Phosphate-dependent root system architecture responses to salt stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawa, D.; Julkowska, M.M.; Montero Sommerfeld, H.; ter Horst, A.; Haring, M.A.; Testerink, C.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient availability and salinity of the soil affect growth and development of plant roots. Here, we describe how phosphate availability affects root system architecture (RSA) of Arabidopsis and how phosphate levels modulate responses of the root to salt stress. Phosphate (Pi) starvation reduced

  4. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception

    OpenAIRE

    Tournier, Carole; Knoop, Janine E.; Kooyman, Gonnie; Smit, Gerrit

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various stimulation conditions involving relative changes in NaCl concentration of 20% and 38%. Changes in salt delivery profile had similar effect on saltiness perception when delivered either by a sipwise m...

  5. Effect of Genetic Information Regarding Salt-Sensitive Hypertension on the Intent to Maintain a Reduced Salt Diet: Implications for Health Communication in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Keiko; Iwakuma, Miho; Nakayama, Takeo

    2017-03-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between the awareness of dietary salt and genetics and the intent to maintain a low-salt diet. In particular, they assessed whether hypothetical genetic information regarding salt-sensitive hypertension motivates the intent to reduce dietary salt for communicating the health benefits of lower salt consumption to citizens. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with 2500 randomly sampled residents aged 30 to 69 years living in Nagahama, Japan. Genetic information regarding higher salt sensitivity increased motivation to reduce salt intake for both those who agreed that genes cause hypertension and those who did not. Less than 50% of those who agreed that genes cause hypertension lost their intention to lower their salt consumption when they found they did not possess the susceptibility gene. Communicating genetic information positively affected motivation to reduce salt intake. The present study clarifies the difficulty in changing the behavioral intent of those who have significantly less incentive to reduce salt intake. Therefore, a multidimensional approach is crucial to reduce salt consumption. ©2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Rheology of rock salt for salt tectonics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yuan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical modeling of salt tectonics is a rapidly evolving field; however, the constitutive equations to model long-term rock salt rheology in nature still remain controversial. Firstly, we built a database about the strain rate versus the differential stress through collecting the data from salt creep experiments at a range of temperatures (20–200 °C in laboratories. The aim is to collect data about salt deformation in nature, and the flow properties can be extracted from the data in laboratory experiments. Moreover, as an important preparation for salt tectonics modeling, a numerical model based on creep experiments of rock salt was developed in order to verify the specific model using the Abaqus package. Finally, under the condition of low differential stresses, the deformation mechanism would be extrapolated and discussed according to microstructure research. Since the studies of salt deformation in nature are the reliable extrapolation of laboratory data, we simplified the rock salt rheology to dislocation creep corresponding to power law creep (n = 5 with the appropriate material parameters in the salt tectonic modeling.

  7. Reactive halogen species above salt lakes and salt pans

    OpenAIRE

    Holla, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Salt lakes can be found on all continents and saline soils cover 2.5% of the land surface of the earth (FAO, 2012). This thesis investigates the presence of reactive halogen species (RHS) above salt lakes and saline soils to evaluate their relevance for tropospheric chemistry of the planetary boundary layer. Ground-based MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS measurements were conducted at salt lakes and two other sites with high halogen content. Prior to this work, RHS were found at three salt ...

  8. Structural evolution of the Namakdan salt diapir in the Zagros fold-thrust belt: The Persian Gulf, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahpasandzadeh, Majid; Hashemifar, Ghasem; Shafiei Bafti, Amir

    2016-04-01

    detailed structural analysis of the salt and the country rock attitudes. The estimated uplift rate is higher in the northern and southern rim of the diapir, which should be the result of regional uplift due to Zagros shortening. The results are consistent with the calculated uplift rates of previous researchers, which increase from ~1-3 mm/yr at rim to ~3-5 mm/yr at centre of the diapir. In study of the salt diapirs, however, the ages of initiation of salt instability, diapir exposure, salt extrusion, and orogenic pulses should be considered in the orogenic belt. The structural evolution of the Namakdan diapir, which is strongly affected by the regional uplift and geological settings, applicable to other salt diapirs of the orogenic fold-thrust belts.

  9. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

    2012-10-09

    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  10. Can elevated CO(2) improve salt tolerance in olive trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, Juan Carlos; Syvertsen, James P; García-Sánchez, Francisco

    2008-04-18

    We compared growth, leaf gas exchange characteristics, water relations, chlorophyll fluorescence, and Na(+) and Cl(-) concentration of two cultivars ('Koroneiki' and 'Picual') of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees in response to high salinity (NaCl 100mM) and elevated CO(2) (eCO(2)) concentration (700microLL(-1)). The cultivar 'Koroneiki' is considered to be more salt sensitive than the relatively salt-tolerant 'Picual'. After 3 months of treatment, the 9-month-old cuttings of 'Koroneiki' had significantly greater shoot growth, and net CO(2) assimilation (A(CO(2))) at eCO(2) than at ambient CO(2), but this difference disappeared under salt stress. Growth and A(CO(2)) of 'Picual' did not respond to eCO(2) regardless of salinity treatment. Stomatal conductance (g(s)) and leaf transpiration were decreased at eCO(2) such that leaf water use efficiency (WUE) increased in both cultivars regardless of saline treatment. Salt stress increased leaf Na(+) and Cl(-) concentration, reduced growth and leaf osmotic potential, but increased leaf turgor compared with non-salinized control plants of both cultivars. Salinity decreased A(CO(2)), g(s), and WUE, but internal CO(2) concentrations in the mesophyll were not affected. eCO(2) increased the sensitivity of PSII and chlorophyll concentration to salinity. eCO(2) did not affect leaf or root Na(+) or Cl(-) concentrations in salt-tolerant 'Picual', but eCO(2) decreased leaf and root Na(+) concentration and root Cl(-) concentration in the more salt-sensitive 'Koroneiki'. Na(+) and Cl(-) accumulation was associated with the lower water use in 'Koroneiki' but not in 'Picual'. Although eCO(2) increased WUE in salinized leaves and decreased salt ion uptake in the relatively salt-tolerant 'Koroneiki', growth of these young olive trees was not affected by eCO(2).

  11. Health labelling can influence taste perception and use of table salt for reduced-sodium products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Djin Gie; Miremadi, Fatemeh; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Keast, Russell S J

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the effect of front-of-pack labels on taste perception and use of table salt for currently available and sodium-reduced soups. Within-subject design. Sensory laboratory. Participants (n 50, mean age 34.8 (sd 13.6) years) were randomly served nine soups (250 ml each) across 3 d. Servings differed in: (i) health label (i.e. no health label, reduced-salt label or Heart Foundation Tick); and (ii) sodium reduction (no reduction - benchmark, 15 % less sodium or 30 % less sodium). Before tasting, participants rated their expected salt intensity and liking. After tasting, participants rated their perceived salt intensity and liking, after which they could add salt to the soup to make it more palatable. Reduced-salt labels generated a negative taste expectation and actual taste experience in terms of liking (P salt (P salt label. The tick logo and soups without health labels had no such influence on taste perception. Emphasizing salt reduction by means of a front-of-pack label can have a negative effect on taste perception and salt use, especially when consumers are able to taste differences between their regular soup and the sodium-reduced soup. Overall health logos which do not emphasize the reduction in salt are less likely to affect perceived salt intensity and therefore are viable solutions to indicate the healthiness of sodium-reduced products.

