Sample records for salmoninarum suggests reductive

  1. Bacterial kidney disease (Renibacterium salmoninarum) (United States)

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD), caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, is a prevalent disease of salmonid fish that impacts sustainable production for consumption and species conservation efforts. The disease is chronic in nature and mortality most often occurs in juvenile salmonids and prespawning a...

  2. Method for flow cytometric monitoring of Renibacterium salmoninarum inactivation (United States)

    Pascho, R.J.; Ongerth, J.E.


    The slow growth of Renibacterium salmoninarum limits the usefulness of culture as a research tool. Development of a 2-color flow cytometric assay to quantify the proportions of live and dead R. salmoninarum in a test population is described. Bacteria were simultaneously stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated immunoglobulin and exposed to the exclusion dye propidium iodide. Propidium iodide red fluorescence profiles of control groups of untreated and killed R. salmoninarum were compared with those for bacteria exposed to chlorine. Bacterial inactivation was based on mean red fluorescence intensity, and analyzed by high-red fluorescence intensity (HRFI) and curve subtraction (CS) analyses. When the concentration of R. salmoninarum was 8.65 x 106 bacteria ml-1 and the bacteria exposed to chlorine at 1 mg l-1 for periods from 1 to 20 min (high-Rs assessment), the mean red fluorescence intensity of the profile for each chlorine-exposure group was higher than that for the untreated control (p mean red fluorescence intensities of the exposure groups were higher than that for the untreated control only when the R. salmoninarum was exposed to chlorine for at least 1 min (p ??? 0.01). On the basis of red fluorescence intensity, the proportion of dead cells generally increased with the duration of chlorine exposure. Whereas the rates of inactivation derived from the HRFI and CS analyses did not correlate with the duration of exposure in the high-Rs assessment (r2 ??? 0.27), there was a correlation between these estimates and the duration of exposure in the reduced-Rs assessment (r2 ??? 0.92). Because of the rapid loss of culturable R. salmoninarum in both assessments following chlorine exposure, neither the duration of exposure nor the inactivation estimates correlated with bacteriological culture (r2 ??? 0.22). In both assessments, there was a correlation between the estimates of inactivation based upon HRFI and CS analyses (r2 > 0.99). These results suggest that

  3. Pathological and immunological responses associated with differential survival of Chinook salmon following Renibacterium salmoninarum challenge (United States)

    Metzger, David C.; Elliott, Diane G.; Wargo, Andrew; Park, Linda K.; Purcell, Maureen K.


    Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are highly susceptible to Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD). Previously we demonstrated that introduced Chinook salmon from Lake Michigan, Wisconsin (WI), USA, have higher survival following R. salmoninarum challenge relative to the progenitor stock from Green River, Washington, USA. In the present study, we investigated the pathological and immunological responses that are associated with differential survival in the 2 Chinook salmon stocks following intra-peritoneal R. salmoninarum challenge of 2 different cohort years (2003 and 2005). Histological evaluation revealed delayed appearance of severe granulomatous lesions in the kidney and lower overall prevalence of membranous glomerulopathy in the higher surviving WI stock. The higher survival WI stock had a lower bacterial load at 28 d post-infection, as measured by reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). However, at all other time points, bacterial load levels were similar despite higher mortality in the more susceptible Green River stock, suggesting the possibility that the stocks may differ in their tolerance to infection by the bacterium. Interferon-γ, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Mx-1, and transferrin gene expression were up-regulated in both stocks following challenge. A trend of higher iNOS gene expression at later time points (≥28 d post-infection) was observed in the lower surviving Green River stock, suggesting the possibility that higher iNOS expression may contribute to greater pathology in that stock.

  4. Suggested physical therapy protocol for reduction of lipomatosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of suggested physical therapy protocol in lipomatosis dolorosa of the legs. Twenty female patients with stage I lipomatosis dolorosa of the legs ranged in age from 30 to 45 years. They received a complete decongestive physical therapy program and diet regimen.

  5. Suggested physical therapy protocol for reduction of lipomatosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed M. Khalaf


    Nov 11, 2012 ... The results revealed a significant improvement (P < 0.05) in BMI and the lower limb volumes. It could be concluded that, suggested physical therapy protocol consisting of a complete decongestive physical therapy program and diet regimen had an effect in the treatment of lipomatosis dolorosa of the legs in.

  6. Comparative neuroanatomy suggests repeated reduction of neuroarchitectural complexity in Annelida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todt Christiane


    neuroarchitecture inherited from the last common ancestor, Urbilateria. Within the annelid radiation, the lack of mushroom bodies in certain groups is explained by widespread secondary reductions owing to selective pressures unfavorable for the differentiation of elaborate brains. Evolutionary pathways of mushroom body neuropils in errant polychaetes remain enigmatic.

  7. Recovery of Renibacterium salmoninarum from naturally infected salmonine stocks in Michigan using a modified culture protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Faisal


    Full Text Available Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD, is a fastidious and slow-growing bacterium that is extremely difficult to grow in vitro. Herein, we describe a modified primary culture protocol that encompasses a modified bacteriological culture medium and a tissue processing procedure. In order to facilitate the release of R. salmoninarum from granulomatous tissues, kidneys of infected fish were homogenized in a high speed stomacher. The kidney disease medium (KDM2, routinely used for primary culture of R. salmoninarum was modified by the addition of antibiotics and metabolites. When a relatively large inoculum of diluted kidney homogenate was streak-plate inoculated onto the modified KDM2, colonial growth of R. salmoninarum was achieved within 5–7 days, compared to the standard of two weeks or more. The modified procedure was then used to determine the prevalence of R. salmoninarum among representative captive and feral salmonid stocks in Michigan. Prevalence and clinical manifestations varied among species, strains of fish, and locations; however, R. salmoninarum isolates were biochemically homogenous. The improved primary culture procedure described in this study enabled selective and quick isolation of R. salmoninarum. Also, the isolates retrieved in this study constitute a unique biological resource for future studies of R. salmoninarum in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  8. Recovery of Renibacterium salmoninarum from naturally infected salmonine stocks in Michigan using a modified culture protocol (United States)

    Faisal, M.; Eissa, A.E.; Starliper, C.E.


    Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD), is a fastidious and slow-growing bacterium that is extremely difficult to grow in vitro. Herein, we describe a modified primary culture protocol that encompasses a modified bacteriological culture medium and a tissue processing procedure. In order to facilitate the release of R. salmoninarum from granulomatous tissues, kidneys of infected fish were homogenized in a high speed stomacher. The kidney disease medium (KDM2), routinely used for primary culture of R. salmoninarum was modified by the addition of antibiotics and metabolites. When a relatively large inoculum of diluted kidney homogenate was streak-plate inoculated onto the modified KDM2, colonial growth of R. salmoninarum was achieved within 5-7. days, compared to the standard of two weeks or more. The modified procedure was then used to determine the prevalence of R. salmoninarum among representative captive and feral salmonid stocks in Michigan. Prevalence and clinical manifestations varied among species, strains of fish, and locations; however, R. salmoninarum isolates were biochemically homogenous. The improved primary culture procedure described in this study enabled selective and quick isolation of R. salmoninarum. Also, the isolates retrieved in this study constitute a unique biological resource for future studies of R. salmoninarum in the Laurentian Great Lakes. ?? 2009 University of Cairo.

  9. Growth of the fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum on different media. (United States)

    Bandín, I; Santos, Y; Barja, J I; Toranzo, A E


    In the present study, the ability of a group of Renibacterium salmoninarum strains to grow in the presence or absence of the amino acid cysteine and other mineral and organic sources of sulfur and nitrogen has been evaluated. Most of the isolates tested were able to grow on a mineral media supplemented with L-cysteine-HCl or other organic compounds, such as the vitamin thiamine and a casein hydrolysate (Bacto Casamino Acids, Difco). Bacterial growth was also recorded on commercial and specific media not supplemented with L-cysteine-HCl, or in which this amino acid was replaced by the compounds cited above.

  10. Detecting Renibacterium salmoninarum in wild brown trout by use of multiple organ samples and diagnostic methods (United States)

    Guomundsdottir, S.; Applegate, Lynn M.; Arnason, I.O.; Kristmundsson, A.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Elliott, Diane G.


    Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease (BKD), is endemic in many wild trout species in northerly regions. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal R. salmoninarum sampling/testing strategy for wild brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations in Iceland. Fish were netted in a lake and multiple organs—kidney, spleen, gills, oesophagus and mid-gut—were sampled and subjected to five detection tests i.e. culture, polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (pELISA) and 3 three different PCR tests. The results showed that each fish had encountered R. salmoninarum but there were marked differences between results obtained depending on organ and test. The bacterium was not cultured from any kidney sample while all kidney samples were positive by pELISA. At least one organ from 92.9% of the fish tested positive by PCR. The results demonstrated that the choice of tissue and diagnostic method can dramatically influence the outcome of R. salmoninarum surveys.

  11. Detecting Renibacterium salmoninarum in wild brown trout by use of multiple organ samples and diagnostic methods (United States)

    Guomundsdottir, S.; Applegate, Lynn M.; Arnason, I.O.; Kristmundsson, A.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Elliott, Diane G.


    Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease (BKD), is endemic in many wild trout species in northerly regions. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal R. salmoninarum sampling/testing strategy for wild brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations in Iceland. Fish were netted in a lake and multiple organs—kidney, spleen, gills, oesophagus and mid-gut—were sampled and subjected to five detection tests i.e. culture, polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (pELISA) and three different PCR tests. The results showed that each fish had encountered R. salmoninarum but there were marked differences between results obtained depending on organ and test. The bacterium was not cultured from any kidney sample while all kidney samples were positive by pELISA. At least one organ from 92.9% of the fish tested positive by PCR. The results demonstrated that the choice of tissue and diagnostic method can dramatically influence the outcome of R. salmoninarum surveys.

  12. Reduction in Force--Layoff and Recall. Suggested Personnel Policy Guidelines for School Districts. Revised. (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    By focusing on the necessary stages and features of a staff-change policy, this manual assists local school boards and administrators in planning for reductions in staff and layoffs. It first reviews statutory authority held by boards and administrators in reducing the number of school employees and defines key terms used in the discussion of…

  13. Quantitative Risk reduction estimation Tool For Control Systems, Suggested Approach and Research Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Mark Flynn; Sam Alessi


    For the past year we have applied a variety of risk assessment technologies to evaluate the risk to critical infrastructure from cyber attacks on control systems. More recently, we identified the need for a stand alone control system risk reduction estimation tool to provide owners and operators of control systems with a more useable, reliable, and credible method for managing the risks from cyber attack. Risk is defined as the probability of a successful attack times the value of the resulting loss, typically measured in lives and dollars. Qualitative and ad hoc techniques for measuring risk do not provide sufficient support for cost benefit analyses associated with cyber security mitigation actions. To address the need for better quantitative risk reduction models we surveyed previous quantitative risk assessment research; evaluated currently available tools; developed new quantitative techniques [17] [18]; implemented a prototype analysis tool to demonstrate how such a tool might be used; used the prototype to test a variety of underlying risk calculational engines (e.g. attack tree, attack graph); and identified technical and research needs. We concluded that significant gaps still exist and difficult research problems remain for quantitatively assessing the risk to control system components and networks, but that a useable quantitative risk reduction estimation tool is not beyond reach.

  14. Infections by Renibacterium salmoninarum and Nanophyetus salmincola Chapin are associated with reduced growth of juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. (United States)

    Sandell, T A; Teel, D J; Fisher, J; Beckman, B; Jacobson, K C


    We examined 1454 juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), captured in nearshore waters off the coasts of Washington and Oregon (USA) from 1999 to 2004 for infection by Renibacterium salmoninarum, Nanophyetus salmincola Chapin and skin metacercariae. The prevalence and intensities for each of these infections were established for both yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon. Two metrics of salmon growth, weight residuals and plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1, were determined for salmon infected with these pathogens/parasites, both individually and in combination, with uninfected fish used for comparison. Yearling Chinook salmon infected with R. salmoninarum had significantly reduced weight residuals. Chinook salmon infected with skin metacercariae alone did not have significantly reduced growth metrics. Dual infections were not associated with significantly more severe effects on the growth metrics than single infections; the number of triple infections was very low and precluded statistical comparison. Overall, these data suggest that infections by these organisms can be associated with reduced juvenile Chinook salmon growth. Because growth in the first year at sea has been linked to survival for some stocks of Chinook salmon, the infections may therefore play a role in regulating these populations in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Testing of candidate non-lethal sampling methods for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G; McKibben, Constance L; Conway, Carla M; Purcell, Maureen K; Chase, Dorothy M; Applegate, LynnMarie J


    Non-lethal pathogen testing can be a useful tool for fish disease research and management. Our research objectives were to determine if (1) fin clips, gill snips, surface mucus scrapings, blood draws, or kidney biopsies could be obtained non-lethally from 3 to 15 g Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, (2) non-lethal samples could accurately discriminate between fish exposed to the bacterial kidney disease agent Renibacterium salmoninarum and non-exposed fish, and (3) non-lethal samples could serve as proxies for lethal kidney samples to assess infection intensity. Blood draws and kidney biopsies caused ≥5% post-sampling mortality (Objective 1) and may be appropriate only for larger fish, but the other sample types were non-lethal. Sampling was performed over 21 wk following R. salmoninarum immersion challenge of fish from 2 stocks (Objectives 2 and 3), and nested PCR (nPCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) results from candidate non-lethal samples were compared with kidney tissue analysis by nPCR, qPCR, bacteriological culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and histopathology/immunohistochemistry. R. salmoninarum was detected by PCR in >50% of fin, gill, and mucus samples from challenged fish. Mucus qPCR was the only non-lethal assay exhibiting both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity estimates>90% for distinguishing between R. salmoninarum-exposed and non-exposed fish and was the best candidate for use as an alternative to lethal kidney sample testing. Mucus qPCR R. salmoninarum quantity estimates reflected changes in kidney bacterial load estimates, as evidenced by significant positive correlations with kidney R. salmoninarum infection intensity scores at all sample times and in both fish stocks, and were not significantly impacted by environmental R. salmoninarum concentrations.

  16. Negative Epistasis between Sickle and Foetal Haemoglobin Suggests a Reduction in Protection against Malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P Mmbando

    Full Text Available Haemoglobin variants, Sickle (HbS and foetal (HbF have been associated with malaria protection. This study explores epistatic interactions between HbS and HbF on malaria infection.The study was conducted between March 2004 and December 2013 within the sickle cell disease (SCD programme at Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania. SCD status was categorized into HbAA, HbAS and HbSS using hemoglobin electrophoresis and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. HbF levels were determined by HPLC. Malaria was diagnosed using rapid diagnostic test and/or blood film. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations models were used to evaluate associations between SCD status, HbF and malaria.2,049 individuals with age range 0-70 years, HbAA 311(15.2%, HbAS 241(11.8% and HbSS 1,497(73.1% were analysed. At enrolment, malaria prevalence was significantly higher in HbAA 13.2% compared to HbAS 1.24% and HbSS 1.34% (p<0.001. Mean HbF was lower in those with malaria compared to those without malaria in HbAA (0.43% vs 0.82% but was the reverse in HbSS (8.10% vs 5.59%. An increase in HbF was associated with a decrease in risk of malaria OR=0.50 (95%CI: 0.28, 0.90; p=0.021 in HbAA, whereas for HbSS the risk of malaria increased OR=2.94 (1.44, 5.98; p=0.003. A similar pattern was seen during multiple visits; HbAA OR=0.52 (0.34, 0.80; p=0.003 vs HbSS OR=2.01 (1.27, 3.23; p=0.003.Higher prevalence of malaria in HbAA compared to HbAS and HbSS confirmed the protective effect of HbS. Lower prevalence of malaria in HbAA with high HbF supports a protective effect of HbF. However, in HbSS, the higher prevalence of malaria with high levels of HbF suggests loss of malaria protection. This is the first epidemiological study to suggest a negative epistasis between HbF and HbS on malaria.

  17. Testing of candidate non-lethal sampling methods for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; McKibben, Constance L.; Conway, Carla M.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Chase, Dorothy M.; Applegate, Lynn M.


    Non-lethal pathogen testing can be a useful tool for fish disease research and management. Our research objectives were to determine if (1) fin clips, gill snips, surface mucus scrapings, blood draws, or kidney biopsies could be obtained non-lethally from 3 to 15 g Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, (2) non-lethal samples could accurately discriminate between fish exposed to the bacterial kidney disease agent Renibacterium salmoninarum and non-exposed fish, and (3) non-lethal samples could serve as proxies for lethal kidney samples to assess infection intensity. Blood draws and kidney biopsies caused ≥5% post-sampling mortality (Objective 1) and may be appropriate only for larger fish, but the other sample types were non-lethal. Sampling was performed over 21 wk following R. salmoninarum immersion challenge of fish from 2 stocks (Objectives 2 and 3), and nested PCR (nPCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) results from candidate non-lethal samples were compared with kidney tissue analysis by nPCR, qPCR, bacteriological culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and histopathology/immunohistochemistry. R. salmoninarum was detected by PCR in >50% of fin, gill, and mucus samples from challenged fish. Mucus qPCR was the only non-lethal assay exhibiting both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity estimates >90% for distinguishing between R. salmoninarum-exposed and non-exposed fish and was the best candidate for use as an alternative to lethal kidney sample testing. Mucus qPCR R. salmoninarum quantity estimates reflected changes in kidney bacterial load estimates, as evidenced by significant positive correlations with kidney R. salmoninaruminfection intensity scores at all sample times and in both fish stocks, and were not significantly impacted by environmentalR. salmoninarum concentrations.

  18. Bench-top validation testing of selected immunological and molecular Renibacterium salmoninarum diagnostic assays by comparison with quantitative bacteriological culture (United States)

    Elliott, D.G.; Applegate, L.J.; Murray, A.L.; Purcell, M.K.; McKibben, C.L.


    No gold standard assay exhibiting error-free classification of results has been identified for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease. Validation of diagnostic assays for R. salmoninarum has been hindered by its unique characteristics and biology, and difficulties in locating suitable populations of reference test animals. Infection status of fish in test populations is often unknown, and it is commonly assumed that the assay yielding the most positive results has the highest diagnostic accuracy, without consideration of misclassification of results. In this research, quantification of R. salmoninarum in samples by bacteriological culture provided a standardized measure of viable bacteria to evaluate analytical performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and repeatability) of non-culture assays in three matrices (phosphate-buffered saline, ovarian fluid and kidney tissue). Non-culture assays included polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), direct smear fluorescent antibody technique (FAT), membrane-filtration FAT, nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and three real-time quantitative PCR assays. Injection challenge of specific pathogen-free Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), with R. salmoninarum was used to estimate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Results did not identify a single assay demonstrating the highest analytical and diagnostic performance characteristics, but revealed strengths and weaknesses of each test.

  19. Characterization of Renibacterium salmoninarum with reduced susceptibility to macrolide antibiotics by a standardized antibiotic susceptibility test. (United States)

    Rhodes, Linda D; Nguyen, Oanh T; Deinhard, Rebecca K; White, Teresa M; Harrell, Lee W; Roberts, Marilyn C


    Three cohorts of juvenile and subadult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha received multiple treatments with macrolide antibiotics for bacterial kidney disease (BKD) during rearing in a captive broodstock program. A total of 77 mortalities among the cohorts were screened for Renibacterium salmoninarum, the etiologic agent of BKD, by agar culture from kidney, and isolates from 7 fish were suitable for growth testing in the presence of macrolide antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of erythromycin and azithromycin was determined by a modification of the standardized broth assay using defined medium. The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) type strain 33209 exhibited a MIC of 0.008 microg m(-1) to either erythromycin or azithromycin. Isolates from 3 fish displayed MICs identical to the MICs for the ATCC type strain 33209. In contrast, isolates from 4 fish exhibited higher MICs, ranging between 0.125 and 0.250 microg ml(-1) for erythromycin and between 0.016 and 0.031 microg ml(-1) for azithromycin. Sequence analysis of the mutational hotspots for macrolide resistance in the 23S rDNA gene and the open reading frames of ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 found identical sequences among all isolates, indicating that the phenotype was not due to mutations associated with the drug-binding site of 23S rRNA. These results are the first report of R. salmoninarum with reduced susceptibility to macrolide antibiotics isolated from fish receiving multiple antibiotic treatments.

  20. Antigenic and functional characterization of p57 produced by Renibacterium salmoninarum (United States)

    Weins, G.; Chien, M.S.; Winton, J.R.; Kaatari, S.L.


    Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease, produces large quantities of a 57-58 kDa protein (p57) during growth in broth culture and during infection of salmonid fish. Biological activities of secreted p57 include agglutination of salrnonid leucocytes and rabbit erythrocytes. We define the location of epitopes on p57 recognized by agglutination-blocking monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 4Cl1, 4H8 and 4D3, and demonstrate that the majority of secreted p57 is a nlonomer that retains salrnonid leucocyte agglutinat~ng activity. The 3 MAbs bound a recombinant, amino-terminal fragment of p57 (211 aa) but not a carboxy-terminal fragment (315 aa) demonstrating that the neutralizing epitopes are located within the amino-terminal portion of p57. When combinations of the MAbs were used in an antigen capture ELISA. the epitopes recognized by the 3 MAbs were shown to be sterically separate. However, when the same MAb was used as both the coating and detection MAb, binding of the biotinylated detection MAb was not observed. These data indicate that the epitopes recognized by the 3 agglutination-blocking antibodies are functionally available only once per molecule and that native p57 exists as a monomer Similar ELISA results were obtained when kidney tissues from 3 naturally infected chinook salmon were assayed. Finally, a p57 monomer was purified using anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography that retained in vitro agglutinating activity. A model in which p57 is released from R. salmoninarum as a biologically active monomer during infection of salmonid fish is proposed.

  1. Spoilage potential of Vagococcus salmoninarum in preservative-free, MAP-stored brown shrimp and differentiation from Brochothrix thermosphacta on streptomycin thallous acetate actidione agar. (United States)

    Calliauw, F; Horemans, B; Broekaert, K; Michiels, C; Heyndrickx, M


    During a previous study concerning brown shrimp (Crangon crangon), selective streptomycin thallous acetate actidione (STAA) agar was used to determine the growth of Brochothrix thermosphacta. However, the growth of Vagococcus salmoninarum on this medium was also noticed. This study explores the spoilage potential of this organism when inoculated on sterile shrimp. Isolates growing on STAA were identified using (GTG)5 clustering followed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Their biochemical spoilage potential was analysed for H2 S production and enzymatic activities were tested using an APIZYM test. Headspace solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to analyse the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during storage of inoculated shrimp. Fifty-five per cent of isolates taken from STAA could be identified as V. salmoninarum, while no apparent morphological difference with B. thermosphacta isolates was identified upon the prescribed incubation conditions. For isolates identified as V. salmoninarum, production of 2-heptanone, 2-nonanone, 2-undecanone was found, as was the possibility to form H2 S. When using the STAA medium for detecting B. thermosphacta, one should consider the possible abundant presence of V. salmoninarum as well. Based on this study, V. salmoninarum does not exhibit great spoilage potential, although it can produce H2 S and formed VOCs which are also found in other spoiled seafood products. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Reconstructing metabolic pathways of a member of the genus Pelotomaculum suggesting its potential to oxidize benzene to carbon dioxide with direct reduction of sulfate. (United States)

    Dong, Xiyang; Dröge, Johannes; von Toerne, Christine; Marozava, Sviatlana; McHardy, Alice C; Meckenstock, Rainer U


    The enrichment culture BPL is able to degrade benzene with sulfate as electron acceptor and is dominated by an organism of the genus Pelotomaculum. Members of Pelotomaculum are usually known to be fermenters, undergoing syntrophy with anaerobic respiring microorganisms or methanogens. By using a metagenomic approach, we reconstructed a high-quality genome (∼2.97 Mbp, 99% completeness) for Pelotomaculum candidate BPL. The proteogenomic data suggested that (1) anaerobic benzene degradation was activated by a yet unknown mechanism for conversion of benzene to benzoyl-CoA; (2) the central benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway involved reductive dearomatization by a class II benzoyl-CoA reductase followed by hydrolytic ring cleavage and modified β-oxidation; (3) the oxidative acetyl-CoA pathway was utilized for complete oxidation to CO2. Interestingly, the genome of Pelotomaculum candidate BPL has all the genes for a complete sulfate reduction pathway including a similar electron transfer mechanism for dissimilatory sulfate reduction as in other Gram-positive sulfate-reducing bacteria. The proteome analysis revealed that the essential enzymes for sulfate reduction were all formed during growth with benzene. Thus, our data indicated that, besides its potential to anaerobically degrade benzene, Pelotomaculum candidate BPL is the first member of the genus that can perform sulfate reduction. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  3. Mortality and kidney histopathology of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha exposed to virulent and attenuated Renibacterium salmoninarum strains (United States)

    O'Farrell, Caroline L.; Elliott, Diane G.; Landolt, Marsha L.


    An isolate of Renibacterium salmoninarum (strain MT 239) exhibiting reduced virulence in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was tested for its ability to cause bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, a salmonid species more susceptible to BKD. Juvenile chinook salmon were exposed to either 33209, the American Type Culture Collection type strain of R. salmoninarum, or to MT 239, by an intraperitoneal injection of 1 x 10(3) or 1 x 10(6) bacteria fish(-1), or by a 24 h immersion in 1 x 10(5) or 1 x 10(7) bacteria ml(-1). For 22 wk fish were held in 12 degrees C water and monitored for mortality. Fish were sampled periodically for histological examination of kidney tissues. In contrast to fish exposed to the high dose of strain 33209 by either injection or immersion, none of the fish exposed to strain MT 239 by either route exhibited gross clinical signs or histopathological changes indicative of BKD. However, the MT 239 strain was detected by the direct fluorescent antibody technique in 4 fish that died up to 11 wk after the injection challenge and in 5 fish that died up to 20 wk after the immersion challenge. Viable MT 239 was isolated in culture from 3 fish that died up to 13 wk after the immersion challenge. Total mortality in groups injected with the high dose of strain MT 239 (12%) was also significantly lower (p < 0.05) than mortality in groups injected with strain 33209 (73 %). These data indicate that the attenuated virulence observed with MT 239 in rainbow trout also occurs in a salmonid species highly susceptible to BKD. The reasons for the attenuated virulence of MT 239 were not determined but may be related to the reduced levels of the putative virulence protein p57 associated with this strain.

  4. Variation in the Spacer Regions Separating tRNA Genes in Renibacterium salmoninarum Distinguishes Recent Clinical Isolates from the Same Location (United States)

    Alexander, Sarah M.; Grayson, T. Hilton; Chambers, Edel M.; Cooper, Lynne F.; Barker, Gavin A.; Gilpin, Martyn L.


    A means for distinguishing between clinical isolates of Renibacterium salmoninarum that is based on the PCR amplification of length polymorphisms in the tRNA intergenic spacer regions (tDNA-ILPs) was investigated. The method used primers specific to nucleotide sequences of R. salmoninarum tRNA genes and tRNA intergenic spacer regions that had been generated by using consensus tRNA gene primers. Twenty-one PCR products were sequenced from five isolates of R. salmoninarum from the United States, England, and Scotland, and four complete tRNA genes and spacer regions were identified. Sixteen specific PCR primers were designed and tested singly and in all possible pairwise combinations for their potential to discriminate between isolates from recent clinical outbreaks of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in the United Kingdom. Fourteen of the isolates were cultured from kidney samples taken from fish displaying clinical signs of BKD on five farms, and some of the isolates came from the same farm and at the same time. The tDNA-ILP profiles separated 22 clinical isolates into nine groups and highlighted that some farms may have had more than one source of infection. The grouping of isolates improved on the discriminatory power of previously reported typing methods based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and restriction fragment length profiles developed using insertion sequence IS994. Our method enabled us to make divisions between closely related clinical isolates of R. salmoninarum that have identical exact tandem repeat (ETR-A) loci, rRNA intergenic spacer sequences, and IS994 profiles. PMID:11136759

  5. Food-Wine Pairing Suggestions as a Risk Reduction Strategy: Reducing Risk and Increasing Wine by the Glass Sales in the Context of a Swiss Restaurant. (United States)

    Terrier, Lohyd; Jaquinet, Anne-Laure


    This study tests the effect of a pairing suggestion for food with wine by the glass directly placed on the menu. We made the assumption that these suggestions can, by reducing social and financial risk, increase wine by the glass sales. One hundred and fifty-nine customers of a Swiss restaurant participated in this experiment. For 82 customers, a food and wine by the glass suggestion was directly placed on the menu while the 77 others were given a normal menu (without a pairing suggestion). Results show that this type of suggestion significantly increases wine sold by the glass. Practical applications of this strategy are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Influence of infection with Renibacterium salmoninarum on susceptibility of juvenile spring chinook salmon to gas bubble trauma (United States)

    Weiland, L.K.; Mesa, M.G.; Maule, A.G.


    During experiments in our laboratory to assess the progression and severity of gas bubble trauma (GBT) in juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, we had the opportunity to assess the influence of Renibacterium salmoninarum (Rs), the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease, on the susceptibility of salmon to GBT. We exposed fish with an established infection of Rs to 120% total dissolved gas (TDG) for 96 h and monitored severity of GBT signs in the fins and gills, Rs infection level in kidneys by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and mortality. Mortality occurred rapidly after exposure to 120% TDG, with a LT20 (time necessary to kill 20% of the population) of about 37 h, which is at a minimum about 16% earlier than other bioassays we have conducted using fish that had no apparent signs of disease. Fish that died early (from 31 to 36 h and from 49 to 52 h) had significantly higher infection levels (mean ?? SE ELISA absorbance = 1.532 ?? 0.108) than fish that survived for 96h (mean ?? SE ELISA absorbance = 0.828 ?? 0.137). Fish that died early also had a significantly greater number of gill filaments occluded with bubbles than those that survived 96 h. Conversely, fish that survived for 96 h had a significantly higher median fin severity ranking than those that died early. Our results indicate that fish with moderate to high levels of Rs infection are more vulnerable to the effects of dissolved gas supersaturation (DGS) and die sooner than fish with lower levels of Rs infection. However, there is a substantial amount of individual variation in susceptibility to the apparent cumulative effects of DGS and Rs infection. Collectively, our findings have important implications to programs designed to monitor the prevalence and severity of GBT in juvenile salmonids in areas like the Columbia River basin and perhaps elsewhere.

  7. Reduction of pollutants in painting operation and suggestion of an optimal technique for extracting titanium dioxide from paint sludge in car manufacturing industries--case study (SAIPA). (United States)

    Khezri, Seyed Mostafa; Shariat, Seyed Mahmood; Tabibian, Sahar


    Paint sludge of car manufacturing industries are not disposed in landfills, since they contain hazardous materials with a high concentration of chromium, aluminum, titanium, barium, copper, Iron, magnesium, strontium, and so on. Thus, it is essential to find solutions in order to neutralize them or suggest cost-effective techniques, which are also environmentally acceptable. Because, this sludge contains considerable amounts of Ti pigments and unbaked resins, recycling these pigments--which could be used in a variety of industries such as paint factories--is an appropriate subject for further research. In this article, with the aim of identification of main pollutants in order to eliminate them and suggest a cost-effective solution to recover the sludge, a large number of tests including X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X ray diffraction spectroscopy, and diffusion thermal analysis are conducted to determine types and concentration of elements, and combinations of paint sludge in car manufacturing industries. As titanium dioxide (TiO₂) is widely used as the main pigment of automobile paints, an optimal technique is suggested for extracting TiO₂ with high purity percentage through adopting scientific methods such as membrane and electrolysis.

  8. A single Alal 39-to-Glu substitution in the Renibacterium salmoninarum virulence-associated protein p57 results in antigenic variation and is associated with enhanced p57 binding to Chinook salmon leukocytes (United States)

    Wiens, Gregory D.; Pascho, Ron; Winton, James R.


    The gram-positive bacterium Renibacterium salmoninarum produces relatively large amounts of a 57-kDa protein (p57) implicated in the pathogenesis of salmonid bacterial kidney disease. Antigenic variation in p57 was identified by using monoclonal antibody 4C11, which exhibited severely decreased binding to R. salmoninarum strain 684 p57 and bound robustly to the p57 proteins of seven other R. salmoninarum strains. This difference in binding was not due to alterations in p57 synthesis, secretion, or bacterial cell association. The molecular basis of the 4C11 epitope loss was determined by amplifying and sequencing the two identical genes encoding p57, msa1 and msa2. The 5′ and coding sequences of the 684 msa1 and msa2 genes were identical to those of the ATCC 33209 msa1and msa2 genes except for a single C-to-A nucleotide mutation. This mutation was identified in both the msa1 and msa2 genes of strain 684 and resulted in an Ala139-to-Glu substitution in the amino-terminal region of p57. We examined whether this mutation in p57 altered salmonid leukocyte and rabbit erythrocyte binding activities. R. salmoninarum strain 684 extracellular protein exhibited a twofold increase in agglutinating activity for chinook salmon leukocytes and rabbit erythrocytes compared to the activity of the ATCC 33209 extracellular protein. A specific and quantitative p57 binding assay confirmed the increased binding activity of 684 p57. Monoclonal antibody 4C11 blocked the agglutinating activity of the ATCC 33209 extracellular protein but not the agglutinating activity of the 684 extracellular protein. These results indicate that the Ala139-to-Glu substitution altered immune recognition and was associated with enhanced biological activity of R. salmoninarum 684 p57.

  9. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model. (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving


    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  10. Suggestions for the New Social Entrepreneurship Initiative: Focus on Building a Body of Research-Proven Programs, Shown to Produce Major Gains in Education, Poverty Reduction, Crime Prevention, and Other Areas (United States)

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2009


    This paper outlines a possible approach to implementing the Social Entrepreneurship initiative, focused on building a body of research-proven program models/strategies, and scaling them up, so as to produce major progress in education, poverty reduction, crime prevention, and other areas. The paper summarizes the rationale for this approach, then…

  11. Open to Suggestion. (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987


    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  12. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/157222241


    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently

  13. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad


    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects’, co...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  14. Suggestive techniques in advertising


    Sora, Olena


    In my thesis I focused on a detailed analysis of suggestive techniques that appear in contemporary advertising. The issue of the effects of advertising has existed for many years and still staying timely. On the one side there are entrepreneurs and advertising agencies that are trying to influence opinions and suggest motivation for consuming. On the other side there is a potential customer, who is trying to obtain information about the product he needs and at the same time not letting anybod...

  15. [Psychoanalysis and suggestion]. (United States)

    Thomä, H


    In the history of psychoanalysis the problem of suggestion has been a central one. At first it involved the necessity to establish the psychoanalytic technique as independent scientific paradigm in contrast to persuasion and hypnosis. However, it was not only the symptom-oriented suggestion that had to be given up for scientific reasons and reasons of treatment technique. Since professional and human factors as well could have influenced the psychoanalytic situation to revert to the traditional "suggestion", Freud has given some technical considerations (e.g. the mirror-analogy), that were meant to counteract the confusion of the psychoanalytic technique with the persuasive one that had to come up to late. The discovery of the transference phenomena has further complicated the problem. It became obvious that the capacity of the analyst to exert an influence and to have impact, originated in very basic human categories and their specific psychogenetic developments and distortions. This understanding contributed to the development of psychoanalytic theories of suggestibility. Until the present day the discovery of the transference phenomena has determined the discussions of psychoanalytic technique in term of the relationship between the special and general therapeutic factors (i.e. interpretation versus relationship). The departure from the therapeutic mode of persuasive suggestion and the introduction of psychoanalytic technique signaled the revolutionary paradigm of Sigmund Freud, i.e. the active participation of the patient and the process of observation. Often scientific problems related to this pradigm and suggestion are discussed concurrently.

  16. Open to Suggestion. (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1986


    Offers (1) suggestions on how to teach students the importance of regular study habits for learning to spell, (2) story ideas to help students get started with creative writing, and (3) a model of a daily record assignment book to help students organize and remember their homework assignments. (SRT)

  17. Suggested physical therapy protocol for reduction of lipomatosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed M. Khalaf


    Nov 11, 2012 ... factor is increased capillary permeability, which leads to the in- creased accumulation of fluid and protein ... and nail care, (2) manual lymphatic drainage, a non-invasive manual technique designed to stimulate ... It is included in the following steps: 1- Skin and nail care, which could optimize the supple nor-.

  18. Reduction in language testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimova, Slobodanka; Jensen, Christian


    /video recorded speech samples and written reports produced by two experienced raters after testing. Our findings suggest that reduction or reduction-like pronunciation features are found in tested L2 speech, but whenever raters identify and comment on such reductions, they tend to assess reductions negatively...

  19. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J; Schlarb, Angelika A; Rasch, Björn


    Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to "sleep deeper" extends the amount of SWS. Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to "sleep deeper" subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations.

  20. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn


    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  1. Rich Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver


    Managing and, ideally, explaining phonetic variation has ever since been a key issue in the speech sciences. In this context, the major contribution of Lindblom's H&H theory was to replace the futile search for invariance by an explainable variance based on the tug-of-war metaphor. Recent empirical...... evidence on articulatory prosodies and the involvement of reduction in conveying communication functions both suggest the next steps along the line of argument opened up by Lindblom. Specifically, we need to supplement Lindblom's explanatory framework and revise the speaker-listener conflict that lies...... at the heart of the tug-of-war metaphor. The author's suggestion would be to "offshore" the tug-of-war metaphor and replace it by the ocean metaphor of Bolinger (1964), with the ups and downs at the surface of the ocean representing the speaker's variation along the hypo-hyper scale and wavelength...

  2. Hypnotic suggestion and cognitive neuroscience. (United States)

    Oakley, David A; Halligan, Peter W


    The growing acceptance of consciousness as a legitimate field of enquiry and the availability of functional imaging has rekindled research interest in the use of hypnosis and suggestion to manipulate subjective experience and to gain insights into healthy and pathological cognitive functioning. Current research forms two strands. The first comprises studies exploring the cognitive and neural nature of hypnosis itself. The second employs hypnosis to explore known psychological processes using specifically targeted suggestions. An extension of this second approach involves using hypnotic suggestion to create clinically informed analogues of established structural and functional neuropsychological disorders. With functional imaging, this type of experimental neuropsychopathology offers a productive means of investigating brain activity involved in many symptom-based disorders and their related phenomenology.

  3. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion.


    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A; Rasch, Björn


    STUDY OBJECTIVES Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to "sleep deeper" extends the amount of SWS. DESIGN Within subject placebo controlled crossover design. SETTING Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich Switzerland. PARTICIPANTS Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. IN...

  4. Finding optimal exact reducts

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.


    The problem of attribute reduction is an important problem related to feature selection and knowledge discovery. The problem of finding reducts with minimum cardinality is NP-hard. This paper suggests a new algorithm for finding exact reducts with minimum cardinality. This algorithm transforms the initial table to a decision table of a special kind, apply a set of simplification steps to this table, and use a dynamic programming algorithm to finish the construction of an optimal reduct. I present results of computer experiments for a collection of decision tables from UCIML Repository. For many of the experimented tables, the simplification steps solved the problem.

  5. Theory-of-Mind Development Influences Suggestibility and Source Monitoring (United States)

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher; Wright, Daniel B.


    According to the mental-state reasoning model of suggestibility, 2 components of theory of mind mediate reductions in suggestibility across the preschool years. The authors examined whether theory-of-mind performance may be legitimately separated into 2 components and explored the memory processes underlying the associations between theory of mind…

  6. Nitrate reduction (United States)

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw


    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  7. 29 CFR 785.45 - Suggestion systems. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestion systems. 785.45 Section 785.45 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.45 Suggestion systems... general suggestion system is not working time, but if employees are permitted to work on suggestions...

  8. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Polkey


    Full Text Available Surgical lung volume reduction can improve exercise performance and forced expiratory volume in one second in patients with emphysema. However, the procedure is associated with a 5% mortality rate and a nonresponse rate of 25%. Accordingly, interest has focused on alternative ways of reducing lung volume. Two principle approaches are used: collapse of the diseased area using blockers placed endobronchially and the creation of extrapulmonary pathways. Preliminary data from the former approach suggest that it can be successful and that the magnitude of success is related to reduction in dynamic hyperinflation.

  9. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Luijten, Harald


    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional

  10. Using suggestion to model different types of automatic writing. (United States)

    Walsh, E; Mehta, M A; Oakley, D A; Guilmette, D N; Gabay, A; Halligan, P W; Deeley, Q


    Our sense of self includes awareness of our thoughts and movements, and our control over them. This feeling can be altered or lost in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in phenomena such as "automatic writing" whereby writing is attributed to an external source. Here, we employed suggestion in highly hypnotically suggestible participants to model various experiences of automatic writing during a sentence completion task. Results showed that the induction of hypnosis, without additional suggestion, was associated with a small but significant reduction of control, ownership, and awareness for writing. Targeted suggestions produced a double dissociation between thought and movement components of writing, for both feelings of control and ownership, and additionally, reduced awareness of writing. Overall, suggestion produced selective alterations in the control, ownership, and awareness of thought and motor components of writing, thus enabling key aspects of automatic writing, observed across different clinical and cultural settings, to be modelled. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Exceptional Reductions

    CERN Document Server

    Marrani, Alessio; Riccioni, Fabio


    Starting from basic identities of the group E8, we perform progressive reductions, namely decompositions with respect to the maximal and symmetric embeddings of E7xSU(2) and then of E6xU(1). This procedure provides a systematic approach to the basic identities involving invariant primitive tensor structures of various irreprs. of finite-dimensional exceptional Lie groups. We derive novel identities for E7 and E6, highlighting the E8 origin of some well known ones. In order to elucidate the connections of this formalism to four-dimensional Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories based on symmetric scalar manifolds (and related to irreducible Euclidean Jordan algebras, the unique exception being the triality-symmetric N = 2 stu model), we then derive a fundamental identity involving the unique rank-4 symmetric invariant tensor of the 0-brane charge symplectic irrepr. of U-duality groups, with potential applications in the quantization of the charge orbits of supergravity theories, as well as in the study of mult...

  12. Hypnotic suggestion: opportunities for cognitive neuroscience. (United States)

    Oakley, David A; Halligan, Peter W


    Hypnosis uses the powerful effects of attention and suggestion to produce, modify and enhance a broad range of subjectively compelling experiences and behaviours. For more than a century, hypnotic suggestion has been used successfully as an adjunctive procedure to treat a wide range of clinical conditions. More recently, hypnosis has attracted a growing interest from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Recent studies using hypnotic suggestion show how manipulating subjective awareness in the laboratory can provide insights into brain mechanisms involved in attention, motor control, pain perception, beliefs and volition. Moreover, they indicate that hypnotic suggestion can create informative analogues of clinical conditions that may be useful for understanding these conditions and their treatments.

  13. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John


    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  14. Query term suggestion in academic search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, S.; Sappelli, M.; Kraaij, W.


    In this paper, we evaluate query term suggestion in the context of academic professional search. Our overall goal is to support scientists in their information seeking tasks. We set up an interactive search system in which terms are extracted from clicked documents and suggested to the user before

  15. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a left. ventricular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA MEDICAL JOURNAL VOLUME 63 1 JANUARY 1983. 27. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a left. ventricular' aneurysm following a high-velocity missile injury. A case report. T. H. DIAMOND, R. SMITH, D. P. MYBURGH, L. STEINGO. Summary. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a transmural anterior ...

  16. Measuring Children's Suggestibility in Forensic Interviews. (United States)

    Volpini, Laura; Melis, Manuela; Petralia, Stefania; Rosenberg, Melina D


    According to the scientific literature, childrens' cognitive development is not complete until adolescence. Therefore, the problems inherent in children serving as witnesses are crucial. In preschool-aged children, false memories may be identified because of misinformation and insight bias. Additionally, they are susceptible of suggestions. The aim of this study was to verify the levels of suggestibility in children between three and 5 years of age. Ninety-two children were examined (44 male, 48 female; M = 4.5 years, SD = 9.62). We used the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) and the averages variance by SPSS statistical program. The results concluded that: younger children are almost always more susceptible to suggestibility. The dimension of immediate recall was negatively correlates with that of total suggestibility (r = -0.357 p Forensic Sciences.

  17. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a left. ventricular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a transmural anterior myocardial infarction with resultant left ventricular aneurysm formation were found in a 22-year-old man who had sustained a ballistic missile injury to his chest.

  18. Suggestions for Customer Strategy Updates : Finnish Customs


    Kaisto, Raisa


    The case organization Finnish Customs wanted to be provided with new suggestions for their customer strategy updates. The first objective of this study was to study how the needs of the partnership and key customers are met in the customer strategy and provide suggestions for improvements. Another objective was to research the legislation influencing the customer strategy development. The customer strategy was created in 2004 and it was combined with other strategies in 2013. The customer...

  19. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J


    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  20. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis. (United States)

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W


    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.


    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  2. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting. (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  3. IRIT at TREC 2014 Contextual Suggestion Track (United States)


    both criteria users preferences and geographical location criteria. 1 Introduction TREC3 2014 Contextual Suggestion track examines search techniques...Contextual Retrieval Framework We address here the contextual retrieval problem as a multi-criteria decision making ( MCDM ) problem. The difficulty here

  4. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping


    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  5. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions (United States)

    Hawkins, Cheryl


    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  6. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs (United States)

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  7. Current Research: 2013 Summer Reading Suggestions (United States)

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2013


    To supplement the summer reading of National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) members, the NSTA Committee on Research in Science Education suggested a list of science education research articles that were published in the journals of NSTA's affiliates in 2012. These articles covered a variety of topics that include learning about…

  8. Integrating Composition and Literature: Some Practical Suggestions. (United States)

    Daiker, Donald A.

    This paper suggests that it is possible to construct a course that integrates the teaching of composition with the teaching of literature without allowing the secondary goal of heightened literary understanding to overwhelm the primary goal of improved expository writing. It presents a syllabus for a four-week unit on Ernest Hemingway's "The Sun…

  9. Cochlear implant optimized noise reduction (United States)

    Mauger, Stefan J.; Arora, Komal; Dawson, Pam W.


