rare entity, the correct diagnosis is of great importance for the indication of proper therapy. KEY WORDS: America ... Salpingitis is the most common serious infection in women .... immune systems, especially those recipients of stem-cell and.
Skibsted, L; Sperling, Lene; Hansen, U
-examination, it was found in 24 patients. Ten women with SIN were bilaterally salpingectomized. Only one woman had SIN in both tubes. Women with SIN gave birth to as many children as women without SIN. After SIN had been diagnosed, no children were born, but this was not statistically different from the frequency of births...... with infertility, pregnancies, outcome of pregnancies, births, pelvic inflammatory disease and salpingitis. Sections from the isthmus were present in the specimens from 223 tubes from 193 patients and were analysed by the same pathologist. Originally, SIN was found in 12 patients but on re...
Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Bisgaard, Magne; Christensen, Jens Peter
Outbreaks of salpingitis and peritonitis cause major economic losses due to high mortality, reduced egg-production, and culling. The aim of the present study was to characterize, in detail, lesions associated with increased mortality in layers due to avianpathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC......) and to investigate the population structure of the E. coli involved, which is important for selection of optimal treatment and prophylactic strategies. Among 322 layers received from eight farms with increased mortality due to E. coli, three lesion types were observed; sepsis-like lesions, chronic salpingitis...... and peritonitis, and chronic salpingitis and peritonitis associated with sepsis-like lesions. One hundred isolates of E. coli obtained in pure culture from the different lesion types were selected for genetic characterization. Six out of 10 submissions (two farms with two submissions) were considered clonal...
Pires dos Santos, Teresa M S; Bisgaard, Magne; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian
A collection of 46 avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates was examined for the presence of mutators by determining the rate of mutation to rifampicin resistance. The collection included 34 E. coli isolates obtained in pure culture from chronic lesions of salpingitis and peritonitis in 34...... broiler breeders, of which 12 were associated with the development of secondary septicemia. Twelve additional isolates were obtained from a clonal outbreak (ST95) of E. coli peritonitis syndrome (EPS), the lesions of which changed gradually over time into a subacute/chronic form. The hypothesis...
Occurrence of adhesin-encoding operons in Escherichia coli isolated from breeders with salpingitis and chicks with omphalitis Ocorrência de operons codificadores de adesinas em Escherichia coli isolada de aves reprodutoras com salpingite e de pintinhos com onfalite
Full Text Available The occurrence of fim, pap and sfa operons in Escherichia coli isolated from breeders with salpingitis and chicks with omphalitis was evaluated. Analysis of 100 E. coli isolates, by colony hybridization tests, showed that 78 (78% were fim+, one (1% was sfa+, seven (7% were fim+ associated with pap+, eigth (8% were fim+ and sfa+, one (1% was fim+pap+sfa+ and five (5% isolates did not hybridize with any probe. These results suggest that fim adhesion-encoding operon plays an important role in pathogenesis of E. coli infection in chickens with salpingitis and omphalitis.Ocorrência dos operons fim, pap e sfa em amostras de Escherichia coli isoladas de reprodutoras com salpingite e pintinhos com onfalite foi avaliada. A análise de 100 amostras através dos testes de hibridização de colônia mostrou que 78 (78% amostras eram fim+, uma (1% era sfa+, sete (7% eram fim+ associada a pap+, oito (8% eram fim+ e uma (1% era fim+pap+sfa+ e cinco (5% amostras não hibridizaram com nenhuma sonda. Estes resultados sugerem que o operon fim pode ter um importante papel na patogenia da infecção de Escherichia coli em reprodutoras com salpingite e pintinhos com onfalite.
Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Thøfner, Ida; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth
Several types of Escherichia coli have been associated with extra-intestinal infections in poultry, however, they may vary significantly in their virulence potential. The aim of the present study was to investigate the virulence of five strains of E. coli obtained from different disease......) had a distinct ability to cause disease. Results of the study shows major differences in virulence of different strains of E. coli in ascending infections; however, there was no indication of tissue-specific adaptation, since strains obtained from lesions unrelated to the reproductive system were...... fully capable of causing experimental infection. In conclusion, the study provides evidence for the clinical outcome of infection with E. coli in poultry is largely influenced by the specific strain as well as individual host factors....
Bæk, Ole; Astvad, Karen; Serizawa, Reza
pain. Computed tomography scan and ultrasound examination of the pelvis raised suspicion of salpingitis. A laparoscopy exposed a necrotic salpinx and several small white elements that resembled peritoneal carcinomatosis. Histological workup however determined that she suffered from disseminated...
Sørensen, Jette Led; Thranov, I R; Hoff, G E
Among women applying for termination of pregnancy, 5-17% are infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. The prevalence is higher among women under 20 years of age (12-30%), in nulliparae and when Neisseria gonorrhoeae are found simultaneously. If women applying for termination of pregnancy with Chlamydia...... infection are not treated, 10-60% will develop pelvic infection after abortion. Salpingitis caused by Chlamydia runs a milder clinical course than salpingitis caused by gonococci or other etiology but salpingitis due to Chlamydia is regarded as one of the most important causes of tubal infertility...... and extrauterine pregnancy. The symptoms may be discharge and dysuria or objective findings such as cervicitis and pathological findings in wet smears of the cervical secretion. The majority of women applying for termination of pregnancy with Chlamydia infection have no symptoms. Only few investigations have...
Poulsen, Louise Ladefoged; Thoefner, Ida; Bisgaard, Magne
of E. coli, isolated from broiler breeders with salpingitis, to the progeny and the possibility of subsequent first week mortality. Four parent flocks were followed during the whole production period (20-60 weeks) by post mortem and bacteriological examination of randomly selected dead birds. Newly...... selected for Pulsed-Field-Gel-Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multi-Locus-Sequence-Typing (MLST) to determine their clonal relationships. E. coli was the main cause of both salpingitis in parents and first week mortality in broilers, and E. coli dominated the bacterial flora of the cloaca of newly hatched...... chickens. PFGE of E. coli showed identical band patterns in isolates from the three different sources indicating a transmission of E. coli from parent birds to chickens. In conclusion, E. coli isolated from salpingitis in broiler parents were found to be transmitted to broilers in which some sequence types...
Pors, Susanne Elisabeth; Skjerning, Ragnhild Bager; Flachs, Esben M.
Gallibacterium anatis is a Gram-negative bacterium and major cause of salpingitis and peritonitis in egg-laying hens, thereby contributing to decreased egg production and increased mortality among the hens. Due to widespread drug resistance and antigenic diversity, novel prophylactic measures...
Kim, Jae Seung; Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, In Ae; Park, Jae Hyung; Yoon, Dae Young; Yeon, Kyung Mo
To compare the tissue reactions of various water-soluble and oil-based contrast agents on the endometrium, salpingeal mumosa, and peritoneum. Thirty-three rabbits were used for evaluating the histologic reactions of uterine endometrium, salpinx, and peritoneum. Hysterosalpingography(HSG) was underwent in these rabbits by used Lipiodol, Hexabrix, Rayvist. Ultravist-300, Ultravist-370, and normal saline. Pathologic results were obtained in each of the six groups from the uterine endometrium, salpingeal mucosa, and peritoneum without knowledge of the contrast agent used and time interval from HSG. Mild inflammations were observed in the endometrium, salpingeal mucosa, and peritoneum during the first week of HSG in all rabbits in which water-soluble contrast agents were used. Although there was no significant difference in the degree of inflammation among the groups using various contrast agents, the group with oil-based contrast agent(Lipiodol) showed delayed absorption of contrast agent in the peritoneum, frequent intravasation, fat granuloma, peritoneal adhesion, or uterine infarction. Our results suggest that water-soluble contrast agents can be used safely for HSG, but the use of oil-based contrast agent is questional in safety and should be avoid in patients with tubal obstruction, salpingitis, or endometritis
... disrupt the pH balance of the vagina. Common yeast infection symptoms include vaginal itching and a white, thick discharge that looks ... and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/candidiasis.htm. Accessed Aug. 27, ... Vagina, Cervix, Toxic Shock Syndrome, Endometritis, and Salpingitis. In: ...