  12. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Conclusions. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%. In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67% and Switzerland (85%. In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method.

  13. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  14. Variance-based Salt Body Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Ovcharenko, Oleg

    2017-05-26

    Seismic inversions of salt bodies are challenging when updating velocity models based on Born approximation- inspired gradient methods. We propose a variance-based method for velocity model reconstruction in regions complicated by massive salt bodies. The novel idea lies in retrieving useful information from simultaneous updates corresponding to different single frequencies. Instead of the commonly used averaging of single-iteration monofrequency gradients, our algorithm iteratively reconstructs salt bodies in an outer loop based on updates from a set of multiple frequencies after a few iterations of full-waveform inversion. The variance among these updates is used to identify areas where considerable cycle-skipping occurs. In such areas, we update velocities by interpolating maximum velocities within a certain region. The result of several recursive interpolations is later used as a new starting model to improve results of conventional full-waveform inversion. An application on part of the BP 2004 model highlights the evolution of the proposed approach and demonstrates its effectiveness.

  15. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  16. Salt reduction in China: a state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shuai; Hua, Yechu; Yang, Ying; Liu, Xiaojuan; Fan, Jingruo; Zhang, An; Xiang, Jingling; Li, Mingjing; Yan, Lijing L

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to reveal the latest evidence on salt reduction initiatives in China in order to identify the contextual cost-effective interventions, as well as the barriers encountered during China's long march to reach its population salt reduction goal. Population-based salt reduction has been considered as one of the most cost-effective strategies in the world for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. China, along with its sustained economic growth, faces increasing burdens from chronic diseases such as cardiovascular and kidney diseases. With policy support and cross-sector collaboration, various salt reduction initiatives have been adopted in China in order to reduce such dietary risk, especially since the beginning of this millennium. This study conducted structured literature reviews in both English and Chinese databases and synthesized the latest evidence on the association of salt intake and health, as well as salt intake among Chinese and population-based salt reduction strategies in China and around the world. Dietary salt restriction has been found to contribute to the reduction of blood pressure among both the normotensives and hypertensives bringing associated reduced disease burdens and great public health benefits. With gender, ethnic, and regional variations, salt intake levels in the population in China are well above the recommended threshold and physiological need. Admittedly, excessive salt intake precipitates the high prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease among the Chinese. Considering that the majority of the dietary salt is added during cooking in China, salt substitutes, salt restriction tools, and health education are the most common salt reduction initiatives with varying levels of effectiveness and acceptability among the Chinese population. Overwhelming evidence is in support of a well-coordinated nationwide salt restriction initiative as a key public health strategy for the prevention and control of

  17. Projected Salt Waste Production from a Commercial Pyroprocessing Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Simpson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel inevitably produces salt waste from electrorefining and/or oxide reduction unit operations. Various process design characteristics can affect the actual mass of such waste produced. This paper examines both oxide and metal fuel treatment, estimates the amount of salt waste generated, and assesses potential benefit of process options to mitigate the generation of salt waste. For reference purposes, a facility is considered in which 100 MT/year of fuel is processed. Salt waste estimates range from 8 to 20 MT/year from considering numerous scenarios. It appears that some benefit may be derived from advanced processes for separating fission products from molten salt waste, but the degree of improvement is limited. Waste form production is also considered but appears to be economically unfavorable. Direct disposal of salt into a salt basin type repository is found to be the most promising with respect to minimizing the impact of waste generation on the economic feasibility and sustainability of pyroprocessing.

  18. Leaf conductance and carbon gain under salt-stressed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, V.; Manzoni, S.; Marani, M.; Katul, G.

    2011-12-01

    Exposure of plants to salt stress is often accompanied by reductions in leaf photosynthesis and in stomatal and mesophyll conductances. To separate the effects of salt stress on these quantities, a model based on the hypothesis that carbon gain is maximized subject to a water loss cost is proposed. The optimization problem of adjusting stomatal aperture for maximizing carbon gain at a given water loss is solved for both a non-linear and a linear biochemical demand function. A key novel theoretical outcome of the optimality hypothesis is an explicit relationship between the stomatal and mesophyll conductances that can be evaluated against published measurements. The approaches here successfully describe gas-exchange measurements reported for olive trees (Olea europea L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleraceaL.) in fresh water and in salt-stressed conditions. Salt stress affected both stomatal and mesophyll conductances and photosynthetic efficiency of both species. The fresh water/salt water comparisons show that the photosynthetic capacity is directly reduced by 30%-40%, indicating that reductions in photosynthetic rates under increased salt stress are not due only to a limitation of CO2diffusion. An increase in salt stress causes an increase in the cost of water parameter (or marginal water use efficiency) exceeding 100%, analogous in magnitude to findings from extreme drought stress studies. The proposed leaf-level approach can be incorporated into physically based models of the soil-plant-atmosphere system to assess how saline conditions and elevated atmospheric CO2 jointly impact transpiration and photosynthesis.

  19. Permeability of WIPP Salt During Damage Evolution and Healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BODNER,SOL R.; CHAN,KWAI S.; MUNSON,DARRELL E.

    1999-12-03

    The presence of damage in the form of microcracks can increase the permeability of salt. In this paper, an analytical formulation of the permeability of damaged rock salt is presented for both initially intact and porous conditions. The analysis shows that permeability is related to the connected (i.e., gas accessible) volumetric strain and porosity according to two different power-laws, which may be summed to give the overall behavior of a porous salt with damage. This relationship was incorporated into a constitutive model, known as the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which has been formulated to describe the inelastic flow behavior of rock salt due to coupled creep, damage, and healing. The extended model was used to calculate the permeability of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site under conditions where damage evolved with stress over a time period. Permeability changes resulting from both damage development under deviatoric stresses and damage healing under hydrostatic pressures were considered. The calculated results were compared against experimental data from the literature, which indicated that permeability in damaged intact WIPP salt depends on the magnitude of the gas accessible volumetric strain and not on the total volumetric strain. Consequently, the permeability of WIPP salt is significantly affected by the kinetics of crack closure, but shows little dependence on the kinetics of crack removal by sintering.

  20. Salt Damage and Rising Damp Treatment in Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. P. Q. Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt damage can affect the service life of numerous building structures, both historical and contemporary, in a significant way. In this review, various damage mechanisms to porous building materials induced by salt action are analyzed. The importance of pretreatment investigations is discussed as well; in combination with the knowledge of salt and moisture transport mechanisms they can give useful indications regarding treatment options. The methods of salt damage treatment are assessed then, including both passive techniques based on environmental control, reduction of water transport, or conversion to less soluble salts and active procedures resulting in the removal of salts from deterioration zones. It is concluded that cellulose can still be considered as the favorite material presently used in desalination poultices but hydrophilic mineral wool can serve as its prospective alternative in future applications. Another important cause of building pathologies is the rising damp and, in this phenomenon, it is particularly severe considering the presence of salts in water. The treatment of rising damp in historic building walls is a very complex procedure and at Laboratory of Building Physics (LFC-FEUP a wall base hygroregulated ventilation system was developed and patented.