    Noise-reduction methods have provided significant improvements in speech perception for cochlear implant recipients, where only quality improvements have been found in hearing aid recipients. Recent psychoacoustic studies have suggested changes to noise-reduction techniques specifically for cochlear implants, due to differences between hearing aid recipient and cochlear implant recipient hearing. An optimized noise-reduction method was developed with significantly increased temporal smoothing of the signal-to-noise ratio estimate and a more aggressive gain function compared to current noise-reduction methods. This optimized noise-reduction algorithm was tested with 12 cochlear implant recipients over four test sessions. Speech perception was assessed through speech in noise tests with three noise types; speech-weighted noise, 20-talker babble and 4-talker babble. A significant speech perception improvement using optimized noise reduction over standard processing was found in babble noise and speech-weighted noise and over a current noise-reduction method in speech-weighted noise. Speech perception in quiet was not degraded. Listening quality testing for noise annoyance and overall preference found significant improvements over the standard processing and over a current noise-reduction method in speech-weighted and babble noise types. This optimized method has shown significant speech perception and quality improvements compared to the standard processing and a current noise-reduction method.

  10. Towards diverse visual suggestions on Flickr (United States)

    Feki, Ghada; Ben Ammar, Anis; Ben Amar, Chokri


    With the great popularity of the photo sharing site Flickr, the research community is involved to produce innovative applications in order to enhance different Flickr services. In this paper, we present a new process for diverse visual suggestions generation on Flickr. We unify the social aspect of Flickr and the richness of Wikipedia to produce an important number of meanings illustrated by the diverse visual suggestions which can integrate the diversity aspect into the Flickr search. We conduct an experimental study to illustrate the effect of the fusion of the Wikipedia and Flickr knowledge on the diversity rate among the Flickr search and reveal the evolution of the diversity aspect through the returned images among the different results of search engines.

  11. Does neuroimaging of suggestion elucidate hypnotic trance? (United States)

    Raz, Amir


    Contemporary studies in the cognitive neuroscience of attention and suggestion shed new light on the underlying neural mechanisms that operationalize these effects. Without adhering to important caveats inherent to imaging of the living human brain, however, findings from brain imaging studies may enthrall more than explain. Scholars, practitioners, professionals, and consumers must realize that the influence words exert on focal brain activity is measurable but that these measurements are often difficult to interpret. While recent brain imaging research increasingly incorporates variations of suggestion and hypnosis, correlating overarching hypnotic experiences with specific brain substrates remains tenuous. This article elucidates the mounting role of cognitive neuroscience, including the relative merits and intrinsic limitations of neuroimaging, in better contextualizing trance-like concepts.

  12. Euthanasia and mental retardation: suggesting the unthinkable. (United States)

    Hollander, R


    Current opinions on euthanasia of persons with mental retardation were discussed within the framework of the development of social policy towards this population. Historians of mental retardation have emphasized that incarceration and sterilization were the only two policy options available in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but a third option, euthanasia, was also suggested. The significance of the euthanasia option as the nation struggled to find a solution to the question of how to deal with what was thought to be a sharp rise in the number of people with mental retardation in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was examined. The responses of service providers to suggestions that euthanasia be implemented were reviewed. The rejection of proposals for euthanasia on moral and religious grounds and on the basis that custodial institutions, based on eugenics principles, were able to achieve the same end through a scientifically justifiable means was explored.

  13. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps


    The goal of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track is to evaluate approaches for supporting users in searching collections of books who express their information needs both in a query and through example books. The track investigates the complex nature of relevance in book search and the role of traditional...... and user-generated book metadata in retrieval. We consolidated last year’s investigation into the nature of book suggestions from the LibraryThing forums and how they compare to book relevance judgements. Participants were encouraged to incorporate rich user profiles of both topic creators and other...... LibraryThing users to explore the relative value of recommendation and retrieval paradigms for book search....

  14. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration]. (United States)

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L


    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  15. Application for Suggesting Restaurants Using Clustering Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Alexandra IANCU


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an application whose purpose is to make suggestions of restaurants to users. The application uses as input the descriptions of restaurants, reviews, user reviews available on the specialized Internet sites and blogs. In the application there are used processing techniques of natural language implemented using parsers, clustering algorithms and techniques for data collection from the Internet through web crawlers.

  16. Performance evaluation of the suggestion system. (United States)

    Hadi, Mohammad; Sajjadi, Haniye Sadat; Baratpour, Sara; Toghiani, Ali


    This cross-sectional research evaluated the suggestion system of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) using CIPP model. The population consisted of all members of executive committee of suggestion system and the members of professional and general committee of IUMS; regarding to some limitations, sampling was not done. The tool of gathering data was a self-constructed questionnaire that its content validity approved by the professors' ideas, and calculating Cronbach's alpha confirmed its reliability. Collected data was analyzed using SPSS software. Analyzed data showed that the average score of the performance of the mentioned system was 50.47 +/- 14.8; based on this result it can be claimed that most of the participants (about 91%) evaluated the performance of the system moderate. The comparison of the average score of the four dimensions of CIPP model showed that the input dimension had the highest score and process, product and context dimensions were next on the hierarchy. Planning some programs for paying awards, facilitating and accelerating the personnel's and notifying the procedures of the suggestion system implementation are some useful strategy that could be used to increase the staff's participants.

  17. Preventing motor training through nocebo suggestions. (United States)

    Pollo, Antonella; Carlino, Elisa; Vase, Lene; Benedetti, Fabrizio


    Although placebos have repeatedly been shown to increase physical performance and endurance, much less is known about the effect of their negative counterpart, nocebos. Here, we employ negative suggestions and a sham electrical stimulation as a nocebo conditioning procedure in healthy subjects performing a leg extension exercise to total exhaustion. Using two different protocols, we analyze the contribution of expectation alone or the combination of conditioning and expectation to the nocebo effect evaluated as the change of work performed and rate of perceived exertion. We find that it is possible to negatively modulate the physical performance in both cases, and we argue that this effect can effectively offset the outcome of training programs.

  18. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)


    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  19. FEM effective suggestion of guitar construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Dániel


    Full Text Available Modal analysis of the whole guitar construction was performed. The results of eigenfrequencies were obtained. Stress in strings affects not only static loading of material, but also shift of eigenfrequencies. From obtained natural frequencies for solved spectrum such frequencies were used which coincides with assumed ribs new positions of ribs were suggested. Other ribs which do not carry out the mechanical function were removed. Also static reaction was evaluated and new position of ribs was adjusted. For final model new eigenfrequencies were computed and compared with previous ones. Significant changes were revealed in low frequencies (bellow 400 Hz where fewer amounts of natural shapes were obtained. Approximately 50% were lost by adding of ribs. For chosen frequencies of equal temperament the harmonic analysis was performed. The analysis proved ability of oscillation for frequencies far of natural frequencies. The final model satisfies the requirement of minimization of static stress in material due to strings and allows very effective oscillation of top the guitar resonance board. In comparison with literature good agreement in amplitude size of front board and amount of modes in appropriate frequencies were achieved. Suggested model even offers higher amount of natural shapes in comparison with literature, namely in high frequencies. From additional comparison of eigenfrequencies and natural shapes the influence of ribs position on natural shapes was approved.

  20. Health service marketing: a suggested model. (United States)

    Zaltman, G; Vertinsky, I


    Focus is on social marketing in a health context, and attention is directed to the development of a psychosocial model of health-related behavior with emphasis on developing countries. Each component of the model is identified and defined, with some of the interactions among its components noted. There are both advantages and limitations to using the model in a social marketing context. The model's primary contribution at this stage of its development is in structuring and organizing diverse sources of knowledge and data. New relationships are suggested which were not previously considered in the literature. The relationship between risk-taking and perceived susceptibility is 1 example. The model also provides a basis for simulating health processes, providing a testing ground for health policies before their actual implementation. The model's perspective is uniquely appropriate for the development of social marketing strategies, and it promises to encompass health market behavior in various cultural settings.

  1. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger


    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Widyaningrum


    Full Text Available Students learn English in Speaking Class should get enjoyable learning atmosphere in order to help them improve their speaking skill. Teacher‘s role as facilitator contributes in reducing students‘ anxiety when they have chance to speak. Nunan (1995 and Richards (2008 argue that speaking is an important skill in language learning whether it is as EFL or ESL that enable language learners to communicate not only in expressing view point but also in giving responses in their communication. This classroom study supports the idea to give positive suggestion as students‘ feedback given by their peers. Each student has their own chance to review and to be reviewed so that they can perform better in speaking class. This study is conducted in order to improve students‘ speaking skill in speaking class.

  3. Drag reduction strategies (United States)

    Hill, D. Christopher


    previously a description was given of an active control scheme using wall transpiration that leads to a 15% reduction in surface skin friction beneath a turbulent boundary layer, according to direct numerical simulation. In this research brief further details of that scheme and its variants are given together with some suggestions as to how sensor/actuator arrays could be configured to reduce surface drag. The research which is summarized here was performed during the first half of 1994. This research is motivated by the need to understand better how the dynamics of near-wall turbulent flow can be modified so that skin friction is reduced. The reduction of turbulent skin friction is highly desirable in many engineering applications. Experiments and direct numerical simulations have led to an increased understanding of the cycle of turbulence production and transport in the boundary layer and raised awareness of the possibility of disrupting the process with a subsequent reduction in turbulent skin friction. The implementation of active feedback control in a computational setting is a viable approach for the investigation of the modifications to the flow physics that can be achieved. Bewley et al. and Hill describe how ideas from optimal control theory are employed to give 'sub-optimal' drag reduction schemes. The objectives of the work reported here is to investigate in greater detail the assumptions implicit within such schemes and their limitations. It is also our objective to describe how an array of sensors and actuators could be arranged and interconnected to form a 'smart' surface which has low skin friction.

  4. Leishmania major: Parasite Interactions Suggesting Sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Maria Auxiliadora de


    Full Text Available In five experiments, Leishmania (Leishmania major (MRHO/SU/59/P-strain grew poorly when seeded in FYTS medium supplemented with 15% fetal calf serum, but presented several peculiar pairs of promastigotes diametrically opposed and attached at their posterior ends (5.8-13.5%. As seen in Giemsa-stained smears, a ring-like line and/or an enlargement, generally occurred at the parasite junction. A close proximity of nuclei, which sometimes were difficult to distinguish from each other, was also observed at this junction. Several of these pairs appeared to be composed of fused cells in which the nuclei could be apparently fused, as shown by fluorescence microscopy to detect ß-tubulin and DNA, and by scanning electron microscopy. Under other culture conditions these pairs were absent or occurred at very low rates (0.2-2.2%. Such pairs differ markedly from longitudinally dividing cells and resemble those described in two other Leishmania species, as well as in Herpetomonas megaseliae and Phytomonas davidi, suggesting steps of a putative sexual process


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Söğütlü


    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the problems encountered in production lines for office furniture manufacturers and gives suggestions to the problems. For this response, a questionnaire was designed and conducted with directors or owners of 50 office furniture manufacturers of small, medium and large scale size enterprises which were randomly selected from different cities. The questionnaire aims to focus on identifying the fundamental obstacles for production, marketing, sales and law. The data from questionnaire was calculated with frequency numbers and percentages for statistical values. In respect to the scope of dependent variables for the study, relationships between the independent variables such as the size of the company scale and Chi Square Single Analysis of Variance (ANOVA were determined. According to the results, 52% of customers constitute owners. The biggest obstacle is the lack of qualified personnel in office furniture production while 46% of customers complain about pour designs. As a result, the study concludes with specific obstacles for logistics (30%, distributions (18%, unpaid bills after delivery (28%, and unconscious of the consumer (24% in the office furniture sector.

  6. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement. (United States)

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M


    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. A suggested method for dispersion model evaluation. (United States)

    Irwin, John S


    Too often operational atmospheric dispersion models are evaluated in their ability to replicate short-term concentration maxima, when in fact a valid model evaluation procedure would evaluate a model's ability to replicate ensemble-average patterns in hourly concentration values. A valid model evaluation includes two basic tasks: In Step 1 we should analyze the observations to provide average patterns for comparison with modeled patterns, and in Step 2 we should account for the uncertainties inherent in Step 1 so we can tell whether differences seen in a comparison of performance of several models are statistically significant. Using comparisons of model simulation results from AERMOD and ISCST3 with tracer concentration values collected during the EPRI Kincaid experiment, a candidate model evaluation procedure is demonstrated that assesses whether a model has the correct total mass at the receptor level (crosswind integrated concentration values) and whether a model is correctly spreading the mass laterally (lateral dispersion), and assesses the uncertainty in characterizing the transport. The use of the BOOT software (preferably using the ASTMD 6589 resampling procedure) is suggested to provide an objective assessment of whether differences in model performance between models are significant. Regulatory agencies can choose to treat modeling results as "pseudo-monitors," but air quality models actually only predict what they are constructed to predict, which certainly does not include the stochastic variations that result in observed short-term maxima (e.g., arc-maxima). Models predict the average concentration pattern of a collection of hours having very similar dispersive conditions. An easy-to-implement evaluation procedure is presented that challenges a model to properly estimate ensemble average concentration values, reveals where to look in a model to remove bias, and provides statistical tests to assess the significance of skill differences seen between

  8. The Predictive Utility of Hypnotizability: The Change in Suggestibility Produced by Hypnosis (United States)

    Milling, Leonard S.; Coursen, Elizabeth L.; Shores, Jessica S.; Waszkiewicz, Jolanta A.


    Objective: The predictive utility of hypnotizability, conceptualized as the change in suggestibility produced by a hypnotic induction, was investigated in the suggested reduction of experimental pain. Method: One hundred and seventy-three participants were assessed for nonhypnotic imaginative suggestibility. Thereafter, participants experienced…

  9. Microbial reduction of iodate (United States)

    Councell, T.B.; Landa, E.R.; Lovley, D.R.


    The different oxidation species of iodine have markedly different sorption properties. Hence, changes in iodine redox states can greatly affect the mobility of iodine in the environment. Although a major microbial role has been suggested in the past to account for these redox changes, little has been done to elucidate the responsible microorganisms or the mechanisms involved. In the work presented here, direct microbial reduction of iodate was demonstrated with anaerobic cell suspensions of the sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans which reduced 96% of an initial 100 ??M iodate to iodide at pH 7 in 30 mM NaHCO3 buffer, whereas anaerobic cell suspensions of the dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens were unable to reduce iodate in 30 mM NaHCO3 buffer (pH 7). Both D. desulfuricans and S. putrefaciens were able to reduce iodate at pH 7 in 10 mM HEPES buffer. Both soluble ferrous iron and sulfide, as well as iron monosulfide (FeS) were shown to abiologically reduce iodate to iodide. These results indicate that ferric iron and/or sulfate reducing bacteria are capable of mediating both direct, enzymatic, as well as abiotic reduction of iodate in natural anaerobic environments. These microbially mediated reactions may be important factors in the fate and transport of 129I in natural systems.

  10. Palladium Catalyzed Reduction of Nitrobenzene. (United States)

    Mangravite, John A.


    Compares two palladium (Pd/C) reducing systems to iron/tin-hydrochloric acid (Fe/HCl and Sn/HCl) reductions and suggests an efficient, clean, and inexpensive procedures for the conversion of nitrobenzene to aniline. Includes laboratory procedures used and discussion of typical results obtained. (JN)

  11. Modern Reduction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Pher G


    With its comprehensive overview of modern reduction methods, this book features high quality contributions allowing readers to find reliable solutions quickly and easily. The monograph treats the reduction of carbonyles, alkenes, imines and alkynes, as well as reductive aminations and cross and heck couplings, before finishing off with sections on kinetic resolutions and hydrogenolysis. An indispensable lab companion for every chemist.

  12. Neglected dislocation in sub-axial cervical spine: Case series and a suggested treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Kumar Srivastava


    Conclusions: Preoperative and intraoperative traction have a role in the management of neglected dislocations in the cervical spine. If CR is achieved the patient may be managed by ACDF. If CR is not achieved, posterior soft tissue release may be done to achieve reduction and partial facetectomy must be reserved for cases in which reduction is not achieved after soft tissue release. A treatment protocol for management of neglected dislocation in the SACS has been suggested in this paper.

  13. An hypnotic suggestion: review of hypnosis for clinical emergency care. (United States)

    Iserson, Kenneth V


    Hypnosis has been used in medicine for nearly 250 years. Yet, emergency clinicians rarely use it in emergency departments or prehospital settings. This review describes hypnosis, its historical use in medicine, several neurophysiologic studies of the procedure, its uses and potential uses in emergency care, and a simple technique for inducing hypnosis. It also discusses reasons why the technique has not been widely adopted, and suggests methods of increasing its use in emergency care, including some potential research areas. A limited number of clinical studies and case reports suggest that hypnosis may be effective in a wide variety of conditions applicable to emergency medical care. These include providing analgesia for existing pain (e.g., fractures, burns, and lacerations), providing analgesia and sedation for painful procedures (e.g., needle sticks, laceration repair, and fracture and joint reductions), reducing acute anxiety, increasing children's cooperation for procedures, facilitating the diagnosis and treatment of acute psychiatric conditions, and providing analgesia and anxiolysis for obstetric/gynecologic problems. Although it is safe, fast, and cost-effective, emergency clinicians rarely use hypnosis. This is due, in part, to the myths surrounding hypnosis and its association with alternative-complementary medicine. Genuine barriers to its increased clinical use include a lack of assured effectiveness and a lack of training and training requirements. Based on the results of further research, hypnosis could become a powerful and safe nonpharmacologic addition to the emergency clinician's armamentarium, with the potential to enhance patient care in emergency medicine, prehospital care, and remote medical settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Foreign accents: suggested competencies for improving communicative pronunciation. (United States)

    Sikorski, Lorna D


    In the past 20 years, many speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have joined their English as a Second Language (ESL) colleagues to address the pronunciation skills of second language speakers of English. This paper introduces SLPs to the ESL term "communicative pronunciation" as the underpinning for the commonly accepted terms "accent modification" or "accent reduction." Initially, professionals in both speech pathology and ESL felt that accent intervention was outside the scope of speech pathology practice, though that stance is softening. If an essential part of our mission as speech pathologists is to improve communicative competence for all persons, then making pronunciation more intelligible falls under that heading. This article on foreign accents limits discussion to: (1) the rationale for intervening with foreign accented adults; (2) an outline of a broader scope and definition of effective instruction for this population; (3) suggestions for trainer preparation; (4) recommendations for productive literature searches; and (5) a brief discussion of principles guiding assessment and instruction planning. The article includes relevant research and references outside the field of speech pathology that should stimulate future productive research efforts as well as more in-depth papers on specific instruction and assessment issues. While this article is intended to stand alone, readers may benefit from the content and references in another article in this issue by the same author.

  15. On model reduction (United States)

    Al-Saggaf, Ubaid M.; Franklin, Gene F.


    Three model reduction methods are described. These are the discrete balanced realizations of Mullis and Roberts (1976) where a characterization of the reduction error is given and a previously unknown L(infinity) norm bound on the reduction error, is obtained. Another method is a new model reduction technique for discrete time systems which has the advantage that the reduced order model is balanced and has an L(infinity) norm bound on the reduction error. The last method derived is a frequency weighting technique for continuous and discrete systems where it is possible to specify the approximation accuracy with frequency and also, for this method, an L(infinity) norm on the weighted reduction error is obtained.

  16. Quantum State Reduction


    Brody, DC; Hughston, LP


    We propose an energy-driven stochastic master equation for the density matrix as a dynamical model for quantum state reduction. In contrast, most previous studies of state reduction have considered stochastic extensions of the Schr¨odinger equation, and have introduced the density matrix as the expectation of the random pure projection operator associated with the evolving state vector. After working out properties of the reduction process we construct a general solution to the energy- driven...

  17. Drag reduction in nature (United States)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Moore, K. J.


    Recent studies on the drag-reducing shapes, structures, and behaviors of swimming and flying animals are reviewed, with an emphasis on potential analogs in vehicle design. Consideration is given to form drag reduction (turbulent flow, vortex generation, mass transfer, and adaptations for body-intersection regions), skin-friction drag reduction (polymers, surfactants, and bubbles as surface 'additives'), reduction of the drag due to lift, drag-reduction studies on porpoises, and drag-reducing animal behavior (e.g., leaping out of the water by porpoises). The need for further research is stressed.

  18. Strategies for poverty reduction


    Øyen, Else


    SIU konferanse Solstrand 6.-7. October 2003 Higher education has a value of its own. When linked to the issue of poverty reduction it is necessary to ask another set of questions, including the crutial one whether higher education in general is the best tool for poverty reduction.

  19. Intelligent Data Reduction (IDARE) (United States)

    Brady, D. Michael; Ford, Donnie R.


    A description of the Intelligent Data Reduction (IDARE) expert system and an IDARE user's manual are given. IDARE is a data reduction system with the addition of a user profile infrastructure. The system was tested on a nickel-cadmium battery testbed. Information is given on installing, loading, maintaining the IDARE system.

  20. Dirac reduction revisited


    Marciniak, Krzysztof; Blaszak, Maciej


    The procedure of Dirac reduction of Poisson operators on submanifolds is discussed within a particularly useful special realization of the general Marsden-Ratiu reduction procedure. The Dirac classification of constraints on 'first-class' constraints and 'second-class' constraints is reexamined.

  1. Designing Tone Reservation PAR Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Albin


    Full Text Available Tone reservation peak-to-average (PAR ratio reduction is an established area when it comes to bringing down signal peaks in multicarrier (DMT or OFDM systems. When designing such a system, some questions often arise about PAR reduction. Is it worth the effort? How much can it give? How much does it give depending on the parameter choices? With this paper, we attempt to answer these questions without resolving to extensive simulations for every system and every parameter choice. From a specification of the allowed spectrum, for instance prescribed by a standard, including a PSD-mask and a number of tones, we analytically predict achievable PAR levels, and thus implicitly suggest parameter choices. We use the ADSL2 and ADSL2+ systems as design examples.

  2. Work Truck Idling Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Hybrid utility trucks, with auxiliary power sources for on-board equipment, significantly reduce unnecessary idling resulting in fuel costs savings, less engine wear, and reduction in noise and emissions.

  3. Waste Reduction Model (United States)

    To help solid waste planners and organizations track/report GHG emissions reductions from various waste management practices. To assist in calculating GHG emissions of baseline and alternative waste management practices and provide the history of WARM.

  4. Breast Reduction Surgery (United States)

    ... to achieve a breast size proportionate to your body. Breast reduction surgery might also help improve your self-image and self-confidence and your ability to participate in physical activities. ...

  5. Medical Errors Reduction Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mutter, Michael L


    The Valley Hospital of Ridgewood, New Jersey, is proposing to extend a limited but highly successful specimen management and medication administration medical errors reduction initiative on a hospital-wide basis...

  6. Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Ernst


    Full Text Available The application of lung volume reduction surgery in clinical practice is limited by high postoperative morbidity and stringent selection criteria. This has been the impetus for the development of bronchoscopic approaches to lung volume reduction. A range of different techniques such as endobronchial blockers, airway bypass, endobronchial valves, thermal vapor ablation, biological sealants, and airway implants have been employed on both homogeneous as well as heterogeneous emphysema. The currently available data on efficacy of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction are not conclusive and subjective benefit in dyspnoea scores is a more frequent finding than improvements on spirometry or exercise tolerance. Safety data are more promising with rare procedure-related mortality, few serious complications, and short hospital length of stay. The field of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction continues to evolve as ongoing prospective randomized trials build on earlier feasibility data to clarify the true efficacy of such techniques.

  7. Experimental Constraints on Chondrule Reduction (United States)

    Libourel, G.; Chaussidon, M.


    Whether or not chondritic metal results from equilibrium condensation in the nebula [1], or reflects reduction during chondrule formation [2] is still a matter of debate. Tiny metal globules are found both in matrix of primitive meteorites and in olivine-pyroxene bearing chondrules, suggesting that reduction reactions could have been established either before or during chondrule formation. The causes of reduction processes are also controversial, either controlled by the reduced protosolar atmosphere or due to the presence of reduced carbon in the chondrule precursors [3]. These issues are of fundamental importance in understanding chondrule formation processes and conditions. In addition, because chondrules are the raw material for the Earth accretion, the understanding of the processes controlling the formation of metal (and its compositions) might be also essential for the understanding of the early differentiation of the Earth. In order to shed light on metal formation in chondrules, a series of reduction experiments were carried out to establish 1. the timing of the reduction 2. the compositional effects of reduction and 3. the causes of the reduction. San Carlos olivines, Fa16 with trace amounts of Ni, Co, P, Mn, were used as starting material, this composition being close to that of chondrules on average. Olivines were ground to 50-100 m in order to be comparable to chondrule precursors. Experiments were run in a 1 atmosphere vertical furnace, in the temperature range 1550 to 1650 C and under different oxygen fugacities (IW-1 to C-CO buffer). These reduced atmospheres were imposed by a flux of different proportions of gases (CO, CO2, H2 and Ar) or by using graphite capsules with a flux of pure CO gas. For a given T and fO2, experiments were performed with time scales of 5 mn to 8 hours, and terminated by quenching the run products in dry conditions at 500 C/sec. Each experiment produced an assemblage of olivines (Fo-rich), silicate glass and metal globules

  8. On the Effects of Suggested Prices in Gasoline Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Faber (Riemer); M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)


    textabstractThis article analyzes the role of suggested prices in the Dutch retail market for gasoline. Suggested prices are announced by large oil companies with the suggestion that retailers follow them. There are at least two competing rationales for the existence of suggested prices: they may

  9. Harm Reduction Behind Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma R. Miller


    Full Text Available We aimed to identify how strategies to reduce the risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV in prisons could be implemented in a way that is acceptable to those with the responsibility for implementing them. Prison officer and nurse perceptions of HCV and attitudes toward a range of harm reduction interventions, including clean needle and bleach provision, were explored. In the context of highly prevalent feelings of resentment, most of the proposed strategies were perceived by all staff as a threat for officers and a privilege for prisoners. Addressing the underlying concerns of prison staff is essential in achieving a fully collaborative harm reduction effort. Ongoing resistance to proposed harm reduction strategies underscores the relevance of these findings for prison settings in Australia and elsewhere.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.


    This paper briefly summarizes the series in which we consider the possibilities for losing, or compromising, key capabilities of the U.S. nuclear force in the face of modernization and reductions. The first of the three papers takes an historical perspective, considering capabilities that were eliminated in past force reductions. The second paper is our attempt to define the needed capabilities looking forward in the context of the current framework for force modernization and the current picture of the evolving challenges of deterrence and assurance. The third paper then provides an example for each of our undesirable outcomes: the creation of roach motels, box canyons, and wrong turns.

  11. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism (United States)

    ... 2014 Disorganized cortical patches suggest prenatal origin of autism NIH-funded study shows disrupted cell layering process ... study suggests that brain irregularities in children with autism can be traced back to prenatal development. “While ...

  12. Suggestions on Writing for Publication in Language Learning Journals


    George M. Jacobs


    This article provides suggestions on writing for journals in the field of language learning. These suggestions are presented in three sections. The first section discusses how to begin. Suggestions in this section are that we appreciate the benefits of writing for publication, develop good ideas, work efficiently, ponder options as to what type of writing to do, choose a good topic, consider replication of other's research, and cooperate with others. The second section presents suggestions on...

  13. (MTT) dye reduction assay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to inhibit proliferation of HeLa cells was determined using the 3443- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye reduction assay. Extracts from roots of Agathisanthemum bojeri, Synaptolepis kirkii and Zanha africana and the leaf extract of Physalis peruviana at a concentration of 10 pg/ml inhibited cell ...

  14. Method I : Planar reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.


    We apply the planar reduction method to a general two degree of freedom system with optional symmetry, near equilibrium and close to resonance. As a leading example the spring-pendulum close to 1:2 resonance is used. The resulting planar model is computed explicitly, and the bifurcation curves

  15. Response expectancies, treatment credibility, and hypnotic suggestibility: mediator and moderator effects in hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral pain interventions. (United States)

    Milling, Leonard S; Shores, Jessica S; Coursen, Elizabeth L; Menario, Deanna J; Farris, Catherine D


    Several studies have shown that response expectancies are an important mechanism of popular psychological interventions for pain. However, there has been no research on whether response expectancies and treatment credibility independently mediate hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral pain interventions and whether the pattern of mediation is affected by experience with the interventions. Also, past research has indicated that hypnotic pain interventions may be moderated by hypnotic suggestibility. However, these studies have typically failed to measure the full range of suggestibility and have assessed pain reduction and suggestibility in the same experimental context, possibly inflating the association between these variables. To clarify the mediator role of response expectancies and treatment credibility, and the moderator role of hypnotic suggestibility in the hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral reduction of pain. Approximately 300 participants were assessed for suggestibility. Then, as part of an apparently unrelated experiment, 124 of these individuals received analogue cognitive-behavioral, hypnotic, or placebo control pain interventions. Response expectancies and credibility independently mediated treatment. The extent of mediation increased as participants gained more experience with the interventions. Suggestibility moderated treatment and was associated with relief only from the hypnotic intervention. Response expectancies and treatment credibility are unique mechanisms of hypnotic and cognitive-behavioral pain interventions. Hypnotic suggestibility predicts relief from hypnotic pain interventions and this association is not simply an artifact of measuring suggestibility and pain reduction in the same experimental context. The relationship between suggestibility and hypnotic pain reduction appears to be linear in nature.

  16. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai


    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate suggestions individually and return the top-k best of them. However, the top-k suggestions have high redundancy with respect to the topics. To provide informative suggestions, the returned k suggestions are expected to be diverse, i.e., maximizing the relevance to the user query and the diversity with respect to topics that the user might be interested in simultaneously. In this paper, an objective function considering both factors is defined for evaluating a suggestion set. We show that maximizing the objective function is a submodular function maximization problem subject to n matroid constraints, which is an NP-hard problem. An greedy approximate algorithm with an approximation ratio O((Formula presented.)) is also proposed. Experimental results show that our suggestion outperforms other methods on providing relevant and diverse suggestions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  17. System reduction for nanoscale IC design

    CERN Document Server


    This book describes the computational challenges posed by the progression toward nanoscale electronic devices and increasingly short design cycles in the microelectronics industry, and proposes methods of model reduction which facilitate circuit and device simulation for specific tasks in the design cycle. The goal is to develop and compare methods for system reduction in the design of high dimensional nanoelectronic ICs, and to test these methods in the practice of semiconductor development. Six chapters describe the challenges for numerical simulation of nanoelectronic circuits and suggest model reduction methods for constituting equations. These include linear and nonlinear differential equations tailored to circuit equations and drift diffusion equations for semiconductor devices. The performance of these methods is illustrated with numerical experiments using real-world data. Readers will benefit from an up-to-date overview of the latest model reduction methods in computational nanoelectronics.

  18. The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium--Some Helpful Suggestions. (United States)

    Ortiz, Mary T.; Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.


    Describes an approach that provides mathematical tips and helpful suggestions for presenting the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to predict allele frequencies, phenotypes, and genotypes in populations. (ASK)

  19. Injury reduction at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffing, Bill; /Fermilab


    In a recent DOE Program Review, Fermilab's director presented results of the laboratory's effort to reduce the injury rate over the last decade. The results, shown in the figure below, reveal a consistent and dramatic downward trend in OSHA recordable injuries at Fermilab. The High Energy Physics Program Office has asked Fermilab to report in detail on how the laboratory has achieved the reduction. In fact, the reduction in the injury rate reflects a change in safety culture at Fermilab, which has evolved slowly over this period, due to a series of events, both planned and unplanned. This paper attempts to describe those significant events and analyze how each of them has shaped the safety culture that, in turn, has reduced the rate of injury at Fermilab to its current value.

  20. Singular Reduction and Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Meinrenken, E; Meinrenken, Eckhard; Sjamaar, Reyer


    Consider a compact prequantizable symplectic manifold M on which a compact Lie group G acts in a Hamiltonian fashion. The ``quantization commutes with reduction'' theorem asserts that the G-invariant part of the equivariant index of M is equal to the Riemann-Roch number of the symplectic quotient of M, provided the quotient is nonsingular. We extend this result to singular symplectic quotients, using partial desingularizations of the symplectic quotient to define its Riemann-Roch number. By similar methods we also compute multiplicities for the equivariant index of the dual of a prequantum bundle, and furthermore show that the arithmetic genus of a Hamiltonian G-manifold is invariant under symplectic reduction.

  1. Harm Reduction Behind Bars


    Emma R. Miller; Jan M. Moore; Peng Bi


    We aimed to identify how strategies to reduce the risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in prisons could be implemented in a way that is acceptable to those with the responsibility for implementing them. Prison officer and nurse perceptions of HCV and attitudes toward a range of harm reduction interventions, including clean needle and bleach provision, were explored. In the context of highly prevalent feelings of resentment,...

  2. Reductive desulfurization of dibenzyldisulfide. (United States)

    Miller, K W


    Dibenzyldisulfide was reductively degraded by a methanogenic mixed culture derived from a sewage digestor. Toluene was produced with benzyl mercaptan as an intermediate in sulfur-limited medium. Toluene production was strictly associated with biological activity; however, the reducing agent for the culture medium, Ti(III), was partially responsible for production of benzyl mercaptan. Sulfide was not detected. Additions of sodium sulfide did not inhibit toluene production. Additions of 2-bromoethane sulfonic acid prevented methanogenesis but did not adversely affect toluene yields.

  3. Efficient emissions reduction


    Roussillon, Beatrice; Schweinzer, Paul


    We propose a simple mechanism capable of achieving international agreement on the reduction of harmful emissions to their efficient level. It employs a contest creating incentives among participating nations to simultaneously exert efficient productive and efficient abatement efforts. Participation in the most stylised formulation of the scheme is voluntary and individually rational. All rules are mutually agreeable and are unanimously adopted if proposed. The scheme balances its budget and r...

  4. Oxygen Reduction on Platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesselberger, Markus

    This thesis investigates the electro reduction of oxygen on platinum nanoparticles, which serve as catalyst in low temperature fuel cells. Kinetic studies on model catalysts as well as commercially used systems are presented in order to investigate the particle size effect, the particle proximity...... adsorption on Pt does not block the ORR directly. Instead, the onset of oxide formation with the concomitant conversion of the anion adsorbate layer is the decisive blocking mechanism....... effect and anion adsorption on the performance of Pt based electrocatalysts. The anion adsorption is additionally studied by in situ electrochemical infrared spectroscopy during the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). For this purpose an in situ FTIR setup in attenuated total refection (ATR) configuration....... The influence of the ion adsorption strength, which is observed in the “particle size studies” on the oxygen reduction rate on Pt/C catalysts, is further investigated under similar reaction conditions by infrared spectroscopy. The designed in situ electrochemical ATR-FTIR setup features a high level...

  5. Tobacco, nicotine and harm reduction. (United States)

    Le Houezec, Jacques; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John


    Tobacco smoking, sustained by nicotine dependence, is a chronic relapsing disorder, which in many cases results in lifelong cigarette use and consequent death of one out of two lifelong smokers from a disease caused by their smoking. Most toxicity due to cigarette smoking is related to the burning process. Models of harm reduction applied to tobacco suggest that use of non-combustible, less toxic, nicotine-containing products as a substitute for cigarette smoking would reduce the death toll arising from tobacco use. Available options include medicinal nicotine and smokeless tobacco products. The potential role of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products in a harm reduction strategy is currently severely restricted by strict regulations on dose, safety and potential addictiveness. As a result, NRT products are designed to provide much less nicotine, and deliver it to the brain more slowly, than cigarettes, which are widely accessible and poorly regulated. Smokeless tobacco (snus) has proved to be an acceptable reduced hazard alternative to smoking in Sweden, but supply of snus is illegal elsewhere in the European Union. To increase accessibility and reach more smokers, barriers to the use of NRT use need to be removed and more effective NRTs need urgently to be developed. Smokeless tobacco could also play an important role in harm reduction, but current European Union regulations and concerns over exploitation by tobacco companies currently preclude wider use. To improve public health there is an urgent need for an appropriate regulatory framework and regulatory authority at the European level, controlling both tobacco and nicotine products to ensure that the least harmful products are the most accessible. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Therapeutic suggestion has no effect on postoperative morphine requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van der Laan (W.); B.L. van Leeuwen (B.); P.S. Sebel (P.); E. Winograd (E.); P. Baumann (P.); B. Bonke (Benno)


    textabstractThis study was designed to confirm the effect of therapeutic intraoperative auditory suggestion on recovery from anesthesia, to establish the effect of preoperative suggestion, and to assess implicit memory for intraoperative information using an indirect memory task. Sixty consenting

  7. Students' Suggestions for Eliminating Bullying at a University (United States)

    Meriläinen, Matti; Puhakka, Helena; Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija


    Students' suggestions for how to eliminate bullying at universities were gathered as part of an e-questionnaire sent to each university student (N = 10,551) at a Finnish university. The suggestions (n = 2804) regarding how to address bullying at universities were divided into the following four classes: support (944), punishment (78), support and…

  8. Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia in primary care, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... The prevalence of LUTS suggestive of BPH was 72.2% using the IPSS, and 60% had an enlarged prostate that was diagnosed through a digital rectal examination. The prevalence of bothersome ...

  9. Exploration of Opinion-aware Approach to Contextual Suggestion (United States)


    are selected since they cover 1 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection...suggestion are crawled. Approximately 60,442 candidate sug- gestions are crawled for all contexts, resulting in average 1208 candidate suggestions per

  10. User Simulations for Interactive Search : Evaluating Personalized Query Suggestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, S.; Sappelli, M.; Järvelin, K.; Kraaij, W.


    In this paper, we address the question “what is the influence of user search behaviour on the effectiveness of personalized query suggestion?”. We implemented a method for query suggestion that generates candidate follow-up queries from the documents clicked by the user. This is a potentially

  11. Enhancing business intelligence by means of suggestive reviews. (United States)

    Qazi, Atika; Raj, Ram Gopal; Tahir, Muhammad; Cambria, Erik; Syed, Karim Bux Shah


    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  12. Suggestibility, intelligence, memory recall and personality: an experimental study. (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H


    A new suggestibility test, potentially useful in the context of police interrogation, was administered to 45 subjects who also completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Suggestibility was significantly related to low intelligence, poor memory recall, neuroticism and social desirability.

  13. Attribute Reduction and Information Granularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-hong Wang


    Full Text Available In the view of granularity, this paper analyzes the influence of three attribute reducts on an information system, finding that the possible reduct and m - decision reduct will make the granule view coarser, while discernible reduct will not change the granule view. In addition, we investigate the combination of reducts from two partial information systems in parallel or in incremental data mining and urge that the union of partial possible reducts can be regarded as a possible reduct for union of partial information systems.

  14. Weight Reduction Diets. New Horizons in Nutrition. (United States)

    Arnold, Justine; Grogan, Jane, Ed.

    This instructional handbook is one of a series of ten packets designed to form a comprehensive course in nutrition for secondary students. The focus of this booklet is on weight reduction diets and, in particular, those diets emphasizing reduced intake of carbohydrates. It contains a page of teaching suggestions, a pre-test for the students, and…

  15. Mechanisms of eyewitness suggestibility: tests of the explanatory role hypothesis. (United States)

    Rindal, Eric J; Chrobak, Quin M; Zaragoza, Maria S; Weihing, Caitlin A


    In a recent paper, Chrobak and Zaragoza (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 827-844, 2013) proposed the explanatory role hypothesis, which posits that the likelihood of developing false memories for post-event suggestions is a function of the explanatory function the suggestion serves. In support of this hypothesis, they provided evidence that participant-witnesses were especially likely to develop false memories for their forced fabrications when their fabrications helped to explain outcomes they had witnessed. In three experiments, we test the generality of the explanatory role hypothesis as a mechanism of eyewitness suggestibility by assessing whether this hypothesis can predict suggestibility errors in (a) situations where the post-event suggestions are provided by the experimenter (as opposed to fabricated by the participant), and (b) across a variety of memory measures and measures of recollective experience. In support of the explanatory role hypothesis, participants were more likely to subsequently freely report (E1) and recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (E2, source test) when the post-event suggestion helped to provide a causal explanation for a witnessed outcome than when it did not serve this explanatory role. Participants were also less likely to recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (on measures of subjective experience) when their explanatory strength had been reduced by the presence of an alternative explanation that could explain the same outcome (E3, source test + warning). Collectively, the results provide strong evidence that the search for explanatory coherence influences people's tendency to misremember witnessing events that were only suggested to them.

  16. Suggestion and veridicality in the reconstruction of sexual trauma, or can a bait of suggestion catch a carp of falsehood? (United States)

    Good, M I


    Freud used the term suggestion in psychoanalysis in different ways, including suggestion as an integral part of the transference and suggestion in the sense of undue influence or technical error. This distinction can be expressed in terms of the patient's suggestibility (capacity for transference) and the analyst's unwarranted suggestion or persuasion representing countertransference, theoretical bias, or a departure from technical neutrality. Whether suggestion is explicit or implicit, the effects of suggestion and suggestibility may be mutual and reciprocal. To the extent that a psychoanalyst maintains the goal of technical neutrality, undue suggestion is likely to be minimal. To the extent that it occurs for transferential or countertransferential reasons, suggestion may itself be analyzed. Problems of suggestion are more likely to occur and persist when they are part of the analyst's theoretical orientation, influencing the course of the analysis and expressing compromise formations for both patient and analyst. At times, even tentatively stated words or unintended behaviors of the analyst can have a dynamic impact that may not be readily analyzed. The analytic situation itself may have retrospective (nachträglich) action. A previously published case is described in which an apparent enactment led the analyst to urge a reconstruction of sexual abuse even though the patient never actually recalled what was presumed to have been fellatio. The need for technical neutrality and alternative reconstructions in such cases is considered. The degree to which the personality and goals of the analyst influence the course of reconstruction remains a vexing issue for psychoanalysis as a scientific endeavor. There is a need for detailed analytic case studies in which alternative reconstructions can be compared by investigating opportunities for external confirmation or falsification.

  17. Communicative, organizational and suggestive skills of high school teacher

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Марина Олександрівна Васильєва-Халатникова


    .... Communicative, organizational and suggestive skills of high school teacher are revealed and analyzed.Communicative ability of teacher - ability setting and forming a pedagogical and reasonable position about the students...

  18. Baby Teeth Link Autism and Heavy Metals, NIH Study Suggests (United States)

    ... Release Thursday, June 1, 2017 Baby teeth link autism and heavy metals, NIH study suggests Cross-section ... Sinai Health System Baby teeth from children with autism contain more toxic lead and less of the ...

  19. Even Your Bones Can Get Fat, Mouse Study Suggests (United States)

    ... Even Your Bones Can Get Fat, Mouse Study Suggests But running rodents improved their ... the hows and whys behind exercise's impact on bone fat composition remains murky. She said her current focus ...

  20. Using Neurolinguistic Programming: Some Suggestions for the Remedial Teacher. (United States)

    Burton, Grace M.


    The use of neurolinguistic programming techniques is suggested as a means of enhancing rapport with students. Mirroring, digital mirroring, analog mirroring, metaphors, knowing persons, and how these aid in presenting content are each discussed. (MNS)

  1. Neurogenesis suggests independent evolution of opercula in serpulid polychaetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Nora; Wanninger, Andreas


    BACKGROUND: The internal phylogenetic relationships of Annelida, one of the key lophotrochozoan lineages, are still heavily debated. Recent molecular analyses suggest that morphologically distinct groups, such as the polychaetes, are paraphyletic assemblages, thus questioning the homology...

  2. Sexual Harrassment: Suggested Policy and Procedures for Handling Complaints. (United States)

    Academe, 1983


    AAUP guidelines on establishing institutional policy and procedures for handling sexual harassment complaints are outlined. Sexual harassment is defined and procedures for both bringing and resolving a complaint are suggested. (MSE)

  3. Study Suggests Brain Is Hard-Wired for Chronic Pain (United States)

    ... News Release Tuesday, September 17, 2013 NIH-funded study suggests brain is hard-wired for chronic pain ... Apkarian, Ph.D., a senior author of the study and professor of physiology at Northwestern University Feinberg ...

  4. Eye Problems May Be Tied to Zika, Lab Study Suggests (United States)

    ... 165947.html Eye Problems May Be Tied to Zika, Lab Study Suggests Work with monkeys indicates birth ... 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists exploring how the Zika virus passes from pregnant monkeys to their fetuses ...

  5. Regulating professional behavior: codes of ethics or law? Suggested criteria. (United States)

    Libman, Liron A


    This paper suggests considering a few parameters when making policy decisions as to the proper "tool" to regulate professional behavior: law or professional ethics. This is done on the background of understanding the place of codes of professional ethics between "pure" ethics and law. Suggested criteria are then illustrated using a few examples. Further discourse may reveal additional factors to support a more rational process of decision-making in this field.

  6. Overview of the TREC 2014 Contextual Suggestion Track (United States)


    Section 6 which contains the results . 1.2 Task Description The contextual suggestion track investigates search techniques for complex information needs...split into two files: examples2014.csv, profiles2014-70.csv, and profiles2014-100.csv. exam - ples2014.csv contains a list of 100 suggestions which each...Chamber Music Festival Description Santa Fe Chamber Music Festival is music that moves you, played by artists who astound and dazzle you with their

  7. Highlighting Impact and the Impact of Highlighting: PRB Editors' Suggestions


    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis


    Associate Editor Manolis Antonoyiannakis discusses the highlighting, as Editors' Suggestions, of a small percentage of the papers published each week. We highlight papers primarily for their importance and impact in their respective fields, or because we find them particularly interesting or elegant. It turns out that the additional layer of scrutiny involved in the selection of papers as Editors' Suggestions is associated with a significantly elevated and sustained citation impact.