Johnson, Timothy J.; Fernandez-Alarcon, Claudia; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Nolan, Lisa K.; Trampel, Darrell W.; Seemann, Torsten
Gallibacterium anatis is a member of the normal flora of avian hosts and an important causative agent of peritonitis and salpingitis in laying hens. Here we report the availability of the first completed G. anatis genome sequence of strain UMN179, isolated from an Iowa laying hen with peritonitis.
Johnson, Timothy J.; Fernandez-Alarcon, Claudia; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Nolan, Lisa K.; Trampel, Darrell W.; Seemann, Torsten
Gallibacterium anatis is a member of the normal flora of avian hosts and an important causative agent of peritonitis and salpingitis in laying hens. Here we report the availability of the first completed G. anatis genome sequence of strain UMN179, isolated from an Iowa laying hen with peritonitis. PMID:21602325
Bager, Ragnhild J.; Kudirkiene, Egle; da Piedade, Isabelle
The Gram-negative bacterium Gallibacterium anatis is a major cause of salpingitis and peritonitis in commercial egg-layers, leading to reduced egg production and increased mortality. Unfortunately, widespread multidrug resistance and antigenic diversity makes it difficult to control infections...
K. H. Odubamowo
Full Text Available Background. The incidence of tubal ectopic gestation caused by schistosomiasis induced tubal pathology is undocumented in this environment, which may be due to rarity of this pathology. Bilateral tubal gestation is common in patients that have undergone in vitro fertilization. We report a hitherto undocumented case of spontaneous bilateral ectopic gestation following tubal schistosomiasis. Case Report. Mrs. OB was a 32-year-old G4P3+0 (3 alive woman who complained of abdominal pain and bleeding per vaginam of 4 and 2 days’ duration respectively following 8 weeks of amenorrhea. A clinical impression of ruptured ectopic gestation was confirmed by ultrasound scanning. She had bilateral salpingectomy with histology of specimens showing bilateral ectopic gestation with Schistosoma haematobium induced salpingitis (findings of Schistosoma haematobium ova noted on slide. Conclusion. Schistosoma induced salpingitis is a rare but possible cause of bilateral tubal gestation.
Barillier , Hélène
Mention TB; 15 to 20 % of french couples must seek professional help for problems of fertility. The principal etiologies of female sterility are problems of ovulation, salpingitis, endometriosis, DES, problems with cervical mucus and deformations of the cervix. A complete, precise and methodological study of the individual female is required in order to find the origin of the problem so as to apply the most adapted treatment. The treatment of sterility is done essentially with surgery and thr...
Landers, D.V.; Sweet, R.L.
Tuboovarian abscess is a well-recognized complication of acute salpingitis and has been reported in as many as one third of hospital admissions for acute salpingitis. The incidence of tuboovarian abscess is expected to increase as a result of the current epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases and their sequelae. Patients with tuboovarian abscess most commonly present with lower abdominal pain and an adnexal mass(es). Fever and leukocytosis may be absent. Ultrasound, computed tomographic scans, laparoscopy, or laparotomy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Tuboovarian abscess may be unilateral or bilateral regardless of intrauterine contraceptive device usage. Tuboovarian abscess is polymicrobial with a preponderance of anaerobic organisms. An initial conservative antimicrobial approach to the management of the unruptured tuboovarian abscess is appropriate if the antimicrobial agents used can penetrate abscesses, remain active within the abscess environment, and are active against the major pathogens in tuboovarian abscess, including the resistant gram-negative anaerobes such as Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides bivius. However, if the patient does not begin to show a response within a reasonable amount of time, about 48 to 72 hours, surgical intervention should be undertaken. Suspicion of rupture should remain an indication for immediate operation. Once operation is undertaken, a conservative approach with unilateral adnexectomy for one-side tuboovarian abscess is appropriate if future fertility or hormone production is desired
Lee, Nam Kyung; Choi, Kyung Un; Han, Ga Jin; Kwon, Byung Su; Song, Yong Jung; Suh, Dong Soo; Kim, Ki Hyung
Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia of the fallopian tube is a rare, benign disease characterized by florid epithelial hyperplasia. The authors present the history and details of a 22-year-old woman with bilateral pelvic masses and a highly elevated serum CA-125 level (1,056 U/ml). Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis showed bilateral adnexal complex cystic masses with a fusiform or sausage-like shape. Contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images showed enhancement of papillary projections of the right adnexal mass and enhancement of an irregular thick wall on the left adnexal mass, suggestive of tubal cancer. Based on MRI and laboratory findings, laparotomy was performed under a putative preoperative diagnosis of tubal cancer. The final pathologic diagnosis was pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia of tubal epithelium associated with acute and chronic salpingitis in both tubes. The authors report a rare case of pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia of the fallopian tubes mimicking tubal cancer.
Kalantarov, K.D.; Ashikhmina, I.G.; Juokov, V.A.
Since fibromateous uterus is very vascularized, it is very promising to visualize this blood pool by using radionuclide technique. The study consists of 30 patients with fibromyoma, cyst and other diseases of genital system (salpingitis, ooforit etc.). Blood pool labeling was performed by ''in vivo'' labeling of red blood cells (chlorous tin injection followed by pertechnetate administration) or by intravenous injection of serum albumin labelled with Tc-99m. Both methods were found satisfactory. Gammacamera GKS-I (Soviet production) connected with data store and processing system (CINE-200) was positioned over region of uterus, radioactivity injected and data collected as dynamic study at I frame/sec during 60 seconds. Static visualization was performed 30 min after dynamic study. Radionuclide visualization can be considered as reliable and non-invasive tool in differential diagnosis of fibromyoma and cyst of uterus as well as of endometritis
Karstrup, C. C.; Pedersen, H. G.; Jensen, Tim Kåre
of bacterial pathogenicity and development of lesions, have not been investigated. Bacterial invasion of the uterus and oviducts was studied in 21 cows diagnosed with pyometra at the time of slaughter by applying fluorescence in situ hybridization using probes targeting 16S ribosomal RNA of Fusobacterium...... necrophorum, Porphyromonas levii, Trueperella pyogenes and the overall bacterial domain Bacteria. Fusobacterium necrophorum and P. levii were found to invade the endometrium, especially if the endometrium was ulcerated, and penetrated deep into the lamina propria. These species co-localized within the tissue...... thus indicating a synergism. Trueperella pyogenes did not invade the uterine tissue. In addition to endometrial lesions, most cows with pyometra also had salpingitis but without significant bacterial invasion of the oviductal wall....
Full Text Available Background. Although tuberculosis (TB is a major health problem worldwide, primary extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB, and in particular female genital tract infection, remains a rare event. Case Report. A 35-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive woman of African descent with lower abdominal pain and fever of two days duration underwent surgery due to left adnexal mass suggesting pelvic inflammatory disease. The surgical situs showed a four quadrant peritonitis, consistent with the clinical symptoms of the patient, provoked by a tuboovarian abscess (TOA on the left side. All routine diagnostic procedures failed to determine the causative organism/pathogen of the infection. Histopathological evaluation identified a necrotic granulomatous salpingitis and specific PCR analysis corroborated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. Tb. Consequently, antituberculotic therapy was provided. Conclusion. In the differential diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease, internal genital tuberculosis should be considered. Moreover, physicians should consider tuberculous infections early in the work-up of patients when immunosuppressive conditions are present.