  1. Halophytes: Potential Resources for Salt Stress Tolerance Genes and Promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Mishra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Halophytes have demonstrated their capability to thrive under extremely saline conditions and thus considered as one of the best germplasm for saline agriculture. Salinity is a worldwide problem, and the salt-affected areas are increasing day-by-day because of scanty rainfall, poor irrigation system, salt ingression, water contamination, and other environmental factors. The salinity stress tolerance mechanism is a very complex phenomenon, and some pathways are coordinately linked for imparting salinity tolerance. Though a number of salt responsive genes have been reported from the halophytes, there is always a quest for promising stress-responsive genes that can modulate plant physiology according to the salt stress. Halophytes such as Aeluropus, Mesembryanthemum, Suaeda, Atriplex, Thellungiella, Cakile, and Salicornia serve as a potential candidate for the salt-responsive genes and promoters. Several known genes like antiporters (NHX, SOS, HKT, VTPase, ion channels (Cl−, Ca2+, aquaporins, antioxidant encoding genes (APX, CAT, GST, BADH, SOD and some novel genes such as USP, SDR1, SRP etc. were isolated from halophytes and explored for developing stress tolerance in the crop plants (glycophytes. It is evidenced that stress triggers salt sensors that lead to the activation of stress tolerance mechanisms which involve multiple signaling proteins, up- or down-regulation of several genes, and finally the distinctive or collective effects of stress-responsive genes. In this review, halophytes are discussed as an excellent platform for salt responsive genes which can be utilized for developing salinity tolerance in crop plants through genetic engineering.

  2. Relationship Between Salt Intake, Salt-Taste Threshold and Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many studies have found an association between sodium intake and blood pressure. Salt taste threshold is thought to be another marker of sodium intake. Objective: This study sought to assess two markers of sodium intake, 24-hour-urinary sodium and salt-taste threshold. We also determined the relationship ...

  3. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, J.L.H.C.; Tournier, C.; Knoop, J.E.; Kooyman, G.; Smit, G.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various

  4. A Thermodynamic Model for Predicting Mineral Reactivity in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: I. Phase Behavior of Carbon Dioxide - Water - Chloride Salt Systems Across the H2O-Rich to the CO2-Rich Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Ronald D.; Wang, Zheming; Anderko, Andre; Wang, Peiming; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-09-05

    Phase equilibria in mixtures containing carbon dioxide, water, and chloride salts have been investigated using a combination of solubility measurements and thermodynamic modeling. The solubility of water in the CO2-rich phase of ternary mixtures of CO2, H2O and NaCl or CaCl2 was determined, using near infrared spectroscopy, at 90 atm and 40 to 100 °C. These measurements fill a gap in the experimental database for CO2 water salt systems, for which phase composition data have been available only for the H2O-rich phases. A thermodynamic model for CO2 water salt systems has been constructed on the basis of the previously developed Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte (MSE) framework, which is capable of modeling aqueous solutions over broad ranges of temperature and pressure, is valid to high electrolyte concentrations, treats mixed-phase systems (with both scCO2 and water present) and can predict the thermodynamic properties of dry and partially water-saturated supercritical CO2 over broad ranges of temperature and pressure. Within the MSE framework the standard-state properties are calculated from the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equation of state whereas the excess Gibbs energy includes a long-range electrostatic interaction term expressed by a Pitzer-Debye-Hückel equation, a virial coefficient-type term for interactions between ions and a short-range term for interactions involving neutral molecules. The parameters of the MSE model have been evaluated using literature data for both the H2O-rich and CO2-rich phases in the CO2 - H2O binary and for the H2O-rich phase in the CO2 - H2O - NaCl / KCl / CaCl2 / MgCl2 ternary and multicompontent systems. The model accurately represents the properties of these systems at temperatures from 0°C to 300 °C and pressures up to ~4000 atm. Further, the solubilities of H2O in CO2-rich phases that are predicted by the model are in agreement with the new measurements for the CO2 - H2O - NaCl and CO2 - H2O - CaCl2 systems. Thus, the model can be

  5. Application of fuzzy inference system by Sugeno method on estimating of salt production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Tony; Komariyah, Siti; Ulfaniyah, Nurita

    2017-08-01

    Salt is one of the most important needs in everyday life. Making traditional salt largely is done by smallholder farmers in addition by manufacturers of industrial salt. factors that affect the production of salt include seawater, soil, water influence and weather conditions including rainfall wind speed and solar radiation or long dry erratic, these conditions obviously affect the salt farmers that will affect the production quantities of salt produced by salt farmers. In this study, the fuzzy logic method is applied to Sugeno fuzzy inference systems to estimate the production of salt by variables - variables that affect it. This study aims to estimate how much production by applying fuzzy inference systems zero-order Sugeno method based on the variable wind speed, solar radiation, rainfall and the amount of production. Retrieval of data obtained from the Air Quality Meteorology and Geophysics. salt farmers in Pamekasan District of Pademawu Village Majungan. Data taken within 2 years per week from June to December of 2014 and 2015. The Sugeno fuzzy logic model in this study using output (consequent) in the form of equation constants (Sugeno models Order zero). Apparently from the research results obtained by the error value most low at 0.0917, so it can be said to be close to zero.

  6. Dynamics of prolonged salt movement in the Glückstadt Graben (NW Germany) driven by tectonic and sedimentary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsitzka, Michael; Kley, Jonas; Jähne-Klingberg, Fabian; Kukowski, Nina

    2017-01-01

    The formation of salt structures exerted a major influence on the evolution of subsidence and sedimentation patterns in the Glückstadt Graben, which is part of the Central European Basin System and comprises a post-Permian sediment thickness of up to 11 km. Driven by regional tectonics and differential loading, large salt diapirs, salt walls and salt pillows developed. The resulting salt flow significantly influenced sediment distribution in the peripheral sinks adjacent to the salt structures and overprinted the regional subsidence patterns. In this study, we investigate the geometric and temporal evolution of salt structures and subsidence patterns in the central Glückstadt Graben. Along a key geological cross section, the post-Permian strata were sequentially decompacted and restored in order to reconstruct the subsidence history of minibasins between the salt structures. The structural restoration reveals that subsidence of peripheral sinks and salt structure growth were initiated in Early to Middle Triassic time. From the Late Triassic to the Middle Jurassic, salt movement and salt structure growth never ceased, but were faster during periods of crustal extension. Following a phase from Late Jurassic to the end of the early Late Cretaceous, in which minor salt flow occurred, salt movement was renewed, particularly in the marginal parts of the Glückstadt Graben. Subsidence rates and tectonic subsidence derived from backstripping of 1D profiles reveal that especially the Early Triassic and Middle Keuper times were periods of regional extension. Three specific types of salt structures and adjacent peripheral sinks could be identified: (1) Graben centre salt walls possessing deep secondary peripheral sinks on the sides facing away from the basin centre, (2) platform salt walls, whose main peripheral sinks switched multiple times from one side of the salt wall to the other, and (3) Graben edge pillows, which show only one peripheral sink facing the basin centre.