  8. Genomic reconstruction of multiple lineages of uncultured benthic archaea suggests distinct biogeochemical roles and ecological niches. (United States)

    Lazar, Cassandre S; Baker, Brett J; Seitz, Kiley W; Teske, Andreas P


    Genomic bins belonging to multiple archaeal lineages were recovered from distinct redox regimes in sediments of the White Oak River estuary. The reconstructed archaeal genomes were identified as belonging to the rice cluster subgroups III and V (RC-III, RC-V), the Marine Benthic Group D (MBG-D), and a newly described archaeal class, the Theionarchaea. The metabolic capabilities of these uncultured archaea were inferred and indicated a common capability for extracellular protein degradation, supplemented by other pathways. The multiple genomic bins within the MBG-D archaea shared a nearly complete reductive acetyl-CoA pathway suggesting acetogenic capabilities. In contrast, the RC-III metabolism appeared centered on the degradation of detrital proteins and production of H 2 , whereas the RC-V archaea lacked capabilities for protein degradation and uptake, and appeared to be specialized on carbohydrate fermentation. The Theionarchaea appeared as complex metabolic hybrids; encoding a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle permitting carbon (acetyl-CoA) oxidation, together with a complete reductive acetyl-CoA pathway and sulfur reduction by a sulfhydrogenase. The differentiated inferred capabilities of these uncultured archaeal lineages indicated lineage-specific linkages with the nitrogen, carbon and sulfur cycles. The predicted metabolisms of these archaea suggest preferences for distinct geochemical niches within the estuarine sedimentary environment.

  9. UCAC3: Astrometric Reductions (United States)


    2010). Double star fits of blended images are based on the same Lorentz image profile model, however three more free parame- ters are used for the two...single width of the profiles for both components of a double star and a single background level parameter is used in this fit. The x, y data files also...provided with the DVD release. The UCAC3 is based on a complete re-reduction of the pixel data aiming at more completeness with the inclusion of double

  10. Transportation network reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav PALÚCH


    Full Text Available Network reduction problem is formulated as follows: We are given a transportation network T, a set of important origin – destination relations R and a number q greater than 1. The goal is to find a subnetwork S of the given network T such that all shortest paths between all origin – destination pairs from R using only subnetwork S are not longer than q-multiple of the corresponding distance in original network T. A mathematical model and an exact algorithm of just mentioned task is presented.

  11. Biochar-Facilitated Microbial Reduction of Hematite. (United States)

    Xu, Shengnan; Adhikari, Dinesh; Huang, Rixiang; Zhang, Hua; Tang, Yuanzhi; Roden, Eric; Yang, Yu


    As an important component of soil organic matter (SOM), the transformation of pyrogenic carbon plays a critical role in the biogeochemical cycles of carbon and other redox-active elements such as iron (Fe). Herein, we studied the influences of wheat straw-derived biochars on the microbial reduction of 100 mM of hematite by the dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under anoxic conditions. The long-term microbial reduction extent and initial reduction rate of hematite were accelerated by more than 2-fold in the presence of 10 mg L(-1) biochar. Soluble leachate from 10 mg L(-1) biochar enhanced Fe(III) reduction to a similar degree. Microbially prereduced biochar leachate abiotically reduced hematite, consistent with the apparent electron shuttling capacity of biochar leachate. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis suggested that biochar leachate-associated semiquinone functional groups were likely involved in the redox reactions. In addition to electron shuttling effects, biochar particles sorbed 0.5-1.5 mM biogenic Fe(II) and thereby increased the long-term extent of hematite reduction by 1.4-1.7 fold. Our results suggest that Fe redox cycling may be strongly impacted by pyrogenic carbon in soils with relatively high content of indigenous pyrogenic carbon or substantial application of biochar.

  12. Planning for reduction. (United States)

    Gaines Das, Rose; Fry, Derek; Preziosi, Richard; Hudson, Michelle


    Reduction is one of the Three Rs which can be readily achieved in practice. This can be done by careful consideration of the experimental strategy and the implementation of good experimental design. Moreover, strategic planning leads to 'best' scientific practice and can have a positive impact on both refinement and replacement. The FRAME Reduction Steering Committee has developed a flow chart for an overall strategy for planning and conducting biomedical research. This, and important planning considerations for each of the steps proposed, are discussed. The strategy involves taking an initial overview and undertaking related background research, then planning a sequence of experiments expected to give satisfactory results with the least animal use and minimal severity, choosing an efficient design for each experiment in the sequence, reviewing the results of one experiment before progressing to the next, and conducting an overall analysis at the end of the programme. This approach should minimise animal use and maximise the quality of the resultant scientific output. Copyright (c) 2009 FRAME.

  13. Islam and harm reduction. (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, A; Saifuddeen, S M


    Although drugs are haram and therefore prohibited in Islam, illicit drug use is widespread in many Islamic countries throughout the world. In the last several years increased prevalence of this problem has been observed in many of these countries which has in turn led to increasing injecting drug use driven HIV/AIDS epidemic across the Islamic world. Whilst some countries have recently responded to the threat through the implementation of harm reduction programmes, many others have been slow to respond. In Islam, The Quran and the Prophetic traditions or the Sunnah are the central sources of references for the laws and principles that guide the Muslims' way of life and by which policies and guidelines for responses including that of contemporary social and health problems can be derived. The preservation and protection of the dignity of man, and steering mankind away from harm and destruction are central to the teachings of Islam. When viewed through the Islamic principles of the preservation and protection of the faith, life, intellect, progeny and wealth, harm reduction programmes are permissible and in fact provide a practical solution to a problem that could result in far greater damage to the society at large if left unaddressed. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Evaluation of the improvement suggestion system in a nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnaval, Joao Paulo Rodrigues; Moraes, Geice Almeida, E-mail:, E-mail: [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil)


    This work evaluated methods for processing improvement suggestions of a nuclear factory, with the intention to verify those which best fits to the company purposes. Two methods for processing improvement suggestions were applied in the studied organization. The first one was guided to the processing suggestions by specific independent sectors of the company and the second one was conducted to the processing of suggestions by a multidisciplinary team. It has been concluded that a multidisciplinary team focused on research and development would be the best option to the implementation of improvement suggestions and technological innovation on this facility, instead of multi sector processing which revealed to be excessive bureaucratic before the expected goals. This study can be used by nuclear facilities to optimize an existing system of improvements analysis or even guide them for the implantation of a new one. It is more significant for the companies certified on ISO and OHSAS standards for the quality management, environmental and safety and occupational health systems which requires that the continuous improvement must exist and to be demonstrated. But it is also relevant for nuclear plants aiming to implement an Integrated Management System certified on ISO Standards. (author)

  15. Hypnosis, hypnotic suggestibility, memory, and involvement in films. (United States)

    Maxwell, Reed; Lynn, Steven Jay; Condon, Liam


    Our research extends studies that have examined the relation between hypnotic suggestibility and experiential involvement and the role of an hypnotic induction in enhancing experiential involvement (e.g., absorption) in engaging tasks. Researchers have reported increased involvement in reading (Baum & Lynn, 1981) and music-listening (Snodgrass & Lynn, 1989) tasks during hypnosis. We predicted a similar effect for film viewing: greater experiential involvement in an emotional (The Champ) versus a non-emotional (Scenes of Toronto) film. We tested 121 participants who completed measures of absorption and trait dissociation and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and then viewed the two films after either an hypnotic induction or a non-hypnotic task (i.e., anagrams). Experiential involvement varied as a function of hypnotic suggestibility and film clip. Highly suggestible participants reported more state depersonalization than less suggestible participants, and depersonalization was associated with negative affect; however, we observed no significant correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and trait dissociation. Although hypnosis had no effect on memory commission or omission errors, contrary to the hypothesis that hypnosis facilitates absorption in emotionally engaging tasks, the emotional film was associated with more commission and omission errors compared with the non-emotional film. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Suggestions on Writing for Publication in Language Learning Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Jacobs


    Full Text Available This article provides suggestions on writing for journals in the field of language learning. These suggestions are presented in three sections. The first section discusses how to begin. Suggestions in this section are that we appreciate the benefits of writing for publication, develop good ideas, work efficiently, ponder options as to what type of writing to do, choose a good topic, consider replication of other's research, and cooperate with others. The second section presents suggestions on doing the actual writing. Here, it is suggested that we connect ideas, delve deeply into the ideas we present, strive to write the reader friendly manner, use visuals, and improve our writing by noticing how other journal authors write. The third section concerns relations with editors. The advice given is that we choose carefully the journal to which we submit our work, follow that journal's directions to contributors, include a cover letter, be prepared to wait patiently, welcome critical feedback from editors and reviewers, and view editors as colleagues.

  17. Effect of Calcination and Reduction Temperatures on the Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of calcination and reduction temperatures on the reducibility, dispersion and Fischer-Tropsch activity of 10 wt% cobalt supported on titania catalyst modified by 0.1 wt% boron has been studied. The percentage reduction and ... The reduction temperature did not affect the product selectivity. South African Journal of ...

  18. Feasibility of Music and Hypnotic Suggestion to Manage Chronic Pain. (United States)

    Johnson, Alisa J; Kekecs, Zoltan; Roberts, R Lynae; Gavin, Russell; Brown, Kathleen; Elkins, Gary R


    The authors investigated the feasibility and possible effects of hypnotic suggestion and music for chronic pain. Ten people completed the 2-week intervention that consisted of daily listening to hypnotic suggestions combined with music. Averaged subjective pain intensity, pain bothersomeness, overall distress, anxiety, and depression decreased from baseline to endpoint. Participants rated pre- and postlistening pain intensity and pain bothersomeness decreased for each session. Information provided during end-of-study interviews indicated all participants were satisfied with treatment and felt they benefited from being in the study. Means and standard deviations are reported for outcome measures and a case study is provided. This preliminary study supports the use of a combined hypnotic suggestion and music intervention for chronic pain.

  19. Suggested Interactivity: Seeking Perceived Affordances for Information Visualization. (United States)

    Boy, Jeremy; Eveillard, Louis; Detienne, Françoise; Fekete, Jean-Daniel


    In this article, we investigate methods for suggesting the interactivity of online visualizations embedded with text. We first assess the need for such methods by conducting three initial experiments on Amazon's Mechanical Turk. We then present a design space for Suggested Interactivity (i. e., visual cues used as perceived affordances-SI), based on a survey of 382 HTML5 and visualization websites. Finally, we assess the effectiveness of three SI cues we designed for suggesting the interactivity of bar charts embedded with text. Our results show that only one cue (SI3) was successful in inciting participants to interact with the visualizations, and we hypothesize this is because this particular cue provided feedforward.

  20. Therapeutic suggestion has not effect on postoperative morphine requirements. (United States)

    van der Laan, W H; van Leeuwen, B L; Sebel, P S; Winograd, E; Baumann, P; Bonke, B


    This study was designed to confirm the effect of therapeutic intraoperative auditory suggestion on recovery from anesthesia, to establish the effect of preoperative suggestion, and to assess implicit memory for intraoperative information using an indirect memory task. Sixty consenting unpremedicated patients scheduled for elective gynecologic surgery were randomly divided into three equal groups: Group 1 received a tape of therapeutic suggestions preoperatively, and the story of Robinson Crusoe intraoperatively; Group 2 heard the story of Peter Pan preoperatively and therapeutic suggestions intraoperatively; Group 3 heard the Crusoe story preoperatively and the Peter Pan story intraoperatively. A standardized anesthetic technique was used with fentanyl, propofol, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide. After surgery, all patients received patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with a standardized regimen. In the 24 h postsurgery, morphine use was recorded every 6 h and at 24 h an indirect memory test (free association) was used to test for memory of the stories. Anxiety scores were measured before surgery and at 6 and 24 h postsurgery. There were no significant differences between groups for postoperative morphine use, pain or nausea scores, anxiety scores, or days spent in hospital after surgery. Seven of 20 patients who heard the Pan story intraoperative gave a positive association with the word "Hook," whereas 2 of 20 who did not hear the story gave such an association. Indirect memory for the Pan story was established using confidence interval (CI) analysis. (The 95% CI for difference in proportion did not include zero). No indirect memory for the Crusoe story could be demonstrated. This study did not confirm previous work which suggested that positive therapeutic auditory suggestions, played intraoperatively, reduced PCA morphine requirements. In contrast, a positive implicit memory effect was found for a story presented intraoperatively.

  1. Establishment of prevention: what do dentists in northern Germany suggest? (United States)

    Hussein, R J; Schneller, T; Dierks, M-L; Walter, U


    Dentists' suggestions for the establishment of preventive care were investigated on 3 levels; dentist, dental associations and unions (DAU), and health care system (HCS). Associations between categories of suggestions and dentists' characteristics were explored. A postal survey was sent to 2,075 dentists practicing in Bremen and Lower Saxony. The answers on 3 open-ended questions were analysed in a qualitative manner based on the quality control protocol (QCP) of the Federal Joint Committee. Quantitative methods were used for exploring associations between categories of suggestions and gender as well as age. Response rate was 33% (n=685). Dentists made 2,120 suggestions (dentist=752, DAU= 574, HCS= 794). The majority of dentists (90%) suggested educating and motivating patients. Dentists stated that support from DAU is needed in educating the public (50%), offering preventive-oriented training (35%), and in advertising for prophylaxis (18%). On the HCS level, about 60% of the suggestions concerned remunerating prophylaxis and expanding the existing bonus system. Significantly more female (p=0.010) and younger dentists (p=0.031) contributed to educating patients than male and older dentists. Education is the key message of this work. Essential topics such as prevention for elderly and risk groups were not a focal point. Education on the DAU and HCS levels can be realised through organising nation-wide health campaigns. Funding options for prevention and regulating multidisciplinary work between dentists and other health-care providers should be examined. These changes can contribute enormously to further establish prevention. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Overview of the TREC 2013 Contextual Suggestion Track (United States)


    Mechanical Turk and the University of Waterloo, where asked to complete an online survey. In the survey sample suggestions were presented to users in a s taurant−and− grocery −s tore−johnson−c i t y 0 . . . 78 http ://www. r e d l i o n l e w i s t o n . com/ m e r i w e t h e r s a m e r i c a n g r...Team Runids: UAmsTF30WU This systems extracts suggestions for sightseeing, shopping , eating, and drinking from Wikitravel pages dedicated to US

  3. Children's suggestibility research: Things to know before interviewing a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Courtney Hritz


    Full Text Available Children's testimony is often the only evidence of alleged abuse. Thus, the importance of conducting forensic interviews that are free from bias and misleading information is immense, as these could lead to false reports. In the current paper, we review unexpected findings in children's suggestibility that illustrate the difficulty in distinguishing between false and accurate reports. We explore situations in which a younger person's memory account may be more accurate than that of an adult, when a single suggestive interview may be as detrimental as multiple interviews, and when children can make inaccurate reports spontaneously. We conclude with recommendations for interviewers to decrease false reporting by both children and adults.

  4. Suggested guidelines for gas emission monitoring at danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte


    Landfill gas is produced on waste disposal sites receiving organic waste resulting in emission of methane. Regulation requires that the landfill gas is managed in order to reduce emissions, but very few suggestions exist to how the landfill gas management activities are monitored, what requirements...... to the ability of the landfill gas management to reduce the emission should be set up, and how criteria are developed for when the monitoring activities can be terminated. Monitoring procedures are suggested centred on a robust method for measuring the total methane emission from the site, and quantitative...

  5. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Information 6 Things You ... Disease and Dementia (12/20/13) Research Spotlights Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Shown To ...

  6. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search Radon Contact Us Share Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  7. Confluence reduction for Markov automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Mark; Katoen, Joost P.; van de Pol, Jaco; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette


    Markov automata are a novel formalism for specifying systems exhibiting nondeterminism, probabilistic choices and Markovian rates. As expected, the state space explosion threatens the analysability of these models. We therefore introduce confluence reduction for Markov automata, a powerful reduction

  8. Studies and Suggestions on English Vocabulary Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao


    To improve vocabulary learning and teaching in ELT settings, two questionnaires are designed and directed to more than 100 students and teachers in one of China's key universities. The findings suggest that an enhanced awareness of cultural difference, metaphorical competence, and learners' autonomy in vocabulary acquisition will effectively…

  9. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study. (United States)

    Davidoff, Donald J.


    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  10. Farm Women, Farming Systems, and Agricultural Structure: Suggestions for Scholarship. (United States)

    Flora, Cornelia Butler


    Suggests research agenda to analyze the class struggle occurring with farm women. Views the household as the unit of analysis, both internally from a farming-systems perspective and externally as responding to shifts in policy and technology. Available from: Rural Sociological Society, 325 Morgan Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37916.…

  11. Barriers to Policy Change and a Suggested Path for Change (United States)

    Jing, Yijia


    China's one-child policy has been an unprecedented policy experiment in human history. Despite its significant achievements, the policy has induced equally significant potential problems. As problems of the one-child policy have been widely noticed and suggestions for adjustments are available, the leadership transition of China in 2012 and 2013…

  12. Economic Literacy and Efficacy: Suggestions for Research. Draft. (United States)

    Wentworth, Donald R.

    Economic literacy and economic efficacy are addressed by examining basic goals and assumptions of economic education and by suggesting areas that need systematic attention and investigation. To clarify goals, an operational definition of economic literacy must be developed and used in a criterion-referenced testing instrument. A definition of…

  13. Government policy and technological innovation-a suggested typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, Wilfred; Seo, DongBack


    Reports on the effects of government's role in stimulating technological development provide a mixed picture. Some policies have had the expected, stimulating effect and other policies have not. We suggest that specific characteristics of technologies that government has sought to stimulate have not

  14. Suggestions for Revising Iranian Library Laws and Regulations. (United States)

    Harvey, John F.

    The present Iranian library laws are incomplete, obsolete, and ineffective. Certain aspects of the Iranian school and public library standards described are based on the assumption that the laws will be improved in accordance with these suggestions. In a general way, this document attempts to build on the present laws and supplement them as well…

  15. Halloween Costumes May Suggest Influence of Violent Models on Children. (United States)

    Owen, John W.; Sterling, Bruce S.

    Halloween costumes may be used to examine the influence violent models have on children. On Halloween evening observers recorded the frequency of violent and nonviolent costumes worn by children. When all of the data are inspected they suggest that children confronted with several aggressive models may be more likely to identify with the…

  16. Sexually Abused Children: Identification and Suggestions for Intervention. (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; And Others


    This article is designed to help school psychologists: (1) identify victims of child abuse; (2) interview a victim and the victim's parents; (3) know who to notify when sexual abuse is suspected; and (4) identify suggested intervention and treatment approaches that are appropriate in the practice of school psychology. (Author/PN)

  17. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions. (United States)

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko


    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

  18. Automatic annotation suggestions for audiovisual archives: Evaluation aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, L.J.B.; Malaisé, V.; de Jong, A.; Wartena, C.; Brugman, H.; Schreiber, A.Th.


    In the context of large and ever growing archives, generating annotation suggestions automatically from textual resources related to the documents to be archived is an interesting option in theory. It could save a lot of work in the time consuming and expensive task of manual annotation and it could

  19. Suggestions for Improving Ugandan Higher Education to Produce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Every country invests in formal education to develop and empower its citizens with the capacity needed to practically work and transform their surrounding environmental resources into productive employment after graduation. The high and growing rate of graduate unemployment in Uganda suggests however, that most of ...

  20. A Suggested Journalism Curriculum for California Junior Colleges. (United States)

    Margosian, Arthur

    The purpose of this study was to develop a suggested journalism curriculum for California junior colleges, based upon the functions and content of journalism programs as they should be, as perceived by a representative group of junior college instructrs and editors of daily and weekly newspapers in California. Data were collected from…

  1. Suggesting a General ESP Model for Adult Learners (United States)

    Al-Jumaily, Samir


    The study suggests a general model that could guarantee the cooperation between teachers and their students to overcome the difficulties encountered in ESP learning. It tries to join together different perspectives in the research of adult education, specifically in the teaching of English for Specific Purposes. It also provides some sort of trust…

  2. Suggestion in Education: The Historical Path of Suggestopedia. (United States)

    Lindeman, Mary L.

    Although techniques of autosuggestion in personal development have a long history in some Eastern cultures, suggestibility as a character trait first came into focus in the West with the "animal magnetism" of Franz Mesmer. The uncovering of the nature and phenomena of hypnosis resulted in a steady and enduring interest in this state of…

  3. Coping with loneliness: what do older adults suggest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, E.; van Tilburg, T.; Fokkema, C.M.


    Objectives: A limited amount of information is available on how older adults cope with loneliness. Two ways of coping are distinguished here, i.e., active coping by improving relationships and regulative coping by lowering expectations about relationships. We explore how often older adults suggest

  4. A Privacy-by-Design Contextual Suggestion System for Tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efraimidis, Pavlos; Drosatos, George; Arampatzis, Avi; Stamatelatos, Giorgos; Athanasiadis, Ioannis


    We focus on personal data generated by the sensors and through the everyday usage of smart devices and take advantage of these data to build a non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourism. The system, which we call Pythia, exploits the computational capabilities of modern smart devices to

  5. Editor's Note Responding to suggestions from the research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Editor's Note. Responding to suggestions from the research fellowship of the Institute of African Studies for a re-branding of the. Research Review, which began publication in the early 1960s soon after the establishment of the Institute, the old title has now been replaced with a new title — Contemporary Journal of African ...

  6. De-Problematizing 'GMOs': Suggestions for Communicating about Genetic Engineering. (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; Grunewald, Wim; De Jaeger, Geert


    The public debates concerning genetic engineering (GE) involve many non-scientific issues. The ensuing complexity is one reason why biotechnologists are reluctant to become involved. By sharing our personal experiences in science communication and suggesting ways to de-problematize GE, we aim to inspire our colleagues to engage with the public. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Asthma control - Practical suggestions for practicing doctors in family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the 'Goals of asthma management' as set out in the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines. Despite the availability of useful asthma therapies and treatment strategies, the morbidity from asthma has remained significant. This review includes practical suggestions on optimal asthma control for the family practitioner.


    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.


  9. 32 CFR Enclosure - Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail Enclosure National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN UNSATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE OF READY RESERVE OBLIGATION Definitions. Pt. 100, Encl. Enclosure...

  10. Evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of chronic polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, L; Smith, T; Havsager, A M


    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic yield and to describe the spectrum of diagnosis encountered by evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of chronic polyneuropathy. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 198 patients referred to a department of neurology with s...

  11. Explicit grammar teaching in EAL classrooms: Suggestions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of the subject English Additional Language (EAL) to serve as a strong support subject in explicitly teaching learners the grammar of English is suggested as an interim solution to the effects of the non-implementation of the 1997 South African Language in Education Policy. To identify specific grammatical ...

  12. Webis at TREC 2014: Web, Session, and Contextual Suggestion Tracks (United States)


    much to improve the result ranking. 4. CONTEXTUAL SUGGESTION TRACK The research question we examine in the Contextual Sug- gestion track is whether a... gestions we build upon state-of-the-art tools. Our first run uses descriptions without explanations while an explanation is added in the second run

  13. Mind the gap: suggestions for bridging the divide between formal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These alternatives can be termed informal social security which, although providing a certain degree of security, functions outside the protection and recognition of the formal system. The article offers suggestions for mechanisms to enhance offers cooperation between these two social security systems that can assist ...

  14. Suggestions for the Classical Shelves of a School Library. (United States)

    Colebourn, R., Comp.; Cleeve, Marigold, Comp.

    This bibliography is suggested for use by students and teachers of Latin, Greek and ancient civilizations. Entries are compiled under the headings of: (1) bibliographies and journals including booklists, periodicals, and books for teachers; (2) reference works in literature, mythology, history and antiquities, and language; (3) texts and…

  15. Minimal Reducts with Grasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Iddaly Mendez Gurrola


    Full Text Available The proper detection of patient level of dementia is important to offer the suitable treatment. The diagnosis is based on certain criteria, reflected in the clinical examinations. From these examinations emerge the limitations and the degree in which each patient is in. In order to reduce the total of limitations to be evaluated, we used the rough set theory, this theory has been applied in areas of the artificial intelligence such as decision analysis, expert systems, knowledge discovery, classification with multiple attributes. In our case this theory is applied to find the minimal limitations set or reduct that generate the same classification that considering all the limitations, to fulfill this purpose we development an algorithm GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure.

  16. Abstract models of transfinite reductions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick


    We investigate transfinite reductions in abstract reduction systems. To this end, we study two abstract models for transfinite reductions: a metric model generalising the usual metric approach to infinitary term rewriting and a novel partial order model. For both models we distinguish between a w...

  17. Alcohol harm reduction in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herring, Rachel; Betsy, Thom; Beccaria, Franca


    The EMCDDA’s 10th scientific monograph, entitled Harm reduction: evidence, impacts and challenges provides a comprehensive overview of the harm reduction field. Part I of the monograph looks back at the emergence of harm reduction approaches and their diffusion, and explores the concept from diff...

  18. Suggestion-Induced Modulation of Semantic Priming during Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ulrich

    Full Text Available Using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a primed visual lexical decision task, we investigated the neural and functional mechanisms underlying modulations of semantic word processing through hypnotic suggestions aimed at altering lexical processing of primes. The priming task was to discriminate between target words and pseudowords presented 200 ms after the prime word which was semantically related or unrelated to the target. In a counterbalanced study design, each participant performed the task once at normal wakefulness and once after the administration of hypnotic suggestions to perceive the prime as a meaningless symbol of a foreign language. Neural correlates of priming were defined as significantly lower activations upon semantically related compared to unrelated trials. We found significant suggestive treatment-induced reductions in neural priming, albeit irrespective of the degree of suggestibility. Neural priming was attenuated upon suggestive treatment compared with normal wakefulness in brain regions supporting automatic (fusiform gyrus and controlled semantic processing (superior and middle temporal gyri, pre- and postcentral gyri, and supplementary motor area. Hence, suggestions reduced semantic word processing by conjointly dampening both automatic and strategic semantic processes.

  19. Application of the suggestion system in the improvement of the production process and product quality control (United States)

    Gołaś, H.; Mazur, A.; Gruszka, J.; Szafer, P.


    The elaboration is a case study and the research was carried out in the company Alco-Mot Ltd., which employs 120 people. The company specializes in the production of lead poles for industrial and traction batteries using gravity casting. The elements embedded in the cast are manufactured on a machining centre, which provides the stability of the process and of the dimensions of the product as well as a very short production time. As a result of observation and analysis the authors have developed a concept for the implementation of a dynamic suggestion system in ALCO-MOT, including, among others, a standard for actions in the implementation of the suggestion system, as well as clear guidelines for the processing and presentation of the activities undertaken in the time between the establishment of the concept (suggestions) and the benefits analysis after the proposed solutions have been implemented. The authors also present how suggestions proposed by ALCO-MOT staff contributed to the improvement of the processes of production and quality control. Employees offered more than 30 suggestions, of which more than a half are being implemented now and further actions are being prepared for implementation. The authors will present the results of improvements in, for example, tool replacement time, scrap reduction. The authors will present how kaizen can improve the production and quality control processes. They will present how the production and quality control processes looked before and after the implementation of employee suggestions.

  20. Enhancing effect of iron on chromate reduction by Cellulomonas flavigena. (United States)

    Xu, Weihua; Liu, Yunguo; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Xin; Tang, Chunfang; Yuan, Xingzhong


    Cr(VI) is considerably toxic and the detoxification of Cr(VI) is of great importance. This study investigated the effect of iron on Cr(VI) reduction by Cellulomonas flavigena. The results demonstrated that addition of FeCl3 or lepidocrocite promoted Cr(VI) reduction, with the reduction ratio of above 90 and 80% achieved, respectively, but addition of hematite did not lead to the increase of reduction ratio, which suggests that the effect of iron on chromate reduction appears different with the diversity of iron-oxides. In this study, the effect of initial Cr(VI) and Fe(III) concentration on Cr(VI) reduction and the change of pH value were also investigated. The reduction ratio increased with the increase of the initial concentration ratio of Fe(III)/Cr(VI). The value of pH gradually increased from 7.0 to around 9.0.

  1. Calculation of station body wave magnitude—an alternative suggestion (United States)

    Radzyner, Y.; Ben Horin, Y.; Steinberg, D. M.


    The International Data Center (IDC) routinely calculates an adapted version of the body wave magnitude mb as part of the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Improving the consistency of the magnitude scale will improve the efficiency of the CTBT verification regime. In this work, based on the analysis of the station magnitude residuals reported by the IDC, we propose a model in which the station magnitude depends on (1 + a)log (A/T) instead of log (A/T) where a is a station specific correction. It is demonstrated, based on an analysis of IDC data and simulation, that the improvement achieved in the magnitude consistency is not a statistical artefact of the averaging process used in the estimation of the network magnitude. In this work, we calculate the station parameters for all 146 active seismic stations currently analysed by the IDC. With these parameters we achieve an average reduction of 30 per cent in the magnitude residual.

  2. Source memory and eyewitness suggestibility in older adults. (United States)

    Multhaup, K S; De Leonardis, D M; Johnson, M K


    The authors investigated the influence of test format on the source-memory performance of older adults (N = 128). Each participant viewed a picture and wrote a description of the scene. Then half of the participants (control group) read a text that accurately described the scene; the other half (misled group) read a text that contained misinformation. After writing another scene description, the participants were given a surprise memory test. Half were given a yes/no recognition test, and half were given a source-monitoring test. The misled yes/no participants mistakenly indicated more often than the control yes/no participants that misleading-text items were in the picture (suggestibility effect). There was no suggestibility effect for source-monitoring participants. The data are discussed in terms of the source monitoring framework.

  3. Auto Spell Suggestion for High Quality Speech Synthesis in Hindi (United States)

    Kabra, Shikha; Agarwal, Ritika


    The goal of Text-to-Speech (TTS) synthesis in a particular language is to convert arbitrary input text to intelligible and natural sounding speech. However, for a particular language like Hindi, which is a highly confusing language (due to very close spellings), it is not an easy task to identify errors/mistakes in input text and an incorrect text degrade the quality of output speech hence this paper is a contribution to the development of high quality speech synthesis with the involvement of Spellchecker which generates spell suggestions for misspelled words automatically. Involvement of spellchecker would increase the efficiency of speech synthesis by providing spell suggestions for incorrect input text. Furthermore, we have provided the comparative study for evaluating the resultant effect on to phonetic text by adding spellchecker on to input text.

  4. Analysis of existing risk assessments, and list of suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Heimsch, Laura


    The scope of this project was to analyse risk assessments made at CERN and extracting some crucial information about the different methodologies used, profiles of people who make the risk assessments, and gathering information of whether the risk matrix was used and if the acceptable level of risk was defined. Second step of the project was to trigger discussion inside HSE about risk assessment by suggesting a risk matrix and a risk assessment template.

  5. Oncologic prevention and suggested working standards in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović Dejan


    Full Text Available On the ground of the available data, this paper presents the problem of malignant diseases in Central Serbia, and most common carcinogens. Division of carcinogens, cancerogenesis and natural history of disease, early detection of cancer and palliative management are explained. The role and capacities of primary health care doctors in treatment of patients with suspect malignant disease are presented. Authors are suggesting standards for medical tasks and contemporary principles in approach to patients with malignant diseases in everyday practice.

  6. Children's suggestibility research: Things to know before interviewing a child


    Hritz, Amelia Courtney; Royer, Caisa Elizabeth; Helm, Rebecca K.; Burd, Kayla A.; Ojeda, Karen; Ceci, Stephen J.


    Children's testimony is often the only evidence of alleged abuse. Thus, the importance of conducting forensic interviews that are free from bias and misleading information is immense, as these could lead to false reports. In the current paper, we review unexpected findings in children's suggestibility that illustrate the difficulty in distinguishing between false and accurate reports. We explore situations in which a younger person's memory account may be more accurate than that of an adult, ...

  7. Epistemological Suggestions in „Entropy Low and Economic Process”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Dinga


    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to derive, on criticism basis (following, especially, the critic rationalism, as method, epistemological suggestions from the crucial work of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, “The Entropy Law and the Economic Process”, in order to these suggestions or challenges constitute going points for further logical assessments or polemical debates. By this way, four basic epistemological suggestions are identified: a inconsistency between the analytical description of the economic process and its evolutionist nature (that implies qualitative changes; b logical and epistemological bases for the possibility of a theoretical economic science (i.e. of a theory of the economic science; c impact of the qualitative changes of the economic process on the non-linearity of the economic models for prognosis; d logics, based on the entropy law, to pass off the rationality of optimality and to enter the rationality of sustainability. Each of these suggestions (explicit or implicit mentioned in the evocated work plays as rational, for the authors, to formulate epistemological assessments, critics or proposals for solutions aimed at to pass over the arisen epistemological or methodological problems. The authors believe that the entropic paradigm proposed by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen for the economic epistemology and methodology is one of the most interesting, from the philosophic and logic points of view, having abundant resources to open a re-conceptualization of the logical bases of the economic science, to rethink the theoreticity of the sciences that study fields where evolutive processes are going, and to think, with more maturity, to the way in which the human rationality could answer the challenges the entropy law arises.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Bian


    Full Text Available Difficulties encountered by students in L2 academic writing has been a subject of research for several decades. However, to date, there still remains a lack of detailed and in-depth investigation into this area of interest. This qualitative study thoroughly investigated the rhetorical difficulties faced by Chinese EFL undergraduate academic writers, and collected suggestions on how to address these rhetorical issues. To be sufficiently detailed and thorough, this study divided students' difficulties into process- and product-related difficulties, and used triangulated data from supervisors' perspectives, students' perspectives, and supervisors' comments to address research questions. Although there were no strong generalizations derived from data from different perspectives and sources, the findings of this study showed supervisor perceptions of the rhetorical difficulties the students experienced were almost identical. In nature these rhetorical difficulties were culturallyembedded and genre-related issues; and the degree of difficulty experienced by each student varied. In this study, supervisors and students both suggested that, to solve rhetorical difficulties, teacher student communication should be improved. This study provided empirical evidence to contrastive rhetoric theory and socio-cultural theory. It also offered suggestions on how to strengthen future research in this area of inquiry, and how to improve academic writing teaching in L2 educational contexts.

  9. A Privacy-by-Design Contextual Suggestion System for Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos S. Efraimidis


    Full Text Available We focus on personal data generated by the sensors and through the everyday usage of smart devices and take advantage of these data to build a non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourism. The system, which we call Pythia, exploits the computational capabilities of modern smart devices to offer high quality personalized POI (point of interest recommendations. To protect user privacy, we apply a privacy by design approach within all of the steps of creating Pythia. The outcome is a system that comprises important architectural and operational innovations. The system is designed to process sensitive personal data, such as location traces, browsing history and web searches (query logs, to automatically infer user preferences and build corresponding POI-based user profiles. These profiles are then used by a contextual suggestion engine to anticipate user choices and make POI recommendations for tourists. Privacy leaks are minimized by implementing an important part of the system functionality at the user side, either as a mobile app or as a client-side web application, and by taking additional precautions, like data generalization, wherever necessary. As a proof of concept, we present a prototype that implements the aforementioned mechanisms on the Android platform accompanied with certain web applications. Even though the current prototype focuses only on location data, the results from the evaluation of the contextual suggestion algorithms and the user experience feedback from volunteers who used the prototype are very positive.

  10. Public opinion and organ donation suggestions for overcoming barriers. (United States)

    Cantarovich, Félix


    Getting organs for transplantation depends on people's decision; thus, public opinion is essential to finding a solution to this problem. Efforts to improve organ shortage focus on: 1) Living, unrelated donation, 2) increasing marginal donors and 3) proposing economic support for donors. Paradoxically, no initiative has been suggested to modify public opinion towards cadaver donors. Several reasons explain the resistance to donating cadaver organs: Lack of awareness, religious uncertainties, distrust of medicine, hostility to new ideas, and misinformation. Education should be used to reshape public opinion about the use of organs for transplantation. Society should accept that "using" body parts is moral and offers a source of health for everybody. The concept that using cadaver organs implies sharing a source of health might be a social agreement between all members of Society. Suggestions for improving organ shortage include: 1) Society should understand that during one's life one may be just as easily a potential organ receiver as one is an organ donor. 2) Cadaver organs are an irreplaceable source of health. 3) As self-interest is one obstacle to donating cadaver organs, the "concept that allowing the use of our organs after death represents a chance of sharing health for everybody" may be useful for a change of attitude. Even though a poll among transplant professionals supported this suggestion, an international public survey should be carried out to evaluate people's reaction to this message.

  11. A query suggestion workflow for life science IR-systems. (United States)

    Esch, Maria; Chen, Jinbo; Weise, Stephan; Hassani-Pak, Keywan; Scholz, Uwe; Lange, Matthias


    Information Retrieval (IR) plays a central role in the exploration and interpretation of integrated biological datasets that represent the heterogeneous ecosystem of life sciences. Here, keyword based query systems are popular user interfaces. In turn, to a large extend, the used query phrases determine the quality of the search result and the effort a scientist has to invest for query refinement. In this context, computer aided query expansion and suggestion is one of the most challenging tasks for life science information systems. Existing query front-ends support aspects like spelling correction, query refinement or query expansion. However, the majority of the front-ends only make limited use of enhanced IR algorithms to implement comprehensive and computer aided query refinement workflows. In this work, we present the design of a multi-stage query suggestion workflow and its implementation in the life science IR system LAILAPS. The presented workflow includes enhanced tokenisation, word breaking, spelling correction, query expansion and query suggestion ranking. A spelling correction benchmark with 5,401 queries and manually selected use cases for query expansion demonstrate the performance of the implemented workflow and its advantages compared with state-of-the-art systems.

  12. Perinatal pathology: practice suggestions for limited-resource settings. (United States)

    Roberts, Drucilla J


    The practice of perinatal pathology in much of the world suffers, as do all subspecialties of anatomic pathology, from inadequate resources (equipment, consumables, and both professional and technical personnel), from lack of education (not only of the pathologist but also of the clinicians responsible for sending the specimens, and the technicians processing the specimens), and from lack of appropriate government sector support. Perinatal pathology has significant public health-related utility and should be championing its service by providing maternal and fetal/infant mortality and morbidity data to governmental health ministries. It is with this pathologic data that informed decisions can be made on health-related courses of action and allocation of resources. These perinatal pathology data are needed to develop appropriate public health initiatives, specifically toward achieving the Millennium Developmental Goals as the best way to effectively decrease infant and maternal deaths and to determine causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. The following overview will focus on the utility of perinatal pathology specifically as related to its public health function and will suggest methods to improve its service in resource-poor settings. This article is offered not as a critique of the current practice that most pathologists find themselves working in globally, but to provide suggestions for improving perinatal pathology services, which could be implemented with the limited available resources and manpower most pathology departments currently have. In addition, we offer suggestions for graded improvements ("ramping up") over time.

  13. Poverty reduction through entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigalla, Rachel; Carney, Stephen


    Microcredit strategies combine the logic of business, progressive approaches to learning from experience and the key aim to reduce poverty, especially amongst women. The focus in such interventions on the independent, entrepreneurial citizen suggests not only new ways to generate economic growth...

  14. Model Reduction in Biomechanics (United States)

    Feng, Yan

    mechanical parameters from experimental results. However, in real biological world, these homogeneous and isotropic assumptions are usually invalidate. Thus, instead of using hypothesized model, a specific continuum model at mesoscopic scale can be introduced based upon data reduction of the results from molecular simulations at atomistic level. Once a continuum model is established, it can provide details on the distribution of stresses and strains induced within the biomolecular system which is useful in determining the distribution and transmission of these forces to the cytoskeletal and sub-cellular components, and help us gain a better understanding in cell mechanics. A data-driven model reduction approach to the problem of microtubule mechanics as an application is present, a beam element is constructed for microtubules based upon data reduction of the results from molecular simulation of the carbon backbone chain of alphabeta-tubulin dimers. The data base of mechanical responses to various types of loads from molecular simulation is reduced to dominant modes. The dominant modes are subsequently used to construct the stiffness matrix of a beam element that captures the anisotropic behavior and deformation mode coupling that arises from a microtubule's spiral structure. In contrast to standard Euler-Bernoulli or Timoshenko beam elements, the link between forces and node displacements results not from hypothesized deformation behavior, but directly from the data obtained by molecular scale simulation. Differences between the resulting microtubule data-driven beam model (MTDDBM) and standard beam elements are presented, with a focus on coupling of bending, stretch, shear deformations. The MTDDBM is just as economical to use as a standard beam element, and allows accurate reconstruction of the mechanical behavior of structures within a cell as exemplified in a simple model of a component element of the mitotic spindle.

  15. Comodulation masking release in bit-rate reduction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin D.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Poulsen, Torben


    It has been suggested that the level dependence of the upper masking slopebe utilised in perceptual models in bit-rate reduction systems. However,comodulation masking release (CMR) phenomena lead to a reduction of themasking effect when a masker and a probe signal are amplitude modulated withthe ...

  16. Thermal conductivity reduction in oxygen-deficient strontium titanates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Choongho; Scullin, Matthew L.; Huijben, Mark; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Majumdar, Arun


    We report significant thermal conductivity reduction in oxygen-deficient lanthanum-doped strontium titanate (Sr1−xLaxTiO3−δ) films as compared to unreduced strontium titanates. Our experimental results suggest that the oxygen vacancies could have played an important role in the reduction. This could

  17. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Levings


    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  18. Size reduction machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, V.


    The Size Reduction Machine (SRM) is a mobile platform capable of shearing various shapes and types of metal components at a variety of elevations. This shearing activity can be performed without direct physical movement and placement of the shear head by the operator. The base unit is manually moved and roughly aligned to each cut location. The base contains the electronics: hydraulic pumps, servos, and actuators needed to move the shear-positioning arm. The movable arm allows the shear head to have six axes of movement and to cut to within 4 inches of a wall surface. The unit has a slick electrostatic capture coating to assist in external decontamination. Internal contamination of the unit is controlled by a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter on the cooling inlet fan. The unit is compact enough to access areas through a 36-inch standard door opening. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users.

  19. Mitochondrial genomes suggest that hexapods and crustaceans are mutually paraphyletic (United States)

    Cook, Charles E; Yue, Qiaoyun; Akam, Michael


    For over a century the relationships between the four major groups of the phylum Arthropoda (Chelicerata, Crustacea, Hexapoda and Myriapoda) have been debated. Recent molecular evidence has confirmed a close relationship between the Crustacea and the Hexapoda, and has included the suggestion of a paraphyletic Hexapoda. To test this hypothesis we have sequenced the complete or near-complete mitochondrial genomes of three crustaceans (Parhyale hawaiensis, Squilla mantis and Triops longicaudatus), two collembolans (Onychiurus orientalis and Podura aquatica) and the insect Thermobia domestica. We observed rearrangement of transfer RNA genes only in O. orientalis, P. aquatica and P. hawaiensis. Of these, only the rearrangement in O. orientalis, an apparent autapomorphy for the collembolan family Onychiuridae, was phylogenetically informative. We aligned the nuclear and amino acid sequences from the mitochondrial protein-encoding genes of these taxa with their homologues from other arthropod taxa for phylogenetic analysis. Our dataset contains many more Crustacea than previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the arthropods. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian posterior probabilities all suggest that crustaceans and hexapods are mutually paraphyletic. A crustacean clade of Malacostraca and Branchiopoda emerges as sister to the Insecta sensu stricto and the Collembola group with the maxillopod crustaceans. Some, but not all, analyses strongly support this mutual paraphyly but statistical tests do not reject the null hypotheses of a monophyletic Hexapoda or a monophyletic Crustacea. The dual monophyly of the Hexapoda and Crustacea has rarely been questioned in recent years but the idea of both groups' paraphyly dates back to the nineteenth century. We suggest that the mutual paraphyly of both groups should seriously be considered. PMID:16024395

  20. Solid-State Lighting 2017 Suggested Research Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    A 2017 update to the Solid-State Lighting R&D Plan that is divided into two documents. The first document describes a list of suggested SSL priority research topics and the second document provides context and background, including information drawn from technical, market, and economic studies. Widely referenced by industry and government both here and abroad, these documents reflect SSL stakeholder inputs on key R&D topics that will improve efficacy, reduce cost, remove barriers to adoption, and add value for LED and OLED lighting solutions over the next three to five years, and discuss those applications that drive and prioritize the specific R&D.

  1. A suggestion for multidisciplinarity: the fluorescence phenomenon observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Roberto Pimentel


    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary approaches involving daily phenomena are valuable teaching tools to stimulate reflections in order to comprehend that scientific knowledge is developed in a collective process, as well as to understand the importance that scientific research cannot be done in a unique area of knowledge for the full understanding of any phenomenon. We suggest the fluorescence phenomenon observation in some materials, objects and living organisms so that students realize the interaction between Physics, Chemistry and Biology, generally regarded as not correlated disciplines.

  2. Vietnam’s public debt : Problems and Suggested solutions


    Van Nguyen, Thuy


    Public debt crisis currently becomes a common concern of many countries. In Vietnam, public debt is at risk level and tends to increase rapidly. This thesis analyzed the current situation and causes of Vietnam’s public debt, and suggested some solutions to control public debt. The research flows from the cases in European countries and Japan to Vietnam to study the con-text of public debt crisis and policy-responses of those countries. The study was conducted by means of the qualitative ...

  3. Six Suggestions for Research on Games in Cognitive Science. (United States)

    Chabris, Christopher F


    Games are more varied and occupy more of daily life than ever before. At the same time, the tools available to study game play and players are more powerful than ever, especially massive data sets from online platforms and computational engines that can accurately evaluate human decisions. This essay offers six suggestions for future cognitive science research on games: (1) Don't forget about chess, (2) Look beyond action games and chess, (3) Use (near)-optimal play to understand human play and players, (4) Investigate social phenomena, (5) Raise the standards for studies of games as treatments, (6) Talk to real experts. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. Is homosexuality familial? A review, some data, and a suggestion. (United States)

    Pillard, R C; Poumadere, J; Carretta, R A


    This report summarizes evidence that sexual orientation is familial. Family studies report that homosexual subjects have more homosexual siblings than do heterosexual subjects and more than would be expected given population frequencies. Twin studies find in general a higher concordance in sexual orientation among monozygotic than among dizygotic twins. Evidence for associated psychopathology in homosexual subjects or their relatives is inconclusive. Possible sources of bias in these reports are discussed and a suggestion is offered that family studies should be undertaken in which the sexual orientation of relatives would be directly ascertained by interview.