Bae, In Young; Kim, Mi Young; Cho, Soon Gu; Suh, Chang Hae; Park, Won Hee
Genitourinary tuberculosis is a disease spread hematogenously from a small tuberculous abscess of the lung. The renal cortex is initially involved, and multiple granulomas form. Ultimately the cortex may cavitate and communicate with the collecting system, allowing downward extension of the infection and subsequent focal caliectasis with infundibular stenosis, ureteral fibrosis, and calcifications of urinary tract organs. The female genitourinary organ is also infected by the hematogenous spread of tuberculosis, the most common lesion being hydrosalpynx with salpingitis. The clinical and radiologic features of genitourinary tuberculosis may mimic other acute abdominal diseases, and the diagnosis of tuberculosis remains difficult. This report describes the ways in which computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are valuable aids in the recognition and diagnosis of genitourinary tuberculosis. (author)
Pors, Susanne Elisabeth; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Christensen, Jens Peter
, E. coli was found in pure culture from one or more positions in the oviduct and the liver. Birds receiving sterile broth did not culture positive and demonstrated no gross lesions. Subsequently, 19 birds were inoculated with an isolate of E. coli ST95 and 20 birds with an isolate of E. coli ST141....... Major variation in virulence was observed between the two isolates used in relation to clinical signs, gross lesions and histopathology. In contrast to E. coli ST141, E. coli ST95 caused severe clinical signs, epithelial necrosis of the oviduct and purulent salpingitis. The results of the study show...... the potential of the model in studies of the pathogenesis of infections and virulence of bacteria of the oviduct....
PAZ A REYES
Full Text Available Background: Infection of the Fallopian tubes (FT by Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ngo can lead to acute salpingitis, an inflammatory condition resulting in damage primarily to the ciliated cells, with loss of ciliary activity and sloughing of the cells from the epithelium. Recently, we have shown that Ngo infection induced apoptosis in FT epithelium cells by a TNF-alpha dependent mechanism that could contribute to the cell and tissue damage observed in gonococcal salpingitis. Aim: To investigate the apoptosis-related genes expressed during apoptosis induction in cultured FT epithelial cells infected in vitro by Ngo. Materials and Methods: In the current study, we used cDNA macroarrays and real time PCR to identify and determine the expression levels of apoptosis related genes during the in vitro gonococci infection of FT epithelial cells. Results: Significant apoptosis was induced following infection with Ngo. Macroarray analysis identified the expression of multiple genes of the TNF receptor family (TNFRSF1B, -4, -6, -10A, -10B and -10D and the Bcl-2 family (BAK1, BAX, BLK, HRK and MCL-1 without differences between controls and infected cells. This lack of difference was confirmed by RT-PCR of BAX, Bcl-2, TNFRS1A (TNFR-I and TNFRSF1B (TNFR-II. Conclusion: Several genes related to apoptosis are expressed in primary cultures of epithelial cells of the human Fallopian tube. Infection with Ngo induces apoptosis without changes in the pattern of gene expression of several apoptosis-related genes. Results strongly suggest that Ngo regulates apoptosis in the FT by post-transcriptional mechanisms that need to be further addressed
Morales, Priscilla; Reyes, Paz; Vargas, Macarena; Rios, Miguel; Imarai, Mónica; Cardenas, Hugo; Croxatto, Horacio; Orihuela, Pedro; Vargas, Renato; Fuhrer, Juan; Heckels, John E.; Christodoulides, Myron; Velasquez, Luis
Following infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, bacteria may ascend into the Fallopian tubes (FT) and induce salpingitis, a major cause of infertility. In the FT, interactions between mucosal epithelial cells and gonococci are pivotal events in the pathogen's infection cycle and the inflammatory response. In the current study, primary FT epithelial cells were infected in vitro with different multiplicities of infection (MOI) of Pil+ Opa+ gonococci. Bacteria showed a dose-dependent association with cells and induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). A significant finding was that gonococcal infection (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in approximately 30% of cells, whereas increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100) did not induce apoptosis. Apoptosis was observed in only 11% of cells with associated bacteria, whereas >84% of cells with no adherent bacteria were apoptotic. TNF-α was a key contributor to apoptosis, since (i) culture supernatants from cells infected with gonococci (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in naïve cultures, suggesting that a soluble factor was responsible; (ii) gonococcal infection-induced apoptosis was inhibited with anti-TNF-α antibodies; and (iii) the addition of exogenous TNF-α induced apoptosis, which was inhibited by the presence of increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100). These data suggest that TNF-α-mediated apoptosis of FT epithelial cells is likely a primary host defense mechanism to prevent pathogen colonization. However, epithelial cell-associated gonococci have evolved a mechanism to protect the cells from undergoing TNF-α-mediated apoptosis, and this modulation of the host innate response may contribute to establishment of infection. Understanding the antiapoptotic mechanisms used by Neisseria gonorrhoeae will inform the pathogenesis of salpingitis and could suggest new intervention strategies for prevention and treatment of the disease. PMID:16714596
frequency of PID than women not employing any protection. It is well established that copper IUDs cause different types and different degrees of PID. Women using copper IUDs are more at risk for pelvic infection. There is a higher frequency of salpingitis and PID when copper IUDs are employed especially when the population is nulligravidas under the age of 25. The pamphlet lists criteria for the diagnosis of salpingo-oophoritis and actue salpingitis.
Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with.
Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes several significant human infectious diseases, including trachoma, urethritis, cervicitis and salpingitis, and is an important cofactor for transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Until very recently, over three decades of research effort aimed at developing a C trachomatis vaccine had failed, due mainly to the lack of a precise understanding of the mechanisms for protective immunity. Although most studies concerning protective immunity to C trachomatis have focused on humoral immune responses, recent studies have clearly shown that T helper-1 (Th1-like CD4 T cell-mediated immune responses play the dominant role in protective immunity. These studies suggest a paradigm for chlamydial immunity and pathology based on the concept of heterogeneity (Th1/Th2 in CD4 T cell immune responses. This concept for chlamydial immunity offers a rational template on which to base renewed efforts for development of a chlamydial vaccine that targets the induction of cell-mediated Th1 immune responses.
Allen, W R; Wilsher, S; Morris, L; Crowhurst, J S; Hillyer, M H; Neal, H N
Mares are occasionally encountered that consistently fail to conceive when inseminated, naturally or artificially, with fertile stallion semen in the absence of any identifiable pathology of either the structure or function of their reproductive tract. Temporary blockage of the oviducts by accumulations of naturally occurring oviducal masses may be preventing oviducal transport of the embryo to the uterus. Mares, with known reproductive histories, that had exhibited inexplicable failure of conception were treated by laparoscopically guided administration of PGE2-laced triacetin gel directly onto the surface of their oviducts. Fifteen mares age 10-21 years that had exhibited inexplicable failure of conception during 1-4 years were treated, of which 14 (93%) conceived within the same or subsequent breeding season. The high success rate of this treatment supports the tentative diagnosis of oviducal obstruction in these mares and indicates that blockage of the mare's oviducts may occur in the form of a moveable accumulation of debris rather than from permanent fibrous adhesions resulting from salpingitis. This laparoscopic application of PGE2 to the oviducts constitutes a sound and practical method of restoring fertility in mares suffering oviducal obstruction and further studies involving the procedure are warranted.