  7. Experiments in connection with Salt Domes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.G.; Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1928-01-01

    The different theories concerning the origin of Salt Domes in Roumania, Germany, Texas, Louisiana, Colorado and Utah are discussed. In Roumania the salt occurs in cores of “Diapir” anticlines. The existance of hills of salt indicates, that the salt is still pushing upwards. In Germany the salt

  8. Sodium: How to Tame Your Salt Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same amount of sodium as table salt. Use salt substitutes wisely. Some salt substitutes or light salts contain a mixture of table ... substitute — and get too much sodium. Also, many salt substitutes contain potassium chloride. Although potassium can lessen some ...

  9. Simulating Salt Movement and Transformation using a Coupled Reactive Transport Model in Variably-Saturated Groundwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Kivi, S.; Bailey, R. T.; Gates, T.

    2016-12-01

    Salinization is one of the major concerns in irrigated agricultural landscapes. Increasing salinity concentrations are due principally to evaporative concentration; dissolution of salts from weathered minerals and bedrock; and a high water table that results from excessive irrigation, canal seepage, and a lack of efficient drainage systems; leading to decreasing crop yield. High groundwater salinity loading to nearby river systems also impacts downstream areas, with saline river water diverted for application on irrigated fields. In this study, a solute transport model coupled with equilibrium chemistry reactions has been developed to simulate transport of individual salt ions in regional-scale aquifer systems and thereby investigate strategies for salinity remediation. The physically-based numerical model is based on the UZF-RT3D variably-saturated, multi-species groundwater reactive transport modeling code, and accounts for advection, dispersion, carbon and nitrogen cycling, oxidation-reduction reactions, and salt ion equilibrium chemistry reactions such as complexation, ion exchange, and precipitation/dissolution. Each major salt ion (sulfate, chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium) is included. The model has been tested against measured soil salinity at a small scale (soil profile) and against soil salinity, groundwater salinity, and groundwater salinity loading to surface water at the regional scale (500 km2) in the Lower Arkansas River Valley (LARV) in southeastern Colorado, an area acutely affected by salinization for many decades and greatly influenced by gypsum deposits. Preliminary results of using the model in scenario analysis suggest that increasing irrigation efficiency, sealing earthen canals, and rotational fallowing of land can decrease the groundwater salt load to the Arkansas River by 50 to 70% and substantially lower soil salinity in the root zone.

  10. Population structure and marker-trait association of salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elakhdar, Ammar; El-Sattar, Mohamed Abd; Amer, Khairy; Rady, Assma; Kumamaru, Toshihiro

    Association mapping is becoming an important tool for identifying alleles and loci responsible for dissecting highly complex traits in barley. This study describes the population structure and marker-trait association using general linear model (GLM) analysis on a site of 60 barley genotypes, evaluated in six salinity environments. Ninety-eight SSR and SNP alleles were employed for the construction of a framework genetic map. The genetic structure analysis of the collection turned out to consist of two major sub-populations, mainly comprising hulled and naked types. LD significantly varied among the barley chromosomes, suggesting that this factor may affect the resolution of association mapping for QTL located on different chromosomes. Numerous significant marker traits were associated in different regions of the barley genome controlling salt tolerance and related traits; among them, 46 QTLs were detected on 14 associated traits over the two years, with a major QTL controlling salt tolerance on 1H, 2H, 4H and 7H, which are important factors in improving barley's salt tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. COMPARISON OF GEO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WHITE ROCK SALT AND PINK ROCK SALT IN KŁODAWA SALT DIAPIR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malwina Kolano; Danuta Flisiak

    2013-01-01

    .... The present article introduces strength-strain properties of white rock salt, building the nucleus of northeastern edge anticline, and pink rock salt that belongs to the series of youngest rock salt...

  12. Salt reduction in Australia: from advocacy to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqui; Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Nowson, Caryl; Jolly, Kellie-Ann; Greenland, Rohan; Reimers, Jenny; Bolam, Bruce

    2015-06-01

    As part of its endorsement of the World Health Organization's Global Action Plan to prevent non-communicable diseases, the Federal Government of Australia has committed to a 30% reduction in average population salt intake by 2025. Currently, mean daily salt intake levels are 8-9 g, varying by sex, region and population group. A number of salt reduction initiatives have been established over the last decade, but key elements for a co-ordinated population-level strategy are still missing. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of existing population-level salt reduction activities in Australia and identify opportunities for further action. A review of the published literature and stakeholder activities was undertaken to identify and document current activities. The activities were then assessed against a pre-defined framework for salt reduction strategies. A range of initiatives were identified from the review. The Australian Division of World Action on Salt and Health (AWASH) was established in 2005 and in 2007 launched its Drop the Salt! Campaign. This united non-governmental organisations (NGOs), health and medical and food industry organisations in a co-ordinated advocacy effort to encourage government to develop a national strategy to reduce salt. Subsequently, in 2010 the Federal Government launched its Food and Health Dialogue (FHD) with a remit to improve the health of the food supply in Australia through voluntary partnerships with food industry, government and non-government public health organisations. The focus of the FHD to date has been on voluntary reformulation of foods, primarily through salt reduction targets. More recently, in December 2014, the government's Health Star Rating system was launched. This front of pack labelling scheme uses stars to highlight the nutritional profile of packaged foods. Both government initiatives have clear targets or criteria for industry to meet, however, both are voluntary and the extent

  13. Productive performance of finishing lambs fed with faveleira fodder salt (Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vinícius Barbosa Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated food intake and productive performance of crossbred (½ Santa Inês x ½ dorper lambs supplemented with different levels of faveleira (Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl fodder salt. Thirty male sheep fed tifton grass hay, water, and faveleira fodder salt were randomly allocated into five treatments with six replicates each. The treatments consisted of diets with different inclusion levels of faveleira hay in the fodder salt composition: Treatment 1 (1% mineral salt + 99% faveleira hay, Treatment 2 (3% mineral salt + 97% faveleira hay, Treatment 3 (5% mineral salt + 95% faveleira hay, Treatment 4 (7% mineral salt + 93% faveleira hay, and Treatment 5 (Control - 100% mineral salt. Intake of dry matter, tifton hay and water, average daily gain, feed conversion, and feed efficiency were not affected by fodder salt supplementation (P > 0.05. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05 in fodder salt intake between Treatments 4 and 5, and daily intake was higher in animals submitted to Treatment 4 (61.0 g day-1. Mineral salt intake increased significantly with increasing mineral salt levels in the diet. However, no significant difference was observed in average daily gain across treatments, indicating that faveleira hay, even in small quantities, and tifton hay were able to meet the nutritional requirements of animals to support a good average daily gain. The inclusion of up to 99% faveleira hay in fodder salt formulations did not affect voluntary intake of forage, water and dry matter, average daily gain, feed conversion, and feed efficiency. Lambs supplemented with faveleira fodder salt had average daily gains within the optimal range for slaughter and high feed conversion and feed efficiency values. Faveleira was shown to be an effective supplementary feed alternative in sheep. 