  5. Partnership-Based Health Care: Suggestions for Effective Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddie M Potter


    Full Text Available Societal transformation often starts with one visionary and a compelling idea. However, if there are no followers, the idea quickly becomes marginalized. It “takes a village” to build a movement, and the more system layers that can be addressed, the more likely the transformation will take hold. This article describes the framework for creating the necessary changes for partnership-based health care. It also makes suggestions for ensuring successful application of partnership-based systems change. This article is for all readers seeking to apply partnership principles in their own fields of influence.

  6. Making academic research more relevant: A few suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinash Panda


    Full Text Available Academic research in the domain of management scholarship, though steeped in scientific and methodological rigour, is generally found to be of little relevance to practice. The authors of this paper have revisited the rigour-relevance debate in light of recent developments and with special reference to the management research scenario in India. The central thesis of the argument is that the gulf between rigour and relevance needs to be bridged to make academic research more relevant to business organizations and practitioners. They have offered some suggestions to enhance the relevance of academic research to practice.

  7. Mental illness stigma in the Israeli context: deliberations and suggestions. (United States)

    Tal, Amir; Roe, David; Corrigan, Patrick W


    In this paper we deliberate mental illness stigma in the Israeli context and suggest ways to reduce it, emphasizing the community's role in the rehabilitation of persons with mental illness. A literature review of Israeli and international literature of mental illness stigma. Community mental health, in addition to its traditional focus on developing community-based services, should focus also on community-based interventions such as the delivery of anti-stigma interventions. Providing individualized rehabilitation services in the community while addressing stigma-induced social barriers may create a better recovery ground for Israelis with mental illness.

  8. Children Undergoing Radiotherapy: Swedish Parents’ Experiences and Suggestions for Improvement (United States)

    Mullaney, Tara; Nilsson, Kristina; Wickart-Johansson, Gun; Svärd, Anna-Maja; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Lindh, Viveca


    Approximately 300 children, from 0 to 18 years old, are diagnosed with cancer in Sweden every year. Of these children, 80–90 of them undergo radiotherapy treatment for their cancer. Although radiotherapy is an encounter with advanced technology, few studies have investigated the child’s and the parent’s view of the procedure. As part of an ongoing multicenter study aimed to improve patient preparation and the care environment in pediatric radiotherapy, this article reports the findings from interviews with parents at baseline. The aim of the present study was twofold: to describe parents’ experience when their child undergoes radiotherapy treatment, and to report parents’ suggestions for improvements during radiotherapy for their children. Sixteen mothers and sixteen fathers of children between 2–16 years old with various cancer diagnoses were interviewed. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings showed that cancer and treatment turns people’s lives upside down, affecting the entire family. Further, the parents experience the child’s suffering and must cope with intense feelings. Radiotherapy treatment includes preparation by skilled and empathetic staff. The parents gradually find that they can deal with the process; and lastly, parents have suggestions for improvements during the radiotherapy treatment. An overarching theme emerged: that despair gradually turns to a sense of security, with a sustained focus on and close interaction with the child. In conclusion, an extreme burden was experienced around the start of radiotherapy, though parents gradually coped with the process. PMID:26509449

  9. Synesthesia in twins: incomplete concordance in monozygotes suggests extragenic factors. (United States)

    Bosley, Hannah G; Eagleman, David M


    Colored-sequence synesthesia (CSS) is a neurological condition in which sequential stimuli such as letters, numbers, or days of the week trigger simultaneous, involuntary color perception. Although the condition appears to run in families and several studies have sought a genetic link, the genetic contribution to synesthesia remains unclear. We conducted the first comparative twin study of CSS and found that CSS has a pairwise concordance of 73.9% in monozygotic twins, and a pairwise concordance of 36.4% in dizygotic twins. In line with previous studies, our results suggest a heritable element of synesthesia. However, consonant with the findings of previous single-pair case studies, our large sample size verifies that synesthesia is not completely conferred by genetics; if it were, monozygotic twins should have 100% concordance. These findings implicate a genetic mechanism of CSS that may work differently than previously thought: collectively, our data suggest that synesthesia is a heritable condition with incomplete penetrance that is substantially influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Current and Suggested focus on Sustainability in Pyrometallurgy (United States)

    See, J. B.; Robertson, D. G. C.; Mackey, P. J.

    The production of iron and steel and non-ferrous metals by pyrometallurgical processes will remain a critical element in meeting the demand for materials in both developed and developing nations. Given the important need to reduce and minimise greenhouse gas emissions the technological focus of future pyrometallurgical R&D by universities and industry alike must concentrate on sustainability issues such as improved energy efficiency, recycling and waste minimization. Continued efforts are also needed on process optimization and new process development with a view to reducing capital and operating costs of the new large "mega" plants. Using the academic and industrial backgrounds of the authors, the present paper reviews the current status of R&D in pyrometallurgy in university departments with a particular emphasis on sustainability issues. The role of industry and government laboratories is also reviewed although primarily for developed countries. The paper also includes comments and suggestions on the future requirements for education and R&D in pyrometallurgy in developed countries to maximise sustainability. It is also suggested that future R&D in pyrometallurgy will be even more concentrated in developing countries — most notably China.

  11. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask

  12. Effect of nitrate on microbial perchlorate reduction (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Coates, J. D.


    Over the last decade perchlorate has been recognized as an important emerging water contaminant that poses a significant public health threat. Because of its chemical stability, low ionic charge density, and significant water solubility microbial remediation has been identified as the most feasible method for its in situ attenuation. Our previous studies have demonstrated that dissimilatory perchlorate reducing bacteria (DPRB) capable of the respiratory reduction of perchlorate into innocuous chloride are ubiquitous in soil and sedimentary environments. As part of their metabolism these organisms reduce perchlorate to chlorite which is subsequently dismutated into chloride and molecular oxygen. These initial steps are mediated by the perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase enzymes respectively. Previously we found that the activity of these organisms is dependent on the presence of molybdenum and is inhibited by the presence of oxygen and to different extents nitrate. However, to date, there is little understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of perchlorate reduction by oxygen and nitrate. As a continuation of our studies into the factors that control DPRB activity we investigated these regulatory mechanisms in more detail as a model organism, Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB, transitions from aerobic metabolism through nitrate reduction to perchlorate reduction. In series of growth transition studies where both nitrate and perchlorate were present, preference for nitrate to perchlorate was observed regardless of the nitrate to perchlorate ratio. Even when the organism was pre-grown anaerobically in perchlorate, nitrate was reduced prior to perchlorate. Using non-growth washed cell suspension, perchlorate- grown D. aromatica was capable of reducing both perchlorate and nitrate concomitantly suggesting the preferentially utilization of nitrate was not a result of enzyme functionality. To elucidate the mechanism for preferential utilization of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelita Gomes Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Online psychotherapy is a form of psychotherapy conducted by means of synchronous Internet sessions that are still not allowed in Brazil, except in a few instances defined by the Resolution 011/2012 of the Federal Council of Psychology. Such restriction is based on the understanding that the research available is insufficient to authorize a widespread use of this type of service. Studies on therapeutic alliance in psychological care provided exclusively over the internet show that the establishment of the therapeutic relationship in synchronous online calls occurs much like it does in face-to-face therapeutic processes, considering both, its benefits and challenges. This article aims to broaden the understanding of the online psychotherapy and to question its prohibition, signaling the dangers it entails, vis-a-vis the increasing demand for the service and its widespread use in disregard with the current restrictions. This article also makes suggestions for the regulation of the service in Brazil.

  14. Friend suggestion in social network based on user log (United States)

    Kaviya, R.; Vanitha, M.; Sumaiya Thaseen, I.; Mangaiyarkarasi, R.


    Simple friend recommendation algorithms such as similarity, popularity and social aspects is the basic requirement to be explored to methodically form high-performance social friend recommendation. Suggestion of friends is followed. No tags of character were followed. In the proposed system, we use an algorithm for network correlation-based social friend recommendation (NC-based SFR).It includes user activities like where one lives and works. A new friend recommendation method, based on network correlation, by considering the effect of different social roles. To model the correlation between different networks, we develop a method that aligns these networks through important feature selection. We consider by preserving the network structure for a more better recommendations so that it significantly improves the accuracy for better friend-recommendation.

  15. Genomic analysis suggests higher susceptibility of children to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Danitsja M; Pedersen, Marie; Hendriksen, Peter J M


    Differences in biological responses to exposure to hazardous airborne substances between children and adults have been reported, suggesting children to be more susceptible. Aim of this study was to improve our understanding of differences in susceptibility in cancer risk associated with air...... pollution by comparing genome-wide gene expression profiles in peripheral blood of children and their parents. Gene expression analysis was performed in blood from children and parents living in two different regions in the Czech Republic with different levels of air pollution. Data were analyzed by two...... in relation to air pollution exposure at the transcriptome level. The findings underline the necessity of implementing environmental health policy measures specifically for protecting children's health....

  16. Crisis Phones - Suicide Prevention Versus Suggestion/Contagion Effects. (United States)

    Stack, Steven


    There has been no systematic work on the short- or long-term impact of the installation of crisis phones on suicides from bridges. The present study addresses this issue. Data refer to 219 suicides from 1954 through 2013 on the Skyway Bridge in St. Petersburg, Florida. Six crisis phones with signs were installed in July 1999. In the first decade after installation, the phones were used by 27 suicidal persons and credited with preventing 26 or 2.6 suicides a year. However, the net suicide count increased from 48 in the 13 years before installation of phones to 106 the following 13 years or by 4.5 additional suicides/year (t =3.512, p < .001). Although the phones prevented some suicides, there was a net increase after installation. The findings are interpreted with reference to suggestion/contagion effects including the emergence of a controversial bridge suicide blog.

  17. MOOCs for Teacher Professional Development: Reflections and Suggested Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Misra


    Full Text Available Teacher Professional Development (TPD has become a major policy priority within education systems worldwide. But keeping teachers professionally up-to-date and providing them professional development opportunities on continuing basis is a big challenge. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs can be a cost and resource effective means to complement the traditional methods of professional development of teachers. This optimism is based on the assumption that use of MOOCs will facilitate mass training of teachers as per their convenience and ease. The other assumption is that being MOOCs-based training, it will be easy to adapt it to different cultures and languages. Considering these assumptions, this concept paper which is based on reviews of different reports, documents and research papers - discusses the challenges of TPD, reflects upon promises of using MOOCs for TPD; details initiatives and experiences of using MOOCs for TPD; and suggests actions for promoting the use of MOOCs for TPD.

  18. Sexual health and older adults: suggestions for social science research. (United States)

    Hinchliff, Sharron


    The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Large decadal scale changes of polar ozone suggest solar influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.-M. Sinnhuber


    Full Text Available Long-term measurements of polar ozone show an unexpectedly large decadal scale variability in the mid-stratosphere during winter. Negative ozone anomalies are strongly correlated with the flux of energetic electrons in the radiation belt, which is modulated by the 11-year solar cycle. The magnitude of the observed decadal ozone changes (≈20% is much larger than any previously reported solar cycle effect in the atmosphere up to this altitude. The early-winter ozone anomalies subsequently propagate downward into the lower stratosphere and may even influence total ozone and meteorological conditions during spring. These findings suggest a previously unrecognized mechanism by which solar variability impacts on climate through changes in polar ozone.

  20. A review of cyberbullying and suggestions for online psychological therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairéad Foody


    Full Text Available Investigations of cyberbullying are beginning to emerge in the scientific literature because of their implications for child and adolescent development. In particular, cyberbullying victimisation has been associated with similar negative consequences to traditional or face-to-face bullying such as lower academic achievement, anxiety, and sometimes even suicide. Research has also started to emerge investigating the impact of such incidences on the life of adults. The literature in this area has been steadily growing over the last decade and this review highlights the current situation in terms of relevant features and the psychological impact on victims. The selection process consisted of a comprehensive search that was conducted in January 2015 in the following databases: PsychInfo, ERIC, Web of Science and Medline. A total of 19 papers were included. We conclude with suggestions for online psychological treatment for victims and bullies as a means of coping with the distress caused from cyberbullying experiences.

  1. Suggested benchmarks for shape optimization for minimum stress concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli


    Shape optimization for minimum stress concentration is vital, important, and difficult. New formulations and numerical procedures imply the need for good benchmarks. The available analytical shape solutions rely on assumptions that are seldom satisfied, so here, we suggest alternative benchmarks....... The existence of singularities forces us to separate the design modeling (parameterization) from the analysis modeling, which from a practical point of view, is finite element (FE) modeling. Furthermore, the obtained stress concentrations depend highly on the FE modeling and cannot be used as a primary...... procedure is avoided. As examples, we use a sensitive stress concentration problem for fillets or cavities in tension (or compression). These problems are solved as three dimensional (axisymmetric) and as plane stress and plane strain cases. Further cases with design of shapes for a T-head fillet are also...

  2. Persistent Web References – Best Practices and New Suggestions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Nyvang, Caroline; Kromann, Thomas Hvid

    In this paper, we suggest adjustments to best practices for persistent web referencing; adjustments that aim at preservation and long time accessibility of web referenced resources in general, but with focus on web references in web archives. Web referencing is highly relevant and crucial...... for various research fields, since an increasing number of references point to resources that only exist on the web. However, present practices using URL and date reference cannot be regarded as persistent due to the volatile nature of the Internet, - and present practices for references to web archives only....... In order to explain needed change of practices based on the wPID, the paper includes a thorough description of the challenges in web references. This description is based on the perspectives from computer science, web collection and Digital Humanities....

  3. Membrane proteomics of phagosomes suggests a connection to autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Wenqing; Sheu, Leslie; Liu, Jun; Smart, Brian; Petzold, Christopher J.; Hsieh, Tsung-yen; Pitcher, Austin; Keasling*, Jay D.; Bertozzi*, Carolyn R.


    Phagocytosis is the central process by which macrophage cellsinternalize and eliminate infectious microbes as well as apoptoticcells. During maturation, phagosomes containing engulfed particlesfuse with various endosomal compartments through theaction of regulatory molecules on the phagosomal membrane. Inthis study, we performed a proteomic analysis of the membranefraction from latex bead-containing (LBC) phagosomes isolatedfrom macrophages. The profile, which comprised 546 proteins,suggests diverse functions of the phagosome and potential connectionsto secretory processes, toll-like receptor signaling, andautophagy. Many identified proteins were not previously knownto reside in the phagosome. We characterized several proteins inLBC phagosomes that change in abundance on induction of autophagy,a process that has been previously implicated in the hostdefense against microbial pathogens. These observations suggestcrosstalk between autophagy and phagocytosis that may be relevantto the innate immune response of macrophages.

  4. Suggestions for teacher education from concept mapping studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Reiska


    Full Text Available In order to enhance primary and secondary education, teaching and learning methods need to be continuously developed as well as, of course, promote teaching quality dependent on teacher personality, teacher professional development, teacher self-development, etc. Teacher professional development gives the novice teacher access to a wide set of teaching methods and assessment opportunities, especially geared to flexible learning and assessment methods, which can be considered for adoption. One such flexible method is the use of concept mapping. This article describes the results of several studies, where concept mapping method was used, giving many didactical suggestions for using concept mapping for learning and especially for assessment. Additionally, considerations are introduced on using concept maps as a research instrument.

  5. Seasonal survival probabilities suggest low migration mortality in migrating bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Giavi

    Full Text Available Migration is adaptive if survival benefits are larger than costs of residency. Many aspects of bat migration ecology such as migratory costs, stopover site use and fidelity are largely unknown. Since many migrating bats are endangered, such information is urgently needed to promote conservation. We selected the migrating Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri as model species and collected capture-recapture data in southern Switzerland year round during 6 years. We estimated seasonal survival and site fidelity with Cormack-Jolly-Seber models that accounted for the presence of transients fitted with Bayesian methods and assessed differences between sexes and seasons. Activity peaked in autumn and spring, whereas very few individuals were caught during summer. We hypothesize that the study site is a migratory stopover site used during fall and spring migration for most individuals, but there is also evidence for wintering. Additionally, we found strong clues for mating during fall. Summer survival that included two major migratory journeys was identical to winter survival in males and slightly higher in females, suggesting that the migratory journeys did not bear significant costs in terms of survival. Transience probability was in both seasons higher in males than in females. Our results suggest that, similarly to birds, Leisler's bat also use stopover sites during migration with high site fidelity. In contrast to most birds, the stopover site was also used for mating and migratory costs in terms of survival seemed to be low. Transients' analyses highlighted strong individual variation in site use which makes particularly challenging the study and modelling of their populations as well as their conservation.

  6. Seasonal survival probabilities suggest low migration mortality in migrating bats. (United States)

    Giavi, Simone; Moretti, Marco; Bontadina, Fabio; Zambelli, Nicola; Schaub, Michael


    Migration is adaptive if survival benefits are larger than costs of residency. Many aspects of bat migration ecology such as migratory costs, stopover site use and fidelity are largely unknown. Since many migrating bats are endangered, such information is urgently needed to promote conservation. We selected the migrating Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri) as model species and collected capture-recapture data in southern Switzerland year round during 6 years. We estimated seasonal survival and site fidelity with Cormack-Jolly-Seber models that accounted for the presence of transients fitted with Bayesian methods and assessed differences between sexes and seasons. Activity peaked in autumn and spring, whereas very few individuals were caught during summer. We hypothesize that the study site is a migratory stopover site used during fall and spring migration for most individuals, but there is also evidence for wintering. Additionally, we found strong clues for mating during fall. Summer survival that included two major migratory journeys was identical to winter survival in males and slightly higher in females, suggesting that the migratory journeys did not bear significant costs in terms of survival. Transience probability was in both seasons higher in males than in females. Our results suggest that, similarly to birds, Leisler's bat also use stopover sites during migration with high site fidelity. In contrast to most birds, the stopover site was also used for mating and migratory costs in terms of survival seemed to be low. Transients' analyses highlighted strong individual variation in site use which makes particularly challenging the study and modelling of their populations as well as their conservation.

  7. Unfavourable results following reduction mammoplasty


    Lakshmi Saleem; John, Jerry R.


    Breast reduction is a common cosmetic surgical procedure. It aims not only at bringing down the size of the breast proportionate to the build of the individual, but also to overcome the discomfort caused by massive, ill-shaped and hanging breasts. The operative procedure has evolved from mere reduction of breast mass to enhanced aesthetic appeal with a minimum of scar load. The selection of technique needs to be individualised. Bilateral breast reduction is done most often. Haematoma, seroma,...

  8. Effect of Calcination and Reduction Temperatures on the Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of calcination and reduction temperatures on the reducibility, dispersion and Fischer-Tropsch activity of 10 wt% cobalt supported on titania catalyst modified by 0.1 wt% boron has been studied. The percentage reduction and percentage dispersion were found to decrease with increasing calcination temperature.

  9. Effect of Calcination and Reduction Temperatures on the Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 5, 2003 ... The effect of calcination and reduction temperatures on the reducibility, dispersion and Fischer-Tropsch activity of 10 wt% cobalt supported on titania catalyst modified by 0.1 wt% boron has been studied. The percentage reduction and percentage dispersion were found to decrease with increasing ...

  10. Diatom centromeres suggest a mechanism for nuclear DNA acquisition. (United States)

    Diner, Rachel E; Noddings, Chari M; Lian, Nathan C; Kang, Anthony K; McQuaid, Jeffrey B; Jablanovic, Jelena; Espinoza, Josh L; Nguyen, Ngocquynh A; Anzelmatti, Miguel A; Jansson, Jakob; Bielinski, Vincent A; Karas, Bogumil J; Dupont, Christopher L; Allen, Andrew E; Weyman, Philip D


    Centromeres are essential for cell division and growth in all eukaryotes, and knowledge of their sequence and structure guides the development of artificial chromosomes for functional cellular biology studies. Centromeric proteins are conserved among eukaryotes; however, centromeric DNA sequences are highly variable. We combined forward and reverse genetic approaches with chromatin immunoprecipitation to identify centromeres of the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum We observed 25 unique centromere sequences typically occurring once per chromosome, a finding that helps to resolve nuclear genome organization and indicates monocentric regional centromeres. Diatom centromere sequences contain low-GC content regions but lack repeats or other conserved sequence features. Native and foreign sequences with similar GC content to P. tricornutum centromeres can maintain episomes and recruit the diatom centromeric histone protein CENH3, suggesting nonnative sequences can also function as diatom centromeres. Thus, simple sequence requirements may enable DNA from foreign sources to persist in the nucleus as extrachromosomal episomes, revealing a potential mechanism for organellar and foreign DNA acquisition.

  11. Cytological Findings Suggesting Sexuality in Phytomonas davidi (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora de Sousa


    Full Text Available On few occasions, Phytomonas davidi (McGhee & Postell isolate cultures in LIT (liver infusion-tryptose medium around 27oC presented, as seen in Giemsa-stained smears, a set of peculiar morphological features, among them being noticeable the pairs of apposed cells attached by their posterior ends, where occurred a stained line and/or a dilatation, usually bulb-like in shape; sometimes this dilatation could occupy one of the cells or hold both together. In some pairs, the nucleus of each parasite seemed migrating towards the other, entering into such dilatation; in others, both nuclei were inside it, sometimes in close proximity or seeming fused; peculiar chromatin arrangements involving both nuclei were occasionally observed. Several mono or binucleate round forms bearing one or two flagella, as well as flagellate slender cells without nucleus were concomitantly seen there. In some instances, an intriguing small stained body occurred beside a single large nucleus, either in pairs presenting the bulb-like structure or in round cells. These cytological findings seemed steps of a dynamic process suggesting sexuality, since in several of them nuclear interactions following fusion of two parasites appeared to occur

  12. Molecular spectroscopic study for suggested mechanism of chrome tanned leather. (United States)

    Nashy, Elshahat H A; Osman, Osama; Mahmoud, Abdel Aziz; Ibrahim, Medhat


    Collagen represents the structural protein of the extracellular matrix, which gives strength of hides and/or skin under tanning process. Chrome tan is the most important tanning agent all over the world. The methods for production of leather evolved over several centuries as art and engineering with little understanding of the underlying science. The present work is devoted to suggest the most probable mechanistic action of chrome tan on hide proteins. First the affect of Cr upon hide protein is indicated by the studied mechanical properties. Then the spectroscopic characterization of the hide protein as well as chrome tanned leather was carried out with Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflection (HATR) FT-IR. The obtained results indicate how the chromium can attached with the active sites of collagen. Molecular modeling confirms that chromium can react with amino as well as carboxylate groups. Four schemes were obtained to describe the possible interactions of chrome tan with hide proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Improving therapeutic use of homework: suggestions from mental health clinicians. (United States)

    Kelly, Peter J; Deane, Frank P


    The majority of mental health clinicians report the use of homework to support their case management, but practitioner surveys indicate that homework is not routinely used. To examine barriers that mental health case managers experience in implementing homework and to identify strategies to promote successful homework administration. One hundred thirty-four surveys were completed by mental health case managers. The survey examined their use of homework for individuals diagnosed with a severe mental health problem. It also asked them to identify barriers to regularly implement homework and describe strategies to promote more regular use of homework. On average, homework was used at 50% of clinical contacts. The primary reasons for not using homework included allocating insufficient time at appointments, perceived client resistance for using homework and concerns that the client was too unwell. Strategies used to overcome these difficulties included prioritising the use of homework and ensuring that homework assignments were achievable. Clinicians are able to identify a range of practical strategies to promote the use of homework. Discussion focuses on the application of the suggested strategies to promote regular use of homework. This includes discussion of possible training approaches to enhance systematic homework administration.

  14. Reaction mechanism of azoreductases suggests convergent evolution with quinone oxidoreductases. (United States)

    Ryan, Ali; Wang, Chan-Ju; Laurieri, Nicola; Westwood, Isaac; Sim, Edith


    Azoreductases are involved in the bioremediation by bacteria of azo dyes found in waste water. In the gut flora, they activate azo pro-drugs, which are used for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, releasing the active component 5-aminosalycilic acid. The bacterium P. aeruginosa has three azoreductase genes, paAzoR1, paAzoR2 and paAzoR3, which as recombinant enzymes have been shown to have different substrate specificities. The mechanism of azoreduction relies upon tautomerisation of the substrate to the hydrazone form. We report here the characterization of the P. aeruginosa azoreductase enzymes, including determining their thermostability, cofactor preference and kinetic constants against a range of their favoured substrates. The expression levels of these enzymes during growth of P. aeruginosa are altered by the presence of azo substrates. It is shown that enzymes that were originally described as azoreductases, are likely to act as NADH quinone oxidoreductases. The low sequence identities observed among NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase and azoreductase enzymes suggests convergent evolution.

  15. Modelling of Arabidopsis LAX3 expression suggests auxin homeostasis. (United States)

    Mellor, Nathan; Péret, Benjamin; Porco, Silvana; Sairanen, Ilkka; Ljung, Karin; Bennett, Malcolm; King, John


    Emergence of new lateral roots from within the primary root in Arabidopsis has been shown to be regulated by the phytohormone auxin, via the expression of the auxin influx carrier LAX3, mediated by the ARF7/19 IAA14 signalling module (Swarup et al., 2008). A single cell model of the LAX3 and IAA14 auxin response was formulated and used to demonstrate that hysteresis and bistability may explain the experimentally observed 'all-or-nothing' LAX3 spatial expression pattern in cortical cells containing a gradient of auxin concentrations. The model was tested further by using a parameter fitting algorithm to match model output with qRT-PCR mRNA expression data following exogenous auxin treatment. It was found that the model is able to show good agreement with the data, but only when the exogenous auxin signal is degraded over time, at a rate higher than that measured in the experimental medium, suggesting the triggering of an endogenous auxin homeostasis mechanism. Testing the model over a more physiologically relevant range of extracellular auxin shows bistability and hysteresis still occur when using the optimised parameters, providing the rate of LAX3 active auxin transport is sufficiently high relative to passive diffusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro model suggests oxidative stress involved in keratoconus disease (United States)

    Karamichos, D.; Hutcheon, A. E. K.; Rich, C. B.; Trinkaus-Randall, V.; Asara, J. M.; Zieske, J. D.


    Keratoconus (KC) affects 1:2000 people and is a disorder where cornea thins and assumes a conical shape. Advanced KC requires surgery to maintain vision. The role of oxidative stress in KC remains unclear. We aimed to identify oxidative stress levels between human corneal keratocytes (HCKs), fibroblasts (HCFs) and keratoconus cells (HKCs). Cells were cultured in 2D and 3D systems. Vitamin C (VitC) and TGF-β3 (T3) were used for 4 weeks to stimulate self-assembled extracellular matrix (ECM). No T3 used as controls. Samples were analyzed using qRT-PCR and metabolomics. qRT-PCR data showed low levels of collagen I and V, as well as keratocan for HKCs, indicating differentiation to a myofibroblast phenotype. Collagen type III, a marker for fibrosis, was up regulated in HKCs. We robustly detected more than 150 metabolites of the targeted 250 by LC-MS/MS per condition and among those metabolites several were related to oxidative stress. Lactate levels, lactate/malate and lactate/pyruvate ratios were elevated in HKCs, while arginine and glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio were reduced. Similar patterns found in both 2D and 3D. Our data shows that fibroblasts exhibit enhanced oxidative stress compared to keratocytes. Furthermore the HKC cells exhibit the greatest level suggesting they may have a myofibroblast phenotype.

  17. Dehumanizing Communication Reified among Undergraduates and Lecturers: Issues and Suggestions

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    Duvie Adanma Nnekwu


    Full Text Available This paper discusses dehumanizing communication reified among undergraduates and t lecturers. Dehumanization is the act of degrading people with respect to their best qualities and denial of humanness to others. On the other hand, communication is human interaction and learning. Communication becomes rude when it is deliberately directed resulting in dehumanizing communication. The paper, therefore, examines dehumanizing communication in terms of its being intentional and unintentional and dehumanizing communication between lecturers and students and among students. It also took a swipe on the effects of dehumanizing communication on students and lecturers as well as proffer solutions to mitigating effect of dehumanizing communication between lecturer and students and among students. The suggested solutions among others include inter-group dialogue programme among contending groups in the student community, establishment of multicultural centers on campus in order to bring contending groups together (i.e. lecturers and students of all races and ethnicity. A compulsory course on “pedagogy of positiveness” is also recommended in the university curriculum to instill in the students the value of respecting people who may be different. Keywords: Dehumanization, Intentional and Unintentional Communication, Reified, Lecturers, Undergraduates, Teaching and Learning, Classroom

  18. Demystifying Survey Research: Practical Suggestions for Effective Question Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah H. Charbonneau


    Full Text Available Objective ‐ Recent research has yielded several studies helpful for understanding the use of the survey technique in various library environments. Despite this, there has been limited discussion to guide library practitioners preparing survey questions. The aim of this article is to provide practical suggestions for effective questions when designing written surveys.Methods ‐ Advice and important considerations to help guide the process of developing survey questions are drawn from a review of the literature and personal experience.Results ‐ Basic techniques can be incorporated to improve survey questions, such as choosing appropriate question forms and incorporating the use of scales. Attention should be paid to the flow and ordering of the survey questions. Careful wording choices can also help construct clear, simple questions. Conclusion ‐ A well‐designed survey questionnaire can be a valuable source of data. By following some basic guidelines when constructing written survey questions, library and information professionals can have useful data collection instruments at their disposal.

  19. Current Situation in Vocational Schools: Issues and Some Suggested Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reha Metin ALKAN


    Full Text Available Vocational Schools which have undertaken various missions throughout history were established in order to train intermediate staff s with suff icient knowledge and skills in their fields, in accordance with the requirements of trade, industry and services sectors and they are the most important components of ‘vocational and technical education system' today. Analyzing the education given in the vocational schools in accordance with the national and international requirements, developing technologies and the needs of business world and making the necessary arrangements in line with these will contribute to the employability and preferability of graduates of these schools in an eff icient way. Many industrialists/businessmen in our country stated that they experienced serious problems in the supply of qualified staff with suff icient knowledge and skills needed in sectors. Although much progress has been achieved in this subject, it is a fact that there are still a lot of work to be done. In this study, current situation and main troubles in vocational schools are discussed in the light of the experiences gained at Hitit University Vocational School which was established about 40 years ago in Çorum and which is one of the first high schools in Turkey and some solutions are suggested in accordance with the problems mentioned.

  20. Clinical and biomarker assessment of demyelinating events suggesting multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Gajofatto, A; Bongianni, M; Zanusso, G; Bianchi, M R; Turatti, M; Benedetti, M D; Monaco, S


    Initial demyelinating event (IDE) diagnosis and prognosis are not straightforward. To identify potential diagnostic markers and outcome predictors of IDEs suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS), that is, clinically isolated syndromes (CISs). Clinically isolated syndrome cases (i.e., subjects with an IDE compatible with MS onset and no alternative explanation) with at least 1.5 years' follow-up were retrospectively identified. All cases underwent clinical, neurophysiological, MRI, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) assessment, including exploratory tau, 14-3-3, and cystatin C testing. CIS recovery, conversion to MS, and long-term neurological disability were used as outcome measures. Patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, idiopathic acute transverse myelitis (IATM), Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, and non-inflammatory/non-neurodegenerative disorders served as controls for CSF analysis. Forty-six CIS cases were included. Severe presentation was associated with incomplete recovery, while presence of at least 3 periventricular lesions on baseline MRI correlated with MS conversion. Initial pyramidal tract involvement, incomplete CIS recovery, and number of relapses predicted neurological disability. CSF tau, 14-3-3, and cystatin C did not correlate with any outcome measure. CIS cases had significantly lower tau and cystatin C levels compared to IATM. An extensive diagnostic evaluation of patients with an IDE is worthwhile to make prognostic predictions. More robust molecular biomarkers are needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Weight Changes After Reduction Mammaplasty in Adolescents. (United States)

    Pike, Carolyn M; Nuzzi, Laura C; DiVasta, Amy D; Greene, Arin K; Labow, Brian I


    The ability to exercise more easily and weight loss are often cited benefits of reduction mammaplasty. However, measured weight outcomes after this common procedure are lacking. The purpose of this study was to measure body mass index (BMI) changes in an otherwise healthy adolescent sample after bilateral breast reduction. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients aged 12-21 years who underwent reduction mammaplasty at our institution between 2007 and 2013, with a minimum postoperative follow-up time of 1 year. Charts were reviewed for preoperative and postoperative height and weight, amount of breast tissue resected, and medical comorbidities. No formal nutritional support or weight loss program was instituted before or after surgery. Eighty patients meeting eligibility criteria were identified. The mean follow-up time was 2.0 ± 1.0 years. Mean postoperative BMI did not differ significantly from mean preoperative BMI (27.8 ± 7.1 kg/m(2) vs. 27.3 ± 6.4 kg/m(2)). However, among overweight and obese patients, a significant gain in preoperative to postoperative BMI was observed, on average (p = .019). Twelve (22.2%) of these patients increased their BMI by at least 10% after reduction mammaplasty. Although approximately one third (37%) of overweight/obese patients decreased their BMI, only 5.6% decreased BMI by at least 10%. We found no significant difference between mean preoperative and postoperative BMI among patients who underwent reduction mammaplasty. Our results suggest that although reduction mammaplasty may facilitate exercise and help some patients lose weight, meaningful postoperative weight loss without additional support is rare. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Suggestions of Policy Direction to Improve the Housing Quality in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyeon Park


    Full Text Available Following the recent global climate changes, many countries, including developed nations, are announcing greenhouse gas (GHG reduction targets and are actively participating in reducing GHG. Therefore, the role of the building sector on reducing GHG is being emphasized, and the establishment of policy structures for both making environmentally friendly capacity compulsory and improving the housing quality is being demanded. South Korea is also developing a policy for improving housing quality, but in order to achieve more competitive growth, this must be preceded by an analysis of current policy status within various countries on improving housing quality. This study aims to suggest direction about policies that will improve the housing quality in South Korea. For this, the policies of major countries were able to categorize and compare according to three major categories (performance, function, and aesthetics, and seven factors (safety, durability, cost and maintenance, response to residents’ needs, habitability, energy saving, and building design regarding housing quality. As a result, from the performance aspect, policy directions were suggested for safe housing, the urban environment, regeneration of quality stock, and the usage of existing stock; from the functional aspect, policies for improving housing quality that responds to the aging population and energy saving housing were suggested; from the aesthetic aspect, housing designs that consider the urban environment were suggested.

  3. Gestational Pityriasis Rosea: Suggestions for Approaching Affected Pregnant Women. (United States)

    Monastirli, Alexandra; Pasmatzi, Efstathia; Badavanis, George; Tsambaos, Dionysios


    pityriasis rosea, for intrauterine fetal death. All miscarrying women reportedly revealed an aggressive course of widespread eruption and severe constitutional symptoms; all of them had HHV-6 DNA in the plasma, placenta, skin lesions, and fetal tissues, whereas HHV-7 DNA was detected in the plasma and skin lesions in 3 out of 8 (37.5%) miscarrying women. HHV-6 DNA was found only in the plasma of 2 out of 31 women (6.45%) with normal pregnancy, whereas HHV-7 DNA was detected in the plasma of 3 (9.45%) and in the skin lesions of 2 women (6.45%) with normal pregnancy. The total abortion rate in women who developed pityriasis rosea during their pregnancy (13%) does not differ from that observed in the general population. Nevertheless, it is markedly higher in cases affected during the first 15 gestational weeks (57%) (4,5). Surprisingly, this devastating impact of pityriasis rosea on the outcome of pregnancy is almost completely unknown not only to the public but also to many members of the medical community. It is also largely unknown that, particularly during the first 15 gestational weeks, all pregnant women should avoid any contact with patients known to have pityriasis rosea. Since we have received a considerable number of requests for consultation with pregnant women with pityriasis rosea over the last few years, our group has compiled suggestions approaching the affected patients: 1. If an eruption suggestive for pityriasis rosea occurs in a pregnant woman, the following factors should be excluded: a. Exposure to drugs prior to the development of the rash (biologic agents, captopril, clonidine, hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, lamotrigine, nortriptyline, barbiturates, metronidazole, terbinafine, omeprazole, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and isotretinoin), which are capable of inducing a pityriasis rosea-like eruption (6) and b. Disorders included in the differential diagnosis (syphilis and infections due to parvovirus, herpes virus, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein

  4. Partners in Science: A Suggested Framework for Inclusive Research (United States)

    Pandya, R. E.


    Public participation in scientific research, also known as citizen science, is effective on many levels: it produces sound, publishable science and data, helps participants gain scientific knowledge and learn about the methods and practices of modern science, and can help communities advance their own priorities. Unfortunately, the demographics of citizen science programs do not reflect the demographics of the US; in general people of color and less affluent members of society are under-represented. To understand the reasons for this disparity, it is useful to look to the broader research about participation in science in a variety of informal and formal settings. From this research, the causes for unequal participation in science can be grouped into three broad categories: accessibility challenges, cultural differences, and a gap between scientific goals and community priorities. Many of these challenges are addressed in working with communities to develop an integrated program of scientific research, education, and community action that addresses community priorities and invites community participation at every stage of the process from defining the question to applying the results. In the spectrum of ways to engage the public in scientific research, this approach of "co-creation" is the most intensive. This talk will explore several examples of co-creation of science, including collaborations with tribal communities around climate change adaptation, work in the Louisiana Delta concerning land loss, and the link between weather and disease in Africa. We will articulate some of the challenges of working this intensively with communities, and suggest a general framework for guiding this kind of work with communities. This model of intensive collaboration at every stage is a promising one for adding to the diversity of citizen science efforts. It also provides a powerful strategy for science more generally, and may help us diversify our field, ensure the use and

  5. Opsin clines in butterflies suggest novel roles for insect photopigments. (United States)

    Frentiu, Francesca D; Yuan, Furong; Savage, Wesley K; Bernard, Gary D; Mullen, Sean P; Briscoe, Adriana D


    Opsins are ancient molecules that enable animal vision by coupling to a vitamin-derived chromophore to form light-sensitive photopigments. The primary drivers of evolutionary diversification in opsins are thought to be visual tasks related to spectral sensitivity and color vision. Typically, only a few opsin amino acid sites affect photopigment spectral sensitivity. We show that opsin genes of the North American butterfly Limenitis arthemis have diversified along a latitudinal cline, consistent with natural selection due to environmental factors. We sequenced single nucleotide (SNP) polymorphisms in the coding regions of the ultraviolet (UVRh), blue (BRh), and long-wavelength (LWRh) opsin genes from ten butterfly populations along the eastern United States and found that a majority of opsin SNPs showed significant clinal variation. Outlier detection and analysis of molecular variance indicated that many SNPs are under balancing selection and show significant population structure. This contrasts with what we found by analysing SNPs in the wingless and EF-1 alpha loci, and from neutral amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which show no evidence of significant locus-specific or genome-wide structure among populations. Using a combination of functional genetic and physiological approaches, including expression in cell culture, transgenic Drosophila, UV-visible spectroscopy, and optophysiology, we show that key BRh opsin SNPs that vary clinally have almost no effect on spectral sensitivity. Our results suggest that opsin diversification in this butterfly is more consistent with natural selection unrelated to spectral tuning. Some of the clinally varying SNPs may instead play a role in regulating opsin gene expression levels or the thermostability of the opsin protein. Lastly, we discuss the possibility that insect opsins might have important, yet-to-be elucidated, adaptive functions in mediating animal responses to abiotic factors, such as temperature or photoperiod

  6. Niche convergence suggests functionality of the nocturnal fovea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian L. Moritz


    Full Text Available The fovea is a declivity of the retinal surface associated with maximum visual acuity. Foveae are widespread across vertebrates, but among mammals they are restricted to haplorhine primates (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans, which are primarily diurnal. Thus primates have long contributed to the prevailing view that the fovea is a functional adaptation to diurnal color vision. The foveae of nocturnal taxa, such as tarsiers, are widely interpreted as vestigial traits and therefore evidence of a diurnal ancestry. This enduring premise has been central to adaptive hypotheses on the origins of anthropoid primates; however, the question of whether the fovea of tarsiers is a functionless anachronism or a nocturnal adaptation remains open. To address this question, we focused on the diets of tarsiers (Tarsius and scops owls (Otus, two taxa united by numerous anatomical homoplasies, including foveate vision. A functional interpretation of these homoplasies predicts dietary convergence and competition. This prediction can be tested with an analysis of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in tissues, which integrate dietary information. As predicted, the isotopic niches of Tarsius and Otus overlapped. In both Borneo and the Philippines, the δ13C values were indistinguishable, whereas the δ15N values of Otus were marginally higher than those of Tarsius. Our results indicate that both diets consisted mainly of ground-dwelling prey and raise the possibility of some resource partitioning. Taken together, our isotopic analysis supports a functional interpretation of the many homoplasies shared by tarsiers and scops owls, including a retinal fovea. We suggest that the fovea might function similarly in tarsiers and scops owls by calibrating the auditory localization pathway. The integration of auditory localization and visual fixation during prey detection and acquisition might be critical at low light levels.

  7. Rising maternal circulating GH during murine pregnancy suggests placental regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L Gatford


    Full Text Available Placenta-derived hormones including growth hormone (GH in humans contribute to maternal adaptation to pregnancy, and intermittent maternal GH administration increases foetal growth in several species. Both patterns and abundance of circulating GH are important for its activity, but their changes during pregnancy have only been reported in humans and rats. The aim of the present study was to characterise circulating profiles and secretory characteristics of GH in non-pregnant female mice and throughout murine pregnancy. Circulating GH concentrations were measured in whole blood (2 μL collected every 10 min for 6 h in non-pregnant diestrus female C57Bl/6J mice (n = 9, and pregnant females at day 8.5–9.5 (early pregnancy, n = 8, day 12.5–13.5 (mid-pregnancy, n = 7 and day 17.5 after mating (late pregnancy, n = 7. Kinetics and secretory patterns of GH secretion were determined by deconvolution analysis, while orderliness and regularity of serial GH concentrations were calculated by approximate entropy analysis. Circulating GH was pulsatile in all groups. Mean circulating GH and total and basal GH secretion rates increased markedly from early to mid-pregnancy, and then remained elevated. Pulse frequency and pulsatile GH secretion rate were similar between groups. The irregularity of GH pulses was higher in all pregnant groups than that in non-pregnant mice. Increased circulating GH in murine pregnancy is consistent with an important role for this hormone in maternal adaptation to pregnancy and placental development. The timing of increased basal secretion from mid-pregnancy, concurrent with the formation of the chorioallantoic placenta and initiation of maternal blood flow through it, suggests regulation of pituitary secretion by placenta-derived factors.

  8. Pre-hospital Obstacles in Thrombolytic Therapy and Suggested Solutions

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    Betül Tekin Güveli


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute ischemic stroke is frequently encountered in emergency neurology clinics. Especially when administered within 3 hours of symptom onset, thrombolytic therapy is important in reducing ischemic injury and neurological disability. In this study, we aimed to investigate the demographic and clinical characteristics according to application time, to identify situations which pose an obstacle to thrombolytic therapy and to review the thrombolytic therapy results in patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: The patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke were evaluated and their age, gender, complaints, risk factors, previous history of stroke, with whom they live, how they arrived at the hospital and their application time information were recorded. Those who were admitted within 3 hours of symptom onset were assessed as early, those admitted after 3 hours were assessed as late admission. Then the rate of thrombolytic therapy, final results and the clinical status in early admission patients and the reasons for delay in late admission patients were discussed. RESULTS: Among 361 acute ischemic stroke patients, the mean age was 66±14,1. 111 patients were admitted within 3 hours of symptom onset, 246 patients were admitted after three hours. Patients arriving to emergency room with 112 Ambulance Service were admitted earlier than those brought in by family, and this difference was statistically significant. The most common causes of time loss in late admissions were the patients being referred from other centers and the unawareness of family about the importance of the disease. There were 13 patients treated with thrombolytic therapy, and complications occurred in one patient. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Thrombolytic therapy is important in acute ischemic stroke for suitable patients.Our study suggested that the most important factors in spreading of performing the thrombolytic therapy are informing the public about

  9. Precise synaptic efficacy alignment suggests potentiation dominated learning

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    Christoph eHartmann


    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that parallel synapses from the same axonal branch onto the same dendritic branch have almost identical strength. It has been proposed that this alignment is only possible through learning rules that integrate activity over long time spans. However, learning mechanisms such as spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP are commonly assumed to be temporally local. Here, we propose that the combination of temporally local STDP and a multiplicative synaptic normalization mechanism is sufficient to explain the alignment of parallel synapses.To address this issue, we introduce three increasingly complex models: First, we model the idealized interaction of STDP and synaptic normalization in a single neuron as a simple stochastic process and derive analytically that the alignment effect can be described by a so-called Kesten process. From this we can derive that synaptic efficacy alignment requires potentiation-dominated learning regimes. We verify these conditions in a single-neuron model with independent spiking activities but more realistic synapses. As expected, we only observe synaptic efficacy alignment for long-term potentiation-biased STDP. Finally, we explore how well the findings transfer to recurrent neural networks where the learning mechanisms interact with the correlated activity of the network. We find that due to the self-reinforcing correlations in recurrent circuits under STDP, alignment occurs for both long-term potentiation- and depression-biased STDP, because the learning will be potentiation dominated in both cases due to the potentiating events induced by correlated activity. This is in line with recent results demonstrating a dominance of potentiation over depression during waking and normalization during sleep. This leads us to predict that individual spine pairs will be more similar in the morning than they are after sleep depriviation.In conclusion, we show that synaptic normalization in conjunction with

  10. NO reduction by coal reburning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.B.; Naja, T.A.; Hampartsoumian, E.; Gibbs, B.M. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Fuel and Energy


    In this paper coal reburning for the reduction of NO emission was investigated in a 0.2MWt pilot-scale furnace. Eight bituminous coals were selected for study over a wide range of operational parameters including primary and reburn zone stoichiometric ratios, reburn zone residence time, reburn-fuel fraction, type of coal, furnace temperature level, particle size distribution of the reburn coal and primary NO concentration. The maximum NO reduction achieved was over 60%, accomplished mainly in the reburn zone, with the burnout zone accounting for about 10% of the total NO reduction. As expected, the reburn zone stoichiometric ratio was the most important operating parameter, with the reduction increasing as operation was made increasingly fuel-rich. The NO reduction also increased with reburn-fuel fraction up to 24%, but changed little when the reburn-fuel fraction was further increased beyond that point. NO reduction increased with reburn zone residence time up to about 450ms but then only a marginal gain in NO reduction was obtained with further increase in the reburn zone residence time; NO reduction also increased with primary zone NO level up to 600ppm but was unaffected by any further increase with the primary NO. Primary zone temperature had a negative effect on NO reduction, but this effect tended to diminish when reburn zone stoichiometry was below 0.9. A finer particle size distribution resulted in higher NO reductions. It was also found that coals with a high volatile matter content and hydrogen content made the best reburn coals while nitrogen of the reburn coal had little influence on NO reduction. Although most reburn processes call for natural gas or oil as a secondary fuel, for coal-burning power plants, coal is the fuel of choice.