Angélica Lorena Castillo Gutiérrez
Full Text Available Sra. Editora: Las infecciones de transmisión sexual se consideran un problema de salud pública en el mundo debido a su creciente incidencia y elevada morbimortalidad. Las infecciones por Chlamydia trachomatis son las más comunes y costosas de las enfermedades de transmisión sexual bacterianas. En los estudios llevados a cabo en diferentes países se han encontrado prevalencias de C. trachomatis entre 1.7% y 25%, siendo más alta en la población menor de 25 años. La infección por clamidia genital causa cervicitis y salpingitis en mujeres, y uretritis y conjuntivitis tanto en hombres como en mujeres. Sin embargo, las infecciones por clamidia suelen producir pocos o ningún síntoma (en aproximadamente el 70% de las mujeres y el 50% de los hombres y pueden permanecer sin ser detectadas y sin tratamiento. Si no se trata, esta infección de transmisión sexual puede progresar y causar complicaciones con graves consecuencias sobre la salud reproductiva de las mujeres, incluida la enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica (EPI que puede conducir al embarazo ectópico y a la infertilidad de las trompas.
Appino, S; Vincenti, L; Rota, A; Pellegrini, S; Chieppa, M N; Cadoni, V; Pregel, P
Fifty-seven genital tracts of regularly slaughtered culled Piedmontese cows, aged 7.4 ± 4.3 years (mean ± SD), range: 2.6-15.6 years, were grossly and microscopically examined. DNA extracted from oviducts was subjected to PCR to evaluate the presence of Chlamydia spp. The 15 PCR-positive oviducts were subjected to Sanger sequencing and showed the presence of Chamydia abortus, with an identity range between 99 and 100%. Nine of the PCR-positive samples belonged to the 24 animals with a normal macroscopic appearance of the whole genital tract (percentage of positive oviducts in normal genital tracts 9/24 = 37.5%), while six belonged to the 33 genital tracts with lesions in one or more organs (percentage of positive oviducts in pathological genital tracts 6/33 = 18.1%); of these, a single animal had salpingitis. The detection of C. abortus in bovine oviducts is of particular interest because it has never been previously investigated or reported. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Mans, C; Sladky, K K
Three mature, female, red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) were individually, and separately, diagnosed with different forms of oviductal disease. Case 1 presented with acute cloacal bleeding and was diagnosed with acute oviductal rupture and ectopic eggs in the coelom. Case 2 presented for repeated scratching in the direction of the cloaca and was diagnosed with chronic oviductal impaction and coelomitis. Both cases were treated successfully by endoscopy-assisted complete ovariosalpingectomy via a bilateral prefemoral approach. Case 3 presented with a reduced appetite and signs of nesting behaviour and was diagnosed with obstructive dystocia associated with bacterial salpingitis. Successful treatment consisted of transcloacal egg removal and systemic antibiotics. Complete recovery was achieved in all three turtles, which remained disease-free 23 to 33 months later. Oviductal disease can present with a variety of clinical signs, and an accurate diagnosis can be made based on a thorough history, physical examination and appropriate diagnostic techniques. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Azevedo, Jaqueline B; Silva, Gustavo S; Rocha, Priscylla S; Pitchenin, Letícia C; Dutra, Valéria; Nakazato, Luciano; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Pescador, Caroline A
Ureaplasma diversum infection in bovine females may result in various reproductive problems, including granular vulvovaginitis, abortion, weak calves, salpingitis, and spontaneous abortion. The presence of U. diversum in a dairy bovine population from midwestern Brazil has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether U. diversum was present in dairy cattle from midwestern Brazil using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Vulvovaginal mucus was analyzed from 203 cows located in six municipalities in the north region of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. A total of 25% of dairy cows with vulvovaginitis were positive for U. diversum. The factors evaluated were included in a multivariable logistic regression model with the presence of at least one positive cow in the herd serving as the dependent variable. Three variables were significantly associated with a U. diversum-positive PCR and were included in the final multivariable model: number of parities, vulvar lesions, and reproductive problems. For each new parity, the chance of U. diversum infection decreased 0.03-fold, indicating that cows with the highest number of parities were more protected. The presence of vulvar lesions was increased 17.6-fold in females positive for U. diversum, suggesting that this bacterium could be related to the red granular lesions in the vulvar mucosa, whereas reproductive problems were increased 7.6-fold. However, further investigations should be conducted to ascertain the effects of U. diversum in association with other mycoplasma species in the herds studied.
Krautwald-Junghanns, M.E.; Kostka, V.M.; Hofbauer, H.
Clinical examination of 2192 psittacine birds of both sexes revealed a prevalence of 2.74 per cent (60 birds) of egg-binding. Domesticated species easily bred in captivity were the most commonly affected; the prevalence in cockatiels (15.75 per cent), and in budgerigars (5.73 per cent). An accurate diagnosis was possible in all cases by means of an evaluation of the case history, a visual examination, palpation and radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations. The case history alone was typical in 60 per cent of the cases, and reliable diagnosis was reached with the help of a visual examination in 70 per cent of the cases. Radiographic examination provided a definitive diagnosis in 30 per cent of the cases, especially in those with shelled eggs. Medullary bone proved to be a radiographic indication of laminated and thin-shelled eggs. However, laminated and thin-shelled eggs could only be differentiated definitively from abdominal masses, salpingitis and cystic degeneration by means of ultrasonography
Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. When the ovarian cancer cells disseminate into the peritoneal cavity, metastatic nests may grow in the cul-de-sac, and in more advanced stages, the peritoneal surfaces of the upper abdomen become the next largest soil for cancer progression. Ascites is also produced frequently in ovarian cancers, which facilitates distant metastasis. Clinicopathologic, epidemiologic and molecular studies on ovarian cancers have improved our understanding and therapeutic approaches, but still further efforts are required to reduce the risks in the patients who are predisposed to this lethal disease and the mortality of the patients in advanced stages. Among various molecules involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, special genes such as TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been well investigated. These genes are widely accepted as the predisposing factors that trigger malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the ovary. In addition, adnexal inflammatory conditions such as chronic salpingitis and ovarian endometriosis have been great research interests in the context of carcinogenic background of ovarian cancers. In this review, I discuss the roles of stromal cells and inflammatory factors in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancers
Seidman, Jeffrey D; Yemelyanova, Anna; Zaino, Richard J; Kurman, Robert J
Junctions between different types of epithelia are hot spots for carcinogenesis, but the junction of the peritoneal mesothelium with the fallopian tubal epithelium, the tubal-peritoneal junction, has not been characterized earlier. A total of 613 junctional foci in 228 fallopian tube specimens from 182 patients who underwent surgery for a variety of indications, including 27 risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy specimens, were studied. Edema, congestion, and dilated lymphatic channels were commonly present. Transitional metaplasia was found at the junction in 20% of patients and mesothelial hyperplasia in 17%. Inflammation at the junction was seen predominantly in patients with salpingitis, torsion, or tubal pregnancy. Ovarian-type stroma was found at the junction in 5% of patients, and was found elsewhere in the tubal lamina propria in an additional 27% of patients. Findings in risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy specimens in women with BRCA mutations, a personal history of breast cancer, and/or a family history of breast/ovarian cancer were similar to those in controls. Transitional metaplasia specifically localizes to this junction, and is the probable source of Walthard cell nests. The recently highlighted significance of fimbrial tubal epithelium in the origin of serous ovarian carcinomas and a study suggesting that mucinous and Brenner tumors may arise from transitional-type epithelium in this location suggest that the tubal-peritoneal junction may play a role in the development of these tumors. This is the first comprehensive description of a hitherto unrecognized transitional zone in the adnexa.