  14. Climatology of salt transitions and implications for stone weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, C M; Brimblecombe, P; Menéndez, B; Benavente, D; Harris, I; Déqué, M

    2011-06-01

    This work introduces the notion of salt climatology. It shows how climate affects salt thermodynamic and the potential to relate long-term salt damage to climate types. It mainly focuses on specific sites in Western Europe, which include some cities in France and Peninsular Spain. Salt damage was parameterised using the number of dissolution-crystallisation events for unhydrated (sodium chloride) and hydrated (sodium sulphate) systems. These phase transitions have been calculated using daily temperature and relative humidity from observation meteorological data and Climate Change models' output (HadCM3 and ARPEGE). Comparing the number of transitions with meteorological seasonal data allowed us to develop techniques to estimate the frequency of salt transitions based on the local climatology. Results show that it is possible to associate the Köppen-Geiger climate types with potential salt weathering. Temperate fully humid climates seem to offer the highest potential for salt damage and possible higher number of transitions in summer. Climates with dry summers tend to show a lesser frequency of transitions in summer. The analysis of temperature, precipitation and relative output from Climate Change models suggests changes in the Köppen-Geiger climate types and changes in the patterns of salt damage. For instance, West Europe areas with a fully humid climate may change to a more Mediterranean like or dry climates, and consequently the seasonality of different salt transitions. The accuracy and reliability of the projections might be improved by simultaneously running multiple climate models (ensembles). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  16. Bile salts secretion in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, J P; Areias, E; Meneses, L; Tiago, E

    1977-02-01

    The bile salts secretion was studied in ten normal subjects and sixteen patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, in a basal period and during 60 minutes after Secretin injection. Total bile salts were measured by a modification of the enzymatic method of Iwata and Yamasaki and the individual bile salts were separated by silica gel thin-layer chromatography. During the 60 minutes after Secretin the mean concentration was 2.88 +/- 2.58 muM/ml in normals and 1.96 +/- 1.25 muM/ml in cirrhotics. The difference is not significant. During the first 20 minutes however the concentration was higher than 3 muM/ml in 8 out of 10 normals and lower than 2 muM/ml in 10 out 16 cirrhotics. The ratios of tri-to dihydroxy bile salts was similar in both groups. The ratios between bile salts conjugated with glycine and with taurine was higher in normals, and the ratio between free to conjugated bile salts was higher in cirrhotics. The lower concentration of total bile salts immediatly after Secretin, the higher proportion of taurin conjugates and of free bile salts could be important factors in the difficulties of fact digestion and absorption frequently found in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.

  17. Compressibility of granulated rock salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinebaugh, R.E.

    1979-08-01

    Crushed rock salt will be used extensively at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as a material for backfilling underground openings. This document addresses one of the characteristics of crushed salt which must be known to assess the consequences of its usage, namely, compressibility.

  18. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  19. History Leaves Salts Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    These plots, or spectra, show that a rock dubbed 'McKittrick' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site at Meridiani Planum, Mars, has higher concentrations of sulfur and bromine than a nearby patch of soil nicknamed 'Tarmac.' These data were taken by Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, which uses curium-244 to assess the elemental composition of rocks and soil. Only portions of the targets' full spectra are shown to highlight the significant differences in elemental concentrations between 'McKittrick' and 'Tarmac.' Intensities are plotted on a logarithmic scale.A nearby rock named Guadalupe similarly has extremely high concentrations of sulfur, but very little bromine. This 'element fractionation' typically occurs when a watery brine slowly evaporates and various salt compounds are precipitated in sequence.

  20. Salt resistant crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Stuart J; Negrão, Sónia; Tester, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker-assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Brine migration in salt in a thermal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M.; Lerche, M.; Lesher, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Salt deposits have long been considered viable repositories for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. However, brine trapped in salt tends to migrate up thermal gradients, such as can develop around radioactive waste storage containers, potentially promoting corrosion of containment structures. Brine inclusions move up the temperature gradient through the three main steps: 1) the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the inclusion caused by increased salt solubility, 2) ordinary and thermal diffusion of dissolved salt ions within the inclusion, and 3) precipitation of salt at the cold side of the inclusion due to local supersaturation. This process of brine transport through salt under a thermal gradient is generally referred to as thermal migration. Here we investigated thermal migration of brine inclusion in salts for a wide range of mean temperatures (~ 50 °C to ~200 °C) and temperature gradients (~ 10 °C/cm to ~57 °C/cm). With time brine inclusions moving towards the heat source become elongated parallel to the thermal gradient. We quantified the rate of brine migration as a function of mean temperature and thermal gradient using time-lapse optical microscope. X -ray and neutron tomography were used to visualize and quantify 3D spatial distribution of brine inclusion in a salt crystal at different stages of thermal migration. Migration velocities are shown to increase with temperature, temperature gradient and size of inclusion. We find an abrupt increase in migration velocity at certain time steps of thermal migration. Migration velocities of brine inclusions ranged from 0.1 m/year to 30.7 m/year. Empirical equations at different velocity regions for brine inclusions were obtained by fitting exponential equations to the experimental data with high coefficient of determination values (R2> 0.94).The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical migration rates obtained using a previous analytical model.

  2. Effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Gogoi, Nirmali; Hussain, Mubshar; Barthakur, Sharmistha; Paul, Sreyashi; Bharadwaj, Nandita; Migdadi, Hussein M; Alghamdi, Salem S; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-09-01

    transgenics and crop management strategies may enhance salt tolerance and yield in grain legumes on salt-affected soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Consumer knowledge, attitudes and salt-related behavior in the Middle-East: the case of Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreddine, Lara; Akl, Christelle; Al-Shaar, Laila; Almedawar, Mohamad M; Isma'eel, Hussain

    2014-11-13

    Sodium intake is high in Lebanon, a country of the Middle East region where rates of cardiovascular diseases are amongst the highest in the world. This study examines salt-related knowledge, attitude and self-reported behaviors amongst adult Lebanese consumers and investigates the association of socio-demographic factors, knowledge and attitudes with salt-related behaviors. Using a multicomponent questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted in nine supermarkets in Beirut, based on systematic random sampling (n = 442). Factors associated with salt-related behaviors were examined by multivariate regression analysis. Specific knowledge and attitude gaps were documented with only 22.6% of participants identifying processed foods as the main source of salt, 55.6% discerning the relationship between salt and sodium, 32.4% recognizing the daily limit of salt intake and 44.7% reporting being concerned about the amount of salt in their diet. The majority of participants reported behavioral practices that increase salt intake with only 38.3% checking for salt label content, 43.7% reporting that their food purchases are influenced by salt content and 38.6% trying to buy low-salt foods. Knowledge, attitudes and older age were found to significantly predict salt-related behaviors. Findings offer valuable insight on salt-related knowledge, attitude and behaviors in a sample of Lebanese consumers and provide key information that could spur the development of evidence-based salt-reduction interventions specific to the Middle East.