  11. Suggestions on the development strategy of shale gas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhong Dong


    Full Text Available From the aspects of shale gas resource condition, main exploration and development progress, important breakthrough in key technologies and equipment, this paper systematically summarized and analyzed current situation of shale gas development in China and pointed out five big challenges such as misunderstandings, lower implementation degree and higher economic uncertainty of shale gas resource, and still no breakthrough in exploration and development core technologies and equipment for shale gas buried depth more than 3500 m, higher cost and other non-technical factors that restrict the development pace. Aiming at the above challenges, we put forward five suggestions to promote the shale gas development in China: (1 Make strategies and set goals according to our national conditions and exploration and development stages. That is, make sure to realize shale gas annual production of 20 × 109 m3, and strives to reach 30 × 109 m3. (2 Attach importance to the research of accumulation and enrichment geological theory and exploration & development key engineering technologies for lower production and lower pressure marine shale gas reservoir, and at the same time orderly promote the construction of non-marine shale gas exploration & development demonstration areas. (3 The government should introduce further policies and set special innovation funds to support the companies to carry out research and development of related technologies and equipment, especially to strengthen the research and development of technology, equipment and process for shale gas bellow 3500 m in order to achieve breakthrough in deep shale gas. (4 Continue to promote the geological theory, innovation in technology and management, and strengthen cost control on drilling, fracturing and the whole process in order to realize efficient, economic and scale development of China's shale gas. (5 Reform the mining rights management system, establish information platform of shale

  12. Behavioral connectivity among bighorn sheep suggests potential for disease spread (United States)

    Borg, Nathan J.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Lukacs, Paul M.; Mack, Curt M.; Waits, Lisette P.; Krausman, Paul R.


    Connectivity is important for population persistence and can reduce the potential for inbreeding depression. Connectivity between populations can also facilitate disease transmission; respiratory diseases are one of the most important factors affecting populations of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). The mechanisms of connectivity in populations of bighorn sheep likely have implications for spread of disease, but the behaviors leading to connectivity between bighorn sheep groups are not well understood. From 2007–2012, we radio-collared and monitored 56 bighorn sheep in the Salmon River canyon in central Idaho. We used cluster analysis to define social groups of bighorn sheep and then estimated connectivity between these groups using a multi-state mark-recapture model. Social groups of bighorn sheep were spatially segregated and linearly distributed along the Salmon River canyon. Monthly probabilities of movement between adjacent male and female groups ranged from 0.08 (±0.004 SE) to 0.76 (±0.068) for males and 0.05 (±0.132) to 0.24 (±0.034) for females. Movements of males were extensive and probabilities of movement were considerably higher during the rut. Probabilities of movement for females were typically smaller than those of males and did not change seasonally. Whereas adjacent groups of bighorn sheep along the Salmon River canyon were well connected, connectivity between groups north and south of the Salmon River was limited. The novel application of a multi-state model to a population of bighorn sheep allowed us to estimate the probability of movement between adjacent social groups and approximate the level of connectivity across the population. Our results suggest high movement rates of males during the rut are the most likely to result in transmission of pathogens among both male and female groups. Potential for disease spread among female groups was smaller but non-trivial. Land managers can plan grazing of domestic sheep for spring and summer

  13. Childhood stress in healthcare settings: awareness and suggested interventions. (United States)

    Al-Yateem, Nabeel S; Banni Issa, Wegdan; Rossiter, Rachel


    Pivotal to healthy adulthood is a supportive and nurturing environment that enables successful progression through the developmental tasks of childhood and adolescence. For many children there are events that disrupt this development. Illness, injury, painful medical interventions, and hospitalization have been reported by children and families as causing medical trauma and psychological stress. Frequently pediatric health professionals focus primarily on achieving positive physical treatment outcomes. Creating an environment that will support the developmental tasks of childhood and limit the trauma and distress associated with illness and treatment is also required. Strategies and practices to deliver holistic and comprehensive pediatric care are well established in many Western settings. Opportunity exists to broaden the focus of pediatric care in developing healthcare systems such as the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to encompass psychological well-being. The study focused on two key objectives, firstly to assess healthcare professionals' awareness of the stressful and potentially traumatic nature of healthcare settings and treatment for children. Second the study explored the views of healthcare participants regarding possible strategies to minimize medically induced stress and trauma for children and adolescents in UAE healthcare settings. The study utilized a mixed methods design in which participants views were examined through administration of a survey comprised of close-ended questions that were analyzed quantitatively and open-ended questions analyzed qualitatively. One hundred and seventeen healthcare professionals from a range of disciplines in two government hospitals completed the survey. Data revealed that one third of the participating healthcare professionals were unaware of or did not think that their healthcare settings could provoke stress for pediatric patients. Respondents suggested three main strategies to minimize stress for children and

  14. Chronic sleep reduction in adolescents


    Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.


    Based on the results of this thesis, it can be concluded that sleep problems and chronic sleep reduction have a high impact on adolescents’ daytime functioning. Additionally, this research shows that gradual sleep extension can improve adolescents’ sleep and especially their chronic sleep reduction. This approach has beneficial effects on adolescents’ depressive symptoms and their cognitive performance.

  15. Chronic sleep reduction in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.


    Based on the results of this thesis, it can be concluded that sleep problems and chronic sleep reduction have a high impact on adolescents’ daytime functioning. Additionally, this research shows that gradual sleep extension can improve adolescents’ sleep and especially their chronic sleep reduction.

  16. Casting light on harm reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jourdan, Michael


    Background: Harm reduction is commonly regarded as complementary to other drug problem responses - as the fourth tier. Yet even core examples of harm reduction such as the provision of injection equipment and methadone treatment has over and over encountered considerable opposition, and harm redu...

  17. Waste reduction through consumer education. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, E.Z.


    The Waste Reduction through Consumer Education research project was conducted to determine how environmental educational strategies influence purchasing behavior in the supermarket. The objectives were to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate consumer education strategies for waste reduction. The amount of waste generated by packaging size and form, with an adjustment for local recyclability of waste, was determined for 14 product categories identified as having more waste generating and less waste generating product choices (a total of 484 products). Using supermarket scan data and shopper identification numbers, the research tracked the purchases of shoppers in groups receiving different education treatments for 9 months. Statistical tests applied to the purchase data assessed patterns of change between the groups by treatment period. Analysis of the data revealed few meaningful statistical differences between study groups or changes in behavior over time. Findings suggest that broad brush consumer education about waste reduction is not effective in changing purchasing behaviors in the short term. However, it may help create a general awareness of the issues surrounding excess packaging and consumer responsibility. The study concludes that the answer to waste reduction in the future may be a combination of voluntary initiatives by manufacturers and retailers, governmental intervention, and better-informed consumers.

  18. Cyclone reduction of taconite. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.R.; Bartlett, R.W.; Abdel-latif, M.A.; Hou, X.; Kumar, P. [College of Mines and Earth Resources, University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    A cyclone reactor system for the partial reduction and melting of taconite concentrate fines has been engineered, designed and operated. A non-transferred arc plasma torch was employed as a heat source. Taconite fines, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide were fed axially into the reactor, while the plasma gas was introduced tangentially into the cyclone. The average reactor temperature was maintained at above 1400{degrees}C, and reduction experiments were performed under various conditions. The influence of the following parameters on the reduction of taconite was investigated experimentally; carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide inlet feed ratio, carbon monoxide inlet partial pressure, and average reactor temperature. The interactions of the graphite lining with carbon dioxide and taconite were also studied. An attempt was made to characterize the flow behavior of the molten product within the cyclone. The results suggest that the system may approach a plug flow reactor, with little back mixing. Finally, a fundamental mathematical model was developed. The model describes the flow dynamics of gases and solid particles in a cyclone reactor, energy exchange, mass transfer, and the chemical kinetics associated with cyclone smelting of taconite concentrate fines. The influence of the various parameters on the reduction and melting of taconite particles was evaluated theoretically.

  19. Compensation in Swedish infrastructure projects and suggestions on policy improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Persson


    were never explicitly mentioned in permits, but in practice a ratio of 1:1 (often measured as area or length was usually applied. The compensation measures typically consisted in recreating the same kind of natural asset that was affected, in a location close to the damaged area. In the two cases specially studied, the road and railway planning processes were not properly adjusted to integrate compensation issues, resulting in unnecessary bureaucracy and insufficient co-ordination between different projects, such as between the environmental-impact assessment process and the compensation process or between closely related sub-projects in the same region. To meet the EU’s goal of no net loss of biodiversity, we suggest that policy requirements should be made stricter and that incentives for voluntary compensation should be created. In line with the goals of Swedish national transport policy and the European Landscape Convention, account should be taken of social and cultural aspects, and there should be a shift from a narrow focus on individual projects to a broader planning approach, since this would allow compensation measures to be taken where they can deliver the greatest environmental benefits.

  20. Effect of nitrate addition on reductive transformation of pentachlorophenol in paddy soil in relation to iron(III) reduction. (United States)

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Wang, Yong-kui; Chen, Peng-cheng; Li, Fang-bai; Chen, Man-jia; Hu, Min; Ouyang, Xiaoguang


    Reductive dechlorination is a crucial pathway for anaerobic biodegradation of highly chlorinated organic contaminants. Under an anoxic environment, reductive dechlorination of organic contaminants can be affected by many redox processes such as nitrate reduction and iron reduction. In the present study, batch incubation experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of nitrate addition on reductive dechlorination of PCP in paddy soil with consideration of iron transformation. Study results demonstrate that low concentrations (0, 0.5 and 1 mM) of nitrate addition can enhance the reductive dechlorination of PCP and Fe(III) reduction, while high concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 30 mM) of nitrate addition caused the contrary. Significant positive correlations between PCP degradation rates and the formation rates of dissolved Fe(II) (pearson correlation coefficients r = 0.965) and HCl-extractable Fe(II) (r = 0.921) suggested that Fe(III) reduction may enhance PCP dechlorination. Furthermore, consistent variation trends of PCP degradation and the abundances of the genus Comamonas, capable of Fe(III) reduction coupled to reductive dechlorination, and of the genus Dehalobacter indicated the occurrence of microbial community variation induced by nitrate addition as a response to PCP dechlorination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lake Nasser evaporation reduction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M.I. Ebaid


    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the reduction of evaporation of Lake Nasser’s water caused by disconnecting (fully or partially some of its secondary channels (khors. This evaluation integrates remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS techniques, aerodynamic principles, and Landsat7 ETM+ images. Three main procedures were carried out in this study; the first derived the surface temperature from Landsat thermal band; the second derived evaporation depth and approximate evaporation volume for the entire lake, and quantified evaporation loss to the secondary channels’ level over one month (March by applied aerodynamic principles on surface temperature of the raster data; the third procedure applied GIS suitability analysis to determine which of these secondary channels (khors should be disconnected. The results showed evaporation depth ranging from 2.73 mm/day at the middle of the lake to 9.58 mm/day at the edge. The evaporated water-loss value throughout the entire lake was about 0.86 billion m3/month (March. The analysis suggests that it is possible to save an approximate total evaporation volume loss of 19.7 million m3/month (March, and thus 2.4 billion m3/year, by disconnecting two khors with approximate construction heights of 8 m and 15 m. In conclusion, remote sensing and GIS are useful for applications in remote locations where field-based information is not readily available and thus recommended for decision makers remotely planning in water conservation and management.

  2. Eight Tons of Material Footprint—Suggestion for a Resource Cap for Household Consumption in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lettenmeier


    Full Text Available The paper suggests a sustainable material footprint of eight tons, per person, in a year as a resource cap target for household consumption in Finland. This means an 80% (factor 5 reduction from the present Finnish average. The material footprint is used as a synonym to the Total Material Requirement (TMR calculated for products and activities. The paper suggests how to allocate the sustainable material footprint to different consumption components on the basis of earlier household studies, as well as other studies, on the material intensity of products, services, and infrastructures. It analyzes requirements, opportunities, and challenges for future developments in technology and lifestyle, also taking into account that future lifestyles are supposed to show a high degree of diversity. The targets and approaches are discussed for the consumption components of nutrition, housing, household goods, mobility, leisure activities, and other purposes. The paper states that a sustainable level of natural resource use by households is achievable and it can be roughly allocated to different consumption components in order to illustrate the need for a change in lifestyles. While the absolute material footprint of all the consumption components will have to decrease, the relative share of nutrition, the most basic human need, in the total material footprint is expected to rise, whereas much smaller shares than at present are proposed for housing and especially mobility. For reducing material resource use to the sustainable level suggested, both social innovations, and technological developments are required.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbier, Charlotte N [ORNL; D' Urso, Brian R [ORNL; Jenner, Elliot [University of Pittsburgh


    Samples combining riblets and superhydrophobic surfaces are fabricated at University of Pittsburgh and their drag reduction properties are studied at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory with a commercial cone-and-plate rheometer. In parallel to the experiments, numerical simulations are performed in order to estimate the slip length at high rotational speed. For each sample, a drag reduction of at least 5% is observed in both laminar and turbulent regime. At low rotational speed, drag reduction up to 30% is observed with a 1 mm deep grooved sample. As the rotational speed increases, a secondary flow develops causing a slight decrease in drag reductions. However, drag reduction above 15% is still observed for the large grooved samples. In the turbulent regime, the 100 microns grooved sample becomes more efficient than the other samples in drag reduction and manages to sustain a drag reduction above 15%. Using the simulations, the slip length of the 100 micron grooved sample is estimated to be slightly above 100 micron in the turbulent regime.

  4. Benin; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper: Growth Strategy for Poverty Reduction


    International Monetary Fund


    Benin has been implementing a national poverty reduction strategy for sustainable human development. The government of Benin judiciously stressed the development of the social sector and improved governance to develop human resources and enhance the effectiveness of its actions so as to lay the foundations for sustainable human development. The sectoral strategies and policies growing out of the poverty reduction and growth strategy (SCRP) will be refined and/or readjusted to more clearly del...

  5. Dislocation of the First Metatarsophalangeal Joint: A Case Report and Suggested Classification System. (United States)

    Zrig, Makram; Othman, Youssef; Bellaaj, Zied; Koubaa, Mustapha; Abid, Abderrazek

    Dislocation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint is a relatively rare and still poorly known injury. The current classification includes only the dorsal variety of this lesion; thus, as further cases of other varieties are reported, a larger understanding of this entity is required. We report the case of a young male with dorsal dislocation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint treated by closed reduction. The clinical outcome at the 2-year follow-up point is reported. A review of the published data of the variations of this injury reported to date is included, and a new summarizing classification is suggested. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduction in young male suicide in Scotland (United States)

    Stark, Cameron; Stockton, Diane; Henderson, Rob


    Background Rates of suicide and undetermined death increased rapidly in Scotland in the 1980's and 1990's. The largest increases were in men, with a marked increase in rates in younger age groups. This was associated with an increase in hanging as a method of suicide. National suicide prevention work has identified young men as a priority group. Routinely collected national information suggested a decrease in suicide rates in younger men at the beginning of the 21st century. This study tested whether this was a significant change in trend, and whether it was associated with any change in hanging rates in young men. Methods Joinpoint regression was used to estimate annual percentage changes in age-specific rates of suicide and undetermined intent death, and to identify times when the trends changed significantly. Rates of deaths by method in 15 – 29 year old males and females were also examined to assess whether there had been any significant changes in method use in this age group. Results There was a 42% reduction in rates in 15 – 29 year old men, from 42.5/100,000 in 2000 to 24.5/100,000 in 2004. A joinpoint analysis confirmed that this was a significant change. There was also a significant change in trend in hanging in men in this age group, with a reduction in rates after 2000. No other male age group showed a significant change in trend over the period 1980 – 2004. There was a smaller reduction in suicide rates in women in the 15 – 29 year old age group, with a reduction in hanging from 2002. Conclusion There has been a reduction in suicide rates in men aged 15 – 29 years, and this is associated with a significant reduction in deaths by hanging in this age group. It is not clear whether this is related to a change in method preference, or an overall reduction in suicidal behaviour, and review of self-harm data will be required to investigate this further. PMID:18312616

  7. The relaxation & stress reduction workbook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Martha; Eshelman, Elizabeth Robbins; McKay, Matthew


    .... Now in its sixth edition, this workbook, highly regarded by therapists and their clients, remains the "go-to" source for stress reduction strategies that can be incorporated into even the busiest lives...

  8. The relaxation & stress reduction workbook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Martha; Eshelman, Elizabeth Robbins; McKay, Matthew


    "The Relaxation & Stress Reduction Workbook broke new ground when it was first published in 1980, detailing easy, step-by-step techniques for calming the body and mind in an increasingly overstimulated world...

  9. Logistics Reduction and Repurposing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project will enable a mission-independent cradle-to-grave-to-cradle...

  10. Acute IPPS - Readmissions Reduction Program (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 3025 of the Affordable Care Act added section 1886(q) to the Social Security Act establishing the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, which requires CMS...

  11. semen by MTT reduction assay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    74. 76. 0. 0.2. 0.4. 0.6. 0.8. 1. 1.2. Rate of reduction of MTT (OD at 550nm). % o. f v iab le sp erm ato zo a. Figure 2 Relationship between MTT reduction rate and percentage of viable sperm as determined by eosin and nigrosin staining. The regression curve shown is y = 77.15-10.15x; r =- 0.32; n = 20; OD = optical density.

  12. Robotic Long Bone Fracture Reduction


    Graham, A. E.; Xie, S. Q.; Aw, K. C.; Xu, W.L.; Mukherjee, S.


    This research into a medical robot for realigning fractured bones aims to develop the interface, robot, and database technologies to improve the working situation for users and outcome for recipients. Compared with other approaches to fracture reduction, the system being developed here has a number of novel features. The geometric modeling has been effective in allowing a surgeon to visualize the fractured bone and has not been reported elsewhere for fracture reduction to the authors knowledg...

  13. Chemical model reduction under uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Najm, Habib


    We outline a strategy for chemical kinetic model reduction under uncertainty. We present highlights of our existing deterministic model reduction strategy, and describe the extension of the formulation to include parametric uncertainty in the detailed mechanism. We discuss the utility of this construction, as applied to hydrocarbon fuel-air kinetics, and the associated use of uncertainty-aware measures of error between predictions from detailed and simplified models.

  14. 2dfdr: Data reduction software (United States)

    AAO software Team


    2dfdr is an automatic data reduction pipeline dedicated to reducing multi-fibre spectroscopy data, with current implementations for AAOmega (fed by the 2dF, KOALA-IFU, SAMI Multi-IFU or older SPIRAL front-ends), HERMES, 2dF (spectrograph), 6dF, and FMOS. A graphical user interface is provided to control data reduction and allow inspection of the reduced spectra.

  15. Homolytic reduction of onium salts. (United States)

    Fensterbank, Louis; Goddard, Jean-Philippe; Malacria, Max; Ollivier, Cyril


    Onium salts have proved to be efficient sources of carbon-centered radicals. They can undergo homolytic reduction by single electron transfer (SET) and participate in subsequent synthetic transformations. This review aims to provide an overview on the behavior of onium salts including diazonium, sulfonium, selenonium, telluronium, phosphonium and iodonium cations toward various reductive methods such as radiolysis, electrolysis, photolysis or the use of SET reagents. Mechanistic and synthetic aspects are presented. Applications in polymers and materials science are not covered.

  16. Bromate Reduction by Denitrifying Bacteria


    Hijnen, W.; Voogt, R.; Veenendaal, H. R.; Jagt, H.; van der Kooij, D


    In the presence of bromide, ozonation as applied in water treatment results in the formation of bromate, an ion with carcinogenic properties. The reduction of bromate by mixed bacterial populations as well as pure cultures was studied under laboratory conditions. Bromate was reduced to bromide by a mixed bacterial population with and without a preceding nitrate reduction step in an anaerobically incubated medium with ethanol as the energy and carbon source at 20 and 25 deg C. The predominatin...

  17. Ultramicroelectrode studies of oxygen reduction in polyelectrolyte membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdcroft, S.; Abdou, M.S.; Beattie, P.; Basura, V. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry


    A study on the oxygen reduction reaction in a solid state electrochemical cell was presented. The oxygen reduction reaction is a rate limiting reaction in the operation of solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells which use H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. Interest in the oxygen reduction reaction of platinum electrodes in contact with Nafion electrolytes stems from its role in fuel cell technology. The kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction in different polyelectrolyte membranes, such as Nafion and non-Nafion membranes, were compared. The electrode kinetics and mass transport parameters of the oxygen reduction reaction in polyelectrolyte membranes were measured by ultramicroelectrode techniques. The major difference found between these two classes of membrane was the percentage of water, which is suggestive of superior electrochemical mass transport properties of the non-Nafion membranes. 2 refs. 1 fig.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoard, J; Schmieg, S; Brooks, D; Peden, C; Barlow, S; Tonkyn, R


    A three-stage plasma-catalyst system was developed and tested on an engine dynamometer. Previous laboratory testing suggested high NOx efficiency could be obtained. With hexene reductant added to the exhaust, over 90% NOx reduction was observed. However, with diesel or Fischer-Tropsch reductant the catalyst efficiency rapidly dropped off. Heating the catalyst in air removed brown deposit from the surface and restored conversion efficiency. Following the engine tests, the used catalysts were evaluated. BET surface area decreased, and TPD revealed significant storage. This storage appears to be partly unburned diesel fuel that can be removed by heating to around 250-300 C, and partly hydrocarbons bonded to the surface that remain in place until 450-500 C. Laboratory testing with propene reductant demonstrated that the catalyst regains efficiency slowly even when operating temperature does not exceed 300 C. This suggests that control strategies may be able to regenerate the catalyst by occasional moderate heating.

  19. Particle size reduction of propellants by cryocycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whinnery, L.; Griffiths, S.; Lipkin, J. [and others


    Repeated exposure of a propellant to liquid nitrogen causes thermal stress gradients within the material resulting in cracking and particle size reduction. This process is termed cryocycling. The authors conducted a feasibility study, combining experiments on both inert and live propellants with three modeling approaches. These models provided optimized cycle times, predicted ultimate particle size, and allowed crack behavior to be explored. Process safety evaluations conducted separately indicated that cryocycling does not increase the sensitivity of the propellants examined. The results of this study suggest that cryocycling is a promising technology for the demilitarization of tactical rocket motors.

  20. [Substances considered addictive: prohibition, harm reduction and risk reduction]. (United States)

    Menéndez, Eduardo


    Latin America is currently the region with the highest rate of homicides worldwide, and a large part of the killings are linked to so-called organized crime, especially drug trafficking. The trafficking of drugs is a consequence of the illegality of certain substances which - at least presently - is based in and legitimated by biomedical criteria that turns the production, commercialization and often the consumption of certain substances considered addictive into "offenses against health." This text briefly analyzes the two policies formulated and implemented thus far in terms of prohibition and harm reduction, considering the failure of prohibitionism as well as the limitations of harm reduction proposals. The constant and multiple inconsistencies and contradictions of prohibitionism are noted, indicating the necessity of regarding cautiously repeated comments about its "failure." The text proposes the implementation of a policy of risk reduction that includes not only the behavior of individuals and groups, but also the structural dimension, both in economic-political and cultural terms.

  1. Demyelination in mild cognitive impairment suggests progression path to Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Carmeli

    Full Text Available The preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD - amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI - is manifested by phenotypes classified into exclusively memory (single-domain MCI (sMCI and multiple-domain MCI (mMCI. We suggest that typical MCI-to-AD progression occurs through the sMCI-to-mMCI sequence as a result of the extension of initial pathological processes. To support this hypothesis, we assess myelin content with a Magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR in 21 sMCI and 21 mMCI patients and in 42 age-, sex-, and education-matched controls. A conjunction analysis revealed MTR reduction shared by sMCI and mMCI groups in the medial temporal lobe and posterior structures including white matter (WM: splenium, posterior corona radiata and gray matter (GM: hippocampus; parahippocampal and lingual gyri. A disjunction analysis showed the spread of demyelination to prefrontal WM and insula GM in executive mMCI. Our findings suggest that demyelination starts in the structures affected by neurofibrillary pathology; its presence correlates with the clinical picture and indicates the method of MCI-to-AD progression. In vivo staging of preclinical AD can be developed in terms of WM/GM demyelination.

  2. Phonetic reduction of clicks – Evidence from Nǀuu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquard, Carina; Niebuhr, Oliver; Witzlack-Makarevich, Alena


    Based on spontaneous speech data of the Tuu language Nǀuu, we used the cross-linguistically established domain-initial strengthening concept in order to examine, if and in which way clicks are subject to speech reduction (lenition) in relation to a reference sample of plosives. Results of combined...... acoustic and auditory analyses suggest that clicks can be reduced in a gradual fashion and show more reduction phrase-finally than phrase-initially, just like plosives. However, unlike plosives, it seems that the reduction of clicks does not primarily affect the complex articulatory process itself...

  3. Mechanisms of bacterially catalyzed reductive dehalogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picardal, Flynn William [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)


    Nine bacteria were tested for the ability to dehalogenate tetrachloromethane (CT), tetrachloroethene (PCE), and 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane (TCA) under anaerobic conditions. Three bacteria were able to reductively dehalogenate CT. Dehalogenation ability was not readily linked to a common metabolism or changes in culture redox potential. None of the bacteria tested were able to dehalogenate PCE or TCA. One of the bacteria capable of dehalogenating CT, Shewanella putrefaciens, was chosen as a model organism to study mechanisms of bacterially catalyzed reductive dehalogenation. The effect of a variety of alternate electron acceptors on CT dehalogenation ability by S. putrefaciens was determined. oxygen and nitrogen oxides were inhibitory but Fe (III), trimethylamine oxide, and fumarate were not. A model of the electron transport chain of S. putrefaciens was developed to explain inhibition patterns. A period of microaerobic growth prior to CT exposure increased the ability of S. putrefaciens to dehalogenate CT. A microaerobic growth period also increased cytochrome concentrations. A relationship between cytochrome content and dehalogenation ability was developed from studies in which cytochrome concentrations in S. putrefaciens were manipulated by changing growth conditions. Stoichiometry studies using 14C-CT suggested that CT was first reduced to form a trichloromethyl radical. Reduction of the radical to produce chloroform and reaction of the radical with cellular biochemicals explained observed product distributions. Carbon dioxide or other fully dehalogenated products were not found.

  4. State of the direct reduction and reduction smelting processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markotić A.


    Full Text Available For quite a long time efforts have been made to develop processes for producing iron i.e. steel without employing conventional procedures - from ore, coke, blast furnace, iron, electric arc furnace, converter to steel. The insufficient availability and the high price of the coking coals have forced many countries to research and adopt the non-coke-consuming reduction and metal manufacturing processes (non-coke metallurgy, direct reduction, direct processes. This paper represents a survey of the most relevant processes from this domain by the end of 2000, which display a constant increase in the modern process metallurgy.

  5. The technique of «Subliminal verbal suggestion for the treatment of [pseudo]obsessions»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Danilevska


    schizophrenia patients with [pseudo]obsessions in the structure of the disease treatment. Proven therapeutic efficiency of the developed technique, was confirmed by clinical psychopathological and psychodiagnostic study. Patients who underwent treatment with the use of "Subliminal verbal suggestion for the treatment of [pseudo]obsessions" techniques in addition to standard therapy had a significant reduction in the severity and frequency of the [pseudo]obsessions, improved smoother speech and thinking, reduce anxiety, mood enhancement, normalization of lifestyle, the violation of which was associated with a [pseudo]obsessions, compared to the comparison group.

  6. Microbiological reduction of Sb(V) in anoxic freshwater sediments (United States)

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Kulp, Thomas R.; Miller, Laurence G.; Braiotta, Franco; Webb, Samuel M.; Kocar, Benjamin D; Blum, Jodi S.


    Microbiological reduction of millimolar concentrations of Sb(V) to Sb(III) was observed in anoxic sediments from two freshwater settings: (1) a Sb- and As-contaminated mine site (Stibnite Mine) in central Idaho and 2) an uncontaminated suburban lake (Searsville Lake) in the San Francisco Bay Area. Rates of Sb(V) reduction in anoxic sediment microcosms and enrichment cultures were enhanced by amendment with lactate or acetate as electron donors but not by H2, and no reduction occurred in sterilized controls. Addition of 2-14C-acetate to Stibnite Mine microcosms resulted in the production of 14CO2 coupled to Sb(V) reduction, suggesting that this process proceeds by a dissimilatory respiratory pathway in those sediments. Antimony(V) reduction in Searsville Lake sediments was not coupled to acetate mineralization and may be associated with Sb-resistance. The microcosms and enrichment cultures also reduced sulfate, and the precipitation of insoluble Sb(III)-sulfide complexes was a major sink for reduced Sb. The reduction of Sb(V) by Stibnite Mine sediments was inhibited by As(V), suggesting that As(V) is a preferred electron acceptor for the indigenous community. These findings indicate a novel pathway for anaerobic microbiological respiration and suggest that communities capable of reducing high concentrations of Sb(V) commonly occur naturally in the environment.

  7. Unfavourable results following reduction mammoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Saleem


    Full Text Available Breast reduction is a common cosmetic surgical procedure. It aims not only at bringing down the size of the breast proportionate to the build of the individual, but also to overcome the discomfort caused by massive, ill-shaped and hanging breasts. The operative procedure has evolved from mere reduction of breast mass to enhanced aesthetic appeal with a minimum of scar load. The selection of technique needs to be individualised. Bilateral breast reduction is done most often. Haematoma, seroma, fat necrosis, skin loss, nipple loss and unsightly, painful scars can be the complications of any procedure on the breast. These may result from errors in judgement, wrong surgical plan and imprecise execution of the plan. Though a surfeit of studies are available on breast reduction, very few dwell upon its complications. The following article is a distillation of three decades of experience of the senior author (L.S. in reduction mammoplasty. An effort is made to understand the reasons for unfavourable results. To conclude, most complications can be overcome with proper selection of procedure for the given patient and with gentle tissue handling.

  8. The sulphate-reduction alkalinity pump tested (United States)

    Meister, Patrick; Petrishcheva, Elena


    Carbonate precipitation has been suggested to be induced by alkalinity increase during sulphate reduction under anoxic conditions. This mechanism may explain the formation of carbonate deposits in shallow marine environments, either within a redox stratified sediment inhabited by phototrophic microbial mats or in shallow water within the photic zone where sulphidic water is upwelling onto the shelf. The alkalinity pump may work as long as the sulphide is not reoxidized to sulphate, a process that would acidify the surrounding. The alkalinity effect of sulphate reduction was recently tested by Aloisi (2008) for microbial mats using a model approach. He found that sulphate reduction does not significantly increase or even decrease carbonate saturation and is unlikely to have played a significant role through Earth history. The model considers many environmental factors, including the effect of carbonate precipitation itself on the carbonate equilbrium and on the alkalinity. We used a modified version of Aloisi's (2008) model to simulate the saturation states of aragonite, calcite and dolomite without the effects of carbonate precipitation. This is necessary to evaluate the effect of microbial metabolisms exclusively on carbonate saturation, since carbonate precipitation is only the consequence, but not the cause of oversaturation. First results show that the saturation state is increased in the zone of phototrophic CO2 uptake. In contrast, the saturation state is strongly decreased in the zone where dissolved oxygen overlaps with dissolved sulphide. Aerobic sulphide oxidation consumes most of the HS- and dissipates most of the alkalinity produced in the sulphate reduction zone below. Hence, our results are consistent with the findings of Aloisi (2008), and they even more clearly show that sulphate reduction does not induce carbonate precipitation nor contributes to carbonate precipitation in combination with phototrophic CO2 uptake. The alkalinity effect of sulphate

  9. Effects of Polymer Parameters on Drag Reduction. (United States)

    Safieddine, Abbas Mohammad

    by the recent "yo-yo" model of Ryskin. This work provides strong experimental evidence in support of the theories suggesting that drag reduction is a result of polymer extension in a turbulent flow field. This macromolecular extension leads to a local fluid viscosity increase, effectively altering the turbulent energy balance. This in turn leads to a reduction in the intensity of the smallest eddies, thereby reducing friction and enhancing flow.

  10. Catalytic Reduction of CO2 by Renewable Organohydrides. (United States)

    Lim, Chern-Hooi; Holder, Aaron M; Hynes, James T; Musgrave, Charles B


    Dihydropyridines are renewable organohydride reducing agents for the catalytic reduction of CO2 to MeOH. Here we discuss various aspects of this important reduction. A centerpiece, which illustrates various general principles, is our theoretical catalytic mechanism for CO2 reduction by successive hydride transfers (HTs) and proton transfers (PTs) from the dihydropyridine PyH2 obtained by 1H(+)/1e(-)/1H(+)/1e(-) reductions of pyridine. The Py/PyH2 redox couple is analogous to NADP(+)/NADPH in that both are driven to effect HTs by rearomatization. High-energy radical intermediates and their associated high barriers/overpotentials are avoided because HT involves a 2e(-) reduction. A HT-PT sequence dictates that the reduced intermediates be protonated prior to further reduction for ultimate MeOH formation; these protonations are aided by biased cathodes that significantly lower the local pH. In contrast, cathodes that efficiently reduce H(+) such as Pt and Pd produce H2 and create a high interfacial pH, both obstructing dihydropyridine production and formate protonation and thus ultimately CO2 reduction by HTPTs. The role of water molecule proton relays is discussed. Finally, we suggest future CO2 reduction strategies by organic (photo)catalysts.

  11. Automated alphabet reduction for protein datasets. (United States)

    Bacardit, Jaume; Stout, Michael; Hirst, Jonathan D; Valencia, Alfonso; Smith, Robert E; Krasnogor, Natalio


    We investigate automated and generic alphabet reduction techniques for protein structure prediction datasets. Reducing alphabet cardinality without losing key biochemical information opens the door to potentially faster machine learning, data mining and optimization applications in structural bioinformatics. Furthermore, reduced but informative alphabets often result in, e.g., more compact and human-friendly classification/clustering rules. In this paper we propose a robust and sophisticated alphabet reduction protocol based on mutual information and state-of-the-art optimization techniques. We applied this protocol to the prediction of two protein structural features: contact number and relative solvent accessibility. For both features we generated alphabets of two, three, four and five letters. The five-letter alphabets gave prediction accuracies statistically similar to that obtained using the full amino acid alphabet. Moreover, the automatically designed alphabets were compared against other reduced alphabets taken from the literature or human-designed, outperforming them. The differences between our alphabets and the alphabets taken from the literature were quantitatively analyzed. All the above process had been performed using a primary sequence representation of proteins. As a final experiment, we extrapolated the obtained five-letter alphabet to reduce a, much richer, protein representation based on evolutionary information for the prediction of the same two features. Again, the performance gap between the full representation and the reduced representation was small, showing that the results of our automated alphabet reduction protocol, even if they were obtained using a simple representation, are also able to capture the crucial information needed for state-of-the-art protein representations. Our automated alphabet reduction protocol generates competent reduced alphabets tailored specifically for a variety of protein datasets. This process is done without

  12. Model reduction using the Vorobyev moment problem (United States)

    Strakoš, Zdeněk


    Given a nonsingular complex matrix and complex vectors v and w of length N, one may wish to estimate the quadratic form w * A - 1 v, where w * denotes the conjugate transpose of w. This problem appears in many applications, and Gene Golub was the key figure in its investigations for decades. He focused mainly on the case A Hermitian positive definite (HPD) and emphasized the relationship of the algebraically formulated problems with classical topics in analysis - moments, orthogonal polynomials and quadrature. The essence of his view can be found in his contribution Matrix Computations and the Theory of Moments, given at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Zürich in 1994. As in many other areas, Gene Golub has inspired a long list of coauthors for work on the problem, and our contribution can also be seen as a consequence of his lasting inspiration. In this paper we will consider a general mathematical concept of matching moments model reduction, which as well as its use in many other applications, is the basis for the development of various approaches for estimation of the quadratic form above. The idea of model reduction via matching moments is well known and widely used in approximation of dynamical systems, but it goes back to Stieltjes, with some preceding work done by Chebyshev and Heine. The algebraic moment matching problem can for A HPD be formulated as a variant of the Stieltjes moment problem, and can be solved using Gauss-Christoffel quadrature. Using the operator moment problem suggested by Vorobyev, we will generalize model reduction based on matching moments to the non-Hermitian case in a straightforward way. Unlike in the model reduction literature, the presented proofs follow directly from the construction of the Vorobyev moment problem.

  13. Automated Alphabet Reduction for Protein Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia Alfonso


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigate automated and generic alphabet reduction techniques for protein structure prediction datasets. Reducing alphabet cardinality without losing key biochemical information opens the door to potentially faster machine learning, data mining and optimization applications in structural bioinformatics. Furthermore, reduced but informative alphabets often result in, e.g., more compact and human-friendly classification/clustering rules. In this paper we propose a robust and sophisticated alphabet reduction protocol based on mutual information and state-of-the-art optimization techniques. Results We applied this protocol to the prediction of two protein structural features: contact number and relative solvent accessibility. For both features we generated alphabets of two, three, four and five letters. The five-letter alphabets gave prediction accuracies statistically similar to that obtained using the full amino acid alphabet. Moreover, the automatically designed alphabets were compared against other reduced alphabets taken from the literature or human-designed, outperforming them. The differences between our alphabets and the alphabets taken from the literature were quantitatively analyzed. All the above process had been performed using a primary sequence representation of proteins. As a final experiment, we extrapolated the obtained five-letter alphabet to reduce a, much richer, protein representation based on evolutionary information for the prediction of the same two features. Again, the performance gap between the full representation and the reduced representation was small, showing that the results of our automated alphabet reduction protocol, even if they were obtained using a simple representation, are also able to capture the crucial information needed for state-of-the-art protein representations. Conclusion Our automated alphabet reduction protocol generates competent reduced alphabets tailored specifically for a

  14. Effects of microgravity on muscle and cerebral cortex: a suggested interaction (United States)

    D'Amelio, F.; Fox, R. A.; Wu, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.

    The ``slow'' antigravity muscle adductor longus was studied in rats after 14 days of spaceflight (SF). The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light and electron microscopy revealed myofiber atrophy, segmental necrosis and regenerative myofibers. Regenerative myofibers were N-CAM immunoreactive (N-CAM-IR). The neuromuscular junctions showed axon terminals with a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles, degenerative changes, vacant axonal spaces and changes suggestive of axonal sprouting. No alterations of muscle spindles was seen either by light or electron microscopy. These observations suggest that muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight. In a separate study, GABA immunoreactivity (GABA-IR) was evaluated at the level of the hindlimb representation of the rat somatosensory cortex after 14 days of hindlimb unloading by tail suspension (``simulated'' microgravity). A reduction in number of GABA-immunoreactive cells with respect to the control animals was observed in layer Va and Vb. GABA-IR terminals were also reduced in the same layers, particularly those terminals surrounding the soma and apical dendrites of pyramidal cells in layer Vb. On the basis of previous morphological and behavioral studies of the neuromuscular system after spaceflight and hindlimb suspension it is suggested that after limb unloading there are alterations of afferent signaling and feedback information from intramuscular receptors to the cerebral cortex due to modifications in the reflex organization of hindlimb muscle groups. We propose that the changes observed in GABA immunoreactivity of cells and terminals is an expression of changes in their modulatory activity to compensate for the alterations in the afferent information.

  15. [Successful breastfeeding after reduction mammaplasty]. (United States)

    Witte, P M; van der Lei, B; van der Biezen, J J; Spronk, C A


    To determine if it is possible to successfully breastfeed after reduction mammaplasty with intact continuity between papilla and glandular tissue. Retrospective by use of a written questionnaire. Between 1986 and 2000, 994 women under the age of 35 underwent a reduction mammaplasty at the Medical Centre in Leeuwarden, The Netherlands. They were all sent a questionnaire of which 585 were completed correctly and returned. Of the 585 women, 215 had had one or more children and 90 had started breastfeeding, 57 of whom were successful (63%). In non-operated women this figure is 69%. The advice to try to breastfeed was associated with a higher percentage of success than the advice not to try--78% and 42% respectively. It appears to be justified to encourage women who have had a breast reduction to attempt to breastfeed after the birth of a child.

  16. A Review on Dimension Reduction. (United States)

    Ma, Yanyuan; Zhu, Liping


    Summarizing the effect of many covariates through a few linear combinations is an effective way of reducing covariate dimension and is the backbone of (sufficient) dimension reduction. Because the replacement of high-dimensional covariates by low-dimensional linear combinations is performed with a minimum assumption on the specific regression form, it enjoys attractive advantages as well as encounters unique challenges in comparison with the variable selection approach. We review the current literature of dimension reduction with an emphasis on the two most popular models, where the dimension reduction affects the conditional distribution and the conditional mean, respectively. We discuss various estimation and inference procedures in different levels of detail, with the intention of focusing on their underneath idea instead of technicalities. We also discuss some unsolved problems in this area for potential future research.

  17. Model Reduction of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    matrices are constructed based on the convex combinations of the generalized gramians. However this framework is less conservative than the first one, it does not guarantee the stability for all switching signals. The stability preservation is studied for this reduction technique. The third framework......High-Technological solutions of today are characterized by complex dynamical models. A lot of these models have inherent hybrid/switching structure. Hybrid/switched systems are powerful models for distributed embedded systems design where discrete controls are applied to continuous processes...... of hybrid systems, designing controllers and implementations is very high so that the use of these models is limited in applications where the size of the state space is large. To cope with complexity, model reduction is a powerful technique. This thesis presents methods for model reduction and stability...

  18. Model reduction of parametrized systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlberger, Mario; Patera, Anthony; Rozza, Gianluigi; Urban, Karsten


    The special volume offers a global guide to new concepts and approaches concerning the following topics: reduced basis methods, proper orthogonal decomposition, proper generalized decomposition, approximation theory related to model reduction, learning theory and compressed sensing, stochastic and high-dimensional problems, system-theoretic methods, nonlinear model reduction, reduction of coupled problems/multiphysics, optimization and optimal control, state estimation and control, reduced order models and domain decomposition methods, Krylov-subspace and interpolatory methods, and applications to real industrial and complex problems. The book represents the state of the art in the development of reduced order methods. It contains contributions from internationally respected experts, guaranteeing a wide range of expertise and topics. Further, it reflects an important effor t, carried out over the last 12 years, to build a growing research community in this field. Though not a textbook, some of the chapters ca...

  19. Effect of Calcination and Reduction Temperatures on the Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 5, 2003 ... The reduction temperature did not affect the product selectivity. KEYWORDS. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, carbon monoxide hydrogenation, syngas conversion, cobalt; titania, fixed-bed reactor. 1. Introduction. Supported cobalt catalysts have been widely employed for. Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of ...

  20. The Nature of Reduction in Space Weathering (United States)

    McKay, D. S.; Allen, C. C.


    Space weathering is a broad term that includes a number of complex effects of the exposure of materials to the environment of space. The processes that drive space weathering include micrometeorite impact, radiation from the Sun and cosmic rays, and exposure to the vacuum of space. One of the important effects caused by these processes is the tendency for chemical reduction of oxide and silicate materials (including glasses), with accompanying loss of oxygen and production of reduced metal. Such chemical reduction and accompanying metal production may have an important influence on the chemistry of the outermost volume of individual grains as well as on the optical properties of this material. Hapke [1] discussed five processes that have been suggested for producing submicroscopic iron metal in the lunar soil: (1) shock reduction, (2) heating in a thermal blanket in vacuum, (3) shock heating of solar-wind-impregnated grains, (4) coatings deposited by solar wind sputtering, and (5) coatings deposited by impact vaporization. As noted by Hapke, "Processes (1) and (2) have been refuted by laboratory experiments. Processes (4) and (5) have produced submicroscopic iron metal in laboratory simulations. Although no experiments have been done to simulate process (3), it is widely accepted." We have been performing experimental reduction of simulated and actual lunar materials [2-5] and have shown that, under conditions of exposure to hydrogen at elevated temperatures, reduction of FeO readily occurs in ilmenite and lunar composition glass, and occurs at a slower rate in pyroxene and olivine. Even plagioclase feldspar containing minor FeO is readily reduced with formation of metallic iron blebs on surfaces [4]. A comparison of natural lunar samples to hydrogen-reduced samples or simulants in which we are searching for reduction evidence in various soil phases is underway. Preliminary data for mature soils show, in agreement with earlier results, that reduced iron produced in

  1. Infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems: Confluence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketema, J.; Simonsen, Jakob Grue


    We study confluence in the setting of higher-order infinitary rewriting, in particular for infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems (iCRSs). We prove that fully-extended, orthogonal iCRSs are confluent modulo identification of hypercollapsing subterms. As a corollary, we obtain that fully-extended,

  2. Infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems: Confluence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketema, Jeroen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue


    -extended, orthogonal iCRSs have the normal form property and the  unique normal form property (with respect to reduction). We also show that, unlike the case in first-order infinitary rewriting, almost non-collapsing iCRSs are not necessarily confluent....