Furuya, Mitsuko [Department of Pathology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan)
Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. When the ovarian cancer cells disseminate into the peritoneal cavity, metastatic nests may grow in the cul-de-sac, and in more advanced stages, the peritoneal surfaces of the upper abdomen become the next largest soil for cancer progression. Ascites is also produced frequently in ovarian cancers, which facilitates distant metastasis. Clinicopathologic, epidemiologic and molecular studies on ovarian cancers have improved our understanding and therapeutic approaches, but still further efforts are required to reduce the risks in the patients who are predisposed to this lethal disease and the mortality of the patients in advanced stages. Among various molecules involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, special genes such as TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been well investigated. These genes are widely accepted as the predisposing factors that trigger malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the ovary. In addition, adnexal inflammatory conditions such as chronic salpingitis and ovarian endometriosis have been great research interests in the context of carcinogenic background of ovarian cancers. In this review, I discuss the roles of stromal cells and inflammatory factors in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancers.
Tito Del Gaudio
Full Text Available Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis are frequently isolated from urogenital samples. Ureaplasma spp is responsible for cervicovaginitis, salpingitis, urethritis, epididymitis, male and female infertility, spontaneous abortion, and during pregnancy, for the premature rupture of the membranes, because of chorionamnionitis. Our study aimed to establish the pattern of antimicrobial resistance among Ureaplasma spp isolated in the area of Andria,Apulia Region, from January 2002 to December 2007. 240/781 (30.7% of the urogenital samples examined were found Ureaplasma spp.-positive. 152/240 (63.3 % were >104 UFC/ml and 88/240 (36.7 % were <104 UFC/ml. With regard to the resistance rate, we observed significant increase in resistance to ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin. While we did not observe resistance to doxycycline, strains resistant to tetracycline, josamycin, and pristinamycins, were isolated during last years of investigation. Our data may help improve the management of these infections above all in consideration of the differences among isolates in different geographic regions.
Yano, Mitsutake; Ikeda, Yuji; Kato, Tomomi; Sakaki, Mika; Sato, Sho; Yabuno, Akira; Kozawa, Eito; Yasuda, Masanori
The present study presents a case of peritoneal malignant mesothelioma (PMM) following radiation therapy for cervical cancer. A 34-year-old Japanese woman, without asbestos exposure, was referred to the Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center due to a cervical mass, and was diagnosed with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The serum levels of tumor markers, including SCC antigen and cancer antigen 125 (CA125) were 229.0 ng/ml and 54.4 U/ml, respectively. The patient underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), and a complete response was achieved. After 54 months, ascites was found at the rectouterine pouch, but peritoneal cytology suggested reactive mesothelial cell. After 62 months of CCRT, magnetic resonance imaging revealed masses in both the salpinges. The serum levels of SCC and CA125 were 0.9 ng/ml and 506.1 U/ml, respectively. Following this, left salpingectomy and peritoneal biopsy were performed laparoscopically. Histologic examination revealed atypical mesothelial cells with no continuity of background tubal epithelium. Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for calretinin, thrombomodulin, mesothelin and glucose transporter 1. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with PMM epithelioid type and underwent systemic chemotherapy; stable disease status has been obtained for 3 months. This case demonstrates the possibility of PMM occurrence within 10 years after radiotherapy, and indicates the importance of histological and immunohistochemical examination, particularly in cases of an atypical tumorigenesis pattern from the primary cancer.
A. E. Meller
Full Text Available Introduction: The distinctive features of modern inflammatory diseases are their indolent course and predisposition to chronicity. Chronic inflammation is the basis for the development of serious disorders, including autoimmune and oncologic ones, and a cause of major functional abnormalities of the human body. Diagnostics of chronic inflammation is associated with a number of problems which originate from a variety of clinical phenotypes and morphological forms, on the one hand, and from the rising prevalence of their latent course, on the other. In its turn, an adequate treatment choice may be based on understanding and accurate detection of etiological and morphological types of the disease. In this connection, development of novel diagnostic techniques, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT, is of utmost importance. Aim: To demonstrate feasibility of OCT in detection of morphological abnormalities associated with chronic inflammatory disorders of various localizations. Materials and methods: OCT diagnostics was performed in addition to standard diagnostic procedures in 225 patients with chronic inflammatory disorders of various localizations, such as chronic recurrent rhinitis, chronic latent salpingitis and chronic endometritis. For OCT, an “OCT-1300U” system was used, with central wavelength of 1280 nm, spatial resolution of 15–20 μm, image acquisition rate of 8 frames per second, imaging depth of 1.4 mm and a probe diameter of 2.4 mm. The following techniques of quantitative processing were used for processing of the OCT images. Quantitative characterization of histograms and image texture was performed with further determination of values typical for various images groups corresponding to particular states of biological tissues. Neural network was also employed with histograms and 2D Fourier transforms of the images as input data. Results: OCT laparoscopy allowed to obtain three types of OCT images of fallopian
Rossini, Sebastian A.; Haberman, Diego; Gonzalez Villaveiran, Ruben F.
Purpose: To review the tomography findings of the acute appendicitis, their complications and alternative diagnosis. To value the use of helicoidal computed tomography (HCT) in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and in the study of patients with right inferior abdominal quadrant (RIQ) pain and acute abdomen, for diagnosis and eventual complications, in order to decide treatment. Materials and method: For five months, the populations included in this retrospectively study were all patients delivered for presenting with RIQ pain for a HCT exam. These exams were made with oral and intravenous contrasts, when there were not contraindications. The HCT results were correlated with clinical follow up, surgery and histopathologic exams. Results: Over a total of 100 patients studied, 53 presented tomographic diagnosis of appendicitis, 22 of which presented perforation signs; 27 showed an alternative diagnosis (ovaries follicles, ureteral litiasis, tiphlitis, diverticulitis, colitis, salpingitis), 18 patients did not present tomographic findings to support the clinical symptoms and 2 presented indeterminated results. These data represented a sensibility of 100%, specificity of 95,7%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 96,2% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% for the tomography diagnosis of acute appendicitis and a sensibility of 100%, specificity of 81,8%, PPV of 95,1% and NPV of 100% for the tomography diagnosis of the different etiology in patient with right inferior acute abdomen. Conclusion: HCT is extremely useful in the study of patients with acute abdomen with origin in the RIQ, not only to make a diagnosis, but also to evaluate the complications, so as to decide proper treatment. (authors) [es
Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour; Niyyati, Maryam; Fallahi, Shirzad; Rostami, Ali
Protozoan parasitic diseases are endemic in many countries worldwide, especially in developing countries, where infertility is a major burden. It has been reported that such infections may cause infertility through impairment in male and female reproductive systems. We searched Medline, PubMed, and Scopus databases and Google scholar to identify the potentially relevant studies on protozoan parasitic infections and their implications in human and animal model infertility. Literature described that some of the protozoan parasites such as Trichomonas vaginalis may cause deformities of the genital tract, cervical neoplasia, and tubal and atypical pelvic inflammations in women and also non-gonoccocal urethritis, asthenozoospermia, and teratozoospermia in men. Toxopalasma gondii could cause endometritis, impaired folliculogenesis, ovarian and uterine atrophy, adrenal hypertrophy, vasculitis, and cessation of estrus cycling in female and also decrease in semen quality, concentration, and motility in male. Trypanosoma cruzi inhibits cell division in embryos and impairs normal implantation and development of placenta. Decrease in gestation rate, infection of hormone-producing glands, parasite invasion of the placenta, and overproduction of inflammatory cytokines in the oviducts and uterine horns are other possible mechanisms induced by Trypanosoma cruzi to infertility. Plasmodium spp. and Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause damage in pituitary gland, hormonal disorders, and decreased semen quality. Entamoeba histolytica infection leads to pelvic pain, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess, and genital ulcers. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis can induce genital lesion, testicular amyloidosis, inflammation of epididymis, prostatitis, and sperm abnormality in human and animals. In addition, some epidemiological studies have reported that rates of protozoan infections in infertile patients are higher than healthy controls. The current review indicates that protozoan parasitic
Paixão, A C; Ferreira, A C; Fontes, M; Themudo, P; Albuquerque, T; Soares, M C; Fevereiro, M; Martins, L; Corrêa de Sá, M I
Poultry colibacillosis due to Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is responsible for several extra-intestinal pathological conditions, leading to serious economic damage in poultry production. The most commonly associated pathologies are airsacculitis, colisepticemia, and cellulitis in broiler chickens, and salpingitis and peritonitis in broiler breeders. In this work a total of 66 strains isolated from dead broiler breeders affected with colibacillosis and 61 strains from healthy broilers were studied. Strains from broiler breeders were typified with serogroups O2, O18, and O78, which are mainly associated with disease. The serogroup O78 was the most prevalent (58%). All the strains were checked for the presence of 11 virulence genes: 1) arginine succinyltransferase A (astA); ii) E.coli hemeutilization protein A (chuA); iii) colicin V A/B (cvaA/B); iv) fimbriae mannose-binding type 1 (fimC); v) ferric yersiniabactin uptake A (fyuA); vi) iron-repressible high-molecular-weight proteins 2 (irp2); vii) increased serum survival (iss); viii) iron-uptake systems of E.coli D (iucD); ix) pielonefritis associated to pili C (papC); x) temperature sensitive haemaglutinin (tsh), and xi) vacuolating autotransporter toxin (vat), by Multiplex-PCR. The results showed that all genes are present in both commensal and pathogenic E. coli strains. The iron uptake-related genes and the serum survival gene were more prevalent among APEC. The adhesin genes, except tsh, and the toxin genes, except astA, were also more prevalent among APEC isolates. Except for astA and tsh, APEC strains harbored the majority of the virulence-associated genes studied and fimC was the most prevalent gene, detected in 96.97 and 88.52% of APEC and AFEC strains, respectively. Possession of more than one iron transport system seems to play an important role on APEC survival. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Rossini, S.A.; Gonzalez Villaveiran, R.F.; Merola, S.