  4. Consumer Knowledge, Attitudes and Salt-Related Behavior in the Middle-East: The Case of Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Nasreddine

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium intake is high in Lebanon, a country of the Middle East region where rates of cardiovascular diseases are amongst the highest in the world. This study examines salt-related knowledge, attitude and self-reported behaviors amongst adult Lebanese consumers and investigates the association of socio-demographic factors, knowledge and attitudes with salt-related behaviors. Using a multicomponent questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted in nine supermarkets in Beirut, based on systematic random sampling (n = 442. Factors associated with salt-related behaviors were examined by multivariate regression analysis. Specific knowledge and attitude gaps were documented with only 22.6% of participants identifying processed foods as the main source of salt, 55.6% discerning the relationship between salt and sodium, 32.4% recognizing the daily limit of salt intake and 44.7% reporting being concerned about the amount of salt in their diet. The majority of participants reported behavioral practices that increase salt intake with only 38.3% checking for salt label content, 43.7% reporting that their food purchases are influenced by salt content and 38.6% trying to buy low-salt foods. Knowledge, attitudes and older age were found to significantly predict salt-related behaviors. Findings offer valuable insight on salt-related knowledge, attitude and behaviors in a sample of Lebanese consumers and provide key information that could spur the development of evidence-based salt-reduction interventions specific to the Middle East.

  5. Quantitative assessment of in-situ salt karstification using shear wave velocity, Dead Sea

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ezersky; Legchenko, Anatoli

    2014-01-01

    The Dead Sea (DS) coastal areas have been dramatically affected by sinkhole formation since around 1990. Such sinkholes along both Israeli and Jordanian shores are linked to karst cavities that form through slow salt dissolution. A quantitative estimate of such in-situ salt karstification would be an important indicator of sinkhole hazard. One of the indications of salt karstification is its increased hydraulic conductivity, caused by the development of dissolution cavities forming conducting...

  6. Influence of pre-salt topographic features on supra-salt deformation in Mediterranean basins: Geology vs. physical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Oriol; Vidal-Royo, Oskar; Gratacós, Oscar; Roca, Eduard; Muñoz, Josep Anton; Esestime, Paolo; Rodriguez, Karyna; Yazmin Piragauta, Mary; Feliu, Nil

    2017-04-01

    The presence of a thick Messinian evaporite unit is a well known feature of the Mediterranean basins. This salt unit is composed of three sub-units (Lower, Mobile and Upper Units) in the Northwest Mediterranean. In contrast, in the Eastern Mediterranean it is characterized by a multilayered evaporite sequence. In both regions the salt acted as a detachment favoring the downslope gravitational failure of the overlying sediments in a thin-skinned deformation regime (e.g. Liguro-Provençal or Levant basins). As a result, these salt-bearing passive margins exhibit the classical three-domain structural zonation characterized by upslope extension, intermediate translation and downslope contraction. Nevertheless, the presence of pre-salt reliefs (e.g. irregularly eroded palaeotopography or volcanic edifices) is rather common in the translational domain of the Northwestern Mediterranean (e.g. Liguro-Provençal and West Corsica margins). In this scenario, pre-salt reliefs act as flow barriers and hinder salt drainage. When their summit lies close or above the top salt, these structures may partially or fully block salt flow. They also disrupt locally the structural zonation of the passive margin and constrain cover deformation. In contrast, in the Eastern Mediterranean the Eratosthenes seamount is characterized by a large scale submerged massif (ca. 120 km in size) that significantly influenced the structural evolution of the surrounding areas. This inherited relief acted as a buttress and deflected the Messinian salt flow constraining supra-salt deformation (e.g. Levant Basin and Nile margin). In addition, the geometry of the Eratosthenes seamount also restrained the structural style of the allochthonous salt that was expulsed during the development of the Cyprus subduction zone to the north. Using an experimental approach (sandbox models) and new analysis techniques, we investigate salt and supra-salt deformation in response to two different types of pre-salt relief: 1

  7. Genetic damage in Rhinella marina populations in habitats affected by agriculture in the middle region of the Sinú River, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Esquivel, Ángel; Viloria-Rivas, Jose; Marrugo-Negrete, Jose

    2017-10-03

    Contamination with pesticide residues affects the environmental health of agroecosystems, especially the amphibian fauna that lives in these environments. The objective of the present study was to determine pesticides concentrations in sediments of agroecosystems and to evaluate genetic damage in Rhinella marina populations living in these zones. A total of 91 individuals were collected, 51 in the group exposed in different areas of the middle region of the Sinú River (Irrigation District of Mocari 16, Irrigation District of Aguas Negras 21, Irrigation District of Cerete 14) and 40 in a control group; at the same time, 36 subsamples of sediments were taken at each sampled station to determine pesticides organochlorine by means of chromatography coupled with ISQ Thermo Scientific mass spectrometer. The micronucleus test was applied in erythrocytes of the individuals collected. Results showed the presence of persistent organochlorine pesticides (POPs) in the sediment samples (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDD) of agricultural soils. Two individuals were registered with abnormalities in their limbs at the Mocari station, representing 12.5% of the morphological malformations to this sector. Micronucleus analysis revealed statistically significant genetic damage in exposed individuals (Mocari 9.87 ± 5.1, Cerete 7.7 ± 1.7, Aguas Negras 5.6 ± 3.6) with respect to the control group (2.4 ± 1.9) (p < 0.05). Spearman correlation analysis revealed a positive association between genetic damage and POP concentrations (p < 0.05). In addition, cellular alterations such as nuclear buds, and pyknosis (cell death), were statistically significant in the exposed group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). This study suggests that there is evidence for morphological and genotoxic effects in R. marina populations inhabiting areas influenced by agriculture, possibly associated with the presence of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDE.

  8. [Seasonal characteristics of soil respiration and affecting factors under typical vegetations in the water-wind erosion crisscross region of the Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hui-Hui; Fan, Jun; Qi, Li-Bin; Hao, Ming-De

    2010-12-01

    By the soil respiration system, the characteristics of soil respiration were investigated to explore the correlations between soil respiration and soil temperature, soil water and soil nutrient under different land use patterns in the water-wind erosion crisscross region of the Loess Plateau. The results indicated that the seasonal changing characteristics of soil respiration were distinguished significantly among different vegetations, and soil water content and temperature were the main influencing factors. Soil respiration seasonal changing ranges, such as bare land, crop land, Medicago sativa land, Caragana korshinskii land, abandoned wild grass land, Stipa bungeana land, wild grass land, degraded Medicago sativa land, sloping Medicago sativa land, sloping abandoned wild grass land, sloping crop land and terraced crop land, were 0.32-0.82, 0.41-2.83, 0.74-2.81, 0.76-3.07, 0.67-2.79, 0.51-2.12, 0.56-2.05, 0.59-1.66, 0.42-2.09, 0.31-1.86, 0.32-1.93 and 0.41-3.17 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1). Comparing seasonal changing magnitudes of soil respiration, crop land was the biggest (167% - 203%), abandoned wild grass land (117% -154%), Caragana korshinskii land (134%), Stipa bungeana land (129%), Medicago sativa land (119%-120%) and bare land (94%) followed crop land. The smallest was degraded Medicago sativa land (92%). Bare land and degraded Medicago sativa land had small seasonal variation during the study period. Monthly average values of soil carbon flux (soil respiration) of Medicago sativa land and Caragana korshinskii land were maximal, but the maximum values under crop land were observed in July and August. Besides Q10 of crop land was also maximal, which reached 1.86. There were significant correlations between soil respiration and soil organic matter and available K. Moreover, soil respiration was affected by soil organic matter and total nitrogen in July and August when the water and heat condition were plentiful, but soil ammonium nitrogen had negative impact