  3. Reduction des effectifs ou licenciements

    CERN Multimedia

    Maiani, Luciano


    "Vous faites un amalgame entre la reduction en cours des effectifs du CERN (organisation europeenne pour la recherche nucleaire) et les economies que le laboratoire doit realiser dans les cinq ans a venir pour financer le projet de grand collisionneur de hadrons (Le Monde du 4 septembre)" (1/2 page).

  4. Asymmetry Reduction Theory of FDI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    In this paper, I first briefly introduce Moon & Roehl’s (1993, 2001) imbalance theory of FDI, then I identify its three deficiencies that may be responsible for the relative lack of impact of the potentially powerful imbalance logic, and then I propose an asymmetry reduction theory (ARC) of FDI...

  5. Reduction axioms for epistemic actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, Barteld; van Benthem, Johan


    Current dynamic epistemic logics often become cumbersome and opaque when common knowledge is added. In this paper we propose new versions that extend the underlying static epistemic language in such a way that dynamic completeness proofs can be obtained by perspicuous reduction axioms.

  6. Noise reduction by wavelet thresholding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansen, Maarten


    .... I rather present new material and own insights in the que stions involved with wavelet based noise reduction . On the other hand , the presented material does cover a whole range of methodologies, and in that sense, the book may serve as an introduction into the domain of wavelet smoothing. Throughout the text, three main properties show up ever again: spar...

  7. Strategies for hospital staff reduction. (United States)

    Weil, T P; Hollingsworth, A T


    Reduced inpatient census has created an overstaffing problem in many hospitals. Managers, unfamiliar with the layoff process, are now faced with reducing staffing levels. Detailed here are the options available for and the policies, procedures, and implementation of a reduction in force.

  8. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction


    Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M


    The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics

  9. Morphologisation or Reduction by Context?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegård Petersen, Jan


    of regression analysis which shows that also a following sound or pause, word form frequency and social class are factors that contribute significantly to the reduction pattern of the variable (te). The study cannot find any effects of clitizisation or n-gram based contextual predictability, factors...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IMPROVING THE CHOICE OF HIGHER ORDER UNIVARIATE. KERNELS THROUGH BIAS REDUCTION TECHNIQUE. J. E. Osemwenkhae and J. I. Odiase. Department of Math ematics. University of Benin. Benin City, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. Within the last two decades, higher order nnivariate kernels ha/ve been under focus ...

  11. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oequist, M.


    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 {mu}M. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 {mu}M h{sup -1} while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 {mu}M h{sup -1}, respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination

  12. From Outermost Reduction Semantics to Abstract Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    Reduction semantics is a popular format for small-step operational semantics of deterministic programming languages with computational effects. Each reduction semantics gives rise to a reduction-based normalization function where the reduction sequence is enumerated. Refocusing is a practical way...... of the term to enumerate the reduction sequence, in contrast to the reduction-based normalization function. We have discovered that refocusing does not apply as readily for reduction semantics that use an outermost reduction strategy and have overlapping rules where a contractum can be a proper subpart...

  13. Reductions in Perceived Injustice are Associated with Reductions in Disability and Depressive Symptoms after Total Knee Arthroplasty. (United States)

    Yakobov, Esther; Scott, Whitney; Stanish, William; Tanzer, Michael; Dunbar, Michael; Richardson, Glen; Sullivan, Michael


    Perceptions of injustice have been associated with problematic recovery outcomes in individuals suffering from a wide range of debilitating pain conditions. It has been suggested that, in patients with chronic pain, perceptions of injustice might arise in response to experiences characterized by illness-related pain severity, depressive symptoms, and disability. If symptoms severity and disability are important contributors to perceived injustice, it follows that interventions that yield reductions in symptom severity and disability should also contribute to reductions in perceptions of injustice. The present study examined the relative contributions of post-surgical reductions in pain severity, depressive symptoms and disability to the prediction of reductions in perceptions of injustice. The study sample consisted of 110 individuals (69 women and 41 men) with osteoarthritis of the knee scheduled for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Patients completed measures of perceived injustice, depressive symptoms, pain and disability at their pre-surgical evaluation, and at one year follow up. The results revealed that reductions in depressive symptoms and disability, but not pain severity, were correlated with reductions in perceived injustice. Regression analyses revealed that reductions in disability and reductions in depressive symptoms contributed modest but significant unique variance to the prediction of post-surgical reductions in perceived injustice. The present findings are consistent with current conceptualizations of injustice appraisals that propose a central role for symptom severity and disability as determinants of perceptions of injustice in patients suffering from persistent pain. The results suggest that the inclusion of psychosocial interventions that target depressive symptoms and perceived injustice might augment the impact of rehabilitation programs made available for individuals recovering from TKA.

  14. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Travis Shane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mincher, Bruce Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schmitt, Nicholas C [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show that the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.

  15. The proposed changes to the final privacy rule suggest a disturbing reduction in an individual's ability to exercise a right to healthcare privacy. (United States)

    Kidera, Geralyn A


    The author contends that, in eliminating HIPAA's mandatory consent requirement, which is the initial step in the patient's Patient Consent exercise of the right to health information privacy, DHHS has turned its back on privacy protection. She posits that the proposed change is the result of a disturbing focus on an elimination of the industry's administrative burdens, rather than on the protection of patient healthcare information. The article concludes that elimination of the consent requirement is a step backwards in the arena of personal privacy.

  16. Recursions of Symmetry Orbits and Reduction without Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Malykh


    Full Text Available We consider a four-dimensional PDE possessing partner symmetries mainly on the example of complex Monge-Ampère equation (CMA. We use simultaneously two pairs of symmetries related by a recursion relation, which are mutually complex conjugate for CMA. For both pairs of partner symmetries, using Lie equations, we introduce explicitly group parameters as additional variables, replacing symmetry characteristics and their complex conjugates by derivatives of the unknown with respect to group parameters. We study the resulting system of six equations in the eight-dimensional space, that includes CMA, four equations of the recursion between partner symmetries and one integrability condition of this system. We use point symmetries of this extended system for performing its symmetry reduction with respect to group parameters that facilitates solving the extended system. This procedure does not imply a reduction in the number of physical variables and hence we end up with orbits of non-invariant solutions of CMA, generated by one partner symmetry, not used in the reduction. These solutions are determined by six linear equations with constant coefficients in the five-dimensional space which are obtained by a three-dimensional Legendre transformation of the reduced extended system. We present algebraic and exponential examples of such solutions that govern Legendre-transformed Ricci-flat Kähler metrics with no Killing vectors. A similar procedure is briefly outlined for Husain equation.

  17. Clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of multiple sclerosis: voxelwise regional investigation of white and gray matter. (United States)

    Raz, Eytan; Cercignani, Mara; Sbardella, Emilia; Totaro, Porzia; Pozzilli, Carlo; Bozzali, Marco; Pantano, Patrizia


    To quantify white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) damage in patients who presented with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), which is suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS), by combining volume-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). This prospective HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review board. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. In this study, 34 consecutive patients (21 women, 13 men; mean age, 31.7 years +/- 7.7 [standard deviation]) who presented with CIS were recruited. The magnetic resonance (MR) examination included dual-echo fast spin-echo, three-dimensional T1, and diffusion-tensor imaging. Sixteen matched healthy volunteers served as control subjects. T2 lesion volumes were assessed with a semiautomatic technique. VBM and TBSS were used for the GM and WM analyses, respectively, to compare regional GM volumes and fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the two groups. TBSS analysis revealed a pattern of diffuse FA reductions in patients with CIS at the cluster level (P < .05). Regions of decreased FA involved most of the WM pathways, including the corticospinal tracts, corpus callosum, and superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of global GM, WM, or cerebrospinal fluid volume or in terms of regional GM volume. Diffuse WM damage not accompanied by any change in GM or WM volume is observed in patients with CIS. This suggests that WM involvement plays a relevant role in the early phases of MS. Subsequently detected GM damage may be secondary to WM alterations.

  18. The comprehensive diagnostic study is suggested as a design to model the diagnostic process. (United States)

    Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Haasenritter, Jörg; Hüllermeier, Eyke; Viniol, Annika; Bösner, Stefan; Becker, Annette


    The classical diagnostic cross-sectional study has a focus on one disease only. Generalist clinicians, however, are confronted with a wide range of diagnoses. We propose the "comprehensive diagnostic study design" to evaluate diagnostic tests regarding more than one disease outcome. We present the secondary analysis of a data set obtained from patients presenting with chest pain in primary care. Participating clinicians recorded 42 items of the history and physical examination. Diagnostic outcomes were reviewed by an independent panel after 6-month follow-up (n = 710 complete cases). We used Shannon entropy as a measure of uncertainty before and after testing. Four different analytical strategies modeling specific clinical ways of reasoning were evaluated. Although the "global entropy" strategy reduced entropy most, it is unlikely to be of clinical use because of its complexity. "Inductive" and "fixed-set" strategies turned out to be efficient requiring a small amount of data only. The "deductive" procedure resulted in the smallest reduction of entropy. We suggest that the comprehensive diagnostic study design is a feasible and valid option to improve our understanding of the diagnostic process. It is also promising as a justification for clinical recommendations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Placebo analgesia and its opioidergic regulation suggest that empathy for pain is grounded in self pain. (United States)

    Rütgen, Markus; Seidel, Eva-Maria; Silani, Giorgia; Riečanský, Igor; Hummer, Allan; Windischberger, Christian; Petrovic, Predrag; Lamm, Claus


    Empathy for pain activates brain areas partially overlapping with those underpinning the first-hand experience of pain. It remains unclear, however, whether such shared activations imply that pain empathy engages similar neural functions as first-hand pain experiences. To overcome the limitations of previous neuroimaging research, we pursued a conceptually novel approach: we used the phenomenon of placebo analgesia to experimentally reduce the first-hand experience of pain, and assessed whether this results in a concomitant reduction of empathy for pain. We first carried out a functional MRI experiment (n = 102) that yielded results in the expected direction: participants experiencing placebo analgesia also reported decreased empathy for pain, and this was associated with reduced engagement of anterior insular and midcingulate cortex: that is, areas previously associated with shared activations in pain and empathy for pain. In a second step, we used a psychopharmacological manipulation (n = 50) to determine whether these effects can be blocked via an opioid antagonist. The administration of the opioid antagonist naltrexone blocked placebo analgesia and also resulted in a corresponding "normalization" of empathy for pain. Taken together, these findings suggest that pain empathy may be associated with neural responses and neurotransmitter activity engaged during first-hand pain, and thus might indeed be grounded in our own pain experiences.

  20. Methamphetamine administration targets multiple immune subsets and induces phenotypic alterations suggestive of immunosuppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Harms

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (Meth is a widely abused stimulant and its users are at increased risk for multiple infectious diseases. To determine the impact of meth on the immune system, we utilized a murine model that simulates the process of meth consumption in a typical addict. Our phenotypic analysis of leukocytes from this dose escalation model revealed that meth affected key immune subsets. Meth administration led to a decrease in abundance of natural killer (NK cells and the remaining NK cells possessed a phenotype suggesting reduced responsiveness. Dendritic cells (DCs and Gr-1(high monocytes/macrophages were also decreased in abundance while Gr-1(low monocytes/macrophages appear to show signs of perturbation. CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets were affected by methamphetamine, both showing a reduction in antigen-experienced subsets. CD4 T cells also exhibited signs of activation, with increased expression of CD150 on CD226-expressing cells and an expansion of KLRG1(+, FoxP3(- cells. These results exhibit that meth has the ability to disrupt immune homeostasis and impact key subsets of leukocytes which may leave users more vulnerable to pathogens.

  1. Coupling otolith microstructure analysis and hydrographic backtracking suggests a mechanism for the 2000s North Sea herring recruitment failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stine Dalmann; Payne, Mark; Worsøe Clausen, Lotte


    , associated with the onset of the reduced recruitment, was identified. These results suggest that the reduced recruitment is associated with a reduction in the growth rate of the larval survivors, most probably through changes in either the amount or quality of the available food. Furthermore, this study......The North Sea autumn spawning herring (Clupea harengus) has, since the 2002 year class, shown an unprecedented sequence of ten years of sharply reduced recruitment, in spite of a high spawning biomass and low fishing mortality. Recent work has identified this reduction in recruitment level (or....... Individual larval growth rates, averaged over the 30 days prior to capture, were estimated for 200 larval otoliths from four different years using a model‐based analysis of the ring widths. The otolith measurements were complemented with additional information derived from hydrographic backtracking models (e...

  2. On the energy economics of air lubrication drag reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo A. Mäkiharju


    Full Text Available Air lubrication techniques for frictional drag reduction on ships have been proposed by numerous researchers since the 19th century. However, these techniques have not been widely adopted as questions persist about their drag reduction performance beyond the laboratory, as well as energy and economic cost-benefit. This paper draws on data from the literature to consider the suitability of air lubrication for large ocean going and U.S. Great Lakes ships, by establishing the basic energy economic calculations and presenting results for a hypothetical air lubricated ship. All the assumptions made in the course of the analysis are clearly stated so that they can be refined when considering application of air lubrication to a specific ship. The analysis suggests that, if successfully implemented, both air layer and partial cavity drag reduction could lead to net energy savings of 10 to 20%, with corresponding reductions in emissions.

  3. Random walks on reductive groups

    CERN Document Server

    Benoist, Yves


    The classical theory of Random Walks describes the asymptotic behavior of sums of independent identically distributed random real variables. This book explains the generalization of this theory to products of independent identically distributed random matrices with real coefficients. Under the assumption that the action of the matrices is semisimple – or, equivalently, that the Zariski closure of the group generated by these matrices is reductive - and under suitable moment assumptions, it is shown that the norm of the products of such random matrices satisfies a number of classical probabilistic laws. This book includes necessary background on the theory of reductive algebraic groups, probability theory and operator theory, thereby providing a modern introduction to the topic.

  4. Mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaz, P.; Takacs, L.; Jiang, Jianzhong


    The mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide with iron was induced in a Fritsch P-6 planetary mill, using WC vial filled with argon and WC balls. Samples milled for specific intervals were analyzed by XRD and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Most of the reaction takes place during the first 10 min...... of milling and only FeS and Cu are found after 60 min. The main chemical process is accompanied by phase transformations of the sulfide phases as a result of milling. Djurleite partially transformed to chalcocite and a tetragonal copper sulfide phase before reduction. The cubic modification of FeS was formed...... first, transforming to hexagonal during the later stages of the process. The formation of off-stoichiometric phases and the release of some elemental sulfur by copper sulfide are also probable....

  5. Reduction of mesqa improvement costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Saad ElFetyany


    Results show that using the revised approach brings down the cost of mesqa improvement from nearly 10,000LE/fed at present to about 6000LE/fed. These reductions based on the analyses of different mesqa modelling through the adoption of certain parameters such as feasibility of the revised design, effective application of continuous flow for water distribution, and downsizing of the capacity of improved mesqas.

  6. Sustained Low Temperature NOx Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha, Yuhui


    Increasing regulatory, environmental, and customer pressure in recent years led to substantial improvements in the fuel efficiency of diesel engines, including the remarkable breakthroughs demonstrated through the Super Truck program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). On the other hand, these improvements have translated into a reduction of exhaust gas temperatures, thus further complicating the task of controlling NOx emissions, especially in low power duty cycles. The need for improved NOx conversion over these low temperature duty cycles is also observed as requirements tighten with in-use emissions testing. Sustained NOx reduction at low temperatures, especially in the 150-200oC range, shares some similarities with the more commonly discussed cold-start challenge, however poses a number of additional and distinct technical problems. In this project we set a bold target of achieving and maintaining a 90% NOx conversion at the SCR catalyst inlet temperature of 150oC. The project is intended to push the boundaries of the existing technologies, while staying within the realm of realistic future practical implementation. In order to meet the resulting challenges at the levels of catalyst fundamentals, system components, and system integration, Cummins has partnered with the DOE, Johnson Matthey, and Pacific Northwest National Lab and initiated the Sustained Low-Temperature NOx Reduction program at the beginning of 2015. Through this collaboration, we are exploring catalyst formulations and catalyst architectures with enhanced catalytic activity at 150°C; opportunities to approach the desirable ratio of NO and NO2 in the SCR feed gas; options for robust low-temperature reductant delivery; and the requirements for overall system integration. The program is expected to deliver an on-engine demonstration of the technical solution and an assessment of its commercial potential. In the SAE meeting, we will share the initial performance data on engine to

  7. The reduction of packaging waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, E.A.; Hogan, J.J.; McCollom, M.L.; Meyer, R.J.


    Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one-third of the waste disposed in sanitary landfills. the US Department of Energy (DOE) generated close to 90,000 metric tons of sanitary waste. With roughly one-third of that being packaging waste, approximately 30,000 metric tons are generated per year. The purpose of the Reduction of Packaging Waste project was to investigate opportunities to reduce this packaging waste through source reduction and recycling. The project was divided into three areas: procurement, onsite packaging and distribution, and recycling. Waste minimization opportunities were identified and investigated within each area, several of which were chosen for further study and small-scale testing at the Hanford Site. Test results, were compiled into five ``how-to`` recipes for implementation at other sites. The subject of the recipes are as follows: (1) Vendor Participation Program; (2) Reusable Containers System; (3) Shrink-wrap System -- Plastic and Corrugated Cardboard Waste Reduction; (4) Cardboard Recycling ; and (5) Wood Recycling.

  8. Results Evaluation in Reduction Rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arima, Lisandra Megumi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Final results evaluation after rhinoplasty is a not a topic widely studied from the patient's viewpoint. Objective:Evaluate the satisfaction of the patients submitted to reduction rhinoplasty, from the questionnaire Rhinoplasty Outcomes Evaluation (ROE. Method: Longitudinal study, retrospective cut type, of the preoperative and postoperative satisfaction. The sample was composed by 28 patients who were submitted to rhinoplasty and answered the ROE questionnaire. Three variables were obtained: satisfaction note that the patient had with his/her image before the surgery; note of satisfaction with the current appearance; the difference of the average satisfaction notes between postoperative and preoperative approaches. Results: The postoperative note was higher than the preoperative in all patients. We noticed a difference between the average of the postoperative and preoperative of 48.3 (p75 considered to be an excellent outcome (67.9%. Conclusions: The ROE questionnaire is a helpful tool to show the satisfaction of the patient submitted to reduction rhinoplasty. About 92% of the patients submitted to reduction rhinoplasty consider the postoperative result to be good or excellent.

  9. Lung volume reduction for emphysema. (United States)

    Shah, Pallav L; Herth, Felix J; van Geffen, Wouter H; Deslee, Gaetan; Slebos, Dirk-Jan


    Advanced emphysema is a lung disease in which alveolar capillary units are destroyed and supporting tissue is lost. The combined effect of reduced gas exchange and changes in airway dynamics impairs expiratory airflow and leads to progressive air trapping. Pharmacological therapies have limited effects. Surgical resection of the most destroyed sections of the lung can improve pulmonary function and exercise capacity but its benefit is tempered by significant morbidity. This issue stimulated a search for novel approaches to lung volume reduction. Alternative minimally invasive approaches using bronchoscopic techniques including valves, coils, vapour thermal ablation, and sclerosant agents have been at the forefront of these developments. Insertion of endobronchial valves in selected patients could have benefits that are comparable with lung volume reduction surgery. Endobronchial coils might have a role in the treatment of patients with emphysema with severe hyperinflation and less parenchymal destruction. Use of vapour thermal energy or a sclerosant might allow focal treatment but the unpredictability of the inflammatory response limits their current use. In this Review, we aim to summarise clinical trial evidence on lung volume reduction and provide guidance on patient selection for available therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 76 FR 40320 - Risk Reduction Program (United States)


    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Chapter II RIN 2130-AC11 Risk Reduction Program AGENCY: Federal... development of a regulation requiring certain railroads to develop a Risk Reduction Program (RRP). The Rail... reduction programs. Risk reduction is a comprehensive, system-oriented approach to safety that (1...

  11. A conserved mechanism for sulfonucleotide reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate S Carroll


    Full Text Available Sulfonucleotide reductases are a diverse family of enzymes that catalyze the first committed step of reductive sulfur assimilation. In this reaction, activated sulfate in the context of adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS or 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS is converted to sulfite with reducing equivalents from thioredoxin. The sulfite generated in this reaction is utilized in bacteria and plants for the eventual production of essential biomolecules such as cysteine and coenzyme A. Humans do not possess a homologous metabolic pathway, and thus, these enzymes represent attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we studied the mechanism of sulfonucleotide reduction by APS reductase from the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, using a combination of mass spectrometry and biochemical approaches. The results support the hypothesis of a two-step mechanism in which the sulfonucleotide first undergoes rapid nucleophilic attack to form an enzyme-thiosulfonate (E-Cys-S-SO(3- intermediate. Sulfite is then released in a thioredoxin-dependent manner. Other sulfonucleotide reductases from structurally divergent subclasses appear to use the same mechanism, suggesting that this family of enzymes has evolved from a common ancestor.

  12. Reduction of sodium content in spicy soups using monosodium glutamate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinap, Selamat; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Karim, Roslina


    that with the addition of MSG, it is possible to reduce sodium intake without changing the overall acceptability of the spicy soup. A 32.5% reduction in sodium level is made feasible by adding 0.7% MSG to the spicy soups.Conclusions: This study suggests that low-sodium soups can be developed by the addition...

  13. Model reduction for controller design for infinite-dimensional systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opmeer, Mark Robertus


    The main aim of this thesis is, as the title suggests, the presentation of results on model reduction for controller design for infinite-dimensional systems. The obtained results are presented for both discrete-time systems and continuous-time systems. They are perfect generalizations of the

  14. Implementation and evaluation of a weight-reduction programme for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent studies suggest that there may be merit in using low-carbohydrate diets in diabetic patients for weight reduction and improved cardiovascular markers. This study aimed to implement and evaluate a pilot programme for weight loss in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients by comparing a low-carbohydrate diet with the ...

  15. Pathological findings in reduction mammoplasty specimens: A South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased prevalence of carcinoma of the breast in these women suggests that they may ultimately develop ... Pathological findings in reduction mammoplasty specimens: A South African perspective .... Indeed, 'The primary intent of mammoplasty is cosmetic, but it is a medical procedure, taking place in a medical ...

  16. Reduction of carbon monoxide. Past research summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, R.R.


    Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

  17. Patterns, correlates, and reduction of homework copying (United States)

    Palazzo, David J.; Lee, Young-Jin; Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.


    Submissions to an online homework tutor were analyzed to determine whether they were copied. The fraction of copied submissions increased rapidly over the semester, as each weekly deadline approached and for problems later in each assignment. The majority of students, who copied less than 10% of their problems, worked steadily over the three days prior to the deadline, whereas repetitive copiers (those who copied >30% of their submitted problems) exerted little effort early. Importantly, copying homework problems that require an analytic answer correlates with a 2(σ) decline over the semester in relative score for similar problems on exams but does not significantly correlate with the amount of conceptual learning as measured by pretesting and post-testing. An anonymous survey containing questions used in many previous studies of self-reported academic dishonesty showed ˜1/3 less copying than actually was detected. The observed patterns of copying, free response questions on the survey, and interview data suggest that time pressure on students who do not start their homework in a timely fashion is the proximate cause of copying. Several measures of initial ability in math or physics correlated with copying weakly or not at all. Changes in course format and instructional practices that previous self-reported academic dishonesty surveys and/or the observed copying patterns suggested would reduce copying have been accompanied by more than a factor of 4 reduction of copying from ˜11% of all electronic problems to less than 3%. As expected (since repetitive copiers have approximately three times the chance of failing), this was accompanied by a reduction in the overall course failure rate. Survey results indicate that students copy almost twice as much written homework as online homework and show that students nationally admit to more academic dishonesty than MIT students.

  18. Patterns, correlates, and reduction of homework copying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Palazzo


    Full Text Available Submissions to an online homework tutor were analyzed to determine whether they were copied. The fraction of copied submissions increased rapidly over the semester, as each weekly deadline approached and for problems later in each assignment. The majority of students, who copied less than 10% of their problems, worked steadily over the three days prior to the deadline, whereas repetitive copiers (those who copied >30% of their submitted problems exerted little effort early. Importantly, copying homework problems that require an analytic answer correlates with a 2(σ decline over the semester in relative score for similar problems on exams but does not significantly correlate with the amount of conceptual learning as measured by pretesting and post-testing. An anonymous survey containing questions used in many previous studies of self-reported academic dishonesty showed ∼1/3 less copying than actually was detected. The observed patterns of copying, free response questions on the survey, and interview data suggest that time pressure on students who do not start their homework in a timely fashion is the proximate cause of copying. Several measures of initial ability in math or physics correlated with copying weakly or not at all. Changes in course format and instructional practices that previous self-reported academic dishonesty surveys and/or the observed copying patterns suggested would reduce copying have been accompanied by more than a factor of 4 reduction of copying from ∼11% of all electronic problems to less than 3%. As expected (since repetitive copiers have approximately three times the chance of failing, this was accompanied by a reduction in the overall course failure rate. Survey results indicate that students copy almost twice as much written homework as online homework and show that students nationally admit to more academic dishonesty than MIT students.

  19. Memory Reduction via Delayed Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Holtmann


    Full Text Available We address a central (and classical issue in the theory of infinite games: the reduction of the memory size that is needed to implement winning strategies in regular infinite games (i.e., controllers that ensure correct behavior against actions of the environment, when the specification is a regular omega-language. We propose an approach which attacks this problem before the construction of a strategy, by first reducing the game graph that is obtained from the specification. For the cases of specifications represented by "request-response"-requirements and general "fairness" conditions, we show that an exponential gain in the size of memory is possible.

  20. Climate Change and Poverty Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Simon


    Climate change will make it increasingly difficult to achieve and sustain development goals. This is largely because climate effects on poverty remain poorly understood, and poverty reduction strategies do not adequately support climate resilience. Ensuring effective development in the face of climate change requires action on six fronts: investing in a stronger climate and poverty evidence base; applying the learning about development effectiveness to how we address adaptation needs; supporting nationally derived, integrated policies and programmes; including the climate-vulnerable poor in developing strategies; and identifying how mitigation strategies can also reduce poverty and enable adaptation.

  1. Exploring Paradigms of Crime Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens N.; Hussain, Azhar


    Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 25 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing...... on offenders with first-time convictions for shoplifting (n = 1,989), for burglary (n = 1,324) and for violence (n = 1,901), all four paradigms made a contribution to risk of first-time offending for all three crimes. The counter-factual analysis indicated that a focus on structural issues within a society may...

  2. Mesotherapy for local fat reduction. (United States)

    Jayasinghe, S; Guillot, T; Bissoon, L; Greenway, F


    Mesotherapy, which is the injection of substances locally into mesodermally derived subcutaneous tissue, developed from empirical observations of a French physician in the 1950s. Although popular in Europe for many medical purposes, it is used for local cosmetic fat reduction in the United States. This paper reviews manuscripts indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE under 'mesotherapy', which pertains to local fat reduction. The history of lipolytic mesotherapy, the physiology of body fat distribution, the mechanism of action of different lipolytic stimulators and their increased efficacy in combination are reviewed. Mesotherapy falls into two categories. Lipolytic mesotherapy using lipolytic stimulators requires more frequent treatments as the fat cells are not destroyed and can refill over time. Ablative mesotherapy destroys fat cells with a detergent, causes inflammation and scarring from the fat necrosis, but requires fewer treatments. The historic and empiric mixing of sodium channel blocking local anaesthetics in mesotherapy solutions inhibits the intended lipolysis. Major mesotherapy safety concerns include injection site infections from poor sterile technique. Cosmetic mesotherapy directs the area from which fat is lost to improve self-image. Studies were of relatively small number, many with limited sample sizes. Future research should be directed towards achieving a Food and Drug Administration indication rather than continuing expansion of off-label use. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  3. Chemical model reduction under uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Malpica Galassi, Riccardo


    A general strategy for analysis and reduction of uncertain chemical kinetic models is presented, and its utility is illustrated in the context of ignition of hydrocarbon fuel–air mixtures. The strategy is based on a deterministic analysis and reduction method which employs computational singular perturbation analysis to generate simplified kinetic mechanisms, starting from a detailed reference mechanism. We model uncertain quantities in the reference mechanism, namely the Arrhenius rate parameters, as random variables with prescribed uncertainty factors. We propagate this uncertainty to obtain the probability of inclusion of each reaction in the simplified mechanism. We propose probabilistic error measures to compare predictions from the uncertain reference and simplified models, based on the comparison of the uncertain dynamics of the state variables, where the mixture entropy is chosen as progress variable. We employ the construction for the simplification of an uncertain mechanism in an n-butane–air mixture homogeneous ignition case, where a 176-species, 1111-reactions detailed kinetic model for the oxidation of n-butane is used with uncertainty factors assigned to each Arrhenius rate pre-exponential coefficient. This illustration is employed to highlight the utility of the construction, and the performance of a family of simplified models produced depending on chosen thresholds on importance and marginal probabilities of the reactions.

  4. Do author-suggested reviewers rate submissions more favorably than editor-suggested reviewers? A study on atmospheric chemistry and physics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Bornmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ratings in journal peer review can be affected by sources of bias. The bias variable investigated here was the information on whether authors had suggested a possible reviewer for their manuscript, and whether the editor had taken up that suggestion or had chosen a reviewer that had not been suggested by the authors. Studies have shown that author-suggested reviewers rate manuscripts more favorably than editor-suggested reviewers do. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Reviewers' ratings on three evaluation criteria and the reviewers' final publication recommendations were available for 552 manuscripts (in total 1145 reviews that were submitted to Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, an interactive open access journal using public peer review (authors' and reviewers' comments are publicly exchanged. Public peer review is supposed to bring a new openness to the reviewing process that will enhance its objectivity. In the statistical analysis the quality of a manuscript was controlled for to prevent favorable reviewers' ratings from being attributable to quality instead of to the bias variable. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results agree with those from other studies that editor-suggested reviewers rated manuscripts between 30% and 42% less favorably than author-suggested reviewers. Against this backdrop journal editors should consider either doing without the use of author-suggested reviewers or, if they are used, bringing in more than one editor-suggested reviewer for the review process (so that the review by author-suggested reviewers can be put in perspective.

  5. Do author-suggested reviewers rate submissions more favorably than editor-suggested reviewers? A study on atmospheric chemistry and physics. (United States)

    Bornmann, Lutz; Daniel, Hans-Dieter


    Ratings in journal peer review can be affected by sources of bias. The bias variable investigated here was the information on whether authors had suggested a possible reviewer for their manuscript, and whether the editor had taken up that suggestion or had chosen a reviewer that had not been suggested by the authors. Studies have shown that author-suggested reviewers rate manuscripts more favorably than editor-suggested reviewers do. Reviewers' ratings on three evaluation criteria and the reviewers' final publication recommendations were available for 552 manuscripts (in total 1145 reviews) that were submitted to Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, an interactive open access journal using public peer review (authors' and reviewers' comments are publicly exchanged). Public peer review is supposed to bring a new openness to the reviewing process that will enhance its objectivity. In the statistical analysis the quality of a manuscript was controlled for to prevent favorable reviewers' ratings from being attributable to quality instead of to the bias variable. Our results agree with those from other studies that editor-suggested reviewers rated manuscripts between 30% and 42% less favorably than author-suggested reviewers. Against this backdrop journal editors should consider either doing without the use of author-suggested reviewers or, if they are used, bringing in more than one editor-suggested reviewer for the review process (so that the review by author-suggested reviewers can be put in perspective).

  6. U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.


    This NREL technical report determines a way for USVI to meet its petroleum reduction goal in the transportation sector. It does so first by estimating current petroleum use and key statistics and characteristics of USVI transportation. It then breaks the goal down into subordinate goals and estimates the petroleum impacts of these goals with a wedge analysis. These goals focus on reducing vehicle miles, improving fuel economy, improving traffic flow, using electric vehicles, using biodiesel and renewable diesel, and using 10% ethanol in gasoline. The final section of the report suggests specific projects to achieve the goals, and ranks the projects according to cost, petroleum reduction, time frame, and popularity.

  7. Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In FY 2016, 758 out of 3,308 hospitals subject to the HAC Reduction Program are in the worst performing quartile and will have a one percent payment reduction...

  8. Viscous drag reduction in boundary layers (United States)

    Bushnell, Dennis M. (Editor); Hefner, Jerry N. (Editor)


    The present volume discusses the development status of stability theory for laminar flow control design, applied aspects of laminar-flow technology, transition delays using compliant walls, the application of CFD to skin friction drag-reduction, active-wave control of boundary-layer transitions, and such passive turbulent-drag reduction methods as outer-layer manipulators and complex-curvature concepts. Also treated are such active turbulent drag-reduction technique applications as those pertinent to MHD flow drag reduction, as well as drag reduction in liquid boundary layers by gas injection, drag reduction by means of polymers and surfactants, drag reduction by particle addition, viscous drag reduction via surface mass injection, and interactive wall-turbulence control.

  9. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is an innovative method that for the first time uses the strong reductant carbon monoxide to both reduce iron...

  10. The Psychophysics of Cold Pressor Pain and Its Modification through Hypnotic Suggestion (United States)

    Hilgard, Ernest R.; And Others


    Earlier reports of the pain of putting hand and forearm in circulating ice water were recomputed to study how subjects scale that pain and to find appropriate measures of its reduction under hypnotic analgesia. (Editor)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff


    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman


    The Plains Co{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) activities have focused on developing information on deployment issues to support Task 5 activities by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) activities have focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) has included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) activities have focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff


    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  14. Drag Reduction of Bacterial Cellulose Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ogata


    Full Text Available Drag reduction due to bacterial cellulose suspensions with small environmental loading was investigated. Experiments were carried out by measuring the pressure drop in pipe flow. It was found that bacterial cellulose suspensions give rise to drag reduction in the turbulent flow range. We observed a maximum drag reduction ratio of 11% and found that it increased with the concentration of the bacterial cellulose suspension. However, the drag reduction effect decreased in the presence of mechanical shear.

  15. Methane emission reduction: an application of FUND


    Tol, R.S.J.; Heintz, R.J.; Lammers, P.E.M.


    Methane is, after carbon dioxide, the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Governments plan to abate methane emissions. A crude set of estimates of reduction costs is included in FUND, an integrated assessment model of climate change. In a cost-benefit analysis, methane emission reduction is found to be instrumental in controlling the optimal rate of climate change. In a cost-effectiveness analysis, methane emission reduction largely replaces carbon dioxide emission reduction. Methane...

  16. The Wisdom of Class-Size Reduction (United States)

    Graue, Elizabeth; Hatch, Kelly; Rao, Kalpana; Oen, Denise


    In this study, the authors explore the implementation of a statewide class-size reduction program in nine high-poverty schools. Through qualitative methods, they examined how schools used class-size reduction to change staffing patterns and instructional programs. Requiring changes in space allocation, class-size reduction was accomplished through…

  17. On Graph Rewriting, Reduction and Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zerny, Ian


    We inter-derive two prototypical styles of graph reduction: reduction machines à la Turner and graph rewriting systems à la Barendregt et al. To this end, we adapt Danvy et al.'s mechanical program derivations from the world of terms to the world of graphs. We also outline how to inter......-derive a third style of graph reduction: a graph evaluator....

  18. Identifying the Rhetoric of Uncertainty Reduction. (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    Offering a rhetorical perspective of uncertainty reduction, this paper (1) discusses uncertainty reduction theory and dramatism; (2) identifies rhetorical strategies inherent in C. W. Berger and R. J. Calabrese's theory; (3) extends predicted outcome value to influenced outcome value; and (4) argues that the goal of uncertainty reduction and…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    the reduction was mixed diffusion and kinetic controlled. The O2 reduction underwent ... Electrochemical energy conversion like fuel cells are most attractive technologies for efficiently storing the excess ... of the oxygen reduction reaction requires an expensive electrocatalyst like platinum. The high cost of platinum is the ...

  20. Contingent valuation of fuel hazard reduction treatments (United States)

    John B. Loomis; Armando Gonzalez-Caban


    This chapter presents a stated preference technique for estimating the public benefits of reducing wildfires to residents of California, Florida, and Montana from two alternative fuel reduction programs: prescribed burning, and mechanical fuels reduction. The two fuel reduction programs under study are quite relevant to people living in California, Florida, and...

  1. Identification and Addressing Reduction-Related Misconceptions (United States)

    Gal-Ezer, Judith; Trakhtenbrot, Mark


    Reduction is one of the key techniques used for problem-solving in computer science. In particular, in the theory of computation and complexity (TCC), mapping and polynomial reductions are used for analysis of decidability and computational complexity of problems, including the core concept of NP-completeness. Reduction is a highly abstract…

  2. The anaerobic degradation of organic matter in Danish coastal sediments: iron reduction, manganese reduction, and sulfate reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Thamdrup, B; Hansen, Jens Würgler


    We used a combination of porewater and solid phase analysis, as well as a series of sediment incubations, to quantify organic carbon oxidation by dissimilatory Fe reduction, Mn reduction, and sulfate reduction, in sediments from the Skagerrak (located off the northeast coast of Jutland, Denmark...... important than sulfate reduction. Most of the Mn reduction in these sediments may have been coupled to the oxidation of acid volatile sulfides (AVS), rather than to dissimilatory reduction. High rates of metal oxide reduction at all sites were driven by active recycling of both Fe and Mn, encouraged......2+ was completely removed onto fully oxidized Mn oxides until the oxidation level of the oxides was reduced to about 3.8, presumably reflecting the saturation by Mn2+ of highly reactive surface adsorption sites. Fully oxidized Mn oxides in sediments, then, may act as a cap preventing Mn2+ escape. We...

  3. Optimization of cosmetic preservation: water activity reduction. (United States)

    Kerdudo, A; Fontaine-Vive, F; Dingas, A; Faure, C; Fernandez, X


    Preservation of cosmetics is a prerequisite for industrialization, and among the proposed solutions, self-preserved cosmetics are of great interest. One key influencing parameter in self-preservation is water activity; its reduction can help to fight against microbial growth in cosmetic products. This work presents a study on the influence of humectants on water activity and its consequence on the preservation of cosmetic formulations. First, water-humectants mixtures were considered. The influence of glycol and glycerin content, glycol chemical structure, glycerin purity and formulation process on the water activity of the binary mixture was studied. Molecular modelling was performed for a better understanding of the impact of glycol chemistry. Then, the results were applied to five different cosmetic formulations to get optimized products. Challenge test on five strains was carried out in that sense. We showed that the higher the humectants concentration, the lower the water activity. Glycol chemical structure also influenced water activity: propan-1,2-diol was more efficient than propan-1,3-diol, certainly because of a better stabilization in water of propan-1,2-diol as shown by DFT calculation. A drop by drop introduction of glycol in water favoured aw reduction. The best water activity loss was 6.6% and was reached on the cream formulation whose preservation was improved as evidenced by challenge test. Fabrication process as well as humectants concentration were shown to influence water activity. The hydroxyl group positions as well as the presence of an alkyl group on the glycol carbon chain impacted water binding as suggested by DFT calculation. Reducing aw improved the preservation of a cosmetic cream, inhibiting or slowing down the growth of bacteria and fungi. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  4. Risk Reduction Technologies in General Practice and Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin Rexvid


    Full Text Available General practitioners (GPs and social workers (SWs are professions whose professional autonomy and discretion have changed in the so-called risk and audit society. The aim of this article is to compare GPs’ and SWs’ responses to Evidence-Based and Organizational Risk Reduction Technologies (ERRT and ORRT. It is based on a content analysis of 54 peer-reviewed empirical articles. The results show that both professions held ambivalent positions towards ERRT. The response towards ORRT differed in that GPs were sceptical whilst SWs took a more pragmatic view. Furthermore the results suggest that SWs might experience professional benefits by adopting an adherent approach to the increased dissemination of risk reduction technologies (RRT. GPs, however, did not seem to experience such benefits. Keywords: Profession, risk, social worker, general practitioner, risk reduction technologies, evidence-based practice/medicine 

  5. Application of system concept in vibration and noise reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHENG Meiping


    Full Text Available Although certain vibration and noise control technologies are maturing, such as vibration absorption, vibration isolation, sound absorption and sound insulation, and new methods for specific frequency bands or special environments have been proposed unceasingly, there is still no guarantee that practical effective vibration and noise reduction can be obtained. An important constraint for vibration and noise reduction is the lack of a system concept, and the integrity and relevance of such practical systems as ship structure have not obtained enough attention. We have tried to use the system engineering theory in guiding vibration and noise reduction, and have already achieved certain effects. Based on the system concept, the noise control of a petroleum pipeline production workshop has been completed satisfactorily, and the abnormal noise source identification of an airplane has been accomplished successfully. We want to share our experience and suggestions to promote the popularization of the system engineering theory in vibration and noise control.

  6. Dissimilatory Iron Reduction in Microorganisms Growing Near 100 C (United States)

    Feinberg, L.; Holden, J.


    Dissimilatory iron reduction for microbial energy-generation has been well studied in mesophilic bacteria, such as Geobacter and Shewanella, but has only recently been found in organisms that grow optimally above 80°C, namely hyperthermophilic archaea. Dissimilatory iron reduction at high temperatures is likely to be widespread in high-temperature, anoxic environments such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents and terrestrial hot springs. Understanding the physiological mechanisms of microbe-metal interactions will help us to interpret the interplay between microorganisms and their geochemical environment. Our studies sought to characterize iron reduction in members of the hyperthermophilic genus Pyrobaculum (Topt 100°C) and the constraints associated with it and alternative terminal electron accepting processes. P. aerophilum and P. islandicum grew on soluble (Fe(III) citrate) and insoluble (Fe(III) oxide hydroxide) forms of iron. In P. aerophilum, ferric reductase and nitrate reductase activities and nitrate reductase abundances varied in iron- and nitrate-grown cultures suggesting that dissimilatory iron and nitrate reduction are regulated. P. aerophilum grew on Fe(III) oxide hydroxide that was separated from the cells by a dialysis membrane (12,000-14,000 MWCO). This suggests that direct contact with insoluble iron was not necessary for growth and that the organism may use an extracellular mediator for iron reduction. A hydroquinone-like molecule (MW = 234 Da) was identified by LC-MS in spent medium from cultures grown on insoluble Fe(III) oxide hydroxide that was far less abundant in spent media with other electron acceptors. P. aerophilum produced c- type cytochromes but genome analyses showed that the organism lacks polyheme c-type cytochromes, which are required for iron reduction in Geobacter and Shewanella species. There were significant differences between Pyrobaculum species with respect to pH and reduction potential preference of the media, which may have

  7. Evaluating noise reduction techniques while considering anatomical noise in dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography. (United States)

    Allec, Nicholas; Abbaszadeh, Shiva; Scott, Chris C; Karim, Karim S; Lewin, John M


    The authors describe modifications to previously developed cascaded systems analysis to include the anatomical noise in evaluation of dual-energy noise reduction techniques. Previous models have ignored the anatomical noise in theoretical analysis of noise reduction techniques. The inclusion of anatomical noise leads to more accurate estimation of potential noise reduction improvements and optimization. The model is applied to dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography. The effect of linear noise reduction filters on the anatomical noise is taken into account using cascaded systems analysis. The noise model is included in the ideal observer detectability for performance evaluation of the noise reduction techniques. Dual-energy image noise with and without including the effect of anatomical noise in noise reduction technique analysis is reported. The theoretical model is compared with clinical images from a previous dual-energy contrast enhanced mammography clinical study and good agreement is observed. The results suggest that the inclusion of anatomical noise in the evaluation and comparison of noise reduction techniques is highly warranted for more accurate analysis. This work establishes a useful extension to dual-energy cascaded systems analysis for maximizing image quality using noise reduction techniques. The extension includes the effect of linear image filtering, such as that used for noise reduction, on anatomical noise. The results suggest that the inclusion of anatomical noise in the evaluation of noise reduction techniques can lead to more accurate optimization, noise, and performance estimations.

  8. Reduction of 4(5)-Methylimidazole Using Cookie Model Systems. (United States)

    Jung, Min-Chul; Kim, Mina K; Lee, Kwang-Geun


    The objective of this study was to determine the reduction of 4(5)-methylimidazole (4-MI) under various baking conditions. For 4-MI analysis, an analytical method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed. The developed method was validated with linearity (r2 > 0.999), recovery (101% to 103%, 3 levels), and precision (1.5% to 4.3%, 3 levels). Limits of detection and quantification were 18.5 and 56.0 μg/kg, respectively. This method was used to monitor the level of 4-MI in 11 commercial cookies, which ranged from 71.5 to 1254.8 μg/kg. Time and temperature were modified in the cookie model system to reduce 4-MI. The largest reduction in 4-MI (56%) was achieved by baking at 140 °C for 8 min; however the cookies baked at this condition were not well accepted by consumers. With combination of consumer liking test result, baking cookies at 140 °C for 16 min is optimal for 4-MI reduction (28% reduction), while it has minimal impact on consumer acceptance. A strong correlation (r2 = 0.9981) was found between caramel colorant and 4-MI in the cookie model system. A consumer awareness toward toxicity of 4-MI has been arising, and method to reduce the levels of 4-MI in food products are being developed in many studies. Yet, these reduction studies in food model systems only focused on use of food additives for 4-MI reduction. Current study investigated the use of process modification on 4-MI reduction in cookie, and suggested that baking cookies longer at lower temperature, in turn, reduces the levels of 4-MI in cookies without compromising consumer acceptance. Finding from current study can practically aid bakery industry to ensure safety of bakery products without affecting consumer likings. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. The Role of Non-farm Household Enterprises in Poverty Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. In this paper we consider the role that household enterprises play in Rwanda in terms of poverty reduction, employment creation and economic growth. We argue that household enterprises play a significant role in poverty reduction and providing non-farm employment. We suggest that household enterprises ...