Objective: The evaluation of the usefulness of helical computed tomography (HCT) in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of the acute diverticulitis. Materials and methods: Six months retrospective cohort study of 100 patient population clinically suspected of diverticulitis was carried out. The exams were made with oral and intravenous contrast unless the patient presented contraindications. A correlation of these studies with the therapeutic response and clinical follow up was done with surgery and histopathology. Results: From a total of 100 patients studied, 62 presented tomographic diagnosis of diverticulitis, 41 were classified as simple diverticulitis and 21 were complicated cases (abscess, phlegmon, plastron, free perforation, vesicocolonic fistula and intestinal obstruction). In 24 patients an alternative diagnosis was made (appendicitis, appendagitis, urethral litiasis, colitis, salpingitis, pancreatitis, uraco cyst complication, colonic mechanical obstruction, colonic perforation with foreign body): 14 patients did not present tomographic findings to support the clinical symptoms, two of them were false-negative by the clinic and by the response to treatment. These data represented a sensibility of 96,87%, specificity of 100%, PPV of 100% and NPV of 94,7% and a certainty of 98 for the tomography diagnosis of acute diverticulitis. Of the 41 patients with tomographic diagnostic of not complicated diverticulitis, 37 received medical outpatient treatment and only 4 medical treatment with placement; of the 21 patients diagnosed with complicated diverticulitis, 18 were hospitalised with medical treatment and the other 3 patients needed surgery; of the 14 patients without tomographic findings of diverticulitis, in 12 outpatients an expectant conduct was followed and the other 2 received medical outpatient treatment. Conclusion: HCT is very useful and effective in diagnosis, evaluation and management of patients with clinical suspicion of diverticulitis
Full Text Available Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. When the ovarian cancer cells disseminate into the peritoneal cavity, metastatic nests may grow in the cul-de-sac, and in more advanced stages, the peritoneal surfaces of the upper abdomen become the next largest soil for cancer progression. Ascites is also produced frequently in ovarian cancers, which facilitates distant metastasis. Clinicopathologic, epidemiologic and molecular studies on ovarian cancers have improved our understanding and therapeutic approaches, but still further efforts are required to reduce the risks in the patients who are predisposed to this lethal disease and the mortality of the patients in advanced stages. Among various molecules involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, special genes such as TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been well investigated. These genes are widely accepted as the predisposing factors that trigger malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the ovary. In addition, adnexal inflammatory conditions such as chronic salpingitis and ovarian endometriosis have been great research interests in the context of carcinogenic background of ovarian cancers. In this review, I discuss the roles of stromal cells and inflammatory factors in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancers.
Eschenbach, D A; Wager, G P
This comprehensive review on puerperal infections covers risk factors, causative bacteria, pathophysiology, diagnosis, therapy of specific entities, and prevention. Puerperal infection is problematic to define especially with antibiotics that change the course of fever. I may present as endometritis (most common), myometritis, parametritis, pelvic abscess, salpingitis, septic pelvic thrombophlebitis or septicemia, and also includes infections of the urinary tract, episiotomy, surgical wounds, lacerations or breast. Each of these is discussed in terms of contributing factors, microbiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and complications. Risk factors in general are cesarean section, premature rupture of the membranes, internal fetal monitoring, general anesthesia, pelvic examinations. The most common bacterial involved are group B and other streptococci, E. coli, Gardnerella vaginalis, Gram positive anaerobic cocci, Mycoplasma and pre-existing Chlamydial infections. Diagnosis of the causative organism is difficult because of polyinfection and difficulty of getting a sterile endometrial swab. Diagnosis of the infection is equally difficult because of the wide variety of symptoms: fever, abnormal lochia, tachycardia, tenderness, mass and abnormal bowel sounds are common. Therapy depends of the responsible microorganism, although 3 empirical tactics are suggested while awaiting results of culture: 1) choose an antibiotic for the most common aerobic bacteria; 2) an antibiotic effective against B. fragilis and one for aerobic bacteria, e.g. clindamycin and an aminoglycoside; 3) a nontoxic antibiotic active against most aerobic and anaerobic organisms, e.g. doxycycline or cefoxitin. An example of an infection recently described is pudendal-paracervical block infection, often signaled by severe hip pain. It is associated with vaginal bacteria, is usually complicated by abscess even with antibiotic coverage, and may end in paraplegia or fatal sepsis
Stuart A. Hill
Full Text Available Etiology, transmission and protection: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (the gonococcus is the etiological agent for the strictly human sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea. Infections lead to limited immunity, therefore individuals can become repeatedly infected. Pathology/symptomatology: Gonorrhea is generally a non-complicated mucosal infection with a pustular discharge. More severe sequellae include salpingitis and pelvic inflammatory disease which may lead to sterility and/or ectopic pregnancy. Occasionally, the organism can disseminate as a bloodstream infection. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: Gonorrhea is a global disease infecting approximately 60 million people annually. In the United States there are approximately 300, 000 cases each year, with an incidence of approximately 100 cases per 100,000 population. Treatment and curability: Gonorrhea is susceptible to an array of antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance is becoming a major problem and there are fears that the gonococcus will become the next “superbug” as the antibiotic arsenal diminishes. Currently, third generation extended-spectrum cephalosporins are being prescribed. Molecular mechanisms of infection: Gonococci elaborate numerous strategies to thwart the immune system. The organism engages in extensive phase (on/off switching and antigenic variation of several surface antigens. The organism expresses IgA protease which cleaves mucosal antibody. The organism can become serum resistant due to its ability to sialylate lipooligosaccharide in conjunction with its ability to subvert complement activation. The gonococcus can survive within neutrophils as well as in several other lymphocytic cells. The organism manipulates the immune response such that no immune memory is generated which leads to a lack of protective immunity.