  9. Draft Mercury Aquatic Wildlife Benchmarks for Great Salt Lake ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the EPA Region 8's rationale for selecting aquatic wildlife dietary and tissue mercury benchmarks for use in interpreting available data collected from the Great Salt Lake and surrounding wetlands. EPA Region 8 has conducted a literature review to update and refine the aquatic wildlife dietary and tissue benchmarks for mercury that may be used for data assessment until water quality criteria can be derived. The document describes how aquatic wildlife dietary and tissue benchmarks for mercury have been compiled for existing literature sources and the approach for how they will be used to evaluate whether the Great Salt Lake and surrounding wetlands meet its designated use for aquatic wildlife.

  10. Molten Salt Promoting Effect in Double Salt CO2 Absorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong S.; Chen, Haobo; Singh, Prabhakar; King, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of molten salts as catalysts for CO2 absorption by MgO, and extend these observations to the MgO-containing double salt oxides. We will show that the phenomena involved with CO2 absorption by MgO and MgO-based double salts are similar and general, but with some important differences. This paper focuses on the following key concepts: i) identification of conditions that favor or disfavor participation of isolated MgO during double salt absorption, and investigation of methods to increase the absorption capacity of double salt systems by including MgO participation; ii) examination of the relationship between CO2 uptake and melting point of the promoter salt, leading to the recognition of the role of pre-melting (surface melting) in these systems; and iii) extension of the reaction pathway model developed for the MgO-NaNO3 system to the double salt systems. This information advances our understanding of MgO-based CO2 absorption systems for application with pre-combustion gas streams.

  11. Iodized Salt Sales in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Maalouf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iodized salt has been an important source of dietary iodine, a trace element important for regulating human growth, development, and metabolic functions. This analysis identified iodized table salt sales as a percentage of retail salt sales using Nielsen ScanTrack. We identified 1117 salt products, including 701 salt blends and 416 other salt products, 57 of which were iodized. When weighted by sales volume in ounces or per item, 53% contained iodized salt. These findings may provide a baseline for future monitoring of sales of iodized salt.

  12. Dietary Salt Exacerbates Experimental Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Alan L; Liu, Bo; Rogers, Troy D; Sartor, R Balfour; Miao, Edward A

    2017-08-01

    The Western diet is characterized by high protein, sugar, fat, and low fiber intake, and is widely believed to contribute to the incidence and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, high sodium chloride salt content, a defining feature of processed foods, has not been considered as a possible environmental factor that might drive IBD. We set out to bridge this gap. We examined murine models of colitis on either a high salt diet (HSD) or a low salt diet. We demonstrate that an HSD exacerbates inflammatory pathology in the IL-10-deficient murine model of colitis relative to mice fed a low salt diet. This was correlated with enhanced expression of numerous proinflammatory cytokines. Surprisingly, sodium accumulated in the colons of mice on an HSD, suggesting a direct effect of salt within the colon. Similar to the IL-10-deficient model, an HSD also enhanced cytokine expression during infection by Salmonella typhimurium This occurred in the first 3 d of infection, suggesting that an HSD potentiates an innate immune response. Indeed, in cultured dendritic cells we found that high salt media potentiates cytokine expression downstream of TLR4 activation via p38 MAPK and SGK1. A third common colitis model, administration of dextran sodium sulfate, was hopelessly confounded by the high sodium content of the dextran sodium sulfate. Our results raise the possibility that high dietary salt is an environmental factor that drives increased inflammation in IBD. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. A maternal high salt diet disturbs cardiac and vascular function of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Kana; Kagota, Satomi; Van Vliet, Bruce N; Wakuda, Hirokazu; Shinozuka, Kazumasa

    2015-09-01

    High salt intake is an environmental factor that promotes increased blood pressure. We previously demonstrated that high salt diet causes aggravation of hypertension and impaired vasodilation in response to nitric oxide (NO) in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), which exhibit low sensitivity to salt in adulthood. Changes in offspring blood pressure and cardiovascular structures have been reported. However, it remains unclear to what extent a maternal high salt intake may affect cardiac and/or vascular function in offspring. Therefore, we investigated influence of exposure to a maternal high salt diet during gestation and lactation on offspring's cardiac and arterial functions in SHR. SHR dams were fed either a high salt diet or a control diet. After weaning, the offspring were fed the high salt diet or control diet for 8weeks. Compared with offspring of control diet-fed dams, at 12weeks of age, offspring of the high-salt diet-fed dams had lower blood pressure, heart rate, indices of both left ventricular systolic and diastolic function, and a decreased aortic vasodilation response to NO. Postnatal high salt intake did not affect blood pressure, vasodilatory response, or cardiac function in offspring of high-salt diet-fed dams. Neither maternal nor postnatal dietary salt altered levels of lipid peroxide, superoxide dismutase, or angiotensinogen mRNA in serum and ventricle of the offspring. Exposure to high maternal dietary salt induces cardiac and vascular dysfunction in offspring. These results point to the possible importance of avoiding excess dietary salt during gestation and lactation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A complex rearrangement on chromosome 22 affecting both homologues; haplo-insufficiency of the Cat eye syndrome region may have no clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriek, Marjolein; Szuhai, Karoly; Kant, Sarina G; White, Stefan J; Dauwerse, Hans; Fiegler, Heike; Carter, Nigel P; Knijnenburg, Jeroen; den Dunnen, Johan T; Tanke, Hans J; Breuning, Martijn H; Rosenberg, Carla

    2006-08-01

    The presence of highly homologous sequences, known as low copy repeats, predisposes for unequal recombination within the 22q11 region. This can lead to genomic imbalances associated with several known genetic disorders. We report here a developmentally delayed patient carrying different rearrangements on both chromosome 22 homologues, including a previously unreported rearrangement within the 22q11 region. One homologue carries a deletion of the proximal part of chromosome band 22q11. To our knowledge, a 'pure' deletion of this region has not been described previously. Four copies of this 22q11 region, however, are associated with Cat eye syndrome (CES). While the phenotypic impact of this deletion is unclear, familial investigation revealed five normal relatives carrying this deletion, suggesting that haplo-insufficiency of the CES region has little clinical relevance. The other chromosome 22 homologue carries a duplication of the Velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS) region. In addition, a previously undescribed deletion of 22q12.1, located in a relatively gene-poor region, was identified. As the clinical features of patients suffering from a duplication of the VCFS/DGS region have proven to be extremely variable, it is impossible to postulate as to the contribution of the 22q12.1 deletion to the phenotype of the patient. Additional patients with a deletion within this region are needed to establish the consequences of this copy number alteration. This study highlights the value of using different genomic approaches to unravel chromosomal alterations in order to study their phenotypic impact.