  10. The Role of Non-farm Household Enterprises in Poverty Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we consider the role that household enterprises play in Rwanda in terms of poverty reduction, employment creation and economic growth. We argue that household enterprises play a significant role in poverty reduction and providing non-farm employment. We suggest that household enterprises range from ...

  11. Posterior dental size reduction in hominids: the Atapuerca evidence. (United States)

    Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Nicolas, M E


    In order to reassess previous hypotheses concerning dental size reduction of the posterior teeth during Pleistocene human evolution, current fossil dental evidence is examined. This evidence includes the large sample of hominid teeth found in recent excavations (1984-1993) in the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene cave site of the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain). The lower fourth premolars and molars of the Atapuerca hominids, probably older than 300 Kyr, have dimensions similar to those of modern humans. Further, these hominids share the derived state of other features of the posterior teeth with modern humans, such as a similar relative molar size and frequent absence of the hypoconulid, thus suggesting a possible case of parallelism. We believe that dietary changes allowed size reduction of the posterior teeth during the Middle Pleistocene, and the present evidence suggests that the selective pressures that operated on the size variability of these teeth were less restrictive than what is assumed by previous models of dental reduction. Thus, the causal relationship between tooth size decrease and changes in food-preparation techniques during the Pleistocene should be reconsidered. Moreover, the present evidence indicates that the differential reduction of the molars cannot be explained in terms of restriction of available growth space. The molar crown area measurements of a modern human sample were also investigated. The results of this study, as well as previous similar analyses, suggest that a decrease of the rate of cell proliferation, which affected the later-forming crown regions to a greater extent, may be the biological process responsible for the general and differential dental size reduction that occurred during human evolution.

  12. Advances in Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction with Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsun Nahar


    Full Text Available In recent years, the increasing level of CO2 in the atmosphere has not only contributed to global warming but has also triggered considerable interest in photocatalytic reduction of CO2. The reduction of CO2 with H2O using sunlight is an innovative way to solve the current growing environmental challenges. This paper reviews the basic principles of photocatalysis and photocatalytic CO2 reduction, discusses the measures of the photocatalytic efficiency and summarizes current advances in the exploration of this technology using different types of semiconductor photocatalysts, such as TiO2 and modified TiO2, layered-perovskite Ag/ALa4Ti4O15 (A = Ca, Ba, Sr, ferroelectric LiNbO3, and plasmonic photocatalysts. Visible light harvesting, novel plasmonic photocatalysts offer potential solutions for some of the main drawbacks in this reduction process. Effective plasmonic photocatalysts that have shown reduction activities towards CO2 with H2O are highlighted here. Although this technology is still at an embryonic stage, further studies with standard theoretical and comprehensive format are suggested to develop photocatalysts with high production rates and selectivity. Based on the collected results, the immense prospects and opportunities that exist in this technique are also reviewed here.

  13. Tidal pumping facilitates dissimilatory nitrate reduction in intertidal marshes. (United States)

    Zheng, Yanling; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Liu, Zhanfei; Li, Xiaofei; Lin, Xianbiao; Yin, Guoyu; Gao, Juan; Yu, Chendi; Wang, Rong; Jiang, Xiaofen


    Intertidal marshes are alternately exposed and submerged due to periodic ebb and flood tides. The tidal cycle is important in controlling the biogeochemical processes of these ecosystems. Intertidal sediments are important hotspots of dissimilatory nitrate reduction and interacting nitrogen cycling microorganisms, but the effect of tides on dissimilatory nitrate reduction, including denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, remains unexplored in these habitats. Here, we use isotope-tracing and molecular approaches simultaneously to show that both nitrate-reduction activities and associated functional bacterial abundances are enhanced at the sediment-tidal water interface and at the tide-induced groundwater fluctuating layer. This pattern suggests that tidal pumping may sustain dissimilatory nitrate reduction in intertidal zones. The tidal effect is supported further by nutrient profiles, fluctuations in nitrogen components over flood-ebb tidal cycles, and tidal simulation experiments. This study demonstrates the importance of tides in regulating the dynamics of dissimilatory nitrate-reducing pathways and thus provides new insights into the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and other elements in intertidal marshes.

  14. Advances in Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction with Water: A Review (United States)

    Nahar, Samsun; Zain, M. F. M.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Hasan, Hassimi Abu; Hasan, Md. Riad


    In recent years, the increasing level of CO2 in the atmosphere has not only contributed to global warming but has also triggered considerable interest in photocatalytic reduction of CO2. The reduction of CO2 with H2O using sunlight is an innovative way to solve the current growing environmental challenges. This paper reviews the basic principles of photocatalysis and photocatalytic CO2 reduction, discusses the measures of the photocatalytic efficiency and summarizes current advances in the exploration of this technology using different types of semiconductor photocatalysts, such as TiO2 and modified TiO2, layered-perovskite Ag/ALa4Ti4O15 (A = Ca, Ba, Sr), ferroelectric LiNbO3, and plasmonic photocatalysts. Visible light harvesting, novel plasmonic photocatalysts offer potential solutions for some of the main drawbacks in this reduction process. Effective plasmonic photocatalysts that have shown reduction activities towards CO2 with H2O are highlighted here. Although this technology is still at an embryonic stage, further studies with standard theoretical and comprehensive format are suggested to develop photocatalysts with high production rates and selectivity. Based on the collected results, the immense prospects and opportunities that exist in this technique are also reviewed here. PMID:28772988

  15. Sonographically guided hydrostatic reduction of childhood intussusception using Hartmann's solution. (United States)

    Peh, W C; Khong, P L; Chan, K L; Lam, C; Cheng, W; Lam, W W; Mya, G H; Saing, H; Leong, L L; Low, L C


    hydrostatic reduction was unsuccessful had ileocolic intussusception. Of six ileoileocolic intussusceptions, one was hydrostatically reduced and a second was converted into an ileoileal intussusception before requiring surgery. The other four intussusceptions were surgically treated. Our data suggest that sonographically guided hydrostatic reduction with Hartmann's solution can be used to treat ileocolic intussusception and to diagnose ileoileocolic intussusception.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Lisa S. Botnen


    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership characterization work is nearing completion, and most remaining efforts are related to finalizing work products. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) has developed a Topical Report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region''. Task 3 (Public Outreach) has developed an informational Public Television program entitled ''Nature in the Balance'', about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The program was completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in this quarter. Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) efforts are nearing completion, and data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation are being incorporated into a series of topical reports. The expansion of the Decision Support System Geographic Information System database has continued with the development of a ''save bookmark'' feature that allows users to save a map from the system easily. A feature that allows users to develop a report that summarizes CO{sub 2} sequestration parameters was also developed. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options and developing economic estimates for important regional CO{sub 2} sequestration strategies.

  17. NOx reduction methods and apparatuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkyn, Russell G.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Balmer, M. Lou; Maupin, Gary D.


    A NO.sub.x reduction method includes treating a first gas containing NO.sub.x, producing a second gas containing NO.sub.2, reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the second gas to N.sub.2, and producing a third gas containing less NO.sub.x than the first gas, substantially all of the third gas NO.sub.x being NO. The method also includes treating the third gas, producing a fourth gas containing NO.sub.2, reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the fourth gas to N.sub.2, and producing a fifth gas containing less NO.sub.x than the third gas, substantially all of the fifth gas NO.sub.x being NO. Treating the first and/or third gas can include treatment with a plasma. Reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the second and/or fourth gas can include reducing with a catalyst. The method can further include controlling energy consumption of the plasmas independent of each other.

  18. Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity suggest therapeutic implications in SCN2A-related disorders. (United States)

    Wolff, Markus; Johannesen, Katrine M; Hedrich, Ulrike B S; Masnada, Silvia; Rubboli, Guido; Gardella, Elena; Lesca, Gaetan; Ville, Dorothée; Milh, Mathieu; Villard, Laurent; Afenjar, Alexandra; Chantot-Bastaraud, Sandra; Mignot, Cyril; Lardennois, Caroline; Nava, Caroline; Schwarz, Niklas; Gérard, Marion; Perrin, Laurence; Doummar, Diane; Auvin, Stéphane; Miranda, Maria J; Hempel, Maja; Brilstra, Eva; Knoers, Nine; Verbeek, Nienke; van Kempen, Marjan; Braun, Kees P; Mancini, Grazia; Biskup, Saskia; Hörtnagel, Konstanze; Döcker, Miriam; Bast, Thomas; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Wong-Kisiel, Lily; Baumeister, Friedrich M; Fazeli, Walid; Striano, Pasquale; Dilena, Robertino; Fontana, Elena; Zara, Federico; Kurlemann, Gerhard; Klepper, Joerg; Thoene, Jess G; Arndt, Daniel H; Deconinck, Nicolas; Schmitt-Mechelke, Thomas; Maier, Oliver; Muhle, Hiltrud; Wical, Beverly; Finetti, Claudio; Brückner, Reinhard; Pietz, Joachim; Golla, Günther; Jillella, Dinesh; Linnet, Karen M; Charles, Perrine; Moog, Ute; Õiglane-Shlik, Eve; Mantovani, John F; Park, Kristen; Deprez, Marie; Lederer, Damien; Mary, Sandrine; Scalais, Emmanuel; Selim, Laila; Van Coster, Rudy; Lagae, Lieven; Nikanorova, Marina; Hjalgrim, Helle; Korenke, G Christoph; Trivisano, Marina; Specchio, Nicola; Ceulemans, Berten; Dorn, Thomas; Helbig, Katherine L; Hardies, Katia; Stamberger, Hannah; de Jonghe, Peter; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Lemke, Johannes R; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Helbig, Ingo; Kluger, Gerhard; Lerche, Holger; Møller, Rikke S


    Mutations in SCN2A, a gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.2, have been associated with a spectrum of epilepsies and neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we report the phenotypes of 71 patients and review 130 previously reported patients. We found that (i) encephalopathies with infantile/childhood onset epilepsies (≥3 months of age) occur almost as often as those with an early infantile onset (<3 months), and are thus more frequent than previously reported; (ii) distinct phenotypes can be seen within the late onset group, including myoclonic-atonic epilepsy (two patients), Lennox-Gastaut not emerging from West syndrome (two patients), and focal epilepsies with an electrical status epilepticus during slow sleep-like EEG pattern (six patients); and (iii) West syndrome constitutes a common phenotype with a major recurring mutation (p.Arg853Gln: two new and four previously reported children). Other known phenotypes include Ohtahara syndrome, epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures, and intellectual disability or autism without epilepsy. To assess the response to antiepileptic therapy, we retrospectively reviewed the treatment regimen and the course of the epilepsy in 66 patients for which well-documented medical information was available. We find that the use of sodium channel blockers was often associated with clinically relevant seizure reduction or seizure freedom in children with early infantile epilepsies (<3 months), whereas other antiepileptic drugs were less effective. In contrast, sodium channel blockers were rarely effective in epilepsies with later onset (≥3 months) and sometimes induced seizure worsening. Regarding the genetic findings, truncating mutations were exclusively seen in patients with late onset epilepsies and lack of response to sodium channel blockers. Functional characterization of four selected missense mutations using whole cell patch-clamping in tsA201 cells-together with data from the literature-suggest that

  19. 28 CFR 345.73 - Procedures for granting awards for suggestions or inventions. (United States)


    ... suggestions or inventions. 345.73 Section 345.73 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC... for granting awards for suggestions or inventions. Inmate suggestions for improvements in operations... the SOI. (b) The SOI shall ensure that all inmate suggestions and/or inventions formally submitted are...

  20. Perchlorate and chlorate reduction by the Crenarchaeon Aeropyrum pernix and two thermophilic Firmicutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebensteiner, M.G.; Pinkse, M.W.H.; Nijsse, B.; Verhaert, P.D.E.M.; Tsesmetzis, N.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lomans, B.P.


    This study reports the ability of one hyperthermophilic and two thermophilic microorganisms to grow anaerobically by the reduction of chlorate and perchlorate. Physiological, genomic and proteome analyses suggest that the Crenarchaeon Aeropyrum pernix reduces perchlorate with a periplasmic enzyme

  1. Combined effect of chilling and desiccation on survival of Escherichia coli suggests a transient loss of culturability. (United States)

    Mellefont, L A; Kocharunchitt, C; Ross, T


    Dry air carcass chilling regimes used in some Australian meat works, which not only rapidly reduce the temperature of the carcasses but also dry the meat surface initially, are reported to cause reductions in the number of Escherichia coli present on carcasses after processing. This study used a laboratory broth model system to systematically investigate the basis of such reductions by simulating chilling and desiccation profiles observed on carcasses separately and, finally, in combination. Observed growth was compared to the predictions generated by a strain-specific modification of a validated E. coli growth model (Mellefont et al., 2003; Performance evaluation of a model describing the effects of temperature, water activity, pH and lactic acid concentration on the growth of E. coli). Good agreement between observed and predicted growth was evident when chilling or desiccation profiles were simulated individually. However, when chilling and desiccation profiles were applied simultaneously the observed population kinetics deviated from those predicted by the model. An initial reduction in cell numbers, not predicted by the model, was observed followed by an anomalously rapid increase in population density before growth resumed at a rate expected for the conditions imposed. From our analysis of the kinetics of the population changes, we suggest that the initial decrease in cell numbers was unlikely due to cell death, because conditions were growth permissive. Considering all possible explanations from the observed population kinetics, we propose that a temporary loss of the ability to produce colonies on agar plates may occur. These results may explain reports of increases in E. coli numbers two to three days after commencement of chilling, compared to those observed after 16-24h, despite the imposition of growth-preventing temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.


    The duration that saltstone retains its ability to immobilize some key radionuclides, such as technetium (Tc), plutonium (Pu), and neptunium (Np), depends on its capacity to maintain a low redox status (or low oxidation state). The reduction capacity is a measure of the mass of reductants present in the saltstone; the reductants are the active ingredients that immobilize Tc, Pu, and Np. Once reductants are exhausted, the saltstone loses its ability to immobilize these radionuclides. The reduction capacity values reported here are based on the Ce(IV)/Fe(II) system. The Portland cement (198 {micro}eq/g) and especially the fly ash (299 {micro}eq/g) had a measurable amount of reduction capacity, but the blast furnace slag (820 {micro}eq/g) not surprisingly accounted for most of the reduction capacity. The blast furnace slag contains ferrous iron and sulfides which are strong reducing and precipitating species for a large number of solids. Three saltstone samples containing 45% slag or one sample containing 90% slag had essentially the same reduction capacity as pure slag. There appears to be some critical concentration between 10% and 45% slag in the Saltstone formulation that is needed to create the maximum reduction capacity. Values from this work supported those previously reported, namely that the reduction capacity of SRS saltstone is about 820 {micro}eq/g; this value is recommended for estimating the longevity that the Saltstone Disposal Facility will retain its ability to immobilize radionuclides.

  3. Electronmicroscopic examination of white cell reduction by four white cell-reduction filters. (United States)

    Steneker, I; van Luyn, M J; van Wachem, P B; Biewenga, J


    The mechanisms of white cell (WBC) reduction in 16-hour-old CPDA-1 red cell (RBC) concentrates by filtration on a column filter and on three different flatbed filters were studied by electron microscopy, with special emphasis on cell-to-cell interaction, cell damage, and interaction of blood cells with the material. Generally, lymphocytes were removed by mechanical sieving and monocytes by adherence and mechanical sieving. Granulocyte depletion occurred by mechanical sieving, direct adhesion to the fibers, and indirect adhesion to activated and spread platelets. In the column filter, most granulocytes were captured by adhesion. In the coarse layers of two of the flatbed filters, indirect adhesion was most prominent, whereas direct adhesion was most prominent in the other flatbed filter. For the most part, granulocytes were captured by direct adhesion in the fine layers, but in one flatbed filter, capture apparently occurred by mechanical sieving. The results of this study suggest that the efficiency and the mechanism of WBC reduction depend on the physicochemical characteristics of the non-woven materials in the filters as well as the cellular composition of the RBC concentrates.

  4. Implications of geoengineering under the 1.5 °C target: Analysis and policy suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen


    Full Text Available The Paris Agreement introduced a 1.5 °C target to control the rise in global temperature, but clear arrangements for feasible implementation pathways were not made. Achieving the 1.5 °C target imposes high requirements on global emission reduction. Nationally Determined Contributions of all Parties are far from the 1.5 °C target, and conventional emission reduction technologies and policies will also have difficulty in fulfilling this task. In this context, geoengineering is gaining interest in the international arena. The Paris Agreement includes afforestation, carbon capture, utilization and storage, and negative emission technologies such as bio-energy with carbon capture and store. All of these techniques are CO2 removal technologies that belong to geoengineering. Solar radiation management, which is highly controversial, has also attracted increased attention in recent years. Although the outline of the IPCC Special Report on 1.5 °C does not include a specific section on geoengineering issues yet, geoengineering is an unconventional technical option that cannot be avoided in research and discussions on impact assessment, technical options, ethics, and international governance under the 1.5 °C target. On the basis of analyzing and discussing abovementioned issues, this paper proposes several policy suggestions for China to strengthen research on and response to geoengineering.

  5. Nicotine Reduction Revisited: Science and Future Directions (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Perkins, Kenneth A.; LeSage, Mark G.; Ashley, David L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Backinger, Cathy; Zeller, Mitch


    Regulation of nicotine levels in cigarettes and other tobacco products is now possible with the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA) in 2009 giving the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate tobacco products, and with Articles 9-11 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.[1-2] Both regulatory approaches allow establishing product standards for tobacco constituents, including nicotine. The FSPTCA does not allow nicotine levels to be decreased to zero, although FDA has the authority to reduce nicotine yields to very low, presumably non-addicting levels. The proposal to reduce levels of nicotine to a level that is non-addicting was originally suggested in 1994.[3] Reduction of nicotine in tobacco products could potentially have a profound impact on reducing tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. To examine this issue, two meetings were convened in the United States with non-tobacco-industry scientists of varied disciplines, tobacco control policy-makers and representatives of government agencies. This article provides an overview of the current science in the area of reduced nicotine content cigarettes and key conclusions and recommendations for research and policy that emerged from the deliberations of the meeting members. PMID:20876072

  6. Reduction en masse of inguinal hernia: MDCT findings of two cases. (United States)

    Hoshiai, S; Mori, K; Shiigai, M; Uchikawa, Y; Watanebe, A; Shiotani, S; Atake, S; Minami, M


    Reduction en masse of inguinal hernia is an extremely rare complication arising from manual reduction of a hernia. The hernial content remaining in the hernia sac returns above the inguinal canal but remains in the abdominal wall. Accurate preoperative diagnosis of reduction en masse of inguinal hernia is challenging because the hernia appears to be reduced upon physical examination. We experienced two cases of reduction en masse. In both cases, multidetector row computed tomography revealed a closed loop obstruction near the inguinal fossa. In addition, we observed a continuous tract of the hernia sac to the inguinal canal and prominent peritoneal thickening suggestive of the hernia sac.

  7. Bacterial manganese reduction and growth with manganese oxide as the sole electron acceptor (United States)

    Myers, Charles R.; Nealson, Kenneth H.


    Microbes that couple growth to the reduction of manganese could play an important role in the biogeochemistry of certain anaerobic environments. Such a bacterium, Alteromonas putrefaciens MR-1, couples its growth to the reduction of manganese oxides only under anaerobic conditions. The characteristics of this reduction are consistent with a biological, and not an indirect chemical, reduction of manganese, which suggest that this bacterium uses manganic oxide as a terminal electron acceptor. It can also utilize a large number of other compounds as terminal electron acceptors; this versatility could provide a distinct advantage in environments where electron-acceptor concentrations may vary.

  8. Mechanism of C-F reductive elimination from palladium(IV) fluorides. (United States)

    Furuya, Takeru; Benitez, Diego; Tkatchouk, Ekaterina; Strom, Alexandra E; Tang, Pingping; Goddard, William A; Ritter, Tobias


    The first systematic mechanism study of C-F reductive elimination from a transition metal complex is described. C-F bond formation from three different Pd(IV) fluoride complexes was mechanistically evaluated. The experimental data suggest that reductive elimination occurs from cationic Pd(IV) fluoride complexes via a dissociative mechanism. The ancillary pyridyl-sulfonamide ligand plays a crucial role for C-F reductive elimination, likely due to a kappa(3) coordination mode, in which an oxygen atom of the sulfonyl group coordinates to Pd. The pyridyl-sulfonamide can support Pd(IV) and has the appropriate geometry and electronic structure to induce reductive elimination.

  9. Mechanism of C–F Reductive Elimination from Palladium(IV) Fluorides (United States)

    Furuya, Takeru; Benitez, Diego; Tkatchouk, Ekaterina; Strom, Alexandra E.; Tang, Pingping; Goddard, William A.; Ritter, Tobias


    The first systematic mechanism study of C–F reductive elimination from a transition metal complex is described. C–F bond formation from three different Pd(IV) fluoride complexes was mechanistically evaluated. The experimental data suggest that reductive elimination occurs from cationic Pd(IV) fluoride complexes via a dissociative mechanism. The ancillary pyridyl-sulfonamide ligand plays a crucial role for C–F reductive elimination, likely due to a κ3 coordination mode, in which an oxygen atom of the sulfonyl group coordinates to Pd. The pyridyl-sulfonamide can support Pd(IV) and has the appropriate geometry and electronic structure to induce reductive elimination. PMID:20196595

  10. Foreign Direct Investment And Poverty Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magombeyi Mercy. T.


    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed survey of the literature on the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI on poverty reduction, outlining the theoretical and empirical relationship between these variables. Although a number of studies have been done on the impact of FDI on poverty reduction, the majority of these studies have focused on the indirect impact of FDI on poverty reduction. The bulk of the literature reviewed supports the positive effects of foreign direct investment on poverty reduction, although a few studies have also found foreign direct investment to have an adverse or insignificant effect on poverty reduction. This study differs fundamentally from previous studies in that it focuses on the direct impact of FDI on poverty reduction, giving a detailed review of the nature of this relationship.

  11. Transient reduction of tinnitus intensity is marked by concomitant reductions of delta band power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisz Nathan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus is an auditory phantom phenomenon characterized by the sensation of sounds without objectively identifiable sound sources. To date, its causes are not well understood. Previous research found altered patterns of spontaneous brain activity in chronic tinnitus sufferers compared to healthy controls, yet it is unknown whether these abnormal oscillatory patterns are causally related to the tinnitus sensation. Partial support for this notion comes from a neurofeedback approach developed by our group, in which significant reductions in tinnitus loudness could be achieved in patients who successfully normalized their patterns of spontaneous brain activity. The current work attempts to complement these studies by scrutinizing how modulations of tinnitus intensity alter ongoing oscillatory activity. Results In the present study the relation between tinnitus sensation and spontaneous brain activity was investigated using residual inhibition (RI to reduce tinnitus intensity and source-space projected magnetencephalographic (MEG data to index brain activity. RI is the sustained reduction (criteria: 50% for at least 30 s in tinnitus loudness after cessation of a tonal tinnitus masker. A pilot study (n = 38 identified 10 patients who showed RI. A significant reduction of power in the delta (1.3–4.0 Hz frequency band was observed in temporal regions during RI (p ≤ 0.001. Conclusion The current results suggest that changes of tinnitus intensity induced by RI are mediated by alterations in the pathological patterns of spontaneous brain activity, specifically a reduction of delta activity. Delta activity is a characteristic oscillatory activity generated by deafferented/deprived neuronal networks. This implies that RI effects might reflect the transient reestablishment of balance between excitatory and inhibitory neuronal assemblies, via reafferentation, that have been perturbed (in most tinnitus individuals by hearing damage. As

  12. Observations by a University Anatomy Teacher and a Suggestion for Curricular Change: Integrative Anatomy for Undergraduates (United States)

    Darda, David M.


    The observation that anatomical course offerings have decreased in undergraduate biology curricula is supported by a survey of undergraduate institutions in the state of Washington. This reduction, due partially to increased emphasis in other areas of the biology curriculum, along with the lack of anatomy prerequisites for admission to most…

  13. Harm reduction principles for healthcare settings. (United States)

    Hawk, Mary; Coulter, Robert W S; Egan, James E; Fisk, Stuart; Reuel Friedman, M; Tula, Monique; Kinsky, Suzanne


    Harm reduction refers to interventions aimed at reducing the negative effects of health behaviors without necessarily extinguishing the problematic health behaviors completely. The vast majority of the harm reduction literature focuses on the harms of drug use and on specific harm reduction strategies, such as syringe exchange, rather than on the harm reduction philosophy as a whole. Given that a harm reduction approach can address other risk behaviors that often occur alongside drug use and that harm reduction principles have been applied to harms such as sex work, eating disorders, and tobacco use, a natural evolution of the harm reduction philosophy is to extend it to other health risk behaviors and to a broader healthcare audience. Building on the extant literature, we used data from in-depth qualitative interviews with 23 patients and 17 staff members from an HIV clinic in the USA to describe harm reduction principles for use in healthcare settings. We defined six principles of harm reduction and generalized them for use in healthcare settings with patients beyond those who use illicit substances. The principles include humanism, pragmatism, individualism, autonomy, incrementalism, and accountability without termination. For each of these principles, we present a definition, a description of how healthcare providers can deliver interventions informed by the principle, and examples of how each principle may be applied in the healthcare setting. This paper is one of the firsts to provide a comprehensive set of principles for universal harm reduction as a conceptual approach for healthcare provision. Applying harm reduction principles in healthcare settings may improve clinical care outcomes given that the quality of the provider-patient relationship is known to impact health outcomes and treatment adherence. Harm reduction can be a universal precaution applied to all individuals regardless of their disclosure of negative health behaviors, given that health


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.


    This is the first of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. This paper examines the circumstances and consequences of the elimination of The INF-range Pershing II ballistic missile and Gryphon Ground-Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM), deployed by NATO under a dual-track strategy to counter Soviet intermediate-range missiles while pursuing negotiations to limit or eliminate all of these missiles. The Short-Range Attack Missile (SRAM), which was actually a family of missiles including SRAM A, SRAM B (never deployed), and SRAM II and SRAM T, these last two cancelled during an over-budget/behind-schedule development phase as part of the Presidential Nuclear Initiatives of 1991 and 1992. The nuclear-armed version of the Tomahawk Land-Attack Cruise Missile (TLAM/N), first limited to shore-based storage by the PNIs, and finally eliminated in deliberations surrounding the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review Report. The Missile-X (MX), or Peacekeeper, a heavy MIRVed ICBM, deployed in fixed silos, rather than in an originally proposed mobile mode. Peacekeeper was likely intended as a bargaining chip to facilitate elimination of Russian heavy missiles. The plan failed when START II did not enter into force, and the missiles were eliminated at the end of their intended service life. The Small ICBM (SICBM), or Midgetman, a road-mobile, single-warhead missile for

  15. Designing building energy efficiency programs for greenhouse gas reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackhurst, Michael, E-mail: [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1752, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lima Azevedo, Ines, E-mail: [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Scott Matthews, H., E-mail: [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Hendrickson, Chris T., E-mail: [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)


    Costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. The analysis includes electricity and natural gas consumption, covering 75% of building energy consumption in Pittsburgh and 85% in Austin. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings, and GHG reductions. Results suggest uncertainty in local stocks, demands, and efficiency significantly impacts anticipated outcomes. Annual GHG reductions of 1 ton CO{sub 2} eq/capita/yr in Pittsburgh could cost near nothing or over $20 per capita annually. Capital-constrained policies generate slightly less social savings (a present value of a few hundred dollars per capita) than policies that maximize social savings. However, sectors and end uses targeted for intervention vary depending on policy objectives and constraints. Optimal efficiency investment strategies for some end uses vary significantly (in excess of 100%) between Pittsburgh and Austin, suggesting that resources and guidance conducted at the national scale may mislead state and local decision-makers. Results are used to provide recommendations for efficiency program administrators. - Highlights: > We use public data to estimate local building energy costs, benefits and greenhouse gas reductions. > We use optimization to evaluate trade-offs between program objectives and capital constraints. > Local energy market conditions significantly influence efficiency expectations. > Different program objectives can lead to different effective investment strategies. > We reflect on the implications of our results for efficiency program design.

  16. First Class Call Stacks: Exploring Head Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Johnson-Freyd


    Full Text Available Weak-head normalization is inconsistent with functional extensionality in the call-by-name λ-calculus. We explore this problem from a new angle via the conflict between extensionality and effects. Leveraging ideas from work on the λ-calculus with control, we derive and justify alternative operational semantics and a sequence of abstract machines for performing head reduction. Head reduction avoids the problems with weak-head reduction and extensionality, while our operational semantics and associated abstract machines show us how to retain weak-head reduction's ease of implementation.

  17. System model reduction for MBS optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavřel J.


    Full Text Available A disadvantage of optimization of flexible multibody systems (MBS is a computing time, mainly for large systems, especially designed by FEM. The computing time rises with the complexity of the model significantly. A reduction techniques allow decreasing of degrees of freedom and it contributes to the reduction of the computing time. These techniques can be used for the reduction from thousands and more degrees of freedom to tens, but some limits exist. A reduction degree (ratio between number of DOFs before and after the reduction is the most important feature because it predicts the final accuracy of the model. The next one is the selection of master and slave degrees of freedom that play an important role in connecting all bodies together within the MBS (e.g. by joints. There are many reduction methods, but they differ in available accuracy, speed, efficiency and suitability for the same reduction degree. A dimension of the original system is decisive for the reduction method suitability, many methods require an inversion matrix from the part of the stiffness matrix. The inversion matrix are than largeand the computing time grows up. This paper deals with the reduction techniques, their disadvantages, suitability and applicability.

  18. Some lessons from relativistic reduction models

    CERN Document Server

    Ghirardi, Gian Carlo


    We reconsider some recently proposed relativistic dynamical reduction models and we point out the new conceptual picture about reduction processes that they impose on our considerations. Ignoring the specific technical difficulties of such generalizations we show that the just mentioned picture fits perfectly the natural ontology of the dynamical reduction program and yields a consistent description of macro-objectification in a relativistic and nonlocal context. We consider recent criticisms of the relativistic dynamical reduction program and we show that they are inappropriate, the reason being that they derive from serious misunderstandings of some technical and conceptual points of the theory. (53 refs).

  19. Can suggestion obviate reading? Supplementing primary Stroop evidence with exploratory negative priming analyses. (United States)

    Raz, Amir; Campbell, Natasha K J


    Using the Stroop paradigm, we have previously shown that a specific suggestion can remove or reduce involuntary conflict and alter information processing in highly suggestible individuals (HSIs). In the present study, we carefully matched less suggestible individuals (LSIs) to HSIs on a number of factors. We hypothesized that suggestion would influence HSIs more than LSIs and reduce the Stroop effect in the former group. As well, we conducted secondary post hoc analyses to examine negative priming (NP) - the apparent disruption of the response to a previously-ignored item. Our present findings indicate that suggestion reduces Stroop effects in HSIs. Secondary analyses show that LSIs had an NP effect at baseline (i.e., without suggestion) and that suggestion influenced the NP condition. Thus, at least in this experimental context, suggestion seems to dampen a deeply-engrained and largely automatic process - reading - by wielding a larger influence on HSIs relative to comparable LSIs. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ploidy reductions in murine fusion-derived hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Duncan


    Full Text Available We previously showed that fusion between hepatocytes lacking a crucial liver enzyme, fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH, and wild-type blood cells resulted in hepatocyte reprogramming. FAH expression was restored in hybrid hepatocytes and, upon in vivo expansion, ameliorated the effects of FAH deficiency. Here, we show that fusion-derived polyploid hepatocytes can undergo ploidy reductions to generate daughter cells with one-half chromosomal content. Fusion hybrids are, by definition, at least tetraploid. We demonstrate reduction to diploid chromosome content by multiple methods. First, cytogenetic analysis of fusion-derived hepatocytes reveals a population of diploid cells. Secondly, we demonstrate marker segregation using ss-galactosidase and the Y-chromosome. Approximately 2-5% of fusion-derived FAH-positive nodules were negative for one or more markers, as expected during ploidy reduction. Next, using a reporter system in which ss-galactosidase is expressed exclusively in fusion-derived hepatocytes, we identify a subpopulation of diploid cells expressing ss-galactosidase and FAH. Finally, we track marker segregation specifically in fusion-derived hepatocytes with diploid DNA content. Hemizygous markers were lost by >or=50% of Fah-positive cells. Since fusion-derived hepatocytes are minimally tetraploid, the existence of diploid hepatocytes demonstrates that fusion-derived cells can undergo ploidy reduction. Moreover, the high degree of marker loss in diploid daughter cells suggests that chromosomes/markers are lost in a non-random fashion. Thus, we propose that ploidy reductions lead to the generation of genetically diverse daughter cells with about 50% reduction in nuclear content. The generation of such daughter cells increases liver diversity, which may increase the likelihood of oncogenesis.

  1. [Harm reduction strategy in tobacco control]. (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe


    Potentially reduced exposure products (PREPs), already sold in USA and in some European Countries, are low-nitrosamine cigarettes, low-nitrosamine smokeless tobacco (e.g., the Swedish Snus), cigarette-like products, and medicinal nicotine products. Even e-cigarette delivers nicotine. With the exception of snus and medicinal nicotine, studies on the health effects of PREPs have not been carried out, although some PREPs are already sold and promoted as products that effectively reduce health risks. Thus, a second disaster similar to that occurred for light cigarettes could happen in the next years. Only medicinal nicotine and snus could be valid candidates to become PREPs, even if they pose some significant health risks. The World Health Organization, following a precautionary approach, has recently published a list of 9 carcinogens or toxicants recommended for mandated lowering (the tobacco-specific nitrosamines NNN and NNK, acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, benzo[a]pyrene, 1-3 butadiene, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde), and 9 carcinogens or toxicants for monitoring in usual cigarettes (not PREPs), underlining that tobacco companies cannot use this reduction strategy as a promotional message, as it occurred for light cigarettes in the 70s and 80s. The present status quo, in which cigarettes are freely available, medicinal nicotine, being a drug, is available under a regulated market, and Snus is prohibited, actually denies smokers the right to choose safer nicotine products. The solution suggested by the UK Royal College of Physicians is to balance the nicotine market, framing tobacco products and medicinal nicotine in the same regulation system; establishing a nicotine and tobacco regulatory authority;making medicinal nicotine more available; evaluating the feasibility of the introduction in the English market of Swedish Snus. California Government remarks that the nicotine maintenance is not a valid strategy, because it could induce smokers not to try to quit

  2. Limiting Factors for Microbial Fe(III)-Reduction In a Landfill Leachate Polluted Aquifer (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Heron, Gorm; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    Aquifer sediment samples from two locations within the anaerobic leachate plume of a municipal landfill were compared with respect to microbiology (especially Fe(III)-reduction) and geochemistry. The samples close to the landfill were characterized by low contents of Fe(III), whereas samples from...... to the composition of PLFA. Very little, if any, Fe(III)-reduction was observed close to the landfill, but all the more distant samples showed evident microbially mediated Fe(III)-reduction. After amendment with both acetate and Fe(III), all the samples showed a potential for Fe(III)-reduction, and the in situ Fe(III)-reduction...... seemed to be limited by the lack of Fe(III)-availability. It was suggested, that Fe(III)-reducing populations might be facultative, surviving by use of other electron-acceptors than Fe(III), when Fe(II1) is not available for reduction....

  3. Interrogative Suggestibility among Adolescent Boys and Its Relationship with Intelligence, Memory, and Cognitive Set. (United States)

    Singh, Krishna K.; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.


    Investigated hypotheses generated by Gudjonsson and Clark model of interrogative suggestibility. Adolescent boys (n=40) completed Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale and measures of intellectual skills, memory, field-dependence, hostility, and attitudes toward persons in authority. Suggestibility correlated negatively with intelligence quotient and…

  4. Denoising and dimensionality reduction of genomic data (United States)

    Capobianco, Enrico


    Genomics represents a challenging research field for many quantitative scientists, and recently a vast variety of statistical techniques and machine learning algorithms have been proposed and inspired by cross-disciplinary work with computational and systems biologists. In genomic applications, the researcher deals with noisy and complex high-dimensional feature spaces; a wealth of genes whose expression levels are experimentally measured, can often be observed for just a few time points, thus limiting the available samples. This unbalanced combination suggests that it might be hard for standard statistical inference techniques to come up with good general solutions, likewise for machine learning algorithms to avoid heavy computational work. Thus, one naturally turns to two major aspects of the problem: sparsity and intrinsic dimensionality. These two aspects are studied in this paper, where for both denoising and dimensionality reduction, a very efficient technique, i.e., Independent Component Analysis, is used. The numerical results are very promising, and lead to a very good quality of gene feature selection, due to the signal separation power enabled by the decomposition technique. We investigate how the use of replicates can improve these results, and deal with noise through a stabilization strategy which combines the estimated components and extracts the most informative biological information from them. Exploiting the inherent level of sparsity is a key issue in genetic regulatory networks, where the connectivity matrix needs to account for the real links among genes and discard many redundancies. Most experimental evidence suggests that real gene-gene connections represent indeed a subset of what is usually mapped onto either a huge gene vector or a typically dense and highly structured network. Inferring gene network connectivity from the expression levels represents a challenging inverse problem that is at present stimulating key research in biomedical

  5. Cigarette price minimization strategies in the United States: price reductions and responsiveness to excise taxes. (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Licht, Andrea S; Kruger, Judy M


    Because cigarette price minimization strategies can provide substantial price reductions for individuals continuing their usual smoking behaviors following federal and state cigarette excise tax increases, we examined independent price reductions compensating for overlapping strategies. The possible availability of larger independent price reduction opportunities in states with higher cigarette excise taxes is explored. Regression analysis used the 2006-2007 Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey (N = 26,826) to explore national and state-level independent price reductions that smokers obtained from purchasing cigarettes (a) by the carton, (b) in a state with a lower average after-tax cigarette price than in the state of residence, and (c) in "some other way," including online or in another country. Price reductions from these strategies are estimated jointly to compensate for known overlapping strategies. Each strategy reduced the price of cigarettes by 64-94 cents per pack. These price reductions are 9%-22% lower than conventionally estimated results not compensating for overlapping strategies. Price reductions vary substantially by state. Following cigarette excise tax increases, the price reduction available from purchasing cigarettes by cartons increased. Additionally, the price reduction from purchasing cigarettes in a state with a lower average after-tax cigarette price is positively associated with state cigarette excise tax rates and border state cigarette excise tax rate differentials. Findings from this large, nationally representative study of cigarette smokers suggest that price reductions are larger in states with higher cigarette excise taxes, and increase as cigarette excise taxes rise.

  6. Variation among pathologists’ treatment suggestions for melanocytic lesions: a survey of pathologists (United States)

    Lee, Kachiu C.; Peacock, Sue; Weinstock, Martin A.; Zhao, Ge Alice; Knezevich, Stevan R.; Elder, David E.; Barnhill, Raymond L.; Piepkorn, Michael W.; Reisch, Lisa M.; Carney, Patricia A.; Onega, Tracy; Lott, Jason P.; Elmore, Joann G.


    Background The extent of variability in treatment suggestions for melanocytic lesions made by pathologists is unknown. Objective We investigated how often pathologists rendered suggestions, reasons for providing suggestions, and concordance with national guidelines. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of pathologists. Data included physician characteristics, experience, treatment recommendation practices. Results Of 301 pathologists, 207 (69%) from 10 states (CA, CT, HI, IA, KY, LA, NJ, NM, UT, WA), enrolled. Fifteen percent and 7% reported never and always including suggestions, respectively. Reasons for offering suggestions included improved care (79%), clarification (68%), and legal liability (39%). Reasons for not offering suggestions included referring physician preference (48%), lack of clinical information (44%), and expertise (29%). Training and caseload were associated with offering suggestions (p<0.05). Physician suggestions were most consistent for mild/moderate dysplastic nevi and melanoma. For melanoma in-situ, 18 (9%) and 32 (15%) pathologists made suggestions that under- or over-treated lesions based on NCCN guidelines, respectively. For invasive melanoma, 14 (7%) of pathologists made treatment suggestions that under-treated lesions based on NCCN guidelines. Limitations Treatment suggestions were self-reported. Conclusions Pathologists made recommendations ranging in consistency. These findings may inform efforts to reduce treatment variability and optimize patterns of care delivery for patients. PMID:27692732

  7. Identifying the management barriers for establishing suggestions system: A case study of educational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Nouri


    Full Text Available Suggestions system is one of the new cooperative management plans, which affects making good decisions, self-confidence and employees occupational approval. The aim of this research is to survey the barriers for establishment of suggestion system. The proposed study designs and distributes a questionnaire among 195 out of 26550 managers who work for educational system in city of Kermanshah, Iran. The primary purpose of this survey is to learn whether lack of accepting any risk on behalf of management team, conflict of interest in management style, lack of belief on suggestions system in an organization are important barriers of executing suggestions system in an organization or not. The results of Freedman test confirm all seven components of the hypothesis. As a result, lack of accepting risk among management team is number one barrier in having suggestion system followed by existing conflict between management style and suggestions system and lack of management's belief to suggestions system, weakness in education for suggestions system and fear in management disruption because of having suggestions system. The other barriers coming in the last priority in terms of their relative importance include lack of management's support to suggestions system and weakness in management position because of accepting suggestions system.

  8. Effects of dissimilatory sulfate reduction on FeIII (hydr)oxide reduction and microbial community development (United States)

    Kwon, Man Jae; Boyanov, Maxim I.; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Brulc, Jennifer M.; Johnston, Eric R.; Skinner, Kelly A.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; O'Loughlin, Edward J.


    Although dissimilatory iron and sulfate reduction (DIR and DSR) profoundly affect the biogeochemical cycling of C, Fe, and S in subsurface systems, the dynamics of DIR and DSR in the presence of both FeIII (hydr)oxides and sulfate have not been well-studied with mixed microbial populations. This study examined the response of native microbial communities in subsurface sediment from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Rifle, CO to the availability of sulfate and specific FeIII (hydr)oxide minerals in experimental systems containing lactate as the electron donor, with ferrihydrite, goethite, or lepidocrocite and high (10.2 mM) or low (0.2 mM) sulfate as electron acceptors. We observed rapid fermentation of lactate to acetate and propionate. FeIII reduction was slow and limited in the presence of low-sulfate, but the extent of FeIII reduction increased more than 10 times with high-sulfate amendments. Furthermore, the extent of FeIII reduction was higher in ferrihydrite or lepidocrocite incubations than in goethite incubations. Propionate produced during fermentation of lactate was used as the electron donor for DSR. The concurrence of sulfate reduction and FeII production suggests that FeII production was driven primarily by reduction of FeIII by biogenic sulfide. X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis confirmed the formation of ferrous sulfide and the presence of O-coordinated ferrous species. 16S rRNA-based microbial community analysis revealed the development of distinct communities with different FeIII (hydr)oxides. These results highlight the highly coupled nature of C, Fe, and S biogeochemical cycles during DIR and DSR and provide new insight into the effects of electron donor utilization, sulfate concentration, and the presence of specific FeIII (hydr)oxide phases on microbial community development.

  9. The effects of current-concern- and nonconcern-related waking suggestions on nocturnal dream content. (United States)

    Nikles, C D; Brecht, D L; Klinger, E; Bursell, A L


    In previous research, presleep suggestions influenced nocturnal dream content. It was hypothesized that suggesting topics associated with participants' current concerns would influence dream content more than suggesting other topics. Ten students spent 4 nights in a sleep laboratory: an adaptation night, a baseline night, and 2 nights under suggestions to dream about a concern-related or other topic. Concern-related suggestions influenced dream content--largely its central imagery--more than did other suggestions, which did not differ from nonsuggestion. Number of transformations within dreams was uncorrelated with dream vividness, contrary to extended activation-synthesis theory. Thus, the concern-related status of suggestions moderates their effectiveness and, inconsistent with extended activation-synthesis theory but consistent with current-concerns and distributed-activation theories, motivational and volitional processes actively influence dream content.

  10. Growth and poverty reduction in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Demery, Lionel; McKay, Andy

    . The household survey data documents a limited reduction in consumption poverty over the period, and what poverty reduction there has been has mostly occurred in Dar es Salaam. Indicators of non-monetary poverty have gradually improved over the past 20 years but significant differences across the country remain....

  11. Partial Order Reduction for Probabilistic Branching Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baier, Christel; d' Argenio, P.R.; Größer, Marcus


    In the past, partial order reduction has been used successfully to combat the state explosion problem in the context of model checking for non-probabilistic systems. For both linear time and branching time specifications, methods have been developed to apply partial order reduction in the context of

  12. An algorithm for reduct cardinality minimization

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.


    This is devoted to the consideration of a new algorithm for reduct cardinality minimization. This algorithm transforms the initial table to a decision table of a special kind, simplify this table, and use a dynamic programming algorithm to finish the construction of an optimal reduct. Results of computer experiments with decision tables from UCI ML Repository are discussed. © 2013 IEEE.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    We present in this paper a method for evaluating explicitly the contribution of nuclear material accountability upgrades to risk reduction at nuclear facilities. The method yields the same types of values for conditional risk reduction that physical protection and material control upgrades yield. Thereby, potential material accountability upgrades can be evaluated for implementation in the same way that protection and control upgrades are evaluated.

  14. Spontaneous Dimensional Reduction in Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Carlip, S


    Hints from a number of different approaches to quantum gravity point to a phenomenon of "spontaneous dimensional reduction" to two spacetime dimensions near the Planck scale. I examine the physical meaning of the term "dimension" in this context, summarize the evidence for dimensional reduction, and discuss possible physical explanations.

  15. On Graph Rewriting, Reduction and Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zerny, Ian


    We inter-derive two prototypical styles of graph reduction: reduction machines à la Turner and graph rewriting systems à la Barendregt. To this end, we adapt Danvy et al.'s mechanical program derivations from the world of terms to the world of graphs. We also inter-derive a graph evaluator....