K. V. Bubalo
Full Text Available The frequency of urogenital mycoplasmas detection in women of different ages was studied in culture with the help of DUO test-system in order to determine their etiological significance in the development of inflammatory processes of women urogenital tract. We identified the researched cultures Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum in the diagnostic titer >104 TEM/ml indicating severe contamination by microorganisms, and in the titer 104 TEM/ml, 104 TEM/ml was observed in 55 women (46% and 20 women (17%, respectively, and the titer of <103 CFU/ml U. urealyticum was observed in 20 women (17%, and M. hominis in 18 women (15%. Analysis of genital mycoplasmas distribution among women of different ages has shown that there was the certain correlation between the patient age and frequency of genital mycoplasmas detection: the highest detection rate was observed in women age of 24–29. The dominant pathogen of urogenital tract inflammatory processes in women in 24–29 age group is U. urealyticum. The comparison of DUO test-system and PCR data has shown that DUO test-system in culture allowed more sensitive quantitave characterization of mycoplasmas, however, for the more effective laboratory diagnostics it was necessary to use complex methods to increase the probability of pathogen detection. Incidence of mycoplasmas in women with the presence of inflammation was higher than in women having the inflammation in the genital tract. In this case, potential symptom-free carriers exist for the development of inflammation of urogenital tract of women. Scientists have proved that mycoplasma could cause vulvovaginitis, urethritis, paraurethritis, bartholinitis, adnexitis, salpingitis, endometritis, and ovaritis.
Dinu, C A; Moraru, D
The study of the etiological aspects of acute abdominal pain in children, in order to perceive the clinical-etiological correlations and the disorders distribution related to age, gender and the origin of the patients. The criteria for including patients were age (between 0 and 18 years) and the presence of acute abdominal pain before or during the consultation with the physician. The research on acute abdominal pain in children was performed on the level of the Surgery and Pediatrics II clinical departments of the "Sf. Ioan" Children's Emergency Clinical Hospital in Galati, between 01.01.2009 - 01.01.2011. The clinical study performed on the patients registered in the studied groups focused on the identification, the evaluation of the symptoms of acute abdominal pain in children, diagnosing and treating it. The criteria for excluding patients were an age older than 18 years or the absence of acute abdominal pain as a symptom before or during the examination. The statistical analysis used the descriptive and analytical methods. The data was centralized and statistically processed in M.S.EXCEL and S.P.S.S. databases. The patients with acute abdominal pain represent a percentage of 92.9% (2358 cases) of the total number of patients who suffer from abdominal pain (N=2537). The highest frequency of cases is represented by acute appendicitis (1056 cases - 44.8%). In the 5-18 years age group, acute appendicitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis, ovarian follicular cysts, acute pyelenophritis and salpingitis are predominant. In the 0-4 years age group gastroenteritis, acute pharyngitis, reactive hepatitis and lower digestive bleeding are predominant. In females, acute appendicitis, gastroenteritis, gastroduodenitis and cystitis are predominant, whereas in males, peritonitis, sepsis through E. coli, the contusion of the abdominal wall and acute pharyngitis are predominant.
Dilbaz, B.; Akdag, D.; Cengiz, H.; Akyunak, A.; Dilbaz, S.; Haberal, A.
Objective was to evaluate the intra-operative complications of outpatient interval tubal sterilization at a teaching hospital. The data of 461 patients who underwent interval tubal ligation ITL at the Family Planning Clinic of Ankara Etlik Maternity and Women's Health Teaching and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey between January 2002 and December 2005 were reviewed from a computerized database. The demographic characteristics, operative technique and intra- and early postoperative complications of patients were evaluated. Only 11 patients had minilaparotomy for ITL. Laparoscopic ITL was performed using bipolar cautery. The cases who were hospitalized or had a complication and/or an unplanned laparotomy were analyzed. The mean age of patients was 35.1 range: 21-51, gravidity was 4.6 range: 2-9, parity was 3.2 range: 2-7 and number of living children was 3.1 range 2-6. Out of 461 patients, only 20.4% had complications related with general anesthesia. Two cases 0.4% had bleeding from the port-site, 3 cases 0.6% had meso-salpingeal and meso-ovarian bleeding, one had omental bleeding 0.2% from vagina wall. There was only one 0.2% intestinal burn that required a laparotomy and segmental resection followed by end-to-end anastomosis. The mortality was nil, whilst the morbidity was found to be 2.1% and all the complications were encountered in patients who had laparoscopic surgery. Outpatient tubal ligation is a convenient and safe procedure and implementing endoscopic surgical techniques is necessary for correction of the complications. (author)
Baranov, A A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Il'in, A G
The article presents submitted data of population dynamics of adolescent (10-17 years old) in Russian Federation over the period of 1995-2012 In the presence of reduction by 8.2 million of adolescent population the top-priority task of adolescent health and life maintenance was declared. The article deals with physical growth and development statistics of schoolchildren of 15-19 years old: as opposed to peers of 80-es increase of length, body weight and circumference of chest as well as reduction of muscle strength is observed. On the ground of the data analysis of authoritative statistical reporting the increase of morbidity rate by factor of 1.4 was detected over the last 10 years. It has been established that the true morbidity level is above the authoritative by the factor of 1.5. The number of adolescent at the age of 10-15 referred to 1st and 2nd health groups decreased almost on 20%, at the same time pathological processes become chronic. The reproductive and mental health of adolescent at the age of 15-17 years was analyzed over the last 10 years. The rate of mental health disorders in adolescent living in country is more than in the peers living in cities by the factor of 1.2-1.4. The rate of period disorders, salpingitis and oothecitis increased in girls under 10 years and ones at the age of 15-17. The rate and structure of child disability was analyzed. It was fixed that leading causes of adolescent disability are mental disorders, diseases of nervous system, congenital anomalies. The most commonly encountered seed of physical dysfunction is capacity to study. It is demonstrated that there is misreporting on both child disability in totally and adolescent disability in Russian Federation. After the analysis of particular provisions of legislation concerning medical and social issues of child disability the week points were detected. The morbidity rate of adolescent was studied: primary cause of death in adolescent is extrinsic factor (more than 70%), the
Gerson Oliveira Penna
Full Text Available A gonorréia é uma infecção bacteriana freqüente, causada pela Neisseria gonorrhoeae, um diplococo Gram-negativo de transmissão quase que exclusiva através de contato sexual ou perinatal. Primariamente afeta membranas mucosas do trato genital inferior, e mais raramente, as mucosas do reto, orofaringe e conjuntiva. A infecção genital ascendente na mulher leva a uma complicação séria, a salpingite aguda, uma das principais causas de infertilidade feminina. A partir dos anos 90, deu-se início a um novo tempo no que se refere a descobertas sobre a patogenia da gonorréia e seu agente etiológico. O controle da gonorréia tem sido difícil na maioria das populações, e essa permanece um exemplo da influência que os fatores sociais, comportamentais e demográficos exercem na epidemiologia de uma doença infecciosa. O manejo da gonorréia e de outras doenças sexualmente transmissíveis requer tanto o tratamento do paciente e de seu parceiro sexual como medidas de saúde pública para interromper a transmissão da infecção e evitar complicações a longo prazo.Gonorrhea is a common bacterial infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a Gram-negative diplococcus that is transmitted almost exclusively by sexual contact or perinatally. It primarily affects the mucous membranes of the lower genital tract and less frequently those of the rectum, oropharynx, and conjunctivae. Ascending genital infection in women leads to the predominant complication, acute salpingitis, one of the most common causes of female infertility in the world. Since the 1990s, a remarkable surge of information ensued regarding the pathogenesis of gonorrhea and its agent. Gonorrohea has proven difficult to control in most populations and remains a prime example of the influence that social, behavioral, and demographic factors can have on the epidemiology of an infectious disease. The management of gonorrhea and other sexually transmitted infections requires both