  15. DFT analysis of the structure and IR spectrum of potassium salt of diphenylsulfophthalide - A model compound for polydiphenylenesulfophthalide salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishlov, N. M.; Akhmetzyanov, Sh S.; Khursan, S. L.

    2017-02-01

    Experimental IR spectra of crystalline dried and non-dried potassium diphenylsulfophthalide (TAC-K) as a model compound for polymeric salts are presented. DFT analysis (B3LYP/6-311G(d,p)) of the structure and IR spectra of a series of compounds similar in structure to TAC-K as well as their dimers indicates that the sulfonate group environment strongly affects the positions of absorption bands (ABs) of vibrations of Ssbnd O bonds and demonstrates that information on the exact structure of ion clusters is needed for reliable and unambiguous assignment of the ABs in experimental IR spectra of real sulfonate ion containing systems to particular vibrational modes. Various ways of metal ion coordination with sulfonate ion, as well as their reflection in IR spectra of model compounds, are considered and discussed. Using TAC-K as an example, the effect of an intramolecular hydrogen bond on the vibrational modes of sulfonate group and hydroxy group is considered. The effect of ion aggregation on the shape of the IR spectrum of TAC-K is analyzed for an energetically favorable dimer of this salt as an example. Based on a combination of calculated, literature and reference data, a number of ABs in the IR spectra of TAC-K have been tentatively assigned. In particular, the bands in the region of 3230-3180 cm-1 have been assigned to ν(Osbnd H); those at 1240-1160 cm-1, to νas(SO3-); the AB at 1080 cm-1, to νs(SO3-); that at 616 cm-1, to δ(oop)s(SO3-); and that at 570 cm-1, to δ(ip)as(SO3-).

  16. Evaluation of rice genotypes to salt stress in different growth stages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tolerant genotypes were tested in young seedling stage in hydroponic system and then reproductive stage in 2010. Results show that vegetative growth was less affected by salt stress comparison to reproductive stage. Na and Na-K ratio in tolerant genotypes were lower than suspectible genotypes in salt condition in ...

  17. Effect of added salt on preformed surface nanobubbles: A scaling estimate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a scaling argument to quantify the role of added electrolyte salt in affecting the stability and the morphology of preformed surface nanobubbles on hydrophobic substrates like the water-OTS-silicon or the water-HOPG interfaces. The added salt controls the electric double

  18. Effect of Dried Lake Salt (Kanwa) on Lipid profile and Heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peripatum cardiomyopathy is a devastating form of cardiac failure affecting women mainly in their last month of pregnancy or early postpartum with high incidence in Northern Nigeria where the consumption of dried lake salt postpartum is high. The current work was designed to study the effect of dried lake salt on lipid ...

  19. Facilitated transport of hydrophilic salts by mixtures of anion and cation carriers and by ditopic carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrisstoffels, L.A.J.; de Jong, Feike; Reinhoudt, David; Sivelli, Stefano; Gazzola, Licia; Casnati, Alessandro; Ungaro, Rocco

    1999-01-01

    Anion transfer to the membrane phase affects the extraction efficiency of salt transport by cation carriers 1 and 3. Addition of anion receptors 5 or 6 to cation carriers 1, 3, or 4 in the membrane phase enhances the transport of salts under conditions in which the cation carriers alone do not

  20. Salt intake, plasma sodium, and worldwide salt reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; Macgregor, Graham A

    2012-06-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that a reduction in salt intake from the current level of approximately 9-12 g/d in most countries of the world to the recommended level of 5-6 g/d lowers blood pressure (BP) in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals. A further reduction to 3-4 g/d has a greater effect. Prospective studies and outcome trials have demonstrated that a lower salt intake is related to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Cost-effectiveness analyses have documented that salt reduction is more or at the very least just as cost-effective as tobacco control in reducing cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The mechanisms whereby salt raises blood pressure and increases cardiovascular risk are not fully understood. The existing concepts focus on the tendency for an increase in extracellular fluid volume. Increasing evidence suggests that small increases in plasma sodium may have a direct effect on BP and the cardiovascular system, independent of extracellular volume. All countries should adopt a coherent and workable strategy to reduce salt intake in the whole population. Even a modest reduction in population salt intake will have major beneficial effects on health, along with major cost savings.

  1. Urine biomarkers of kidney injury among adolescents in Nicaragua, a region affected by an epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramírez-Rubio, Oriana; Amador, Juan José; Kaufman, James S; Weiner, Daniel E; Parikh, Chirag R; Khan, Usman; McClean, Michael D; Laws, Rebecca L; López-Pilarte, Damaris; Friedman, David J; Kupferman, Joseph; Brooks, Daniel R

    2016-01-01

    ...; however, the aetiology remains unknown. Because individuals are frequently diagnosed with CKD in early adulthood, we measured biomarkers of kidney injury among adolescents in different regions of Nicaragua to assess whether kidney damage...

  2. Salting-in and salting-out of water-soluble polymers in aqueous salt solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Jahani, Farahnaz

    2012-05-03

    To obtain further experimental evidence for the mechanisms of the salting effect produced by the addition of salting-out or sating-in inducing electrolytes to aqueous solutions of water-soluble polymers, systematic studies on the vapor-liquid equilibria and liquid-liquid equilibria of aqueous solutions of several polymers are performed in the presence of a large series of electrolytes. Polymers are polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 250 (PEGDME250), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 2000 (PEGDME2000), and polypropylene glycol 400 (PPG400), and the investigated electrolytes are KCl, NH(4)Cl, MgCl(2), (CH(3))(4)NCl, NaCl, NaNO(3), Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit (tri-sodium citrate). Aqueous solutions of PPG400 form aqueous two-phase systems with all the investigated salts; however, other investigated polymers form aqueous two-phase systems only with Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit. A relation was found between the salting-out or sating-in effects of electrolyte on the polymer aqueous solutions and the slopes of the constant water activity lines of ternary polymer-salt aqueous solutions, so that, in the case of the salting-out effect, the constant water activity lines had a concave slope, but in the case of the salting-in effects, the constant water activity lines had a convex slope. The effect of temperature, anion of electrolyte, cation of electrolyte, and type and molar mass of polymers were studied and the results interpreted in terms of the solute-water and solute-solute interactions. The salting-out effect results from the formation of ion (specially anion)-water hydration complexes, which, in turn, decreases hydration, and hence, the solubility of the polymer and the salting-in effect results from a direct binding of the cations to the ether oxygens of the polymers.

  3. [Gold salt alveolitis in 3 patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, E; Tomsic, M; Logar, D

    1995-06-01

    When the characteristic symptoms for an interstitial pulmonary disease arise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, a drug-induced alveolitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. In such cases, the administration of the drug and gold salts should be stopped. The cases of three patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had been treated with gold salts for 2 months (A), 23 months (B), and 36 months (C) are presented. The total dose of sodium aureothiomalate amounted to 280 mg for patient A, 1150 mg for patient B, and 2190 mg for patient C. Clinical signs, X-rays of the lungs, pulmonary function tests