  16. Handling Biological Complexity Using Kron Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayawardhana, Bayu; Rao, Shodhan; Sikkema, Ward; Bakker, Barbara; Camlibel, Kanat; Julius, Agung; Pasumarthy, Ramkrishna; Scherpen, Jacquelien


    We revisit a model reduction method for detailed-balanced chemical reaction networks based on Kron reduction on the graph of complexes. The resulting reduced model preserves a number of important properties of the original model, such as, the kinetics law and identity of the chemical species. For

  17. Iodine retention during evaporative volume reduction (United States)

    Godbee, H.W.; Cathers, G.I.; Blanco, R.E.


    An improved method for retaining radioactive iodine in aqueous waste solutions during volume reduction is disclosed. The method applies to evaporative volume reduction processes whereby the decontaminated (evaporated) water can be returned safely to the environment. The method generally comprises isotopically diluting the waste solution with a nonradioactive iodide and maintaining the solution at a high pH during evaporation.

  18. Methane emission reduction: an application of FUND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, R.S.J.; Heintz, R.J.; Lammers, P.E.M.


    Methane is, after carbon dioxide, the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Governments plan to abate methane emissions. A crude set of estimates of reduction costs is included in FUND, an integrated assessment model of climate change. In a cost-benefit analysis, methane emission reduction is

  19. Reduction of soil erosion on forest roads (United States)

    Edward R. Burroughs; John G. King


    Presents the expected reduction in surface erosion from selected treatments applied to forest road traveledways, cutslopes, fillslopes, and ditches. Estimated erosion reduction is expressed as functions of ground cover, slope gradient, and soil properties whenever possible. A procedure is provided to select rock riprap size for protection of the road ditch.

  20. Electrochemical and photoelectrochemical reduction of furfurals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung-Shin; Roylance, John James; Kubota, Stephen R.


    Electrochemical cells and photoelectrochemical cells for the reduction of furfurals are provided. Also provided are methods of using the cells to carry out the reduction reactions. Using the cells and methods, furfurals can be converted into furan alcohols or linear ketones.

  1. Wind Load Reduction in Hollow Panel Arrayed Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalina Markousi


    Full Text Available Reducing the wind loading of photovoltaic structures is crucial for their structural stability. In this study, two solar panel arrayed sets were numerically tested for load reduction purposes. All panel surface areas of the arrayed set are exposed to the wind similarly. The first set was comprised of conventional panels. The second one was fitted with square holes located right at the gravity center of each panel. Wind flow analysis on standalone arrayed set of panels at fixed inclination was carried out to calculate the wind loads at various flow velocities and directions. The panels which included holes reduced the velocity in the downwind flow region and extended the low velocity flow region when compared to the nonhole panels. The loading reduction, in the arrayed set of panels with holes ranged from 0.8% to 12.53%. The maximum load reduction occurred at 6.0 m/s upwind velocity and 120.0° approach angle. At 30.00 approach angle, wind load increased but marginally. Current research work findings suggest that the panel holes greatly affect the flow pattern and subsequently the wind load reduction. The computational analysis indicates that it is possible to considerably reduce the wind loading using panels with holes.

  2. Sulfur-Driven Iron Reduction Coupled to Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation. (United States)

    Bao, Peng; Li, Guo-Xiang


    A new biogeochemical pathway has been suggested to be present in terrestrial ecosystems, linking the nitrogen and iron cycles via ferric iron reduction coupled to anaerobic ammonium oxidation. However, the underlying microbiological process has not been demonstrated to date. Here we report a stable consortium, HJ-4, composed of Anaerospora hongkongensis (85%) and facultative anaerobe, Comamonadaceae (15%), which can process ferrihydrite reduction coupled to anaerobic ammonium oxidation driven by sulfur redox cycling. In this process, A. hongkongensis reduces elemental sulfur, sulfite, and polysulfides to sulfide, which fuels ferrihydrite reduction. Sulfide, elemental sulfur, sulfite, and polysulfides serve as electron shuttles, completing the sulfur cycle between A. hongkongensis and ferrihydrite. In addition, Comamonadaceae shows ammonium oxidation potential under aerobic conditions, with nitrite as the main product. We inferred that Comamonadaceae mediates simultaneous nitrification-denitrification coupled to iron redox cycling through nitrate/nitrite-dependent ferrous oxidation under anaerobic conditions. Hence, we discovered a novel pathway for ferric iron reduction coupled to ammonium oxidation, highlighting the key role of electron shuttles and nitrate/nitrite-dependent ferrous oxidation in this process. The biogeochemical cycling of sulfur, iron, and nitrogen could be coupled in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.

  3. Salt intake, plasma sodium, and worldwide salt reduction. (United States)

    He, Feng J; Macgregor, Graham A


    There is overwhelming evidence that a reduction in salt intake from the current level of approximately 9-12 g/d in most countries of the world to the recommended level of 5-6 g/d lowers blood pressure (BP) in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals. A further reduction to 3-4 g/d has a greater effect. Prospective studies and outcome trials have demonstrated that a lower salt intake is related to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Cost-effectiveness analyses have documented that salt reduction is more or at the very least just as cost-effective as tobacco control in reducing cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The mechanisms whereby salt raises blood pressure and increases cardiovascular risk are not fully understood. The existing concepts focus on the tendency for an increase in extracellular fluid volume. Increasing evidence suggests that small increases in plasma sodium may have a direct effect on BP and the cardiovascular system, independent of extracellular volume. All countries should adopt a coherent and workable strategy to reduce salt intake in the whole population. Even a modest reduction in population salt intake will have major beneficial effects on health, along with major cost savings.

  4. Kinetics of cyanogen chloride destruction by chemical reduction methods. (United States)

    Shang, Chii; Qi, Yinan; Xie, Li; Liu, Wei; Yang, Xin


    In this study, membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) was applied to evaluate the kinetics of cyanogen chloride (ClCN) destruction by chemical reduction methods, using thiosulfate, sulfite, metabisulfite, ferrous ions and zero-valent iron at various concentrations and pH. The ClCN destruction followed second-order reaction kinetics in all cases of using sulfur compounds, though the second-order rate constants varied substantially from approximately 0.3-25.7 M(-1)s(-1) under different experimental conditions. The destruction of ClCN was primarily attributable to the chemical reduction pathway. Hydroxide-assisted ClCN hydrolysis was only significant at pH 9 and also when the observed reduction rate was relatively slow. The second-order rate constants achieved by sulfur(IV) compounds in the form of sulfite were found to be higher than those obtained with thiosulfate and S(IV) compounds in the form of bisulfite. Ferrous ions and zero-valent iron demonstrated slow or no ClCN reduction up to dosages of 1000 mgL(-1) and 100 gL(-1), respectively. These findings suggest that applying moderately high dosages of S(IV) compounds under neutral or alkali conditions with sufficient contact time is required for wastewater ClCN destruction. In addition, ClCN losses during long-term preservation with excess reducing sulfur compounds prior to analysis can be substantial and should be avoided.

  5. Fluidic Injection for Jet Noise Reduction (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda


    Investigations into fluidic injection for jet noise reduction began over 50 years ago. Studies have included water and air injection for the reduction of noise in scale model jets and jet engines and water injection for the reduction of excess overpressures on the Space Shuttle at lift-off. Injection systems have included high pressure microjets as well as larger scale injectors operating at pressures that can be achieved in real jet engines. An historical perspective highlighting noise reduction potential is presented for injection concepts investigated over the last 50 years. Results from recent investigations conducted at NASA are presented for supersonic and subsonic dual-stream jets. The noise reduction benefits achieved through fluidic contouring using an azimuthally controlled nozzle will be discussed.

  6. Bosch - An alternate CO2 reduction technology (United States)

    Heppner, D. B.; Hallick, T. M.; Clark, D. C.; Quattrone, P. D.


    The Bosch process is the most promising CO2 reduction concept for future prolonged space missions. The paper presents the design of a three-person-capacity preprototype B-CRS (Bosch-based CO2 Reduction Subsystem). It is sized to reduce 3.0 kg/d CO2 generated by the crew and to supply the product water to an O2 generation subsystem to obtain O2. The design supports future development of the B-CRS as an alternative CO2 reduction subsystem to the Sabatier-based process presently under test at NASA. The discussion covers the Bosch CO2 reduction concept, process and hardware description, performance parameters, design specifications, subsystem schematic and operation, mechanical subsystem summary, control/monitor instrumentation, and subsystem packaging. A B-CRS with a proven technological base is an attractive CO2 reduction subsystem that eliminates overboard venting.

  7. Magnitudes of biomarker reductions in response to controlled reductions in cigarettes smoked per day: a one-week clinical confinement study. (United States)

    Theophilus, Eugenia H; Coggins, Christopher R E; Chen, Peter; Schmidt, Eckhardt; Borgerding, Michael F


    Tobacco toxicant-related exposure reduction is an important tool in harm reduction. Cigarette per day reduction (CPDR) occurs as smokers migrate from smoking cigarettes to using alternative tobacco/nicotine products, or quit smoking. Few reports characterize the dose-response relationships between CPDR and effects on exposure biomarkers, especially at the low end of CPD exposure (e.g., 5 CPD). We present data on CPDR by characterizing magnitudes of biomarker reductions. We present data from a well-controlled, one-week clinical confinement study in healthy smokers who were switched from smoking 19-25 CPD to smoking 20, 10, 5 or 0 CPD. Biomarkers were measured in blood, plasma, urine, and breath, and included smoke-related toxicants, urine mutagenicity, smoked cigarette filter analyses (mouth level exposure), and vital signs. Many of the biomarkers (e.g., plasma nicotine) showed strong CPDR dose-response reductions, while others (e.g., plasma thiocyanate) showed weaker dose-response reductions. Factors that lead to lower biomarker reductions include non-CPD related contributors to the measured response (e.g., other exposure sources from environment, life style, occupation; inter-individual variability). This study confirms CPDR dose-responsive biomarkers and suggests that a one-week design is appropriate for characterizing exposure reductions when smokers switch from cigarettes to new tobacco products. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal temperature gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to warming

    KAUST Repository

    Sawall, Yvonne


    Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12° latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5°N, 21-27°C) and southern (16.5°N, 28-33°C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29°C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals.

  9. Clinical, instrumental, serological and histological findings suggest that hemophilia B may be less severe than hemophilia A. (United States)

    Melchiorre, Daniela; Linari, Silvia; Manetti, Mirko; Romano, Eloisa; Sofi, Francesco; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Carulli, Christian; Innocenti, Massimo; Ibba-Manneschi, Lidia; Castaman, Giancarlo


    Recent evidence suggests that patients with severe hemophilia B may have a less severe disease compared to severe hemophilia A. To investigate clinical, radiological, laboratory and histological differences in the arthropathy of severe hemophilia A and hemophilia B, 70 patients with hemophilia A and 35 with hemophilia B with at least one joint bleeding were consecutively enrolled. Joint bleedings (50), regimen of treatment (prophylaxis/on demand), World Federation of Hemophilia, Pettersson and ultrasound scores, serum soluble RANK ligand and osteoprotegerin were assessed in all patients. RANK, RANK ligand and osteoprotegerin expression was evaluated in synovial tissue from 18 hemophilia A and 4 hemophilia B patients. The percentage of patients with either 10-50 or more than 50 hemarthrosis was greater in hemophilia A than in hemophilia B (Phemophilia B (PHemophilia (36.6 vs. 20.2; Phemophilia A patients. Serum osteoprotegerin and soluble RANK ligand were decreased in hemophilia A versus hemophilia B (Phemophilia A patients. In conclusion, the reduced number of hemarthrosis, the lower World Federation of Hemophilia and ultrasound scores, and higher osteoprotegerin expression in serum and synovial tissue in hemophilia B suggest that hemophilia B is a less severe disease than hemophilia A. Osteoprotegerin reduction seems to play a pivotal role in the progression of arthropathy in hemophilia A. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  10. A New Approach to Contextual Suggestions Based on Word2Vec (United States)


    A New Approach to Contextual Suggestions Based on Word2Vec Yongqiang Chen1, Zhenjun Tang 1, Xiaozhao Zhao 1, D.Song1,2,P.Zhang1,2 Tianjin Key...model according the users’ personal preference. Keywords: Contextual Suggestions, Word2Vec ,user model 1 Introduction The contextual suggestion tracktrac [2...attractions and user contexts in the continuous vector space learnt by neural network language models (NNML [1])as input layer. We use word2vec [3] to

  11. Olivine anisotropy suggests Gutenberg discontinuity is not the base of the lithosphere


    Hansen, Lars N.; Qi, Chao; Warren, Jessica M.


    Although plate tectonics has seen broad acceptance for Earth, the manner in which lithospheric plates are coupled to Earth’s deeper interior is still heavily debated. In particular, recent seismological observations suggest a sharp, flat base of the lithosphere, whereas thermal models suggest a gradational boundary that deepens with age. Based on laboratory experiments, we suggest that thermal models are most appropriate and that seismic studies are detecting features frozen into the lithosph...

  12. Nitrate Reduction in an Unconfined Sandy Aquifer: Water Chemistry, Reduction Processes, and Geochemical Modeling (United States)

    Postma, Dieke; Boesen, Carsten; Kristiansen, Henning; Larsen, Flemming


    Nitrate distribution and reduction processes were investigated in an unconfined sandy aquifer of Quaternary age. Ground water chemistry was studied in a series of eight multilevel samplers along a flow line, deriving water from both arable and forested land. Results show that plumes of nitrate-contaminated groundwater emanate from the agricultural areas and spread through the aquifer. The aquifer can be subdivided into an upper 10- to 15-m thick oxic zone that contains O2 and NO3-, and a lower anoxic zone characterized by Fe2+-rich waters. The redox boundary is very sharp, which suggests that reduction processes of O2 and NO3- occur at rates that are fast compared to the rate of downward water transport. Nitrate-contaminated groundwater contains total contents of dissolved ions that are two to four times higher than in groundwater derived from the forested area. The persistence of the high content of total dissolved ions in the NO3--free anoxic zone indicates the downward migration of contaminants and that active nitrate reduction is taking place. Nitrate is apparently reduced to N2 because both nitrite and ammonia are absent or found at very low concentrations. Possible electron donors in the reduced zone of the aquifer are organic matter, present as reworked brown coal fragments from the underlying Miocene, and small amounts of pyrite at an average concentration of 3.6 mmol/kg. Electron balances across the redoxcline, based on concentrations of O2, NO3-, SO42- and total inorganic carbon (TIC), indicate that pyrite is by far the dominant electron donor even though organic matter is much more abundant. Groundwater transport and chemical reactions were modeled using the code PHREEQM, which combines a chemical equilibrium model with a one-dimensional mixing cell transport model. Only the vertical component of the water transport was modeled since, in contrast to rates along flow lines, the vertical rates are close to constant as required by the one-dimensional model

  13. Suggestions for Teaching the Principles of Continental Drift in the Elementary School (United States)

    Glenn, William H.


    Provides a brief overview of current geographic ideas regarding continental drift and plate tectonics and suggests techniques for illustrating continental motions to elementary school pupils. (Author/DB)

  14. The Role of Suggestions in Hypnosis for Chronic Pain: A Review of the Literature (United States)

    Dillworth, Tiara; Jensen, Mark P.


    Several controlled trials have demonstrated that hypnosis is an efficacious treatment for chronic pain. However, less attention has been given to the specific procedures and suggestions used in hypnotic treatments in research. The goal of this review was to address the issue of differences in the content of hypnotic suggestions, including pain management suggestions, non-pain related suggestions, and posthypnotic suggestions, in the context of published clinical trials of hypnosis for chronic pain management. This review focused on the types of suggestions used in twenty five studies comparing hypnosis to active treatments (e.g., relaxation, biofeedback), non-treatment control groups (e.g., standard care/wait-list control, supportive attention), or both in adult populations with various chronic pain conditions. Overall, these studies found hypnosis to be more effective than non-treatment control groups and similarly effective when compared to active treatments on pain-related outcomes when either pain-related suggestions or non-pain related suggestions were used. However, for studies that included both pain-specific and non-pain related suggestions, hypnosis was found to be superior to active treatments on a variety of pain-related outcomes. PMID:21686037


    The paper describes retrofitting and testing a 590 kW (2 MBtu/hr), oil-fired, three-pass, fire-tube package boiler with a combined selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The system demonstrated 85% nitrogen oxides (NOx) reduction w...

  16. The non-enzymatic reduction of azo dyes by flavin and nicotinamide cofactors under varying conditions. (United States)

    Morrison, Jessica M; John, Gilbert H


    Azo dyes are ubiquitous in products and often become environmental pollutants due to their anthropogenic nature. Azoreductases are enzymes which are present within many bacteria and are capable of breaking down the azo dyes via reduction of the azo bond. Often, though, carcinogenic aromatic amines are formed as metabolites and are of concern to humans. Azoreductases function via an oxidation-reduction reaction and require cofactors (a nicotinamide cofactor and sometimes a flavin cofactor) to perform their function. Non-enzymatic reduction of azo dyes in the absence of an azoreductase enzyme has been suggested in previous studies, but has never been studied in detail in terms of varying cofactor combinations, different oxygen states or pHs, nor has the enzymatic reduction been compared to azoreduction in terms of dye reduction or metabolites produced, which was the aim of this study. Reduction of azo dyes by different cofactor combinations was found to occur under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and under physiologically-relevant pHs to produce the same metabolites as an azoreductase. Our results show that, in some cases, the non-enzymatic reduction by the cofactors was found to be equal to that seen with the azoreductase, suggesting that all dye reduction in these cases is due to the cofactors themselves. This study details the importance of the use of a cofactor-only control when studying azoreductase enzymes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. NASA's Subsonic Jet Transport Noise Reduction Research (United States)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Preisser, John S.


    Although new jet transport airplanes in today s fleet are considerably quieter than the first jet transports introduced about 40 years ago, airport community noise continues to be an important environmental issue. NASA s Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) Noise Reduction program was begun in 1994 as a seven-year effort to develop technology to reduce jet transport noise 10 dB relative to 1992 technology. This program provides for reductions in engine source noise, improvements in nacelle acoustic treatments, reductions in the noise generated by the airframe, and improvements in the way airplanes are operated in the airport environs. These noise reduction efforts will terminate at the end of 2001 and it appears that the objective will be met. However, because of an anticipated 3-8% growth in passenger and cargo operations well into the 21st Century and the slow introduction of new the noise reduction technology into the fleet, world aircraft noise impact will remain essentially constant until about 2020 to 2030 and thereafter begin to rise. Therefore NASA has begun planning with the Federal Aviation Administration, industry, universities and environmental interest groups in the USA for a new noise reduction initiative to provide technology for significant further reductions.


    Denenholz, Edward J.; Feher, George. S.


    Barium enema reduction was used as the initial routine treatment in 29 infants with intussusception. In 22 of them the intussusception was reduced by this means. In three of eight patients operated upon the intussusception was found to be reduced. Four of the remaining five patients had clinical or x-ray evidence of complications before reduction by barium enema was attempted. Twenty-one of the patients, all of whom were observed in private practice, were treated without admission to the hospital. After reduction, these patients were observed closely by the clinician. None of these patients showed clinical or x-ray signs of complications before reduction. Certain clinical and roentgen criteria must be satisfied before it can be concluded that reduction by barium enema is complete. If there are clinical signs of complications with x-ray evidence of small bowel obstruction, only a very cautious attempt at hydrostatic reduction should be made. As the time factor is generally a reliable clinical guide to reducibility, the late cases should be viewed with greater caution. Long duration of symptoms, however, is not per se a contraindication to an attempt at hydrostatic reduction. PMID:13230908

  19. Responsible and controlled use: Older cannabis users and harm reduction. (United States)

    Lau, Nicholas; Sales, Paloma; Averill, Sheigla; Murphy, Fiona; Sato, Sye-Ok; Murphy, Sheigla


    Cannabis use is becoming more accepted in mainstream society. In this paper, we use Zinberg's classic theoretical framework of drug, set, and setting to elucidate how older adult cannabis users managed health, social and legal risks in a context of normalized cannabis use. We present selected findings from our qualitative study of Baby Boomer (born 1946-1964) cannabis users in the San Francisco Bay Area. Data collection consisted of a recorded, in-depth life history interview followed by a questionnaire and health survey. Qualitative interviews were analyzed to discover the factors of cannabis harm reduction from the users' perspectives. Interviewees made harm reduction choices based on preferred cannabis derivatives and routes of administration, as well as why, when, where, and with whom to use. Most interviewees minimized cannabis-related harms so they could maintain social functioning in their everyday lives. Responsible and controlled use was described as moderation of quantity and frequency of cannabis used, using in appropriate settings, and respect for non-users. Users contributed to the normalization of cannabis use through normification. Participants followed rituals or cultural practices, characterized by sanctions that helped define "normal" or "acceptable" cannabis use. Users contributed to cannabis normalization through their harm reduction methods. These cultural practices may prove to be more effective than formal legal prohibitions in reducing cannabis-related harms. Findings also suggest that users with access to a regulated market (medical cannabis dispensaries) were better equipped to practice harm reduction. More research is needed on both cannabis culture and alternative routes of administration as harm reduction methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Responsible and controlled use: Older cannabis users and harm reduction (United States)

    Lau, Nicholas; Sales, Paloma; Averill, Sheigla; Murphy, Fiona; Sato, Sye-Ok; Murphy, Sheigla


    Background Cannabis use is becoming more accepted in mainstream society. In this paper, we use Zinberg’s classic theoretical framework of drug, set, and setting to elucidate how older adult cannabis users managed health, social and legal risks in a context of normalized cannabis use. Methods We present selected findings from our qualitative study of Baby Boomer (born 1946–1964) cannabis users in the San Francisco Bay Area. Data collection consisted of a recorded, in-depth life history interview followed by a questionnaire and health survey. Qualitative interviews were analyzed to discover the factors of cannabis harm reduction from the users’ perspectives. Results Interviewees made harm reduction choices based on preferred cannabis derivatives and routes of administration, as well as why, when, where, and with whom to use. Most interviewees minimized cannabis-related harms so they could maintain social functioning in their everyday lives. Responsible and controlled use was described as moderation of quantity and frequency of cannabis used, using in appropriate settings, and respect for non-users. Users contributed to the normalization of cannabis use through normification. Conclusion Participants followed rituals or cultural practices, characterized by sanctions that helped define “normal” or “acceptable” cannabis use. Users contributed to cannabis normalization through their harm reduction methods. These cultural practices may prove to be more effective than formal legal prohibitions in reducing cannabis-related harms. Findings also suggest that users with access to a regulated market (medical cannabis dispensaries) were better equipped to practice harm reduction. More research is needed on both cannabis culture and alternative routes of administration as harm reduction methods. PMID:25911027

  1. Project identification for methane reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, T.


    This paper discusses efforts directed at reduction in emission of methane to the atmosphere. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, which on a 20 year timeframe may present a similar problem to carbon dioxide. In addition, methane causes additional problems in the form of smog and its longer atmospheric lifetime. The author discusses strategies for reducing methane emission from several major sources. This includes landfill methane recovery, coalbed methane recovery, livestock methane reduction - in the form of ruminant methane reduction and manure methane recovery. The author presents examples of projects which have implemented these ideas, the economics of the projects, and additional gains which come from the projects.

  2. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.Y. Sohn


    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  3. A conceptual framework for noise reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob


    Though noise reduction and speech enhancement problems have been studied for at least five decades, advances in our understanding and the development of reliable algorithms are more important than ever, as they support the design of tailored solutions for clearly defined applications. In this work, the authors propose a conceptual framework that can be applied to the many different aspects of noise reduction, offering a uniform approach to monaural and binaural noise reduction problems, in the time domain and in the frequency domain, and involving a single or multiple microphones. Moreover, the derivation of optimal filters is simplified, as are the performance measures used for their evaluation.

  4. Reduction of Double Clausenian Hypergeometric Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.


    The reduction formulas under consideration are those for which the conditions upon the variables are other than 'fixed values'. Known results are discussed, and some new formulas are derived by series manipulations from various known summation and transformation theorems. The ten functions...... in this class are compared with respect to the least number of parameter conditions required for particular types of reduction formulas. For some of the ten functions, reduction formulas of these types do not exist at all, while there are many in other cases....

  5. Effects of bodyweight reduction on sports performance. (United States)

    Fogelholm, M


    Athletes reduce bodyweight for several reasons: to compete in a lower weight class; to improve aesthetic appearance; or to increase physical performance. Rapid bodyweight reduction (dehydration in 12 to 96 hours), typically with fluid restriction and increased exercise, is used by athletes competing in weight-class events. Gradual bodyweight reduction (over > 1 week) is usually achieved by cutting energy intake to 75 to 130 kJ/kg/day. An intake of 100 kJ/kg/day results in a weekly bodyweight loss of roughly 1kg. Aerobic endurance capacity decreases after rapid bodyweight reduction, but might increase after gradual bodyweight reduction. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) measured as L/min is unchanged or decreased after bodyweight loss, but VO2max measured as ml/kg/min may increase after gradual bodyweight reduction. Anaerobic performance and muscle strength are typically decreased after rapid bodyweight reduction with or without 1 to 3 hours rehydration. When tested after 5 to 24 hours of rehydration, performance is maintained at euhydrated levels. A high carbohydrate diet during bodyweight loss may help in maintaining performance. Anaerobic performance is not affected and strength can increase after gradual bodyweight reduction. Reductions in plasma volume, muscle glycogen content and the buffer capacity of the blood explain decreased performance after rapid bodyweight reduction. During gradual bodyweight loss, slow glycogen resynthesis after training, loss of muscle protein and stress fractures (caused by endocrinological disorders) may affect performance. Athletes' bodyweight goals should be individualised rather than by comparing with other athletes. If the time between weigh-in and competition is < 5 hours, rapid bodyweight reduction should not exceed 4% of bodyweight. If the time interval is longer, a bodyweight reduction < or = 8% might be acceptable. A moderate-energy (100 to 120 kJ/kg/day) and high-carbohydrate (60 to 70% of total energy intake) diet is

  6. A hierarchical recurrent encoder-decoder for generative context-aware query suggestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sordoni, Alessandro; Bengio, Yoshua; Vahabi, Hossein


    Users may strive to formulate an adequate textual query for their information need. Search engines assist the users by presenting query suggestions. To preserve the original search intent, suggestions should be context-aware and account for the previous queries issued by the user. Achieving context...

  7. Undergraduate Psychology Students' Knowledge and Exposure to School Psychology: Suggestions for Diversifying the Field (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Gubi, Aaron A.; Fan, Chung-Hau; Hansmann, Paul R.


    Trainers within school psychology have struggled to recruit racial/ethnic minority graduate students, with a recent demographic survey suggesting that racial/ethnic minorities comprise 9.3% of school-based practitioners (Curtis, Castillo, & Gelley, 2012). Furthermore, research has suggested that school psychology training programs have also…

  8. Suggestions To Buy: Television Commercials from the U.S., Japan, China, and Korea. (United States)

    Schmidt, Richard; And Others

    This study examined the differences in the use of language in television commercials from the United States, Japan, South Korea, and China to persuade viewers (consumers) to buy a product. Because cultural norms in these East Asian nations favor indirectness when suggesting or recommending, it was hypothesized that: 1) suggestions would be more…

  9. Caesarean or normal vaginal delivery: overview of physicians' self-preference and suggestion to patients. (United States)

    Hantoushzadeh, Sedigheh; Rajabzadeh, Alireza; Saadati, Ali; Mahdanian, Abolfazl; Ashrafinia, Narges; Khazardoost, Soghra; Borna, Sedigheh; Maleki, Maryam; Shariat, Mamak


    Caesarean delivery in the absence of any medical indications has become a major issue of concern among the women's health professionals. The patients' choice of caesarean is influenced by several factors predominating by their physicians' suggestion. Our objective was to examine factors that may affect the physicians' responses to patients consulting the mode of delivery. Questionnaires were posted to 1,000 female obstetricians and gynaecologists practicing in Tehran in winter 2007. Questionnaires included demographic information of physicians and their history of pregnancy and delivery. Finally, they were asked their preferred mode of delivery and the mode they suggest when being consulted by parturient. From 1,000 physicians, 785 cases (78.5%) responded to the survey. The rate of responses in favour of suggesting normal vaginal delivery, Caesarean Section and painless vaginal delivery was 60.8, 25.6 and 13.6%, respectively. There was a correlation between the suggested and the preferred mode of delivery, it means that the physicians mostly suggested their self-preferred mode of delivery to their patients. Physicians normally suggest to their patients as the safe mode of delivery what they prefer for themselves. This preference and subsequent suggestion is influenced by different factors including their age, marital status, and previous modes of delivery. As conclusion, it is inferred that informing a physician to choose the right mode of delivery for herself leads to better suggestions to the patients.

  10. Why Did Early Industrial Capitalists Suggest Minimum Wages and Social Insurance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    of Aachen (Prussian Rhineprovince) suggested to implement collective labour rules regulating working hours and wages. In the 1860s – 20 years before Bismarck – they proposed a mandatory pension system with equal contributions of employers and employees; they suggested labour conflict resolution by joint...

  11. The Journal of Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching, Volume 3, Number 2, Summer 1978. (United States)

    Schuster, Donald H., Ed.


    Contents of this issue are as follows: "Suggestopedia: The Use of Music and Suggestion in Learning and Hypermnesia:" by Elizabeth Risova Philipov; "A Two Year Evaluation of the Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching (SALT) Method in Central Iowa Public Schools" by D.H. Schuster and R.A. Prichard; "Improving Lecturer…

  12. The Journal of Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching, Volume 3, Number 1, Spring 1978. (United States)

    Schuster, Donald H., Ed.


    Contents of this issue are as follows: "Applied Suggestology in the United States: Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching" by Dean F. Held; "A Study of Suggestopedia Features that Can Be Omitted Once Students Learn How to Learn" by D.H. Schuster and P.J. Wardell; "Evaluation of the Suggestive-Accelerative Lozanov…

  13. Theory of Mind, Inhibitory Control, and Preschool-Age Children's Suggestibility in Different Interviewing Contexts (United States)

    Scullin, Matthew H.; Bonner, Karri


    The current study examined the relations among 3- to 5-year-olds' theory of mind, inhibitory control, and three measures of suggestibility: yielding to suggestive questions (yield), shifting answers in response to negative feedback (shift), and accuracy in response to misleading questions during a pressured interview about a live event. Theory of…

  14. Is It a Long Way to Tipperary? Suggestions for Improving Students Locational Knowledge. (United States)

    Stimpson, Philip G.


    Suggests ways to improve secondary school students' locational knowledge. Argues for teaching strategies that emphasize the value of locational information. Discusses the importance of memory in the development of locational skills. Suggests that issue-oriented instruction can promote the development of such skills. (SG)

  15. Competence-Based System Self-Study System for Suggesting Study Materials Links (United States)

    Nitchot, Athitaya; Gilbert, Lester; Wills, Gary B.


    The article proposes a self-study system which suggests web links to learners. The suggestions depend upon the learner's chosen competences selected from a competence structure for a particular knowledge domain. Three experiments were conducted, where the first compared the perceived usefulness and value of the links generated by different…

  16. Can expectation enhance response to suggestion? De-automatization illuminates a conundrum. (United States)

    Lifshitz, Michael; Howells, Catherine; Raz, Amir


    Disparate theoretical viewpoints construe hypnotic suggestibility either as a stable trait, largely determined by underlying cognitive aptitude, or as a flexible skill amenable to attitudinal factors including beliefs and expectations. Circumscribed findings support both views. The present study attempted to consolidate these orthogonal perspectives through the lens of expectancy modification. We surreptitiously controlled light and sound stimuli to convince participants that they were responding strongly to hypnotic suggestions for visual and auditory hallucinations. Extending our previous findings, we indexed hypnotic suggestibility by de-automatizing an involuntary audiovisual phenomenon-the McGurk effect. Here we show that, regardless of expectancy modification, the experimental procedure led to heightened expectations concerning future hypnotic response. We found little effect of expectation, however, on actual response to suggestion. Our findings intimate that, at least in the present experimental context, expectation hardly correlates with--and is unlikely to be a primary determinant of--high hypnotic suggestibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of Direct Reduction Process and Smelting Reduction Processes for the Steel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožuh S.


    Full Text Available Although the blast furnace and basic oxygen furnace are going to be primary routes for steel production in future, the steelmaking industry using the electric arc furnace route will continue to grow. The importance of high-quality steel products manufactured by direct reduction of iron ore and/or by smelting reduction processes has been increasing. In the past decade the world steel production by direct reduction rose by 140 per cent, from about 20 to about 49.5 Mt/year. In this paper major industrial processes involving direct reduction and smelting reduction of iron ore are described, and their development is analysed.

  18. The Effect of Carbonaceous Reductant Selection on Chromite Pre-reduction (United States)

    Kleynhans, E. L. J.; Beukes, J. P.; Van Zyl, P. G.; Bunt, J. R.; Nkosi, N. S. B.; Venter, M.


    Ferrochrome (FeCr) production is an energy-intensive process. Currently, the pelletized chromite pre-reduction process, also referred to as solid-state reduction of chromite, is most likely the FeCr production process with the lowest specific electricity consumption, i.e., MWh/t FeCr produced. In this study, the effects of carbonaceous reductant selection on chromite pre-reduction and cured pellet strength were investigated. Multiple linear regression analysis was employed to evaluate the effect of reductant characteristics on the aforementioned two parameters. This yielded mathematical solutions that can be used by FeCr producers to select reductants more optimally in future. Additionally, the results indicated that hydrogen (H)- (24 pct) and volatile content (45.8 pct) were the most significant contributors for predicting variance in pre-reduction and compressive strength, respectively. The role of H within this context is postulated to be linked to the ability of a reductant to release H that can induce reduction. Therefore, contrary to the current operational selection criteria, the authors believe that thermally untreated reductants ( e.g., anthracite, as opposed to coke or char), with volatile contents close to the currently applied specification (to ensure pellet strength), would be optimal, since it would maximize H content that would enhance pre-reduction.

  19. Age-related reduction of adaptive brain response during semantic integration is associated with gray matter reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zude Zhu

    Full Text Available While aging is associated with increased knowledge, it is also associated with decreased semantic integration. To investigate brain activation changes during semantic integration, a sample of forty-eight 25-75 year-old adults read sentences with high cloze (HC and low cloze (LC probability while functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted. Significant age-related reduction of cloze effect (LC vs. HC was found in several regions, especially the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, which play an important role in semantic integration. Moreover, when accounting for global gray matter volume reduction, the age-cloze correlation in the left MFG and right IFG was absent. The results suggest that brain structural atrophy may disrupt brain response in aging brains, which then show less brain engagement in semantic integration.

  20. The seductive allure is a reductive allure: People prefer scientific explanations that contain logically irrelevant reductive information. (United States)

    Hopkins, Emily J; Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Taylor, Jordan C V


    Previous work has found that people feel significantly more satisfied with explanations of psychological phenomena when those explanations contain neuroscience information-even when this information is entirely irrelevant to the logic of the explanations. This seductive allure effect was first demonstrated by Weisberg, Keil, Goodstein, Rawson, and Gray (2008), and has since been replicated several times (Fernandez-Duque, Evans, Christian, & Hodges, 2015; Minahan & Siedlecki, 2016; Rhodes, Rodriguez, & Shah, 2014; Weisberg, Taylor, & Hopkins, 2015). However, these studies only examined psychological phenomena. The current study thus investigated the generality of this effect and found that it occurs across several scientific disciplines whenever the explanations include reductive information: reference to smaller components or more fundamental processes. These data suggest that people have a general preference for reductive information, even when it is irrelevant to the logic of an explanation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural and induced reduction of hexavalent chromium in soil (United States)

    Leita, Liviana; Margon, Alja; Sinicco, Tania; Mondini, Claudio; Valentini, Massimiliano; Cantone, Pierpaolo


    Even though naturally elevated levels of chromium can be found naturally in some soils, distressing amounts of the hexavalent form (CrVI) are largely restricted to sites contaminated by anthropogenic activities. In fact, the widespread use of chromium in various industries and the frequently associated inadequate disposal of its by-products and wastes have created serious environmental pollution problems in many parts of the world. CrVI is toxic to plants, animals and humans and exhibits also mutagenic effects. However, being a strong oxidant, CrVI can be readily reduced to the much less harmful trivalent form (CrIII) when suitable electron donors are present in the environment. CrIII is relatively insoluble, less available for biological uptake, and thus definitely less toxic for web-biota. Various electron donors in soil can be involved in CrVI reduction in soil. The efficiency of CrVI reducing abiotic agents such as ferrous iron and sulphur compounds is well documented. Furthermore, CrVI reduction is also known to be significantly enhanced by a wide variety of cell-produced monosaccharides, including glucose. In this study we evaluated the dynamics of hexavalent chromium (CrVI) reduction in contaminated soil amended or not with iron sulphate or/and glucose and assessed the effects of CrVI on native or glucose-induced soil microbial biomass size and activity. CrVI negatively affected both soil microbial activity and the size of the microbial biomass. During the incubation period, the concentration of CrVI in soil decreased over time whether iron sulphate or/and glucose was added or not, but with different reduction rates. Soil therefore displayed a natural attenuation capacity towards chromate reduction. Addition of iron sulphate or/and glucose, however, increased the reduction rate by both abiotic and biotic mechanisms. Our data suggest that glucose is likely to have exerted an indirect role in the increased rate of CrVI reduction by promoting growth of

  2. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is a novel technology for producing large quantities of oxygen on the Moon. Oxygen yields of 15 kilograms per...

  3. Harm reduction-the cannabis paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamede Robert


    Full Text Available Abstract This article examines harm reduction from a novel perspective. Its central thesis is that harm reduction is not only a social concept, but also a biological one. More specifically, evolution does not make moral distinctions in the selection process, but utilizes a cannabis-based approach to harm reduction in order to promote survival of the fittest. Evidence will be provided from peer-reviewed scientific literature that supports the hypothesis that humans, and all animals, make and use internally produced cannabis-like products (endocannabinoids as part of the evolutionary harm reduction program. More specifically, endocannabinoids homeostatically regulate all body systems (cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, excretory, immune, nervous, musculo-skeletal, reproductive. Therefore, the health of each individual is dependant on this system working appropriately.

  4. Three Syntactic Theories for Combinatory Graph Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Zerny, Ian


    We present a purely syntactic theory of graph reduction for the canonical combinators S, K, and I, where graph vertices are represented with evaluation contexts and let expressions. We express this syntactic theory as a reduction semantics, which we refocus into the first storeless abstract machine...... for combinatory graph reduction, which we refunctionalize into the first storeless natural semantics for combinatory graph reduction.We then factor out the introduction of let expressions to denote as many graph vertices as possible upfront instead of on demand, resulting in a second syntactic theory, this one...... of term graphs in the sense of Barendregt et al. The corresponding storeless abstract machine and natural semantics follow mutatis mutandis. We then interpret let expressions as operations over a global store (thus shifting, in Strachey's words, from denotable entities to storable entities), resulting...

  5. Drag Reduction by Microvortexes in Transverse Microgrooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Wang


    Full Text Available A transverse microgrooved surface was employed here to reduce the surface drag force by creating a slippage in bottom layer in turbulent boundary layer. A detailed simulation and experimental investigation on drag reduction by transverse microgrooves were given. The computational fluid dynamics simulation, using RNG k-ε turbulent model, showed that the vortexes were formed in the grooves and they were a main reason for the drag reduction. On the upside of the vortex, the revolving direction was consistent with the main flow, which decreased the flow shear stress by declining the velocity gradient. The experiments were carried out in a high-speed water tunnel with flow velocity varying from 17 to 19 m/s. The experimental results showed that the drag reduction was about 13%. Therefore, the computational and experimental results were cross-checked and consistent with each other to prove that the presented approach achieved effective drag reduction underwater.

  6. Bubble drag reduction requires large bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Verschoof, Ruben A; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef


    In the maritime industry, the injection of air bubbles into the turbulent boundary layer under the ship hull is seen as one of the most promising techniques to reduce the overall fuel consumption. However, the exact mechanism behind bubble drag reduction is unknown. Here we show that bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow dramatically depends on the bubble size. By adding minute concentrations (6 ppm) of the surfactant Triton X-100 into otherwise completely unchanged strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow containing bubbles, we dramatically reduce the drag reduction from more than 40% to about 4%, corresponding to the trivial effect of the bubbles on the density and viscosity of the liquid. The reason for this striking behavior is that the addition of surfactants prevents bubble coalescence, leading to much smaller bubbles. Our result demonstrates that bubble deformability is crucial for bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow and opens the door for an optimization of the process.

  7. Means of Staff Number Reduction and Outplacement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    H. Urbancová


    .... The objective is to present the ways of staff number reduction in Czech organizations and outplacement for the laid-off workers and a partial objective is to compare the results with those in the Slovak Republic...

  8. Nitrogen reduction: Molybdenum does it again (United States)

    Schrock, Richard R.


    Nature reduces dinitrogen under mild conditions using nitrogenases, the most active of which contains molybdenum and iron. The only abiological dinitrogen reduction catalyst that avoids the harsh conditions of the Haber-Bosch process contains just molybdenum.

  9. The Ignis Fatuus of Reduction and Unification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    A bstract : Given the enormous variety of possible intertheoretical relations, the proliferation of definitions of reduction, supervenience, emergence, unification, and so on, as well as the fact that empirical...

  10. Microorganisms' mediated reduction of β-ketoesters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 20, 2008 ... While in aqueous medium the S isomer was obtained, in organic ... system in microorganisms mediated reductions, it is of great importance to ... the two components. Measured ..... g/l in a two-phase biotransformation medium.

  11. Diesel emission reduction in construction equipment. (United States)


    The state of Rhode Island general law : The Diesel Emission Reduction Act : required a pilot project be undertaken to : gain a better understanding of the : impact of this legislative act. : The Rhode Island Department of : Transportation (RIDO...

  12. Hydrostatic Reduction of Intussusception under Ultrasound Guidance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrostatic Reduction of Intussusception under Ultrasound Guidance: An Initial Experience in a Developing Country. O M Atalabi, O O Ogundoyin, D I Ogunlana, O M Onasanya, T A Lawal, A S Olarinoye ...

  13. Sound transit climate risk reduction project. (United States)


    The Climate Risk Reduction Project assessed how climate change may affect Sound Transit commuter rail, light rail, and express bus : services. The project identified potential climate change impacts on agency operations, assets, and long-term plannin...

  14. NIH Seeks Reduction in "Indirect Costs." (United States)

    Culliton, Barbara J.


    The National Institute of Health (NIH) is currently seeking a reduction in indirect costs associated with the awarding of research funds. Various issues related to these costs, which are causing tension between university administrators and academic researchers, are discussed. (JN)

  15. Importance Sampling Variance Reduction in GRESS ATMOSIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeford, Daniel Tyler [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This document is intended to introduce the importance sampling method of variance reduction to a Geant4 user for application to neutral particle Monte Carlo transport through the atmosphere, as implemented in GRESS ATMOSIM.

  16. Hypovolemic shock after air reduction of intussusception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royal, S.A. [University of Alabama Hospitals, Dept. of Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Childrens' Hospital of Alabama, Dept. of Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States)


    A 7-month-old white baby girl developed hypovolemic shock requiring resuscitation secondary to an air enema reduction of intussusception. The implications of this case for standardization of the management techniques in this setting are emphasized. (orig.)

  17. Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act legally establishes the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Marine Debris Program. The...

  18. Individual Differences in the Rubber Hand Illusion Are Related to Sensory Suggestibility. (United States)

    Marotta, Angela; Tinazzi, Michele; Cavedini, Clelia; Zampini, Massimiliano; Fiorio, Mirta


    In the rubber hand illusion (RHI), watching a rubber hand being stroked in synchrony with one's own hidden hand may induce a sense of ownership over the rubber hand. The illusion relies on bottom-up multisensory integration of visual, tactile, and proprioceptive information, and on top-down processes through which the rubber hand is incorporated into pre-existing representations of the body. Although the degree of illusory experience varies largely across individuals, the factors influencing individual differences are unknown. We investigated whether sensory suggestibility might modulate susceptibility to the RHI. Sensory suggestibility is a personality trait related to how individuals react to sensory information. Because of its sensory nature, this trait could be relevant for studies using the RHI paradigm. Seventy healthy volunteers were classified by Sensory Suggestibility Scale (SSS) scores as having high or low suggestibility and assigned to either a high- (High-SSS) or a low-suggestibility (Low-SSS) group. Two components of the RHI were evaluated in synchronous and asynchronous stroking conditions: subjective experience of sense of ownership over the rubber hand via a 9-statement questionnaire, and proprioceptive drift as measured with a ruler. The High-SSS group was generally more susceptible to the subjective component; in the synchronous condition, they rated the statement assessing the sense of ownership higher than the Low-SSS group. The scores for this statement significantly correlated with the total SSS score, indicating that the higher the sensory suggestibility, the stronger the sense of ownership. No effect of sensory suggestibility on proprioceptive drift was observed, suggesting that the effect is specific for the subjective feeling of ownership. This study demonstrates that sensory suggestibility may contribute to participants' experience of the illusion and should be considered when using the RHI paradigm.

  19. Bandwidth reduction in CW fiber Raman lasers (United States)

    Labudde, P.; Weber, H. P.; Stolen, R. H.


    The oscillation linewidth of CW fiber Raman lasers has been reduced from typical uncontrolled values of 200 GHz (approximately 0.2 nm for 528 nm radiation) to 9 GHz by employing prisms, gratings, and etalons in various resonator configurations. Further reduction is limited by four-wave mixing and stimulated Brillouin scattering. Although four-wave mixing limits bandwidth reduction, the results demonstrate the use of this nonlinear process for intensity stabilization.

  20. Quark family mixing and reduction of couplings (United States)

    Sibold, Klaus; Zimmermann, Wolfhart


    The principle of reduction is applied to quark mixing in the standard model with three families. In case of the non-trivial reduction for which the top quark and the Higgs mass are determined it is found that the Cabibbo angle is arbitrary, while mixing between the third and the first two families is excluded. On leave of absence from Werner-Heisenberg-Institut für Physik, D-8000 Munich, Fed. Rep. Germany