Paladini, Dario; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Coppola, Carmela; Zizolfi, Brunella; Pastore, Gaetano; Nappi, Carmine
To evaluate the feasibility of 3-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) for sonographic localization of Essure microinserts, comparing it with 2-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) insofar as time to visualize the inserts and accuracy in determining their localization. Prospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). University clinic. Twenty-seven consecutive women undergoing hysteroscopic Essure device placement. Essure microinserts were inserted in the outpatient hysteroscopy clinic following the manufacturer's recommendations, leaving from 3 to 8 loops of the inserts in the uterine cavity. In all patients, 2DUS and 3DUS were performed 3 months after the procedure. 2DUS was performed first; the device(s) were located, and their position was recorded. Then 3DUS scans were acquired, trying when possible to have both devices at least at a 45-degree angle with the insonation beam for optimal rendering on 3DUS. The OmniView method with volume contrast imaging was used to show the relationships of the microinserts within the uterine cavity when possible. To define the position of the Essure device in relation to the uterus and the salpinges, we used the classification developed by Legendre and colleagues. After sonographic evaluation all women underwent hysterosalpingography to assess the success of sterilization. Hysteroscopic insertion was successful in all patients, with 2 Essure devices placed in 25 patients and 1 device in 2 patients (due to previous salpingectomy performed because of ectopic pregnancy), for a total of 52 devices. One spontaneous late (within 3 months) expulsion of the device occurred; the device had migrated almost completely into the uterine cavity. At 3-month follow-up, all 51 correctly placed devices were easily observed at 2DUS (mean [SD] duration of the procedure, 2.25 [0.8] minutes). At 3DUS in 51 cases, the device was in perfect position (1+2+3) in 21 (41.2%), in position 2+3 in 14 (27.4%), and in position +3 in 16 (31.4%). Both microinserts
T. A. Sokolovskaya
Full Text Available The federal reporting forms over 1986–1995 and the official statistics over 2009–2014 were analyzed using the methods of descriptive statistics and correlation analysis to identify the relationship of neonatal health status to reproductive problems in adulthood. The investigation showed that at the end of the 20th century, the overall structure of newborns showed a larger proportion of very low (1000–1499 g and low (1500–2499 g birth weight babies from 0,42% in 1986 to 0,47% in 1995 and from 4,9 to 5,46%, respectively. Moreover, the common neonatal abnormalities were birth trauma, intrauterine hypoxia, birth asphyxia, congenital abnormalities, growth retardation, and malnutrition. Further, there was a decline in the number of people coming of active reproductive age, men and women alike (24,77% in 2009 and 23,77% in 2014. With this, in 2009–2014, the adult population exhibited increases in the incidence of newly diagnosed cases of diseases of the endocrine, circulatory, and urinary systems (by 6,61, 15,07, and 4,14%, respectively, and female infertility (by 21,25%. Correlation analysis indicated that there was a negative relationship between neonatal hemolytic disease and adult-onset circulatory diseases and anemia (r =–0,45; p<0,05 and r =–0,48; p<0,05; infections specific to the perinatal period, salpingitis and oophoritis (r =–0,30; p<0,05; there was a direct correlation between congenital pneumonia in the newborn and diabetes mellitus, diseases characterized by high blood pressure in adults (r =0,31; p<0,05 and r =0,36; p<0,05; respiratory distress syndrome and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (r =0,38; p<0,05. Pathological processes result in a vicious circle: a neonatal patient — a female and/or male patient — pregnancy and/or labor pathology — a sick child.
Nuno Ricardo Goçalves Baptista Pereira
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a contribuição da laparoscopia diagnóstica na abordagem do casal infértil. MÉTODOS: estudo retrospectivo com análise dos 86 casos consecutivos de pacientes acompanhadas em consulta de esterilidade que foram submetidas à laparoscopia entre Janeiro de 2004 e Dezembro de 2006. Oitenta e duas pacientes tinham realizado histerossalpingografia (HSG previamente à laparoscopia. Avaliaram-se os achados laparoscópicos bem como os procedimentos acessórios efetuados, e correlacionaram-se os achados histerossalpingográficos com os da laparoscopia. A análise estatística foi efetuada com o Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 15. A sensibilidade e a especificidade da HSG foram determinadas e os intervalos de confiança calculados assumindo-se um erro alfa de 0,05 (IC95%. RESULTADOS: na laparoscopia foram identificadas alterações compatíveis com endometriose em 21 casos (24,4%, salpinge uni/bilateral em 14 casos (16,3% e doença inflamatória pélvica em 16 casos (18,6%. Procedeu-se à adesiólise e à fulguração dos focos de endometriose em oito pacientes. Foram feitas duas salpingostomias, duas quistectomias do paraovário, duas quistectomias do ovário e três drillings do ovário. A prova de permeabilidade tubar foi normal em 44 casos (53%, revelou obstrução unilateral em 21 (25,3% e obstrução bilateral em 17 (20,5%. Os resultados da histerossalpingografia foram concordantes com os da laparoscopia em 44 dos 82 casos (53,7%. Quando definimos doença como qualquer forma de obstrução tubar presente na laparoscopia, a sensibilidade da HSG foi 0,79 (IC95%=0,62-0,9 e a especificidade 0,58 (IC95%=0,42-0,73. Quando limitamos a definição de doença à presença de obstrução tubar bilateral na laparoscopia, a sensibilidade e a especificidade da HSG foram 0,47 (IC95%=0,24-0,71 e 0,77 (IC95%=0,64-0,86, respectivamente. Em nove casos (15,3% em que a HSG havia sido normal ou revelado apenas obstrução unilateral, a
Kupesić, Sanja; Aksamija, Alenka; Vucić, Niksa; Tripalo, Ana; Kurjak, Asim
Acute pelvic pain may be the manifestation of various gynecologic and non-gynecologic disorders from less alarming rupture of the follicular cyst to life threatening conditions such as rupture of ectopic pregnancy or perforation of inflamed appendix. In order to construct an algorithm for differential diagnosis we divide acute pelvic pain into gynecologic and non-gynecologic etiology, which is than subdivided into gastrointestinal and urinary causes. Appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency and should always be considered in differential diagnosis if appendix has not been removed. Apart of clinical examination and laboratory tests, an ultrasound examination is sensitive up to 90% and specific up to 95% if graded compression technique is used. Still it is user-depended and requires considerable experience in order to perform it reliably. Meckel's diverticulitis, acute terminal ileitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis and functional bowel disease are conditions that should be differentiated from other causes of low abdominal pain by clinical presentation, laboratory and imaging tests. Dilatation of renal pelvis and ureter are typical signs of obstructive uropathy and may be efficiently detected by ultrasound. Additional thinning of renal parenchyma suggests long-term obstructive uropathy. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy, salpingitis and hemorrhagic ovarian cysts are three most commonly diagnosed gynecologic conditions presenting as an acute abdomen. Degenerating leiomyomas and adnexal torsion occur less frequently. For better systematization, gynecologic causes of acute pelvic pain could be divided into conditions with negative pregnancy test and conditions with positive pregnancy test. Pelvic inflammatory disease may be ultrasonically presented with numerous signs such as thickening of the tubal wall, incomplete septa within the dilated tube, demonstration of hyperechoic mural nodules, free fluid in the "cul-de-sac" etc. Color Doppler ultrasound contributes to more